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Sample records for arabian incense bakhour

  1. A health risk assessment of Arabian incense (Bakhour) smoke in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dalibalta, Sarah; Elsayed, Yehya; Alqtaishat, Fareedah; Gomes, Ioline; Fernandes, Nagelle

    2015-04-01

    Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour) is a common practice in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. Although the incense generates large amounts of chemicals and air pollutants, little is known with regard to the nature of these chemicals and their potential health risks. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical constituents emitted in Bakhour smoke, and subsequently to examine the associated health implications of these components. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was used to investigate the presence and the thermal profile of volatile organic compounds in three different samples of Bakhour smoke. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was then applied to isolate all the volatile and semi-volatile compounds present in the Bakhour smoke samples. Using a spectral library and an extensive literature search, all organic compounds detected were analyzed for potential health risks. A total of 859 compounds were emitted from burning the different Bakhour samples. The novel finding of this research shows that 42 detected compounds are suspected/known carcinogens, 20 are known to have toxic effects, and at least 200 compounds are known irritants to the eyes, skin, respiratory and digestive tracts, as reported in human and/or animal studies. Our study suggests that inhaled Bakhour smoke contains a substantial number of adverse compounds, which are known to be detrimental to human health. Moreover, the evidence presented shows that incense burning is a significant source of environmental pollution; with the potential of significant health concerns particularly with long term exposure. As the majority of the compounds detected have no reported clinical data, there is an urgent need for significant research in this field.

  2. Hazard assessment of United Arab Emirates (UAE) incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rebecca; Sexton, Kenneth G; Yeatts, Karin B

    2013-08-01

    Incense burning inside the home, a common practice in Arabian Gulf countries, has been recognized as a potentially modifiable source of indoor air pollution. To better understand potential adverse effects of incense burning in exposed individuals, we conducted a hazard assessment of incense smoke exposure. The goals of this study were first to characterize the particles and gases emitted from Arabian incense over time when burned, and secondly to examine in vitro human lung cells responses to incense smoke. Two types of incense (from the United Arab Emirates) were burned in a specially designed indoor environmental chamber (22 m(3)) to simulate the smoke concentration in a typical living room and the chamber air was analyzed. Both particulate (PM) concentrations and sizes were measured, as were gases carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde (HCHO), and carbonyls. During the burn, peak concentrations were recorded for PM (1.42 mg/m(3)), CO (122 pm), NOx (0.3 ppm), and HCHO (85 ppb) along with pentanal (71.9 μg/m(3)), glyoxal (84.8 μg/m(3)), and several other carbonyls. Particle sizes ranged from 20 to 300 nm with count median diameters ranging from 65 to 92 nm depending on time post burn-out. PM, CO, and NOx time-weighted averages exceeded current government regulation values and emissions seen previously from environmental tobacco smoke. Charcoal emissions were the main contributor to both the high CO and NOx concentrations. A significant cell inflammatory response was observed in response to smoke components formed from incense burning. Our hazard evaluation suggests that incense burning contributes to indoor air pollution and could be harmful to human health.

  3. Strange fires, weird smokes and psychoactive combustibles: entheogens and incense in ancient traditions.

    PubMed

    Dannaway, Frederick R

    2010-12-01

    This paper seeks to emphasize what may be the most primary mode of altering consciousness in the ancient world: namely, the burning of substances for inhalation in enclosed areas. While there is abundant literature on archaic uses of entheogenic plants, the literature on psychoactive incenses is quite deficient. From the tents of nomadic tribes to the small meditation rooms of Taoist adepts, the smoldering fumes of plants and resins have been used to invoke and banish and for shamanic travels since humanity mastered fire. The text provides details of primary "incense cults" while highlighting some commonalities and shared influences when possible. Further speculation suggests that selective burning of certain substances, such as mercury and sulphur, may have contributed to their lasting use and veneration in alchemy from India and China to the Arabian and European protochemists. This article would have a companion online database for images and further examples of ingredients in various incenses from China to ancient Greece. PMID:21305913

  4. Strange fires, weird smokes and psychoactive combustibles: entheogens and incense in ancient traditions.

    PubMed

    Dannaway, Frederick R

    2010-12-01

    This paper seeks to emphasize what may be the most primary mode of altering consciousness in the ancient world: namely, the burning of substances for inhalation in enclosed areas. While there is abundant literature on archaic uses of entheogenic plants, the literature on psychoactive incenses is quite deficient. From the tents of nomadic tribes to the small meditation rooms of Taoist adepts, the smoldering fumes of plants and resins have been used to invoke and banish and for shamanic travels since humanity mastered fire. The text provides details of primary "incense cults" while highlighting some commonalities and shared influences when possible. Further speculation suggests that selective burning of certain substances, such as mercury and sulphur, may have contributed to their lasting use and veneration in alchemy from India and China to the Arabian and European protochemists. This article would have a companion online database for images and further examples of ingredients in various incenses from China to ancient Greece.

  5. Physical characterization of incense aerosols.

    PubMed

    Mannix, R C; Nguyen, K P; Tan, E W; Ho, E E; Phalen, R F

    1996-12-20

    Experiments were performed to study the physical characteristics of smoke aerosols generated by burning three types of stick incense in a 4 m3 clean room. Sidestream cigarette smoke was also examined under the same conditions to provide a comparison. Among the parameters measured were (a) masses of aerosol, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides generated by burning the incense or cigarettes, (b) rates of decay of the particles from the air, and (c) estimates of count median particle size during a 7 h period post-burning. There was variability among the types of incense studied with respect to many of the parameters. Also, as a general trend, the greater the initial particulate mass concentration, the more rapid the rate of decay of the smoke. In relation to the quantity of particulate generated, cigarette smoke was found to produce proportionally larger quantities of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides than did incense. Due to the fact that burning incense was found to generate large quantities of particulate (an average of greater than 45 mg/g burned, as opposed to about 10 mg/g burned for the cigarettes), it is likely, in cases in which incense is habitually burned in indoor settings, that such a practice would produce substantial airborne particulate concentrations.

  6. Ultrastructural changes, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expressions in heart tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Al-Attas, Omar S; Hussain, Tajamul; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Mohammed, Arif A; De Rosas, Edgard; Gambhir, Dikshit; Sumague, Terrance S

    2015-07-01

    Incense smoke exposure has recently been linked to cardiovascular disease risk, heart rate variability, and endothelial dysfunction. To test the possible underlying mechanisms, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, gene expressions of cardiac hypertrophic and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and ultrastructural changes were measured, respectively, using standard, ELISA-based, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscope procedures in heart tissues of Wistar rats after chronically exposing to Arabian incense. Malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF)-α, and IL-4 levels were significantly increased, while catalase and glutathione levels were significantly declined in incense smoke-exposed rats. Incense smoke exposure also resulted in a significant increase in atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Rats exposed to incense smoke displayed marked ultrastructural changes in heart muscle with distinct cardiac hypertrophy, which correlated with the augmented hypertrophic gene expression as well as markers of cardiac damage including creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Increased oxidative stress, inflammation, altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expression, tissue damage, and architectural changes in the heart may collectively contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals exposed to incense smoke. Increased gene expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 may be instrumental in the incense smoke-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, incense smoke can be considered as a potential environmental pollutant and its long-term exposure may negatively impact human health.

  7. Depigmented contact dermatitis due to incense.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Arima, Y

    1987-05-01

    A 63-year-old male school teacher with itchy depigmented macules on his left dorsum manus, left shoulder and abdomen presented at our clinic on 8 July 1986. He had practiced the incense ceremony for about 15 years, and had burnt several incenses and sandalwood. 48 h closed patch testing revealed perfume in the incenses was the cause. We assumed that perfume in the incense was volatized in air when incense was burnt; skin surface contact occurred with airborne particle, which dissolved in sebum; thus allergic contact dermatitis accompanied by depigmentation might arise.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  9. Long lived gamma emitting radionuclides in incense.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2013-10-01

    A study of long-lived gamma emitters in incense was performed. The incense samples originated from seven different countries, and the investigated radionuclides were Ra, Ra, and K. Gamma spectroscopy revealed the presence of all three investigated radionuclides in all samples. Interestingly, the activity concentrations revealed a clear bimodal distribution that distinguished samples that were natural incense from others that were processed incense. The activity concentrations in the latter group were found to be one order of magnitude greater than in the former group. Consequently, the estimated annual effective dose from the latter group was one order of magnitude higher than that of the former group. Nonetheless, the doses from both groups were found to be some three orders of magnitude less than the average worldwide exposure to inhaled natural radionuclides. This finding suggests the radiological safety of incense for the investigated radionuclides.

  10. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... sometimes results in copious phytoplankton production and oxygen depletion of the subsurface waters. Although red phytoplankton fluorescences have been associated with the low oxygen concentrations in the intermediate and deep waters of the Arabian Sea, ...

  11. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Krishnaswamy, Guha; Chi, David S

    2008-01-01

    In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight) of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes) contains particulate matter (PM), gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home. PMID:18439280

  12. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Krishnaswamy, Guha; Chi, David S

    2008-01-01

    In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight) of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes) contains particulate matter (PM), gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home. PMID:18439280

  13. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Krishnaswamy, Guha; Chi, David S

    2008-04-25

    In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight) of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes) contains particulate matter (PM), gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home.

  14. Incense

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rapid breathing NERVOUS SYSTEM Coma (decreased level of consciousness and lack of responsiveness) Convulsions Euphoria, a feeling ... being drunk (intoxicated) Seizures Stupor (decreased level of consciousness) SKIN Blue skin or fingers Rash

  15. Airborne pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk ambrette in incense.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Arima, Y

    1987-02-01

    We reported 2 patients with pigmented contact dermatitis caused by occupational airborne contactants, whitening dyes in clothes and formaldehyde in packing adhesive tapes. A women developed airborne pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk ambrette in incense. Patch testing confirmed the diagnosis. Since olden times, people in Japan have burnt incense when they worshipped their ancestors. Recently, it has been in fashion to enjoy perfumes and people may burn incense all day long every day. Our patient burnt 2 kinds of incense every day for about 5 years. We assumed musk ambrette was volatilized when incense was burnt, and contact on her face being dissolved in sebum, thus inducing allergic pigmented contact dermatitis.

  16. Characterization of emissions from burning incense.

    PubMed

    Jetter, James J; Guo, Zhishi; McBrian, Jenia A; Flynn, Michael R

    2002-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) ranged from 7 to 202 mg/h, and PM2.5 emission factors ranged from 5 to 56 mg/g of incense burned. Emission rates were also determined using an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) and a small electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and emission rates were compared to those determined using the cyclone/filter method. Emission rates determined by the ELPI method were consistently lower than those determined by the cyclone/filter method, and a linear regression correlation was found between emission rates determined by the two methods. Emission rates determined by the ESP method were consistently higher than those determined by the cyclone/filter method, indicating that the ESP may be a more effective method for measuring semivolatile particle emissions. A linear regression correlation was also found between emission rates determined by the ESP and cyclone/filter methods. Particle size distributions were measured with the ELPI, and distributions were found to be similar for most types of incense that were tested. Size distributions by mass typically ranged from approximately 0.06 to 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter, with peak values between 0.26 and 0.65 microm. Results indicated that burning incense emits fine particulate matter in large quantities compared to other indoor sources. An indoor air quality model showed that indoor concentrations of PM25 can far exceed the outdoor concentrations specified by the US EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), so incense smoke can pose a health risk to people due to inhalation exposure of particulate matter. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were

  17. Correlation between calcium carbonate content and emission characteristics of incense.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Ru; Lin, Ta-Chang; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2006-12-01

    In Taiwan and China, calcium carbonate is commonly added as a filler during incense production to lower the cost. This study has found an unexpected benefit for this practice: it reduces particulate emission. Nine types of the popular incense on the local market were chosen for this study. The calcium content in raw material incense was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The correlation between the calcium content and emission characteristics of incense was investigated. The calcium content varied from 1.8 to 60 mg/g (incense burned) among those nine different types of incense. Very little calcium (< 1%) was found in natural wood or plants, which is mainly the raw material of incense. Instead, most calcium was artificially added in the form of CaCO3 during manufacturing. The combustion characteristics, including burning rate, emission factors of particulate, ash, and solid-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (S-PAHs), varied significantly among the nine types of incense. Incense containing 2% calcium would emit 30% less S-PAHs, compared with those with little (< 0.2%) calcium. More importantly, increasing the calcium content from 0.5 to 5% by adding CaCO3 reduced the particulate emission from incense by approximately 50%.

  18. Potential ultrastructural changes in rat epididymal cell types induced by Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Alokail, Majed S; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H; Ghodesawar, Mukhtar Ahmed G; Alwasel, Saleh

    2013-08-01

    Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii, known as Arabian incense, diffuses smoke, contaminating the air, which adversely affects human health. Therefore, this study was designed to ascertain the effect of these plants on histopathological and ultrastructure changes in cauda epididymis of Albino rats. Animals were exposed to 4 g/kg body weight of B. papyrifera and B. carterii daily for 120 days along with suitable controls. Our study indicates a significant reduction in epithelial heights. Cells showed signs of degeneration. The ultrastructural study revealed that the cauda epididymis was affected, including its cell types. Furthermore, a decrease in the size of mitochondria, Golgi complex, and both ERs was observed. In all treated groups, plasma fructose decreased considerably, indicating the sign of reduced energy, vital for motility and other sperm functions. The results of this study suggest that these plants systematically affect cauda epididymal cell types and its lumen through its potential toxicity.

  19. Gaseous aliphatic aldehydes in Chinese incense smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.M.; Wang, L.H. )

    1994-09-01

    Aliphatic aldehydes were found during the combustion of materials. Tobacco smoke contains aldehydes. Fire fighters were exposed to aldehydes when they conducted firefighting. Aldehydes in ambient air come mainly from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and from photochemical reaction. Most aldehydes in ambient air are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde were found in the atmosphere in Los Angeles. Burning Chinese incense for worshipping deities is a Chinese daily routine. It was suspected to be a factor causing nasopharynegeal cancer. Epidemiological studies correlated it with the high risk of childhood brain tumor and the high risk of childhood leukemia. Ames test identified the mutagenic effect of the smoke from burning Chinese incense. The smoke had bee proved to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic aldehydes. Suspicion about formaldehyde and other alphatic aldehydes was evoked, when a survey of indoor air pollution was conducted in Taipei city. This study determined the presence of aliphatic aldehydes in the smoke from burning Chinese incense under a controlled atmosphere. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. THE RATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM INCENSE BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of experiments performed to determine the amounts of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in incense smoke. Ten brands of incense, 3 of stick, 2 of joss stick, and one each of cone, smudge bundle, rope, powder, and rock, w...

  1. Glutathione S-transferase, incense burning and asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-J; Tsai, C-H; Chen, C-H; Tung, K-Y; Lee, Y L

    2011-06-01

    Incense burning is a popular practice in many family homes and temples. However, little is known about the effects of indoor incense burning and genetic polymorphisms on asthma. This study evaluated the effects of indoor incense burning and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms on asthma and wheeze. In 2007, 3,764 seventh-grade schoolchildren (mean±sd age 12.42±0.65 yrs) were evaluated using a standard questionnaire for information about respiratory symptoms and environmental exposures. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the association between GST polymorphisms and incense burning frequency on asthma and wheeze, after adjusting for potential confounders. The frequency of incense burning at home was associated with increased risk of current asthma (p=0.05), medication use (p=0.03) and exercise wheeze (p=0.001). GST1 (GSTT1) null genotypes were associated with current asthma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.00-2.04) and medication use (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.22). GSTT1 showed a significant interactive effect with incense burning on current asthma, current wheeze and nocturnal wheeze. The frequency of incense burning was associated with increased risk of current asthma, medication use, lifetime wheeze, nocturnal wheeze and exercise wheeze in an exposure-response manner among children with GSTT1 null genotype (p<0.05). Incense burning is a risk factor for asthma and wheezing, especially in GSTT1 genetically susceptible children.

  2. Dragon's Blood incense: misbranded as a drug of abuse?

    PubMed

    Ford, S L; Steiner, R R; Thiericke, R; Young, R; Soine, W H

    2001-01-01

    An unknown red substance was being sold and used with other drugs of abuse in Virginia (often being used in conjunction with marihuana). The red substance was identified as Dragon's Blood incense from Daemonorops draco. In bioassays, Dragon's Blood incense exhibited a low, but measurable cytotoxicity in in vitro cell lines. Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood had no adverse effect on mouse motor performance based on the inclined screen and rotorod tests. delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) produced a dose-related decline in mouse performance on the rotorod test. The combination of Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood with delta(9)-THC did not contribute further to the impairment of the mice on the rotorod. This data suggests that the abuse potential for Dragon's Blood incense alone or in combination with marihuana is minimal.

  3. Effects of incense smoke on human lymphocyte DNA.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Sok Wa Leong, Kosca; Keong Lam, Kason; Min Min Hong, Cynthia; Kai Mui Lee, Daphne; Teng Fun Chan, Yui; Benzie, Iris F F

    2009-01-01

    Incense burning is common in Southeast Asia, where it is a traditional and ceremonial practice in deity worship and paying respect to ancestors. However, incense emissions are an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia, and may induce health problems to those exposed. In this in vitro study the effects of incense emissions on human DNA were investigated using the comet assay. Particulates in smoke from six kinds of incense were trapped in saline or ethanol and human lymphocytes were exposed under controlled conditions. Results showed that DNA damage, including strand breaks, was induced by both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two samples. The ethanolic extract of one sample induced DNA damage, while no significant DNA damage was found in the remaining three samples. The mechanisms underlying DNA damage induced by incense emissions were also investigated. Catalase (CAT), sodium azide, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were co-incubated with extract, which exerted significant DNA damaging effects. Results showed that CAT with or without SOD diminished DNA damage, whereas sodium azide did not seem able to reduce DNA damage. Data indicate there are potential adverse health effects of such exposure, particularly for temple workers.

  4. Domestic incense use and lung cancer in Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Jie; Lan, Qing

    2016-03-01

    While there is strong evidence for the association between household air pollution and lung cancer among non-smoking women, the association between domestic incense use and lung cancer risk has been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed articles authored between 1969 and August 25, 2015 before performing a manual review of each study, and found a total of seven published studies on this topic. Most of the studies are case-control in design and did not further stratify by sex and smoking status. Of the seven studies, three reported positive associations, three reported null associations and one study found a negative association between incense use and lung cancer. Only one study reported estimates for non-smoking women. Future studies should be larger in sample size, stratify by both sex and smoking status in their analyses, and collect more detailed information on incense use in order to facilitate the understanding of the association between domestic incense use and lung cancer risk among non-smoking women in Asia.

  5. GC-MS analysis of incenses for possible presence of allergenic nitromusks.

    PubMed

    Roveri, P; Andrisano, V; Di Pietra, A M; Cavrini, V

    1998-07-01

    A Gas chromatographic method with mass detector was developed to identify and determine nitromusks in incense sticks of different origin (India, China, Tibet). The proposed method was found useful to correlate dermatological allergic reactions with the use and composition of commercial incense sticks. The incense sticks were powdered, extracted with methanol and after the addition of 1-eicosanol as internal standard, injected into the GC-MS, using 25 m bonded phase fused capillary column methyl, 5% phenyl silicone (0.32 mm I.D., 0.25 microns film thickness). Musk ambrette was identified and determined in one kind of chinese incense together with musk ketone and musk xylene. The latter compound was also found alone in another kind of chinese incense.

  6. The health risks of incense use in the home: an underestimated source of indoor air pollution?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debbie; Pontin, David

    2016-03-01

    The health impact of indoor air pollution is a growing area of interest for public health professionals. People typically spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly women, young children and elders. Although the adverse health effects of second-hand tobacco smoke are well recognised, the impact of burning incense in the home has received little attention in Western literature. Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures (particularly Asian, North African or Arabic). Many health visitors (HVs) work with communities who use incense regularly for religious/cultural reasons and it is a neglected area of study and research.The literature suggests that home incense use can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to identify which individuals are most susceptible, which types of incense are most harmful, and whether any actions can be taken to minimise exposure.

  7. The health risks of incense use in the home: an underestimated source of indoor air pollution?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debbie; Pontin, David

    2016-03-01

    The health impact of indoor air pollution is a growing area of interest for public health professionals. People typically spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly women, young children and elders. Although the adverse health effects of second-hand tobacco smoke are well recognised, the impact of burning incense in the home has received little attention in Western literature. Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures (particularly Asian, North African or Arabic). Many health visitors (HVs) work with communities who use incense regularly for religious/cultural reasons and it is a neglected area of study and research.The literature suggests that home incense use can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to identify which individuals are most susceptible, which types of incense are most harmful, and whether any actions can be taken to minimise exposure. PMID:27111977

  8. Investigation into the oxidative potential generated by the formation of particulate matter from incense combustion.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; BéruBé, Kelly; Lung, Shih-Chun C; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Jones, Tim

    2013-01-15

    The formation of aerosols during combustion plays an important role in allowing released products to interreact, leading to an increase in particulate matter oxidative potential. This study investigated the physicochemistry of incense combustion-derived pollutants, which were emitted into the ambient air as solid and gas phases, followed by the determination of their oxidative potential. Upon combustion of a joss stick, approximately 60% of the mass of incense raw ingredients was released into the ambient air as combustion products including 349.51 mg/g PM(10), 145.48 mg/g CO and 0.16 mg/g NOx. Furthermore, incense combustion produced significant number of primary particles (<50 nm) at 0.99×10(5) 1/h. The NOx generated during incense combustion was able to react with CaCO(3) to produce the final product of Ca(NO(3))(2) in the ambient air. Moreover, coagulation could be a vital process for the growth of primary incense combustion particles through the intermixing with volatile organics. The incense particle's reactions with other combustion-derived products could be responsible for their significant oxidative capacity of 33.1-43.4% oxidative DNA damage. This study demonstrated that the oxidative potential of incense particles appeared to be related to the process of particle formation, and also provided novel data for the respiratory exposure assessment.

  9. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further.

  10. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions of particles of various sizes from smoldering incense.

    PubMed

    Yang, T T; Lin, T S; Wu, J J; Jhuang, F J

    2012-02-01

    Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles of various sizes from smoldering incenses was determined. Among the three types of incense investigated, yielding the total PAH emission rate and factor ranges for PM0.25 were 2,139.7-6,595.6 ng/h and 1,762.2-8,094.9 ng/g, respectively. The PM0.25/PM2.5 ratio of total PAH emission factors and rates from smoldering three incenses was greater than 0.92. This study shows that total particle PAH emission rates and factors were mainly <0.25 μm. Furthermore, the total toxic equivalency emission rates and factors of PAHs for PM0.25 were 241.3-469.7 and 198.8-576.2 ng/g from the three smoldering incenses. The benzo[a]pyrene accounted for 65.2%-68.0% of the total toxic equivalency emission factor of PM2.5 for the three incenses. Experimental results clearly indicate that the PAH emission rates and factors were influenced significantly by incense composition, including carbon and hydrogen content. The study concludes that smoldering incense with low atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios minimized the production of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of both PM2.5 and PM0.25.

  11. Prefrontal activity during koh-do incense discrimination.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naotaka; Abla, Dilshat; Kudo, Noriko; Hihara, Sayaka; Okanoya, Kazuo; Iriki, Atsushi

    2007-11-01

    Whenever we make reasoned decisions we must refer to relevant knowledge obtained through past experience. Our brains test multiple premises and select whichever conclusion serves as the best explanation of the current conditions. In the present study we examined the prefrontal activity of koh-do experts with near infrared spectroscopy while they reasoned about odours during an incense discrimination task. These practitioners of the Japanese incense ceremony have been trained to form and manipulate abstract images of complex olfactory stimuli represented in a multidimensional symbolic space in the mind. In koh-do experts, the right PFC showed a consistent stimulus-non-selective response during discrimination and the left PFC showed phasic stimulus-selective responses modulated by the internal subjective state of the reasoning process. These two dissociated functions appeared to cooperate with each other during reasoning. In contrast, koh-do beginners did not show the organized response pattern found in experts. The results suggest that both PFCs contribute to abductive reasoning, but do so differently through different stages of the process.

  12. Concentrations of formaldehyde and other carbonyls in environments affected by incense burning.

    PubMed

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2002-10-01

    Burning incense to pay homage to deities is common in Chinese homes and temples. Air samples were collected and analyzed for carbonyls from a home and a temple in Hong Kong where incense burning occurs on a daily basis. Carbonyls in the air were trapped on a solid sorbent coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine, followed by thermal desorption and subsequent GC/MS analysis. The carbonyls identified include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, 2-furfural, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. The levels of the above carbonyls correlate with the intensity of the incense-burning activities. The total mixing ratios of the carbonyls in the temple exceed those in the ambient air outside the temple by 11-23 times. Formaldehyde is the most abundant species, contributing to approximately 55% of the total carbonyl mixing ratios in both the temple and the home environments during incense burning. The mixing ratio of formaldehyde ranges from 108 to 346 ppbv in the temple and averages 103 ppbv in the home during incense burning. These values exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guideline of 100 microg m(-3) (88 ppbv) for formaldehyde. The highest formaldehyde level in the temple exceeds the WHO guideline by 3 times at peak incense burning hours. The mixing ratio of acrolein in the temple ranges from 20 to 99 ppbv, approaching or exceeding the WHO air quality guideline of 50 microg m(-3) (22 ppbv) for acrolein. Our measurements indicate that incense burning significantly elevates the concentrations of a number of carbonyls, most notably formaldehyde and acrolein, in the surrounding environments. This study provides preliminary insights on indoor air quality problems created by incense burning.

  13. Characterisation of airborne particles and associated organic components produced from incense burning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Yang; Bell, Jennifer; Wenger, John; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Airborne particles generated from the burning of incense have been characterized in order to gain an insight into the possible implications for human respiratory health. Physical characterization performed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed incense particulate smoke mainly consisted of soot particles with fine and ultrafine fractions in various aggregated forms. A range of organic compounds present in incense smoke have been identified using derivatisation reactions coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 19 polar organic compounds were positively identified in the samples, including the biomass burning markers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, as well as a number of aromatic acids and phenols. Formaldehyde was among 12 carbonyl compounds detected and predominantly associated with the gas phase, whereas six different quinones were also identified in the incense particulate smoke. The nano-structured incense soot particles intermixed with organics (e.g. formaldehyde and quinones) could increase the oxidative capacity. When considering the worldwide prevalence of incense burning and resulting high respiratory exposures, the oxygenated organics identified in this study have significant human health implications, especially for susceptible populations. PMID:21769554

  14. Effects of incense on brain function: evaluation using electroencephalograms and event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Mutsumi; Osawa, Mikio; Nishitani, Nobuyuki; Iwata, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the odor of incense on brain activity, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a push/wait paradigm were recorded in 10 healthy adults (aged 23-39 years) with normal olfactory function. EEG was recorded from 21 electrodes on the scalp, according to the International 10-20 system, and EEG power spectra were calculated by fast Fourier transform for 3 min before and during odor presentation. ERPs were recorded from 15 electrodes on the scalp before, during and after exposure to incense with intervals of 10 min. In a push/wait paradigm, two Japanese words, 'push' as the go stimulus and 'wait' as the no-go stimulus, appeared randomly on a CRT screen with equal probability. The subjects were instructed to push a button whenever the 'push' signal appeared. Fast alpha activity (10-13 Hz) increased significantly in bilateral posterior regions during incense exposure compared to that during rose oil exposure. The peak amplitudes of no-go P3 at Fz and Cz were significantly greater during incense inhalation. The latencies of go P3 and no-go P3, and the amplitude and latencies of no-go N2 did not change by exposure to the odors of both incense, rose and odorless air. These results suggest that the odor of incense may enhance cortical activities and the function of inhibitory processing of motor response. PMID:19325250

  15. Characterisation of airborne particles and associated organic components produced from incense burning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Yang; Bell, Jennifer; Wenger, John; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Airborne particles generated from the burning of incense have been characterized in order to gain an insight into the possible implications for human respiratory health. Physical characterization performed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed incense particulate smoke mainly consisted of soot particles with fine and ultrafine fractions in various aggregated forms. A range of organic compounds present in incense smoke have been identified using derivatisation reactions coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 19 polar organic compounds were positively identified in the samples, including the biomass burning markers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, as well as a number of aromatic acids and phenols. Formaldehyde was among 12 carbonyl compounds detected and predominantly associated with the gas phase, whereas six different quinones were also identified in the incense particulate smoke. The nano-structured incense soot particles intermixed with organics (e.g. formaldehyde and quinones) could increase the oxidative capacity. When considering the worldwide prevalence of incense burning and resulting high respiratory exposures, the oxygenated organics identified in this study have significant human health implications, especially for susceptible populations.

  16. Effects of incense on brain function: evaluation using electroencephalograms and event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Mutsumi; Osawa, Mikio; Nishitani, Nobuyuki; Iwata, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the odor of incense on brain activity, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a push/wait paradigm were recorded in 10 healthy adults (aged 23-39 years) with normal olfactory function. EEG was recorded from 21 electrodes on the scalp, according to the International 10-20 system, and EEG power spectra were calculated by fast Fourier transform for 3 min before and during odor presentation. ERPs were recorded from 15 electrodes on the scalp before, during and after exposure to incense with intervals of 10 min. In a push/wait paradigm, two Japanese words, 'push' as the go stimulus and 'wait' as the no-go stimulus, appeared randomly on a CRT screen with equal probability. The subjects were instructed to push a button whenever the 'push' signal appeared. Fast alpha activity (10-13 Hz) increased significantly in bilateral posterior regions during incense exposure compared to that during rose oil exposure. The peak amplitudes of no-go P3 at Fz and Cz were significantly greater during incense inhalation. The latencies of go P3 and no-go P3, and the amplitude and latencies of no-go N2 did not change by exposure to the odors of both incense, rose and odorless air. These results suggest that the odor of incense may enhance cortical activities and the function of inhibitory processing of motor response.

  17. Anhydrosugar and sugar alcohol organic markers associated with carboxylic acids in particulate matter from incense burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Wu, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Chi-Ru

    2010-09-01

    Aerosol from the burning two types of sandalwood-based incense, Hsing Shan and Lao Shan, was analyzed to characterize the chemical profile of total particulate matter emitted. The total particulate matter (PM) mass emission factors were 46.3 ± 2.68 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan incense and 43.7 ± 1.08 mg g -1 of Lao Shan incense. Chemical analysis of emissions from the two types of incense revealed that of the 25 components in four groups characterized, anhydrosugars formed the major group, at 46.7-52.2% w/w of the identified particulate and 1078.3-1169.8 μg g -1 of incense, followed by inorganic salts at 30.4-31.8% w/w of identified particulate and 681.6-734.0 μg g -1 of incense, carboxylic acids at 12.0-17.1% w/w of the identified particulate and 268.6-392.8 μg g -1 of incense, and sugar alcohols at 4.44-5.38% w/w of the identified particulate and 102.3-120.6 μg g -1 of incense. More anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were emitted from Lao Shan incense than from Hsing Shan incense whereas more carboxylic acids and organic salts were emitted from Hsing Shan than from Lao Shan. These differences were due to structural and functional differences in the young sandalwood used to make Hsing Shan and the aged sandalwood used to make Lao Shan. The anhydrosugar levoglucosan, used as a marker of biomass burning, was always the most abundant species in emitted PM for both incenses ( Lao Shan 21.7 mg g -1 of PM and Hsing Shan 18.7 mg g -1). K + and Cl - were the second most abundant components (K + and Cl - were summed), accounting for 10.6 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan PM and 9.85 mg g -1 of Lao Shan PM. The most abundant carboxylic acids in the emissions were formic, acetic, succinic, glutaric and phthalic acid. The latter is a fragrance ingredient and a potential health hazard and was twice as prevalent in Lao Shan emissions. Xylitol was the most prevalent of the sugar alcohols at 35.7-36.6% w/w of total identified sugar alcohols. These abundant species are potential markers for

  18. A Case–Referent Study of Lung Cancer and Incense Smoke, Smoking, and Residential Radon in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Lap Ah; Qiu, Hong; Au, Joseph Siu Kai; Wang, Xiao-rong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Burning incense generates large amounts of air pollutants, many of which are confirmed or suspected human lung carcinogens. Objectives: We conducted a population-based case–referent study to examine the effect of incense smoke exposure on lung cancer risk among Chinese males and explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and exposure to residential radon. Methods: We recruited 1,208 male lung cancer incident cases and 1,069 community referents from 2004 to 2006 and estimated their lifetime exposures to incense smoke and other residential indoor air pollutants based on self-reported information collected during interviews. We performed unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for lung cancer associated with exposure to incense smoke after adjusting for possible confounders. We conducted stratified analyses by smoking status and exposures to incense burning and residential radon and explored the potential additive-scale interactions. Results: We observed an association between incense exposure and lung cancer that was limited primarily to smokers. Cigarette smoking and high cumulative incense exposure at home appeared to have a synergistic effect on lung cancer (compared with never-smokers who never used incense, the OR for lung cancer for smokers who used incense ≥ 60 day-years = 5.00; 95% confidence interval: 3.34, 7.51). Power was limited, but we also found preliminary evidence suggesting that radon exposure may increase risk among smokers using incense. Conclusion: Our study suggests that exposure to incense smoke in the home may increase the risk of lung cancer among smokers and that exposure to radon may further increase risk. PMID:22067552

  19. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. Methods The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research in Shaxi, which started in 2005. Interviews focusing on ritual plant use and associated beliefs were carried out with a total of 44 Bai informants in September 2009 and May and June 2010. The results are supplemented with information on the local religion collected from June to December 2010. All documented species were vouchered, and are deposited at the herbaria of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN) and the University of Zurich (Z/ZT). Results A total of 17 species have been documented for use in incense. They are always used in mixtures and are either burned in the form of powders in a censer or as joss sticks. The smell of the smoke is the main criterion for the selection of the incense plants. Incense is burned for communication with spiritual entities at graves, temples, and cooking stoves, as well as for personal well-being. Cupressus funebris Endl., Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall., and Ligustrum sempervirens (Franch.) Lingelsh. are the most important incense species. Others serve as substitutes or are used to stretch incense powders. Conclusions In Shaxi the use of incense mixtures at the household and community level is regularly practiced for communication with ancestors, ghosts, and deities and in some cases to strengthen self-awareness. Some of the documented species are widely used in central Asia and Europe, hinting at the well documented knowledge exchange that occurred in Shaxi, which was a major hub along the influential Southern Silk Road. PMID:22165897

  20. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  1. Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Maggie L.; Ang, Li-Wei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incense burning is common in many parts of the world. Although it is perceived that particulate matter from incense smoke is deleterious to health, there is no epidemiologic evidence linking domestic exposure to cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to incense burning and cardiovascular mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Methods: We enrolled a total of 63,257 Singapore Chinese 45–74 years of age during 1993–1998. All participants were interviewed in person to collect information about lifestyle behaviors, including the practice of burning incense at home. We identified cardiovascular deaths via record linkage with the nationwide death registry through 31 December 2011. Results: In this cohort, 76.9% were current incense users, and most of the current users (89.9%) had burned incense daily for ≥ 20 years. Relative to noncurrent users, current users had a 12% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality [multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20]. The HR was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.37) for mortality due to stroke and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) for mortality due to coronary heart disease. The association between current incense use and cardiovascular mortality appeared to be limited to participants without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26) but not linked to those with a history (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.17). In addition, the association was stronger in never-smokers (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23) and former smokers (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.42) than in current smokers (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.22). Conclusions: Long-term exposure to incense burning in the home environment was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in the study population. Citation: Pan A, Clark ML, Ang LW, Yu MC, Yuan JM, Koh WP. 2014. Incense use and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health

  2. Particle size distribution and PAH concentrations of incense smoke in a combustion chamber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Ru; Lin, Ta-Chang; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    The particle size distribution and the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in incense smoke were studied using a custom-designed combustion chamber. Among the nine types of incense investigated, the particle and the total PAH emission factors varied significantly. The average mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the smoke aerosol was 262+/-49nm, which positively correlated to particle emission factor (mg/stick, p<0.05). Coagulation was a major mechanism that dictates the MMAD of the smoke. The total toxic equivalency (the sum of the benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) of the solid-phase PAHs (S-PAHs) was over 40 times higher than that of the corresponding gas-phase PAHs, indicating that the S-PAHs in incense smoke may pose potential health risk. Experiments show that each lowered percentage of total carbon content in the raw incense helped decrease the particle emission factor by 2.6mg/g-incense, and the reduction of S-PAH emission factor ranged from 8.7 to 26% when the carbon content was lowered from 45 to 40%.

  3. Burning characteristics and emission products related to metallic content in incense.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Yang, Chi-Ru; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2007-02-01

    This study mainly compared particulate emission factors of nine popular incense. The influence of metallic contents upon the burning rate, ash and particulate emission factors of combustion was discussed. The contents of Ca and K were the highest among all metallic elements in the raw materials of the incense (the geometric mean contents 8.7 and 2.5mgg(-1), respectively), followed by Al, Mg, Fe, Na (0.1-1.0mgg(-1)) and Ba, then Sr, Mn, Cu and Zn (<0.01-0.1mgg(-1)). Most calcium existed as inorganic salts, such as CaCO(3). Under the same burning conditions, the particulate generation rates are similar (0.50mgmin(-1)+/-9%) among different types of incense-the shorter the combustion duration of a stick, the lower the total suspended particulate emission. Additionally, with the same incense weight burned, the greater the emission of ash is, the lower the emission of suspended particulate. It is recommended that consumers select incense which produces more ash, hence less particulate, to minimize the threat to their' health. Additionally, when the total metallic content (with Ca as the major component) was lower than 2% of the raw materials, properly increasing the total metallic content (from 0.5 to 2.0%) can effectively reduce the level of particulates (about 40%) during the combustion.

  4. Arabian crude-oil residues evaluated

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.F.; Bukhari, A.; Hasan, M.; Saleem, M.

    1985-08-12

    This article evaluates detailed physical and chemical characteristics for four important Saudi Arabian resids. Petroleum residues are composed of a mixture of large and complex hydrocarbon molecules along with one or more heteroatoms such as sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, vanadium, and nickel. The amount of residue and its physical and chemical composition depend on the source of the crude oil and methods of processing. Residues from four Saudi Arabian crude oils produced by the Arabian American Oil Co. (Aramco) were evaluated. The crude oils are 38.5 degrees API Arabian Extra Light, 33.8 degrees API Arabian Light, 30.4 degrees Api Arabian Medium, and 28.03 degrees API Arabian Heavy. Results are presented and residue preparation, and physical and chemical characteristics are analyzed.

  5. Generation rates and emission factors of particulate matter and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of incense sticks.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Hu, Shu-Chuan

    2003-02-01

    The generation rates and emission factors of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incense burning were assessed in a laboratory setting. The differences among different segments of the same stick, among different sticks of the same kind of incense, and between two kinds of manually made Chih-Chen incense sticks (A and B) were evaluated. Joss sticks were burned inside a 44 cm long elutriator; personal environmental monitors fitted into the top of the elutriator were used to take PM2.5 and PM10 samples of incense smoke. Samples were analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography-flame ionization Detector. It was found that particle and associated PAHs were generated approximately at 561 microg/min (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.1) and 0.56 microg/min (GSD = 1.1) from Incense A, and at 661 microg/min (GSD = 1.7) and 0.46 microg/min (GSD = 1.3) from Incense B, respectively. One gram of Incense A emitted about 19.8 mg (GSD = 1.1) particulate matter and 17.1 microg (GSD = 1.2) particulate-phase PAHs, while one gram of Incense B produced around 43.6 mg (GSD = 1.1) of particles and 25.2 microg (GSD = 1.2) of particle-bound PAHs. There were significant differences in emissions between Incenses A and B, although they belong to the same class of incense. A 10-20% variability in emissions was observed in the main part of the manually produced stick, and a larger variation was found at both tips of the combustible part.

  6. Soot-driven reactive oxygen species formation from incense burning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim P; Lung, Shih-Chun C; BéruBé, Kelly A

    2011-10-15

    This study investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a function of the physicochemistry of incense particulate matter (IPM), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and carbon black (CB). Microscopical and elemental analyses were used to determine particle morphology and inorganic compounds. ROS was determined using the reactive dye, Dichlorodihydrofluorescin (DCFH), and the Plasmid Scission Assay (PSA), which determine DNA damage. Two common types of soot were observed within IPM, including nano-soot and micro-soot, whereas DEP and CB mainly consisted of nano-soot. These PM were capable of causing oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, especially IPM and DEP. A dose of IPM (36.6-102.3μg/ml) was capable of causing 50% oxidative DNA damage. ROS formation was positively correlated to smaller nano-soot aggregates and bulk metallic compounds, particularly Cu. These observations have important implications for respiratory health given that inflammation has been recognised as an important factor in the development of lung injury/diseases by oxidative stress. This study supports the view that ROS formation by combustion-derived PM is related to PM physicochemistry, and also provides new data for IPM.

  7. Emission characteristics of carboxylates in PM2.5 from incense burning with the effect of light on acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Su-Ching; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2016-08-01

    Incense burning produces potentially harmful particulate matter. In this study we investigated the emissions of PM2.5 and gaseous acetic acid from four brands of traditional incense; Liao and Shang Lao Shan (SLS), sold in Taiwan, and Thai Yellow (Thai Y) and Thai Black (Thai B), sold in Thailand. Additionally, photochemical reactions of PM2.5 carboxylates emitted from incense burning were studied via a simulated light experiment. The average PM2.5 mass emission factor of each incense type was inversely correlated with the ash production of that incense. The Thailand incense carboxylate emissions were markedly higher than the Taiwan incense. Acetate accounted for 87.46% of total carboxylate emissions, with acetate emitted from the Thailand incense 1.26 times higher than from the Taiwan incense. Phthalate was detected in the PM2.5, indicating the presence of plasticizer. Concentrations of PM2.5 acetate, formate, pyruvate, glutarate, succinate, fumarate and tartarate were reduced in simulated light (51.5%-97.1% of those under dark), indicating that these seven types of carboxylate are easily photodegradable. In contrast, malonate, maleate, oxalate and phthalate concentrations in light were 1.17-1.84 times higher than in darkness, indicating photochemical reactions contribute to the formation of these species. The formation of the low-molecular weight dicarboxylates oxalate and malonate was most noticeable. Acetic acid, highly irritating to the respiratory system and skin, was present at high levels for all four incense types, as shown by the gaseous acetic acid/PM2.5 acetate ratios of 1.03-3.61. Burning incense indoors can generate high concentrations of PM2.5 acetate that increases the risks of respiratory and contact irritation, particularly when burning the Thailand incense. Moreover, burning incense in poorly ventilated, dimly lit indoor areas (e.g., temples and homes) can markedly increase the risk of irritation because the gaseous acetic acid is not degraded as

  8. Characterization of incense smoke by solid phase microextraction—Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tin C.; Marriott, Philip J.

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in tandem with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) was used for the qualitative fingerprint characterisation of four different types of powdered incense headspace (H/S), and incense smoke. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the incense powder and smoke were extracted by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) 65 μm fiber. Low-polarity/polar, and polar/non-polar phase combinations were tested to contrast the GC×GC separation of components in these two column sets. A total of 324 compounds were tentatively identified, with more than 100 compounds in incense powders and more than 200 compounds in the incense smoke, by using GC coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Identification required at least 90% match with the NIST library; otherwise they were considered as unidentified. The smoke stream comprised compounds originating from the incense powder, and combustion products such as PAH, N-heterocyclics, and furans. However, GC×GC was able to separate many more volatile compounds (possibly hundreds more) present in the complex smoke samples, many of which cannot be separated by conventional 1D-GC; this is a direct consequence of the high-resolution power of GC×GC. GC×GC fingerprint comparison of powder H/S with smoke allows facile subtraction of the former from the latter to assist identification of compounds generated from burning incense.

  9. Contribution of incense burning to indoor PM10 and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under two ventilation conditions.

    PubMed

    Lung, S-C C; Kao, M-C; Hu, S-C

    2003-06-01

    Burning incense to worship Gods and ancestors is a traditional practice prevalent in Asian societies. This work investigated indoor PM10 concentrations resulting from incense burning in household environments under two conditions: closed and ventilated. The exposure concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated. The factors of potential exposure were also evaluated. Under both conditions, samples were taken at three locations: 0.3, 3.5 and 7 m away from the altar during three periods: incense burning, the first 3 h, and the 4-6 h after cessation of combustion. PAH concentrations of incense smoke were assessed in the laboratory. Personal environment monitors were used as sampling instruments. The results showed a significant contribution of incense burning to indoor PM10 and particulate PAH concentrations. PM10 concentrations near the altar during incense burning were 723 and 178 microg/m3, more than nine and 1.6 times background levels, under closed and ventilated conditions, respectively. Exposure concentrations of particle-bound PAHs were 0.088-0.45 microg/m3 during incense burning. On average, PM10 and associated PAH concentrations were about 371 and 0.23 microg/m3 lower, respectively, in ventilated environments compared with closed conditions. Concentrations were elevated for at least 6 h under closed conditions.

  10. Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.

    1972-01-01

    This tectonic map of the Arabian peninsula, prepared for the Audi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resource, is the first of a series of peninsular maps that attempt to show regional features. Much recent information resulting from detailed geologic mapping notably within the Arabian craton, from geophysical surveys, both airborne and oceanographic in adjacent seas, from deep exploratory drilling, and from photography from the Gemini and Apollo space programs, has been used in the tectonic evaluation.

  11. Open Ocean Bilging, Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    These dual oil slicks on the ocean surface are the result of tanker ships flushing their tanks (bilging) in the Arabian Sea (18.5N, 62.5E). These two ships flushed out their bilges, apparently contaminated with bunker oil, leaving oily residues on the ocean's surface. One wake, believed to have been done earlier than the other, has been broadened by the effects of surface winds and current.

  12. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  13. Domestic incense burning and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Joseph Siu Kie; Wang, Feng; Lau, June Sze Man; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Incense burning is a powerful producer of carcinogens and has been considered as a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a case-control study and case-only analyses to investigate the effect of incense burning and its interaction with genetic background on NPC risk among Hong Kong Chinese. Between June 2010 and December 2012, we recruited 352 incident cases of NPC and 410 controls. We collected information on lifelong practice of domestic incense burning via interviews and genotyped 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes. We observed an increased NPC risk associated with daily burning in women [Adjusted OR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.66] but not in men. The adjusted OR for daily burning with poor ventilation was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 4.24), while that with good ventilation was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.98). Interactions between 2 SNPs (rs2074517 and rs4771436) and incense burning were significantly associated with NPC risk and tended to have a SNP exposure-response effect. Evidence for gene-environment interactions supported the knowledge that NPC is a multi-factorial disease resulting from the joint effects of environmental exposures and inherited susceptibility.

  14. Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs: the emerging 'incense' and 'bath salt' phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Jerry, Jason; Collins, Gregory; Streem, David

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs (SLIDs), such as those commonly contained in products sold over the counter as "bath salts" and "incense," have risen tremendously in popularity in the past few years. These drugs can have powerful adverse effects, including acute psychosis with delusions, hallucinations, and potentially dangerous, bizarre behavior.

  15. New canker disease of Incense-cedar in Oregon caused by Phaeobotryon cupressi.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a native tree occurring in Oregon and California. Since the early 2000’s, a new canker disease has been observed with increasing frequency on ornamental and windbreak trees planted in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Symptoms appear as dead, flagging, small-di...

  16. Characterization of particles emitted by incense burning in an experimental house.

    PubMed

    Ji, X; Le Bihan, O; Ramalho, O; Mandin, C; D'Anna, B; Martinon, L; Nicolas, M; Bard, D; Pairon, J-C

    2010-04-01

    The potential health effects of fine and ultrafine particles are of increasing concern. A better understanding of particle characteristics and dispersion behavior is needed. This study aims at characterizing spatial and temporal variations in fine and ultrafine particle dispersion after emission from a model source in an experimental house. Particles emitted by an incense stick burning for 15 min were characterized. Number concentration, specific surface area and mass were measured. Partial chemical analysis of particles was also realized. Near the burning incense stick, the maximum concentration was 25,500 particles/cm(3); the indoor PM(2.5) concentration reached 197 microg/m(3), and the specific surface area concentration was 180 microm(2)/cm(3). The estimated incense smoke density was 1.1 g/cm(3). Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements indicated that the organic fraction was predominant in the aerosol mass detected, and other minor components identified were K(+), NO(3)(-), and Cl(-). The combustion of an incense stick in the living room was associated with significant modifications of the concentrations of particles measured in the different rooms of the house. This demonstration of pollution by particle dispersion by a model source of moderate intensity may have significant implications in terms of assessment of indoor exposure to such particles. Practical Implications The particles emitted in a domestic environment by a source of moderate intensity such as burning incense disperse throughout the house, even in rooms with closed doors and in rooms as far away as the next floor. This dispersion has significant implications in terms of evaluating human indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particles.

  17. Characteritization of, and health risks from, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans from incense burned in a temple.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Tsan; Chen, Shen-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Lee, Jia-Twu; Chiu, Chuen-Huey

    2009-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may cause adverse health effects. However, PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in temples have rarely been addressed. This study investigates PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in a temple. The mean total PCDD/F concentrations were 72.4-82.2 pg Nm(-3) at two indoor sites; their corresponding mean total PCDD/Fs I-TEQ concentrations (0.24-0.27 pg I-TEQ Nm(-3)) were approximately 11 times that at a background location. In air samples collected from burning incense, OCDFs accounted for approximately 90% of total PCDD/Fs at the two indoor sites and an outdoor site near the temple, while the major PCDD/Fs in incense ash were PCDDs. The total PCDD/F content and toxic equivalent value of incense ash were 617 pg g(-1) and 1.55 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. At the three sites inside/outside the temple, the air and ash samples contained the same four primary PCDD/Fs-OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. The Cl- emission factor, which is related to the PCDD/F formation, from burning incense was 0.454 mg g(-1). The resultant lifetime average daily dose and cancer risk for temple workers were 0.00964 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 9.64 x 10(-6), respectively, approximately 2 times that for residents near the temple (0.00489 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 4.89 x 10(-6), respectively). We suggest that the chlorine content in incense must be regulated, and the high risk of PCDD/F exposure from burning incense for temple workers and visitors should be of concern.

  18. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p < 0.05) between selected PAHs and OPAHs against oxidative-inflammatory responses. Strong positive correlation was observed between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and summation of total Group B2 PAHs/OPAHs (∑7PAHs/ΣOPAHs). The experimental data indicate that emissions from the environmentally friendly incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products.

  19. [The Arabian Peninsula: demographic surprises].

    PubMed

    Courbage, Y

    1994-01-01

    A review of current demographic trends in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula is presented, based on a number of recent surveys of child health carried out in the early 1990s. Considerable diversity is noted among the countries examined in both demographic trends and levels of socioeconomic development. However, the status of women appears to be more advanced throughout the region than in most other Muslim countries, which could indicate that a reduction in fertility is probable. The author notes a general decline in oil revenues, accompanied by a decline in fertility, throughout the region.

  20. Zoonoses in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. PMID:25491209

  1. Rapid Identification of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Herbal Incenses with DART-MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Marino, Michael A; Voyer, Brandy; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Veltri, Mercurio; Huang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The usage of herbal incenses containing synthetic cannabinoids has caused an increase in medical incidents and triggered legislations to ban these products throughout the world. Law enforcement agencies are experiencing sample backlogs due to the variety of the products and the addition of new and still-legal compounds. In our study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was employed to promptly screen the synthetic cannabinoids after their rapid, direct detection on the herbs and in the powders by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). A simple sample preparation protocol was employed on 50 mg of herbal sample matrices for quick NMR detection. Ten synthetic cannabinoids were discovered in fifteen herbal incenses. The combined DART-MS and NMR methods can be used to quickly screen synthetic cannabinoids in powder and herbal samples, serving as a complementary approach to conventional GC-MS or LC-MS methods.

  2. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p < 0.0001). Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p < 0.0001). Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p < 0.0003) and demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship with frequency of incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  3. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p < 0.0001). Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p < 0.0001). Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p < 0.0003) and demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship with frequency of incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  4. Emission characters of particulate concentrations and dry deposition studies for incense burning at a Taiwanese temple.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng

    2002-05-01

    Suspended particulate concentrations were measured at the Tzu Yun Yen temple in the Taichung region of Taiwan. The temple performs traditional incense burning. A universal sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler with a dry deposition plate were used to measure the particulate concentrations. The results show that the average PM2.5/PM10 ratio was 74% during the incense burning period at this temple. In addition, the average suspended particulate (PM10) element concentration of anthropogenic element Zn (495 ng/m3) was higher than the other anthropogenic elements (Pb, Mn, Ni, and Cd). Furthermore, the average mass size distribution was bimodal with major peaks occurring at 0.32-0.56 microm and 5.6-10 microm during the incense burning period. The dry deposition velocities of Cd used fine particulates (PM2.5) and suspended particulate (PM10) mode were 1.86 and 0.99 cm/s in this study, respectively.

