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Sample records for arabian incense bakhour

  1. A health risk assessment of Arabian incense (Bakhour) smoke in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dalibalta, Sarah; Elsayed, Yehya; Alqtaishat, Fareedah; Gomes, Ioline; Fernandes, Nagelle

    2015-04-01

    Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour) is a common practice in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. Although the incense generates large amounts of chemicals and air pollutants, little is known with regard to the nature of these chemicals and their potential health risks. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical constituents emitted in Bakhour smoke, and subsequently to examine the associated health implications of these components. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was used to investigate the presence and the thermal profile of volatile organic compounds in three different samples of Bakhour smoke. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was then applied to isolate all the volatile and semi-volatile compounds present in the Bakhour smoke samples. Using a spectral library and an extensive literature search, all organic compounds detected were analyzed for potential health risks. A total of 859 compounds were emitted from burning the different Bakhour samples. The novel finding of this research shows that 42 detected compounds are suspected/known carcinogens, 20 are known to have toxic effects, and at least 200 compounds are known irritants to the eyes, skin, respiratory and digestive tracts, as reported in human and/or animal studies. Our study suggests that inhaled Bakhour smoke contains a substantial number of adverse compounds, which are known to be detrimental to human health. Moreover, the evidence presented shows that incense burning is a significant source of environmental pollution; with the potential of significant health concerns particularly with long term exposure. As the majority of the compounds detected have no reported clinical data, there is an urgent need for significant research in this field.

  2. Hazard assessment of United Arab Emirates (UAE) incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rebecca; Sexton, Kenneth G; Yeatts, Karin B

    2013-08-01

    Incense burning inside the home, a common practice in Arabian Gulf countries, has been recognized as a potentially modifiable source of indoor air pollution. To better understand potential adverse effects of incense burning in exposed individuals, we conducted a hazard assessment of incense smoke exposure. The goals of this study were first to characterize the particles and gases emitted from Arabian incense over time when burned, and secondly to examine in vitro human lung cells responses to incense smoke. Two types of incense (from the United Arab Emirates) were burned in a specially designed indoor environmental chamber (22 m(3)) to simulate the smoke concentration in a typical living room and the chamber air was analyzed. Both particulate (PM) concentrations and sizes were measured, as were gases carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde (HCHO), and carbonyls. During the burn, peak concentrations were recorded for PM (1.42 mg/m(3)), CO (122 pm), NOx (0.3 ppm), and HCHO (85 ppb) along with pentanal (71.9 μg/m(3)), glyoxal (84.8 μg/m(3)), and several other carbonyls. Particle sizes ranged from 20 to 300 nm with count median diameters ranging from 65 to 92 nm depending on time post burn-out. PM, CO, and NOx time-weighted averages exceeded current government regulation values and emissions seen previously from environmental tobacco smoke. Charcoal emissions were the main contributor to both the high CO and NOx concentrations. A significant cell inflammatory response was observed in response to smoke components formed from incense burning. Our hazard evaluation suggests that incense burning contributes to indoor air pollution and could be harmful to human health.

  3. Strange fires, weird smokes and psychoactive combustibles: entheogens and incense in ancient traditions.

    PubMed

    Dannaway, Frederick R

    2010-12-01

    This paper seeks to emphasize what may be the most primary mode of altering consciousness in the ancient world: namely, the burning of substances for inhalation in enclosed areas. While there is abundant literature on archaic uses of entheogenic plants, the literature on psychoactive incenses is quite deficient. From the tents of nomadic tribes to the small meditation rooms of Taoist adepts, the smoldering fumes of plants and resins have been used to invoke and banish and for shamanic travels since humanity mastered fire. The text provides details of primary "incense cults" while highlighting some commonalities and shared influences when possible. Further speculation suggests that selective burning of certain substances, such as mercury and sulphur, may have contributed to their lasting use and veneration in alchemy from India and China to the Arabian and European protochemists. This article would have a companion online database for images and further examples of ingredients in various incenses from China to ancient Greece.