  5. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

    This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  6. Arabian peninsula: zone of ferment

    SciTech Connect

    Stookey, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is an area which must be approached in terms of its own values and traditions. The different states, however, present difficulties for even the most well-informed policymaker because the region is not homogeneous. Some of the states are tenuous congeries of tribal and sectarian communities that do not necessarily share the aims of the ruling group. The authors of these six essays consider (1) the economic position of the states, (2) how oil exports affect the economies of the exporting states, (3) how traditional tribal and religious societies react to change, (4) whether their social values are conducive to modernization, and (5) what factors lead to the development of dissent, and how they affect the expression of dissent. Separate abstracts were prepared for two of the essays selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 23 tables.

  7. Dysgerminoma in an Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A M; Woodard, J C; Merritt, A M

    1998-07-01

    A yearling Arabian filly was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital with a history of weight loss, profound anemia, and peritoneal effusion. At necropsy, a large, soft, mottled tan and red neoplastic mass was at the pelvic inlet replacing the left ovary. Additional tumor nodules of various sizes were disseminated throughout the mesentery, diaphragm, and serosal surfaces of the abdominal viscera. Histologically, the neoplasm had sheets of large round to polygonal cells separated into lobules by fibrous connective tissue with multifocal areas of necrosis. Tumor cells stained strongly for alkaline phosphatase. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells expressed vimentin and were negative for cytokeratin. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had a characteristic nucleolus with an elaborate reticular nucleolonema in an irregular configuration. This is the first in-depth detailed report of this very rare germ cell tumor of the ovary in horses.

  8. Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kinne, J; Kreutzer, R; Kreutzer, M; Wernery, U; Wohlsein, P

    2010-08-01

    Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants.

  9. Potential health effects of exposure to carcinogenic compounds in incense smoke in temple workers.

    PubMed

    Navasumrit, Panida; Arayasiri, Manasawee; Hiang, Ohmar May Tin; Leechawengwongs, Manoon; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Choonvisase, Suppachai; Chantchaemsai, Samroeng; Nakngam, Netnapa; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2008-05-01

    Incense smoke is a potential hazard to human health due to various airborne carcinogens emitted from incense burning. This study aimed to evaluate the potential health effects of exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incense smoke in temple workers. Exposure and health risks were assessed through the measurement of ambient exposure as well as through the use of biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. Ambient air measurement showed that incense burning generates significantly higher levels of airborne benzene (P<0.01), 1,3-butadiene (P<0.001) and total PAHs (P<0.01) inside the temples, compared to those of the control workplace. Temple workers were exposed to relatively high levels of benzene (45.90 microg/m(3)) 1,3-butadiene (11.29 microg/m(3)) and PAHs (19.56 ng/m(3)), which were significantly higher than those of control workers (P<0.001). The most abundant PAHs were chrysene, B[ghi]P, B[a]P, B[a]F and fluoranthene. Concentrations of B[a]P and B[a]P equivalents in air samples to which temple workers were exposed were 63- and 16-fold, higher, respectively, than those to which control subjects were exposed (P<0.001). Biomarkers of exposure to benzene (blood benzene and the urinary metabolites trans,trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid), 1,3-butadiene (urinary monohydroxy-butenyl mercapturic acid) and PAHs (1-hydroxypyrene) were all significantly higher in temple workers than those in control workers. DNA damage and DNA repair capacity were measured as biomarkers of early biological effects. Temple workers had a significant increase in DNA damage observed as a 2-fold increase in the levels of leukocyte 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxguanosine (8-OHdG) and DNA strand breaks (P<0.001). A significant reduction of DNA repair capacity in temple workers determined by the radiation challenge assay was also observed. These results indicate that exposure to carcinogens emitted from incense burning may increase

  10. Cytotoxic effects of incense particles in relation to oxidative stress, the cell cycle and F-actin assembly.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Tzu-Tao; BéruBé, Kelly

    2013-07-18

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that combustion-derived smoke, such as that produced during incense burning, is a deleterious air pollutant. It is capable of initiating oxidative stress and mutation; however, the related apoptotic processes remain unclear. In order to elucidate the biological mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced respiratory toxicology, alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to incense particulate matter (PM), with and without antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). The cross-linking associations between oxidative capacity, cell cycle events, actin cytoskeletal dynamics and intracellular calcium signals were investigated. An incense PM suspension caused significant oxidative stress in A549 cells, as shown by inhibition of the cell cycle at G1 and G2/M check-points, and the induction of apoptosis at Sub-G1. At the same time, alterations in the F-actin filamentous assemblies were observed. The levels of intracellular Ca(2+) were increased after incense PM exposure. Antioxidant NAC treatment revealed that oxidative stress and F-actin remodelling was significantly mitigated. This suggests that ROS accumulation could alter cell cycle regulation and anomalous remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton that allowed impaired cells to enter into apoptosis. This study has elucidated the integral patho-physiological interactions of incense PM and the potential mechanisms for the development of ROS-driven respiratory impairment.

  11. Evaluation of the efficacy of 3% citronella candles and 5% citronella incense for protection against field populations of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, L R; Surgeoner, G A; Heal, J D; Gallivan, G J

    1996-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of 3% citronella candles and 5% citronella incense in protecting subjects from bites of Aedes spp. under field conditions. The study was conducted in a deciduous woodlot in Guelph, Ontario, Canada from July 26 to August 10, 1995. Eight subjects, dressed identically, were assigned to one of 8 positions on a grid within the study area. Two citronella candles, 2 citronella incense, 2 plain unscented candles, or no candles (i.e., nontreated controls) were assigned to 2 positions on the grid each evening. Subjects conducted 5-min biting counts at each position and performed 16 biting counts per evening. On average, subjects received 6.2 +/- 0.4, 8.2 +/- 0.5, 8.2 +/- 0.4, and 10.8 +/- 0.5 bites/ 5 min at positions with citronella candles, citronella incense, plain candles, and no candles, respectively. Although significantly fewer bites were received by subjects at positions with citronella candles and incense than at nontreated locations, the overall reduction in bites provided by the citronella candles and incense was only 42.3 and 24.2%, respectively.

  12. Metal concentrations in pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata, collected from Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Sadig, M.; Alam, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a shallow semi-closed water body. Several industrial complexes have been established along its coast line during the past decade. The effluent from these facilities is being discharged into the Gulf. These discharges pose potential hazards to the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf. The Saudi Arabian government is striving to protect the marine environment of the Gulf and has commissioned several studies to assess the damage from the industrial and municipal discharges. In these studies, marine organisms, for example, fish, clams, sea urchins, oysters, and plankton, along with sediments and seawater, have been analyzed for various pollutants. This study reports metal concentrations in pearl oysters collected from the Saudi Arabian coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf.

  13. Transrectal impalement of an incense stick in a child presenting as foreign body in the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Singha Mahapatra, Rajkumar; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Sarma Madduri, Vijay kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of objects that can be found in the urinary bladder often surpasses the urologist's imagination and mostly they are introduced per urethrally. Impalement injuries of the rectum with bladder perforation have been rarely reported. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of bladder perforation while assessing patients presenting with rectal impalement. In this interesting case, a young male child presented with haematuria and dysuria. He had a history of accidentally sitting on an agarbatti (Indian incense stick) stand while playing, followed by perianal pain which subsided spontaneously. Next day he presented with haematuria and dysuria. Clinical examination was inconclusive. On thorough investigation, a linear echogenic foreign body was found in the urinary bladder. The child was operated and the foreign body (incense stick) was removed. This is the first reported case of rectal impalement injury with incense stick, migrated to the urinary bladder in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24925539

  14. Qualitative analysis of the smoke-stream of different kinds of incense by SPME/GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Lombardozzi, Antonietta; Strano, Morela; Cortese, Manuela; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2010-08-01

    Seventeen different kinds of incenses were analyzed for the volatile components emitted during burning using a HS-SPME method coupled with GC-MS, in order to check their conformity to IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines and 67/548/CEE Directive rules. A total of 51 volatiles were identified in the smoke of the incenses. They were represented mainly by aromatic compounds (17) and oxygenated monoterpenes (10), with esters (5) and aldehydes (4) being the most widespread volatiles in the former, and alcohols (4) and esters (4) in the latter. The aromatic ester benzyl benzoate and the oxygenated sesquiterpene patchouli alcohol were the most frequent volatile compounds, occurring in the smokes emitted from 10 and 8 kinds of incenses, respectively.

  15. Transrectal impalement of an incense stick in a child presenting as foreign body in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Rajkumar Singha; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Madduri, Vijay Kumar Sarma; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-06-12

    The diversity of objects that can be found in the urinary bladder often surpasses the urologist's imagination and mostly they are introduced per urethrally. Impalement injuries of the rectum with bladder perforation have been rarely reported. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of bladder perforation while assessing patients presenting with rectal impalement. In this interesting case, a young male child presented with haematuria and dysuria. He had a history of accidentally sitting on an agarbatti (Indian incense stick) stand while playing, followed by perianal pain which subsided spontaneously. Next day he presented with haematuria and dysuria. Clinical examination was inconclusive. On thorough investigation, a linear echogenic foreign body was found in the urinary bladder. The child was operated and the foreign body (incense stick) was removed. This is the first reported case of rectal impalement injury with incense stick, migrated to the urinary bladder in a 2-year-old child.

  16. Role of carbon monoxide in impaired endothelial function mediated by acute second-hand tobacco, incense, and candle smoke exposures.

    PubMed

    Weber, Lynn P; Al-Dissi, Ahmad; Marit, Jordan S; German, Timothy N; Terletski, Sharilyn D

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for acute adverse cardiovascular effects of different sources of smoke: second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), incense and candle smoke. Endothelial function was tested using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in pigs and was shown to be sensitive to nitric oxide synthase blockade. Subsequent experiments showed that FMD was significantly impaired compared to sham-exposed pigs at 30 min after a 30-min exposure to all three sources of smoke. In contrast, SHS significantly increased systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures compared to sham-exposure, while both incense and candle smoke exposure had no effect. The FMD impairment correlated well with CO levels in the exposure chamber, but not total particulates or venous CO-hemoglobin. Therefore, this study suggests a gas phase component of smoke that accompanies CO, but not CO itself, is responsible for acute endothelial dysfunction after SHS, incense or candle smoke exposure.

  17. Incense Burning during Pregnancy and Birth Weight and Head Circumference among Term Births: The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Le-Yu; Ho, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incense burning for rituals or religious purposes is an important tradition in many countries. However, incense smoke contains particulate matter and gas products such as carbon monoxide, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxide, which are potentially harmful to health. Objectives: We analyzed the relationship between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. We also analyzed whether the associations varied by sex and along the distribution of birth outcomes. Methods: We performed ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions analysis on a sample of 15,773 term births (> 37 gestational weeks; 8,216 boys and 7,557 girls) in Taiwan in 2005. The associations were estimated separately for boys and girls as well as for the population as a whole. We controlled extensively for factors that may be correlated with incense burning and birth weight and head circumference, such as parental religion, demographics, and health characteristics, as well as pregnancy-related variables. Results: Findings from fully adjusted OLS regressions indicated that exposure to incense was associated with lower birth weight in boys (–18 g; 95% CI: –36, –0.94) but not girls (1 g; 95% CI: –17, 19; interaction p-value = 0.31). Associations with head circumference were negative for boys (–0.95 mm; 95% CI: –1.8, –0.16) and girls (–0.71 mm; 95% CI: –1.5, 0.11; interaction p-values = 0.73). Quantile regression results suggested that the negative associations were larger among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Conclusions: OLS regressions showed that prenatal incense burning was associated with lower birth weight for boys and smaller head circumference for boys and girls. The associations were more pronounced among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Further research is necessary to confirm whether incense burning has differential effects by sex. Citation: Chen LY, Ho C. 2016. Incense burning during

  18. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546) and complete mtDNA (7) sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV)1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the proposed southern coastal

  19. Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries

    SciTech Connect

    Akkad, A.A.

    1990-05-01

    In the Arabian Gulf region in general, and in Saudi Arabia in particular, demand for water in the agricultural, domestic, and industrial sectors has increased dramatically as a result of rapid development, and improved standard of living, and diversification of economic activity in agriculture and industry. This article presents an overview of supply and demand situations prevailing in the Arabian Gulf region and discusses various conventional and unconventional alternatives for meeting the growing demand for water. It also describes conservation measures and their socioeconomic effects.

  20. Emission characteristics of air pollutants from incense and candle burning in indoor atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Manoukian, A; Quivet, E; Temime-Roussel, B; Nicolas, M; Maupetit, F; Wortham, H

    2013-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles emitted by incense sticks and candles combustion in an experimental room have been monitored on-line and continuously with a high time resolution using a state-of-the-art high sensitivity-proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (HS-PTR-MS) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), respectively. The VOC concentration-time profiles, i.e., an increase up to a maximum concentration immediately after the burning period followed by a decrease which returns to the initial concentration levels, were strongly influenced by the ventilation and surface interactions. The obtained kinetic data set allows establishing a qualitative correlation between the elimination rate constants of VOCs and their physicochemical properties such as vapor pressure and molecular weight. The emission of particles increased dramatically during the combustion, up to 9.1(±0.2) × 10(4) and 22.0(±0.2) × 10(4) part cm(-3) for incenses and candles, respectively. The performed kinetic measurements highlight the temporal evolution of the exposure level and reveal the importance of ventilation and deposition to remove the particles in a few hours in indoor environments.

  1. Determination of particulate-bound formaldehyde from burning incense by solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Liou, S W; Chen, C Y; Yang, T T; Lin, J M

    2008-04-01

    This work studied the feasibility of using a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for sampling and analysis of gaseous formaldehyde as well as particulate-bound formaldehyde from burning Chinese incense. The SPME fiber with PDMS/DVB coating were partially coated with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA), and used for sampling formaldehyde. The sampling rate for formaldehyde and its dependence on temperature, relative humidity and sampling time were observed. The same PFBHA treated fibers were, in parallel, exposed to incense burning smoke with pre-filtration and without pre- filtration for 0.5-1 min. The NIOSH method 2541 using an XAD-2 tube at a flow rate of 0.1 Lpm was also applied for sampling simultaneously. The results demonstrate that commercially available PDMS/DVB fibers partially coated with PFBHA are capable of sampling the gas phase of formaldehyde as well as particulate-bound formaldehyde. The determined level of formaldehyde was close to the result obtained by the NIOSH method 2541. However, a reduction of the fiber's formaldehyde loading capacity in the aerosol sampling in comparison with gas sampling was noticed. This indicates that the particulate characteristics, and their bound chemicals other than formaldehyde may influence the maximum loading capacity of formaldehyde, and some characteristic particulates in high concentrations may even deteriorate the fiber coating.

  2. Contributions of Chinese-style cooking and incense burning to personal exposure and residential PM concentrations in Taiwan region.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Jein-Wei; Liang, Huang-Min

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the effect of indoor sources including Chinese-style cooking, incense burning, cleaning, and people's moving on indoor particle size distributions and concentrations and calculated the personal exposure dose rates in the human respiratory tract (HRT) using time-activity and indoor and outdoor particle size distribution data collected from a traditional Taiwanese residence in central Taiwan region. We applied a simple size-dependent indoor air quality model associated with a compartmental lung model to determine the source emission rates and exposure dose. Cooking and incense burning had size-integrated source emission rates of 0.042+/-0.024 (mean+/-S.D.) and 0.038+/-0.026 particles s(-1), respectively. Cooking and incense burning were significant contributors to indoor particle levels for particle sizes from 0.5 to 5 microm in that the percent contributions to indoor concentrations were 0.334+/-0.02 and 0.267+/-0.035, respectively. Our results demonstrated that extrathoracic (ET) region had higher average PM mass lung/indoor ratio (0.77) than that of bronchial (BB) (0.52), bronchiolar (bb) (0.27) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) (0.14) regions from both cooking and incense burning events. The average integrated deposition dose rates (particles cm(-2) h(-1)) of 24.11 in ET, 4.68 in BB, and 7.89 in bb were higher than that of 0.011 in AI for both cooking and incense burning events. This research illustrates that exposure assessment based on time-activity and real-time behavior of particle data can provide valuable information on the fate of indoor particles and hazard to human health.

  3. Mandibular degloving injury in an Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Tatz, Amos; Kelmer, Gal

    2013-06-01

    A 6-month-old Arabian filly escaped its handler while being led and slipped on pavement. The referring veterinarian recognized severe, soft tissue damage to the filly's lower jaw and referred the filly to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for surgical management.

  4. Tectonic synthesis of the northern Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Stasxkowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, P.; Stein, A. ); Scott, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The creation and destruction of Tethys oceans from the early Mesozoic to the present has created a complex suture zone along the Zagros/Bitlus trend. The fundamental interactions are between the Arabian and Euasian plates, but several microplates trapped between the major plates further complicate the tectonic fabric of the region. On the west, the Arabian plate slides past the African plate and the Sinai microplate along the Levant fault. The Palmyrides are related to a bend in this plate boundary and are not an offset extension of the Syrian arc. As Arabia penetrates Eurasia the Anatolian block is escaping to the west along the northern (right-lateral) and eastern (left-lateral) faults. Convergence of the Eurasian and Arabian plates resulted in ophiolite abduction (Late Cretaceous), followed by continent-continent collision (Miocene to present). The zone of collision is marked by the Bitlis-Zagrosa suture. Structural features associated with the collision include overthrusting, impactogens, and complexly folded and faulted mountain systems. Intensity and complexity of structuring decreases southward into open long-wavelength folds on the Arabian Platform. The fortuitous combination of rich source rocks, abundant reservoir rocks with primary and fracture porosity, and numerous trapping structures make this an extraordinary prolific hydrocarbon province. A structural and lithologic interpretation of 53 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes covering all of Syria, Iraq, and Kuwait, and portions of Turkey, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia has provided insights into the tectonic history of this area and its hydrocarbon accumulation.

  5. Mandibular degloving injury in an Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Tatz, Amos; Kelmer, Gal

    2013-06-01

    A 6-month-old Arabian filly escaped its handler while being led and slipped on pavement. The referring veterinarian recognized severe, soft tissue damage to the filly's lower jaw and referred the filly to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for surgical management. PMID:24155453

  6. Heavy incense burning in temples promotes exposure risk from airborne PMs and carcinogenic PAHs.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kuo-Chih; Liao, Chung-Min

    2006-12-15

    We present the mechanistic-based exposure and risk models, appraised with reported empirical data, to assess how the human exposure to airborne particulate matters (PMs) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during heavy incense burning episodes in temples. The models integrate size-dependent PM levels inside a temple from a published exploratory study associated with a human expiratory tract (HRT) model taking into account the personal exposure levels and size distributions in the HRT. The probabilistic exposure profiles of total-PAH levels inside a temple and internal PAHs doses are characterized by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with the reconstructed dose-response relationships based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model, describing PAHs toxicity for DNA adducts formation and lung tumor incidence responses in human white blood cells and lung. Results show that the alveolar-interstitial (AI) region has a lower mass median diameter (0.29 microm) than that in extrathoracic (ET(1), 0.37 microm), brochial (BB, 0.36 microm) and bronchiolar (bb, 0.32 microm) regions. The 50% probability (risk=0.5) of exceeding the DNA adducts frequency (DA(f)) ratio of 1.28 (95% CI: 0.55-2.40) and 1.78 (95% CI: 0.84-2.95) for external exposure of B[a]P and B[a]P(eq), respectively. The 10% (risk=0.1) probability or more of human affected by lung tumor is approximately 7.62x10(-5)% (95% CI: 3.39x10(-5)-1.71x10(-4)%) and 3.87x10(-4)% (95% CI: 1.72x10(-4)-8.69x10(-4)%) for internal exposure of B[a]P and B[a]P(eq), respectively. Our results implicate that exposure to smoke emitted from heavy incense burning may promote lung cancer risk. Our study provides a quantitative basis for objective risk prediction of heavy incense burning exposure in temples and for evaluating the effectiveness of management.

  7. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12-14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the high

  8. Holy Smoke in Medieval Funerary Rites: Chemical Fingerprints of Frankincense in Southern Belgian Incense Burners

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12–14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the

  9. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12-14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the high

  10. A comparative study of aerobic capacity and fitness in three different horse breeds (Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian).

    PubMed

    Castejón, F; Rubio, D; Tovar, P; Vinuesa, M; Riber, C

    1994-11-01

    Aerobic capacity and fitness was studied in three different horse breeds (Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian) using a four-level exercise test of gradually increasing intensity (15, 20, 25 and 30 km/h). The lactate concentration at the first three exercise levels was significantly lower for Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses relative to Andalusian horses, but similar for the three breeds at the last level. Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses reached a higher rate than Andalusian horses at plasma lactate concentration of 2 mmol/l (VLA2) and 4 mmol/l (VLA4). Andalusian horses exhibited a significantly lower heart rate at rest than the other two breeds, but the differences virtually disappeared at 15 km/h. At 20 km/h, Andalusian horses reached a higher heart rate than Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses; at 25 km/h, however, their heart rate only exceeded that of Anglo-Arabian horses. Finally, no significant differences between breeds were observed at 30 km/h. No differences between breeds as regards heart rate were found if this was expressed as a function of lactate plasma concentrations of 2 mmol/l (HRLA2) and 4 mmol/l (HRLA4). At a heart rate of 150 (VHR150) and 200 beta/min (VHR200), Andalusian horses achieved the lowest speeds.

  11. The K2/Spice phenomenon: emergence, identification, legislation and metabolic characterization of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal incense products.

    PubMed

    Brents, Lisa K; Prather, Paul L

    2014-02-01

    In 2008, the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) detected unregulated, psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) in purportedly all-natural herbal incense products (often known as K2 or Spice) that were being covertly abused as marijuana substitutes. These drugs, which include JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP-47,497, bind and activate the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R with remarkable potency and efficacy. Serious adverse effects that often require medical attention, including severe cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and psychiatric sequelae, are highly prevalent with SCB abuse. Consequently, progressively restrictive legislation in the US and Europe has banned the distribution, sale and use of prevalent SCBs, initiating cycles in which herbal incense manufacturers replace banned SCBs with newer unregulated SCBs. The contents of the numerous, diverse herbal incense products was unknown when SCB abuse first emerged. Furthermore, the pharmacology of the active components was largely uncharacterized, and confirmation of SCB use was hindered by a lack of known biomarkers. These knowledge gaps prompted scientists across multiple disciplines to rapidly (1) monitor, identify and quantify with chromatography/mass spectrometry the ever-changing contents of herbal incense products, (2) determine the metabolic pathways and major urinary metabolites of several commonly abused SCBs and (3) identify active metabolites that possibly contribute to the severe adverse effect profile of SCBs. This review comprehensively describes the emergence of SCB abuse and provides a historical account of the major case reports, legal decisions and scientific discoveries of the "K2/Spice Phenomenon". Hypotheses concerning potential mechanisms SCB adverse effects are proposed in this review.

  12. The K2/Spice Phenomenon: emergence, identification, legislation and metabolic characterization of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal incense products

    PubMed Central

    Brents, Lisa K.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) detected unregulated, psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) in purportedly all-natural herbal incense products (often known as K2 or Spice) that were being covertly abused as marijuana substitutes. These drugs, which include JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP-47,497, bind and activate the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R with remarkable potency and efficacy. Serious adverse effects that often require medical attention, including severe cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and psychiatric sequelae, are highly prevalent with SCB abuse. Consequently, progressively restrictive legislation in the US and Europe has banned the distribution, sale and use of prevalent SCBs, initiating cycles in which herbal incense manufacturers replace banned SCBs with newer unregulated SCBs. The contents of the numerous, diverse herbal incense products was unknown when SCB abuse first emerged. Furthermore, the pharmacology of the active components was largely uncharacterized, and confirmation of SCB use was hindered by a lack of known biomarkers. These knowledge gaps prompted scientists across multiple disciplines to rapidly (1) monitor, identify and quantify with chromatography/mass spectrometry the ever-changing contents of herbal incense products, (2) determine the metabolic pathways and major urinary metabolites of several commonly abused SCBs and (3) identify active metabolites that possibly contribute to the severe adverse effect profile of SCBs. This review comprehensively describes the emergence of SCB abuse and provides a historical account of the major case reports, legal decisions and scientific discoveries of the ″K2/Spice Phenomenon″. Hypotheses concerning potential mechanisms SCB adverse effects are proposed in this review. PMID:24063277

  13. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry and simultaneous electron capture detection/nitrogen phosphorous detection for incense analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tin C.; Marriott, Philip J.

    This study reports comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC × GC/TOFMS) for characterisation and identification of components generated by four different types of powdered incense headspace (H/S) and incense smoke. GC × GC/TOFMS allowed simultaneous separation and identification of compounds emitted into the atmosphere as a result of combustion of incense powder. The smoke stream comprised compounds originating from the incense powder, and combustion products such as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, essential oil type compounds, nitromusks, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which possibly include oxygenated and nitrated PAH), N-heterocyclics, pyrans and furans, which were detected and tentatively identified by GC × GC/TOFMS. GC × GC-electron capture detector/nitrogen phosphorous detector (ECD/NPD) potentially offers the prospect of providing selective chemical compositional information of incense powder and smoke, such as nitrogen-containing (N-containing) and halogenated compounds. Results of GC×GC-ECD/NPD showed that both incense powder and smoke generated emission of N-containing and halogenated compounds. A significant number of halogenated and N-containing compounds were emitted during the incomplete combustion of incense. However, one further objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to specific and/or selective detectors such as those used in this study (GC × GC-ECD/NPD) for the detection of particular classes of compounds such as N-containing and halogenated compounds at trace level concentrations in complex smoke samples.

  14. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal") that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel to the

  15. Probiotics in the Arabian Gulf Region

    PubMed Central

    Senok, Abiola C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Available reports on adherence to recommended guidelines for labeling of probiotic products are based on assessment of these products in developed countries. In the Arabian Gulf region, there is a paucity of data on the characterization of probiotic products and an absence of local guidelines for their labeling. This study, carried out in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), represents the first evaluation of probiotic products available in the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Probiotic products were purchased over the counter from a variety of sources, including pharmacies, healthfood stores, and supermarkets across the UAE. All identified products were listed and information regarding type of product preparation and labeling information were recorded. Results A total of 37 probiotic products, 15 dairy-based and 22 non-dairy-based were identified. The dairy products comprised of 12 yogurts, two fermented milk products and one powdered baby formula. The majority of non-dairy products were in capsule form (n = 16). While all the non-dairy products gave information about the strain of probiotic microorganism and number present at time of manufacture, this information was provided for only one dairy-based product. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were the most common probiotic organisms identified. However, one probiotic product listed Enterococcus faecalis (750 million viable bacteria per capsule) as a component. With the exception of one non-dairy-based product, all health-related claims were structure/function statements, according to the US Food and Drug Administration nomenclature. Conclusion These findings indicate that a wide variety of probiotic products are available in the Arabian Gulf. Development of guidelines for labeling of these probiotic products and use of structure/function statements and health claims should be addressed. PMID:19266044

  16. Sediment sound velocities from sonobuoys: Arabian fan

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, R.T.; Hamilton, E.L.

    1980-02-10

    Eight variable-angle seismic reflection stations in the Arabian Fan, Northwestern Indian Ocean, provided 40 determinations of sound velocity in sediment and sedimentary rock. Sound velocity in the homogeneous, largely terrigenous fan increases smoothly with depth. Regression analysis yielded the velocity-time relationship V (km/s)=1.510+1.863t, where V is instantaneous velocity and t is one-way travel time below the sea floor to 1 s. The velocity-depth function is V (km/s)=1.510+1.200h-0.253h/sup 2/+ 0.034h/sup 3/, where h is subbottom depth in km.

  17. Arabian plate hydrocarbon geology and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Beydoun, Z.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a thought-provoking, succinct presentation of the geologic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the world's most prolific petroleum province. The fascinating subjects discussed and documented include: What are the unique geologic factors that make the Middle East such a prolific province Where are the future Mesozoic and Tertiary plays What is the virtually untapped potential of the Paleozoic section What are the play potentials for underexplored areas such as Jordan, Syria, Yemen How are deeper drilling results shaping and modifying concepts of the Arabian plate history and pointing the way to future hydrocarbon targets

  18. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values.

  19. Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain.

    PubMed

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Rimmerman, Neta; Bregman, Tatiana; Straiker, Alex; Felder, Christian C; Shoham, Shai; Kashman, Yoel; Huang, Susan M; Lee, Hyosang; Shohami, Esther; Mackie, Ken; Caterina, Michael J; Walker, J Michael; Fride, Ester; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2008-08-01

    Burning of Boswellia resin as incense has been part of religious and cultural ceremonies for millennia and is believed to contribute to the spiritual exaltation associated with such events. Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 3 is an ion channel implicated in the perception of warmth in the skin. TRPV3 mRNA has also been found in neurons throughout the brain; however, the role of TRPV3 channels there remains unknown. Here we show that incensole acetate (IA), a Boswellia resin constituent, is a potent TRPV3 agonist that causes anxiolytic-like and antidepressive-like behavioral effects in wild-type (WT) mice with concomitant changes in c-Fos activation in the brain. These behavioral effects were not noted in TRPV3(-/-) mice, suggesting that they are mediated via TRPV3 channels. IA activated TRPV3 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells and in keratinocytes from TRPV3(+/+) mice. It had no effect on keratinocytes from TRPV3(-/-) mice and showed modest or no effect on TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4, as well as on 24 other receptors, ion channels, and transport proteins. Our results imply that TRPV3 channels in the brain may play a role in emotional regulation. Furthermore, the biochemical and pharmacological effects of IA may provide a biological basis for deeply rooted cultural and religious traditions.

  20. Wave Clouds over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Like a massive, ethereal bird gliding into the Persian Gulf, a large cluster of wave clouds spans the Arabian Sea from Oman to India. This cloud formation is likely an undular bore, which is created in the interaction between the cool, dry air in a low-pressure system with a stable layer of warm, moist air. In this case, a low-pressure system probably sits over the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Oman, and Iran and Pakistan. The strong winds generated by the low-pressure system are kicking up clouds of dust from Iran and Pakistan, and, to a lesser degree, Oman. The low-pressure system is also pushing air south-southeast, and this south-moving wave of displaced air pushes ahead of the low-pressure system like a mound of water moving ahead of a boat in calm water. The wave of cool, dry air pushes forward until it meets the wall of warm, moist air that blankets the Arabian Sea. When the two air masses clash, the cool air pushes the warm air up. The warm air rises, cools at the peak of the wave, falls again, and then rises to a slightly lower peak, and so forth, until the wave dissipates. Clouds form at the high-altitude peaks of the waves, with the most defined cloud at the front of the group, where the initial wave formed, followed by increasingly less-defined lines of cloud. The air that moves in front of the low-pressure system does not push forward in a uniform wall; instead it pushes forward in a ragged band, with one part racing ahead of another, like a line of crew racers on a river. Because the air is not uniform, there are small, interacting arcs of waves within the larger band of clouds. Undular bores are rare and hard to predict. This particular undular bore formed over the Arabian Sea on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image. Typical undular bore patterns might display one or two rows of clouds. With more than thirty waves of clouds, this cloud pattern is unusually

  1. Patterns of knee osteoarthritis in Arabian and American knees.

    PubMed

    Hodge, W Andrew; Harman, Melinda K; Banks, Scott A

    2009-04-01

    This study illustrates differences in the cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritic knees in patients with more frequent hyperflexion activities of daily living compared with Western patients. Proximal tibial articular cartilage wear and cruciate ligament condition were assessed in Saudi Arabian and North American patients with varus osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty. In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) intact knees, there were significant differences in wear location, with a clearly more anterior pattern in Saudi Arabian knees. Complete ACL deficiency occurred in 25% of North American knees but only 14% of Saudi Arabian knees. These ACL-deficient knees showed the most severe cartilage wear in both groups and posterior medial wear patterns. Biomechanical descriptions of knee flexion and axial rotation during kneeling or squatting are consistent with the more pronounced anteromedial and posterolateral cartilage wear patterns observed on the Saudi Arabian knees. These observations provide insight into altered knee mechanics in 2 culturally different populations with different demands on knee flexion.

  2. Environmental protection in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Minhali, A.A.N.

    1996-12-31

    The Arabian Gulf had been subjected to tremendous development activities in the past 40 years, this, in addition to two fierce wars which must have had some impact on the marine environment. This paper will investigate and summarize through review of numerous scientific studies, the recommended applied and or implemented strategies for conservation and how these may have an impact on the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry. The conclusions and recommendations made (in both, global terms and for oil and gas industry) primarily represent the author`s own views and in some parts acknowledged views of a number of professionals who were asked to contribute their vision on the future of protection of the Gulf marine environment. Whilst this paper is directed towards the Marine Environment, similar conclusions can be drawn for land and atmospheric issues.

  3. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from burning of incense in temples, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Lee, S C; Ho, K F; Kang, Y M

    2007-05-01

    Field investigations of target air pollutants at two of the most famous temples in Hong Kong were conducted. The air pollution problems in these two temples during peak and non-peak periods were characterized. The target air pollutants included particulate matters (PM(10), PM(2.5)), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), methane (CH(4)), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and inorganic ions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+), NH(4)(+), and K(+)). The pollutant levels of the two temples during peak period were shown to be significantly higher than those during non-peak period. The highest average CO level was obtained at Temple 1 during peak period, which exceeded IAQO 8-h Good Class criteria. In general, the average PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios were approximately 82%. The results revealed that the fine particulates (PM(2.5)) constituted the majority of suspended particulates at both temples. It was noted that formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl compounds, followed by acetaldehyde. At Temple 1 during peak period, the average benzene concentration exceeded almost 8 times more than Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [HKEPD, 2003. Guidance notes for the management of indoor air quality in offices and public places. Indoor air quality management group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.] Good Class criteria. The average OC/EC ratios ranged from 2.6 to 17 in PM(10) and from 4.2 to 18 in PM(2.5) at two temples, which suggested that OC measured in these two temple areas may be due to both direct emission from incense burning and secondary formation by chemical reactions. The total mass of inorganic ions, organic carbon, and elemental carbon accounted for about 71% in PM(2.5) and 72% in PM(10).

  4. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  5. Induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the lung and liver tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tajamul; Al-Attas, Omar S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Mohammed, Arif A; De Rosas, Edgard; Ibrahim, Shebl; Vinodson, Benjamin; Ansari, Mohammed G; El-Din, Khaled I Alam

    2014-06-01

    Incense smoke is increasingly being recognized as a potential environmental contaminant and is linked to malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. The detoxification of environmental contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) involves the induction of cytochrome P-450 family enzymes (CYPs) by PAHs. However, the detoxification of PAHs also results in the generation of reactive and unstable intermediary metabolites which are implicated in the oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation. It is unclear whether CYPs are similarly induced by incense smoke, which incidentally contains substantial amounts of PAHs. Here, we examined the impact of long-term incense smoke exposure on the induction of CYPs in male Wister Albino rats. Incense smoke exposure significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNAs in both lung and liver tissues. The extent of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction was significantly higher in the liver compared to that in the lung, while that of CYP1A2 was greater in the lung than in liver. Incense smoke exposure also increased malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels in lung and liver tissues, and the catalase activity in the liver tissues to significant levels. Furthermore incense smoke exposure led to a marked increase in TNF-α and IL-4 levels. The data demonstrate for the first time the capacity of incense smoke to induce CYP1 family enzymes in the target and non-target tissues. Induction of CYPs increased oxidative stress and inflammation appear to be intimately linked to promote the carcinogenesis and health complications in people chronically exposed to incense smoke.

  6. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  7. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  8. First archeointensity determinations on Maya incense burners from Palenque temples, Mexico: New data to constrain the Mesoamerica secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Camps, P.; Alva Valdivia, L. M.; Sougrati, M. T.; Cuevas-Garcia, M.; Perrin, M.

    2013-02-01

    We present archeointensity data carried out on pieces of incense burners from the ancient Maya city of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico, covering much of the Mesoamerican Classic period, from A.D. 400 to A.D. 850. We worked on pieces from 24 incense burners encompassing the five Classic ceramic phases of Palenque: Motiepa (A.D. 400-500), Cascadas (A.D. 500-600), Otulum (A.D. 600-700), Murcielagos (A.D. 700-770), and Balunté (A.D. 770-850). All the samples come from highly elaborate, flanged pedestal of incense burners that are undoubtedly assigned to a ceramic phase by means of their iconographic, morphological and stylistic analyses. Archeointensity measurements were performed with the Thellier-Thellier's method on pre-selected samples by means of their magnetic properties. We obtained archeointensities of very good technical quality from 19 of 24 pieces, allowing the determination of a precise mean value for each ceramic phase, between 29.1±0.9 μT and 32.5±1.2 μT. The firing temperatures of ceramics were estimated with Mössbauer spectroscopy between 700 °C and 1000 °C. These values ensure that a full thermo-remanent magnetization was acquired during the original heating. Our results suggest a relative stability of the field intensity during more than 400 years in this area. The abundance of archeological material in Mesoamerica contrasts with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available that are, in addition, of uneven quality. Thus, it is not possible to establish a trend of intensity variations in Mesoamerica, even using the global databases and secular variation predictions from global models. In this context, our high technical quality data represent a strong constraint for the Mesoamerican secular variation curve during the first millennium AD. The corresponding Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADM) are substantially smaller than the ones predicted by the last global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, suggesting the need for additional data to develop a

  9. Crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Muawia, B.; Chaimov, T.A. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Analysis of available geological and geophysical data within Syria has allowed for further understanding of the geologic history of the northern Arabian platform from Proterozoic to present. Elements of the history involve: Proterozoic convergence and suturing of at least two distinct microplates, minor Cambrian extension and associated magmatism, development of a failed intracratonic rift in the early Mesozoic, and inversion of that sedimentary trough that began in the Late Cretaceous. The diverse Phanerozoic tectonic features in Syria may be due to reactivation along older zones of weaknesses in the northern Arabian plate; the proposed Proterozoic suture zone lies along strike of the present day Palmyride intracratonic mountain belt. The construction of isopach maps of the Ordovician through Quaternary sections in Syria based on regional well control and seismic reflection data demonstrates regional structural-stratigraphic relationships. Basement deformation maps, derived from superposition of the formation isopachs, indicate the transformation of an east-directed Paleozoic margin into a well-directed Mesozoic margin (Levantine margin). Contemporaneous with this margin transformation was the development of an east-northeast-trending rift (Palmyride trough) toward the craton interior. Finally, Cenozoic eastward tilting of the Arabian plate, associated with loading of the plate along the Mesopotamian foredeep and uplift of the plate along the Red Sea margin is observed across the southern Arabian platform. Eastward tilting is also observed across the southern Arabian platform. Eastward tilting is also observed on the northern platform with respect to the top of the crystalline basement, indicating a similarity in response of the entire Arabian plate to loading and uplift along its margins.

  10. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  11. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  12. Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Williams, Joseph B; Champagne, Alex M; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75-60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69-24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09-13.18%), ceramide (2.18-13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53-12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions.

  13. Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Williams, Joseph B; Champagne, Alex M; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75-60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69-24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09-13.18%), ceramide (2.18-13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53-12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

  14. Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Williams, Joseph B.; Champagne, Alex M.; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75–60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69–24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09–13.18%), ceramide (2.18–13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53–12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

  15. Breastfeeding patterns in the Arabian Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O

    1995-01-01

    The rapid economic change experienced in the Arab Gulf countries in the past two decades has resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of infants breast fed and the duration of breast feeding. This survey describes the current status of breast feeding in the Arabian Gulf countries in terms of the duration of exclusive breast feeding; initiation, frequency, and duration of breast feeding; bottle feeding practices; breast feeding and fertility; reasons for cessation of breast feeding; and the relationship between breast feeding and gastroenteritis. After a brief discussion of weaning practices, the paper considers factors influencing the decision to breast feed, including mothers age, education, urban-rural residence, and employment status; the influence of house maids and health workers; and the sex of the child. The marketing of baby foods in the area is described, as are various programs to support breast feeding, such as maternity protection, educational activities, marketing activities, support of appropriate weaning practices, workshops and seminars, and research activities. It is concluded that these programs have had very little effect on the promotion of breast feeding in the region for the following reasons: 1) lack of coordination; 2) lack of health regulations covering formulas and baby foods; 3) the encouragement of bottle feeding in private hospitals; 4) insufficient knowledge of managing breast feeding among health personnel; 5) a shortage of studies relating to breast feeding; and 6) insufficient training of health personnel. The institution of a global promotional policy is recommended. Such a policy would include the development of strict regulations covering marketing of substitutes, training of health workers, mass media campaigns, school and university curricula changes, and convincing policy-makers that breast feeding is beneficial.

  16. The Tetramorium squaminode species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with a new record from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and keys to Arabian species

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Al Dhafer, Hathal M.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group are treated. Tetramorium squaminode Santschi, 1911 is recorded for the first time from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Keys to the two Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group, Tetramorium latinode Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 and Tetramorium squaminode, based on worker and queen castes, are given and a regional distribution map is provided. Notes on habitats of Tetramorium squaminode are presented. PMID:26019665

  17. Kinematic characteristics of Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cano, M R; Vivo, J; Miró, F; Morales, J L; Galisteo, A M

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic trot characteristics of three different breeds of horse: Andalusian (AN, n = 15), Arabian (AR, n = 7) and Anglo-Arabian (AA, n = 5) using standard computer-assisted videography (25 Hz). Linear, temporal and angular parameters in fore- and hind limbs were analysed in six randomly selected strides per horse. Normalised angle-time diagrams along the complete stride were obtained for all joints angles in each breed and specific kinematic characteristics were detected graphically. AA horses displayed longer swing durations in both limbs ans a shorter angular range of motion (ARM) in scapula and pelvis inclination and in shoulder, hip and forelimb retraction-protraction angles. At lift off, stifle and tarsal joint angles were more flexed. In general, only small differences were observed in AR horse kinematics when compared with the other 2 breeds. AN horses presented negative overtracking length, which was positive in AR and AA. In AN horses the elbow and carpal joints were more flexed at the moment of maximal elevation, elbow and fore-fetlock joints also exhibited a larger ARM due to a smaller angle at maximal flexion. In the hind limbs, tarsal, hind fetlock and retraction-protraction angles presented a larger ARM in AN horses due to greater maximal flexion in the tarsal and hind fetlock joints. Fore- and hind fetlocks were also more flexed in horses from this breed. In conclusion, differences between kinematic variables at the trot were observed in the three breeds studied here, mainly in forelimb joints. The most outstanding feature was the greater forelimb flexion recorded in AN horses than in the other breeds which is consistent with the elevated movements in this breed. In AA horses, the ARM of proximal joints involved in retraction protraction in both fore- and hind limbs was smaller. All the differences observed highlighted the idiosyncratic nature of the trot in each breed; this may influence the functional

  18. Identification of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) and other designer drugs in herbal incense.

    PubMed

    Blakey, Karen; Boyd, Sue; Atkinson, Sarah; Wolf, Jenna; Slottje, Pim M; Goodchild, Katrina; McGowan, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    The identification and structural elucidation of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR is reported. QMPSB was identified in Queensland, Australia on plant material packaged as herbal incense. The identification of QMPSB was initially hampered due to trans-esterification occurring in the extraction solvent. An investigation of the trans-esterification of QMPSB in methanol and ethanol was conducted and analytical data for the respective methyl and ethyl esters are reported. Analytical data is presented for two other compounds detected on seized plant material packaged as herbal incense: the synthetic cannabimimetic 1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (MAM-1220) and the JWH-081 analogue 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (CHM-081).

  19. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  20. "Going Mobile" in Business Communication at an Arabian Gulf University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapanta, Chrysi; Nickerson, Catherine; Goby, Valerie Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a project in which undergraduate business seniors at a university in the Arabian Gulf created or evaluated the chapters of an iBook as part of their final course in business communication. Students were surveyed throughout the project, and they also participated in a focus group discussion at the end. The aim was to…

  1. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  2. Academic Integrity and Oral Examination: An Arabian Gulf Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Justin; Raynor, Monique; McKinnon, Merryn

    2014-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is a major challenge facing educational institutions worldwide. Within the context of undergraduate education in the Arabian Gulf, oral assessment can help validate the originality of student work, whilst simultaneously facilitating assessment in a mode highly resonant with the region's own educational traditions and…

  3. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  4. Fine (PM2.5), coarse (PM2.5-10), and metallic elements of suspended particulates for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Pi-Cheng Fu, Peter; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2003-06-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple (120 degrees, 34('), 10(") E; 24 degrees, 16('), 12(") N) in this study. This is representative of incense burning and semi-open sampling sites. The Universal-sampler collected fine and coarse particle material was used to measure suspended particulate concentrations, and sampling periods were from 16/08/2001 to 2/1/2002 at Tzu Yun Yen temple. In addition, metallic element concentrations, compositions of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple were also analyzed in this study. The PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios ranged between 31% and 87% and averaged 70+/-11% during incense the burning period, respectively. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Mn>Ni>Cu in fine particles (PM(2.5)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cd>Ni>Mn>Cu in coarse particle (PM(2.5-10)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. Fine particulates (PM(2.5)) are the main portion of PM(10) at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. From the point of view of PM(10), these data reflect that the elements Fe, Zn, and Cr were the major elements distributed at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study.

  5. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.

    PubMed

    Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations.

  6. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.

    PubMed

    Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations. PMID:23450090

  7. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    DouAbdul, A.A.Z.; Abaychi, J.K.; Al-Edanee, T.E.; Ghani, A.A.; Al-Saad, H.T.

    1987-03-01

    Emphasis has been placed upon the identification and qualification of compounds with potential adverse health effects on humans. Prominent among this group are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), several of which are known or suspected carcinogens. PAHs enter the marine environment from a variety of sources including petroleum pollution, industrial and domestic effluents, atmospheric particles, and biosynthesis by plants and microorganisms. Although one-third of the world's oil is produced around the Arabian Gulf, no detailed analysis have been conducted to determine PAHs in this region. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have shown the ability of marine organisms including fish to accumulation PAHs from solution or dispersion in seawater. When fish are harvested, a human health hazard may result. In the present communication, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and measure sixteen PAHs priority pollutants issued by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in fourteen species of commercially significant fish from the NW Arabian Gulf.

  8. Biodeterioration of concrete piling in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jadkowski, T.K.; Wiltsie, E.A.

    1985-03-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used materials in marine construction because of its characteristic durability in sea environments. Recent inspection of concrete piles installed in the Arabian Gulf has revealed that concrete with high content of calcareous aggregate is susceptible to biodeterioration. Marine rock borers and sponges, which are common in areas where the seabed is composed of limestone rock, have been identified as the marine species responsible for the biodeterioration. Boring organisms pose a significant threat to concrete pile structural integrity. Boreholes deteriorate concrete and expose outer pile reinforcement to seawater. This paper describes the causes and magnitude of biodeterioration of piles installed in the Arabian Gulf and presents design parameters and material specifications for the selected preventive repair system.

  9. Remotely Searching for Noctiluca Miliaris in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing monsoonal winds in the Arabian Sea result in two seasons with elevated biological activity, namely the annual summer Southwest Monsoon (SWM; June to September) and winter Northeast Monsoon (NEM; November to March) [Wiggert et al., 2005]. Generally speaking, the SWM and NEM create two geographically distinct blooms [Banse and English, 2000; Levy et al., 2007]. In the summer, winds from the southwest drive offshore Ekman transport and coastal upwelling along the northwestern coast of Africa, which brings nutrient-rich water to the surface from below the permanent thermocline [Bauer et al., 1991]. In the winter, cooling of the northern Arabian Sea causes surface waters to sink, which generates convective mixing that injects nutrients throughout the upper mixed layer [Madhupratap et al., 1996]. This fertilization of otherwise nutrient-deplete surface waters produces one of the most substantial seasonal extremes of phytoplankton biomass and carbon flux anywhere in the world [Smith, 2005].

  10. Continuous quality improvement. A proposal for Arabian Gulf Medical Associations.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahri, M Z; Kinchin-White, J

    2000-02-01

    Having well-established and active medical associations in the Arabian Gulf countries is a promising event. Ideally, however, it must be assured that these associations are efficiently and effectively functioning in a manner designed to serve the ultimate goal of promoting the standards of the medical profession and thus, the quality of health care in the region. This paper is designed to promote the application of Continuous Quality Improvement principles by the medical associations in the Arabian Gulf. The paper is presented in a general format so as to allow for appropriate modifications according to the specific objectives of different medical associations. The indicators identified in this proposal to assess the quality of structure, process or outcome are not intended as a comprehensive list. Rather, the authors aim at establishing a framework on which various fine-tuned and appropriately tailored systems can be based.

  11. Pelger-Huët anomaly in an Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Tanya M; DeWitt, Shane F; Keeton, Kerry S

    2007-09-01

    A 9-year-old Arabian mare was evaluated for a 7-day history of malaise. Results of a CBC included a leukocyte concentration within the reference interval (8.4 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 6.0-14.0 x 10(3)/microL) with an apparent degenerative left shift (segmented neutrophils 1.2 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 2.5-7.5 x 10(3)/microL; hyposegmented neutrophils 1.8 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 0.0-0.2 x 10(3)/microL). Serum clinical chemistry results included increased aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities. A presumptive diagnosis of hepatitis or cholangiohepatitis was made. The horse was treated with antimicrobials and the malaise quickly resolved. However, in a recheck CBC on day 13, the apparent degenerative left shift remained. Further evaluation of the blood smear revealed many hyposegmented granulocytes with coarse mature chromatin and normal cytoplasmic features. On the basis of the microscopic examination, the horse was diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly. The patient's offspring was subsequently also diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly on the basis of blood film examination. Neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil mean nuclear scores in both affected horses (mare, range 1.5-2.6; offspring, range 1.6-3.2) were lower than those in 2 unrelated Arabian horses (range, 2.8-5.0) and 5 non-Arabian control horses (range, 2.8-5.0). Results of immunophenotyping and phagocytosis/oxidative burst assays via flow cytometry showed no difference in the expression of myeloid-specific or adhesion molecules or in neutrophil function between affected and control horses. This is the second known report of equine Pelger-Huët anomaly, both of which affected Arabian horses.

  12. Increasing Arabian dust activity and the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmon, F.; Nair, V. S.; Mallet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations based on satellite and ground measurements have shown a significant increase over Arabia and the Arabian Sea, attributed to an intensification of regional dust activity. Recent studies have also suggested that west Asian dust forcing could induce a positive response of Indian monsoon precipitations on a weekly timescale. Using observations and a regional climate model including interactive slab-ocean and dust aerosol schemes, the present study investigates possible climatic links between the increasing June-July-August-September (JJAS) Arabian dust activity and precipitation trends over southern India during the 2000-2009 decade. Meteorological reanalysis and AOD observations suggest that the observed decadal increase of dust activity and a simultaneous intensification of summer precipitation trend over southern India are both linked to a deepening of JJAS surface pressure conditions over the Arabian Sea. In the first part of the study, we analyze the mean climate response to dust radiative forcing over the domain, discussing notably the relative role of Arabian vs. Indo-Pakistani dust regions. In the second part of the study, we show that the model skills in reproducing regional dynamical patterns and southern Indian precipitation trends are significantly improved only when an increasing dust emission trend is imposed on the basis of observations. We conclude that although interannual climate variability might primarily determine the observed regional pattern of increasing dust activity and precipitation during the 2000-2009 decade, the associated dust radiative forcing might in return induce a critical dynamical feedback contributing to enhancing regional moisture convergence and JJAS precipitations over southern India.

  13. Multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf countries: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Bohlega, Saeed; Inshasi, Jihad; Al Tahan, Abdel Rahman; Madani, Abu Bakr; Qahtani, Hussien; Rieckmann, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing in many parts of the world. Based on the Kurtzke classification, the Arabian Gulf Region is located in a low-risk zone for MS; however, recent studies suggest a moderate-to-high prevalence nearby (31-55 MS per 10,0000 individuals), with an increase in incidence in recent years. The relapsing-remitting disease course ratio is 2.5:1 versus the primary progressive type. In a geographic area that was previously associated with low prevalence; the recent high prevalence and fast rising incidence of MS in the gulf countries, encouraged the neurologists of this region to meet in a consensus panel, in order to share our latest findings in terms of MS epidemiology and consent on MS management in the Arabian Gulf. Therefore 20 key opinion leader neurologists and MS experts representing various countries of the Arabian Gulf have met in Dubai on the 2 and 3 February 2012, they shared their latest epidemiological findings, discussed recent MS aspects in the region, and consented on MS management relevantly to this geographic area.

  14. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  15. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, C.R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Drysdall, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance. ?? 1986.

  16. Potential changes in rat spermatogenesis and sperm parameters after inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S; Hussain, Tajamul

    2013-02-28

    In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system.