  4. Ultrastructural changes, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expressions in heart tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Al-Attas, Omar S; Hussain, Tajamul; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Mohammed, Arif A; De Rosas, Edgard; Gambhir, Dikshit; Sumague, Terrance S

    2015-07-01

    Incense smoke exposure has recently been linked to cardiovascular disease risk, heart rate variability, and endothelial dysfunction. To test the possible underlying mechanisms, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, gene expressions of cardiac hypertrophic and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and ultrastructural changes were measured, respectively, using standard, ELISA-based, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscope procedures in heart tissues of Wistar rats after chronically exposing to Arabian incense. Malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF)-α, and IL-4 levels were significantly increased, while catalase and glutathione levels were significantly declined in incense smoke-exposed rats. Incense smoke exposure also resulted in a significant increase in atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Rats exposed to incense smoke displayed marked ultrastructural changes in heart muscle with distinct cardiac hypertrophy, which correlated with the augmented hypertrophic gene expression as well as markers of cardiac damage including creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Increased oxidative stress, inflammation, altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expression, tissue damage, and architectural changes in the heart may collectively contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals exposed to incense smoke. Increased gene expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 may be instrumental in the incense smoke-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, incense smoke can be considered as a potential environmental pollutant and its long-term exposure may negatively impact human health.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  6. Incense

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rapid breathing NERVOUS SYSTEM Coma (decreased level of consciousness and lack of responsiveness) Convulsions Euphoria, a feeling ... being drunk (intoxicated) Seizures Stupor (decreased level of consciousness) SKIN Blue skin or fingers Rash

  7. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... sometimes results in copious phytoplankton production and oxygen depletion of the subsurface waters. Although red phytoplankton fluorescences have been associated with the low oxygen concentrations in the intermediate and deep waters of the Arabian Sea, ...

  8. Potential ultrastructural changes in rat epididymal cell types induced by Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Alokail, Majed S; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H; Ghodesawar, Mukhtar Ahmed G; Alwasel, Saleh

    2013-08-01

    Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii, known as Arabian incense, diffuses smoke, contaminating the air, which adversely affects human health. Therefore, this study was designed to ascertain the effect of these plants on histopathological and ultrastructure changes in cauda epididymis of Albino rats. Animals were exposed to 4 g/kg body weight of B. papyrifera and B. carterii daily for 120 days along with suitable controls. Our study indicates a significant reduction in epithelial heights. Cells showed signs of degeneration. The ultrastructural study revealed that the cauda epididymis was affected, including its cell types. Furthermore, a decrease in the size of mitochondria, Golgi complex, and both ERs was observed. In all treated groups, plasma fructose decreased considerably, indicating the sign of reduced energy, vital for motility and other sperm functions. The results of this study suggest that these plants systematically affect cauda epididymal cell types and its lumen through its potential toxicity.

  9. THE RATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM INCENSE BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of experiments performed to determine the amounts of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in incense smoke. Ten brands of incense, 3 of stick, 2 of joss stick, and one each of cone, smudge bundle, rope, powder, and rock, w...

  10. Adolescent lung function associated with incense burning and other environmental exposures at home.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y C; Ho, W C; Yu, Y H

    2016-11-17

    Incense burning is a popular cultural and religious practice, but whether exposure to incense smoke has effects on lung function is unclear. We investigated association between lung function and incense burning exposure and other household exposures in adolescents who participated in a mass asthma-screening program. Information on asthmatic status and associated factors was obtained from parent-completed questionnaires and student-completed video questionnaires. Approximately 10% of students received lung function examinations. Valid lung function data of 5010 students aged 14-16 years in northern Taiwan were analyzed. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow in 1 second (FEV1 ) were compared by incense burning status and other types of exposures for adolescents. Overall, 70.6% of students were exposed to incense smoke at home. The mean FVC and FEV1 measures were lower among adolescents with daily exposure to incense burning than those without such exposure (P<.05). Sharing bedroom was also associated with decreased FVC and FEV1 . After controlling for confounding factors, multivariable linear regression analysis with generalized estimation equation showed that FVC was negatively associated with daily exposure to incense burning, sharing a bedroom, and living in a house adjacent to a traffic road. Such associations were also observed in FEV1 . Daily exposure to incense burning is associated with impaired adolescent lung function.