  17. Ceratocystis larium sp. nov., a new species from Styrax benzoin wounds associated with incense harvesting in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, M; Wingfield, B D; Clegg, P A; Wingfield, M J

    2009-06-01

    Styrax benzoin trees, native to the island Sumatra, Indonesia are wounded to produce resin that is collected and burned as incense. These wounds on trees commonly develop into expanding cankers that lead to tree death. The aim of this study was to consider whether Ophiostomatoid fungi, typically associated with wounds on trees might be associated with resin harvesting on S. benzoin. Samples were collected from the edges of artificially induced wounds, and particularly where cankers and staining of the vascular tissue was evident. Tissue samples were incubated in moist chambers and carrot baiting was also used to detect the presence of Ceratocystis spp. Fruiting structures with morphology typical of species in the C. fimbriata s.l. species complex and species in the anamorph genus Thielaviopsis were found, on both the incubated wood and the carrot baits. DNA sequences were generated for the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 and 2 including the 5.8S rRNA gene, part of the beta-tubulin and the Transcription Elongation Factor 1-alpha gene regions. These data were compared with those of other species in the C. fimbriata s.l. species complex and Thielaviopsis using phylogenetic analysis. Morphology of the isolates in culture as well as phylogenetic inference showed that the Thielaviopsis sp. present on the wounds was T. basicola. The Ceratocystis sp. from S. benzoin represents a new taxon in the C. fimbriata s.l. complex described here as C. larium sp. nov.

  18. Identification and structural characterization of the synthetic cannabinoid 3-(1-adamantoyl)-1-pentylindole as an additive in 'herbal incense'.

    PubMed

    Kneisel, Stefan; Westphal, Folker; Bisel, Philippe; Brecht, Volker; Broecker, Sebastian; Auwärter, Volker

    2012-02-01

    Since the end of 2010, more than 20 synthetic cannabimimetics have been identified in 'Spice' products, demonstrating the enormous dynamic in this field. In an effort to cope with the problem, many countries have already undertaken legal measures by putting some of these compounds under control. Nevertheless, once a number of compounds were scheduled, they were soon replaced by other synthetic cannabinoids. In this article, we report the identification of a new--and due to its substitution pattern rather uncommon--cannabimimetic found in several 'herbal incense' products. The GC-EI mass spectrum first led to misidentification as the alpha-methyl-derivative of JWH-250. However, since both substances show different retention indices, thin-layer chromatography was used to isolate the unknown compound. After application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-resolution MS and GC-MS/MS techniques, the compound was identified as 3-(1-adamantoyl)-1-pentylindole, a derivative of JWH-018 carrying an adamantoyl moiety instead of a naphthoyl group. This finding supports that the listing of synthetic cannabinoids as prohibited substances triggers the appearance of compounds with uncommon substituents. Moreover, it emphasizes the necessity of being aware of the risk of misidentification when using techniques sometimes providing only limited structural information like GC-MS.

  19. Benthic nitrogen loss in the arabian sea off pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schlüter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2012-01-01

    A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430 m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using (15)N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18 mmol N m(-2) day(-1). While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46 mmol N m(-2) day(-1) with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89 mmol N m(-2) day(-1). Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360 m to 40% at 1430 m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd(1)-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd(1)-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be

  20. Benthic Nitrogen Loss in the Arabian Sea Off Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schlüter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2012-01-01

    A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430 m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18 mmol N m−2 day−1. While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46 mmol N m−2 day−1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89 mmol N m−2 day−1. Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360 m to 40% at 1430 m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd1-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be

  1. Three new species of Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovsky (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Juan M; Azevedo, Celso O

    2016-06-01

    Three new species of Pararhabdepyris are described and illustrated: P. arabo sp. nov. (United Arabian Emirates and Yemen), P. wafrika sp. nov. (Central African Republic), P. ngangu sp. nov. (Central African Republic). The genus is recorded for the first time from the Saharo-Arabian region. A key for all species of the genus is presented.

  2. Three new species of Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovsky (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Juan M; Azevedo, Celso O

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Pararhabdepyris are described and illustrated: P. arabo sp. nov. (United Arabian Emirates and Yemen), P. wafrika sp. nov. (Central African Republic), P. ngangu sp. nov. (Central African Republic). The genus is recorded for the first time from the Saharo-Arabian region. A key for all species of the genus is presented. PMID:27395185

  3. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Andrew S; Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Vaughan, Grace; Pratchett, Morgan S; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Parrotfishes (f. Labridae) are a unique and ubiquitous group of herbivorous reef fishes. We compared the distribution and ecosystem function (grazing and erosion) of parrotfishes across 75 reefs in Arabia. Our results revealed marked regional differences in the abundance, and taxonomic and functional composition of parrotfishes between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Gulf. High densities and diversity of parrotfishes, and high rates of grazing (210% year(-1)) and erosion (1.57 kgm(-2)year(-1)) characterised Red Sea reefs. Despite Arabian Sea and Red Sea reefs having broadly comparable abundances of parrotfishes, estimates of grazing (150% year(-1)) and erosion (0.43 kgm(-2)year(-1)) were markedly lower in the Arabian Sea. Parrotfishes were extremely rare within the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  4. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Andrew S; Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Vaughan, Grace; Pratchett, Morgan S; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Parrotfishes (f. Labridae) are a unique and ubiquitous group of herbivorous reef fishes. We compared the distribution and ecosystem function (grazing and erosion) of parrotfishes across 75 reefs in Arabia. Our results revealed marked regional differences in the abundance, and taxonomic and functional composition of parrotfishes between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Gulf. High densities and diversity of parrotfishes, and high rates of grazing (210% year(-1)) and erosion (1.57 kgm(-2)year(-1)) characterised Red Sea reefs. Despite Arabian Sea and Red Sea reefs having broadly comparable abundances of parrotfishes, estimates of grazing (150% year(-1)) and erosion (0.43 kgm(-2)year(-1)) were markedly lower in the Arabian Sea. Parrotfishes were extremely rare within the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions. PMID:26608505

  5. Regional joint sets in the Arabian platform as indicators of intraplate processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P.L.; Sha'At, N.A.; Al Kadhi, A.

    1984-02-01

    The eastern part of the Saudi Arabian craton is a platform underlain by gently tilted and horizontal Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The platform contains several laterally extensive, but subdued, structures and lineaments. New microtectonic observations of dominant sets of extension and conjugate hybrid joints permit regionally significant extension directions to be inferred and the origin of the macrostructures to be assessed. The central Arabian arch developed during the Late Cretaceous to Eocene when the basin inverted as a consequence of the emplacement of ophiolite-bearing nappes on the Zagros and Oman margins. During arching, there was strike-parallel elongation of beds. At the same time as the arch amplified, the central Arabian graben system evolved as a result of the northward displacement of an East Arabian block. An important Neogene response in the Arabian platform to northeast-southwest shortening in the Zagros ranges was the formation of a swarm of northeast-striking master joints and lineaments. 41 references.

  6. Suspended particulate variations and mass size distributions of incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in Taiwan, Taichung.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Yang, Chang-Ju; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2002-11-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. This is characteristic place of incense burning and indoor air pollution sampling site. A universal sampler, micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler and dry deposition plate were used to measure particulate concentrations. Tzu Yun Yen temple is a typical famous Buddhist-Taoist combined temple, where many pilgrims come from different areas and various belief systems indicating the eclecticism of the temple. The average number of people visiting this temple is above 5000 per day. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged between 31.2 and 87.4% and averaged 69.6+/-12.3% during the incense-burning period, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the fine particulates concentrations (PM2.5) constituted the majority of indoor-suspended particulates at Tzu Yun Yen temple. PM10 concentration was 110.1 microg m(-3) for Zhong Yuan Jie (A festival on the seventh full moon in a lunar year, otherwise known as a summer lantern festival and (or) the commemoration of the dead. Almost all temples have maximum pilgrims for the commemoration of the dead on this day.) and the 1st or 15th of nong li (Nong li is a Chinese lunar calendar system in which 1 year is divided into fixed periods, and the beginning and end of a year is determined. The new moon and full moon are the 1st and 15th, respectively of each month in the Chinese lunar calendar. Many pilgrims appeared at each temple for blessing and good luck for themselves on the 1st and 15th of each Chinese lunar month.) with numbers higher than non-Zhong Yuan Jie and non-1st or -15th day of nong li (average = 85.5 microg m(-3)). In general, the average dry deposition flux (49.4 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in the indoor environment is lower than those measured in the outdoor environment (184.0 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in this study. The mean dry deposition flux of indoor/outdoor ratio was 46.2%. The average mass size distributions were bimodal

  7. New heat flow measurements in Oman in the Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, F.; Lucazeau, F.; Jaupart, C.; Leroy, S.; Bache, F.; Amerjeed, M.; Lally, J.

    2009-04-01

    Precambrian shields are viewed as low heat flow provinces but detailed studies in Canada, South Africa and India shields demonstrate that large heat flow differences exist between them and within a single province, related to differences of crustal structures. Very few heat flow measurements are available on the Arabian shield and its thermal structure is poorly constrained. Heat flow reported for the Arabian Shield and its immediate platform (36-88 mWm-2) is broad. Thermal regime has a control on rheology and on deformation and the Arabian shield is of particular interest because it was affected by geodynamic processes such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden riftings starting around 30 Ma ago and the formation of the Dead Sea Transform fault starting at about 20 Ma. In December 2006, a marine heat-flow survey in the Gulf of Aden provided 169 new heat-flow measurements along multi-channel seismic profiles. One of the main results is that the high heat-flow (~120 mWm-2), characteristic of oceanic domains, extends into the deep continental margin and switches abruptly in the proximal margin to a low value (~40 mWm-2) typical of stable Precambrian domain. These low values have been confirmed by estimates derived from oil exploration data in few locations south of Oman. These data indicate a strong contrast of thermal regimes within the continental margin. Recent tomography studies on Arabia in Oman show that the lithosphere is significantly affected within Arabia in the vicinity of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. This pattern is apparently different from the observed heat-flow pattern, which needs to be confirmed and extended into the Arabian platform. The survey we conducted in October 2008 was to evaluate the thermal regime in the onshore domains of Oman. We measured the temperature gradient in 9 water wells in Dhofar south of Oman and in 8 mining wells in northern Oman in the ophiolite belt. The goal is to investigate the thermal structure of the Arabian plate and

  8. Multifactorial inheritance of common white markings in the Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Woolf, C M

    1990-01-01

    The results of a previous study were compatible with the hypothesis that common white facial markings in the Arabian horse have a multifactorial mode of inheritance. I expanded that study to (1) include the legs and therefore obtain insight into the heritability of common white markings in all peripheral regions (face and legs) of the Arabian horse and (2) investigate the influence of sex and the genotypes that produce the bay and chestnut phenotypes on the variation in common white markings. Both studies were based on computerized data obtained from the Arabian Horse Registry of America, Inc. Each leg of a horse was scored from 0 to 5 depending on the amount of whiteness present, and the four leg scores were added to obtain the total leg score for each horse. The facial region was divided into five areas, and each horse was given a score from 0 to 5 according to the number of areas with whiteness. Sire families were analyzed in which each sire family consisted of a sire, his foals, and the dams of those foals. There was a correlation between white facial scores and white leg scores, suggesting that both types of white markings are influenced by the same genetic mechanism. Sire-foal and dam-foal regression analyses were compatible with the hypothesis that common white leg markings also show multifactorial inheritance. Although the results support the model that additively acting genes (polygenes) influence the presence and extent of common white markings, the results also show that males are slightly more marked than are females and that chestnut horses are more heavily marked than are bay horses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Cenozoic epeirogeny of the Arabian Peninsula from drainage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W. P.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.; White, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    is generally accepted that the Arabian Peninsula has been uplifted by subcrustal processes. Positive residual depth anomalies from oceanic crust in the Red Sea and in the Gulf of Aden suggest that a region surrounding this peninsula is dynamically supported. Admittance calculations, surface wave tomography studies, and receiver function analyses all imply that regional topography is generated and maintained by some combination of mantle convective circulation and lithospheric thickness changes. Despite these significant advances, the spatial and temporal uplift rate history of the Arabian Peninsula is not well known. Here we show that a regional uplift rate history can be obtained by jointly inverting 225 longitudinal river profiles that drain this peninsula. Our strategy assumes that shapes of individual river profiles are controlled by uplift rate history and moderated by erosional processes. We used local measurements of incision rate to calibrate the relevant erosional parameters. In our inverse algorithm, uplift rate is permitted to vary smoothly as a function of space and time but upstream drainage area remains invariant. We also assume that knickzone migration is not lithologically controlled. Implications of these important assumptions have been investigated. Our results suggest that the Arabian Peninsula underwent two phases of asymmetric uplift during the last 20-30 Ma at rates of 0.05-0.1 mm a-1. The southwestern flank of the peninsula has been uplifted by 1.5-2.5 km. Regional stratigraphic constraints, the age and composition of volcanism, paleosol formation, incised peneplains, emergent marine terraces, and thermochronometric measurements corroborate our calculated patterns of uplift. Progressive development of three domal swells along the western margin of the peninsula is consistent with localized upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle.

  10. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Saudi Arabian Dermatology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Anwar E.; Al-Dahmash, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Boqami, Qamra T.; Al-Tebainawi, Yazeed F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients and to assess associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 consecutive dermatology patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in August 2015. The Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to screen for symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Results: A total of 254 dermatology patients participated in the study (response rate: 84.7%). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 12.6%, 22.1% and 7.5%, respectively. The presence of at least one of these negative emotional states was noted among 24.4% of the cohort (95% confidence interval: 19.3–30.2%). Depression was significantly higher among subjects who lacked family support (26.5% versus 10.7%; P = 0.006) while anxiety was less common among patients who engaged in physical exercise (14.5% versus 29.4%; P = 0.005). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor QOL and a lack of family support were significant predictors of a negative emotional state. Conclusion: Almost a quarter of the studied Saudi Arabian dermatology patients were found to suffer from at least one negative emotional state. A lack of family support and poor QOL were the primary factors associated with a negative emotional state. Interventional studies are needed to examine the effects of social and family support on psychological conditions among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients. PMID:27226914

  11. XY male pseudohermaphroditism in a captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Padilla, Luis R; Dutton, Christopher J; Bauman, Joan; Duncan, Mary

    2005-09-01

    A 2-yr-old Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) was presented for evaluation of abnormal genitalia and infantile behavior. The oryx had a penis and a scrotum, but testes were not palpable within the scrotum or inguinal canal. The total serum testosterone for the individual was lower than in age-matched males of the same species. Surgical exploration showed markedly hypoplastic intra-abdominal gonads, which demonstrated both testicular and uterine tissue on histologic examination. After karyotype analysis, the individual was classified as an XY male pseudohermaphrodite. This condition resembles two human intersex syndromes: embryonic testicular regression syndrome and partial gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, which occur in familial lines. PMID:17312771

  12. Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) embryos: A model organism for the risk assessment of the Arabian Gulf coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Suhur; Al-Naema, Nayla; Butler, Josh D; Febbo, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Fish embryos are excellent models for studies aimed at understanding toxic mechanisms and indications of possible acute and chronic effects. For the past 3 yr, an Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) fish embryo test has been developed in the authors' laboratory as a routine ecotoxicological test that can be used to support risk assessment of potential contaminants in Arabian Gulf coastal waters. Tests were conducted with 3 reference toxicants (3,4-dichloroaniline [DCA], sodium dodecyl sulfate, and zinc sulfate [Zn]) and chlorine, a disinfectant used widely in industrial cooling systems around the Arabian Gulf region. The 50% effect concentration (EC50) for DCA was 0.47 mg/L and 1.89 mg/L for embryos exposed before 6 hpf and after 168 hpf, respectively. Sublethal effects were mainly observed at concentrations above 2.5 mg/L, the effects included severe pericardial edema and tail shortage. The sodium dodecyl sulfate ionic surfactant caused mortality at both early and late stages of embryo development; it caused coagulation, severe deformity, and hemolysis. Both the EC50 and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for sodium dodecyl sulfate were 9.37 mg/L. Salinity influenced the toxicity of Zn to killifish embryos: at 40 psu Zn was found not to be toxic, whereas at 20 psu toxicity had increased significantly (p < 0.05). Values of EC50 and LC50 were 2.5 mg/L and 4 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations above 15 mg/L in embryos were often accompanied by upper abdominal edema and inhibition of growth, especially evident in the tail. Chlorine caused mortality at a lower concentration; for example, at 0.05 mg/L 33% of embryos were found dead at the end of the experiment. The LC50 for chlorine was determined to be 0.08 mg/L. Examination of the existing literature showed similar results to the present study's findings. The results suggest a more comparable sensitivity of killifish embryos to that of other fish embryo test recommended species. The present study

  13. Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) embryos: A model organism for the risk assessment of the Arabian Gulf coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Suhur; Al-Naema, Nayla; Butler, Josh D; Febbo, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Fish embryos are excellent models for studies aimed at understanding toxic mechanisms and indications of possible acute and chronic effects. For the past 3 yr, an Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) fish embryo test has been developed in the authors' laboratory as a routine ecotoxicological test that can be used to support risk assessment of potential contaminants in Arabian Gulf coastal waters. Tests were conducted with 3 reference toxicants (3,4-dichloroaniline [DCA], sodium dodecyl sulfate, and zinc sulfate [Zn]) and chlorine, a disinfectant used widely in industrial cooling systems around the Arabian Gulf region. The 50% effect concentration (EC50) for DCA was 0.47 mg/L and 1.89 mg/L for embryos exposed before 6 hpf and after 168 hpf, respectively. Sublethal effects were mainly observed at concentrations above 2.5 mg/L, the effects included severe pericardial edema and tail shortage. The sodium dodecyl sulfate ionic surfactant caused mortality at both early and late stages of embryo development; it caused coagulation, severe deformity, and hemolysis. Both the EC50 and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for sodium dodecyl sulfate were 9.37 mg/L. Salinity influenced the toxicity of Zn to killifish embryos: at 40 psu Zn was found not to be toxic, whereas at 20 psu toxicity had increased significantly (p < 0.05). Values of EC50 and LC50 were 2.5 mg/L and 4 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations above 15 mg/L in embryos were often accompanied by upper abdominal edema and inhibition of growth, especially evident in the tail. Chlorine caused mortality at a lower concentration; for example, at 0.05 mg/L 33% of embryos were found dead at the end of the experiment. The LC50 for chlorine was determined to be 0.08 mg/L. Examination of the existing literature showed similar results to the present study's findings. The results suggest a more comparable sensitivity of killifish embryos to that of other fish embryo test recommended species. The present study

  14. Origin of cold bias over the Arabian Sea in Climate Models.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, S; Ajayamohan, R S

    2014-09-17

    Almost all climate models in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase five (CMIP5) were found to have a cold bias in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the northern Arabian Sea, which is linked to the biases in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). This cold SST bias was attributed to the anomalous cold winds from the north-western part of south Asian landmass during boreal winter. However, the origin of the anomalously strong cold winds over the Arabian Sea and its association with the large-scale circulation is obscure. Here we show that an equatorward bias in subtropical Jetstream during boreal spring season anomalously cools down the northern Arabian Sea and adjoining land regions in CMIP5 models. The models with stronger equatorward bias in subtropical jet are also the ones with stronger cold SST bias over the Arabian Sea. The equatorward shift coupled with enhanced strength of the subtropical jet produce a stronger upper tropospheric convergence, leading to a subsidence and divergence at lower levels over the Arabian deserts. The low entropy air flowing from the Arabian land mass cools the northern Arabian Sea. The weaker meridional temperature gradients in the colder models substantially weaken ISM precipitation.

  15. Origin of cold bias over the Arabian Sea in Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, S.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2014-09-01

    Almost all climate models in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase five (CMIP5) were found to have a cold bias in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the northern Arabian Sea, which is linked to the biases in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). This cold SST bias was attributed to the anomalous cold winds from the north-western part of south Asian landmass during boreal winter. However, the origin of the anomalously strong cold winds over the Arabian Sea and its association with the large-scale circulation is obscure. Here we show that an equatorward bias in subtropical Jetstream during boreal spring season anomalously cools down the northern Arabian Sea and adjoining land regions in CMIP5 models. The models with stronger equatorward bias in subtropical jet are also the ones with stronger cold SST bias over the Arabian Sea. The equatorward shift coupled with enhanced strength of the subtropical jet produce a stronger upper tropospheric convergence, leading to a subsidence and divergence at lower levels over the Arabian deserts. The low entropy air flowing from the Arabian land mass cools the northern Arabian Sea. The weaker meridional temperature gradients in the colder models substantially weaken ISM precipitation.

  16. Origin of cold bias over the Arabian Sea in Climate Models.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, S; Ajayamohan, R S

    2014-01-01

    Almost all climate models in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase five (CMIP5) were found to have a cold bias in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the northern Arabian Sea, which is linked to the biases in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). This cold SST bias was attributed to the anomalous cold winds from the north-western part of south Asian landmass during boreal winter. However, the origin of the anomalously strong cold winds over the Arabian Sea and its association with the large-scale circulation is obscure. Here we show that an equatorward bias in subtropical Jetstream during boreal spring season anomalously cools down the northern Arabian Sea and adjoining land regions in CMIP5 models. The models with stronger equatorward bias in subtropical jet are also the ones with stronger cold SST bias over the Arabian Sea. The equatorward shift coupled with enhanced strength of the subtropical jet produce a stronger upper tropospheric convergence, leading to a subsidence and divergence at lower levels over the Arabian deserts. The low entropy air flowing from the Arabian land mass cools the northern Arabian Sea. The weaker meridional temperature gradients in the colder models substantially weaken ISM precipitation. PMID:25228235

  17. Origin of cold bias over the Arabian Sea in Climate Models

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, S.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all climate models in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase five (CMIP5) were found to have a cold bias in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the northern Arabian Sea, which is linked to the biases in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). This cold SST bias was attributed to the anomalous cold winds from the north-western part of south Asian landmass during boreal winter. However, the origin of the anomalously strong cold winds over the Arabian Sea and its association with the large-scale circulation is obscure. Here we show that an equatorward bias in subtropical Jetstream during boreal spring season anomalously cools down the northern Arabian Sea and adjoining land regions in CMIP5 models. The models with stronger equatorward bias in subtropical jet are also the ones with stronger cold SST bias over the Arabian Sea. The equatorward shift coupled with enhanced strength of the subtropical jet produce a stronger upper tropospheric convergence, leading to a subsidence and divergence at lower levels over the Arabian deserts. The low entropy air flowing from the Arabian land mass cools the northern Arabian Sea. The weaker meridional temperature gradients in the colder models substantially weaken ISM precipitation. PMID:25228235

  18. Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

    2012-07-01

    An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

  19. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Carbon fluxes in the Arabian Sea: Export versus recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, Tim; Gaye, Birgit; Ramaswamy, Venkitasubramani

    2016-04-01

    The organic carbon pump strongly influences the exchange of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere. It is known that it responds to global change but the magnitude and the direction of change are still unpredictable. Sediment trap experiments carried out at various sites in the Arabian Sea between 1986 and 1998 have shown differences in the functioning of the organic carbon pump (OCP). An OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton operated in the upwelling region off Oman and during the spring bloom in the northern Arabian Sea. Cyanobacteria capable of fixing nitrogen seem to dominate the phytoplankton community during all other seasons. The export driven by cyanobacteria was much lower than the export driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton. Productivity and nutrient availability seems to be a main factor controlling fluxes during blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton. The ballast effect caused by inputs of dust into the ocean and its incorporation into sinking particles seems to be the main factor controlling the export during times when cyanobacteria dominate the phytoplankton community. C/N ratios of organic matter exported from blooms dominated by nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are enhanced and, furthermore, indicate a more efficient recycling of nutrients at shallower water depth. This implies that the bacterial-driven OCP operates more in a recycling mode that keeps nutrients closer to the euphotic zone whereas the OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton reduces the recycling of nutrients by exporting them into greater water-depth.

  1. The M0:mb Discriminant in the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.

    2001-05-01

    We develop M0:mb relationships for the eastern Arabian peninsula using regional waveform data. We use recordings of earthquakes in the Zagros mountains of southern Iran by the permanent broad band station at RAYN and the 1995--1997 Passcal deployment in the surrounding region. We follow a similar procedure to Priestley and Patton (1997). We obtain seismic moments by applying the Bolt and Herraiz (1983) method, which uses the amplitude decay of the Lg phase, calibrated by the using Harvard CMT moments of the larger events. We establish the regional magnitude scales mb(P_n) and mb(L_g) by determining the attenuation rates of Pn and Lg waves, calibrating the mb(P_n) against the teleseismic mb, and applying the Nuttli (1973) method to determine mb from Lg waves. Preliminary results show that the calibration curve for M0( CMT) against M0(L_g) for the Arabian peninsula is approximately parallel to that for central Asia, but offset by an extra 0.25~mu. We also find that M0 vs mb values for Arabia plot consistently above those for central Asia by 0.25~mu.

  2. Seasonality in the Arabian Sea over glacial-interglacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nooijer, L. J.; Tjallingii, R.; Brummer, G. J.; Reichart, G. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Indian monsoon system controls seasonal precipitation alterations over the Indian continent and upwelling of nutrient-rich waters to the surface in the northern Arabian Sea. Functioning and strength of this weather system due to climate change is one of the important issues in predicting the effects of global warming on the region's economy, agriculture and social welfare. The strength of the Indian monsoon system through time can be studied by changes in seawater temperature and chemistry from single-specimen analysis of planktic foraminiferal calcite. Temperature reconstructions based on many single specimens allow reconstruction of past seasonal sea water temperatures ranges and thus seasonal temperature variability. . Here we present seawater reconstructions based on single-specimen Mg/Ca of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber and the deeper-living G. dutertrei of two sediment cores of the western equatorial Indian Ocean off Tanzania and the northern Arabian Sea. From both cores, specimens are analyzed for calcitic Mg/Ca using laser ablation-ICP-MS of time-intervals representing the Holocene optimum, Last Glacial Maximum, Marine Isotope Stage 4, MIS 5 and MIS6. The resulting temperature ranges allow reconstruction of variability in the strength of the Indian Monsoon as well as cross-equatorial heat transport during glacials and interglacials.

  3. Analysis of Shuttle Multispecral Infrared Radiometer measurements of the western Saudi Arabian shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Abbott, E.

    1987-01-01

    During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors

  4. Application of Space Technology to Discovery of Ancient Desert Trade Routes in the Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald; Crippen, Robert; Hedges, George; Zarins, Juris

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, an unusual combination of historical research, traditional archaeology, and application of space technolgy has demonstrated the existence of trans-desert trade routes in the sourthern Arabian peninsula.

  5. Structure of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Across the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amri, A; Rodgers, A

    2007-01-05

    Analysis of modern broadband (BB) waveform data allows for the inference of seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle using a variety of techniques. This presentation will report inferences of seismic structure of the Arabian Plate using BB data from various networks. Most data were recorded by the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) which consists of 38 (26 BB, 11 SP) stations, mostly located on the Arabian Shield. Additional data were taken from the 1995-7 Saudi Arabian IRIS-PASSCAL Deployment (9 BB stations) and other stations across the Peninsula. Crustal structure, inferred from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, reveals thicker crust in the Arabian Platform (40-45 km) and the interior of the Arabian Shield (35-40 km) and thinner crust along the Red Sea coast. Lithospheric thickness inferred from teleseismic S-wave receiver functions reveals very thin lithosphere (40-80 km) along the Red Sea coast which thickens rapidly toward the interior of the Arabian Shield (100-120 km). We also observe a step of 20-40 km in lithospheric thickness across the Shield-Platform boundary. Seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle inferred from teleseismic P- and S-wave travel time tomography reveals large differences between the Shield and Platform, with the Shield being underlain by slower velocities, {+-}3% for P-waves and {+-}6% for S-waves. Seismic anisotropy was inferred from shear-wave splitting, using teleseismic SKS waveforms. Results reveal a splitting time of approximately 1.4 seconds, with the fast axis slightly east of north. The shear-wave splitting results are consistent across the Peninsula, with a slight clockwise rotation parallel for stations near the Gulf of Aqaba. In summary, these results allow us to make several conclusions about the tectonic evolution and current state of the Arabian Plate. Lithospheric thickness implies that thinning near the Red Sea has accompanied the rupturing of the Arabian

  6. Hydrocarbon group analysis of Arabian crude oils TBP-fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, S.A.; Mahmud, F.; AlHarbi, D.K. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors present experimental studies carried out on hydrocarbon group analysis of commercial Arabian crude oil fractions corresponding to the true boiling point ranges of 200-400{sup 0}F, 400-500{sup 0}F, 500-650{sup 0}F, 650-850{sup 0}F and 850{sup 0}F+. The crude oils included Arab heavy (API{sup 0} = 28.0), Arab medium (API{sup 0} = 30.0), Arab light (API{sup 0} = 33.3), and Arab Berry extra light (API{sup 0} = 36.9). Waters Hydrocarbon Group Analyzer (HGA) system interfaced with model 730 Data Module has been used to obtain the compositional analysis in terms of saturates, neutral aromatics, polar aromatics and asphaltenes.

  7. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  8. Long-term hydrodynamic modeling of the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Abubaker; Elshorbagy, Walid; Bleninger, Tobias

    2015-05-15

    A 3-D prognostic baroclinic hydrodynamic model of the Arabian Gulf (AG) was developed using Delft3D-FLOW. The model was forced with long-term time averaged climatological data over the computational domain and long-term salinity and temperature boundary conditions applied at its tidal open boundary. The model simulation results were thoroughly validated against measured tides from 5 stations and measured currents at 4 locations in the central and southern parts. Water salinity and temperature were validated in space and time using observations spanning over 73 years from 1923 to 1996 for the AG, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman. The bottom flow of the AG basin at the vicinity of the Strait of Hormuz was also validated against the available measurements. Seasonal evaporation and surface density spatial distribution maps were produced and compared with available records. The developed model setup successfully generated the AG seasonal stratification and hydrographic conditions. PMID:25819446

  9. SEISMIC DATA FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2004-07-08

    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  10. Eddies reduce denitrification and compress habitats in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Smith, Shafer; Lévy, Marina; Pauluis, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    The combination of high biological production and weak oceanic ventilation in regions, such as the northern Indian Ocean and the eastern Pacific and Atlantic, cause large-scale oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that profoundly affect marine habitats and alter key biogeochemical cycles. Here we investigate the effects of eddies on the Arabian Sea OMZ—the world's thickest—using a suite of regional model simulations with increasing horizontal resolution. We find that isopycnal eddy transport of oxygen to the OMZ region limits the extent of suboxia so reducing denitrification, increasing the supply of nitrate to the surface, and thereby enhancing biological production. That same enhanced production generates more organic matter in the water column, amplifying oxygen consumption below the euphotic zone, thus increasing the extent of hypoxia. Eddy-driven ventilation likely plays a similar role in other low-oxygen regions and thus may be crucial in shaping marine habitats and modulating the large-scale marine nitrogen cycle.

  11. Interannual variability and predictability over the Arabian Penuinsula Winter monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan Abid, Muhammad; Kucharski, Fred; Almazroui, Mansour; Kang, In-Sik

    2016-04-01

    Interannual winter rainfall variability and its predictability are analysed over the Arabian Peninsula region by using observed and hindcast datasets from the state-of-the-art European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal prediction System 4 for the period 1981-2010. An Arabian winter monsoon index (AWMI) is defined to highlight the Arabian Peninsula as the most representative region for the Northern Hemispheric winter dominating the summer rainfall. The observations show that the rainfall variability is relatively large over the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. The correlation coefficient between the Nino3.4 index and rainfall in this region is 0.33, suggesting potentially some modest predictability, and indicating that El Nino increases and La Nina decreases the rainfall. Regression analysis shows that upper-level cyclonic circulation anomalies that are forced by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are responsible for the winter rainfall anomalies over the Arabian region. The stronger (weaker) mean transient-eddy activity related to the upper-level trough induced by the warm (cold) sea-surface temperatures during El Nino (La Nina) tends to increase (decrease) the rainfall in the region. The model hindcast dataset reproduces the ENSO-rainfall connection. The seasonal mean predictability of the northeast Arabian rainfall index is 0.35. It is shown that the noise variance is larger than the signal over the Arabian Peninsula region, which tends to limit the prediction skill. The potential predictability is generally increased in ENSO years and is, in particular, larger during La Nina compared to El Nino years in the region. Furthermore, central Pacific ENSO events and ENSO events with weak signals in the Indian Ocean tend to increase predictability over the Arabian region.

  12. The ant genus Carebara Westwood in the Arabian Peninsula (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ant genus Carebara of the Arabian Peninsula is revised. Carebara abuhurayri Sharaf & Aldawood, 2011 is synonymized under Carebara arabica Collingwood & van Harten, 2001. Carebara arabica is redescribed and a Neotype is fixed based on a specimen collected from southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A new species, C. fayrouzae sp. n. is described from Saudi Arabia based on queens, major and minor workers. Keys to major and minor workers of the two Arabian Carebara species are given. PMID:24363580

  13. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir; Engelbrecht, Johann P.

    2016-09-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  14. Oil exploration in Central Arabian Arch using Landsat images

    SciTech Connect

    Sabins, F.F.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1988, the Chevron Remote Sensing Research Group and Aramco digitally processed and interpreted seven Landsat thematic mapper images of the Central Arabian Arch for two purposes: 1. Map geology at 1:250,000 scale; 2. Identify anomalies that may be surface expression of structural traps. The well-exposed outcrops are predominantly marine strata of Mesozoic age with regional dips to east and southeast at less than 2{degrees}. This structural setting lacks the patterns of arcuate and offset beds that characterize folds and faults in more strongly deformed terrains. Therefore we developed a model to predict the image expression of structures in this homoclinal terrain. We based the model on oil fields in the Arabian Gulf region that are drape anticlines overlying high-angle faults that offset basement rocks and Palecizoic strata. The anticlines grade upward into structural terraces caused by flattening of the regional dip. Erosion of the terraces produces subtle topographic and stratigraphic anomalies that are recognizable on the images. The model was used to interpret a number of image anomalies. We field-checked the anomalies and eliminated a few. Aramco then acquired seismic data for several of the more promising anomalies that confirmed the presence of subsurface structure. Drilling resulted in discovery of Raghib and Dilam fields that produce from the Unayzah Sandstone (Permian). Initial production in the discovery and development wells ranges from 3000 to 4300 BOPD with gravity of 44 to 46{degrees} API. The source of this high-quality oil is the Qusaiba Shale (Silurian). The new discoveries are approximately 100 km from the nearest fields. Less than two years elapsed from beginning of digital image processing to completion of the discovery wells.

  15. Oil exploration in Central Arabian Arch using Landsat images

    SciTech Connect

    Sabins, F.F. )

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Chevron Remote Sensing Research Group and Aramco digitally processed and interpreted seven Landsat thematic mapper images of the Central Arabian Arch for two purposes: 1. Map geology at 1:250,000 scale; 2. Identify anomalies that may be surface expression of structural traps. The well-exposed outcrops are predominantly marine strata of Mesozoic age with regional dips to east and southeast at less than 2[degrees]. This structural setting lacks the patterns of arcuate and offset beds that characterize folds and faults in more strongly deformed terrains. Therefore we developed a model to predict the image expression of structures in this homoclinal terrain. We based the model on oil fields in the Arabian Gulf region that are drape anticlines overlying high-angle faults that offset basement rocks and Palecizoic strata. The anticlines grade upward into structural terraces caused by flattening of the regional dip. Erosion of the terraces produces subtle topographic and stratigraphic anomalies that are recognizable on the images. The model was used to interpret a number of image anomalies. We field-checked the anomalies and eliminated a few. Aramco then acquired seismic data for several of the more promising anomalies that confirmed the presence of subsurface structure. Drilling resulted in discovery of Raghib and Dilam fields that produce from the Unayzah Sandstone (Permian). Initial production in the discovery and development wells ranges from 3000 to 4300 BOPD with gravity of 44 to 46[degrees] API. The source of this high-quality oil is the Qusaiba Shale (Silurian). The new discoveries are approximately 100 km from the nearest fields. Less than two years elapsed from beginning of digital image processing to completion of the discovery wells.

  16. Climate oscillations reflected in the Arabian Sea subseafloor microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, William; Coolen, Marco; He, Lijun; Wuchter, Cornelia; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem; Johnson, Carl; Hemingway, Jordon; Lee, Mitchell; Galy, Valier; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediment contains a vast microbial biosphere that influences global biogeochemical cycles over geological timescales. However, the environmental factors controlling the stratigraphy of subseafloor microbial communities are poorly understood. We studied a sediment core directly underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which exhibits organic carbon rich sapropelic laminae deposited under low oxygen conditions. Consistent with several other cores from the same location, age dating revealed the sapropelic layers coincide with warm North Atlantic millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger events, indicating a direct link between the strength of the OMZ and paleoclimate. A total of 214 samples spanning 13 m and 52 Kyr of deposition were selected for geochemical analyses and paleoclimate proxy measurements, as well as high-throughput metagenomic DNA sequencing of bacteria and archaea. A novel DNA extraction protocol was developed that allowed for direct (unamplified) metagenomic sequencing of DNA from each sample. This dataset represents the highest resolved sedimentary metagenomic sampling profile to date. Analysis of these data together with multiple paleoceanographic proxies show that millennial-scale paleoenvironmental conditions correlate with the metabolism and diversity of bacteria and archaea over the last glacial-interglacial cycle in the Arabian Sea. The metabolic potential for bacterial denitrification correlates with climate-driven OMZ strength and concomitant nitrogen stable isotope fractionation, whereas catabolic potential reflects changing marine organic matter sources across the Last Glacial Maximum. These results indicate that the subsisting microbial communities had been stratified to a large extent by paleoceanographic conditions at the time of deposition. Paleoenvironmental conditions should thus be considered as a mechanism that can help explain microbiome stratigraphy in marine sediment.

  17. Tomographic Imaging of Upper Mantle P- and S-wave Velocity Heterogeneity Beneath the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula estimated from teleseismic travel time delay tomography. We have completed travel time measurements and inversion of a data set provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). We used 401 earthquakes resulting in 3416 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals for the P-wave tomography, and 1602 ray paths with S- and SKS-wave arrivals came from 201 earthquakes for the S-wave tomography. Although the total number of rays for the S-wave model is a half of the rays for the P-wave model, the event distribution shows better azimuthal coverage. The P and S wave models yield consistent results. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the mid-eastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield does not extend north of 21°N and dips to south. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. The origin of the low velocity region under the eastern edge of the Arabian Shield is uncertain.

  18. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath The Arabian Peninsula From body and Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data came from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). The P- and S wave models were inverted from 401 earthquakes resulting in 3416 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals, and 1602 ray paths with S- and SKS-wave arrivals came from 201 earthquakes, respectively. The P and S wave models yield consistent results. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the mid-eastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield does not extend north of 21°N and dips to south. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. Surface wave tomography is being performed using fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured across the SANDSN. Preliminary phase velocity maps will be provided and compared to the body wave tomographic results.

  19. Primary productivity and nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium spp. in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Sushma G.; Matondkar, S. G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Trichodesmium was studied with the purpose of understanding its distribution, organic production and nitrogen fixation in the Arabian Sea. Out of the 143 stations sampled, a total of 93 stations showed the presence of Trichodesmium filaments. Two species of Trichodesmium namely, T. thiebautii and T. erythraeum were found. These were distributed on the basis of the physico-chemical conditions of the Arabian Sea. This was the first time that we managed to detect and record the presence of Trichodesmium thiebautii bloom in the Arabian Sea at depths as deep as 60-70 m. Total counts of Trichodesmium varied between 0 and 400737 filamentsL- 1. T. thiebautii developed in offshore waters during the fall intermonsoon, when the water temperature was around 28 °C and nitrate content was as low as 0.34 μM. After the northeast monsoon, Trichodesmium erythraeum developed in the offshore area and then spread to coastal waters. Both species of Trichodesmium together produced a total of 0.263 TgCyear- 1 and fixed a total of 0.2976 TgNyear- 1 in the Arabian Sea. The study revealed that Trichodesmium was a major contributor to the organic matter productivity of the Arabian Sea during the period from November to April. The seasonality of the blooms of Trichodesmium is discussed with the help of Ocean Color Monitoring (OCM) data and biogeochemical implication of these findings in the Arabian Sea.

  20. Tectonic and deposition model of late Precambrian-Cambrian Arabian and adjoining plates

    SciTech Connect

    Husseini, M.I. )

    1989-09-01

    During the late Precambrian, the terranes of the Arabian and adjoining plates were fused along the northeastern flank of the African plate in Gondwanaland. This phase, which ended approximately 640 to 620 Ma, was followed by continental failure (620 to 580 Ma) and intracontinental extension (600 to approximately 550 Ma). During the Infracambrian extensional phase, a triple junction may have evolved near the Sinai Peninsula and may have consisted of the (1) Jordan Valley and Dead Sea rift branch, (2) Sinai and North Egypt rift branch, and (3) the Najd wrench-rift branch. The Najd, Hawasina, and Zagros fault systems may have been transverse faults that accompanied rifting in the Arabian Gulf and Zagros Mountains, southern Oman, Pakistan, and Kerman in central Iran. While the area was extending and subsiding, the Tethys Ocean flooded the eastern side of the Arabian plate and Iran and deposited calcareous clastics, carbonates, and evaporites (including the Hormuz and Ara halites). This transgression extended into the western part of the Arabian plate via the Najd rift system. The termination of the extensional phase during the late Early Cambrian was accompanied by a major regression and terrestrial conditions on the Arabian Peninsula. However, by the Early Ordovician, as sea level peaked to a highstand, the Arabian plate was blanketed with marginal marine sediments. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Tomographic Imaging of Upper Mantle P- and S-wave Velocity Heterogeneity Beneath the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2005-08-30

    We report the estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula estimated from travel time delay tomography. We have completed travel time measurements and inversion of a partial data set provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). This study builds on previous work by Benoit et al. (2003) following the methods of VanDecar and Crosson (1990) and VanDecar (1991). Data were collected from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by KACST. The network consists of 38 stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment. This study shows the inverted P- and S-wave models computed with the combined data with all three different seismic networks (KASCST, IRIS, and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL experiment) with best coverage beneath the Arabian Shield. Tomographic images reveal low velocity features in the upper mantle along a north-south line from the southern Asir region to the northeastern portion of the Arabian Shield.

  2. Body and Surface wave tomography for the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data for this study come from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the SANDSN data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). For the P-wave model 3416 ray paths from P- and PKP-waves and 1602 ray paths from S- and SKS-waves for the S-wave model were used. For the Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography, we included data from the Ethiopian Broadband Seismic Experiment and obtained the maximum 1606 rays with the best coverage between periods of 44 and 140 s. The body and surface wave models yield consistent results, although the surface wave tomography shows poor horizontal resolution. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the northeastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield is separated structure from the low velocity zone beneath the northeastern edge of the Arabian Shield and dips to the south in the body wave models. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. The origin of the low velocity anomaly beneath the northeastern part of the Shield is uncertain.

  3. Modelling the seasonality of subsurface light and primary production in the Arabian Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal changes in mixed-layer depth and phytoplankton biomass in the Arabian Sea are assessed with climatologies of ship-based hydrographic measurements and ocean-color observations from satellite.  At the close of the intermonsoons in November and especially May, the open Arabian Sea resembles the stereotypic, unperturbed tropical ocean, with a thin oligotrophic mixed layer and a pronounced subsurface chlorophyll maximum.  Both the northeast and southwest monsoons disrupt this typical tropical hydrography through mixed-layer deepening and eutrophication in the central and northern Arabian Sea.  Computations using a spectral model of light penetration suggest that seasonal changes in mixed-layer thickness and phytoplankton concentration result in pronounced fluctuations through the annual cycle in the radiant flux reaching the base of the mixed layer.  At the close of the fall and spring intermonsoons the base of the model euphotic zone is in the thermocline across all of the open Arabian Sea.  The euphotic zone appears to rise into the mixed layer of the northern Arabian Sea during both the winter and summer monsoons.  Strong seasonality in total primary production and its partitioning between the mixed layer and thermocline is predicted byb a photo-synthesis-irradiance model for a site in the western Arabian Sea (14.36° N, 57.38° E).  Modeled mixed-layer primary production depicts an intense peak for the southwest monsoon and a secondary northeast monsoon peak separated by intermonsoon period of low production.  During the fall and spring intermonsoons, in the presence of a subsurface clorophyll maximum, the model estimate of primary production in the thermocline exceeds that in the mixed layer.  Our model calculations suggest that the subsurface clorophyll maximum present in the Arabian Sea during the spring intermonsoon is a precursor of the regional, summer, phytoplankton bloom.

  4. 75 FR 2920 - In the Matter of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... al-Qa'ida Organization in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al-Qa'ida in Yemen (AQY), Also... Organization in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), also known as al-Qa'ida in Yemen (AQY), also known as...

  5. Quaternary coastal evolution of Oman (Arabian Peninsula) - a quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, G.; Rupprechter, M.; Roepert, A.; Quraishi, K. Al; Balushi, N. Al; Grützner, C.; Reicherter, K.

    2012-04-01

    The paper reviews the Quaternary coastal evolution of Oman. Emphasise is put on quantifying the different forcing factors. The plate tectonic setting, the Quaternary climate evolution, the sea-level history and the impact of natural hazards are identified as key factors of coastal evolution. The Arabian Plate is characterized by a northward movement forming a continent-continent collision zone in the west and the Makran Subduction Zone in the east. As a result differential land movement is observable in Oman. The Quaternary climate evolution is well understood. Besides other proxies notably spelothems and aeolian deposits allow to draw a consistent picture. It is understood that changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone result in intensity-changes of the summer monsoon. These changes are related to global atmospheric circulation patterns. Data on the sea-level history are sparse; despite general assumptions of a sea-level lowstand, correlating with the last glacial maximum, resulting in terrestrial conditions within the Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, a mid-Holocene sea level highstand in the range of +2m is documented in several locations. The coastlines of Oman are affected by tsunami and hurricanes. However, almost no instrumental or historical data on the impact of such natural hazards are available due to the isolation of the country in the past. Several Quaternary deposits have been investigated in a reconnaissance survey. There is sound geological evidence for a tsunami to have affected the coastline in 1945, with the possibility of older tsunami events being also recorded in the geological record. There is strong evidence of differential land movement along the coastline; locally indicated by marine terraces in elevations of up to 400m (Rupprechter at al. 2012). By quantifying the differential land movement for numerous sites, the sea-level history will be revealed. Ultimately the data will be utilized to form the base of a modeling approach

  6. Chromatographic metasomatism of the Arabian-Nubian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, R.; Navon, O.; Stein, M.

    1997-11-01

    Trace elements and isotopic ratios of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic dikes from the very last stage of the late Proterozoic, Pan-African orogeny in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), and alkali basalts from the overlying Phanerozoic section are used to constrain the composition and model the evolution of the lithospheric mantle in this region. The dikes and basalts are interpreted as lithospheric melts formed during the post-orogenic (and post-subduction) history of the shield. While the mafic member of all suites share a primitive La/Th ratio, the Nb/Th and Ce/Pb are distinct for each suite. The (Nb/Th)PM (primitive mantle normalized) is ~0.2 in the calc-alkaline dikes and 1.4 in the tholeiitic dikes and the Phanerozoic alkali basalts. The (Ce/Pb)PM ratios are low in the dikes (0.4 in the calc-alkaline and 0.3 in the tholeiitic) and high in the Phanerozoic basalts (2.8). We suggest that the variations in the trace element ratios reflect sampling of different zones in the lithospheric mantle, which were formed by subduction related metasomatism of the mantle wedge. We constructed a chromatographic model to explain this zonation. In this model a plume-derived oceanic lithosphere is subducted and dehydrates at depth. Fluids released from the dehydrating slab metasomatize the overlying wedge and form amphibole-rich channels. Nb is preferentially taken by the amphibole and is enriched only in the lower zones of the column. The other elements (U, Th, REE and especially Pb and Rb) behave incompatibly. They are enriched in the fluid and transported efficiently to the melting zone in the centre of the wedge. Dehydration of the base of the wedge as it descends below the amphibole stability field depletes this region in Pb and Rb. After the end of subduction, the wedge is fossilized and forms the lithospheric mantle. The zone above the Nb concentration front is sampled by the calc-alkaline magmas. The tholeiitic magmas sample the zone below the Nb front. The Phanerozoic

  7. A pedigree-based study of mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence variation among Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A T; Del Valle, A; Bowling, M

    2000-02-01

    Through DNA sequence comparisons of a mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable region, we investigated matrilineal diversity for Arabian horses in the United States. Sixty-two horses were tested. From published pedigrees they traced in the maternal line to 34 mares acquired primarily in the mid to late 19th century from nomadic Bedouin tribes. Compared with the reference sequence (GenBank X79547), these samples showed 27 haplotypes with altogether 31 base substitution sites within 397 bp of sequence. Based on examination of pedigrees from a random sampling of 200 horses in current studbooks of the Arabian Horse Registry of America, we estimated that this study defined the expected mtDNA haplotypes for at least 89% of Arabian horses registered in the US. The reliability of the studbook recorded maternal lineages of Arabian pedigrees was demonstrated by haplotype concordance among multiple samplings in 14 lines. Single base differences observed within two maternal lines were interpreted as representing alternative fixations of past heteroplasmy. The study also demonstrated the utility of mtDNA sequence studies to resolve historical maternity questions without access to biological material from the horses whose relationship was in question, provided that representatives of the relevant female lines were available for comparison. The data call into question the traditional assumption that Arabian horses of the same strain necessarily share a common maternal ancestry.

  8. Diversity and distribution of winter phytoplankton in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, Igor; Saburova, Maria; Al-Yamani, Faiza

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton (diversity, composition, and cell abundance) was described in relation to local environmental conditions across the Arabian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Sea of Oman based on data of ROPME cruise of winter 2006. The 376 phytoplankton taxa identified in these waters represented a diverse composition of species with a prevalence of dinoflagellates and diatoms. Three peaks in the phytoplankton abundance were recorded throughout the studied area associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms in the central and northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and in the Sea of Oman and the adjacent waters. The studied area was divided into three main regions by cluster analysis based on differences in the phytoplankton composition and concentration. The Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by highly abundant, strongly diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. The Arabian Gulf was divided into two main regions along a diagonal northwest-southeast axis, with rather diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage off the south and along the Iranian coast but with flagellate-dominated phytoplankton of the north and along the Arabian coast. The distance-based linear modeling revealed a significant relationship between the phytoplankton composition and water masses as indexed by salinity. Our results demonstrated that abundance and composition of winter phytoplankton were related to water circulation pattern in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman.

  9. Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols.

    PubMed

    Evan, Amato T; Kossin, James P; Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V

    2011-11-02

    Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological vertical wind shear. At the same time, anthropogenic emissions of aerosols have increased sixfold since the 1930s, leading to a weakening of the southwesterly lower-level and easterly upper-level winds that define the monsoonal circulation over the Arabian Sea. In principle, this aerosol-driven circulation modification could affect tropical cyclone intensity over the Arabian Sea, but so far no such linkage has been shown. Here we report an increase in the intensity of pre-monsoon Arabian Sea tropical cyclones during the period 1979-2010, and show that this change in storm strength is a consequence of a simultaneous upward trend in anthropogenic black carbon and sulphate emissions. We use a combination of observational, reanalysis and model data to demonstrate that the anomalous circulation, which is radiatively forced by these anthropogenic aerosols, reduces the basin-wide vertical wind shear, creating an environment more favourable for tropical cyclone intensification. Because most Arabian Sea tropical cyclones make landfall, our results suggest an additional impact on human health from regional air pollution.

  10. A model study of seasonal mixed-layer primary production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, John; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor

    1994-06-01

    We combined a surface irradiance model with a non-spectral photosynthesisirradiance model to estimate the daily, average rate of mixed-layer primary production in the Arabian Sea for the 15th day of months at the end of the northeast monsoon, the southwest monsoon, and the fall and spring inter-monsoons. Our model experiment uses climatologies of cloud cover, mixed-layer thickness, and satellite ocean-color observations of phytoplankton biomass. Modelled surface radiation is at an annual maximum in May beneath nearly cloud-free skies just prior to the summer solstice. The model estimate of surface radiation diminishes through the southwest monsoon over most of the northern Arabian Sea to an annual minimum in August due to intense cloudiness. In agreement with previous ship-based measurements, the photosynthesis-irradiance model predicts that the mixed-layer primary production in the Arabian Sea is extremely seasonal, and peaks annually during the southwest monsoon to the north-west of the atmospheric Findlater Jet and along the coast of Somalia. Northern Arabian Sea maxima predicted for both the summer and winter monsoons are separated by periods of low mixed-layer primary production, the fall and spring inter-monsoons. The annual cycles of modelled mixed-layer primary production differ by region in the Arabian Sea due to varying monsoon influence and circulation dynamics.

  11. Data Collection in the Arabian Peninsula for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; Al-Amri, A M S

    2003-07-11

    We report results from the second year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We have a temporary broadband seismic station operating near the IMS primary array site (PS38) in central Saudi Arabia. We recently installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). We are working with King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology to collect and analyze data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consist of 37 digital three-component stations (26 broadband and 11 short-period). We are collaborating with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to analyze data from their 8 station national seismic network. We participated in the Workshop on Reference Events odnear the Dead Sea Rift held in Paris, France in October 2002. In this paper we present results of these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of event locations and source parameters and inference of earth structure.

  12. Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous in Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1986-05-01

    The Cretaceous of the Arabian Peninsula is divided into three major units by regional unconformities: Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group (Berriasian-middle Aptian), middle Cretaceous Wasia Group (Albian-Turonian), and Upper Cretaceous Aruma Group (Coniacian-Maestrichtian). The profusion of named stratigraphic units in the area reflects not only the lithologic variation resulting from facies changes, but also terminologies adopted by different companies. The authors provide a stratigraphic nomenclature defining standard type sections and indicate synonymies, which follow the recommendation of 10th Geological Liaison Meeting and hence are acceptable to operators in the area. The sedimentologic history of the area was presented in a series of paleogeographic maps, which they relate to the regional tectonic framework. The maps show a predominantly carbonate shelf ramp bordering a land area to the north and west. The principal change in depositional environment occurs during the Upper Cretaceous, as a result of tectonic activity. Less significant changes are attributed to eustatic sea level fluctuations, on which tilting caused by tectonic movement may be superposed during the Lower and middle Cretaceous. The major producing horizons lie below the regional unconformities; secondary porosity in the shelf reefal buildups was developed during subaerial exposure in the Shuaiba Formation (early-middle Aptian), in the Mishrif Formation (late Cenomanian), and in the Simsima Formation (Maestrichtian).

  13. Infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shibl, A; Senok, A; Memish, Z

    2012-11-01

    Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiologically, differences in the patterns of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance exist across diverse geographical regions. In this review on infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, the epidemiology of tuberculosis, malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections will be addressed. The challenges of the hepatitis C epidemic in Egypt and the epidemiology of this infection across the region will be reviewed. In recent years, we have seen dengue endemicity become established, with major outbreaks in parts of the region. Emerging data also indicate that, across the region, there is an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance, with endemicity in healthcare settings and dissemination into the community. New challenges include the emergence of the Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus in Saudi Arabia. The annual Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia serves as a model for the control of infectious disease in mass gatherings. As most of these countries constantly experience a uniquely dynamic population influx in the form of expatriate workers, tourists, or pilgrims, concerted regional and international collaboration to address these public health concerns in a region that lies at the crossroads for the global spread of infectious pathogens is imperative.

  14. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    BY far the dominant variable parameter controlling the absorption cross-section for short-wavelength solar radiation incident on the ocean surface is the concentration of photosynthetic pigment contained in phytoplankton cells1,2. The abundance of phytoplankton depends on the intensity of incident radiation and on the supply of essential nutrients (nitrogen in particular). A higher abundance increases absorption of radiation and thus enhances the rate of heating at the ocean surface. In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer3,4 and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Using remotely sensed data on ocean colour, we show here that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. Thus we show that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  15. Response of the Arabian Sea to global warming and associated regional climate shift.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Prasanna; Roshin, Raj P; Narvekar, Jayu; Kumar, P K Dinesh; Vivekanandan, E

    2009-12-01

    The response of the Arabian Sea to global warming is the disruption in the natural decadal cycle in the sea surface temperature (SST) after 1995, followed by a secular warming. The Arabian Sea is experiencing a regional climate-shift after 1995, which is accompanied by a five fold increase in the occurrence of "most intense cyclones". Signatures of this climate-shift are also perceptible over the adjacent landmass of India as: (1) progressively warmer winters, and (2) decreased decadal monsoon rainfall. The warmer winters are associated with a 16-fold decrease in the decadal wheat production after 1995, while the decreased decadal rainfall was accompanied by a decline of vegetation cover and increased occurrence of heat spells. We propose that in addition to the oceanic thermal inertia, the upwelling-driven cooling provided a mechanism that offset the CO(2)-driven SST increase in the Arabian Sea until 1995.

  16. Inventory of released inorganic carbon from organic matter remineralization in the deeper Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupe, Axel; Thomas, Helmuth; Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Lendt, Ralf

    2001-12-01

    An attempt is made to quantify the biological carbon pump in Arabian Sea subsurface waters by estimating the total concentrations of remineralized dissolved inorganic carbon (DICrem) and its water column inventory. The influence of different sets of -ΔO2/ΔCorg ratios, which are either constant or variable with depth, on the estimate is assessed. Throughout the water column the horizontally mapped DICrem concentrations increase northward due to enlarged export fluxes of organic matter and subsequently enhanced remineralization processes as well as to the accumulation of remineralization products along the trajectory path of the water masses ventilating the Arabian Sea from the southern Indian Ocean. The choice of the remineralization ratios generates significant differences in the DICrem concentrations at specific depth horizons. The DICrem inventory of the Arabian Sea between 500 and 4500 m in the years 1995-1997 amounts to ˜39-44 Gt C depending on the applied remineralization ratios.

  17. Allelic polymorphism in arabian camel ribonuclease and the amino acid sequence of bactrian camel ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Welling, G W; Mulder, H; Beintema, J J

    1976-04-01

    Pancreatic ribonucleases from several species (whitetail deer, roe deer, guinea pig, and arabian camel) exhibit more than one amino acid at particular positions in their amino acid sequences. Since these enzymes were isolated from pooled pancreas, the origin of this heterogeneity is not clear. The pancreatic ribonucleases from 11 individual arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) have been investigated with respect to the lysine-glutamine heterogeneity at position 103 (Welling et al., 1975). Six ribonucleases showed only one basic band and five showed two bands after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting a gene frequency of about 0.75 for the Lys gene and about 0.25 for the Gln gene. The amino acid sequence of bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) ribonuclease isolated from individual pancreatic tissue was determined and compared with that of arabian camel ribonuclease. The only difference was observed at position 103. In the ribonucleases from two unrelated bactrian camels, only glutamine was observed at that position. PMID:962846

  18. Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Ward, B B; Devol, A H; Rich, J J; Chang, B X; Bulow, S E; Naik, Hema; Pratihary, Anil; Jayakumar, A

    2009-09-01

    Primary production in over half of the world's oceans is limited by fixed nitrogen availability. The main loss term from the fixed nitrogen inventory is the production of dinitrogen gas (N(2)) by heterotrophic denitrification or the more recently discovered autotrophic process, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are responsible for about 35% of oceanic N(2) production and up to half of that occurs in the Arabian Sea. Although denitrification was long thought to be the only loss term, it has recently been argued that anammox alone is responsible for fixed nitrogen loss in the OMZs. Here we measure denitrification and anammox rates and quantify the abundance of denitrifying and anammox bacteria in the OMZ regions of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and the Arabian Sea. We find that denitrification rather than anammox dominates the N(2) loss term in the Arabian Sea, the largest and most intense OMZ in the world ocean. In seven of eight experiments in the Arabian Sea denitrification is responsible for 87-99% of the total N(2) production. The dominance of denitrification is reproducible using two independent isotope incubation methods. In contrast, anammox is dominant in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific OMZ, as detected using one of the isotope incubation methods, as previously reported. The abundance of denitrifying bacteria always exceeded that of anammox bacteria by up to 7- and 19-fold in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and Arabian Sea, respectively. Geographic and temporal variability in carbon supply may be responsible for the different contributions of denitrification and anammox in these two OMZs. The large contribution of denitrification to N(2) loss in the Arabian Sea indicates the global significance of denitrification to the oceanic nitrogen budget. PMID:19727197

  19. Eastward shift and maintenance of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Understanding the paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2016-09-01

    The dominance of Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea (ASOMZ) instead of the more bio-productive and likely more oxygen consuming western part is the first part of the paradox. The sources of oxygen to the ASOMZ were evaluated through the distributions of different water masses using the extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis, whereas the sinks of oxygen were evaluated through the organic matter remineralization, using the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU). The contributions of major source waters to the Arabian Sea viz. Indian Deep water (dIDW), Indian Central water (ICW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and Red Sea Water (RSW) have been quantified through the eOMP analysis which shows that the PGW and RSW are significant for the eastward shift of ASOMZ instead of voluminous ICW and dIDW. The distribution of Net Primary Production (NPP) and AOU clearly suggest the transport of organic detritus from the highly productive western Arabian Sea to its eastern counterpart which adds to the eastward shifting of ASOMZ. A revised estimate of the seasonal variation of areal extent and volume occupied by ASOMZ through analysis of latest available data reveals a distinct intensification of ASOMZ by 30% and increase in its volume by 5% during the spring-summer transition. However, during this seasonal transition the productivity in the Arabian Sea shows 100% increase in mean NPP. This disparity between ASOMZ and monsoonal variation of productivity is the other part of the paradox, which has been constrained through apparent oxygen utilization, Net Primary Production along with a variation of core depths of source waters. This study reveals a subtle balance between the circulation of marginal oxygen-rich water masses from the western Arabian Sea and organic matter remineralization in the eastern Arabian Sea in different seasons that explains the maintenance of ASOMZ throughout the year.

  20. Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Ward, B B; Devol, A H; Rich, J J; Chang, B X; Bulow, S E; Naik, Hema; Pratihary, Anil; Jayakumar, A

    2009-09-01

    Primary production in over half of the world's oceans is limited by fixed nitrogen availability. The main loss term from the fixed nitrogen inventory is the production of dinitrogen gas (N(2)) by heterotrophic denitrification or the more recently discovered autotrophic process, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are responsible for about 35% of oceanic N(2) production and up to half of that occurs in the Arabian Sea. Although denitrification was long thought to be the only loss term, it has recently been argued that anammox alone is responsible for fixed nitrogen loss in the OMZs. Here we measure denitrification and anammox rates and quantify the abundance of denitrifying and anammox bacteria in the OMZ regions of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and the Arabian Sea. We find that denitrification rather than anammox dominates the N(2) loss term in the Arabian Sea, the largest and most intense OMZ in the world ocean. In seven of eight experiments in the Arabian Sea denitrification is responsible for 87-99% of the total N(2) production. The dominance of denitrification is reproducible using two independent isotope incubation methods. In contrast, anammox is dominant in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific OMZ, as detected using one of the isotope incubation methods, as previously reported. The abundance of denitrifying bacteria always exceeded that of anammox bacteria by up to 7- and 19-fold in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and Arabian Sea, respectively. Geographic and temporal variability in carbon supply may be responsible for the different contributions of denitrification and anammox in these two OMZs. The large contribution of denitrification to N(2) loss in the Arabian Sea indicates the global significance of denitrification to the oceanic nitrogen budget.

  1. Current Arabian Plate Motion From Campaign GPS Measurements in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.

    2007-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.

  2. Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  4. Nematode abundance at the oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Adam A.; Lambshead, P. John D.; Hawkins, Lawrence E.; Mitchell, Nicola; Levin, Lisa A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper supports the hypothesis that low oxygen does not influence deep-sea nematode abundance by investigating an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Oman slope in the Arabian Sea. Correlation with a number of environmental variables indicated that food quality (measured as the hydrogen index) rather than oxygen was the major predictor of nematode abundance. Nematode abundance was also positively correlated with abundance of total macrofauna, annelids, spionid polychaetes and macrofaunal tube builders. Comparison with published data showed Arabian Sea nematode abundance to be similar to that of the Porcupine Seabight and Bay of Biscay regions of the northeast Atlantic, which also receive significant quantities of phytodetritus but have no OMZ.

  5. Warming of the Eurasian landmass is making the Arabian Sea more productive.

    PubMed

    Goes, Joaquim I; Thoppil, Prasad G; Gomes, Helga do R; Fasullo, John T

    2005-04-22

    The recent trend of declining winter and spring snow cover over Eurasia is causing a land-ocean thermal gradient that is particularly favorable to stronger southwest (summer) monsoon winds. Since 1997, sea surface winds have been strengthening over the western Arabian Sea. This escalation in the intensity of summer monsoon winds, accompanied by enhanced upwelling and an increase of more than 350% in average summertime phytoplankton biomass along the coast and over 300% offshore, raises the possibility that the current warming trend of the Eurasian landmass is making the Arabian Sea more productive.

  6. Past, present, and future changes in marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, Katharina; Segschneider, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The work presented here aims at a better understanding of the Asian Monsoon system including the marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea. Changes in the past as recorded in marine sediments, as simulated over the past 1000 years, and under forcing by anthropogenic CO2 emissions by numerical model simulations are investigated. The investigation is based on three columns: a sediment core taken in the Arabian Sea (core SO130-275KL taken off Pakistan), a pre-industrial model run from 850 - 1850 with the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) including the marine and terrestrial carbon cycle and forced by solar variations and volcanic eruptions, and a continuation of this simulation to 2005 under the historical anthropogenic CO2 forcing which allows a comparison with present day climatology. In a first step we compare model results for a set of biogeochemical tracers within the water column and the sediment mixed with observations in the Arabian Sea. We further analyse correlations between Monsoon forcing (represented by zonal wind speed at 850 hPA, short wave radiation, Indian summer precipitation) and biogeochemical parameters, with particular focus on denitrification rates and fluxes to the sediment. This analysis is focused on three regions: off Somalia and off Oman for the summer monsoon, and the central Arabian Sea for the winter monsoon. For the summer monsoon, the highest correlation is found between zonal wind speed and calcite flux to the sediment off Somalia, for the winter monsoon the correlation is highest for short wave radiation in the central Arabian Sea. Time series of mixed layer depth and integrated primary production within the upper 100 m of the ocean from a CMIP5 historical experiment (1850-2005) show, at the location of the sediment core SO130-275KL, little correlation during the summer monsoon, but good correlation during the winter monsoon. As a result, the sediment core is more likely to document winter monsoon conditions

  7. Genetic influence on circulating vitamin D among Saudi Arabians

    PubMed Central

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Turki, Haifa A.; Azam, Mohammed Q.; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effect of most common studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in Saudi Arabian population. Method A cross-sectional observational study was carried out between July 2014 and October 2015, at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. After informed consent, blood samples from 283 subjects living in the Eastern province were collected for 25-OHD measurement and genetic analysis of SNPs in vitamin D receptor (VDR) [rs2228570 and rs1544410], Cytochrome, P450 family 2 (CYP2R1) [rs10741657 and rs1993116], and Group-specific components (GC) [rs2282679 and rs4588]. Results Vitamin D deficiency was found in 87.6% and insufficiency in 7.7%. The percentages of the different alleles of the 6 SNPs tested ranged between 0-62.5%. There was significant difference between the AA, AG, and GG alleles of VDR rs2228570. The carries of GG allele was associated with increased risks of vitamin D insufficiency (p<0.002) and deficiency (p≤0.005). The CYP2R1 rs10741657 gene showed that AG and GG allele carriers had significant risk of vitamin D deficiency. AG allele (normal versus Insufficiency p<0.02 and normal versus deficiency p<0.08) and GG allele normal versus deficiency (p<0.002) and insufficiency versus deficiency (p<0.001). For group-specific components (GC rs4588), there was only significant difference between the normal and deficiency for the AC allele (p<0.0001). Conclusion The presence of GG allele of the SNP rs2228570 of VDR gene, SNPs rs4588 of GC gene and CYP2R1 rs10741657 gene was associated with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:27570856

  8. Characteristics of convective boundary layer over the Arabian sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Parasnis, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) over the oceanic regions plays an important role in regulating the transport of energy and moisture upward into the atmosphere from the surface. CBL structure over the Arabian sea region has been explored using the aerological soundings at two ships viz. SHIRSHOV (12.5{degrees}N, 68{degrees}E ) and OKEAN (14.5{degrees} N, 66{degrees} E) during MONSOON-77. Conserved variable analysis of the mean data sets obtained during the period of 29 June - 16 July, 1977 revealed salient features of the CBL over these regions. The vertical gradients of saturation point parameters viz. virtual potential temperature ({Theta}{sub v}), equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub e}), saturated equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub es}), saturation pressure deficit (P*) and the mixing ratio (q) were used to characterize the different sublayers such as subcloud layer, cloud layer and inversion/stable layer. The mean cloud base was around 950 hPa and the subcloud layer has nearly constant {Theta}{sub v}. The moist layer was associated with unstable {Theta}{sub es} with nearly constant value of P* ({approximately} -40 hPa). This cloud layer was capped by the stable (over OKEAN). The {Theta}{sub e} minimum over OKEAN was observed at 650 hPa (50 hPa above the CBL top) indicating that at some time the convection had reached deeper levels. The {Theta}{sub e} -q diagrams showed a characteristic mixing line up through the cloud and stable layer to the top of CBL. The low level stability analysis using the {Theta}{sub e} and {Theta}{sub es} profiles indicated conditions favorable for shallow convection over OKEAN and for deep convection over SHIRSHOV. The above characteristic features could be attributed to the prevailing weather conditions at OKEAN and SHIRSHOV. The results are discussed.

  9. Earliest Phanerozoic or latest Proterozoic fossils from the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Awramik, S.M.; Morrison, K.; Hadley, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    We report here the first biologically definable fossils from pre-Saq (pre-Middle Cambrian) rocks of the Arabian Shield. They include the distinctive helically coiled tubular filaments of the oscillatorialean blue-green alga Obruchevella parva as well as two size classes of spheroidal unicells of uncertain affinity. Also present is the conical stromatolite Conophyton and unidentified stromatolites. All occur in cherty limestones of the Jubaylah Group, northern Saudi Arabia, a nonmarine to locally marine taphrogeosynclinal sequence that fills depressions along the northwest-trending Najd faults. Conophyton has heretofore been found only in strata older than about 680 Ma (except for puzzling records in modern hot springs) while Obruchevella is so far known only from rocks between about 680 and 470 Ma old. Thus it appears that the Jubaylah Group is close to the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition. The simple spheroidal nanno-fossils are not diagnostic as to age. Their relationships within what appears to be early diagenetic chert suggest a classical algal-mat association. The brecciated and microchanneled appearance of much of the fossiliferous rock, its locally dolomitic nature, and the prevalence of cryptalgalaminate favors a very shallow, locally turbulent, and perhaps episodically exposed marine or marginal marine setting. The Jubaylah Group lies unconformably beneath the Siq Sandstone (basal member of the Saq Sandstone) of medial Cambrian age, rests nonconformably on crystalline basement, and has yielded a K-Ar whole-rock age (on andesitic basalt) of ???540 Ma. To judge from the fossils, however, that age may be as much as 100 Ma or more too young. ?? 1979.

  10. Ammonia oxidation rates and nitrification in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Silvia E.; Babbin, Andrew R.; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrification rates, as well as the relationships between rates and ammonia oxidizer abundance (both archaeal and bacterial), were investigated in the Arabian Sea. Ammonia oxidation rates were measured directly using 15N-NH4+stable isotope additions in gas-impermeable, trace metal clean trilaminate bags (500 mL) at in situ temperature. Tracer incubations were performed at three stations at depths above, below, and within the oxycline of the open-ocean oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Ammonia oxidation rates were similar to previous open-ocean measurements, ranging from undetectable to 21.6 ± 0.1 nmol L-1 d-1. The highest rates at each station occurred at the primary nitrite maximum (above the OMZ), and rates were very low at depths greater than 900 m. The abundances of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were estimated using theamoA gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Both AOA and AOB amoA were detected above, within, and below the OMZ, although the AOA were always more abundant than the AOB, by a factor of 35-216. Nitrification rates were not directly correlated to AOA or AOB amoA abundance. These rates offer new insight into the role of nitrification in the mesopelagic zone. The abundance of AOA amoA genes at 1000 m suggests that ˜50% of the microbial biomass could be autotrophic. Additionally, the integrated nitrification rate at depth implies that nitrification could consume most of the ammonium produced by the flux of organic carbon in the mesopelagic zone.

  11. Deposition Rates and Characterization of Arabian Mineral Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne mineral dust directly and indirectly impacts on global climate, continental and marine biochemistry, human and animal health, agriculture, equipment, and visibility. Annual global dust emissions are poorly known with estimates differing by a factor of at least two. Local dust emission and deposition rates are even less quantified. Dust deposition rate is a key parameter, which helps to constrain the modeled dust budget of the atmosphere. However, dust deposition remains poorly known, due to the limited number of reliable measurements. Simulations and satellite observations suggest that coastal dusts contribute substantially to the total deposition flux into the Red Sea. Starting December 2014, deposition samplers, both the "frisbee" type, and passive samplers for individual particle scanning electron microscopy were deployed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), along the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. Sampling periods of one month were adopted. The deposition rates range from 3 g m-2 month-1 for fair weather conditions to 23 g m-2 month-1 for high dust events. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of deposited dust samples show mineralogical compositions different from any of the parent soils, the former consisting mainly of gypsum, calcite, and smaller amounts of albite, montmorillonite, chlorite, quartz and biotite. The deposited dust samples on the other hand contain more gypsum and less quartz than the previously collected soil samples. This presentation discusses the results from XRD, chemical analysis and SEM-based individual particle analysis of the soils and the deposited dust samples. The monthly dust accumulation rates and their seasonal and spatial variability are compared with the regional model predictions. Data from this study provide an observational basis for validating the regional dust mass balance along the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain.

  12. Aerosol Optical Depth over Arabian Peninsula: a Validation of ECHAM5-HAM against Ground-Based and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawad, Faisal Al; Mamdouh, Khoder; Almazroui, Mansour; Alghamdi, Mansour

    2016-04-01

    This research validates aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the global climate - aerosol model (ECHAM5-HAM) for the period 2005 - 2011 over Arabian Peninsula. The ECHAM5-HAM AOD is evaluated at mid visible wavelength (550 nm) against AOD observation at three AERONET ground-base stations, and against satellite AOD measurements carried out by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Average AOD monthly data for the period 2005 - 2011 is extracted from the model ECHAM5-HAM and compared to three AERONET stations located over Arabian Peninsula representing western (Hada Al-Sham), central (Solar Village) and eastern (Kuwait) regions. In addition, semillar comparison to MODIS AOD were carried out over all and over six sub-regions of Arabian Peninsula. The model overestimates the Angstrom Exponent by 0.69 and underestimate AOD by -0.15, but the model AOD is in a good correlation with observation (0.66) over Arabian Peninsula. This makes the model capable of predicting successfully the aerosol annual cycle over Arabian Peninsula. The ECHAM5-HAM model overestimates the Angstom Exponent and underestimates AOD over Arabian Peninsula, but it correlates well with observation. This implys that the model can be improved for regions dominated by dust, and can be effective in studying the various aspects of aerosol interactions in the atmosphere including investigating the direct and indirect enfluence of aerosols on the climate of Arabian Peninsula.

  13. Local population structure in Arabian Peninsula revealed by Y-STR diversity.

    PubMed

    Alshamali, Farida; Pereira, Luísa; Budowle, Bruce; Poloni, Estella S; Currat, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies have been underway on Arabian Peninsula populations because of their pivotal geographic location for population migration and times of occurrence. To assist in better understanding population dynamics in this region, evidence is presented herein on local population structure in the Arabian Peninsula, based on Y-STR characterisation in four Arabian samples and its comparison in a broad geographical scale. Our results demonstrate that geography played an important role in shaping the genetic structure of the region around the Near-East. Populations are grouped regionally but none of these groups is significantly differentiated from others and all groups merge in the Near-East, in keeping with this important migration corridor for the human species. Focusing on the Arabian Peninsula, we show that Dubai and Oman share genetic affinities with other Near-Eastern populations, while Saudi Arabia and Yemen show a relative distinctive isolated background. Those two populations may have been kept relatively separated from migration routes, maybe due to their location in a desert area.

  14. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction.

  15. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia.

  16. Biological data from a data-deficient shark: the Arabian smoothhound Mustelus mosis (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae).

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M; Henderson, A C; Farrell, E D; Weekes, L B

    2016-06-01

    The present study provides information on length distribution, reproductive biology and diet of Mustelus mosis based on individuals caught in waters off the eastern Arabian Peninsula. Although ageing of vertebral centra was attempted, band pairs were of low clarity and counts could not be confidently assigned.

  17. The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus, a new Indo-Pacific species in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Dalyan, C; Eryilmaz, L

    2009-05-01

    The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea (Iskenderun Bay, Turkey). The presence of this Indo-Pacific fish in the Mediterranean Sea is probably because of migration from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.

  18. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sabbah, Ismail; Sorribas, Mar; Adame, José Antonio; Cuevas, Emilio; Sharifi, Faisal Al; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR) values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean), frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula) as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr) is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  19. Bilateral occurrence of granulosa-theca cell tumors in an Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Frederico, Lisa M; Gerard, Mathew P; Pinto, Carlos R F; Gradil, Carlos M

    2007-05-01

    An Arabian mare was referred for right granulosa-theca cell tumor (GTCT) evaluation. The mare was presented 4.5 years later for a left GTCT, after successfully conceiving and delivering a normal foal in the interim. The concurrent or nonconcurrent occurrence of bilateral GTCT in mares appears to be rare. PMID:17542368

  20. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  1. Estimation of Phytoplankton Responses to Hurricane Gonu over the Arabian Sea Based on Ocean Color Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxiao; Zhao, Hui

    2008-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated phytoplankton variations in the Arabian Sea associated with Hurricane Gonu using remote-sensing data of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST) and winds. Additional data sets used for the study included the hurricane and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data. Hurricane Gonu, presenting extremely powerful wind intensity, originated over the central Arabian Sea (near 67.7°E, 15.1°N) on June 2, 2007; it traveled along a northwestward direction and made landfall in Iran around June 7. Before Hurricane Gonu, Chl-a data indicated relatively low phytoplankton biomass (0.05-0.2 mg m-3), along with generally high SST (>28.5 °C) and weak wind (<10 m s-1) in the Arabian Sea. Shortly after Gonu's passage, two phytoplankton blooms were observed northeast of Oman (Chl-a of 3.5 mg m-3) and in the eastern central Arabian Sea (Chl-a of 0.4 mg m-3), with up to 10-fold increase in surface Chl-a concentrations, respectively. The Chl-a in the two post-hurricane blooms were 46% and 42% larger than those in June of other years, respectively. The two blooms may be attributed to the storm-induced nutrient uptake, since hurricane can influence intensively both dynamical and biological processes through vertical mixing and Ekman Pumping.

  2. Biological data from a data-deficient shark: the Arabian smoothhound Mustelus mosis (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae).

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M; Henderson, A C; Farrell, E D; Weekes, L B

    2016-06-01

    The present study provides information on length distribution, reproductive biology and diet of Mustelus mosis based on individuals caught in waters off the eastern Arabian Peninsula. Although ageing of vertebral centra was attempted, band pairs were of low clarity and counts could not be confidently assigned. PMID:27245625

  3. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia. PMID:22827627

  4. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

  5. Molecular Assay and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus among Infected Egyptian and Saudi Arabian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed MS; Sofy, Ahmed R; Mousa, Adel A; Ahmed, Mohamed A; Alganzory, Mohamed R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a common cause of liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotyping among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients using different molecular techniques. HCV RNA viral load was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. For HCV genotyping, RT-PCR hybridization fluorescence-based method and reverse hybridization line probe assay (INNO-LiPA) were used. A total of 40 anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic hepatitis C were examined for HCV RNA, genotyping, and different laboratory investigations. In the present study, HCV genotypes 4, mixed 4.1b, and 1 were detected in patients of both countries, while genotype 2 was only detected in Saudi Arabian patients. Genotyping methods for HCV showed no difference in the classification at the genotype level. With regard to HCV subtypes, INNO-LiPA assay was a reliable test in HCV genotyping for the detection of major genotypes and subtypes, while RT-PCR-based assay was a good test at the genotype level only. HCV genotype 4 was found to be the predominant genotype among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. In conclusion, data analysis for detecting and genotyping HCV was an important factor for understanding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of HCV among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. PMID:26512201

  6. Detection and monitoring of super sandstorm and its impacts on Arabian Sea-Remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunte, Pravin D.; M. A., Aswini

    2015-06-01

    The present study addresses an intense sandstorm event over the Persian Gulf and its transport over the Arabian Sea region and the Indian sub-continent using satellite observations and measurements. MODIS data are used to analyze the temporal variation of the dust events that occurred from 17 to 24 March 2012 with the strongest intensity on 20 March over the Arabian Sea. MODIS images are examined to provide an independent assessment of dust presence and plume location and its migration over the Arabian Sea to the Indian sub-continent. Dust enhancement and dust detection procedure is attempted to demarcate the dust event. Dust source, formation, transportation path, and dissipation is studied using source-back-tracking, surface wind, and surface pressure, wind speed and direction, geo-potential height for different pressure level, and remote sensing methods. Finally, an attempt is made to investigate the impact of super sandstorm on the Arabian Sea by studying sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a variability during the events. It is noted that sea surface temperature is decreased and chlorophyll a concentration increased during the post-event period. The present study demonstrates the use of remote sensing data and geospatial techniques in detecting and mapping of dust events and monitoring dust transport along specific regional transport pathways over land and ocean.

  7. Selective brain cooling in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): a physiological mechanism for coping with aridity?

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Strauss, W Maartin; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea; Shobrak, Mohammed; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-11-15

    Selective brain cooling is a thermoregulatory effector proposed to conserve body water and, as such, may help artiodactyls cope with aridity. We measured brain and carotid blood temperature, using implanted data loggers, in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the desert of Saudi Arabia. On average, brain temperature was 0.24±0.05°C lower than carotid blood temperature for four oryx in April. Selective brain cooling was enhanced in our Arabian oryx compared with another species from the same genus (gemsbok Oryx gazella gazella) exposed to similar ambient temperatures but less aridity. Arabian oryx displayed a lower threshold (37.8±0.1°C vs 39.8±0.4°C), a higher frequency (87±6% vs 15±15%) and a higher maximum magnitude (1.2±0.2°C vs 0.5±0.3°C) of selective brain cooling than did gemsbok. The dominant male oryx displayed less selective brain cooling than did any of the other oryx, but selective brain cooling was enhanced in this oryx as conditions became hotter and drier. Enhanced selective brain cooling in Arabian oryx supports the hypothesis that selective brain cooling would bestow survival advantages for artiodactyl species inhabiting hot hyper-arid environments. PMID:22899527

  8. Tectonic controls on the stratigraphic architecture and hydrocarbons systems of the Arabian Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowski, G.J. Jr.; Norton, I.O.

    1995-12-31

    Arabian Platform sediments consist of major sequences separated by tectonically controlled unconformities. These tectonic events, at the plate margins, controlled the orientation and distribution of sedimentary facies on the stable platform. Eustacy and subsidence were the principle controls on the actual facies that formed.

  9. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  10. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  11. Relationship between Curie isotherm surface and Moho discontinuity in the Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman M.; Saud, Ramzi

    2016-10-01

    The Arabian shield is a Precambrian complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks located approximately one-third of the way across the western Arabian Peninsula, with uncommon exposures along the Red Sea coast. We used aeromagnetic data acquired by others over the past several decades to estimate the depth to the Curie temperature isotherm throughout this region. Our goal was to further understand the lithospheric structure, thermal activity, and seismicity to assist in geothermal exploration. We also compared the Curie temperature isotherm with the crustal thickness to investigate the possibility that mantle rocks are magnetic in some parts of the Arabian shield. Depths to the Curie isotherm were estimated by dividing the regional aeromagnetic grid into 26 overlapping windows. Each window was then used to estimate the shape of the power spectrum. The windows had dimensions of 250 × 250 km to allow investigation of depths as deep as 50 km. The results show the presence of a Curie isotherm at a depth of 10-20 km near the Red Sea, increasing to 35-45 km in the interior of the Arabian shield. The Curie isotherm generally lies above the Moho in this region but deepens into the mantle in some locations, notably beneath the Asir Terrane.

  12. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  13. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  14. Recent observed climate change over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsarmi, Said; Washington, Richard

    2011-06-01

    We have examined trends in temperature and precipitation parameters for the Arabian Peninsula (AP) during the last 2 to 3 decades. The data set has been carefully quality controlled and checked for homogeneity. Although of low density (21 stations) and relatively short time period, a clear picture of climate change in the region has emerged. The general pattern of the AP mean annual temperature trend is one of warming, with 14 of 21 stations show statistically significant warming at 0.05 level and most at 0.001 level and only one (Seeb) showing statistically significant cooling. The highest statistically significant mean annual warming trends are found in Oman (Sur = 1.03°C decade-1) and Emirates (Dubai = 0.81°C decade-1). The season of maximum warming in mean temperature is March to April. The highest monthly mean temperature trend in the AP occurs in Sur in May (1.47°C decade-1). There is a broad statistically significant increase in mean annual maximum temperature in AP in 12 out of 21 stations, with the highest trends in central and eastern/southeastern AP. Only SW AP and the Gulf of Oman do not show warming. The highest monthly maximum temperature trend in the AP occurs in Bahrain in March (2.27°C decade-1). The second highest significant warming trends are reported in Doha in February (1.54°C decade-1). For minimum temperature, 16 out of 21 stations show statistically significant warming trends, with the highest annual trends observed in the Emirates (Dubai = 1.24°C decade-1), northwest Oman (Sohar = 1.17°C decade-1) and Qatar (Doha = 1.13°C decade-1). The highest monthly minimum temperature warming rate occurred in October. Both Dubai and Kuwait reported the highest significant rate of 2.00°C decade-1. The general mean annual diurnal temperature range trend is negative in the AP, with six out of 21 stations show statistically significant negative trends while three stations show statistically significant positive trends. Trends in mean annual

  15. Assessment of the Climate Vulnerabilities of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, T.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula (AP), like many places around the world, is apparently witnessing the impacts (amount, patterns, and frequency of precipitation) of global warming. Precipitation over the AP is largely controlled by two main wind regimes, the winter (October to March) northerlies or northwesterlies, hereafter referred to as westerlies, and the summer (April to September) monsoonal wind regimes. The global monthly Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data (spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal resolution: monthly; operational period: January 1979 to November 2011) was used to investigate the nature and magnitude of precipitation variations over the AP throughout 1979 - 2010. Trends in CMAP-derived precipitation patterns were examined over the winter and summer seasons throughout Periods I (1979-1995) and II (1996-2010). Reversals in precipitation patterns were observed in Periods I and II, where areas witnessing an increase in precipitation in Period I showed a decrease in precipitation throughout Period II, and vice versa for the remaining areas. Our findings suggest: (1) an increase in precipitation during Period I over the southeastern and southwestern coastal areas of AP (e.g., Muscat, Sanaa, and Jeddah) that is probably related to the intensification of the monsoons at the expense of the westerlies, (2) an increase in precipitation during Period II over the northwestern and southeastern of AP (e.g., northwestern Saudi Arabia, Empty Quarter, western and southwestern Oman, and eastern Yemen) is here attributed to intensification of the westerlies, and 3) the general similarity of annual trend patterns to the summer trend (Period I) and to winter trend (Period II) suggest that the annual trends are largely controlled by monsoonal wind regimes in Period I and by the westerlies in Period II. Outputs (i.e., precipitation) of climatic models (CCSM4.0) over the AP are being extracted (for upcoming 100 years) , downscaled

  16. Clinical, histopathological and metabolic responses following exercise in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Payton, M E; Valberg, S J

    2016-10-01

    A previous report suggests a substantial incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses performing endurance racing. This study compared formalin histopathology and clinical and metabolic responses to a standardised field exercise test (SET) between Arabians with and without ER. Arabian horses with (n = 10; age 15.4 ± 5.6 years) and without (n = 9; 12.9 ± 6.1 years) prior ER were stall-rested for 24-48 h, after which paired ER and control horses were fitted with a telemetric ECG and performed a 47 min submaximal SET. Plasma glucose, lactate, electrolyte and total protein concentrations and packed cell volume were measured before and immediately after exercise. Blood and percutaneous gluteal muscle samples were also obtained before and 3 h after exercise for measurement of plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle glycogen concentration, respectively. Histopathologic analysis of formalin-fixed pre-exercise muscle sections was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and non-parametric tests (P <0.05). No horses displayed clinical signs of ER during exercise, and plasma CK increased similarly in ER and control Arabians. Muscle glycogen, heart rate, and remaining plasma variables did not differ between horses with ER and control horses. Horses with ER had more internalised nuclei in mature myofibers, more aggregates of cytoplasmic glycogen and desmin, and higher myopathic scores than control horses. Although many horses with ER had histopathologic evidence of chronic myopathy, muscle glycogen concentrations and metabolic exercise responses were normal. Results did not support a consistent metabolic myopathy or a glycogen storage disorder in Arabians with ER. PMID:27687952

  17. Clinical, histopathological and metabolic responses following exercise in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Payton, M E; Valberg, S J

    2016-10-01

    A previous report suggests a substantial incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses performing endurance racing. This study compared formalin histopathology and clinical and metabolic responses to a standardised field exercise test (SET) between Arabians with and without ER. Arabian horses with (n = 10; age 15.4 ± 5.6 years) and without (n = 9; 12.9 ± 6.1 years) prior ER were stall-rested for 24-48 h, after which paired ER and control horses were fitted with a telemetric ECG and performed a 47 min submaximal SET. Plasma glucose, lactate, electrolyte and total protein concentrations and packed cell volume were measured before and immediately after exercise. Blood and percutaneous gluteal muscle samples were also obtained before and 3 h after exercise for measurement of plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle glycogen concentration, respectively. Histopathologic analysis of formalin-fixed pre-exercise muscle sections was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and non-parametric tests (P <0.05). No horses displayed clinical signs of ER during exercise, and plasma CK increased similarly in ER and control Arabians. Muscle glycogen, heart rate, and remaining plasma variables did not differ between horses with ER and control horses. Horses with ER had more internalised nuclei in mature myofibers, more aggregates of cytoplasmic glycogen and desmin, and higher myopathic scores than control horses. Although many horses with ER had histopathologic evidence of chronic myopathy, muscle glycogen concentrations and metabolic exercise responses were normal. Results did not support a consistent metabolic myopathy or a glycogen storage disorder in Arabians with ER.

  18. Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Frost, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    New Nd, Sr and O isotopic data for granitoid rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield are presented together with published Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotopic data and all available geologic and geochronologic information to re-evaluate the terranes defined for the Saudi Arabian part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Three groups of terranes are identified: 1) the western arc terranes, 2) the eastern arc terranes, and 3) the Khida terrane. The Khida terrane is the only terrane composed of pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust. The western arc terranes are of oceanic arc affinity, and have the least radiogenic Pb and Sr and most radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and some of the lowest ??18O values of any rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield. Although some previous studies have characterized the eastern arc terranes as of continental affinity, this study shows that they too are composed of Neoproterozoic oceanic arcs, although their sources have slightly elevated 208Pb/204Pb, Nd, Sri, and ??18O values compared to the western arc terranes. These data suggest that either the isotopic composition of the mantle source for the western arc terranes is more depleted than that of the eastern arc terranes or the eastern arc terranes have been mixed with a small amount of cratonic source material, or both. We further elaborate on the Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah fault zone as a major boundary within the Saudi Arabian portion of the East African Orogen. With further study, its northern extension may be shown to pass through what has been defined as the Hail terrane, and its southern extension appears to lie under cover east of the Tathlith-Malahah terrane and extend into Yemen. It may represent the collision zone between East and West Gondwana, and at the very least it is an important suture between groups of arc terranes of contrasting isotopic composition caught between two converging continents.

  19. Isostatic Model and Isostatic Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-04-01

    The isostatic modeling represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction, it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Although there exist several isostatic compensation schemes, it is usually supposed that a choice of the model is not an important factor to first order, since the total weight of compensating masses remains the same. We compare two alternative models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which cannot be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also, the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from existing seismic observations. The second isostatic model includes the Moho, which is based on seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). According to this model, the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield is less dense than under the Platform. In the Arabian platform, the maximum density coincides with the Rub' al Khali, one of the richest oil basin in the world. This finding agrees with previous studies, showing that such basins are often underlain by dense mantle, possibly related to an eclogite layer that has caused their subsidence. The mantle density variations might be also a result of variations of the lithosphere thickness. With the combined isostatic model, it is possible to minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies correspond well to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies, showing isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere, are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  20. Comparison of Arabian plate motion using satellite laser ranging and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A. O.; Fernandes, R. M.; Schillak, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Two different space based observations have been used to estimate the velocity of the Arabian plate motion. The first set of observations is using the Saudi Arabia Laser Ranging Observatory (SALRO - 7832), which is situated in the middle of Arabian tectonic plate. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observations of about 20 global SLR stations to LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites collected for 14 years (1996-2009) have been used to determine Riyadh SLR station positions. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The velocities of SALRO were computed in reference to the ITRF2008 terrestrial reference frame. The second set of observations consists of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations of 15 GPS stations acquired in campaign and continuous mode for the period 2003 to 2009 (having at least 3 years' data span). Multi-year processing of stations having at least 3 years' time span and excluding stations within the deformation zone of Red Sea Ridge, such that they are distributed evenly within the rigid (interior) part of the Arabian plate. The Bernese 5.0/ADNEQ2 and GIPSY/OASIS 6.1 software packages were used to compute the daily solutions of coordinate time series applying the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) strategy. The velocities were estimated with respect to ITRF2008 and four estimates of the angular velocities for the Arabian plate have been computed using different datasets: independent Bernese and GIPSY solutions, combination of the GPS solutions only, and including the SLR solution. We present direct comparison between all different solutions showing that the Arabian tectonic plate motion determined from Riyadh SLR data and GPS data are in a good agreement with recent estimates, in particular with the global geodetic model GEODVEL and the geophysical MORVEL model.

  1. Vanadium and nickel content of Nowruz spill tar flakes on the Saudi Arabian coastline and their probable environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

    1984-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf is experiencing the worst oil spill in its history. The spill originates from two war damaged Iranian oil wells in the Nowruz oil field. Much of the oil is entering Saudi Arabian waters and washes ashore in the form of tar like flakes. In late March and early April 1983, fish, snake, turtle, and bird kills of different magnitude were noted along the Saudi Arabian coastline. In the early days of the spill Saudi Arabian authorities suspected sources other than the Nowruz spill to be causing the kills. Research was initiated to identify the origin of tar like flakes, their environmental impact and the cause of fish, snake, turtle and bird kills. This paper discusses some of the results of this research.

  2. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  3. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    VALBERG, S. J.; McKENZIE, E. C.; EYRICH, L. V.; SHIVERS, J.; BARNES, N. E.; FINNO, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reasons for performing study Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. Objectives To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Study design Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Methods Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann–Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Results Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (P<0.05) pro-ER (12/13) and retro-ER (21/25) horses than controls (4/14). Degenerating myofibres were not evident in any biopsies. Retro-ER horses had amylase-resistant polysaccharide (6/25, P<0.05) and higher scores for cytoplasmic glycogen, rimmed vacuoles and rod-like bodies. A few control horses (3/14) and significantly (P<0.05) more pro-ER (12/13) and retro-ER (18/25) horses had disrupted myofibrillar alignment and large desmin and αβ-crystallin positive cytoplasmic aggregates. Prominent Z-disc degeneration and focal myofibrillar disruption with regional accumulation of β-glycogen particles were identified on electron microscopy of the 2 pro-ER samples. Conclusions In a subset of Arabian horses with intermittent episodes of exertional

  4. Origin and fate of the secondary nitrite maximum in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, P.; Jensen, M. M.; Kock, A.; Lettmann, K. A.; Plancherel, Y.; Lavik, G.; Bange, H. W.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2011-06-01

    The Arabian Sea harbours one of the three major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world's oceans, and it alone is estimated to account for ~10-20 % of global oceanic nitrogen (N) loss. While actual rate measurements have been few, the consistently high accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) coinciding with suboxic conditions in the central-northeastern part of the Arabian Sea has led to the general belief that this is the region where active N-loss takes place. Most subsequent field studies on N-loss have thus been drawn almost exclusively to the central-NE. However, a recent study measured only low to undetectable N-loss activities in this region, compared to orders of magnitude higher rates measured towards the Omani Shelf where little NO2- accumulated (Jensen et al., 2011). In this paper, we further explore this discrepancy by comparing the NO2--producing and consuming processes, and examining the relationship between the overall NO2- balance and active N-loss in the Arabian Sea. Based on a combination of 15N-incubation experiments, functional gene expression analyses, nutrient profiling and flux modeling, our results showed that NO2- accumulated in the central-NE Arabian Sea due to a net production via primarily active nitrate (NO3-) reduction and to a certain extent ammonia oxidation. Meanwhile, NO2- consumption via anammox, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium (NH4+) were hardly detectable in this region, though some loss to NO2- oxidation was predicted from modeled NO3- changes. No significant correlation was found between NO2- and N-loss rates (p>0.05). This discrepancy between NO2- accumulation and lack of active N-loss in the central-NE Arabian Sea is best explained by the deficiency of labile organic matter that is directly needed for further NO2- reduction to N2O, N2 and NH4+, and indirectly for the remineralized NH4+ required by anammox. Altogether, our data do not support the long-held view that NO2- accumulation is a

  5. Origin and fate of the secondary nitrite maximum in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, P.; Jensen, M. M.; Kock, A.; Lettmann, K. A.; Plancherel, Y.; Lavik, G.; Bange, H. W.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2011-03-01

    The Arabian Sea harbours one of the three major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world's oceans, and it alone is estimated to account for ~10-20% of global oceanic nitrogen (N) loss. While actual rate measurements have been few, the consistently high accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) coinciding with suboxic conditions in the central-northeastern part of the Arabian Sea has led to the general belief that this is the region where active N-loss takes place. Most subsequent field studies on N-loss have thus been drawn almost exclusively to the central-NE. However, a recent study measured only low to undetectable N-loss activities in this region, compared to orders of magnitude higher rates measured towards the Omani shelf where little NO2- accumulated (Jensen et al., 2011). In this paper, we further explore this discrepancy by comparing the NO2- producing and consuming processes, and examining the relationship between the overall NO2- balance and active N-loss in the Arabian Sea. Based on a combination of 15N-incubation experiments, functional gene expression analyses, nutrient profiling and flux modeling, our results showed that NO2- accumulated in the Central-NE Arabian Sea due to a net production via primarily active nitrate (NO3-) reduction and to a certain extent ammonia oxidation. Meanwhile, NO2- consumption via anammox, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium (NH4+) were hardly detectable in this region, though some loss to NO2- oxidation was predicted from modeled NO3- changes. No significant correlation was found between NO2- and N-loss rates (p>0.05). This discrepancy between NO2- accumulation and lack of active N-loss in the Central-NE Arabian Sea is best explained by the deficiency of organic matter that is directly needed for further NO2- reduction to N2O, N2 and NH4+, and indirectly for the remineralized NH4+ required by anammox. Altogether, our data do not support the long-held view that NO2- accumulation is a direct

  6. Late quaternary time series of Arabian Sea productivity: Global and regional signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, Steven C.; Prell, W. L.; Murray, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Modern annual floral and faunal production in the northwest Arabian Sea derives primarily from upwelling induced by strong southwest winds during June, July, and August. Indian Ocean summer monsoon winds are, in turn, driven by differential heating between the Asian continent and the Indian ocean to the south. This differential heating produces a strong pressure gradient resulting in southwest monsoon winds and both coastal and divergent upwelling off the Arabian Peninsula. Over geologic time scales (10(exp 4) to 10(exp 6) years), monsoon wind strength is sensitive to changes in boundary conditions which influence this pressure gradient. Important boundary conditions include the seasonal distribution of solar radiation, global ice volume, Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, and the elevation and albedo of the Asian continent. To the extent that these factors influence monsoon wind strength, they also influence upwelling and productivity. In addition, however, productivity associated with upwelling can be decoupled from the strength of the summer monsoon winds via ocean mechanisms which serve to inhibit or enhance the nutrient supply in the intermediate waters of the Indian Ocean, the source for upwelled waters in the Arabian Sea. To differentiate productivity associated with wind-induced upwelling from that associated with other components of the system such as nutrient sequestering in glacial-age deep waters, we employ a strategy which monitors independent components of the oceanic and atmospheric subsystems. Using sediment records from the Owen Ridge, northwest Arabian Sea, we monitor the strength of upwelling and productivity using two independent indicators, percent G. bulloides and opal accumulation. We monitor the strength of southwest monsoon winds by measuring the grain-size of lithogenic dust particles blown into the Arabian Sea from the surrounding deserts of the Somali and Arabian Peninsulas. Our current hypothesis is that the variability associated

  7. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the north western Bay of Bengal and the north eastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, K. K.; Laluraj, C. M.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N. V.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Vijay, J. G.; Maheswaran, P. A.; Ashraff, T. T. M.; Nair, K. K. C.; Achuthankutty, C. T.

    2008-09-01

    The north eastern Arabian Sea and the north western Bay of Bengal within the Indian exclusive economic zone were explored for their environmental characteristics during the winter monsoons of 2000 and 2001 respectively. The two regions were found to respond paradoxically to comparable intensities of the atmospheric forcing. There is an asymmetry in the net heat exchange of these two basins with atmosphere because of the varying thickness of barrier layer. During winter, the convective mixing in the Arabian Sea is driven by net heat loss from the ocean, whereas the Bay of Bengal does not contribute to such large heat loss to the atmosphere. It appears that the subduction of high saline Arabian Sea water mass is the mechanism behind the formation of a barrier layer in the northeast Arabian Sea; whereas that in the Bay of Bengal and the southeast Arabian Sea are already established as due to low saline water mass. The weak barrier layer in the Arabian Sea yields to the predominance of convective mixing to bring in nitrate-rich waters from the deeper layers to the surface, thereby supporting enhanced biological production. On the other hand, the river discharge into the Bay of Bengal during this period results in the formation of a thick and stable barrier layer, which insulates vertical mixing and provide oligotrophic condition in the Bay.

  8. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity.

  9. Geochemical evidence for anoxic deep water in the Arabian Sea during the last glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Sarin, M.M. )

    1993-03-01

    Various paleoceanographic studies have indicated that the deep ocean was probably depleted in dissolved oxygen during the last glacial period ([approximately]18 kyr B.P.; [delta][sup 18]O, stage 2) compared to present time. However, direct evidence of low oxygen content in the deep waters has been lacking. Here, the authors report geochemical evidence of near anoxic conditions in the deep Arabian Sea during the entire last glacial cycle ([delta][sup 18]O; stages 2, 3, and 4). Anoxia is inferred from the concomitant enrichment of organic carbon and authigenic uranium in the glacial sections of a core from the deep eastern Arabian Sea. The anoxic conditions during the last glacial period, probably caused by a change in deep water circulation, evidently enhanced preservation of organic matter and simultaneous removal of uranium from seawater. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Observational study of upper ocean cooling due to Phet super cyclone in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muni Krishna, K.

    2016-05-01

    Phet super cyclone (31 May-7 June 2010) was the most intense and also the rarest of the rare track in Arabian Sea as per the recorded history during 1877-2009. The present study focuses on the ocean physical responses to Phet cyclone using satellite and Argo observations. The sea surface temperature is decreased to 6 °C with an approximately 350 km long and 100 km width area in the Arabian Sea after the cyclone passage. The translation speed of cyclone is 3.86 m/s, the mixed layer is 79 m, and thermocline displacement is 13 m at the cooling area. With the relationship of wind stress curl and Ekman pumping velocity (EPV), the author found that the speed of EPV was increased after the passage of cyclone. So the extent of the SST drop was probably due to the moving speed of cyclone and the depth of the mixed layer.

  11. Physical and biological response of the Arabian Sea to tropical cyclone Phyan and its implications.

    PubMed

    Byju, P; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2011-06-01

    The response to the tropical cyclone Phyan, which developed in the eastern Arabian Sea during 9-11 November 2009, was rapid cooling of sea surface temperature (SST), enhancement of chlorophyll a and two-fold increase in net primary productivity (NPP). Cooling of SST was immediate in response to the strong wind-mixing, and the subsequent upward Ekman pumping sustained the cooling even after the dissipation of Phyan. The biological response mediated by the upward Ekman pumping driven vertical transport of subsurface nutrient showed a time lag of 3-4 days. The CO₂ flux to the atmosphere associated with Phyan was 0.123 Tg C, which accounted for ~85% of the total out-gassing from the eastern Arabian Sea during November. Thus, an increased occurrence of cyclones in a warming environment will lead to an enhanced biomass production and also increase in CO₂ out-gassing.

  12. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles.

  13. Sequential stratigraphy of Jurassic and Cretaceous in the central Saudi Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Le Nindre, Y.M.; Manivit, J.; Vaslet, D. ); Manivit, H. Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris )

    1991-08-01

    Depositional sequences and system tracts in the Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Central Saudi Arabian platform have been established on the basis of precise lithofacies analysis, detailed sedimentologic interpretation, and accurate age determination by ammonites, nautoli, brachipods, echinoids, and nannoflora. A eustatic depositional model integrated with accepted worldwide sequential stratigraphic data is proposed, and appears to correlate fairly well with the 1988 global sea level chart by Haq and others, particularly for the Lower and Middle Jurassic and the Middle and Upper Cretaceous. Ages determined by accurate biostratigraphic data enable time correlations to be made with third-order eustatic cycles from Vail's 1988 global chart. Eustatic changes therefore appear to be the main factors of sedimentary control during the Jurassic and Cretaceous on the Arabian platform.

  14. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. PMID:23664016

  15. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

  16. An overview of historical harmful algae blooms outbreaks in the Arabian Seas.

    PubMed

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-09-15

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs), often composed of oceanic plants called phytoplankton, are potentially harmful to the marine life, water quality, human health, and desalination plants, a chief source of potable water in the Arabian Gulf. The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the frequency of HAB outbreaks in the Arabian Seas. This increase is mainly caused by the unprecedented economic growth in the region. The increased human activities in the region have added more stress to the marine environment and contributed to the changes observed in the properties of the marine ecosystem: high temperature and salinity, high evaporation rates, limited freshwater inflow, shallow nature, pollution. However, very few studies that cover the HAB outbreaks, causes, impacts and biological characteristics over the region have been published. This work presents a comprehensive overview of historical HAB outbreaks recorded in the region, and investigate their causes and impact, and seasonal variability.

  17. A study of anthropometric characteristics between Malaysian and Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years.

    PubMed

    Taha, Zahari; Jomoah, Ibrahim M; Zadry, Hilma Raimona

    2009-06-01

    This study presents a comparison of the anthropometric characteristics of 241 Malaysian and 646 Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years. The mean values, standard deviation (SD), and 5th and 95th percentile values of 26 measurements and 22 proportions of each group were given. The results showed that there were significant differences in a number of body dimensions between these populations, except for eye height and elbow height (standing) and height, eye height, shoulder height, and elbow height (sitting). These results are important for the ergonomic design of workstations, personal protective equipment, tools, interface systems and furniture: The presented data may be useful for providing a safer, more productive and user-friendly workplace for Malaysian and Saudi Arabian populations.

  18. Localized hyper saline waters in Arabian Gulf from desalination activity--an example from South Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Khabbaz, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Desalination is the only means of reliable water supply in most of the Arabian Gulf States including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Huge desalination capacities are installed on the western margin of the Arabian Gulf contributing to increased salinity off the coast. This paper presents long term salinity observation made near outfall of Az Zour Power and Desalination Plant in South Kuwait. The salinity values peak at around 50 ppt at observation station located in open gulf around 5 km from the outfall of the power and desalination plant. The observation highlights the stress on the local marine environment continued incremental salinity can impair the marine biodiversity in the area. The study suggests that a stringent post construction and operational offshore water quality assessment can help in early detection of potentially complex environmental issues.

  19. Depositional history of polychlorinated biphenyls in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Gevao, Bondi; Aba, Abdul Aziz; Al-Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Uddin, Saif

    2012-05-01

    The vertical distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf to reconstruct their depositional history. The downcore profile showed an increase in concentrations from depth to a subsurface maximum of approximately 1,500 pg g(-1) in approximately 1991, followed by an exponential decrease to the sediment-water interface. Current concentrations of ΣPCBs are similar to levels predating the episodic input of PCBs in sediments dated coincident with the 1991 Arabian Gulf war. The spike in ΣPCB concentrations during the war may be related to the destruction of PCB-laden transformers during the conflict. The 15-fold decrease in ΣPCB concentrations from the period of maximum flux to prewar levels suggests that the factors delivering PCBs to sediments at present are similar to those that that existed before the war-related inputs.

  20. Role of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes in juvenile idiopathic epilepsy in Arabian foals.

    PubMed

    Lichter-Peled, Anat; Polani, Sagi; Stanyon, Roscoe; Rocchi, Mariano; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila

    2013-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy (JIE) in Arabian foals resembles benign-familial neonatal convulsion (BFNC) syndrome, a rare idiopathic epilepsy of new-born humans. BFNC syndrome exhibits genetic heterogeneity, as has been hypothesised to occur in Arabian foals, and is known to be caused by mutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes. The close phenotypic characteristics of both Arabian foals and children suggest these epileptic syndromes are caused by the same genetic disorder. In horses, the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes are located on the terminal region of chromosomes 22 and 9, respectively, essentially homologous to their location on chromosomes 20q13.3 and 8q24 in humans. Gene trees for the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes between horses and other mammals, particularly humans and mice, were constructed and compared to widely accepted mammalian phylogenetic trees. The KCNQ2 gene tree exhibited close clustering between horses and humans, relative to horses and mice, in contrast to the evolutionary trees of other mammals. Distance values between the horse and human groups were lower as opposed to those found between the horse and mouse groups. The similarity between the horse and the human, especially for the KCNQ2 gene, where the majority of mutations causing BFNC have been found, supports the hypothesis of similar heritable and genetic patterns of the disease in both species and suggests that contrary to the classic mouse-model concept, humans may be a more suitable model for the study of JIE in Arabian foals.

  1. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of Arabian-Iranian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Klemme, H.D.; Coury, A.B.; Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Undiscovered, conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin are estimated at probability levels of 95%, 5%, and statistical mean. Estimates for oil are 72, 337, and 174 billion bbl; for gas, they are 299, 1, 792, and 849 tcf. Petroleum occurrences can be accounted for in five definitive geologic settings of plays. Undiscovered resource potential is assessed, assuming that new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays. The five plays listed in sequence are: (1) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (2) Lower and middle Cretaceous sandstone, (3) Lower and middle Cretaceous limestone, (4) Jurassic, and (5) Permian. The Permian play is located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extends northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub'al Khali in Saudi Arabia. It accounts for more than four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil. The Lower and middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the heat of the Arabian Gulf, with significant potential extending northwest into Iraq. This play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil. The Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros foldbelt of Iran and Iraq, and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil.

  3. The history of the Arabian platform evolution in the Late Permian and Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1995-03-01

    On the basis of comprehensive investigations of the Upper Permian and Triassic sequences of the Arabian platform, three stages were recognized, corresponding to distinct time intervals. The first stage corresponds to the Latest Permian-Early Triassic, the second - to the Early-Middle Triassic, the third - to the Late Triassic. Special maps were plotted for the second and third stages, reflecting major paleogeographic and paleotectonic events. An effort was made to test the oil potential of the sequences.

  4. Role of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes in juvenile idiopathic epilepsy in Arabian foals.

    PubMed

    Lichter-Peled, Anat; Polani, Sagi; Stanyon, Roscoe; Rocchi, Mariano; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila

    2013-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy (JIE) in Arabian foals resembles benign-familial neonatal convulsion (BFNC) syndrome, a rare idiopathic epilepsy of new-born humans. BFNC syndrome exhibits genetic heterogeneity, as has been hypothesised to occur in Arabian foals, and is known to be caused by mutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes. The close phenotypic characteristics of both Arabian foals and children suggest these epileptic syndromes are caused by the same genetic disorder. In horses, the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes are located on the terminal region of chromosomes 22 and 9, respectively, essentially homologous to their location on chromosomes 20q13.3 and 8q24 in humans. Gene trees for the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes between horses and other mammals, particularly humans and mice, were constructed and compared to widely accepted mammalian phylogenetic trees. The KCNQ2 gene tree exhibited close clustering between horses and humans, relative to horses and mice, in contrast to the evolutionary trees of other mammals. Distance values between the horse and human groups were lower as opposed to those found between the horse and mouse groups. The similarity between the horse and the human, especially for the KCNQ2 gene, where the majority of mutations causing BFNC have been found, supports the hypothesis of similar heritable and genetic patterns of the disease in both species and suggests that contrary to the classic mouse-model concept, humans may be a more suitable model for the study of JIE in Arabian foals. PMID:23182620

  5. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M

    1988-03-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made. PMID:3341504

  6. Sea level rise within the west of Arabian Gulf using tide gauge and continuous GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, M. E.; Alothman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and located in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. To investigate sea level variations within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed individually the monthly means at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Vertical land motions are included into the relative sea level measurements at the tide gauges. Therefore sea level rates at the stations are corrected for vertical land motions using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model then we found the average sea level rise rate of 2.27 mm/yr. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS) GPS station, which is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain, is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are downloaded from http://www-gps.mit.edu/~tah/. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and one break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.48 ± 0.11 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate at each of the other tide gauge stations studied here in the region, we computed average sea level rise rate of 2.44 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf.

  7. Arabian Peninsula and northeast Africa as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of the earth, looking southeast. Saudia Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean.

  8. Red cell parameters in infant and children from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Mekaini, Lolowa A Al; Denic, Srdjan; Jabri, Omar N Al; Narchi, Hassib; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Al-Hammadi, Suleiman

    2015-01-01

    α+-Thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia are frequent causes of microcytosis and a common diagnostic challenge in Arabian children. In this study, their prevalences and effects on the red cell parameters were evaluated in 28,457 children aged one day to 6 years. α+-Thalassemia trait was considered to be present when mean cell volume (MCV) was <94 fL at birth and iron deficiency anemia when red cell distribution width (RDW) was >14.5%. The prevalence of α+-thalassemia trait was 15.7% (502/3,191), which was similar to previously reported values for adults (9-14%). Iron deficiency anemia peaked at 7 months (53%) and then declined at a rate of 8% per year. The nadirs of red blood cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) occurred at two months of age (physiological anemia). Subsequently, Hb increased at a rate similar to that of MCV, demonstrating the two processes are coupled. The third percentile MCV in children older than 3 months was ≤64 fL, which was significantly lower than that in European children. The third percentile Hb, on the other hand, was similar to that in European children. Thus, α+-thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia are exceptionally frequent in Arabian children and their red cell indices are considerably different from European-based norms. Careful interpretation of red cell parameters is required for the evaluation of microcytic anemia in Arabian children. PMID:27069759

  9. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  10. Trace elements in fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab river, Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Abaychi, J.; Al-Saad, H.T.

    1988-02-01

    In the Arabian Gulf region, recently, vast industrial, agricultural, economic and social developments have taken place, in addition to an increase in population. This may enhance the magnitude of environmental pollution year by year. No detailed study has been undertaken to assess the concentrations of trace elements in commercial species of fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab River, despite the fact that fish are considered an essential part of the diet in the region. Therefore, an investigation was carried out on the concentration of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in the following fish species from the Arabian Gulf: Tylosurus strongylurus, Eleutheoronema tetradactum, Pomadasys arel, Platycephalus indicus, Ilisha elongata, Thryssa hamiltonii, Arius thalassinus, Acanthophagrus luteus, Johnieops sina, Liza dussumeiri, Hilsa ilisha, Nematolosa nasus and Otoliths argenteus, and on species from the Shatt al-Arab River: Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi, Barbus xanthopterus, Barbus scheich, Aspius vorax, Cyprinus carpio, and Barbus grypus. Trace element levels in sediment samples from the area were also determined since sediments can accumulate different elements and may reflect the extent of pollution by these elements.

  11. Acidification in Arabian Gulf--insights from pH and temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Gevao, B; Al-Ghadban, A N; Nithyanandan, M; Al-Shamroukh, D

    2012-05-01

    The detrimental effects of increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and other greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution has led to a concerted international effort to control their release and abate the environmental and human health impacts. CO(2) is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis of plants in the terrestrial environment and by aquatic sequestration. In the Middle East and other arid countries, terrestrial removal is minimal. The most likely removal pathway for CO(2) in arid regions around the world is by aquatic sequestration. In the Middle East the major sink is the Arabian Gulf which leads to acidification of the marine environment. Biweekly pH concentration measurements in surface waters of the northern Arabian Gulf over a four year period in this study suggest that the Arabian Gulf waters are becoming increasingly acidic with time. Supporting evidence for increased CO(2) sequestration comes from increased marine primary productivity over the past decade. Biological effects, such as coral bleaching, observed during this period suggest that urgent action is required to reverse the trend and protect marine life. The data highlight the fact that this semi-enclosed sea is undergoing a rapid degradation which may affect the oceanic chemistry and biogeochemical cycle much earlier than predicted for most oceanic waters.

  12. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Lüke, Claudia; Speth, Daan R; Kox, Martine A R; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria.

  13. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Pomilla, Cristina; Amaral, Ana R; Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List.

  14. Oil and development in the Arabian Gulf: A selected annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    This past decade has witnessed a vast proliferation of literature on the Arabian Gulf region. In this book the author provides a systematic guide to the literature in order to assist those conducting research on the area. The author is primarily concerned with the national, regional and international role of Arabian Gulf oil between 1973 and 1983. He includes more general sources, however, if they are partly devoted to the subject or if they provide information essential to the understanding of the particular economic systems or the place of Arabian Gulf oil within the world energy situation. Sources of a technical nature have been excluded, such as those dealing with the science and technology of Arab oil. The main languages of the material selected for inclusion are English and Arabic, with French, German, Italian, and Spanish sources in smaller number. The Arabic sources are appended separately after the Western language sections in each chapter. The sources of information cited include books, monographs, articles, journals, theses, annual reports, directories, government documents, and various unpublished papers and documents.

  15. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region.

  16. Biomass of zooplankton estimated by acoustical sensors in the Arabian sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, D.V.

    1996-11-22

    The long term goal of our overall research program is the development of data-based models to predict ecological relationships of zooplankton, phytoplankton and the physical environment in the sea. The overall objective of the work carried out within the scope of this particular contract was to acoustically measure the dynamics of zooplankton and micronekton in the northern Arabian Sea during several seasons. The scientific focus was to examine the impact, if any, of the two annual monsoons that are thought to drive the ecosystem response in the area. This particular project involved the design and construction of two sensors which were then deployed in the Arabian Sea by several of our co-PIVs in the ONR ARI on Forced Upper Ocean Dynamics during the time period in which the JGOFS program also focused their efforts on the northern Arabian Sea. This contract involved only the development, calibration and maintenance of the instrumentation. The data processing, other than that which has been necessary for the purposes of quality assurance, was not induded in our original proposal.

  17. Carbonate-evaporite sequences of the late Jurassic, southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Whittle, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The carbonate-evaporite sequences of the Upper Jurassic Arab and overlying Hith formations in the southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf form many supergiant and giant fields that produce from the Arab Formation and are excellent examples of a classic reservoir/seal relationship. The present-day sabkha depositional setting that extends along most of the southern and southwestern coasts of the Arabian Gulf provides an analog to these Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks. In fact, sabkha-related diagenesis of original grain-supported sediments in the Arab and Hith formations has resulted in five distinct lithofacies that characterize the reservoir/seal relationship: (1) oolitic/peloidal grainstone, (2) dolomitic grainstone, (3) dolomitic mudstone, (4) dolomitized grainstone, and (5) massive anhydrite. Interparticle porosity in grainstones and dolomitic grainstones and intercrystalline porosity in dolomitized rocks provide the highest porosity in the study area. These sediments accumulated in four types of depositional settings: (1) supratidal sabkhas, (2) intertidal mud flats and stromatolitic flats, (3) shallow subtidal lagoons, and (4) shallow open-marine shelves. The diagenetic history of the Arab and Hith formations in the southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf suggests that the anhydrite and much of the dolomitization are a result of penecontemporaneous sabkha diagenesis. The character and timing of the paragenetic events are responsible for the excellent porosity of the Arab Formation and the lack of porosity in the massive anhydrites of the Hith, which together result in the prolific hydrocarbon sequences of these formations.

  18. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region. PMID:26120422

  19. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Kox, Martine A.R.; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria. PMID:27077014

  20. The World's Most Isolated and Distinct Whale Population? Humpback Whales of the Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S.; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to “Critically Endangered” on the IUCN Red List. PMID:25470144

  1. Regime shift in Arabian dust activity, triggered by persistent Fertile Crescent drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Michael; Yu, Yan; Kalashnikova, Olga V.

    2015-10-01

    The Arabian Peninsula has experienced pronounced interannual to decadal variability in dust activity, including an abrupt regime shift around 2006 from an inactive dust period during 1998-2005 to an active period during 2007-2013. Corresponding in time to the onset of this regime shift, the climate state transitioned into a combined La Niña and negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which incited a hiatus in global warming in the 2000s. Superimposed upon a long-term regional drying trend, synergistic interactions between these teleconnection modes triggered the establishment of a devastating and prolonged drought, which engulfed the Fertile Crescent, namely, Iraq and Syria, and led to crop failure and civil unrest. Dried soils and diminished vegetation cover in the Fertile Crescent, as evident through remotely sensed enhanced vegetation indices, supported greater dust generation and transport to the Arabian Peninsula in 2007-2013, as identified both in increased dust days observed at weather stations and enhanced remotely sensed aerosol optical depth. According to backward trajectory analysis of dust days on the Arabian Peninsula, increased dust lifting and atmospheric dust concentration in the Fertile Crescent during this recent, prolonged drought episode supported a greater frequency of dust events across the peninsula with associated northerly trajectories and led to the dust regime shift. These findings are particularly concerning, considering projections of warming and drying for the eastern Mediterranean region and potential collapse of the Fertile Crescent during this century.

  2. Serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration after training sessions in Arabian race and endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the major acute phase protein in horses. Its concentration increases in various pathologies but also in response to prolonged, strenuous effort. The purpose of this study was to establish whether routine race and endurance training produces changes in the SAA level in Arabian horses. Additionally, the differences between SAA response in experienced endurance horses and endurance horses that were beginning their career were investigated. Results There were no changes in SAA concentrations after race training and endurance training in experienced horses. In horses that were beginning their endurance training, exercise produced an increase in SAA level as compared with rest level. Conclusion In Arabians, the SAA concentration seems to be a good indicator of endurance training but is useless in race training. The routine training of experienced horses, which were prepared for long distance rides, did not promote any changes in the SAA level. In contrast, a significant increase in the SAA concentration was observed in horses that were beginning their endurance training and were only prepared for moderate distance rides and underwent the same effort. Further research is needed to elucidate whether this difference reflects too heavy training or adaptation to an increasing workload. Additionally, the adaptation to long distance rides in Arabians may include a reduced acute phase response. PMID:23634727

  3. Application of mitochondrial genes sequences for measuring the genetic diversity of Arabian oryx.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Shobrak, Mohammad; Homaidan, Ali A Al; Farhan, Ahmad H Al; Sadoon, Mohammad Al

    2011-01-01

    Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) had faced extinction in the wild more than three decades ago and was saved by the prudent efforts of captive breeding programs. A clear understanding of the molecular diversity of contemporary Arabian oryx population is important for the long term success of captive breeding and reintroduction of this potentially endangered species. We have sequenced the segments of mitochondrial DNA including12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and control region (CR) genes of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced animals. Although the sequences of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and Cyt-b were found to be identical for all the samples, typical sequence variations in the CR gene were observed in the form of 7 haplotypes. One of these haplotypes has been reported earlier while the remaining 6 haplotypes are novel and represent different lineages from the founders. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities were found to be 0.789 and 0.009 respectively. The genetic distances among the 7 mtDNA haplotypes varied from 0.001 to 0.017. These findings are of potential relevance to the management of captive breeding programs for the conservation of Arabian oryx. PMID:21498924

  4. Measuring the genetic diversity of Arabian Oryx using microsatellite markers: implication for captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A; Shobrak, Mohammad; Homaidan, Ali A Al; Sadoon, Mohammad Al; Farhan, Ahmad H Al

    2010-04-01

    Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) is an endangered antelope that is being protected by captive breeding programs. However, the long term success of these programs mainly depends on the prudent use of molecular information for conservation management. We have used an array of seven microsatellite loci to examine the molecular diversity in a representative population of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced Arabian oryx. The locus-wise mean observed heterozygosity (0.601) was found to be comparatively higher than the mean expected heterozygosity (0.565). The specimen-wise observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.143 to 1.00 with an average of 0.60 whereas the mean d(2) varied from 0.57 to 1023.428 with an average value of 223.357. The results of Shannon information index (I = 0.898) also indicated a high level of within population genetic diversity. The average gene flow was 0.298, ranging between 0.204 and 0.424 for different loci. In conclusion, the information about the extent of heterozygosity, allelic diversity and inbreeding/outbreeding depression using microsatellite markers could be of potential relevance for the management of captive breeding programs for the conservation of Arabian oryx. PMID:20558900

  5. Assessing the potential of Landsat 8 OLI for retrieving salinity in the hypersaline Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf, located in an arid region in the Middle East, has high salinity that can exceed 43 practical salinity units (psu) due to its special conditions, such as high evaporation, low precipitation, and desalination discharge. In this study, a regional algorithm was developed to retrieve salinity using in situ measurements conducted between June 2013 and November 2014 along the western coast of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multivariate linear regression model using the visible bands of Operational Land Imager (OLI) was proposed and indicated good performance with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.7. The algorithm was then applied to an OLI scene, which revealed the spatial distribution of salinity over the study area. The findings are favorable for better interpretation of the complex water mass exchange between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman through the Strait of Hormuz, validating salinity from numerical models, studying the effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change on ecosystem in the hypersaline Arabian Gulf, etc.

  6. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region. PMID:26120422

  7. Tectonic and depositional model of the Arabian and adjoining plates during the Silurian-Devonian

    SciTech Connect

    Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-01-01

    During the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian, the western part of the Arabian Peninsula was covered by polar glaciers that advanced from the south pole in African Gondwana. During this period, nondeposition, erosion, or marginal marine conditions prevailed in eastern and northern Arabia. When the glaciers melted in the Early Silurian, sea level rose sharply and the paleo-Tethys Ocean transgressed the Arabian and adjoining plates depositing a thick, organic-rich shale directly over the glaciogenic and periglacial rocks and related unconformities. The post-glacial sequence coarsens upward reflecting the passage of a coastline prograding northward from African and Arabian Gondwana to northern Arabia. A sea level drop in the Late Silurian placed the study area in a terrestrial environment; however, as sea level recovered in the Early Devonian, a carbonate sequence blanketed most of the area. The transgression, however, was interrupted by regional uplift and local orogenic movements in the Middle and Late Devonian. These movements constitute the onset of Hercynian tectonism, which resulted in erosion of the older sequences, depositional hiatuses, and regional facies changes.

  8. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Lüke, Claudia; Speth, Daan R; Kox, Martine A R; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria. PMID:27077014

  9. [Population genetic analysis of the heritability of gutteral pouch tympany in Arabian purebred foals].

    PubMed

    Blazyczek, I; Hamann, H; Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Distl, O

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the importance of the influences of the sex, inbreeding coefficient and the additive genetic contribution to the occurrence of guttural pouch tympany in Arabian foals. Horses affected by guttural pouch tympany were ascertained in the Clinic for Horses, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover. The data comprised 27 Arabian purebred foals with guttural pouch tympany. Of these 27 animals 22 were patients of the Clinic for Horses between 1994 and 2001 and 5 Arabian foals were sampled on the studs. Information on the pedigrees of these patients allowed us to sort in the affected foals into four families with a total of 276 animals. Female foals were more often affected by guttural pouch tympany. The difference was 11.9% in favour of female foals. The size of the inbreeding coefficient was not important for the occurrence of guttural pouch tympany. The heritability estimate for the frequency of guttural pouch tympany using a threshold model was 0.49 +/- 0.28. This is the first report that could show a genetic component responsible for guttural pouch tympany in foals. PMID:14650737

  10. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Pomilla, Cristina; Amaral, Ana R; Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List. PMID:25470144

  11. Environmental studies of the Arabian Sea using remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Ashlesha; Menezes, Andrew

    2006-12-01

    The Arabian Sea, situated in the western part of the northern Indian Ocean is a tropical basin. It is bounded on the east by the Indian peninsula, on the north by Baluchistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan and on the west by the landmass of Arabia and Africa. The environmental factors that influence this tropical basin are the seasonally changing winds from the northeast during winter (November-February) and southwest during summer (June to September). Accordingly, the waters of the basin will experience seasonal variations. The study aims at understanding the seasonal and inter-annual variation of the Arabian Sea using satellite-derived data. The spatial domain selected for the present study is 40 degrees E and 78 degrees E longitude and equator to 30 degrees N. The remote sensing data with respect to sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface wind, sea surface height (SSH), and chlorophyll pigment concentration during January 2002 to December 2005 were used to understand the spatio-temporal variability of the Arabian Sea. The monthly mean SST data was obtained from Modis aqua, winds from Quikscat and chlorophyll pigment concentration from SeaWiFS. The SSH anomaly data was obtained from the merged product - Topex/Poseidon ERS 1/2 satellite which is 7-day snapshot. The spatial resolution of these data is 0.3 degrees latitude x 0.3 degrees longitude. Geographical information system (GIS) was used for processing and analysing the above parameters to determine the variability and detection of oceanic processes that are responsible for such variability.The study showed a very strong inverse correlation between SST and chlorophyll concentrations. Arabian Sea undergoes cooling during summer due to upwelling and advection, and in winter due to surface cooling under reduced solar heating. Upwelling along the coasts of Somalia, Arabia, and the west coast of India brings cold and nutrient rich sub-surface waters to the surface, which supports the observed high chlorophyll

  12. Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemence, Caulle; Meryem, Mojtahid; Karoliina, Koho; Andy, Gooday; Gert-Jan, Reichart; Gerhard, Schmiedl; Frans, Jorissen

    2014-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy. C. Caulle1, M. Mojtahid1, K. Koho2,3, A. Gooday4, G. J. Reichart2,3, G. Schmiedl5, F. Jorissen1 1UMR CNRS 6112 LPG-BIAF, University of Angers, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 2Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, The Netherlands 3Royal Netherland Institute for Sea Research (Royal NIOZ), Landsdiep 4, 1797 SZ 't Horntje (Texel) 4Southampton Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK 5Department of Geosciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany The thermohaline circulation oxygenates the deep ocean sediment and therefore enables aerobic life on the sea-floor. In the past, interruption of this deep water formation occurred several times causing hypoxic to anoxic conditions on the sea-floor leading to major ecological turnover. A better understanding of the interaction between climate and bottom water oxygenation is therefore essential in order to predict future oceanic responses. Presently, permanent (stable over decadal timescale) low-oxygen conditions occur naturally at mid-water depths in the northern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea). Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) are key areas to understand the hypoxic-anoxic events and their impact on the benthic ecosystem. In this context, a good knowledge of the ecology and life cycle adaptations of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages living in these low oxygen areas is essential. A series of multicores were recovered from three transects showing an oxygen gradient across the OMZ: the Murray Ridge, the Oman margin and the Indian margin. The stations located at the same depths showed slightly different oxygen concentrations and large differences in organic matter content. These differences are mainly related to the geographic location in the Arabian Sea. We investigated at these stations live and dead benthic

  13. Diversity, distribution, and expression of diazotroph nifH genes in oxygen-deficient waters of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Amal; Al-Rshaidat, Mamoon M D; Ward, Bess B; Mulholland, Margaret R

    2012-12-01

    The Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), the largest suboxic region in the world's oceans, is responsible for up to half of the global mesopelagic fixed nitrogen (N) loss from the ocean via denitrification and anammox. Dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is usually attributed to cyanobacteria in the surface ocean. Model prediction and physiological inhibition of N(2) fixation by oxygen, however, suggest that N(2) fixation should be enhanced near the oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ) of the Arabian Sea. N(2) fixation and cyanobacterial nifH genes (the gene encoding dinitrogenase reductase) have been reported in surface waters overlying the Arabian Sea ODZ. Here, water samples from depths above and within the Arabian Sea ODZ were examined to explore the distribution, diversity, and expression of nifH genes. In surface waters, nifH DNA and cDNA sequences related to Trichodesmium, a diazotroph known to occur and fix N(2) in the Arabian Sea, were detected. Proteobacterial nifH phylotypes (DNA but not cDNA) were also detected in surface waters. Proteobacterial nifH DNA and cDNA sequences, as well as nifH DNA and cDNA sequences related to strictly anaerobic N -fixers, were obtained from oxygen-deficient depths. This first report of nifH gene expression in subsurface low-oxygen waters suggests that there is potential for active N(2) fixation by several phylogenetically and potentially metabolically diverse microorganisms in pelagic OMZs.

  14. 77 FR 61046 - The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka...

  15. 77 FR 61046 - The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in...

  16. Estimates of upwelling rates in the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean based on bomb radiocarbon.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, R; Dutta, K; Somayajulu, B L K

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon measurements were made in the water column of the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean during 1994, 1995 and 1997 to assess the temporal variations in bomb 14C distribution and its inventory in the region with respect to GEOSECS measurements made during 1977-1978. Four GEOSECS stations were reoccupied (three in the Arabian Sea and one in the equatorial Indian Ocean) during this study, with all of them showing increased penetration of bomb 14C along with decrease in its surface water activity. The upwelling rates derived by model simulation of bomb 14C depth profile using the calculated exchange rates ranged from 3 to 9 m a(-1). The western region of the Arabian Sea experiencing high wind-induced upwelling has higher estimated upwelling rates. However, lower upwelling rates obtained for the stations occupied during this study could be due to reduced 14C gradient compared to that during GEOSECS.

  17. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE.

  18. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE. PMID:26506023

  19. Seasonal Variations in the Number of the Summer Shamal Days in the Southern Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh Almehrezi, Ali Saif Ali; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study into seasonal variations in the number of Summer Shamal days in the southern Arabian Gulf. The Shamal wind is a north-westerly wind, which has acquired the local name of Shamal. It is the primary ambient wind in the Arabian Gulf and persists most of the year over the area, but with varying characteristics ( Godvina et al, 2001). The study is focused on the parameters of the wind cycles. The wind data are collected over a thirty year period (1981 to 2010) from Bahrain airport data set (Al Aali, 2011) as it is less affected by surrounding topography and the meteorological charts were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis -II data set (NCEP, 2013). The wind data is analyzed to show variations in the number of summer Shamal days over the southern Arabian Gulf. The synoptic conditions which help to understand the wind cycles are analyzed using NCEP Charts. A Shamal Day is defined when the prevailing wind over the Arabian Gulf is from the North-West sector and the strength of the daily mean Shamal wind is 11 knots and more. The condition for the existence of Summer Shamal days is the deepening of the thermal Monsoon Low or the ridging from the Mediterranean High or both (Govinda et al, 2003). A key finding is that the Summer Shamal days start in May and end in October of each year and the number of the Summer Shamal days is decreasing over the study period. During the months of May, June and July the number of Shamal days is the highest. Out of these three months, June has the highest number of Shamal day's. The analysis shows that the reduction in the number of Summer Shamal days over the thirty year period is potentially related to the variations in the parameters of the summer monsoon and the longitudinal location of the Azores High. Furthermore, in the summer there are two global systems: (i) El Nino, which effects the Summer Monsoon (Nazemosadat et al, 2003) and (ii) the Azores High, which have an indirect

  20. Crustal Deformation at the Arabian Plate-Boundary observed by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, S.; Cavalié, O.; Akoglu, A. M.; Wang, T.; Xu, W.; Feng, G.; Dutta, R.; Abdullin, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabian plate is bounded by a variety of active plate boundaries, with extension in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden to the south, compression in Turkey and Iran to the north, and transform faults to the west and to the east. Internally, however, the Arabian plate has been shown to be tectonically rather stable, despite evidence of recent volcanism and earthquake faulting. We use InSAR observations to study recent tectonic and volcanic activity at several locations at the Arabian plate boundary as well within the plate itself. The region near the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian, and Anatolian plates has often been the focus of studies on continental deformation behavior and interseismic deformation. Here we use large-scale InSAR data processing to map the deformation near the triple junction and find the deformation to be focused on major faults with little intra-plate deformation. The eastern part of the East Anatolian Fault appears to have a very shallow locking depth with limited fault-normal deformation. Several major earthquakes that have occurred in recent years on the Arabian plate boundary, including the 2011 magnitude 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey. It occurred as a result of convergence of the Arabian plate towards Eurasia and caused significant surface deformation that we have analyzed with multiple coseismic InSAR, GPS, and coastal uplift observations. We use high-resolution Cosmo-Skymed and TerraSAR-X data to derive 3D coseismic displacements from offsets alone, as some of the interferograms are almost completely incoherent. By identifying point-like targets within the images, we were able to derive accurate pixel offsets between SAR sub-images containing such targets, which we used to estimate the 3D coseismic displacements. The derived 3D displacement field helped in constraining the causative northward dipping thrust-fault. The Qadimah fault is a recently discovered fault located on the Red Sea coast north of Jeddah and under the

  1. Comparison of plasma biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred and Purebred Arabian horses during the same-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, W; Bergero, D

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare changes of blood parameters induced by the same work and performed in the same conditions in two racehorse breeds, Thoroughbred and Purebred Arabian. The effect of moderate-intensity exercise was studied in 20 stallions--ten Thoroughbreds, aged 2-3 years and the same number of Purebred Arabians, 3-4 years old. All the horses were administrated the same effort test consisting in 1200 m gallop at a speed typical of the daily training sessions. Three jugular venous blood samples were collected for each horse: at rest, just after the end of the gallop and after 30-minute rest. In the gathered blood, a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined as well as plasma level of glucose (Glc), triacylglycerols (TG), glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), total plasma proteins (TP) and the activity of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the Arabian horses, an increase in levels of TP, glycerol, FFA and CK activity measured just after exercise was higher than that in Thoroughbreds. Similarly, after a 30-minute rest, a post-exercise rise of TP, AST, glycerol and FFA proved to be higher in the Arabian horses compared to that in the Thoroughbreds. Only TG plasma concentration measured 30 minutes following the effort was significantly lower in the Arabian horses than in Thoroughbreds. It can be concluded that the Thoroughbred horses adapted better to the effort test applied in this study as compared to the Purebred Arabian horses. The parameters related to lipid metabolism proved to be the most sensitive indicators of breed differences in relation to moderate-intensity exercise.

  2. Implementation of field cardio-respiratory measurements to assess energy expenditure in Arabian endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Goachet, A G; Julliand, V

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible. PMID:25496768

  3. Venous Thromboembolism Risk and Adequacy of Prophylaxis in High Risk Pregnancy in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Al-Bahar, Awatef; Al-Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Results: Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. Conclusion: A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis.

  4. The Northeast Monsoon's Impact on Mixing, Phytoplankton Biomass and Nutrient Cycling in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggert, J. D.; Jones, B. H.; Dickey, T. D.; Brink, K. H.; Weller, R. A.; Marra, J.; Codispoti, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    In the northern Arabian Sea, atmospheric conditions during the Northeast (winter) Monsoon lead to deep convective mixing. Due to the proximity of the permanent pyncnocline to the sea surface, this mixing does not penetrate below 125 m. However, a strong nitracline is also present and the deep convection results in significant nitrate flux into the surface waters. This leads to nitrate concentrations over the upper 100 m that exceed 4 micrometers toward the end of the Monsoon. During the 1994/1995 US JGOFS/Arabian Sea expedition, the mean areal gross primary production over two successive Northeast Monsoons was determined to be 1.35gC/sq m/d. Thus, despite the deep penetrative convection, high rates of primary productivity were maintained. An interdisciplinary model was developed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes involved in supporting the elevated productivity. This model consists of a 1-D mixed-layer model coupled to a set of equations that tracked phytoplankton growth and the concentration of the two major nutrients (nitrate and ammonium). Zooplankton grazing was parameterized by rate constant determined by shipboard experiments. Model boundary conditions consist of meteorological time-series measured from the surface buoy that was part of the ONR Arabian Sea Experiment's central mooring. Our numerical experiments show that elevated surface evaporation, and the associated salinization of the mixed layer, strongly contributes to the frequency and penetration depth of the observed convective mixing. Cooler surface temperatures, increased nitrate entrainment, reduced water column stratification, and lower near-surface chlorophyll a concentrations all result from this enhanced mixing. The model also captured a dependence on regenerated nitrogen observed in nutrient uptake experiments performed during the Northeast Monsoon. Our numerical experiments also indicate that variability in mean pycnocline depth causes up to a 25% reduction in areal chlorophyll a

  5. Implementation of field cardio-respiratory measurements to assess energy expenditure in Arabian endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Goachet, A G; Julliand, V

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible.

  6. Monsoon control on faunal composition of planktic foraminifera in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, P.; Siccha, M.; Kucera, M.; Schulz, H.

    2013-12-01

    Being among the most productive open ocean basins, sea surface properties in the Arabian Sea are highly influenced by the seasonal reversal of the monsoonal wind system. During boreal summer wind direction from the southwest induces strong upwelling along the coast off Somalia and Oman. Vertical transport of cold and nutrient-rich deep-water masses by Ekman pumping reduces sea surface temperature and triggers primary productivity. Reversed cold and dry winds during boreal winter lead to cooling of the surface- and subsurface-waters and hereby to deep convective mixing, bringing nutrients into the photic zone and enhancing primary productivity especially in the northern part of the Arabian Sea. Here, we study the influence of the different seasonal monsoon systems on the faunal composition of planktic foraminifera, in order to improve our understanding how the faunal community record is influenced by the respective monsoon systems and to provide baseline information for the reconstruction of ancient monsoon conditions. We used published core-top foraminiferal databases, significantly increased in spatial coverage by new contributions. The resulting combined database consists of 413 core-top samples spanning the Arabian Sea and the Northern Indian Ocean to 10° S. The seasonal sea surface properties at these stations could be binned into categories of different monsoon influence, based on satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentrations. Interpretation of species response to environmental control is based on multivariate statistical analyses of each of the categorical bins. First results show that samples influenced only by winter- and summer monsoon conditions, respectively, feature specifiable faunal composition. Globigerina bulloides is mostly associated with summer upwelling conditions, whereas Globigerina falconensis and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata are typical species of winter conditions. Redundancy analysis reveals preferences of species populations with

  7. Estimation of Sabkha evaporation as an important sink of groundwater on the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horovitz, Marcel; Schulz, Stephan; Köhne, John Maximilian; Rausch, Randolf; Siebert, Christian; Michelsen, Nils; Schüth, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Arid regions like the Arabian Peninsula are limited on water resources. Hence, it is important to estimate the water balance components. On the Arabian Shelf an important natural sink term are Sabkhas (salt flats) from which shallow saline groundwater evaporates. The Sabkhas are mostly located along the coast of the Arabian Gulf and in the Rub' Al Khali basin. The first task is to map the spatial distribution of the active Sabkhas, where evaporation of groundwater is taking place. The mapping is conducted in two steps via remote sensing. In the first phase potential Sabkhas are mapped by the use of thresholds of MODIS spectral band ratios 3/2, 3/6, and 6/7. For the second step we use the thermal band information of Landsat ETM+ 7 data to distinguish the active areas inside the potential Sabkhas from inactive areas. To check for a possible seasonal trend of the spatial distribution of active Sabkhas we compare satellite images after the rain season (May) and at the end of the dry season (September). The results of the classification are verified by ground truthing points, recorded during a field trip to Saudi Arabia in November 2012. As a second stage we estimate the evaporation rate by soil column experiments. To account for the textural variability of different Sabkhas in Saudi Arabia four undisturbed soil columns were extracted from the top layer. The soil columns have a height of approximately 50 cm and a diameter of 16 cm. With the experimental setup we determine evaporation rates according to water level and temperature. To determine the source (ascending groundwater, precipitation, or seawater) of the evaporating water several samples were taken. These samples are analyzed for the (i) chemical composition and the chloride-bromide-ratio compared with reference samples, (ii) 2H-18O-signature in pore water through vertical soil profiles, and (iii) isotopic signature of sulphate compared with reference samples.

  8. Interactions between Eurasian/African and Arabian plates: Eskişehir Fault, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Süha; Gündoğdu, Erdem; Bekler, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    The Eskişehir Fault is an active right-lateral widespread intra-continental deformation zone which separates central western Anatolia from the Aegean domain. The inversion of fault slip vectors along the Eskişehir Fault yields a strike-slip stress state with NW-trending σHmax (σ1) and NE-trending σHmin (σ3) axes since the Early Pliocene. A change in strike-slip faulting under a compressional stress regime: from old transpression to young transtension, probably occurred in the Quaternary. The inversion of the earthquake source mechanism indicates that the transtensional stress regime continues up to the present. The İnönü and Eskişehir Basins developed under the transtensional stress regime producing consistent and local normal faulting with a continuing NE-trending σHmin (σ3). The stress regime change resulted in a decrease in σHmax (σ1) and/or an increase in σHmin (σ3) stress magnitudes due to coeval influence of the superimposed plate forces and the interaction of three plates (Eurasian/African/Arabian): (1) continental collision of Eurasian/Arabian plates with Anatolian block in the east, (2) westward escape of the Anatolian block by anticlockwise rotation at the west-southwest border of the Eurasian and Arabian/African plates and (3) a complex subduction process between African and Eurasian plates along the Aegean (Hellenic) and the Cyprus arcs which favors western extrusion of the Anatolian block in the eastern Mediterranean region.

  9. New Interpretations of the Rayn Anticlines in the Arabian Basin Inferred from Gravity Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryan Anticlines comprise of a regularly-spaced set of super-giant anticlines oriented NNW, developed due to E-W compression in the Arabian Basin. Most prominent of these being: the Ghawar Anticline, followed by the Summan, Khurais Anticlines and Qatar Arch. Gravity anomaly is largely characteristic for both Ryan Anticlines and its smaller size version the Jinadriah Anticline in the Riyadh Salt Basin. It displays a bipolar gravity field - a zone of gravity high running along the fold axis that is flanked by asymmetric gravity lows. Available structural models commonly infer structural uplift for the median gravity high but ignore the flanking lows. Here we interpret the bipolar gravity anomaly due primarily to such anticline structures, while, the flanking gravity lows are due to greater sediment thickness largely compacted and deformed over the basement depressions. Further complexities are created due to the salt layer and its migration at the lower horizons of sediment strata. Such diagnostic gravity anomaly pattern is taken here as an evidence for basement tectonics due to prevailing crustal dynamics in the Arabian Basin. Density inversion provides details on the subsurface density variation due to the folding and structural configuration for the sediment layers, including the salt layer, affected by basement deformation. This interpretation is largely supported by gravity forward and inversion models given in the present study what is partly constrained by the available seismic, MT and deep resistivity lines and surface geologic mapping. Most of the oil-gas fields in this part of the Arabian Basin are further known for salt diapirism. In this study the gravity interpretation help in identification of salt diapirism directly overlying the basement is firstly given here for Jinadriah Anticline; that is next extended to a regional geologic cross-section traversing the Ryan Anticlines to infer probable subsurface continuation of salt diapirs directly overlying

  10. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, G.; Kalenderski, S.; Osipov, S.; Bangalath, H.

    2014-07-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred on 18-20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, North-Eastern Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front and associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates, Rub al Khali, An Nafud and Ad Dahna deserts, and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. The total amount of dust generated by the storm reached 93.76 Mt. About 80% of this amount deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt, and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligothrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we roughly estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea to be 6 Mt.

  11. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, G.; Kalenderski, S.; Osipov, S.; Bangalath, H.

    2015-01-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  12. Female reproductive tract anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eljarah, Abdulhakeem H; Al-Zghoul, Mohd B; Jawasreh, Khaleel; Ismail, Zuhair A Bani; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Elhalah, Ashraf N; Alsumadi, Maen M

    2012-01-01

    Female reproductive anatomy of the Arabian oryx is unknown. In this study, reproductive tracts of seven female Arabian oryx (aged 2 to 7 years) were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Observations and measurements were obtained in situ from dead animals during necropsy. Animals were allocated into two groups: cycling (n = 3; follicles or corpora lutea present) and not-cycling (n = 4; follicles or corpora lutea absent). Different reproductive tract segments for each animal in both groups were measured using a digital caliper. The mean, SD and range for each reproductive tract segment were generated and compared between groups. Female oryx reproductive anatomy share some anatomical characteristics with that of domestic ruminants except that the oryx uterus has no distinct uterine body and the cervix has two internal openings for each respective uterine horn. In addition, there were more than 8 rows of caruncles within each uterine horn. There were significant differences in the length and width (P < 0.05), but not in height, of both the right and left ovaries between cycling and not-cycling animals (P > 0.05). Posterior and anterior vaginal lengths varied between cycling and not-cycling groups (P < 0.05). Length of right and left oviducts, left and right uterine horns, cervix and vulva did not vary between cycling and not-cycling groups (P > 0.05). Defining this unique morphology of female Arabian oryx reproductive anatomy will help in the development of appropriate reproductive techniques in order to propagate this endangered species and control its reproduction. PMID:23420946

  13. Carbon cycling in the Mesopelagic Zone of the central Arabian Sea: Results from a simple model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.

    Using a 3-D hydrodynamic-ecosystem model, Anderson et al. (2007) investigated the carbon budget of the mesopelagic zone of the central Arabian Sea and concluded that the vertical supply of sinking particles from the euphotic zone is sufficient to meet the carbon demand of the mesopelagic biota. Justifying this conclusion, they argued that the predicted rates of bacterial production (BP) and particle export, 1.92 and 6.97 mmol C m-2 d-1, respectively, were consistent with field estimates. Bacteria were, however, assumed to be the sole agents of detritus turnover (DT) in the mesopelagic, their production being calculated from the product of a fixed bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) of 0.27 and DT. A new model of the mesopelagic food web in the central Arabian Sea is presented in which both bacteria and zooplankton act as consumers of detritus and in which BGE is ⩽0.135. The predicted ratio of BP:DT in the mesopelagic zone was 0.10, with bacteria accounting for 82% of total respiration (zooplankton are responsible for the remainder). If the carbon budget of Anderson et al. (2007) is recalculated assuming BP:DT of 0.10 (rather than 0.27), the resulting BP is then only 1.07 mmol C m-2 d-1, less than half the observational estimate of 2.38 mmol C m-2 d-1. The results presented herein therefore reopen the debate as to whether BP in the central Arabian Sea is, at least in part, fueled by external sources of organic matter such as lateral advection from the western basin.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  15. Peralkaline and peraluminous granites and related mineral deposits of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Existing geochemical and geologic data for many parts of the Arabian Shield were compiled as a basis for evaluating the resource potential of the granites of the Shield. Commodities associated with granites that have potential for economic mineral deposits include tin, tungsten, molybdenum, beryllium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements, and fluorite. Prospecting methods useful in discriminating those granites having significant economic potential include reconnaissance geologic mapping, petrographic and mineralogic studies, geochemical sampling of rock and wadi sediment, and radiometric surveying.

  16. Orogen-parallel Variation in Flexure of the Arabian Plate Beneath the Zagros Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirouz, M.; Avouac, J. P.; Simpson, G.; Hassanzadeh, J.; Herman, F.; Sternai, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros Mountains are the part of the Alpine-Himalayan chain that forms the northern margin of the Arabian plate and comprises a Neogene-Recent sedimentary basin that is forming in response to ongoing Arabia-Eurasia collision. Flexure of the Arabian lithosphere beneath the Zagros forms one of largest and most active basins in the world at which a backstripped deflection of a competent layer just below the foreland deposits represents its total amount of tectonic subsidence. As such, the Asmari Fm. can be used to analyze flexural bending and subsequently the amount of loading and elastic thickness of the Arabian lithosphere since the continent-continent collision started. In this study, flexure of the Arabian lithosphere is investigated using more than 100 boreholes and 60 interpreted seismic lines which show that the flexure is shallower (~ 1 km) and wider in the east and deeper (~6 km) and narrower towards the west (Figure 1). The shallow and wide eastern foredeep has little accommodation space due to small tectonic loads and the thick lithosphere in this region. In addition, viscous strength in the eastern sector leads to a wide deformation belt with low topography and low surface slopes. These factors, combined with arid climatic conditions, produce low sediment supply to the foreland basin so that it remains under-filled even though the foreland basin is shallow. In contrast, the western part of the Zagros region shows much larger accommodation space due to the combination of large loads and a relatively thin elastic plate. In the western sector, frictional basal strength and steeper topography along with more humid climatic conditions leading to a large supply of sediment to the foreland which is completely filled even though the foreland basin is deep. Our results also show that the Zagros foreland basin migrated towards south through the Neogene; however, the way of propagation is not fully understood yet. The eastern depocenter of the Zagros foreland

  17. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Blank, H.R.; Healy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is

  18. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  19. Multiple regression approach to optimize drilling operations in the Arabian Gulf area

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Betairi, E.A.; Moussa, M.M.; Al-Otaibi, S.

    1988-03-01

    This paper reports a successful application of multiple regression analysis, supported by a detailed statistical study to verify the Bourgoyne and Young model. The model estimates the optimum penetration rate (ROP), weight on bit (WOB), and rotary speed under the effect of controllable and uncontrollable factors. Field data from three wells in the Arabian Gulf were used and emphasized the validity of this model. The model coefficients are sensitive to the number of points included. The correlation coefficients and multicollinearity sensitivity of each drilling parameter on the ROP are studied.

  20. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  2. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-05-01

    The authors report zircon U-Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr data from sample Z-103, a fine-grained granodiorite from the Jabal Khida region of the Saudi Arabian Shield (lat 21/sup 0/19'N; long 44/sup 0/50'W). The measurements yield conclusive evidence for continental crust of early Proterozoic age (approx.1630 Ma) at that locality. Furthermore, lead-isotope data indicate an even earlier, perhaps Archean, crustal history for the source of the lower Proterozoic rocks. 17 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Characterization of male reproductive anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Eljarah, A; Al-Zghoul, M B; Jawasreh, K; Ababneh, M; Alsumadi, M; Alhalah, A; Ismail, Z Bani

    2012-07-01

    Reproductive tracts of four male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Shaumari Nature Reserve in Jordan were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Animals were allocated into two groups based on their age: Group 1 (n = 2, males were 12 and 14 mo old) and Group 2 (n = 2, males were 7 and 9 yrs old). Observations regarding the morphology, position and orientation of different reproductive organs were made. The external and internal genital organs of male oryx were similar to other domestic ruminant species with minor differences. PMID:22444562

  4. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Gettings, M. E.; Blank, H. R.; Healy, J. H.

    1985-02-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovičić discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is interpreted

  5. Latitudinal and longitudinal variation in aerosol characteristics from Sun photometer and MODIS over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during ICARB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S.

    2008-07-01

    Spatial variations in aerosol optical properties as function of latitude and longitude are analysed over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during ICARB cruise period of March-May 2006 from in situ sun photometer and MODIS (Terra, Aqua) satellite measurements. Monthly mean 550 nm aerosol optical depths (AODs) over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea show an increase from March to May both in spatial extent and magnitude. AODs are found to increase with latitude from 4°N to 20°N over the Bay of Bengal while over Arabian Sea, variations are not significant. Sun photometer and MODIS AODs agree well within ±1σ variation. Bay of Bengal AOD (0.28) is higher than the Arabian Sea (0.24) latitudinally. Aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) is higher than 0.6 over Bay of Bengal, while FMF in the Arabian Sea is about 0.5. Bay of Bengal α(˜1) is higher than the Arabian Sea value of 0.7, suggesting the dominance of fine mode aerosols over Bay of Bengal which is corroborated by higher FMF values over Bay of Bengal. Air back trajectory analyses suggest that aerosols from different source regions contribute differently to the optical characteristics over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

  6. Timing, cause and consequences of mid-Holocene climate transition in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Rajeev; Naik, Dinesh Kumar; Nigam, Rajiv; Gaur, Anuruddh Singh

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct centennial scale quantitative changes in surface seawater temperature (SST), evaporation-precipitation (from Mg/Ca and δ18O of surface dwelling planktic foraminifera), productivity (from relative abundance of Globigerina bulloides), carbon burial (from %CaCO3 and organic carbon [%Corg]) and dissolved oxygen at sediment-water interface, covering the entire Holocene, from a core collected from the eastern Arabian Sea. From the multi-proxy record, we define the timing, consequences and possible causes of the mid-Holocene climate transition (MHCT). A distinct shift in evaporation-precipitation (E-P) is observed at 6.4 ka, accompanied by a net cooling of SST. The shift in SST and E-P is synchronous with a change in surface productivity. A concurrent decrease is also noted in both the planktic foraminiferal abundance and coarse sediment fraction. A shift in carbon burial, as inferred from both the %CaCO3 and %Corg, coincides with a change in surface productivity. A simultaneous decrease in dissolved oxygen at the sediment-water interface, suggests that changes affected both the surface and subsurface water. A similar concomitant change is also observed in other cores from the Arabian Sea as well as terrestrial records, suggesting a widespread regional MHCT. The MHCT coincides with decreasing low-latitude summer insolation, perturbations in total solar intensity and an increase in atmospheric CO2.

  7. Evolution and extinction of Afro-Arabian primates near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

    PubMed

    Seiffert, Erik R

    2007-01-01

    Revised age estimates for the primate-bearing localities of the Jebel Qatrani Formation (Fayum area, northern Egypt) have provided a new perspective on primate response to early Oligocene climate change in North Africa. Environmental changes associated with early Oligocene cooling might have driven the local extinction of at least 4 strepsirrhine primate clades (adapids, djebelemurines, plesiopithecids and galagids). Contrary to previous suggestions, oligopithecid (and possibly proteopithecid) anthropoids persisted beyond the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (EOB) in the Fayum area, and the former group evidently continued to diversify through the early Oligocene at lower latitudes. Propliopithecids and parapithecine parapithecids first appear in the Jebel Qatrani Formation millions of years after the EOB, so their derived dental and gnathic features can no longer be interpreted as sudden adaptive morphological responses to earliest Oligocene climatic events. Evidence for latitudinal contraction of Afro-Arabian primate distribution through the early Oligocene suggests that the profound late Oligocene restructuring of Afro-Arabian primate communities is most likely to have occurred in equatorial and low-latitude tropical Africa.

  8. Trace-element geochemistry of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, John S.; Knight, R.J.; VanTrump, G.; Budahn, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations determined for all of the trace elements included in this study of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield are best described by log-normal distributions. The trace elements are divided into two groups: (1) compatible lithophile and siderophile elements (strontium, cobalt, scandium, manganese, europium, and titanium) and (2) incompatible lithophile elements (uranium, thorium, tantalum, rubidium, and rare-earth elements, except europium). The compatible elements exhibit greatest concentrations in the metaluminous postorogenic granites, and concentrations decrease with increasing degree of magma evolution. Economic potential for these elements and other geochemically similar elements is considered to be low. The concentrations of the incompatible elements increase with increasing degree of magma evolution and are greatest in the peralkaline and peraluminous granites. There is some geologic evidence that pegmatite and vein-forming processes were operative toward the end stage of postorogenic magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Shield, and therefore there is some probability for economic potential for these elements. It is suggested that such potential is greatest where highly evolved postorogenic granites intruded volatile (generally water )-rich country rocks.

  9. Parameters influencing prevalence and outcome of tendonitis in Thoroughbred and Arabian racehorses.

    PubMed

    Kalisiak, O

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis are among most prevalent musculoskeletal injuries observed in racehorses. The aim of this study was to determine which horse and race-related parameters can help to diminish the possibility of injury or--when injury has occurred--to evaluate the potential for the horse to continue a successful career after convalescence. Special attention was given to the comparison of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses. 187 horses with ultrasonographically visible lesions were included in the study. Following parameters were analyzed: structure (Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon [SDFT], Deep Digital Flexor Tendon [DDFT], Suspensory Ligament [SL]); percentage of cross sectional area increase; hypoechogenic lesion character; in horses with SDF tendonitis - tendonitis grade according to Genovese. This study showed that Thoroughbreds are more at risk of musculoskeletal problems than Arabian racehorses. In both breeds, the most frequent injuries concern SDFT, then SL. Over 95% of tendonitis concern forelimbs. In Thoroughbreds, the prevalence of tendonitis is higher in bigger horses, in males when compared to females and in fence/steeple racehorses when compared to flat track racehorses. The inside limb is more at risk of SDF tendonitis, when the external limb - of SL desmitis. Tendonitis severity increases with age and is greater in steeplechasers when compared to flat track racehorses. The outcome of tendonitis without hypoechogenic lesion is much better than that with hypoechogenic lesion. Evaluation of hypoechogenic lesion length is an easy and accurate prognosis tool, as the chances of returning to racing drop dramatically with lesions longer than 12 cm.

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes.

  11. Simulation of impact of oil spill in the ocean--a case study of Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Verma, Parikshit; Wate, Satish R; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-11-01

    To meet the growing energy demand worldwide, oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased rapidly both in onshore and offshore areas. The produced oil from the ocean bed is transported onshore either by ship or pipeline. This has increased the risk of oil spill in the coastal area. In order to prepare an emergency preparedness plan and to assess the magnitude of risk involved in transporting and offloading oil, oil spill simulation studies play an important role. This paper describes a simulation of oil spill in coastal bay of Arabian Gulf where new developments are taking place using MIKE 21 model. The developments include a diesel based thermal power plant near Sir Baniyas Island, which is an ecological fragile area. Based on the project activity, two probable scenarios, one for diesel leak (250 m3/h) for 1 h and the other for instantaneous spill (500 m3) are considered. The MIKE 21 model was calibrated for hydrodynamics using measured field data followed by diesel-spill simulation to track its movement in the Arabian Gulf. The results for both leak and instantaneous spill indicate that spilled diesel will not move towards the Sir Banyas Island and more than 45% of the diesel will be evaporated within 48 h of oil spill. Based on the results, a clean up and contingency plan is proposed to mitigate the adverse impacts arising due to diesel spill in the study area.

  12. Rapid late Pleistocene/Holocene uplift and coastal evolution of the southern Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren W.; Bailey, Richard M.; Hampton, Brian A.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Lu, Zhong; Clark, David W.; James, Rhodri H. R.; Al Ramadan, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43-53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17-30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3-5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.

  13. A field experiment to assess impact of chemically dispersed oil on Arabian Gulf corals

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gore, R.S.; Cuddeback, J.E.; Hofmann, J.E.; Marszalek, D.S.

    1983-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted on a coral reef at Jurayd Island (Saudi Arabia) in the Arabian Gulf to study the effects of chemically dispersed oil on local corals. Portions of the reef were exposed to predetermined concentrations of oil alone, dispersant alone, and oil-plus-dispersant mixtures. Areas of the reef not exposed to any of the toxicants were used as controls. Arabian Light Crude and Corexit 9527 dispersant were the test toxicants. Two series of experiments were conducted beginning in September 1981, one with a 24-hour exposure period and the other with a 5-day (120-hour) exposure period. Corals were stained for growth rate studies and extensively photographed to document any observed effects. Corals were examined for biological impacts immediately after the exposures, and then at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and hydrocarbon content were recorded during the exposure periods. Coral growth appeared unaffected by exposure to the toxicants. Some Acropora species corals exposed to dispersed oil for 5 days exhibited delayed effects, which became apparent during the relatively cold winter season.

  14. Seasonal characteristics of the large-scale moisture flux transport over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, H.; Ammar, K.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between the lower tropospheric (1000 to 850 hPa) large-scale moisture flux transport and the precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula (AP), on a seasonal basis, using the NCEP-NCAR gridded dataset for the 53-year period (1958-2010), is investigated. The lower tropospheric moisture flux divergence occurs due to the Hadley cell-based descending air over the AP, as well as due to the presence of Somali jet in dry season (June to September) for the southern (≤22° N) AP domain, leading to significantly reduced precipitation in the AP. The AP thus acts more as a net transporter of moisture flux from adjacent Sea areas to nearby regions. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Artic Oscillation (AO) climatic indices are found to modulate significantly the net seasonal moisture flux into the AP region animating from the Mediterranean Sea, and the Arabian Sea, both for the northern (≥22° N) and southern AP domains.

  15. Paleogeography and depositional environments of the Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Nairn, A.E.M.; Alsharhan, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    In the Arabian Gulf it is possible to trace the lithological variations in the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian to Aptian) Thamama Group outward from the type area in Abu Dhabi-Qatar using the wealth of available sub-surface data. It is apparent that the stratigraphic complexities found in correlations of the Lower Cretaceous are only in small part related to depositional problems; rather, to a considerable extent, they reflect the history of geological exploration. The basic paleogeographic situation from littoral conditions against the Precambrian Shield into carbonate ramp sediments to the east, and their relative migration across the Arabian Platform, can be summarized in a number of cartoons. Two principal cycles can be defined, the younger beginning in the Barremian with an extensive clastic wedge. The principal source of sediment lay to the west and northwest. Sandstones are only common in the littoral zone; over much of the shelf, even argillaceous material is relatively uncommon. Of great economic importance was the development of biohermal algae and rudists which accumulated along the margins of an intracratonic basin late in the second cycle. Following deep weathering and resubmergence, these became important hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g., Bu Hasa field). Arguments can be derived for smaller biohermal accumulations within the intracratonic basin being due to halokinetic activity.

  16. Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

    1999-11-15

    A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

  17. Distribution of membrane lipids of planktonic Crenarchaeota in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Hopmans, Ellen C; Prahl, Fredrick G; Wakeham, Stuart G; Schouten, Stefan

    2002-06-01

    Intact core tetraether membrane lipids of marine planktonic Crenarchaeota were quantified in water column-suspended particulate matter obtained from four depth intervals ( approximately 70, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 m) at seven stations in the northwestern Arabian Sea to investigate the distribution of the organisms at various depths. Maximum concentrations generally occurred at 500 m, near the top of the oxygen minimum zone, and the concentrations at this depth were, in most cases, slightly higher than those in surface waters. In contrast, lipids derived from eukaryotes (cholesterol) and from eukaryotes and bacteria (fatty acids) were at their highest concentrations in surface waters. This indicates that these crenarchaeotes are not restricted to the photic zone of the ocean, which is consistent with the results of recent molecular biological studies. Since the Arabian Sea has a strong oxygen minimum zone between 100 and 1,000 m, with minimum oxygen levels of <1 microM, the abundance of crenarchaeotal membrane lipids at 500 m suggests that planktonic Crenarchaeota are probably facultative anaerobes. The cell numbers we calculated from the concentrations of membrane lipids are similar to those reported for the Central Pacific Ocean, supporting the recent estimation of M. B. Karner, E. F. DeLong, and D. M. Karl ( Nature 409:507-510, 2001) that the world's oceans contain ca. 10(28) cells of planktonic Crenarchaeota.

  18. Regional caprock-destroying dolomite on the middle jurassic to early cretaceous Arabian shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Broomhall, R.W.; Allan, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Massive, stratigraphically-discordant dolomite occurs on the late Mesozoic Arabian Shelf in the northern portion of Aramco's main producing area. This dolomite is associated with solution-collapse of Hith-Arab anhydrite seals and with enhancement of porosity and permeability in tight limestone seals within the region. By destroying regional caprocks, dolomitization has had an adverse effect on oil accumulation. The spatial extent of this dolomite was determined by the examination of Formation Density/Compensated Neutron wireline logs and sample description logs from 50 onshore and offshore wells. Fluid inclusion geothermometry reveals that baroque dolomite precipitated from brine with salinities of 223,000 to 249,000 ppm TDS at temperatures of 102 to 134/sup 0/C onshore and 131 to 155/sup 0/C offshore. Petroleum fluid inclusions within the baroque dolomite indicate hydrocarbon migration contemporaneous with dolomitization. Carbon and oxygen isotope data suggest that that brine which precipitated baroque dolomite was also responsible for the massive recrystallization of shelf limestone to form host dolomite. Chemical analyses of formation waters suggest that brine which migrated out of halite deposits during burial was the dolomitizing fluid. The geological and geochemical attributes of Arabian Shelf dolomites strongly resemble those reported for dolomite associated with Alpine and Mississippi Valley-type carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits in Europe and North America.

  19. Simulating aerosols over Arabian Peninsula with CHIMERE: Sensitivity to soil, surface parameters and anthropogenic emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum, S. Naseema; Gherboudj, Imen; Chaouch, Naira; Couvidat, Florian; Menut, Laurent; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-03-01

    A three dimensional chemistry transport model, CHIMERE, was used to simulate the aerosol optical depths (AOD) over the Arabian Peninsula desert with an offline coupling of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulations were undertaken with: (i) different horizontal and vertical configurations, (ii) new datasets derived for soil/surface properties, and (iii) EDGAR-HTAP anthropogenic emissions inventories. The model performance evaluations were assessed: (i) qualitatively using MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) deep blue (DB) AOD data for the two local dust events of August 6th and 23rd (2013), and (ii) quantitatively using AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) AOD observations, CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) aerosol extinction profiles, and AOD simulations from various forecast models. The model results were observed to be highly sensitive to erodibility and aerodynamic surface roughness length. The use of new datasets on soil erodibility, derived from the MODIS reflectance, and aerodynamic surface roughness length (z0), derived from the ERA-Interim datasets, significantly improved the simulation results. Simulations with the global EDGAR-HTAP anthropogenic emission inventories brought the simulated AOD values closer to the observations. Performance testing of the adapted model for the Arabian Peninsula domain with improved datasets showed good agreement between AERONET AOD measurements and CHIMERE simulations, where the correlation coefficient (R) is 0.6. Higher values of the correlation coefficients and slopes were observed for the dusty periods compared to the non-dusty periods.

  20. Deformation history of the Neoproterozoic basement complex, Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia, is occupied by four main rock units; gneisses, metavolcanics, metasediments and syn- to post-tectonic granitoids. Field and structural studies reveal that the area was subjected to at least three phases of deformation (D1, D2 and D3). The structural features of the D1 are represented by tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), axial plane foliation (S1) and stretching lineations (L1). This phase is believed to be resulted from an early NW-SE contractional phase due to the amalgamation between Asir and Jeddah tectonic terranes. D2 deformation phase progressively overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by thrusts, minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds. These structures indicate a top-to-the-NW movement direction and compressional regime during the D2 phase. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during this phase. D3 structures are manifested F3 folds, which are open with steep to subvertical axial planes and axes moderately to steeply plunging towards the E, ENE and ESE directions, L3 is represented by crenulation lineations and kink bands. These structures attest NE-SW contractional phase, concurrent with the accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) to the Saharan Metacraton (SM) and the final assembly between the continental blocks of East and West Gondwana.

  1. Study of some natural radionuclides near the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A. S.; Shabana, S. I.; Farouk, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    There is no authoritative study on marine radioactivity in the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia nor is there any trusty measurements in the Red Sea's side of Saudi Arabia as well. Different surface sediment samples have been collected in three coastal areas from the the Saudi side of the Arabian Gulf‥ Those samples were collected at different depths varying from 5 to 25 meters, depending on the surface type and its geological composition, from 11 locations along the gulf coast. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides 40K, 238U, 235U, 230Th, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th, and 228Ra were: 23.69-253.3, 23.11 - 39.76, 1.05 - 1.65, 0.20 - 1.83, 1.99 - 9.46, 0.12 - 0.95, 0.11 - 1.15, 1.25 - 10.26 Bq/Kg respectivelty. All natural radionuclides measurements fall within the international accepted limits.

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. PMID:26895593

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  4. Oblique sinistral transpression in the Arabian shield: The timing and kinematics of a Neoproterozoic suture zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.R.; Kattan, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah-Ruwah fault zone is a belt of highly strained rocks that extends in a broad curve across the northeastern Arabian shield. It is a subvertical shear zone, 5-30 km wide and over 600 km long, and is interpreted as a zone of oblique sinistral transpression that forms the suture between the Afif terrane and the Asir-Jiddah-Hijaz-Hulayfah superterrane. Available data suggest that the terranes began to converge sometime after 720 Ma, were in active contact at about 680 Ma, and were in place, with suturing complete, by 630 Ma, The fault zone was affected by sinistral horizontal and local vertical shear, and simultaneous flattening and fault-zone-parallel extension. Structures include sinistral sense-of-shear indicators, L-S tectonite, and coaxial stretching lineations and fold axes. The stretching lineations switch from subhorizontal to subvertical along the fault zone indicating significant variation in finite strain consistent with an origin by oblique transpression. The sense of shear on the fault zone suggests sinistral trajectories for the converging terranes, although extrapolating the shear sense of the suture zone to infer far-field motion must be done with caution. The amalgamation model derived from the chronologic and structural data for the fault zone modifies an existing model of terrane amalgamation and clarifies the definitions of two deformational events (the Nabitah orogeny and the Najd fault system) that are widely represented in the Arabian shield. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Parameters influencing prevalence and outcome of tendonitis in Thoroughbred and Arabian racehorses.

    PubMed

    Kalisiak, O

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis are among most prevalent musculoskeletal injuries observed in racehorses. The aim of this study was to determine which horse and race-related parameters can help to diminish the possibility of injury or--when injury has occurred--to evaluate the potential for the horse to continue a successful career after convalescence. Special attention was given to the comparison of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses. 187 horses with ultrasonographically visible lesions were included in the study. Following parameters were analyzed: structure (Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon [SDFT], Deep Digital Flexor Tendon [DDFT], Suspensory Ligament [SL]); percentage of cross sectional area increase; hypoechogenic lesion character; in horses with SDF tendonitis - tendonitis grade according to Genovese. This study showed that Thoroughbreds are more at risk of musculoskeletal problems than Arabian racehorses. In both breeds, the most frequent injuries concern SDFT, then SL. Over 95% of tendonitis concern forelimbs. In Thoroughbreds, the prevalence of tendonitis is higher in bigger horses, in males when compared to females and in fence/steeple racehorses when compared to flat track racehorses. The inside limb is more at risk of SDF tendonitis, when the external limb - of SL desmitis. Tendonitis severity increases with age and is greater in steeplechasers when compared to flat track racehorses. The outcome of tendonitis without hypoechogenic lesion is much better than that with hypoechogenic lesion. Evaluation of hypoechogenic lesion length is an easy and accurate prognosis tool, as the chances of returning to racing drop dramatically with lesions longer than 12 cm. PMID:22708365

  6. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes. PMID:25592965

  7. Lower Carboniferous rugose corals from the Arabian Plate: An insight from the Hakkari area (SE Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denayer, Julien; Hoşgör, Izzet

    2014-01-01

    The Köprülü Formation of the Hakkari area (SE Turkey) is composed of a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic succession of Early Carboniferous age. The lower part of the formation yielded an abundant but poorly diversified coral fauna composed of small non-dissepimented solitary rugose corals, namely Rotiphyllum cf. simulatumFedorowski 2009, Zaphrentites parallela (Carruthers, 1910), cf. Gorizdronia, gen. et sp. indet., Amplexizaphrentis sp. and Amplexizaphrentis zapense sp. nov. and specimens of Caninia cf. cornucopiaeMichelin in Gervais 1840, a dissepimented solitary coral showing a counter septum-related columella. The lower part of the Köprülü Formation is of supposed late Tournaisian age based on micropaleontological data. However, the coral assemblage indicates rather an early Viséan age. The Hakkari corals form a strongly facies-related association ("Cyathaxonia fauna") and are compared to other areas with some difficulties. The most similar, time-equivalent faunal associations is that of the Sinai Peninsula (NE Egypt). Both localities belonged, during Early Carboniferous times, to the Arabian Platform situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. The Gondwana-related Taurides units (Aladağ), North Iran Block and Afghanistan, characterized by a dominant carbonate facies and more diversified coral faunas, formed during these times, the distal parts of the Arabian Platform.

  8. Uppermost mantle Pn Velocity of the Arabian Plate, a Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Lazki, A. I.; Al-Damegh, K. S.; Al-Enizi, A.; Elhusain, I.; Al-Mahrooqi, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Arabian plate represents a unique tectonic setup. The uniqueness of this plate is its boundaries that constitute the three known types of plate boundaries. The Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden represent the south and southwest plate boundary with Africa plate. Farther north the Dead Sea Fault system represents the remainder of the northwestern boundary with Africa plate. Continent-continent collision along the Bitlis-Zagros Suture zones represents the northern and northeastern boundary with Eurasia plate. Farther south the convergent plate boundary is manifested by the Makran Subduction Zone. Finally, the Owen and Murray Transform Faults represent the southeast boundary of Arabia with India plate. The broad objective of this study is to map uppermost mantle Pn velocity and anisotropy within the Arabian plate and around its boundaries. Zones that are along the north and the northeast boundaries of Arabia plate historically and in recent years has been effected by devastating earthquakes, a recent example is the Bam earthquake on December, 2003. In this region, accurate earthquake location is essential to delineate seismically active zones, where, without proper velocity models for the region, located earthquake may have large location error. In this preliminary study we present uppermost mantle Pn velocity tomography results of the north and northeastern regions of Arabia plate. We used in this study Pn phase data from the bulletins of Oman Seismic Network, Saudi Seismic Network, Kuwait Seismic Network, International Seismological Center and the National Earthquake Information Center,USA.

  9. Mapping of Coral Reef Environment in the Arabian Gulf Using Multispectral Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Romdhane, H.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs of the Arabian Gulf are subject to several pressures, thus requiring conservation actions. Well-designed conservation plans involve efficient mapping and monitoring systems. Satellite remote sensing is a cost-effective tool for seafloor mapping at large scales. Multispectral remote sensing of coastal habitats, like those of the Arabian Gulf, presents a special challenge due to their complexity and heterogeneity. The present study evaluates the potential of multispectral sensor DubaiSat-2 in mapping benthic communities of United Arab Emirates. We propose to use a spectral-spatial method that includes multilevel segmentation, nonlinear feature analysis and ensemble learning methods. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used for comparison of classification performances. Comparative data were derived from the habitat maps published by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. The spectral-spatial method produced 96.41% mapping accuracy. SVM classification is assessed to be 94.17% accurate. The adaptation of these methods can help achieving well-designed coastal management plans in the region.

  10. Garnet compositions and their use as indicators of peraluminous granitoid petrogenesis - southeastern Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Garnet, an uncommon accessory mineral in igneous rocks, occurs in seven small peraluminous granitoid plutons in the southeastern Arabian Shield; textural equilibrium between garnet and other host granitoid minerals indicates that the garnets crystallized from their host magmas. Compositions of the garnets form three groups that reflect host-granitoid compositions, which in turn reflect source compositions and tectonic regimes in which the host magmas were generated. Garnets from the seven plutons have almandine-rich cores and spessartine-rich rims. This reverse zoning depicts host magma compositional evolution; i.e. rimward spessartine enrichment resulted from progressive, host-magma manganese enrichment. The garnets are heavy rare-earth element enriched; (Lu/La)N ranges from 13 to 355 and one of the garnets contains spectacularly elevated abundances of Y, Ta, Th, U, Zn, Zr, Hf, Sn, and Nb. Involvement of garnets with these trace element characteristics in magma genesis or evolution can have dramatic effects on trace element signatures of the resulting magmas. Other researchers suggest that Mn-enriched magmas are most conducive to garnet nucleation. Although the garnetiferous granitoids discussed here are slightly Mn enriched, other genetically similar peraluminous Arabian granitoids lack garnet; Mn enrichment alone does not guarantee garnet nucleation. The presence of excess alumina in the magma may be a prerequisite for garnet nucleation. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Dust Optical Properties Over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula Derived from the AERONET Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Yu, H.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Dust optical properties over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula are extracted from the quality assured multi-year datasets obtained at 14 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We select the data with (a) large aerosol optical depth (AOD >= 0.4 at 440 nm) and (b) small Angstrom exponent (A(sub ext)<= 0.2) for retaining high accuracy and reducing interference of non-dust aerosols. The result indicates that the major fraction of high aerosol optical depth days are dominated by dust over these sites even though it varies depending on location and time. We have found that the annual mean and standard deviation of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, real refractive index, and imaginary refractive index for Saharan and Arabian desert dust is 0.944 +/- 0.005, 0.752 +/- 0.014, 1.498 +/- 0.032, and 0.0024 +/- 0.0034 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively. Dust aerosol selected by this method is less absorbing than the previously reported values over these sites. The weaker absorption of dust from this study is consistent with the studies using remote sensing techniques from satellite. These results can help to constrain uncertainties in estimating global dust shortwave radiative forcing.

  12. Dust-induced episodic phytoplankton blooms in the Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Prasanna Kumar, S.

    2014-10-01

    Phytoplankton blooms mediated by the oceanic supply of nutrients is a well-understood phenomenon in the Arabian Sea (AS), while the role of dust deposition in enhancing phytoplankton is less explored. In this paper, we show that during winter monsoon the central Arabian Sea (CAS), away from the realm of active winter convection, supports episodic phytoplankton blooms. These blooms cannot be fully explained by the oceanic input of nutrients through processes such as advection and mixing in the upper ocean. Using satellite images, we tracked about 45 dust storms over the AS during the winter monsoons of 2002-2003 to 2010-2011 of which only eight were followed by chlorophyll enhancements. We used a regional climate model to get possible fluxes of dust and the amount of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and iron) that can be derived from the dust depositions. Additionally, we used published in situ nutrients data in conjunction with carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus and iron: carbon molar ratios to compute the potential requirements of different nutrients for the eight cases of chlorophyll enhancements. It is likely that the deepening of the mixed layer can incorporate nitrate and phosphate, but not enough iron from the subsurface waters leading to potential iron limitation. Although, all the phytoplankton blooms within CAS were observed following episodic dust events, only four blooms can be attributed to dust depositions. Our work shows that phytoplankton blooms fueled by episodic dust storms are important in driving the interannual variability in chlorophyll in a region away from active winter convection.

  13. Variations in productivity and eolian fluxes in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the past 110 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, Ali; Marcantonio, Franco; Schulz, Hartmut

    2004-04-01

    High-resolution (one to two samples/ka) radionuclide proxy records from core 93KL in the northeastern Arabian Sea provide evidence for millennial climate variability over the past 110 ka. We interpret 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes as a proxy for eolian input, and authigenic uranium concentrations as a proxy for past productivity. We attribute orbital and suborbital variations in both proxies to changes in the intensity of the southwest Indian Ocean monsoon. The highest 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes occur at times that are consistent with the timing of the Younger Dryas, Heinrich events 1-7 and cold Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial events recorded in the GISP2 ice core. Such high dust fluxes may be due to a weakened southwest monsoon in conjunction with strengthened northwesterlies from the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia. Authigenic uranium concentrations, on the other hand, are highest during warm Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials when the southwest monsoon is intensified relative to the northwesterly winds. Our results also indicate that on orbital timescales maximum average eolian fluxes coincide with the timing of marine isotopic stage (MIS) 2 and 4, while minimum fluxes occur during MIS 1, 3 and 5. Although the forcing mechanism(s) controlling suborbital variabilities in monsoonal intensity is still debated, our findings suggest an atmospheric teleconnection between the low-latitude southwest monsoon and North Atlantic climate.

  14. An evaluation of the zircon method of isotopic dating in the Southern Arabian Craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, J.A.; Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.G.; Fleck, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A zircon study has been made on eleven samples of igneous rocks from the Saudi Arabian Craton. Ages of sized and magnetic fractions of zircon concentrates show variable degrees of discordance which seem to result from a very young disturbance that produces linear arrays in the Concordia plot. Model age calculations based on a statistically and geologically reasonable lower intercept produce very consistent internal relationships. The Pan African Orogeny, considered to be responsible for loss of radiogenic argon and strontium from minerals of many rocks, does not appear to have affected the zircon data, even though uplift had exposed the rocks of the Arabian Shield at that time. Tonalite, granodiorite, and crosscutting leucoadamellite bodies in the southern part of the An Nimas Bathylith yield ages in the time range 820-760 Ma. A narrow time range of 660 to 665 million years was indicated for ages of widely separated and compositionally different intrusive bodies all to the east of the An Nimas Bathylith. This work suggests that the younger end of the age spectrum established from regional K-Ar and Rb-Sr measurements may be underestimated, and that magmatic activity could be more episodic than previously assumed.

  15. Study of aerosol transport through precipitation chemistry over Arabian Sea during winter and summer monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, P. S.; Rao, P. S. P.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Chate, D. M.; Ali, K.; Momin, G. A.

    Precipitation samples over the Arabian Sea collected during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) in 2002-2003 were examined for major water soluble components and acidity of aerosols during the period of winter and summer monsoon seasons. The pH of rain water was alkaline during summer monsoon and acidic during winter monsoon. Summer monsoon precipitation showed dominance of sea-salt components (˜90%) and significant amounts of non-sea salt (nss) Ca 2+ and SO 42-. Winter monsoon precipitation samples showed higher concentration of NO 3- and NH 4+ compared to that of summer monsoon, indicating more influence of anthropogenic sources. The rain water data is interpreted in terms of long-range transport and background pollution. In summer monsoon, air masses passing over the north African and Gulf continents which may be carrying nss components are advected towards the observational location. Also, prevailing strong southwesterly winds at surface level produced sea-salt aerosols which led to high sea-salt contribution in precipitation. While in winter monsoon, it was observed that, air masses coming from Asian region towards observational location carry more pollutants like NO 3-and nss SO 42- that acidify the precipitation.

  16. Crust and uppermantle structure of the Arabian shield from receiver runction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Ramesh, D.; Saul, J.; Sarkar, D.; Kind, R.

    2001-12-01

    Modelling of the receiver functions from an eight-station PASSCAL network on the Saudi Arabian shield reveals a complex crust with the presence of intra-crustal discontinuities and 7-10 km thick low-velocity layers at varied depths. The Moho depth beneath the stations generally varies between 35-38 km, and is thus shallower than that reported for most of the Proterozoic shields. The crust appears to be more felsic than the global Precambrian shield average, as evidenced by relatively low Poisson's ratios (0.25-0.26). The presence of a sub-crustal discontinuity associated with a positive velocity contrast at about 70 km depth is inferred beneath stations TAIF, RANI, AFIF and UQSK. Significant mantle stratification is observed beneath the Arabian shield, by way of two additional upper mantle discontinuities at about 230 km (Lehmann discontinuity) and 340 km depth. The presence of the 340 km discontinuity together with diffuse and delayed conversions from the 410 and 660 km boundaries suggests a thermally complex upper mantle. The region between 340 and 410 km appears to be a zone of reduced velocities. In agreement with inferences from tomographic studies and anisotropy measurements, our study supports the presence of a warm and deforming upper mantle.

  17. The secondary calcification of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma assemblages in Arabian Sea waters and surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolalipour, Samereh; Schulz, Hartmut; Darling, Kate F.

    2014-05-01

    The planktic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (N. pachyderma (sin); Darling et al., 2006) has been recently considered as a (paleo) climatic index in Arabian Sea waters, where increased abundance correlates to the South West monsoon upwelling. Genetic characterization of living specimens collected in multinets off the Oman margin and in the central Arabian Sea indicate the presence of an new genotype of N. pachyderma (Type VIII) (Darling et al., submitted) in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Ecological investigation on these samples reveals that this new genotype, which is the only one to date found in this region, can tolerate warm water temperatures of up to 28° C. It was also found alive below the photic zone within the prominent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea. To extend our knowledge and understanding of this N. pachyderma Type VIII genotype, we have focused on a morphological analysis of randomly picked specimens (live and dead) from the multinets collected from 200 m down to 700 m water column and from core top sediments distributed over a wide range of water depths (607-3951 m) off the Oman margin in the Arabian Sea. We here use Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the size, shape variation and test wall structure of the penultimate chamber. High resolution measurements confirm the model of chamber growth in non-spinose bilamellar foraminifera of a three or four-layered test wall. As ontogenetic calcite, we were able to visualize the inner lining, the outer layer and the outermost layer formed during the growth of the ultimate chamber. Some of the specimens also showed a fourth layer, which can be attributed to encrustation, observed in higher-latitude specimens of both hemispheres to result from secondary calcification as a terminal step in ontogenetic maturation. To verify the test wall growth and secondary calcification the measurements of the layers were related to the maximum test diameter of the shell. The measurement

  18. Features of aerosol optical depths over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea during premonsoon season: Variabilities and anthropogenic influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S.

    2008-06-01

    Spectral aerosol optical depths (AOD) measured on board a cruise over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea during March-May 2006 are analyzed. Mean 0.5 μm AOD over the Bay of Bengal is higher (0.36) than the Arabian Sea (0.25). AODs obtained from MODIS Terra and Aqua are found to track well the Sun photometer AODs. A comparison between Sun photometer and MODIS AODs yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.96. MODIS fine mode fraction over the Bay of Bengal is higher (0.71) when compared to the Arabian Sea value of 0.60. Ångström exponent (α) over the Bay of Bengal is higher at 1.12, indicating the dominance of smaller size aerosols in the aerosol columnar distribution than the Arabian Sea (0.73), while Ångström coefficient (β) is comparable at 0.15 and 0.16 for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. Background AODs are higher over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea indicating a strong continental influence. The scaling distance is lower over the Bay of Bengal due to nearly similar AODs, while the scaling distance over the Arabian Sea is about 2000 km. The anthropogenic influence in AODs over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea estimated using wind speed dependent AODs and maritime clean AODs are found to agree within ±1σ of the anthropogenic fraction obtained from MODIS AODs and FMFs. The mean anthropogenic contribution to the AODs estimated from the three methods is higher over the Bay of Bengal (68-75%) than the Arabian Sea (51-65%).

  19. Does size matter? Comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica) in the Saudi desert.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-04-01

    Heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the normal limits of homeothermy, is widely viewed as a key adaptation of arid-adapted ungulates. However, desert ungulates with a small body mass, i.e. a relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio and a small thermal inertia, are theoretically less likely to employ adaptive heterothermy than are larger ungulates. We measured body temperature and activity patterns, using implanted data loggers, in free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx, ±70 kg) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica, ±15 kg) inhabiting the same Arabian desert environment, at the same time. Compared to oryx, sand gazelle had higher mean daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 47.3, P = 0.0005), higher minimum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 42.6, P = 0.0006) and higher maximum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 11.0, P = 0.02). Despite these differences, both species responded similarly to changes in environmental conditions. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, maximum daily body temperature increased (F(1,6) = 84.0, P < 0.0001), minimum daily body temperature decreased (F(1,6) = 92.2, P < 0.0001), and daily body temperature amplitude increased (F(1,6) = 97.6, P < 0.0001) as conditions got progressively hotter and drier. There were no species differences in activity levels, however, both gazelle and oryx showed a biphasic or crepuscular rhythm during the warm wet season but shifted to a more nocturnal rhythm during the hot dry season. Activity was attenuated during the heat of the day at times when both species selected cool microclimates. These two species of Arabian ungulates employ heterothermy, cathemerality and shade seeking very similarly to survive the extreme, arid conditions of Arabian deserts, despite their size difference.

  20. Does size matter? Comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica) in the Saudi desert.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-04-01

    Heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the normal limits of homeothermy, is widely viewed as a key adaptation of arid-adapted ungulates. However, desert ungulates with a small body mass, i.e. a relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio and a small thermal inertia, are theoretically less likely to employ adaptive heterothermy than are larger ungulates. We measured body temperature and activity patterns, using implanted data loggers, in free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx, ±70 kg) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica, ±15 kg) inhabiting the same Arabian desert environment, at the same time. Compared to oryx, sand gazelle had higher mean daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 47.3, P = 0.0005), higher minimum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 42.6, P = 0.0006) and higher maximum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 11.0, P = 0.02). Despite these differences, both species responded similarly to changes in environmental conditions. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, maximum daily body temperature increased (F(1,6) = 84.0, P < 0.0001), minimum daily body temperature decreased (F(1,6) = 92.2, P < 0.0001), and daily body temperature amplitude increased (F(1,6) = 97.6, P < 0.0001) as conditions got progressively hotter and drier. There were no species differences in activity levels, however, both gazelle and oryx showed a biphasic or crepuscular rhythm during the warm wet season but shifted to a more nocturnal rhythm during the hot dry season. Activity was attenuated during the heat of the day at times when both species selected cool microclimates. These two species of Arabian ungulates employ heterothermy, cathemerality and shade seeking very similarly to survive the extreme, arid conditions of Arabian deserts, despite their size difference. PMID:22001971

  1. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  2. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  3. ZFAT gene variant association with multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf population: A genetic basis for gender-associated susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bourguiba-Hachemi, Sonia; Ashkanani, Tebah K; Kadhem, Fatema J; Almawi, Wassim Y; Alroughani, Raed; Fathallah, M Dahmani

    2016-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful genetic markers to investigate the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). A genome wide association study identified 7 SNPs associated with interferon‑β therapy response, however, not with MS risk in a Spanish population. To investigate these findings in a different cohort, the 7 SNPs were investigated in an Arabian Gulf population. The SNPs were analyzed in 268 subjects (156 patients and 112 healthy volunteers) from the Arabian Gulf region using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and KBioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR genotyping methods. Associations between the SNPs and MS were investigated using logistic regression. The present study observed, for the first time, that in an Arabian Gulf population, the ZFAT rs733254 polymorphism (T>G) is a gender‑specific risk marker for MS. ZFAT was associated with MS in women but not in men. The G variant was highly associated with the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR)=2.38 and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45‑3.91); P=0.0014]. Whereas variant T was a significantly protective factor [OR=0.420 (95% CI, 0.25‑0.69); P=0.0014, recessive model]. The findings of the present study provide a genetic basis for the gender‑associated susceptibility to MS. In addition, this MS-associated rs733254 SNP may predict MS onset in females from the Arabian Gulf population.

  4. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K.; Anthony, James

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  5. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  6. Male Saudi Arabian Freshman Science Majors at Jazan University: Their Perceptions of Parental Educational Practices on Their Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2012-01-01

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of…

  7. ZFAT gene variant association with multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf population: A genetic basis for gender-associated susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bourguiba-Hachemi, Sonia; Ashkanani, Tebah K.; Kadhem, Fatema J.; Almawi, Wassim Y.; Alroughani, Raed; Fathallah, M. Dahmani

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful genetic markers to investigate the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). A genome wide association study identified 7 SNPs associated with interferon-β therapy response, however, not with MS risk in a Spanish population. To investigate these findings in a different cohort, the 7 SNPs were investigated in an Arabian Gulf population. The SNPs were analyzed in 268 subjects (156 patients and 112 healthy volunteers) from the Arabian Gulf region using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and KBioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR genotyping methods. Associations between the SNPs and MS were investigated using logistic regression. The present study observed, for the first time, that in an Arabian Gulf population, the ZFAT rs733254 polymorphism (T>G) is a gender-specific risk marker for MS. ZFAT was associated with MS in women but not in men. The G variant was highly associated with the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR)=2.38 and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45–3.91); P=0.0014]. Whereas variant T was a significantly protective factor [OR=0.420 (95% CI, 0.25–0.69); P=0.0014, recessive model]. The findings of the present study provide a genetic basis for the gender-associated susceptibility to MS. In addition, this MS-associated rs733254 SNP may predict MS onset in females from the Arabian Gulf population. PMID:27572828

  8. Ad Duwayhi, Saudi Arabia: Geology and geochronology of a neoproterozoic intrusion-related gold system in the Arabian shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Zahony, S.G.; Leavitt, J.D.; Portacio, J.S.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Fleck, Robert J.; Stein, Holly J.

    2004-01-01

    In light of our findings at Ad Duwayhi, a reassessment of similar intrusion-hosted deposits in the Arabian shield is warranted, and areas of late- to postorogenic plutonism, particularly in the Afif composite terrane, should be considered prospective for intrusion-related gold systems.

  9. Reactivation of the Pleistocene trans-Arabian Wadi ad Dawasir fluvial system (Saudi Arabia) during the Holocene humid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Albert; Mahjoub, Ayman; Neubert, Eike; Preusser, Frank; Schwalb, Antje; Szidat, Sönke; Wulf, Gerwin

    2016-10-01

    The Wadi ad Dawasir fluvial system in central Saudi Arabia is investigated using remote sensing and sedimentology, in combination with bio-proxy analyses (molluscs and ostracods). Age control is provided by radiocarbon as well as luminescence dating, using both quartz and feldspar grains. It is shown that the fluvial system was active from the Asir Mountains across the partially sand-covered interior of the Arabian Peninsula to the Arabian Gulf during the Holocene humid period. Sedimentology and faunal analysis reveal the presence of perennial streams and a permanent freshwater lake in the distal reach of the Dawasir system that are synchronous with fluvial accumulation in the headwaters of its major tributary, Wadi Tathlith. The increased runoff during the Holocene led to a re-activation of streams that largely followed pre-existing Late Pleistocene courses and eroded into older sediments. The absence of Holocene lakes in most of the Rub' al-Khali implies that trans-Arabian rivers were mainly fed by precipitation in the Asir Mountains. Monsoonal rainfall was apparently stronger there as well as in the northern, south-eastern and southern part of the Arabian Peninsula (southern Yemen and Oman), but it apparently did not directly affect the interior during the Holocene. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows a narrow trans-Arabian green freshwater corridor as the result of phases of sustained flow lasting up to several centuries. The permanent availability of water and subsistence for wildlife provided a favourable environment for human occupation as documented by Neolithic stone tools that are found all along Wadi ad Dawasir.

  10. Precambrian to Jurassic rocks of Arabian Gulf and adjacent areas: their facies, depositional setting, and hydrocarbon habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Kendal, C.G.S.C.

    1986-08-01

    The first sediments to onlap the metamorphosed Precambrian Arabian shield were Infracambrian (Proterozoic) to Middle Cambrian carbonates, clastics, and evaporites. The oldest Arabian reservoir rocks occur in the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic Era Salt of the Huqf Group, which forms the Birba field of Oman. The Middle Cambrian sequence was followed by Late Cambrian through Early Permian marine sandstones and continental to littoral siltstones and variegated shales. The first commercial oil discovered in the Arabian Gulf region occurs in fluvial sands of the Ordovician to Permian Haima and Haushi Groups of the Marmul field in south Oman. These strata are also productive in other fields and are sealed by unconformable contact with the Al Khlata Formation or beneath shale of the Albian Nahr Umr Formation. The deeply buried kerogen sediments of the Huqf Group to the southeast are believed to be the source rocks for these fields of south Oman. The Late Permian to Triassic deposits of the Arabian Peninsula are mainly widespread carbonates and evaporites that were deposited during a period of relative tectonic stability. Their deposition on an epeiric shelf was punctuated by a series of transgressions and regressions. Significant gas reserves have been proven in deep wells in the Arabian Gulf. These wells penetrate large deep structures in the Permian Khuff shelf carbonates. These carbonates have developed secondary porosity and lie beneath interbedded shale and dolomites of the Sudair or Suwei Formation. The source of gas in the Khuff is unknown but could lie in more deeply buried formations. The large deep structures of the Khuff are considered to be among the most attractive for gas potential in the region today. 14 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Modeling of circulation in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman: Skill assessment and seasonal thermohaline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azhar, Muchamad; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-03-01

    Hindcast simulations of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) are quantitatively evaluated with basin-wide hydrographic data and time series measurements. The model shows comparable skill in reproducing moored observations of current velocities structure in upper and bottom depths. The skill in simulating observed temperature is higher of 0.93 (scale 0-1) in upper depths compared to 0.52 in bottom depths. Model results are sensitive to parameterization of water clarity. A lower sensitivity was noticed to KPP, GLS, and MY2.5 turbulence closures. When coastal turbid water parameterization is used, accuracy of the model in reproducing seasonal and spatial variations of temperature and salinity increased by 25% compared to the clear water case whereas only 10% increase was noticed when applying KPP turbulent closure. The model reproduces well anticlockwise circulation in the Gulf. A stronger surface inflow of fresher water to the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz is simulated in summer compared to winter conditions, mainly due to upper layer horizontal gradient of density between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Less seasonal variability of outflow between 0.15 and 0.20 m s-1 at 50 m to bottom depth around the Strait of Hormuz was noticed in the model results. Modeled surface layer stratification is stronger in summer than winter and varies spatially in the Arabian Gulf with highest stratification near the Strait of Hormuz. Overall, the stratification in shallow water area of the Arabian Gulf remains low throughout the year.

  12. The sensitivity of the southwest monsoon phytoplankton bloom to variations in aeolian iron deposition over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggert, Jerry D.; Murtugudde, Raghu G.

    2007-05-01

    A coupled, 3-D biophysical ocean general circulation model is used to investigate how aeolian iron deposition affects the Arabian Sea ecosystem. Two separate aeolian iron deposition fields, derived from the GISS and GOCART atmospheric transport models, have been applied as surface boundary conditions. The model results exhibit widespread biogeochemical sensitivity to the choice of deposition field. With GOCART deposition, SW Monsoon phytoplankton blooms in the western and central Arabian Sea are enhanced and exhibit greater realism. The central Arabian Sea bloom is supported by supplemental input of horizontally advected iron from a pool that undergoes a yearlong progression that begins in the Gulf of Oman, where the difference in aeolian iron enrichment between the two deposition fields is most prevalent. The GOCART-enhanced blooms result in a more pronounced shift toward netplankton, an increase in euphotic zone export flux of up to a 20% during the SW Monsoon and an additional annual biogenic export of 3.5 TgC. The potential ramifications of regional N-cycle alteration through stimulation of N2-fixation that is promoted by significant aeolian mineral flux needs to be explored. The canonical thinking that the northern Arabian Sea is invariably iron replete is now being challenged by both our model results and recent observational studies. As well, our results indicate that Arabian Sea iron concentrations are strongly modulated by the specific nature of aeolian mineral deposition. Thus climate or land use influences on dust mobilization could exercise leading-order controls on regional biogeochemical variability, metabolic status and air-sea exchanges of CO2.

  13. Characterizing Mineral Dust from the Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is one of the Earth's major sources of atmospheric dust. Along with profound negative effects on human activity and natural processes in this region, dust is an important nutrient source for the oligothrophic northern Red Sea. From preliminary observations it is estimated that some 18-20 major dust storms per year deposit about 6 Mt of mineral dust into the Red Sea. To better understand the optical properties, health, and ecological impacts of dust, we study the mineralogical, chemical and morphological properties of surface soil samples collected at prevbiously identified potential dust sources along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. Many of these dust sources lie within a narrow coastal region and because of their proximity to the Red Sea, are important contributors to the dust/nutrient balance, during both dusty and fair weather conditions. Bulk samples were collected from the top 10 mm of soils from three sites along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. The soil samples were sieved to separate the < 38μm particle fractions for chemical and mineralogical analysis. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was applied to measure the mineral content of the dust. The chemical composition of individual particles was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). From the XRD analysis of the sieved samples from An Masayat (23.3322 N, 38.9481 E), Buthna (23.2960 N, 38.9384 E) and Rabugh pipeline Road (23.292 N, 38.91 E), it was found that the dust was composed largely of hematite, goethite, calcite, dolomite, quartz, chlorite, muscovite, amphibole, epidote and plagioclase. Our results are being compared to, and show similarities to those of Engelbrecht et al. , collected at 15 Middle East sites. Both the mineralogical content and chemical composition of samples bear the signatures of the regional geology. Engelbrecht, J. P., McDonald, E. V., Gillies, J. A., Jayanty, R. K. M., Casuccio, G., and Gertler, A. W., 2009

  14. Evidence for eddy formation in the eastern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, John G.; Johnson, Donald R.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal formation of a large (500-800 km diameter) anticyclonic eddy in the upper 300-400 m of the eastern Arabian Sea during the northest monsoon period (December-April) is indicated fom hydrographic and satellite altimetry sea level observations, as well as from numerical model experiments. The center of the eddy circulation is approximately 10 deg N, 70 deg E, just to the west of the north-south Laccadive Island chain. In this paper the eddy is called the Laccadive High (LH). In some ways it is like a mirrorlike counterpart to the Great Whirl that develops during the southwest monsoon of the Somali coast (western Arabian Sea). The LH occurs at the same latitude but on the opposite side of the basin during the reversed monsoon. It is different from the Great Whirl, however, in its formation process, its intensity, and its decay. The hydrographic data obtained from surveys all during a single season give sufficiently close station spacing to allow reasonable contouring of the geopotential surfaces and of the properties within and around the LH region with minimum time aliasing. The Geostat altimeter record extends over 4 years, during which the seasonal variability of the LH indicates a dynamic relief of approximately 15-20 cm, which is in good agreement with the hydrographics observations. The altimetry time series also suggests a westward translation of the LH by January with a subsequent dissipation in midbasin. The model used is a wind-forced three-layer primitive equation model which depicts a LH agreement with the timing, position, and amplitude of both the hydrographic and altimetric measurements. The numerical simulation includes a passive tracer located in the Western Bay of Bengal; the western advection of the tracer around the south coasts of Sri Lanka and India in December and January is consistent with the appearance of low-salinity water observed to extend into the Arabian Sea during this period. The modeling studies suggest that both local and

  15. Response of benthic foraminifera to phytodetritus in the eastern Arabian Sea under low oxygen conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, Annekatrin; Wukovits, Julia; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Witte, Ursula; Hunter, William; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    At water depths between 100 and 1500 m a permanent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) impinges on the sea floor in the eastern Arabian Sea, exposing benthic organisms to anoxic to suboxic conditions. The flux of organic matter to the sea floor is relatively high at these depths but displays seasonal variation. Deposition of relatively fresh phytodetrital material (phytoplankton remains) can occur within a short period of time after monsoon periods. Several organism groups including foraminifera are involved to different extent in the processing of phytodetritus in the OMZs of the northern Arabian Sea. A series of in situ feeding experiments were performed to study the short-term processing (< 11 days) of organic carbon, nitrogen and nutritional demands of foraminifera at different oxygen concentrations on the continental margin in the eastern Arabian Sea. For the experiments, a single pulse of isotopically labeled phytodetritus was added to the sediment along a depth transect (540-1100 m) on the Indian Margin, covering the OMZ core and the lower OMZ boundary region. Uptake of phytodetritus within 4 days shows the relevance of phytodetritus as food source for foraminifera. Lower content of phytodetrital carbon recorded in foraminifera from more oxygenated depths shows greater food uptake by foraminifera in the OMZ core than in the OMZ boundary region. The foraminiferal assemblage living under almost anoxic conditions in the OMZ core is dominated by species typically found in eutroph environments (such as Uvigerinids) that are adapted to high flux of organic matter. The elevated carbon uptake can also result from missing food competition by macrofauna or from greater energy demand in foraminifera to sustain metabolic processes under hypoxic stress. Variable levels and ratios of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen indicate specific nutritional demands and storage of food-derived nitrogen in some foraminifera species under near anoxia where the mean phytodetrital nitrogen content

  16. Investigating Transition Zone Thickness Variation under the Arabian Plate: Evidence Lacking for Deep Mantle Upwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliá, J.; Tang, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Zahran, H.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic outcrops in Arabia - locally known as harrats - span more than 2000 km along the western half of the Arabian plate, from eastern Yemen to southern Syria. The magmatism is bimodal in character, with older volcanics (30 to 20 My) being tholeiitic-to-transitional and paralleling the Red Sea margin, and younger volcanics (12 Ma to Recent) being transitional-to-strongly-alkalic and aligning in a more north-south direction. The bimodal character has been attributed to a two-stage rifting process along the Red Sea, where the old volcanics would have produced from shallow sources related to an initial passive rifting stage, and young volcanics would have originated from one or more deep-seated mantle plumes driving present active rifting. Early models suggested the harrats would have resulted from either lateral flow from the Afar plume in Ethiopia, or more locally from a separate mantle plume directly located under the shield. Most recently, tomographic images of the Arabian mantle have suggested the northern harrats could be resulting from flow originating at a deep plume under Jordan. In this work, we investigate the location of deep mantle plumes under the Arabian plate by mapping transition zone thickness with teleseismic receiver functions. The transition zone is bounded by seismic discontinuities, nominally at 410 and 660 km depth, originating from phase transitions in the olivine-normative component of the mantle. The precise depth of the discontinuities is strongly dependent on temperature and, due to the opposing signs of the corresponding Clapeyron slopes, positive temperature anomalies are expected to result in thinning of the transition zone. Our dataset consists of ~5000 low-frequency (fc < 0.25 Hz) receiver function waveforms obtained at ~110 broadband stations belonging to a number of permanent and temporary seismic networks in the region. The receiver functions were migrated to depth and stacked along a ~2000 km long record section

  17. Scavenger assemblages under differing trophic conditions: a case study in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janßen, Felix; Treude, Tina; Witte, Ursula

    Baited cameras and traps were deployed at four stations in the deep Arabian Sea to investigate the composition of the necrophagous fauna and to evaluate whether regional differences in trophic conditions are reflected by differing scavenger assemblages. The ophidiid fish Barathrites iris, the large lysianassoid amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, the aristeid prawn Plesiopenaeus armatus, and zoarcid fishes of the genus Pachycara were abundant at the bait at all stations. The ophidiid Holcomycteronus aequatorius, the liparid fish Paraliparis sp., and galatheid crabs of the genus Munidopsis occurred in considerable numbers at single sites. Trap catches further contained lysianassoid amphipods of the genera Paralicella, Abyssorchomene and Paracallisoma. In contrast to scavenger assemblages of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, macrourid fishes were virtually absent at the bait. E. gryllus and B. iris consumed the main proportion of the bait, while consumption was at most moderate in all other taxa. Feeding strategies of the respective taxa are inferred from their behavior at the bait and discussed with regard to the profit that can be drawn from food falls. Differences between stations were pronounced with respect to species dominating bait consumption. E. gryllus appeared in highest numbers at the bait in the productive northern and central Arabian Sea where a relatively high availability of food items is expected to sustain high population densities. High numbers of B. iris in the least productive southern part indicate their ability to persist under food-poor conditions and may correspond to a high dependency on food falls. E. gryllus and B. iris both occurred in smaller numbers in the particularly productive western Arabian Sea. This may reflect a reduced dependency on food falls, due to an access to alternative food sources, rather than small population densities. Smaller numbers of E. gryllus and B. iris resulted in slower bait consumption and gave Pachycara spp. the

  18. Change Detection Analysis of Costal Habitat Using Remote Sensing Technologies in the Western Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabian Coast) over a Thirty-Year Period.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Idris, N.; Johnson, S. H.; Qurban, M. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Many factors can severely affect the growth and abundance of the marine ecosystems. For example, due to anthropogenic and natural forces, benthic habitats including but not limited to mangroves, sea grass, salt marshes, macro algae, and coral reefs have been experiencing high levels of declination. Furthermore, aerosols and their propellants are suspected contributors to marine habitat degradation. Although several studies reveal that the Arabian Gulf habitats have suffered deleterious impacts after the Gulf War and the following six month off-shore oil spill, limited research exists to track the changes in benthic habitats over the past three decades using remote sensing. Document changes in costal habitats over the past thirty years were better observed with the use of multispectral remote sensors such as Landsat-5, Landsat-7, and Landsat8 (OLI). Change detection analysis was performed on the three Landsat images (Landsat-5 for the 1987 image, Landsat-7 for the 2000, and Landsat-8 for the 2013 image). The images were then modified, masked off from open water and land. An unsupervised classification was performed which cluster similar classes together. The supervised classification displayed the seven following classes: coral reefs, macro algae, sea grass, salt marshes, mangroves, water, and land. Compared to 1987 image to 2000 scene, there was a noticeable increase in the extensiveness of salt marsh and macro algae habitats. However, a significant decrease in salt marsh habitats were apparent in the 2013 scene.

  19. Diet as a confounder of the association between air pollution and female lung cancer: Hong Kong studies on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes as examples.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Ho, J H

    1996-03-01

    Chinese females in Hong Kong, where only about a third of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to a history of active smoking, have a world age-standardized lung cancer incidence rate of 32.6 per 100 000, which is among the highest in the world. Trends in Hong Kong's female lung cancer mortality also indicate a tripling in mortality rates from 1961 to 1990. The characteristically high Chinese female lung cancer incidence among nonsmokers is also found among overseas Chinese communities in Singapore and Hawaii. To help elucidate the role of ingested and inhaled substances in the etiology of lung cancer, four epidemiological studies have been conducted in Hong Kong over the last 15 years: (1) a retrospective study of 200 cases and 200 neighbourhood controls, (2) a cross-sectional study measuring personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide among 362 children and their mothers, (3) a site monitoring study of 33 homes measuring airborne carcinogens, and (4) a telephone survey of 500 women on their dietary habits and exposure to air pollutants. Selected data from each study were drawn to evaluate exposures to three major air pollutants (environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes), their relationship with lung cancer risk, and their association with dietary habits. Generally in this population, nutritionally poorer diets were characterized by higher consumption of alcohol and preserved/cured foods, whereas better diets were characterized by higher intakes of fresh fruits, vegetables, and fish. For environmental tobacco smoke, exposure was only moderately high in Hong Kong (36% have current smokers at home), lung cancer risk was equivocal with exposure, and it was associated with poorer diets among wives with smoking husbands. Incense was identified as a major source of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and airborne carcinogens, but it had no effect on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers and significantly reduced risk (trend, P-value = 0.01) among smokers, even after

  20. Climatic controls of the interannual to decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust activity: Towards the development of a seasonal prediction tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Notaro, M.; Liu, Z.; Alkolibi, F.; Fadda, E.; Bakhrjy, F.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric dust significantly influences the climate system, as well as human life in Saudi Arabia. Skillful seasonal prediction of dust activity with climatic variables will help prevent some negative social impacts of dust storms. Yet, the climatic regulators on Saudi Arabian dust activity remain largely unaddressed. Remote sensing and station observations show consistent seasonal cycles in Saudi Arabian dust activity, which peaks in spring and summer. The climatic controls on springtime and summertime Saudi Arabian dust activity during 1975-2010 are studied using observational and reanalysis data. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of the observed Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency shows a dominant homogeneous pattern across the country, which has distinct interannual and decadal variations, as revealed by the power spectrum. Regression and correlation analyses reveal that Saudi Arabian dust activity is largely tied to precipitation on the Arabian Peninsula in spring and northwesterly (Shamal) wind in summer. On the seasonal-interannual time scale, warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase (El Niño) in winter-to-spring inhibits spring dust activity by increasing the precipitation over the Rub'al Khali Desert, a major dust source region on the southern Arabian Peninsula; warm ENSO and warm Indian Ocean Basin Mode (IOBM) in winter-to-spring favor less summer dust activity by producing anomalously low sea-level pressure over eastern north Africa and Arabian Peninsula, which leads to the reduced Shamal wind speed. The decadal variation in dust activity is likely associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which impacts Sahel rainfall and North African dust, and likely dust transport to Saudi Arabia. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and tropical Indian Ocean SST also have influence on the decadal variation in Saudi Arabian dust activity, by altering precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula and summer Shamal wind speed. Using eastern

  1. Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1990-01-01

    Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

  2. Purification of a toxic factor from Arabian Gulf catfish epidermal secretions.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M; Al-Hassan, J M; Fayad, S; Al-Saleh, J; Ali, M

    1998-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf catfish, Arius bilineatus (Valenciennes) secretes a proteinaceous epidermal secretion when threatened or injured. A toxic factor has been isolated and purified from the crude extract (crude skin toxin) of these secretions by a combination of gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 and preparative discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified skin toxin has a molecular weight of 39,000 Da and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. Injection of the purified skin toxin into rabbits i.v. and determination of the LD50 indicated that the protein had been purified approximately 30 fold by these procedures. Injection of the purified skin toxin into rabbits caused agitation, convulsions and death within 5 min. Analysis of plasma levels of lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in injected rabbits indicated that the skin toxin caused cardiac and liver damage to the animals. PMID:9663692

  3. Doppler echocardiographic description of double-inlet left ventricle in an Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Sedacca, Cassidy D; Bright, Janice M; Boon, June

    2010-08-01

    Univentricular atrioventricular (AV) connections are rare and complex congenital cardiac anomalies in which both AV valves communicate into a large, common (single) receiving chamber. The common chamber can be of left, right, or mixed ventricular morphology. Although well documented in people, reports of the double-inlet ventricle malformation are rare in the veterinary literature. This report provides description of an Arabian horse with a double-inlet univentricular connection of left ventricular type, a hypoplastic subpulmonary right ventricle, two muscular ventricular septal defects, and a stenotic mitral valve. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography enabled antemortem diagnosis, and provided an assessment of intracardiac hemodynamics. The findings indicate that Doppler echocardiography is a useful, noninvasive tool for evaluating equine patients with congenital univentricular AV connections, such as a double-inlet left ventricle.

  4. Radiation-induced desulfurization of Arabian crude oil and straight-run diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basfar, A. A.; Mohamed, K. A.

    2011-11-01

    Radiation-induced desulfurization of four types of Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) and straight-run diesel (SRD) was investigated over the range of 10-200 kGy. Results show that gamma radiation processing at absorbed doses up to 200 kGy without further treatment is not sufficient for desulfurization. However, the combination of gamma-irradiation with other physical/chemical processes (i.e. L/L extraction, adsorption and oxidation) may be capable of removing considerable levels of sulfur compounds in the investigated products. Currently, this approach of combined radiation/physical/chemical processes is under investigation. The findings of these attempts will be reported in the future.

  5. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  6. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area.

  7. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna.

  8. Massive outbreaks of Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Arabian Sea due to spread of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    do Rosário Gomes, Helga; Goes, Joaquim I; Matondkar, S G P; Buskey, Edward J; Basu, Subhajit; Parab, Sushma; Thoppil, Prasad

    2014-09-09

    In the last decade, the northern Arabian Sea has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms, which previously comprised mainly of diatoms, the unicellular, siliceous photosynthetic organisms favoured by nutrient-enriched waters from convective mixing. These trophically important diatom blooms have been replaced by widespread blooms of a large, green dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans, which combines carbon fixation from its chlorophyll-containing endosymbiont with ingestion of prey. Here, we report that these massive outbreaks of N. scintillans during winter are being facilitated by an unprecedented influx of oxygen deficient waters into the euphotic zone and by the extraordinary ability of its endosymbiont Pedinomonas noctilucae to fix carbon more efficiently than other phytoplankton under hypoxic conditions. We contend that N. scintillans blooms could disrupt the traditional diatom-sustained food chain to the detriment of regional fisheries and long-term health of an ecosystem supporting a coastal population of nearly 120 million people.

  9. Monitoring red tide with satellite imagery and numerical models: a case study in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-02-15

    A red tide event that occurred in August 2008 in the Arabian Gulf was monitored and assessed using satellite observations and numerical models. Satellite observations revealed the bloom extent and evolution from August 2008 to August 2009. Flow patterns of the bloom patch were confirmed by results from a HYCOM model. HYCOM data and satellite-derived sea surface temperature data further suggested that the bloom could have been initiated offshore and advected onshore by bottom Ekman layer. Analysis indicated that nutrient sources supporting the bloom included upwelling, Trichodesmium, and dust deposition while other potential sources of nutrient supply should also be considered. In order to monitor and detect red tide effectively and provide insights into its initiation and maintenance mechanisms, the integration of multiple platforms is required. The case study presented here demonstrated the benefit of combing satellite observations and numerical models for studying red tide outbreaks and dynamics.

  10. The gravity field and crustal structure of the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batayneh, A. T.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity field over the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan is dominated by large variations, ranging from -132 to +4 mGal. A study of the Bouguer anomaly map shows that the gravity field maintains a general north-northeasterly trend in the Wadi Araba-Dead Sea-Jordan Riff, Northern Highlands and Northeast Jordanian Limestone Area, while the remainder of the area shows north-northwesterly-trending gravity anomalies. Results of 2-D gravity modeling of the Bouguer gravity field indicate that the crustal thickness in Jordan is ˜ 38 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses obtained from refraction data in northern Jordan and Saudi Arabia, and from gravity data in Syria.

  11. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna. PMID:26608504

  12. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area. PMID:25963571

  13. Nonaqueous potentiometric titration and elemental analysis of high-boiling distillates of Saudi Arabian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.F.; Ali, M.A. )

    1988-12-01

    Nonaqueous potentiometric titration and elemental analysis were used to study basic and nonbasic functionalities present in high-boiling distillates of four Saudi Arabian crude oils. Model nitrogen compounds were titrated under similar titration conditions to differentiate them into strong, weak and nonbasic species. The strong bses titrated were due to the presence of of pyridine and its benzologs like acridines, phenanthridines and quionolines. The weak bases titrated were due to phenazxines and amides whereas the pyrroles, indoles and carbazoles were found to be nonbasic in nature. The total nitrogen and the total basic nitrogen compounds were generally found to be in very low concentration in the four crude oil distillates. A gradual decrease in the basicity of the distillates was found from Arab Heavy to Arab Extra Light through Arab Medium and Arab Light crude oils.

  14. Weight dependence of arsenic concentration in the Arabian Sea tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the arsenic concentration in the edible muscle of Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus toggel (hereafter called tuna and longtail tune) as they have great commercial value. These fish are widely available along the coastal line of Pakistan and are consumed abundantly in large bulk. Thus, it was felt justifiable on the basis of safety of human health that data, in the first instance, be obtained on arsenic concentration in tuna as a function of weight to check whether the metal distribution was species-specific or it depended on individual mode of development. The data, the first of the kind so far presented on the Arabian Sea tuna, would thus provide the required baseline quantitative information needed in future studies on the physiological processes regulating the distribution and uptake of arsenic by these and other species of fish common to the region.

  15. Hydrodynamic evaluation of long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Abubaker; Elshorbagy, Walid

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive basin wide hydrodynamic evaluation has been carried out to assess the long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents on the salinity and seawater temperature of the Arabian Gulf (AG) using Delft3D-Flow model. The long term impacts of climate change scenarios A2 and B1 of the IPCC-AR4 on the AG hydrodynamics were evaluated. Using the current capacity and production rates of coastal desalination, power, and refinery plants, two projection scenarios until the year 2080 with 30 year intervals were developed namely the realistic and the optimistic discharge scenarios. Simulations of the individual climate change scenarios ascertained overall increase of the AG salinity and temperature and decrease of precipitation. The changes varied spatially with different scenarios as per the depth, proximity to exchange with ocean water, flushing, vertical mixing, and flow restriction. The individual tested scenarios of coastal projected discharges showed significant effects but within 10-20 km from the outfalls.

  16. Interpretation of electrophoretograms of seven microsatellite loci to determine the genetic diversity of the Arabian Oryx.

    PubMed

    Arif, I A; Khan, H A; Shobrak, M; Al Homaidan, A A; Al Sadoon, M; Al Farhan, A H; Bahkali, A H

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite markers are commonly used for examining population structure, especially inbreeding, outbreeding and gene flow. An array of microsatellite loci, preferably with multiallelic presentation, is preferable for ensuring accurate results. However, artifact peaks or stutters in the electrophoretograms significantly hamper the reliable interpretation of genotypes. We interpreted electrophoretograms of seven microsatellite loci to determine the genetic diversity of the Arabian Oryx. All the alleles of different loci exhibited good peak resolutions and hence were clearly identified. Moreover, none of the stutter peaks impaired the recognition or differentiation between homozygote and heterozygote. Our findings suggest that correct identification of alleles in the presence of co-amplified nonspecific fragments is important for reliable interpretation of microsatellite data. PMID:20198581

  17. Data revision of Babylonian and Arabian lunar and solar eclipse observations used in Newcomb's researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protitch-Benishek, V.; Protitch, M. B.

    On the basis of the original interpretation of the Greek text (Halma, M., 1813) - a translation of Ptolemy's Mathematike Syntaxis - concerning Babylonian-Hellenic observations of lunar eclipses and analysing some Arabian notes on solar and lunar eclipses - for which S. Newcomb found considerable deviations from the appropriate theory - a re-analysis of his results and conclusions has been undertaken. The results of the ancient-data revision are also based on Newcomb's alternative assumption that such discrepancies are caused by one or more unknown long-term inequalities in the motion of the Moon. A quantitative result of the analysis of the ancient eclipse observations unambiguously indicates that these observations should definitely not be rejected.

  18. Geochronological and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Zircon U/Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm/Nd, and Rb/Sr data indicate that the fine-grained granodiorite (Z103) has yielded conclusive evidence for rocks of early Proterozoic age in the eastern Arabian Shield (21o19' N, 44o50' W). Z103 may have been emplaced approx 1630 m.y. ago and subsequently was severely deformed or perhaps even remobilized at approx 660 m.y. Furthermore, lead isotope data, along with other evidence, show that the 1630 m.y. crustal rocks inherited material from an older, probably Archaean, source at the time of their formation. At that time addition of mantle material considerably modified the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems so that they now yield similar, or only slightly older apparent ages (1600-1800 m.y.).-L.diH.

  19. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenawy, Ahmed; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Raj, Jerry

    2014-05-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the peninsula (i.e., cyclonic, anticyclonic and directional). These large-scale patterns were first defined for the observed climate (1960-2013), allowing for an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in circulation-rainfall relationships over the peninsula using rainfall data from 209 weather observatories. The same methodology was then applied to assess how the defined weather types will be presented in future climate simulations (under RCP45 and RCP85 emission scenarios) and to explore their probable dependency with rainfall characteristics. In this regard, daily simulated SLP derived from an ensemble of 12 climate models within the CMIP5 project were used for two future time-slices (2035-2060 and 2075-2100). Our findings indicate that the cyclonic (C) type represented the most frequent classification with 69.2% of days, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also found that the main circulation features influencing winter (spring) rainfall across the peninsula are the strong influence of the anticyclonic (easterly and southeasterly) air masses. Generally, the role of airflows originating from the Indian Ocean is larger than those of the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. The trend results of defined weather types show that the cyclonic (anticyclonic) conditions tend to decrease (increase). This picture is likely to continue during the 21st century. The only exception corresponds to the summer season. Here, understanding the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula can be important for the understanding of climatic variability and thus developing circulation-based downscaling methods in this region.

  20. Seasonal response of zooplankton to monsoonal reversals in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sharon; Roman, Michael; Prusova, Irina; Wishner, Karen; Gowing, Marcia; Codispoti, L. A.; Barber, Richard; Marra, John; Flagg, Charles

    The US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study was designed to provide a seasonally and spatially resolved carbon budget for a basin exhibiting some of the highest and lowest concentrations of plant biomass in the world's ocean. During the US JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea (September 1994-January 1996), the absolute maximum in biomass of epipelagic zooplankton in the entire study was observed during the Southwest Monsoon season inshore of the Findlater Jet in the area of upwelling. The greatest contrast between high and low biomass in the study area also was observed during the Southwest Monsoon, as was the strongest onshore-offshore gradient in biomass. Lowest biomass throughout the study was observed at the most offshore station (S15), outside the direct influence of the monsoon forcing. The greatest day/night contrasts in biomass were observed nearshore in all seasons, with nighttime biomass exceeding daytime in the Northeast Monsoon season, but daytime exceeding nighttime in the Southwest Monsoon season. The diel vertical migration patterns in general reversed between the monsoons at all stations in the southern part of the study area. Virtually, no diel vertical migration of zooplankton took place in any season at the station with strong, persistent subsurface suboxic conditions (N7), suggesting that these conditions suppress migration. Based on the distribution of biomass, we hypothesize that inshore of the Findlater Jet, zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton is the dominant pathway of carbon transformation during both monsoon seasons, whereas offshore the zooplankton feed primarily on microplankton or are carnivorous, conditions that result in reduction of the carbon flux mediated by the zooplankton. Predation by mesopelagic fish, primarily myctophids, may equal daily growth of zooplankton inshore of the Findlater Jet during all seasons. This suggests that the food web inshore of the Findlater Jet is well integrated, may have evolved during past periods of

  1. Hydrographic characterization of southeast Arabian Sea during the wane of southwest monsoon and spring intermonsoon.

    PubMed

    Vimal Kumar, K G; Dinesh Kumar, P K; Smitha, B R; Habeeb Rahman, H; Josia, Jacob; Muraleedharan, K R; Sanjeevan, V N; Achuthankutty, C T

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal variation of the hydrography along the southeast Arabian Sea is described using data collected onboard FORV Sagar Sampada in September--October 2003 (later phase of Southwest monsoon, SWM) and March--April 2004 (Spring inter monsoon, SIM). During the later phase of the SWM, upwelling was in the withdrawal phase and the frontal structure was clearer in the northern sections (13 and 15 degrees N lat) indicating strong upwelling in the area. The driving force of upwelling is identified as the combination of alongshore wind stress and remote forcing with a latitudinal variability. Although a more prominent upwelling was found in the north, a maximum surface Chlorophyll-a was found in the south (10 degrees N). During the SIM, the area was characterized by oligotrophic water with relatively high Sea Surface Temperature (>29 degrees C) and low salinity (33.8 to 35.4). During March, the surface hydrography was found to be controlled mainly by the intrusion of low-saline waters from the south, while during September by the high saline water from the north. The presence of various water masses [Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), Red Sea Water (RSW)] and their seasonal variations in the region is discussed and their decreasing influence towards the south is noted during both periods of observation. During the SWM, the dynamic topography showed the equator-ward flow of the West India Coastal Current (WICC) at the surface and a pole-ward coastal under current at sub-thermocline depth. During the SIM, surface circulation revealed the WICC flowing pole-ward north of 13 degrees N, but equator-ward flow in the south, with a clockwise circulation around the Lakshadweep High.

  2. Major events in the late Precambrian to early Triassic geohistory of the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, T.E.; Connally, T.C.; Van der Eem, J.G.L.A. )

    1993-09-01

    The late Precambrian to Early Triassic of the Arabian Peninsula occur in five supergroups. Their geohistory resulted from sedimentation along fluvial to midshelf facies tracts, eustatic oscillation and periodic uplift. The first supergroup, Plate Precambrian-Middle Cambrian, includes the Siq/Salib and Yatib formations. Deposited by north-eastward-flowing braided streams, they eroded and buried an Arabian shield topography. The Saq Formation lies in angular unconformity on the Siq which documents early Middle Cambrian uplift. Supergroup two, Middle Cambrian-middle Caradocian, the Burj and Saq formations, the Hanadir, Kahfah, and Ra'an members, Qasim Formation, were deposited on a stable continental margin in fluvio-deltaic to midshelf settings. Coastal onlap occurred in the Middle Cambrian, early Llanvirn, middle Llandeilo and early Caradoc. Middle Caradocian uplift deeply eroded parts of central and southern Arabia. Supergroup three of middle Caradocian-early Llandoverian are the Quwarah Member, Qasim Formation and the Zarqa/Sarah formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic shallow shelf. Late Ashgill uplift, combined with glacially induced sea level lowering, incised valleys up to 2000 ft (610 m) deep. Supergroup four, early Llandovery-Middle Carboniferous, includes the Qalibah, Tawil, Jauf, Jubah and Berwath formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic marine, river dominated system. The Quysaiba and Sharawra members, Qalibah Formation, were the offshore clays and prodelta sands, the Tawil-Jubah were the fluvial to delta front, and the Berwath the delta plain facies. Deep pre-Tawil erosion documents late Silurian-Early Devonian uplift. The fifth supergroup are the Juwayl, Unayzah, Khuff and Sudair formations. The first two units were deposited in a glacio-fluvial system which eroded and infilled a Hercynian topography. The Khuff transgression occurred during the Artinsklan-Tartarian and the Early Triassic regressive Sudair documents renewed uplift.

  3. Plio-Pleistocene paleoclimatic variability: results from the NW Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakasam, M.; Gupta, A. K.; Yuvaraja, A.; Velu, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene period is marked by numerous changes in Earth's climate and tectonics. The early Pliocene average global surface temperature of ~3° C was warmer than today and the sea level was high around 10-20 m, whereas the continents adjudicated its present day position. In this study we discussed about Indian monsoon variability during the Plio-Pleistocene. Numerous investigations were carried out over the last two decades to understand Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability and its relation to Himalayan tectonics. The ISM is a principal factor to the economy of the south Asian countries playing immense role in changing fauna and flora on land as well as socio-economic conditions of this region. The Arabian Sea is a natural laboratory to carry out paleoclimatic studies on marine sediments. In this study four Ocean Drilling Programme sediment cores were used from the northwestern Arabian Sea, Leg 117, Holes 722B, 731A (Owen Ridge) and 728B, 730A (Oman margin). The planktonic foraminiferal species abundances, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) wt.% and carbonate concentration (CaCO3) proxies were utilised to understand Plio-Pleistocene Indian monsoon variability. The relative abundances of Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species reveal changes in upwelling and mixed layer since the Pliocene. Our results demonstrate that intense upwelling occurred during 5 to ~3.7 Ma, 1.5Ma to Recent and an abrupt change was recorded around 0.1 Ma at all the Holes. The weakening of upwelling occurred from 3.5 Ma to ~1.5 Ma, hence we argue that this is due to Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. Mixed layer species show higher abundances from 2 Ma to 0.8 Ma. The TOC wt.% varies from 7.8% to 0.5% and productive increased many fold during 4 to 2 Ma. The results of TOC and CaCO3 are inversely correlated indicating role of carbonate dissolution.

  4. Association between sleeping hours and cardiometabolic risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a Saudi Arabian population

    PubMed Central

    Brocato, Jason; Wu, Fen; Chen, Yu; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Alkhatim, Alser A; Abdou, Mamdouh H; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological and molecular studies have shown that sleep duration is associated with metabolic syndrome (MtS), a disease that is on the rise in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We aim to investigate the association between sleep duration and selected cardiometabolic risk factors of MtS in a Saudi Arabian population. Setting Secondary care was given to the participants. There were 2 participating centres, shopping malls in North and South Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants We recruited 2686 participants over a 1-year study period. Participants were selected based on their willingness. The only criterion for exclusion was living in the area (North or South Jeddah) for less than 15 years. Planned and primary outcome measures Participants were measured for blood sugar levels, blood pressure and body mass index. All participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Results There was a positive association between longer sleep duration and obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia. The adjusted ORs for obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia were 1.54 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.98), 1.89 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.48) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.13), respectively, in participants sleeping >8 h/night, as compared with those sleeping 7 h. The positive associations between longer sleep duration, defined as sleeping >7 h, and the disease status, did not differ from other risk factors such as physical activity and nutrition. Conclusions This is the first epidemiological study reporting on the association between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors of MtS in a Saudi Arabian population. Sleep durations of 8 h or greater were found to be associated with all 3 cardiometabolic risk factors: obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, and this relationship was not confounded by quality of nutrition or physical activity levels. PMID:26621514

  5. Early cretaceous platform-margin configuration and evolution in the central Oman mountains, Arabian peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, B.R. ); Smewing, J.D. )

    1993-02-01

    The Hajar Supergroup (Middle Permian-Lower Cretaceous) of northeastern Oman records rifting and development of a passive margin along the edge of the Arabian platform facing Neo-Tethys. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part, comprising the Sahtan, Kahmah, and Wasia groups, was deposited during the maximum extent of the broad epicontinental sea landward of this margin. These limestone units reach a total of 1500 m in thickness and correlate with the hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Arabian Peninsula. The trace of the Jurassic and Cretaceous margin in northeastern Oman followed a zigzag series of rift segments, resulting in promontories and reentrants that changed in position through time in response to the configuration and differential motion of underlying rift blocks. Synsedimentary normal faulting occurred locally in the Middle Jurassic, whereas in the Late Jurassic, the margin was eroded from variable uplift of up to 300 m before subsiding to below storm wave base. This uplift may have been caused by compression from oceanic crust that obducted along the southeastern side of the platform. The Lower Cretaceous succession in the central Oman Mountains and adjacent subsurface began with regional drowning around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. The succession in the east (Saih Hatat) records a single regressive sequence, ending in the progradation of the shallow-water carbonate platform by the Cenomanian. However, the succession in the west (Jebel Akhdar and interior) is dominated by shallow-water carbonate facies, but punctuated by a second regional drowning in the late Aptian. A third, Late Cretaceous drowning terminated deposition of the Wasia Group in the Turonian and was caused by convergence of oceanic crust and foreland basic formation. The record of tectonic behavior of carbonate platforms has important implications for the development of hydrocarbon source rocks and porosity. 68 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  7. Response of subsurface waters in the eastern Arabian Sea to tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. D.; Joshi, Madhu; Jain, Indu; Ravichandran, M.

    2010-11-01

    Thermister chain data at different depths for June 1998 cyclone in the Arabian Sea at a location (69.2 E,15.5 N) which is about 60 km to the left of the cyclone track indicates subsurface warming below 60 m and inertial oscillations of temperature with a periodicity of about 2 days. The oscillations continued for ˜15 days even after the cyclone crossed the coast. The analysis of the buoy, DS1 located at the same position also suggests a stabilized southward flow after about two weeks of the cyclone crossed the coast. Analysis of the buoy data for May 1999 cyclone in the same region also indicates similar pattern. In order to investigate the effect of cyclone-ocean interaction and primarily to understand the process for the subsurface warming, 3-dimensional Princeton Ocean Model is configured for the eastern part of the Arabian Sea. The model uses high horizontal resolution of about 6 km near the coast and a terrain following sigma coordinate in the vertical with 26 levels. The study focuses on surface cooling and temperature rise in the underlying waters and explains its mechanism through upwelling and downwelling respectively. The simulations in concurrence with the observations suggest that the occurrence of subsurface warming precedes the surface cooling with a lag of ˜a day as the cyclone advances DS1. The simulations also demonstrate local temperature stratification plays an important role for cooling of the upper ocean and warming of the subsurface waters and extent of warming is directly related to the depth of the thermocline.

  8. MODIS-Aqua detects Noctiluca scintillans and hotspots in the central Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Priyaja, P; Rafeeq, M; Sudhakar, M

    2016-01-01

    Northern Arabian Sea is considered as an ecologically sensitive area as it experiences a massive upwelling and long-lasting algal bloom, Noctiluca scintillans (green tide) during summer and spring-winter, respectively. Diatom bloom is also found to be co-located with N. scintillans and both have an impact on ecology of the basin. In-house technique of detecting species of these blooms from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data was used to generate a time-series of images revealing their spatial distribution. A study of spatial-temporal variability of these blooms using satellite data expressed a cyclic pattern of their spread over a period of 13 years. An average distribution of the blooms for January-March period revealed a peak in 2015 and minimum in 2013. Subsequently, a time-series of phytoplankton species images were generated for these 2 years to study their inter-annual variability and the associated factors. Species images during active phase of the bloom (February) in 2015 indicated development of N. scintillans and diatom in the central Arabian Sea also, up to 12° N. This observation was substantiated with relevant oceanic parameters measured from the ship as well as satellite data and the same is highlight of the paper. While oxygen depletion and release of ammonia associated with N. scintillans are detrimental for waters on the western side; it is relatively less extreme and supports the entire food chain on the eastern side. In view of these contrasting eco-sensitive events, it is a matter of concern to identify biologically active persistent areas, hot spots, in order to study their ecology in detail. An ecological index, persistence of the bloom, was derived from the time-series of species images and it is another highlight of our study. PMID:26690080

  9. MODIS-Aqua detects Noctiluca scintillans and hotspots in the central Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Priyaja, P; Rafeeq, M; Sudhakar, M

    2016-01-01

    Northern Arabian Sea is considered as an ecologically sensitive area as it experiences a massive upwelling and long-lasting algal bloom, Noctiluca scintillans (green tide) during summer and spring-winter, respectively. Diatom bloom is also found to be co-located with N. scintillans and both have an impact on ecology of the basin. In-house technique of detecting species of these blooms from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data was used to generate a time-series of images revealing their spatial distribution. A study of spatial-temporal variability of these blooms using satellite data expressed a cyclic pattern of their spread over a period of 13 years. An average distribution of the blooms for January-March period revealed a peak in 2015 and minimum in 2013. Subsequently, a time-series of phytoplankton species images were generated for these 2 years to study their inter-annual variability and the associated factors. Species images during active phase of the bloom (February) in 2015 indicated development of N. scintillans and diatom in the central Arabian Sea also, up to 12° N. This observation was substantiated with relevant oceanic parameters measured from the ship as well as satellite data and the same is highlight of the paper. While oxygen depletion and release of ammonia associated with N. scintillans are detrimental for waters on the western side; it is relatively less extreme and supports the entire food chain on the eastern side. In view of these contrasting eco-sensitive events, it is a matter of concern to identify biologically active persistent areas, hot spots, in order to study their ecology in detail. An ecological index, persistence of the bloom, was derived from the time-series of species images and it is another highlight of our study.

  10. Living Behaviors and Molecular Characterization of Benthic Foraminifera in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Khalil, Amjad; Holzmann, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The benthic foraminifera are among the major carbonate producers in modern Arabian Gulf waters and are found living in all marine habitats. They have been recognized as proxies to assess paleoenvironmental changes, however, their biological behaviors in modern environments needs to be further studied. The current study attempts to explain the biology of benthic foraminifera in terms of their living behaviors and molecular characterization, from different regions of the western side of the Arabian Gulf. Accordingly, two major groups of benthic foraminifera, namely rotaliids and miliolids, are examined under laboratory conditions. Results illustrate that the rotaliids are more resistant to environmental changes than miliolids, as their granular reticulopodial network is stronger than among the miliolids, with high cytoplasmic streaming. The pseudopodia extend out from both primary and secondary apertures, and aid the organism in locomotion by attaching to the wall of hard substrate. As a result they drag their whole bodies toward the direction of motion. In rotaliids, the movement rate is high and is attributed to the extension of pseudopodia through all apertures, compared with miliolids in which pseudopodia extend out from the primary aperture only. The innate behavior of both groups was observed as a function of external stimulus, i.e., light, nutrients, and availability of substrate. The observation on average life span reflected that the rotaliids was able to survive longer than miliolids. Molecular analysis reveals the presence of four groups, i.e., Ammonia, Murrayinella, Glabratellina, and Elphidium which support the morphological taxonomy at the genus level. However, BLAST analysis contradicts the species level taxonomy, which challenges the classification based upon hard-shell morphology. Nevertheless, monophyletic clustering is observed among all major groups. The study concludes that the morphological taxonomy needs to be augmented by molecular analysis

  11. Melengestrol acetate implant contraception in addax (Addax Nasomaculatus) and Arabian oryx (Oryx Leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Hall-Woods, Monica L; Bauman, Karen L; Bauman, Joan E; Fischer, Martha; Houston, E William; Asa, Cheryl S

    2007-07-01

    Melengestrol acetate (MGA) implants were used for contraception in three addax and three Arabian oryx females housed at the Saint Louis Zoo. Serum estradiol and progesterone or fecal estrogen and progestin analysis and ultrasonography of reproductive tracts were used for monitoring changes before, during, and after MGA treatment. Follicular development and irregular uterine fluid accumulation were detected in all females during MGA treatment. Although housed with an intact male for all or most of the contraceptive period, no pregnancies occurred.One female addax may have ovulated, based on sustained elevated progesterone levels, and another showed continued follicle development, as seen by fluctuating estradiol concentrations. Reversibility was documented in two of the three addax that resumed reproductive cycles post-MGA-implant removal, whereas the third, a peripubertal female, did not cycle before, during, or after treatment. Addax females were lost to further follow-up after transfer to another institution, so the possibility of subsequent pregnancies is not known.All three Arabian oryx ovulated during the initial MGA treatment, but two of the three females had implants past the typical 2-year efficacy period. They had regular ovulatory cycles after implant removal, with mean cycle length of 27.5+/-1.5 days and mean luteal phase duration of 15.2+/-0.7 days. Reversibility was further shown in all three oryx by pregnancies after placement with a male approximately 2 years after MGA implant removal. Two produced healthy calves, but the third died owing to an unrelated terminal illness in the mother. Zoo Biol 26:299-310, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360582

  12. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  13. Pneumococcal disease in the Arabian Gulf: recognizing the challenge and moving toward a solution.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Abdulkarim, Emad; Alattar, Fatma; Al Lawati, Faryal; Al Khatib, Hisham; Al Maslamani, Muna; Al Obaidani, Idris; Al Salah, Mosaab; Farghaly, Mohamed; Husain, Entesar H; Mokadas, Eiman

    2013-12-01

    Pneumococcal disease has substantial incidence, morbidity and mortality in older adults. Decreased birth rates and longer lifespans indicate that the global population is aging, although rates of aging differ between countries [1]. In 2010, the proportion of the population aged >60 years in the general Arab Region was 7%, and this proportion is expected to rise to 19% by 2050 for the region as a whole [2]; the United Nations estimates for the individual countries of the Arabian Gulf by 2050 are 25.7%, 24.9%, 20.7%, 26.7% and 10.5% in the Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman, respectively, which are comparable to the 26.9% predicted for the USA and lower than that predicted in European countries, in which the 2050 estimates are 32.7%, 34.0% and 38.1% for France, the UK and Germany, respectively [1]. Globally and in the Gulf Region, pneumococcal disease is an increasingly important public health burden in the elderly. The burden of pneumococcal disease can be reduced by effective vaccination programs, but the recommendations on pneumococcal vaccination in adults vary widely. The major barriers to vaccine implementation among healthcare professionals are an incomplete awareness of pneumococcal disease and the vaccination options in adults. The Gulf Advocate Group calls for healthcare providers in the countries of the Arabian Gulf (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman) to support awareness and education programs about adult pneumococcal disease, particularly in high-risk groups such as those >65 years of age, those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hematological malignancy, organ and bone marrow transplantation or chronic kidney or lung diseases and pilgrims undertaking the Hajj to improve pneumococcal disease surveillance and optimize and disseminate recommendations for adult vaccination. The Gulf Advocate Group recommends following the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for pneumococcal vaccination [3,4].

  14. Speciation of phosphorus in the continental shelf sediments in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar; Kurian, John; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Tripathy, Subhasish

    2016-03-01

    The distributions of various forms of phosphorus (P) and their relation with sediment geochemistry in two core sediments near Karwar and Mangalore offshore have been studied through the modified SEDEX procedure (Ruttenberg et al., 2009) and bulk chemical analysis. The present study provides the first quantitative analysis of complete phosphorus speciation in the core sediments of the Eastern Arabian shelf. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Al-Ti-Zr ternary diagram suggest low to moderate source area weathering of granodioritic to tonalitic source rock composition, despite the intense orographic rainfall in the source area. Due to the presence of same source rock and identical oxic depositional environment, the studied sediments show the same range of variation of total phosphorus (24 to 83 μmol/g) with a down-depth depleting trend. Organic bound P and detrital P are the two major chemical forms followed by iron-bound P, exchangeable/loosely bound P and authigenic P. The authigenic P content in the sediments near Mangalore coast varies linearly with calcium (r=0.88) unlike that of Karwar coast. The different reactive-phosphorus pools exhibit identical depleting trend with depth. This indicates that the phosphorus released from the organic matter and Fe bound fractions are prevented from precipitating as authigenic phosphates in the deeper parts of the sediment column. The low concentration of total P, dominance of detrital non-reactive fraction of P and inhibition of formation of authigenic phosphate result in the absence of active phosphatization in the Eastern Arabian Shelf in the studied region. High sedimentation rate (35-58 cm/kyr) and absence of winnowing effect appear to be the dominant factor controlling the P-speciation in the studied sediments.

  15. Supersequence and composite sequence carbonate platform growth: Permian and Triassic outcrop data of the Arabian platform and Neo-Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidlich, O.; Bernecker, M.

    2003-05-01

    Permian and Triassic carbonate platforms of the Arabian Peninsula (Gondwana) and seamounts of the Neo-Tethys (Hawasina and Batain basins) are characterized by distinctive supersequences (second order, duration 5-20 million years, my) and composite sequences (third order, duration 0.5-5 my). The presented sequence stratigraphic framework will be compared with existing sea level curves to discuss the validity of different regional oscillations during the dispersal of Pangea. The carbonate succession of the Haushi and Akhdar Groups of the Arabian platform is composed of four Permian (P1-P4) and four Triassic supersequences (Tr1-Tr4). Isolated platforms of the Hawasina and Batain basins comprise two Permian supersequences and one Triassic supersequence. In contrast to the continuous development of the Arabian shield, carbonate platform growth of the seamounts was restricted to the Guadalupian-Lopingian and to the Middle-Upper Triassic, and ceased after drowning events. Composite sequences exhibit a well-developed stacking pattern during the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Saiq Formation). Lowstand systems tracts (LSTs) occur during the Cisuralian (Gharif Formation, Haushi Group) and Triassic (Mahil Formation, Akhdar Group). Open-marine depositional environments prevail during transgressive systems tracts (TSTs) with diverse biota including rugose and scleractinian corals, chaetetids, bryozoans, and crinoids. Highstand system tracts (HSTs) exhibit a twofold pattern: During the transgressive phase of supersequences, composite sequence highstands are dominated by reef or level-bottom communities with corals. Cyclic platform deposits or monotonous mud- and wackestone accumulated during the turnaround or late second-order highstand of a supersequence. Correlation of maximum flooding surfaces with published data suggests that supersequences P1, P2, and Tr4 can be traced across the Arabian platform into the Neo-Tethys basins, while supersequences P3, P4, and Tr1-Tr3 resulted from

  16. Dtection of Sea Level Rise within the Arabian Gulf Using Space Based GNSS Measurements and Insitu Tide Gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Ayhan, Mehmet

    In the 21st century, sea level rise is expected to be about 30 cm or even more (up to 60 cm). Saudi Arabia has very long coasts of about 3400 km and hundreds of islands. Therefore, sea level monitoring may be important in particular along coastal low lands on Red Sea and Arabian Gulf coasts. Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and lying along a parallel course in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. We expect vertical land motion within the area due to both tectonic structures of the Arabian Peninsula and oil production activities. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Continues observations were used to estimate the vertical crustal motion. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS-GPS) station is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region, and it is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are used in the computation. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and a break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.46 0.11 mm/yr. To investigate sea level variation within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed separately the monthly mean sea level measurements at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Sea level rates at the stations are first corrected for vertical land motion contamination using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, and the average sea level rate is found 2.27 0.21 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate

  17. Bio-Optical Properties of the Arabian Sea as Determined by In-Situ and SeaWifs Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trees, Charles C.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this work was to characterize optical and fluorescence properties in the euphotic zone during two British Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) Arabian Sea cruises. This was later expanded in 1995 to include three U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea Cruises. The region was to be divided into one or more "bio-optical provinces", within each of which a single set of regression models was to be developed to relate the vertical distribution of irradiance attenuation and normalized fluorescence (SF and NF) to remote sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient [K(490)]. The working hypothesis was that over relatively large spatial and temporal scales, the vertical profiles of bio-optical properties were predictable.

  18. Tritirachium candoliense sp. nov., a novel basidiomycetous fungus isolated from the anoxic zone of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Cathrine Sumathi; Boekhout, Teun; Müller, Wally H; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    A fungal culture (FCAS11) was isolated from coastal sediments of the Arabian Sea during the anoxic season. Multigene phylogenetic analyses confidentially place the organism as a novel species within the recently defined class Tritirachiomycetes, subphylum Pucciniomycotina, phylum Basidiomycota. We named the new species Tritirachium candoliense and provide the first description of a member of this class from a marine environment. DNA sequences and morphological characters distinguish T. candoliense from previously described Tritirachium species. Its growth characteristics, morphology, and ultrastructural features showed that under anoxic conditions the species grows slowly and produces mainly hyphae with only few blastoconidia. Electron microscopy revealed differences when the culture was exposed to anoxic stress. Notable ultrastructural changes occur for example in mitochondrial cristae, irregularly shaped fat globules and the presence of intracellular membrane invaginations. We assume that the growth characteristics and substrate utilization patterns are an adaptation to its source location, the seasonally anoxic environment of the Arabian Sea.

  19. Two newly recognized species of Hemidactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Smíd, Jiří; Moravec, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Busais, Salem M; Wilms, Thomas; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus revealed that the recently described H. saba and two unnamed Hemidactylus species from Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen form a well-supported monophyletic group within the Arabian radiation of the genus. The name 'Hemidactylus saba species group' is suggested for this clade. According to the results of morphological comparisons and the molecular analyses using two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (cmos, mc1r, rag1, rag2) genes, the name Hemidactylus granosus Heyden, 1827 is resurrected from the synonymy of H. turcicus for the Sinai and Saudi Arabian species. The third species of this group from Yemen is described formally as a new species H. ulii sp. n. The phylogenetic relationships of the members of 'Hemidactylus saba species group' are evaluated and the distribution and ecology of individual species are discussed.

  20. Rb-Sr isotopic studies of postorogenic granites from the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Futa, Kiyoto

    1987-01-01

    Available data indicate that postorogenic granites tend to be older in the southern part of the Arabian Shield. This suggests that plutonism started in the south and progressed to the north. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values also form a regional pattern. These ratios tend to be higher in the eastern part of the Arabian Shield, and suggest one source of continental affinity to the east and one of oceanic affinity to the west. The distribution of initial strontium isotope ratios does not clearly discriminate between the various models for Shield evolution; however, a sedimentary source region of mixed end members seems more compatible with the data pattern than models based on discrete boundaries between unrelated accreted blocks.

  1. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  2. Geochemistry and preliminary assessment of resource potential for postorogenic granites of the southwestern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, George; Bush, C.A.; Vaughn, R.B.; Bartel, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Regional geochemical patterns are not consistent with the north-south trending microplate boundary that has been proposed by other workers. Correlation coefficients for trace-element data obtained during the current study also argue against sharp compositional breaks in the protolith for the postorogenic granites. Consideration of the data presented here and similar data for granitoids of the eastern Arabian Shield, suggest the existence of a compositionally gradational protolith of continental affinity to the east and oceanic affinity to the west.

  3. Late Holocene SST and primary productivity variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea as a recorder for winter monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Anna; Gaye, Birgit; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Variability in the oceanic environment of the Arabian Sea region is strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon cycle of alternating wind directions. Strong south-westerly winds during the summer monsoon induce upwelling of nutrient rich waters along the coast off Somalia, Oman and southwest India, which result in high rates of primary production. In the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan on the other hand, primary production and sea surface temperatures are linked to northeast monsoonal winds that cool the sea surface and drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity during the winter season. In this study, we analyzed alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) variations and proxies of primary productivity (organic carbon and δ15N) in a well-laminated sediment core from the Pakistan continental margin to establish the first high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene. Over the last 2400 years reconstructed SST in the northeastern Arabian Sea decreased whereas productivity increased, imaging a long-term trend of northeast monsoon strengthening in response to insolation-induced southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The comparison of our winter monsoon record with records of summer monsoon intensity suggests that summer and winter monsoon strength was essentially anti-correlated over the late Holocene throughout the Asian monsoon system. In addition, SST variations recorded off Pakistan match very well with Northern Hemisphere temperature records supporting the growing body of evidence that Asian climate is linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change. It reveals a consistent pattern of increased summer monsoon activity in the northeastern Arabian Sea during northern hemispheric warm periods (Medieval Warm Period, Roman Warm Period) and strengthened winter monsoon activity during hemispheric colder periods (Little Ice Age).

  4. Mesopelagic fishes of the Arabian Sea: distribution, abundance and diet of Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis, and Stomias nebulosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Mari; Bollens, Stephen M.; Burkhalter, Brenda; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich

    Four species of predatory fishes - Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis and Stomias nebulosus - were collected on two cruises to the Arabian Sea during 1995. We present data on the abundances, horizontal and vertical distributions, and diet of these fishes. We also discuss briefly the importance of the oxygen minimum zone and predation on myctophid fishes to the ecology of these mesopelagic predators. Chauliodus pammelas and C. sloani appear to have only partially overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea, with C. pammelas more common to the north and C. sloani more common to the south. Our data support previous results suggesting that diel vertical migration is the norm for these species, with smaller individuals usually nearer to the surface and larger individuals tending to stay deeper. In contrast to Chauliodus, Stomias affinis and S. nebulosus appear to have largely overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea. However, they may have slightly different vertical distributions, with S. affinis living slightly shallower (especially at night) than S. nebulosus. All four species spend most of their time in the oxygen minimum zone, entering the surface oxygenated waters (100-150 m) only at night (if at all). The diets of C. pammelas, C. sloani, and S. affinis consisted mainly of lanternfishes, Myctophidae, and other fishes. In contrast, S. nebulosus, the smaller of the two Stomias species, ate mostly copepods and other crustaceans. This differential feeding may allow the two Stomias species to co-occur. Three of these four stomiids appear to play an important role in predation on myctophid fish populations in the Arabian Sea.

  5. Map showing distribution and classification of felsic plutonic rocks in the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Bray, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    This 1:500,000-scale compilation shows the distribution of felsic plutonic rocks, lithologic types, and associated mineralization in an area between lat 21° and 24°30’ N., long 43°30’ and 46° E. It is part of a shieldwide compilation being done within the framework of Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources projects 2.04 and 3.12.

  6. Iron bacterial phylogeny and their execution towards iron availability in Equatorial Indian Ocean and coastal Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasabapathy, Raju; Mohandass, Chellandi; Vijayaraj, Ajakkalamoole Srinivas; Madival, Varsha Vinayak; Meena, Ram Murti

    2013-01-01

    Based on distinct colony morphology, color, size, shape and certain other traits, 92 bacterial isolates were investigated to understand their managerial ability on iron from the Arabian Sea and Equatorial Indian Ocean samples. The ARDRA (amplified rDNA restriction analysis) applied to eliminate the duplication of the bacterial strains, resulted 39 different banding patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing data indicate the dominancy of three phylogenetic groups, alpha-Proteobacteria (10.25%), gamma-Proteobacteria (35.89%) and Bacilli (53.84%) in these waters. Marinobacter and Bacillus were the only common genera from both of the regions. Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Rheinheimera, Staphylococcus and Idiomarina were some of the other genera obtained from the Arabian Sea. Erythrobacter, Roseovarius, Sagittula and Nitratireductor were found mostly in Equatorial Indian Ocean. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequence data of some of our iron bacterial strains belong to novel species and one isolate ASS2A could form a new genus. Close to 23% of the isolates were able to produce high affinity sets of ligands like siderophores to mediate iron transport into the cell. The current study indicated that the Equatorial Indian Ocean species were well adapted to oxidize iron as an electron acceptor and the Arabian Sea species preferably go through siderophore production.

  7. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  8. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    PubMed

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf.

  9. The Malaria Transition on the Arabian Peninsula: Progress toward a Malaria-Free Region between 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W.; Amratia, Punam; Zamani, Ghasem; Mundia, Clara W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Zahrani, Mohammad H.; Al Jasari, Adel; Fikri, Mahmoud; Atta, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden. PMID:23548086

  10. Seismic anisotropy and subduction-induced mantle fabrics beneath the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mohamed, Abdelnasser A.; Yu, Youqiang; Fat-Helbary, Raafat E.

    2014-04-01

    For most continental areas, the mechanisms leading to mantle fabrics responsible for the observed anisotropy remain ambiguous, partially due to the lack of sufficient spatial coverage of reliable seismological observations. Here we report the first joint analysis of shear-wave splitting measurements obtained at stations on the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea. More than 1100 pairs of high-quality splitting parameters show dominantly N-S fast orientations at all 47 stations and larger-than-normal splitting times beneath the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD). The uniformly N-S fast orientations and large splitting times up to 1.5 s are inconsistent with significant contributions from the lithosphere, which is about 50-80 km thick beneath the AAD and even thinner beneath the Red Sea. The results can best be explained by simple shear between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere associated with northward subduction of the African/Arabian Plates over the past 150 Ma.

  11. Interpretation of the data of USGS seismic refraction profile across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodehl, C.

    Based on the record sections distributed a preliminary traveltime interpretation assuming horizontally flat layering is presented in the form of velocity-depth functions and a corresponding cross section of the lithosphere to a depth of 60 to 80 km across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The crust thickens abruptly from 15 km beneath the Red Sea Rift to about 40 km beneath the Arabian Shield. The upper crust of the western Arabian Shield yields relatively high-velocity material at about 10 km depth underlain by velocity inversions, while the upper crust of the eastern Shield is relatively uniform. The lower crust with a velocity of about 7 km/s is underlain by a transitional crust-mantle boundary. For the lower lithosphere beneath 40 km depth a laterally discontinuous lamellar structure may exist where high-velocity zones are mixed with zones of lower velocities. Beneath the crust-mantle boundary of the Red Sea Rift strong velocity inversions with velocities as low as 6.0 km/s may be encountered between 25 and 44 km depth. This model was prepared before the CCSS workshop. The model was tested using ray-tracing and amplitude studies and agreed well with observed traveltimes, except between shotpoints 5 and 6.

  12. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  13. Climatic controls on the interannual to decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust activity: Toward the development of a seasonal dust prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Wang, Fuyao; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh

    2015-03-01

    The observed climatic controls on springtime and summertime Saudi Arabian dust activities during 1975-2012 are analyzed, leading to development of a seasonal dust prediction model. According to empirical orthogonal function analysis, dust storm frequency exhibits a dominantly homogeneous pattern across Saudi Arabia, with distinct interannual and decadal variability. The previously identified positive trend in remotely sensed aerosol optical depth since 2000 is shown to be a segment of the decadal oscillation in dust activity, according to long-duration station record. Regression and correlation analyses reveal that the interannual variability in Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency is regulated by springtime rainfall across the Arabian Peninsula and summertime Shamal wind intensity. The key drivers of Saudi Arabian dust storm variability are identified. Winter-to-spring La Niña enhances subsequent spring dust activity by decreasing rainfall across the country's primary dust source region, the Rub' al Khali Desert. A relatively cool tropical Indian Ocean favors frequent summer dust storms by producing an anomalously anticyclonic circulation over the central Arabian Peninsula, which enhances the Shamal wind. Decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency is associated with North African rainfall and Sahel vegetation, which regulate African dust emissions and transport to Saudi Arabia. Mediterranean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) also regulate decadal dust variability, likely through their influence on Sahel rainfall and Shamal intensity. Using antecedent-accumulated rainfall over the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, and Mediterranean SSTs, as low-frequency predictors, and tropical eastern Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SSTs as high-frequency predictors, Saudi Arabia's seasonal dust activity is well predicted.

  14. Radionuclide fluxes in the Arabian Sea: the role of particle composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, J. C.; Fietzke, J.; Mangini, A.; Stoffers, P.; Rixen, T.; Gaye-Haake, B.; Blanz, T.; Ramaswamy, V.; Sirocko, F.; Schulz, H.; Ittekkot, V.

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the influence of the composition of the vertical particle flux on the removal of particle reactive natural radionuclides ( 230Th and 231Pa) from the water column to the sediments. Radionuclide concentrations determined in sediment traps moored in the western, central and eastern Arabian Sea were related to the major components (carbonate, particulate organic matter (POC), opal, lithogenic material) of the particle flux. These data were combined with sediment trap data previously published from the Southern Ocean, Equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic [Z. Chase, R.F. Anderson, M.Q. Fleisher, P.W. Kubik, The influence of particle composition and particle flux on scavenging of Th, Pa and Be in the ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 204 (2002) 215-229; J.C. Scholten, F. Fietzke, S. Vogler, M. Rutgers van der Loeff, A. Mangini, W. Koeve, J. Waniek, P. Stoffers, A. Antia, J. Kuss, Trapping efficiencies of sediment traps from the deep eastern North Atlantic: The 230Th calibration, Deep Sea Research II 48 (2001) 2383-2408]. The correlations observed between the particle-dissolved distribution coefficients ( Kd) of 230Th and 231Pa and the concentrations of the particle types depend on the sediment trap data set used. This result suggests that scavenging affinities of the nuclides differ between oceanic regions. Several factors ( Kd values, reactive surface areas of particles, inter-correlations in closed data set) can, however, influence the observed relationships and thus hamper the interpretation of these correlation coefficients as a measure of relative scavenging affinities of the nuclides to the particle types investigated. The mean fractionation factor ( F(Pa/Th)= Kd(Pa)/ Kd(Th)) from the Equatorial Pacific ( F=0.11±0.03) is similar to that from the North Atlantic ( F(Pa/Th)=0.077±0.026), and both are lower than the factors from the Arabian Sea ( F(Pa/Th)=0.35±0.12) and from the Southern Ocean ( F(Pa/Th)=0.87±0.4). For opal concentrations exceeding

  15. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  16. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  17. Thermal insulation and clothing area factors of typical Arabian Gulf clothing ensembles for males and females: measurements using thermal manikins.

    PubMed

    Al-ajmi, F F; Loveday, D L; Bedwell, K H; Havenith, G

    2008-05-01

    The thermal insulation of clothing is one of the most important parameters used in the thermal comfort model adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) [BS EN ISO 7730, 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva.] and by ASHRAE [ASHRAE Handbook, 2005. Fundamentals. Chapter 8. American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA.]. To date, thermal insulation values of mainly Western clothing have been published with only minimal data being available for non-Western clothing. Thus, the objective of the present study is to measure and present the thermal insulation (clo) values of a number of Arabian Gulf garments as worn by males and females. The clothing ensembles and garments of Arabian Gulf males and females presented in this study are representative of those typically worn in the region during both summer and winter seasons. Measurements of total thermal insulation values (clo) were obtained using a male and a female shape thermal manikin in accordance with the definition of insulation as given in ISO 9920. In addition, the clothing area factors (f cl) determined in two different ways were compared. The first method used a photographic technique and the second a regression equation as proposed in ISO 9920, based on the insulation values of Arabian Gulf male and female garments and ensembles as they were determined in this study. In addition, fibre content, descriptions and weights of Arabian Gulf clothing have been recorded and tabulated in this study. The findings of this study are presented as additions to the existing knowledge base of clothing insulation, and provide for the first time data for Arabian Gulf clothing. The analysis showed that for these non-Western clothing designs, the

  18. Thermal insulation and clothing area factors of typical Arabian Gulf clothing ensembles for males and females: measurements using thermal manikins.

    PubMed

    Al-ajmi, F F; Loveday, D L; Bedwell, K H; Havenith, G

    2008-05-01

    The thermal insulation of clothing is one of the most important parameters used in the thermal comfort model adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) [BS EN ISO 7730, 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva.] and by ASHRAE [ASHRAE Handbook, 2005. Fundamentals. Chapter 8. American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA.]. To date, thermal insulation values of mainly Western clothing have been published with only minimal data being available for non-Western clothing. Thus, the objective of the present study is to measure and present the thermal insulation (clo) values of a number of Arabian Gulf garments as worn by males and females. The clothing ensembles and garments of Arabian Gulf males and females presented in this study are representative of those typically worn in the region during both summer and winter seasons. Measurements of total thermal insulation values (clo) were obtained using a male and a female shape thermal manikin in accordance with the definition of insulation as given in ISO 9920. In addition, the clothing area factors (f cl) determined in two different ways were compared. The first method used a photographic technique and the second a regression equation as proposed in ISO 9920, based on the insulation values of Arabian Gulf male and female garments and ensembles as they were determined in this study. In addition, fibre content, descriptions and weights of Arabian Gulf clothing have been recorded and tabulated in this study. The findings of this study are presented as additions to the existing knowledge base of clothing insulation, and provide for the first time data for Arabian Gulf clothing. The analysis showed that for these non-Western clothing designs, the

  19. A four-dimensional validation of a coupled physical-biological model of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Raleigh R.; Kohler, Kevin E.; McCreary, Julian P.; Smith, Sharon L.

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, we use a coupled biological/physical model to synthesize and understand observations taken during the US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study (ASPS). Its physical component is a variable-density, 4 1/2-layer model; its biological component consists of a set of advective-diffusive equations in each layer that determine nitrogen concentrations in four compartments, namely, nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus. Solutions are compared to time series and cruise sections from the ASPS data set, including observations of mixed-layer thickness, chlorophyll concentrations, inorganic nitrogen concentrations, particulate nitrogen export flux, zooplankton biomass, and primary production. Through these comparisons, we adjust model parameters to obtain a "best-fit" main-run solution, identify key biological and physical processes, and assess model strengths and weaknesses. Substantial improvements in the model/data comparison are obtained by: (1) adjusting the turbulence-production coefficients in the mixed-layer model to thin the mixed layer; (2) increasing the detrital sinking and remineralization rates to improve the timing and amplitude of the model's export flux; and (3) introducing a parameterization of particle aggregation to lower phytoplankton concentrations in coastal upwelling regions. With these adjustments, the model captures many key aspects of the observed physical and biogeochemical variability in offshore waters, including the near-surface DIN and phytoplankton P concentrations, mesozooplankton biomass, and primary production. Nevertheless, there are still significant model/data discrepancies of P for most of the cruises. Most of them can be attributed to forcing or process errors in the physical model: inaccurate mixed-layer thicknesses, lack of mesoscale eddies and filaments, and differences in the timing and spatial extent of coastal upwelling. Relatively few are clearly related to the simplicity of the biological model, the model

  20. SSMI Wind Speed Climatology of the Time of Monsoon Wind Offset in the Western Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    2000-01-01

    Forecasting the time of onset of monsoon wind in the western Arabian Sea, which is believed to precede the onset of rainfall along the west coast of India, is an important unsolved problem. Prior to measurements of the surface wind field by satellite, there was an absence of suitable surface wind observations. NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) surface wind vectors revealed that the time of the 1997 onset of 12 m/s southwest monsoon wind speeds in the western Arabian Sea preceded the onset of monsoon rainfall in Goa, India, by 3 - 4 days. Wind speed and direction data were necessary to establish a dynamical mechanism between times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed off Somalia and rainfall in Goa. Except for NSCAT, no satellite scatterometer wind product recorded adequately sampled 2-day 1deg x 1deg averaged wind vectors, which are the required space and time scales, to examine the wind-rain relationship in other years. However, the greater-than-95% steadiness of summer monsoon winds allows an opportunity to use satellite measurements of surface wind speed. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) recorded surface wind speed with adequate sampling to produce a 1-day, 1deg x 1deg data product during 1988 - 1998. SSMI data had been uniformly processed throughout the period. Times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed off Somalia determined with the SSMI data set were 21 May 1988, 24 May 1989, 17 May 1990, 28 May 1991, 8 June 1992, 28 May 1993, 30 May 1994, 7 June 1995, 29 May 1996, 12 June 1997, and 15 May 1998. Uncertainty of the 1992 and 1996 times of onset were increased because of the absence of SSMI data on 6 and 7 June 1992 and on 30 May 1996. Correlations of timing of monsoon wind onset with El Nino will be described. Variability of the time difference between times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed and Goa rainfall will be discussed. At the time of submission of the abstract, the Goa rainfall data have not arrived from the India Meteorological Department.

  1. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.; Damaty, Hend M. El

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5%) have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8%) were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25%) followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20%) and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%). Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion: S. equi easily

  2. Monitoring Aquifer Depletion from Space: Case Studies from the Saharan and Arabian Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.

    2013-12-01

    Access to potable fresh water resources is a human right and a basic requirement for economic development in any society. In arid and semi-arid areas, the characterization and understanding of the geologic and hydrologic settings of, and the controlling factors affecting, these resources is gaining increasing importance due to the challenges posed by increasing population. In these areas, there is immense natural fossil fresh water resources stored in large extensive aquifers, the transboundary aquifers. Yet, natural phenomena (e.g., rainfall patterns and climate change) together with human-related factors (e.g., population growth, unsustainable over-exploitation, and pollution) are threatening the sustainability of these resources. In this study, we are developing and applying an integrated cost-effective approach to investigate the nature (i.e., natural and anthropogenic) and the controlling factors affecting the hydrologic settings of the Saharan (i.e., Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System [NSAS], Northwest Sahara Aquifer System [NWSA]) and Arabian (i.e., Arabian Peninsula Aquifer System [APAS]) aquifer systems. Analysis of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) inter-annual trends over the NSAS and the APAS revealed two areas of significant TWS depletions; the first correlated with the Dakhla Aquifer System (DAS) in the NSAS and second with the Saq Aquifer System (SAS) in the APAS. Annual depletion rates were estimated at 1.3 × 0.66 × 109 m3/yr and 6.95 × 0.68 × 109 m3/yr for DAS and SAS, respectively. Findings include (1) excessive groundwater extraction, not climatic changes, is responsible for the observed TWS depletions ;(2) the DAS could be consumed in 350 years if extraction rates continue to double every 50 years and the APAS available reserves could be consumed within 60-140 years at present extraction (7.08 × 109 m3/yr) and depletion rates; and (3) observed depletions over DAS and SAS and their

  3. Holocene coastal carbonates and evaporites of the southern Arabian Gulf and their ancient analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharhan, A. S.; Kendall, C. G. St. C.

    2003-06-01

    The Holocene sediments of the coast of the United Arab Emirates in the southeastern Arabian Gulf are frequently cited in the literature as type examples for analogous assemblages of carbonates, evaporites and siliciclastics throughout the geologic record. This paper is intended as a convenient single source for the description of sediments of this region, providing information on how to reach the classic localities and some of the analogs. The Holocene sediments of the region accumulate over an area that is 500 km long and up to 60 km wide. The sediments collecting offshore are predominantly pelecypod sands mixed with lime and argillaceous mud, with these latter fine sediments increasing as the water deepens. The pelecypod-rich sediments also collect east of Abu Dhabi Island both in the deeper tidal channels between the barrier island lagoons and in deeper portions of the protected lagoons. West of Abu Dhabi Island the shallow water margin is the site of coral reefs and coralgal sands, whereas to the east oolites accumulate on the tidal deltas of channels located between barrier islands. Grapestones accumulate to the lee of the reefs and the oolite shoals where cementation becomes more common. They are particularly common on the less protected shallow water margins of the lagoons west of Abu Dhabi Island. Pelleted lime muds accumulate in the lagoons in the lee of the barrier islands of the eastern Abu Dhabi. Lining the inner shores of the protected lagoons of Abu Dhabi and on other islands to the west are cyano-bacterial mats and mangrove swamps. Landward of these, a prograding north facing shoreline is formed by supratidal salt flats (sabkhas), in which evaporite minerals are accumulating. This paper describes the localities associated with (1) the mangrove swamps of the west side of the Al Dhabaiya peninsula; (2) the indurated cemented carbonate crusts, cyanobacterial flats and sabkha evaporites on the shore of the Khor al Bazam south of Qanatir Island; (3) the

  4. Transpressional regime in southern Arabian Shield: Insights from Wadi Yiba Area, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Kattu, Ghazi; Matsah, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Detailed field-structural mapping of Neoproterozoic basement rocks exposed in the Wadi Yiba area, southern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia illustrates an important episode of late Neoproterozoic transpression in the southern part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). This area is dominated by five main basement lithologies: gneisses, metavolcanics, Ablah Group (meta-clastic and marble units) and syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. These rocks were affected by three phases of deformation (D1-D3). D1 formed tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), penetrative foliation (S1), and mineral lineation (L1), which resulted from early E-W (to ENE-WSW) shortening. D2 deformation overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by transpression and top-to-the-W (-WSW) thrusting as shortening progressed. Stretching lineation trajectories, S-C foliations, asymmetric shear fabrics and related mylonitic foliation, and flat-ramp and duplex geometries further indicate the inferred transport direction. The N- to NNW-orientation of both “in-sequence piggy-back thrusts” and axial planes of minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds also indicates the same D2 compressional stress trajectories. The Wadi Yiba Shear Zone (WYSZ) formed during D2 deformation. It is one of several N-S trending brittle-ductile Late Neoproterozoic shear zones in the southern part of the ANS. Shear sense indicators reveal that shearing during D2 regional-scale transpression was dextral and is consistent with the mega-scale sigmoidal patterns recognized on Landsat images. The shearing led to the formation of the WYSZ and consequent F2 shear zone-related folds, as well as other unmappable shear zones in the deformed rocks. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during D2 transpression and occupied space created during thrust propagation. D1 and D2 structures are locally overprinted by mesoscopic- to macroscopic-scale D3 structures (F3 folds, and L3 crenulation lineations and

  5. Understanding the paleohydrological setting of the Arabian Peninsula: An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emil, M. K.; Sultan, M.; Sturchio, N. C.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Rub Al Khali (RAK), encompasses one of the World's largest (area: 650,000 km2) aquifer systems, the Rub Al Khali Aquifer System (RAKAS) of the Arabian Peninsula. In this study, we develop and apply an integrated and cost-effective approach, involving geophysical, geochemical, isotopic, field, and remote sensing investigations to understand the origin, evolution, and the factors controlling the paleo and current distribution of the RAKAS groundwater. Paleohydrological setting of the RAK is investigated by exploring the spatial relations between plaeo-drainage, paleo-lakes, faults, and sapping features. The following investigations were accomplished: (1) groundwater samples were collected from wells in the western portion of the Rub Al Khali and analyzed for their solute chemistry, stable isotopic composition (O, H), and Cl-36 and C-14 ages; (2) paleo-topography (prior to dune encroachment) was extracted using elevations within inter-dunal areas; (3) drainage systems were extracted using standard stream delineation techniques; (4) a regional mosaic of dual polarized (HH,HV) ALOS PALSAR data (10 m resolution) was created covering entire Arabian Peninsula; (5) paleo-drainage systems across the RAK were mapped using PALSAR data and SRTM-derived networks; and (6) Landsat 8 imagery and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were used to map the distribution of paleo-lakes and to delineate sapping features. Findings include: (1) presence of relatively fresh (TDS ranging from 800 - 2,800 mg/L in deeper wells) suitable for drinking and/or irrigation; (2) major ions are Na, Ca, Cl, SO4 and HCO3; (3) radiocarbon model ages range from 1,400 to 30,600 years before present, but conservative Cl-36 model ages indicate much higher residence time (up to 750,000 years or more); (4) Cl-36 ages and stable isotopic compositions indicate that groundwater recharge in previous wet climatic periods; (5) features with stubby looking geometry, theater-like heads, U-shaped profile, flat floors and

  6. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  7. Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae with High Rate of Autochthonous Transmission in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Sonnevend, Ágnes; Ghazawi, Akela A.; Hashmey, Rayhan; Jamal, Wafaa; Rotimi, Vincent O.; Shibl, Atef M.; Al-Jardani, Amina; Al-Abri, Seif S.; Tariq, Waheed U. Z.; Weber, Stefan; Pál, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    To establish the role of local transmission versus possible pathogen import due to previous foreign exposure in infections caused by carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae in the Arabian Peninsula, 200 independent isolates collected in 16 hospitals of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman and the United Arab Emirates were studied. All strains were multidrug resistant; 42.5% of them also qualified as extremely drug resistant. The frequency of various carbapenemases varied according to the participating countries, but in the collection, as a whole, blaNDM-1 was the most frequently encountered carbapenemase gene (46.5%) followed by blaOXA-48-like gene (32.5%). A comparatively high rate (8.9%) of multi-clonal strains carrying both blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like genes in the United Arab Emirates, representing the most resistant subgroup, was encountered. No KPC-expressing isolates were detected. Three major clones of blaNDM-1 carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae of ST152 (n = 22, Saudi Arabia), ST14 (n = 7, United Arab Emirates) and ST147 types (n = 9, Oman) were identified, the latter two clones carrying similar, but not identical HI1b incompatibility type plasmids of >170kb. While from 78.6% of the cases with documented foreign hospitalization blaNDM positive strains were isolated, these strains formed only 25.6% of all the isolates expressing this enzyme. In fact, 56.8% of the NDM, 75.7% of OXA-48-like and 90.9% of VIM positive strains were recovered from patients without documented foreign exposure, neither in the form of travel or prior hospitalization abroad, suggesting a high rate of autochthonous infections. This, considering the extensive links of these countries to the rest of the world, predicts that trends in the local epidemiology of carbapenem resistant strains may increasingly affect the spread of these pathogens on the global scale. These results call for improved surveillance of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. PMID

  8. A lead isotope study of mineralization in the Saudi Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Doe, B.R.; Roberts, R.J.; Delevaux, M.H.; Gramlich, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    New lead isotope data are presented for some late Precambrian and early Paleozoic vein and massive sulfide deposits in the Arabian Shield. Using the Stacey Kramers (1975) model for lead isotope evolution, isochron model ages range between 720 m.y. and 420 m.y. Most of the massive sulfide deposits in the region formed before 680 m.y. ago, during evolution of the shield. Vein type mineralization of higher lead content occurred during the Pan African event about 550 m.y. ago and continued through the Najd period of extensive faulting in the shield that ended about 530 m.y. ago. Late post-tectonic metamorphism may have been responsible for vein deposits that have model ages less than 500 m.y. Alternatively some of these younger model ages may be too low due to the mineralizing fluids acquiring radiogenic lead from appreciably older local crustal rocks at the time of ore formation. The low207Pb/204Pb ratios found for the deposits in the main part of the shield and for those in north-eastern Egypt, indicate that the Arabian craton was formed in an oceanic crustal environment during the late Precambrian. Involvement of older, upper-crustal material in the formation of the ore deposits in this part of the shield is precluded by their low207Pb/204Pb and208Pb/204Pb characteristics. In the eastern part of the shield, east of longitude 44??20???E towards the Al Amar-Idsas fault region, lead data are quite different. They exhibit a linear207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb relationship together with distinctly higher208Pb/204Pb characteristics. These data imply the existence of lower crustal rocks of early Proterozoic age that apparently have underthrust the shield rocks from the east. If most of the samples we have analyzed from this easterly region were mineralized 530 m.y. ago, then the age of the older continental rocks is 2,100??300 m.y. (2??). The presence of upper crustal rocks, possibly also of early Proterozoic age, is indicated by galena data from Hailan in South Yemen and also

  9. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  10. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Billett, D. S. M.; Wolff, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope from 100 to 1000 m water depth. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). These two margins are contrasting both in terms of the abundance of sedimentary organic matter and the intensity of the OMZ. Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC mg TOC-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (< 250 mg HC mg TOC-1). The δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values, particularly at the Oman margin, may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have

  11. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.; Damaty, Hend M. El

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5%) have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8%) were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25%) followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20%) and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%). Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion: S. equi easily

  12. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Wolff, G. A.; Billett, D. S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope at bathyal depths. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC (mg TOC)-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (<250 mg HC (mg TOC)-1). δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values were identified on both margins, particularly the Oman margin, and may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes between the two margins may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have provided an organic-rich food source for foraminifera at these sites. Our data

  13. Interference of lithospheric folding in Central Asia by simultaneous Indian and Arabian plate indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, J. H. W.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.; Burov, E.; Sokoutis, D.; Kaban, M.; Tesauro, M.; Burg, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Although large-scale folding of the crust and the lithosphere in Central Asia as a result of the indentation of India has been extensively documented, the impact of continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia has been largely overlooked. The resulting Neogene shortening and uplift of the Zagros, Albors, Kopet Dagh and Kaukasus mountain belts in Iran and surrounding areas is characterised by a simultaneous onset of major topography growth at ca. 5 Ma. At the same time, the adjacent Caspian, Turan and Amu Darya basins underwent an acceleration in subsidence. It is common knowledge that waves with different orientations will interfere with each other. Folding, by its nature similar to a standing wave, is not likely to be an exception. We demonstrate that collision of the Eurasian plate with the Arabian and Indian plates generates folding of the Eurasian lithosphere in two different directions and that interaction between both generates characteristic interference patterns that can be recognised from the regional gravity signal. We present evidence for interference of lithospheric folding patterns induced by Arabian and Indian collision with Eurasia. Wavelengths (from 50 to 250 km) and spatial patterns are inferred from satellite-derived topography and gravity models and attest for rheologically stratified lithosphere with relatively strong mantle rheology (thickness of strong mechanical core on the order of 40-50 km) and less competent crust (thickness of the mechanical core on the order of 10-15 km). The observations are compared with inferences from numerical and analogue tectonic experiments for a quantitative assessment of factors such as lithosphere rheology and stratification, lateral variations in lithosphere strength, thermo-mechanical age and distance to the plate boundary on the activity of folding as a mechanism of intra-plate deformation in this area. The observed interference of the patterns of folding appears to be primarily the result of spatial

  14. Rubidium-strontium geochronology and plate-tectonic evolution of the southern part of the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Robert J.; Greenwood, W.R.; Hadley, D.G.; Anderson, R.E.; Schmidt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium studies of Precambrian volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield document an early development of the Arabian craton between 900 and 680 m.y. (million years) ago. Geologic studies indicate an island-arc environment characterized by andesitic (dioritic) magmas, volcaniclastic sedimentation, rapid deposition, and contemporaneous deformation along north or northwest-trending axes. Magmatic trends show consistent variation in both composition and geographic location as a function of age. The oldest units belong to an assemblage of basaltic strata exposed in western Saudi Arabia that yield an age of 1165:!:110 m.y. The oldest andesitic strata studied yield an age of 912:!:76 m.y. The earliest plutonic units are diorite to trondhjemite batholiths that range from 800 to 9,00 m.y. in age and ,occur along the western and southern parts of Saudi Arabia. Younger plutonic units, 680 to 750 m.y. in age, range from quartz diorite to granodiodte and become more abundant in the central and northeastern parts of the Arabian Shield. Initial 'Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for both dioritic groups range from 0.7023 to 0.7030 and average 0.7027. The absence of sialic detritus in sedimentary units and the evidence for an island-arc environment suggest the early development of the Arabian craton at a convergent plate margin between plates of oceanic lithosphere. Active subduction apparently extended from at least 900 m.y. to about 680 m.y. Subsequent to this subduction-related magmatism and tectonism, called the Hijaz tectonic cycle, the Arabian craton was sutured to the late Precambrian African plate in a collisional event. This period of orogeny, represented in Arabia and eastern Africa by the Mozambiquian or Pan-African event, extended from some time before 650 m.y. to at least 540 m.y. and perhaps 520 m.y. B.P. Although the tectonic processes of subduction and continental collision during the 900+ to 500-m.y. period require similar directions of plate convergence, the

  15. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis identifies major gene loci for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16-26 Mb and 34-55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64-65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT.

  16. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis identifies major gene loci for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16-26 Mb and 34-55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64-65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT. PMID:22848553

  17. Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Analysis Identifies Major Gene Loci for Guttural Pouch Tympany in Arabian and German Warmblood Horses

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16–26 Mb and 34–55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64–65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT. PMID:22848553

  18. The Arabian Cradle: Mitochondrial Relicts of the First Steps along the Southern Route out of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Alves, Marco; Costa, Marta D.; Pereira, Joana B.; Silva, Nuno M.; Cherni, Lotfi; Harich, Nourdin; Cerny, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B.; Pereira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    A major unanswered question regarding the dispersal of modern humans around the world concerns the geographical site of the first human steps outside of Africa. The “southern coastal route” model predicts that the early stages of the dispersal took place when people crossed the Red Sea to southern Arabia, but genetic evidence has hitherto been tenuous. We have addressed this question by analyzing the three minor west-Eurasian haplogroups, N1, N2, and X. These lineages branch directly from the first non-African founder node, the root of haplogroup N, and coalesce to the time of the first successful movement of modern humans out of Africa, ∼60 thousand years (ka) ago. We sequenced complete mtDNA genomes from 85 Southwest Asian samples carrying these haplogroups and compared them with a database of 300 European examples. The results show that these minor haplogroups have a relict distribution that suggests an ancient ancestry within the Arabian Peninsula, and they most likely spread from the Gulf Oasis region toward the Near East and Europe during the pluvial period 55–24 ka ago. This pattern suggests that Arabia was indeed the first staging post in the spread of modern humans around the world. PMID:22284828

  19. Knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women residing in Qatar and Oman.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdelmonem S; Al-Kharusi, Balqees M

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women in Qatar and Oman. Three hundred pregnant women were interviewed during their second trimester based on a questionnaire developed for the study. Results of the survey indicated that 94% of the women knew about folic acid, 41.3% knew it should be taken periconceptionally, 58.5% knew that it prevents birth defects and 34.4% were able to identify five or more food sources of folic acid. The majority (88.7%) of women was taking the supplement, 85.0% were taking it regularly and 13.2% took it before getting pregnant. Knowledge and use were significantly influenced by ethnicity, age, education level, employment and family income. Periconceptional use of supplement was lowest among younger women (4.9%) and illiterate and least educated women (5.3%). It was concluded that high level of knowledge of folic acid was not reflected as successful use of the folic acid supplement.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane J; Mirabal, Sheyla; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-03-01

    Modern day Iran is strategically located in the tri-continental corridor uniting Africa, Europe and Asia. Several ethnic groups belonging to distinct religions, speaking different languages and claiming divergent ancestries inhabit the region, generating a potentially diverse genetic reservoir. In addition, past pre-historical and historical events such as the out-of-Africa migrations, the Neolithic expansion from the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Aryan treks from the Central Asian steppes, the westward Mongol expansions and the Muslim invasions may have chiseled their genetic fingerprints within the genealogical substrata of the Persians. On the other hand, the Iranian perimeter is bounded by the Zagros and Albrez mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts, which may have restricted gene flow from neighboring regions. By utilizing high-resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and reanalyzing our previously published Y-chromosomal data, we have found a previously unexplored, genetic connection between Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Furthermore, the regional distribution of mtDNA haplogroups J, I, U2 and U7 also provides evidence of barriers to gene flow posed by the two major Iranian deserts and the Zagros mountain range. PMID:21326310

  1. Competition over guarding in the Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps), a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Dattner, Arnon; Zahavi, Amotz; Zahavi, Avishag

    2016-01-01

    Observations on 12 groups comprised of two adult males and one adult female (some included one or two fledglings), tame, individually marked, Arabian babblers ( Turdoides squamiceps) in the rift valley in Israel revealed that the babblers compete to guard. The pattern of guarding and the way by which one sentinel replaces another reflect the dominance relationships within the group. The dominant (alpha) male guarded more than any other individual. It interfered with and replaced the guarding by the adult beta male more than it did with the yearlings. About one-third of the replacements occurred less than one minute after the sentinel had assumed guarding. Whereas the dominant often replaced its subordinates directly; subordinates hardly ever replaced their dominants directly. The alpha male often allofed the beta male during the replacement. Replacements and allofeeding of the beta males by the alpha males increased significantly during courtship, when competition over breeding was maximal, and dropped back to their previous level at the start of incubation, highlighting the competitive basis underlying the act of guarding. Competition over altruistic acts, as shown here for guarding, is not compatible with explanations based on the assumption that altruistic acts reduce the fitness (reproductive success) of the altruist. We suggest, in contrast, that by investing in guarding and by intervening in the guarding of its competitors, a babbler demonstrates and signals its quality and its control over its competitors, thereby increasing its prestige and consequently its direct fitness. PMID:26834986

  2. Residence time of pollutants discharged in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwestern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Patgaonkar, Rupali S; Vethamony, P; Lokesh, K S; Babu, M T

    2012-08-01

    A 2D Hydrodynamic-Particle Analysis model was applied to the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) to estimate the residence time of pollutants. The tidal currents in the Gulf have a strong E-W component, which prevents the material in the north being transported towards south. In the regions situated very close to the open boundary, where the GoK waters exchange freely with the northern Arabian Sea, dilution takes place rapidly with the incoming waters and hence, the residence time is on the order of 1 day. Influence of eddies and a dynamic barrier across the Sikka-Mundra section on the residence time is apparent. Eastern GoK shows a relatively large residence time, on the order of 2-4 days, warranting caution while releasing industrial wastes in the northeastern Gulf. The region around location-5 behaves like a bay; the dissolved matter gets trapped in this bay and the residence time increases by 3-4 days.

  3. Evidence for the direct oxidation of organic nitrogen to N2 gas in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Mark; Purdy, Kevin J

    2012-09-01

    We performed a suite of (15)N incubations ((15)NO(2)(-), (15)NO(3)(-) and (15)NH(4)(+)) with and without the organic-nitrogen (N) compound allylthiourea (ATU), in the suboxic waters of the Arabian Sea. Production of (29)N(2) in control (-ATU) incubations with either (15)NH(4)(+)+(14)NO(2)(-), or their analogues, (15)NO(2)(-)+(14)NH(4)(+), though small, confirmed the presence of anammox. In contrast, when we added ATU, along with (15)NO(2)(-) and (14)NH(4)(+), there was a much greater production of (29)N(2), with 92% of the (15)N-label being recovered as (29)N(2) on average. Such stimulated production of (29)N(2) could not be due to anammox, as the addition of ATU, along with (15)NH(4)(+)+(14)NO(2)(-), only produced (29)N(2) equivalent to that in the controls. The ratios of (29)N(2) to (30)N(2) produced also precluded stimulation of denitrification. We present this as evidence for a hitherto uncharacterised metabolism potentially capable of oxidising organic-N (e.g. NH(2) groups) directly to N(2) gas at the expense of NO(2)(-).

  4. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption.

  5. Satellite detection of complex aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula/Gulf. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.P.

    1992-03-01

    Satellite detection of complex aerosols, in particular, Oil smoke over water and dust over land, is generally difficult. On 1 March 1991, a smoke plume generated by burning Kuwaiti oil wells and a dust storm over the southwestern Arabian Peninsula, provide the opportunity to study both of these effects. Utilizing NOAA-11 AVHRR data, a two dimensional scatter plot analysis technique was employed to determine and classify the radiative signatures of the smoke and dust. A two dimensional mask routine was then used to assess the reliability of the scatter plot analyses and spatially display the results. A channel 1 to channel 2 radiance ratio and a channel 4 brightness temperature combination provided the best separation of the smoke signature from water. The dust plume was unambiguously represented by a channel 5 brightness temperature minus channel 4 brightness temperature image and a channel 4 brightness temperature combination. Together the 2D scatter plot technique and 2D mask form the groundwork for a possible detection algorithm. Aersol Detection, Scatter Plot, Mask.

  6. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013.

  7. Analysis of the spatio-temporal variability of seawater quality in the southeastern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, Nahla; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Al Shehhi, Maryam Rashed; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-05-15

    In this study, seawater quality measurements, including salinity, sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Secchi disk depth (SDD), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO), were made from June 2013 to November 2014 at 52 stations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf. Significant variability was noticed for all collected parameters. Salinity showed a decreasing trend, and Chl-a, DO, pH, and SDD demonstrated increasing trends from shallow onshore stations to deep offshore ones, which could be attributed to variations of ocean circulation and meteorological conditions from onshore to offshore waters, and the likely effects of desalination plants along the coast. Salinity and temperature were high in summer and low in winter while Chl-a, SDD, pH, and DO indicated an opposite trend. The CTD profiles showed vertically well-mixed structures. Qualitative analysis of phytoplankton showed a high diversity of species without anomalous species found except in Ras Al Khaimah stations where diatoms were the dominating ones.

  8. Transcriptionally active heterotrophic diazotrophs are widespread in the upper water column of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bird, Clare; Wyman, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Pelagic nitrogen fixation makes an important contribution to the fixed nitrogen budget of the world's oceans. Filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria are significant players in this process but less is known of the potential activity of heterotrophic diazotrophs, although they are present and can be quite numerous in the nitrogen-deplete surface waters of the tropical and sub-tropical oceans. In this study we focused on the potential activity of several clades of heterotrophic nitrogen-fixers identified by phylogenetic analysis of 44 non-Trichodesmium-related, nifH (encoding the Fe-subunit of nitrogenase) clones from the Arabian Sea. Specific Northern slot blot protocols were developed to quantify nifH mRNAs from each clade and showed that two groups of Gammaproteobacteria, including the previously characterized UMB clade, and a third, novel phylotype affiliated with cluster III anaerobes, were actively expressing nitrogenase in the equatorial waters of this region. Transcripts (nifH mRNAs) from the latter clade were particularly abundant and were also detected in the suboxic waters of the oxygen minimum zone further north. Like the gammaproteobacterial groups, nifH expression by these organisms appeared to be insensitive to combined nitrogen concentrations and was readily detected in the nutrient-replete waters below the upper mixed layer as well as at shallower depths.

  9. Potential new production in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea: Estimation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhan, Haigang; Du, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Using satellite-derived and in situ data, the wind-driven potential new production (nitrate supply) for the 300 km wide coastal band in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea (AS) during the southwest monsoon is estimated. The upward nitrate flux to the euphotic zone is generally based on the physical processes of coastal transport (Ekman transport and geostrophic transport) and offshore Ekman pumping. The coastal geostrophic current in the western AS influences the upwelling intensity and latitudinal distributions of nitrate supply. The Oman and Somalia upwelling regions have similar level of potential new production (nitrate supply) during the summer monsoon, while the satellite estimates of primary production off Oman are 2 times greater than those off Somalia. The much higher potential f-ratio in the Somalia upwelling region indicates that the primary production could be limited by availability of other macronutrients (e.g., silicate). The correlation analysis of the primary production and the aerosol optical thickness shows that the Oman upwelling region displays a stronger coupling between the atmospheric deposition and the phytoplankton abundance. The high summertime dust levels in the atmosphere are suggested to contribute to the high primary production in the Oman upwelling region.

  10. Modelling tides and surface drift in the Arabian Gulf—application to the Gulf oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Flather, Roger A.; Elliott, Alan J.

    1994-04-01

    A tide and surge forecasting model capable of predicting conditions for up to 5 days ahead has been developed to provide environmental data on tides, currents and particle trajectories in the Arabian Gulf. A two-dimensional depth-integrated model on a 5' × 5' grid of the entire Gulf, driven by a 10 constituent tidal forcing at the mouth near the Strait of Hormuz and by meteorological forecasts from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office global numerical weather prediction model was used to provide hourly distributions of the depth-averaged tidal and wind-driven currents. Following the discharge of oil from Mina Al Ahmadi into the Gulf in January 1991 an oil spill model was interfaced to the tide and surge model, providing forecasts of the movement and spread of the oil slick. The oil spill model used a three-dimensional particle tracking algorithm to model the dispersion of the oil so that surface and sub-surface concentrations could be determined. The effects of surface evaporation and decay of the oil were included in the model.

  11. Quantification of new production during a winter Noctiluca scintillans bloom in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Satya; Ramesh, R.; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Dwivedi, R. M.; Raman, Mini

    2008-04-01

    We present new data on the nitrate (new production), ammonium, urea uptake rates and f-ratios for the eastern Arabian Sea (10° to 22°N) during the late winter (northeast) monsoon, 2004, including regions of green Noctiluca scintillans bloom. A comparison of N-uptake rates of the Noctiluca dominated northern zone to the southern non-bloom zone indicates the presence of two biogeochemical regimes during the late winter monsoon: highly productive north and less productive south. The conservative estimates of photic zone-integrated total N-uptake and f-ratio are high in the north (~19 mmolNm-2d-1 and 0.82, respectively) during the bloom and low (~5.5 mmolNm-2d-1 and 0.38 respectively) in the south. The present and earlier data imply persistence of high N-uptake and f-ratio during blooms year after year. This quantification of the enhanced seasonal sequestration of carbon is an important input to global biogeochemical models.

  12. Root zone of the late Proterozoic Salma caldera, northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The eroded root of the late Proterozoic Salma caldera crops out in a striking, roughly elliptical feature, about 27 km long and 22 km wide, near the NE edge of the Arabian Shield, The caldera is genetically part of an elongate alkalic granitic massif (Jabal Salma) that extends 35 km from the caldera to the SW. Comenditic ash flow tuff and lava(?) of the caldera fill, probably more than 1 km thick, are the oldest recognized rocks of the caldera complex. These rocks were erupted during caldera collapse associated with the rapid evacuation of the upper, mildly peralkalic part of a zoned magma reservoir. Within the caldera fill, a massive, lithic-rich intracaldera rhyolite, probably a lava in excess of 1 km thick, is overlain by a layered ash flow sequence. Numerous megabreccia blocks, probably derived from the caldera wall, occur in the massive rhyolite. No apparent structural doming of the exposed volcanic rocks along the E side of the caldera took place; the layered ash flows commonly dip steeply toward the center of the caldera. Postemplacement deformation and metamorphism of the caldera are mimimal. Small-displacement strike-slip faults cut the complex, which is tilted to the NE by no more than about 2o.-from Author

  13. Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the northern Arabian Shield: evidence from southwest Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, K. M.; McCourt, W. J.

    1995-02-01

    The crystalline basement outcrop exposed in southwest Jordan, is subdivided into two broad lithostratigraphic divisions, the older Aqaba complex and the Araba complex separated by a regional unconformity. The Aqaba complex principally comprises calc-alkaline plutonic rods of probable age range 630-580 Ma cut by extensive regional dyke swarms while the Araba complex is characterized by alkaline rhyolitic volcanics and minor coeval granites with an approximate age of 550-540 Ma. The plutonic rocks of the Aqaba complex are interpreted to be the products of subduction at, or dose to, a continental margin, while the Araba complex rods were most probably formed in an extensional setting. The Aqaba complex granitoids are isotopically primitive and were derived from a depleted source region like the mantle. The Arabian Shield of southwest Jordan provides an example of rapid crustal growth during the Neoproterozoic and the new data gives no support to models invoking the presence or involvement of significantly older basement in its development.

  14. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013. PMID:25638059

  15. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  16. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  17. Saudi Arabian dental students' knowledge and beliefs regarding obesity in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Wyne, Amjad H; Al-Hammad, Nouf; Nainar, S M Hashim

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine knowledge/beliefs of a group of Saudi Arabian dental students regarding overweight/obesity (OW/OB). Dental students (fourth-year, fifth-year, and interns) at King Saud University College of Dentistry completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding OW/OB in children and adults. Frequency distribution and chi-square analyses were done. The total respondents were 260 (response rate=87 percent), most of whom were male (59 percent). Half of the respondents reported their knowledge of OW/OB in adults/children to be average, with knowledge of pediatric OW/OB rated lower (37 percent reported it as fair/poor) than adult OW/OB (17 percent reported it as fair/poor). Only a third (34 percent) of the respondents selected body mass index (BMI) as the best method to identify OW/OB. More than half of the respondents correctly believed that OW/OB was a problem in many adults/children in Saudi Arabia. A slightly higher proportion endorsed a role for dentists in the identification/prevention of OW/OB in children (76 percent) as compared to adults (69 percent). Female respondents had better knowledge than males about OW/OB and were more likely to correctly select BMI as the best method for identifying OW/OB. These findings may provide support for the expansion of education in these areas in the dental curriculum.

  18. CHEMTAX-derived phytoplankton community structure associated with temperature fronts in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Rajdeep; Chitari, Rajath; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Krishna, M. S.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Anil, A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll associated with fronts and filaments are used in India to generate potential fishing zone (PFZ) advisories in the north eastern Arabian Sea (NEAS). However, biological response to this potential nutrient enhancement has not been investigated. Here we present phytoplankton pigment signatures and nutrient distribution from a section that sampled across a filament and front in the NEAS. We show that nutrient concentrations were high within the filament and front compared to the surrounding waters and had a unique phytoplankton assemblage. Even though there was difference in the physical properties between the filament and front, chemical taxonomy (CHEMTAX) showed dominance of similar phytoplankton groups (prymnesiophytes and prasinophytes). In contrast, Prochlorococcus sp. contributed more than 50% to the total phytoplankton biomass in the surrounding waters and below the oxycline. In general, prymnesiophytes were ubiquitous, covarying with high nutrients and cold temperature, and contributed 60-70% to the total phytoplankton biomass. This study demonstrates that phytoplankton groups respond strongly to nutrient enhancement that is often encountered within the vicinity of the SST fronts that characterize the PFZs.

  19. Paleoclimatic changes and human cultural evolution in and around the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anma, Ryo

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of paleoenvironmental changes in and around the Arabian Peninsula have suggested that extremely wet periods occurred during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene; these periods started around the termination of glacial periods and continued during the initial rapid warming that followed. During these periods, flood waters transported enormous amounts of sediments from mountains to plains. Once the thermal maximum was reached and temperature stabilized at a high level, the water environment also stabilized and the climate became dryer. Although gradual changes in atmospheric temperature may have had only a minor direct influence on human activities, drastic changes in the water environment in responses to changes in the average atmospheric and surface water temperatures of just a few degrees had a stronger influence on human culture, possibly leading to the development of agriculture and civilizations. Domestication of animals started at the beginning of a wet period in the early Holocene, whereas the first cities were constructed during its latest stage. The need to control flooding may have led humans to build cities and, thus, to the development of early civilizations.

  20. Environmental assessment of Mangrove communities in Tarut Bay, Eastern Arabian Peninsula, based on multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ali, A. M.; Del Campo, A. G.; Rocha, C.

    2015-04-01

    Tarut Bay contains some of the most important mangrove forests in the Arabian Gulf countries, which are facing significant anthropogenic pressures. A multidisciplinary approach based on remote sensing, fieldwork, and chemical analysis was adopted in order to identify the pressures facing the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay and subsequently evaluate its current environmental condition. The analysis focused on the 2011 to 2014 timeframe in particular. The results indicate that the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay cover currently around 11.32 square km. Two major mangrove cover changes were identified in the area during the studied period, with a net loss of around 0.675 square km happening in the interim. The analysis adopted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to evaluate the temporal change in vegetation concentration. Moreover, the study evaluated the overall pollution condition of 19 mangrove communities in Tarut Bay to be medium based on the Pollution Load Index (PLI). Nevertheless, some of the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay are very healthy while others are very polluted and require immediate action to improve their pollution status. The findings of this work led to recommending mangrove improvement measures to address further deterioration and disappearance of mangrove communities, including the re-opening of natural inlets and avoiding residential developments on the mangrove coast.

  1. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  2. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption. PMID:27386308

  3. Analysis of the spatio-temporal variability of seawater quality in the southeastern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, Nahla; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Al Shehhi, Maryam Rashed; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-05-15

    In this study, seawater quality measurements, including salinity, sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Secchi disk depth (SDD), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO), were made from June 2013 to November 2014 at 52 stations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf. Significant variability was noticed for all collected parameters. Salinity showed a decreasing trend, and Chl-a, DO, pH, and SDD demonstrated increasing trends from shallow onshore stations to deep offshore ones, which could be attributed to variations of ocean circulation and meteorological conditions from onshore to offshore waters, and the likely effects of desalination plants along the coast. Salinity and temperature were high in summer and low in winter while Chl-a, SDD, pH, and DO indicated an opposite trend. The CTD profiles showed vertically well-mixed structures. Qualitative analysis of phytoplankton showed a high diversity of species without anomalous species found except in Ras Al Khaimah stations where diatoms were the dominating ones. PMID:27012536

  4. Correlation between some selected trace metal concentrations in six species of fish from the Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-07-01

    The role of trace metals in marine ecosystems has been keenly investigated during recent years. It is known that abundance of essential trace metals regulates the metal content in the organisms by homeostatic control mechanisms, which when cease to function cause essential trace metals to act in an either acutely or chronically toxic manner. Therefore, a correlation study based on essential and non-essential trace metal concentrations is imperative for extending the existing knowledge of bioaccumulation of trace metals in marine organisms. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to bring out quantitative correlations between the concentrations of iron, copper, lead and zinc in the edible muscle tissue of six species of marine fish: Salmon (salmon sole); tuna (thunnus thynnus); pomfret silver (pampus argenteus); Pomfret black (formioniger); long tail tuna (thynnus tonggel) and Indian oil sardine (sardinella longiceps). These fish are abundantly available in Pakistan along the coastal line of the Arabian Sea and have great commercial value. The computational analysis on the trace metal correlation was conducted using an MSTAT statistical package.

  5. Seismic reflection structure of intracratonic palmyride fold-thrust belt and surrounding Arabian platform, Syria

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.H.; Barazangi, M.; Best, J. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Al-Otri, M.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-03-01

    Seismic reflection and drill-hole data from central Syria provide a detailed view of the subsurface structure (10-15 km depth) of the relatively little-studied intracratonic Palmyride fold and thrust belt. The data set, together with surface geologic mapping, constrains a structural/stratigraphic section spanning the northeast sector of the belt and the surrounding subprovinces of the Arabian platform. The seismic reflection and drill-hole data show Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences thickening abruptly into the Palmyrides from the adjacent, arched Paleozoic platforms Neogene (alpine) folding and thrusting of the Mesozoic basin, as documented on the seismic data, are sharply restricted to the narrow width of the belt ({approximately}100 km), in contrast to the relatively undeformed Phanerozoic strata of the platforms to the north and south. The seismic and drill-hole data support the hypothesis that the palmyrides began as a Permian-Triassic failed rift connected to the Levantine passive continental margin, which was inverted and complexly deformed by the interfering effects of Cenozoic movements along the Dead Sea transform fault system and the Turkish Bitlis convergent zone. The seismic data provide a first view into the extent and depth of the early basin formation and subsequent compressional deformation, and as such represent a necessary element for constraining reconstructions of northern Middle East plate motions. 20 figs.

  6. Upper mantle structure of the southern Arabian margin: insights from teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Leroy, Sylvie; Keir, Derek; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Boschi, Lapo; Rolandone, Frédérique; Stuart, Graham W.; Khanbari, Khaled; El Hussain, Issa

    2015-04-01

    We image the lithospheric and upper asthenospheric structure beneath the central and eastern parts of the northern Gulf of Aden rifted continental margin with 59 broadband stations to evaluate the role of transform fault zones on the evolution of magma-poor continental margins. We use teleseismic tomography to compute a relative P wave velocity model in eastern Yemen and southern Oman down to 400 km depth. Our model shows low velocity anomalies located in the vicinity of five major fracture zones and regions of recent volcanism. These low velocity anomalies are likely caused by localized asthenospheric upwelling and partial melting, caused by small-scale convection promoted by gradients in LAB (lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary) topography near the fracture zones. In addition, low velocities underlie regions of elevated topography in between major sedimentary basins. We suggest locally buoyant mantle creates uplift and dynamic topography on the rift mar- gin that impacts the course of seasonal rivers and the sedimentation at the mouth of those rivers. Our new P wave velocity model suggests that the dynamic topography and recent volcanism in the central and eastern Gulf of Aden could be due to small-scale convection at the edge of the Arabian plate and/or in the vicinity of fracture zones.

  7. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses. PMID:24261657

  8. Oxygen isotopic analyses of individual planktic foraminifera species: implications for seasonality in the western Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, P. D.; Niitsuma, N.; Naik, S.

    2014-09-01

    The variation of stable isotopes between individual shells of planktic foraminifera of a given species and size may provide short-term seasonal insight on Paleoceanography. In this context, oxygen isotope analyses of individual Globigerinoides sacculifer and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei were carried out from the Ocean Drilling Program Site 723A in the western Arabian Sea to unravel the seasonal changes for the last 22 kyr. δ18O values of single shells of G. sacculifer range from of 0.54 to 2.09‰ at various depths in the core which cover a time span of the last 22 kyr. Maximum inter-shell δ18O variability and high standard deviation is noticed from 20 to 10 kyr, whereas from 10 kyr onwards the inter shell δ18O variability decreased. The individual contribution of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) on the inter shell δ18O values of G. sacculifer were quantified. Maximum seasonal SST between 20 and 14 ka was caused due to weak summer monsoon upwelling and strong cold winter arid continental winds. Maximum SSS differences between 18 and 10 ka is attributed to the increase of net evaporation minus precipitation due to the shift of ITCZ further south. Overall, winter dominated SST signal in Greenland would be responsible to make a teleconnection between Indian monsoon and Greenland temperature. Thus the present study has wider implications in understanding wether the forcing mechanisms of tropical monsoon climate lies in high latitudes or in the tropics.

  9. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  10. Short-term fate of phytodetritus in sediments across the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, J. H.; Woulds, C.; Schwartz, M.; Cowie, G. L.; Levin, L. A.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    The short-term fate of phytodetritus was investigated across the Pakistan margin of the Arabian Sea at water depths ranging from 140 to 1850 m, encompassing the oxygen minimum zone (~100-1100 m). Phytodetritus sedimentation events were simulated by adding ~44 mmol 13C-labelled algal material per m2 to surface sediments in retrieved cores. Cores were incubated in the dark, at in situ temperature and oxygen concentrations. Overlying waters were sampled periodically, and cores were recovered and sampled (for organisms and sediments) after durations of two and five days. The labelled carbon was subsequently traced into bacterial lipids, foraminiferan and macrofaunal biomass, and dissolved organic and inorganic pools. The majority of the label (20 to 100%) was in most cases left unprocessed in the sediment at the surface. The largest pool of processed carbon was found to be respiration (0 to 25% of added carbon), recovered as dissolved inorganic carbon. Both temperature and oxygen were found to influence the rate of respiration. Macrofaunal influence was most pronounced at the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone where it contributed 11% to the processing of phytodetritus.

  11. Short-term fate of phytodetritus across the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, J. H.; Woulds, C.; Schwartz, M.; Cowie, G. L.; Levin, L. A.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2007-07-01

    The short-term fate of phytodetritus was investigated across the Pakistan margin of the Arabian Sea at water depths ranging from 140 to 1850 m, encompassing the oxygen minimum zone (~100-1100 m). Phytodetritus sedimentation events were simulated by adding 13C-labelled algal material to surface sediments in retrieved cores. Cores were incubated at in situ temperature and oxygen concentrations. Overlying waters were sampled periodically, and cores were recovered and sampled (for organisms and sediments) after durations of two and five days. The labelled carbon was subsequently traced into bacterial lipids, foraminiferan and macrofaunal biomass, and dissolved organic and inorganic pools. The majority of the label was left unprocessed in the sediment at the surface. The largest pool of processed carbon was found to be respiration, recovered as dissolved inorganic carbon. Both temperature and oxygen were found to influence the rate of respiration. Macrofaunal influence was most pronounced at the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone where it dominated the processing of phytodetritus.

  12. Geology and hydrocarbon potential in the state of Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. ); Nairn, A.E.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The state of Qatar is situated in the southern Arabian Gulf and covers an area of 12,000 km{sup 2}. It is formed by a large, broad anticline, which is part of the regional south-southwest-north-northeast-trending Qatar-South Fars arch. The arch separates the two Infracambrian salt basins. The Dukhan field was the first discovery, made in 1939, in the Upper Jurassic limestones. Since then, a series of discoveries have been made so that Qatar has become one of the leading OPEC oil states. Hydrocarbon accumulations are widely dispersed throughout the stratigraphic column from upper Paleozoic to Cretaceous producing strata. The most prolific reservoirs are the Permian and Mesozoic shelf carbonate sequences. Minor clastic reservoirs occur in the Albian and Paleozoic sequences. Seals, mainly anhydrite and shale. occur both intraformationally and regionally. Several stratigraphic intervals contain source rocks or potential source rocks. The Silurian shales arc the most likely source of the hydrocarbon stored in the upper Paleozoic clastics and carbonates. The upper Oxfordian-middle Kimmeridgian rocks formed in the extensive starved basin during the Mesozoic period of sea level rise. Total organic carbon ranges between 1 and 6%, with the sulfur content approximately 9%. The source material consists of sapropelic liptodetrinite and algae. The geological background of the sedimentary facies through geologic time, stratigraphy, and structural evolution which control source, and the subsequent timing and migration of large-scale hydrocarbon generation are presented in detail.

  13. Geology and tin-greisen mineralization of the Akash granite, northern Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The western margin of the postorogenic Akash granite, 30 km E of Ha'il in the northern Arabian Shield, is greisenized and contains anomalous concentrations of Sn. The pluton intrudes metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and crops out as a 10 by 15 km elliptical body with its long axis oriented N. It consists predominantly of metaluminous alkali-feldspar granite or syenogranite, with accessory biotite and muscovite, and traces of fluorite. Greisenization extends discontinuously in a zone at least 3 km long parallel to the western contact, and along E-trending hematitic quartz veins for more than 2 km from the contact. The veins occupy fractures that were probably conduits for ascending mineralizing fluids. Within about 20 m of the contact, they are enclosed in quartz-white mica greisen containing hematite, fluorite, and locally, topaz and cassiterite. Composite chip samples from the greisenized zone have an average Sn content of 710 ppm, and a maximum of 1600 ppm. Anomalous values for Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Bi and Cu also occur, but none of the samples contain detectable W. Three samples of hematitic quartz averaged 126 ppm Sn, and one contained 200 ppm W. ?? 1986.

  14. Groundwater evaporation from salt pans: Examples from the eastern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Stephan; Horovitz, Marcel; Rausch, Randolf; Michelsen, Nils; Mallast, Ulf; Köhne, Maximilian; Siebert, Christian; Schüth, Christoph; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    The major groundwater resources of the Arabian Peninsula are stored in the large sedimentary basins in its eastern part. Evaporation from continental salt pans (playas) is an important process in water resources assessments of its upper principal aquifers - the Upper Mega Aquifer system - as it constitutes a significant sink. However, literature values on evaporation rates vary widely and usually report about coastal salt pans where seawater evaporation is assumed. The present study applies different methods to provide a comprehensive picture of groundwater evaporation from salt pans of the Upper Mega Aquifer system. A remote sensing approach provided the spatial distribution and total salt pan area of about 36,500 km2. Hydrochemical and isotopic investigations revealed that from about 10% (3600 km2 ± 1600 km2) of the mapped salt pan area seawater evaporates. To estimate the groundwater evaporation rate from continental salt pans a laboratory column experiment was set up, implying a mean annual evaporation rate of about 42 mm ± 13 mm. In-situ analysis of water table fluctuations in the field suggested about 3 mm a-1 originate from recently infiltrated rainwater leading to an annual net groundwater evaporation of 39 mm ± 13 mm. Relating this number to the mapped salt pan area, from which groundwater evaporates, provides a total annual groundwater loss of 1.3 km3 ± 0.5 km3 for the Upper Mega Aquifer system.

  15. Integrating geological and geophysical data to improve probabilistic hazard forecasting of Arabian Shield volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2016-02-01

    During probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis of volcanic fields, a greater variety of spatial data on crustal features should help improve forecasts of future vent locations. Without further examination, however, geophysical estimations of crustal or other features may be non-informative. Here, we present a new, robust, non-parametric method to quantitatively determine the existence of any relationship between natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic eruptions) and a variety of geophysical data. This provides a new validation tool for incorporating a range of potentially hazard-diagnostic observable data into recurrence rate estimates and hazard analyses. Through this study it is shown that the location of Cenozoic volcanic fields across the Arabian Shield appear to b