  11. Investigation into the oxidative potential generated by the formation of particulate matter from incense combustion.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; BéruBé, Kelly; Lung, Shih-Chun C; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Jones, Tim

    2013-01-15

    The formation of aerosols during combustion plays an important role in allowing released products to interreact, leading to an increase in particulate matter oxidative potential. This study investigated the physicochemistry of incense combustion-derived pollutants, which were emitted into the ambient air as solid and gas phases, followed by the determination of their oxidative potential. Upon combustion of a joss stick, approximately 60% of the mass of incense raw ingredients was released into the ambient air as combustion products including 349.51 mg/g PM(10), 145.48 mg/g CO and 0.16 mg/g NOx. Furthermore, incense combustion produced significant number of primary particles (<50 nm) at 0.99×10(5) 1/h. The NOx generated during incense combustion was able to react with CaCO(3) to produce the final product of Ca(NO(3))(2) in the ambient air. Moreover, coagulation could be a vital process for the growth of primary incense combustion particles through the intermixing with volatile organics. The incense particle's reactions with other combustion-derived products could be responsible for their significant oxidative capacity of 33.1-43.4% oxidative DNA damage. This study demonstrated that the oxidative potential of incense particles appeared to be related to the process of particle formation, and also provided novel data for the respiratory exposure assessment.

  12. Anhydrosugar and sugar alcohol organic markers associated with carboxylic acids in particulate matter from incense burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Wu, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Chi-Ru

    2010-09-01

    Aerosol from the burning two types of sandalwood-based incense, Hsing Shan and Lao Shan, was analyzed to characterize the chemical profile of total particulate matter emitted. The total particulate matter (PM) mass emission factors were 46.3 ± 2.68 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan incense and 43.7 ± 1.08 mg g -1 of Lao Shan incense. Chemical analysis of emissions from the two types of incense revealed that of the 25 components in four groups characterized, anhydrosugars formed the major group, at 46.7-52.2% w/w of the identified particulate and 1078.3-1169.8 μg g -1 of incense, followed by inorganic salts at 30.4-31.8% w/w of identified particulate and 681.6-734.0 μg g -1 of incense, carboxylic acids at 12.0-17.1% w/w of the identified particulate and 268.6-392.8 μg g -1 of incense, and sugar alcohols at 4.44-5.38% w/w of the identified particulate and 102.3-120.6 μg g -1 of incense. More anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were emitted from Lao Shan incense than from Hsing Shan incense whereas more carboxylic acids and organic salts were emitted from Hsing Shan than from Lao Shan. These differences were due to structural and functional differences in the young sandalwood used to make Hsing Shan and the aged sandalwood used to make Lao Shan. The anhydrosugar levoglucosan, used as a marker of biomass burning, was always the most abundant species in emitted PM for both incenses ( Lao Shan 21.7 mg g -1 of PM and Hsing Shan 18.7 mg g -1). K + and Cl - were the second most abundant components (K + and Cl - were summed), accounting for 10.6 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan PM and 9.85 mg g -1 of Lao Shan PM. The most abundant carboxylic acids in the emissions were formic, acetic, succinic, glutaric and phthalic acid. The latter is a fragrance ingredient and a potential health hazard and was twice as prevalent in Lao Shan emissions. Xylitol was the most prevalent of the sugar alcohols at 35.7-36.6% w/w of total identified sugar alcohols. These abundant species are potential markers for

  13. A Case–Referent Study of Lung Cancer and Incense Smoke, Smoking, and Residential Radon in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Lap Ah; Qiu, Hong; Au, Joseph Siu Kai; Wang, Xiao-rong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Burning incense generates large amounts of air pollutants, many of which are confirmed or suspected human lung carcinogens. Objectives: We conducted a population-based case–referent study to examine the effect of incense smoke exposure on lung cancer risk among Chinese males and explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and exposure to residential radon. Methods: We recruited 1,208 male lung cancer incident cases and 1,069 community referents from 2004 to 2006 and estimated their lifetime exposures to incense smoke and other residential indoor air pollutants based on self-reported information collected during interviews. We performed unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for lung cancer associated with exposure to incense smoke after adjusting for possible confounders. We conducted stratified analyses by smoking status and exposures to incense burning and residential radon and explored the potential additive-scale interactions. Results: We observed an association between incense exposure and lung cancer that was limited primarily to smokers. Cigarette smoking and high cumulative incense exposure at home appeared to have a synergistic effect on lung cancer (compared with never-smokers who never used incense, the OR for lung cancer for smokers who used incense ≥ 60 day-years = 5.00; 95% confidence interval: 3.34, 7.51). Power was limited, but we also found preliminary evidence suggesting that radon exposure may increase risk among smokers using incense. Conclusion: Our study suggests that exposure to incense smoke in the home may increase the risk of lung cancer among smokers and that exposure to radon may further increase risk. PMID:22067552

  14. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. Methods The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research in Shaxi, which started in 2005. Interviews focusing on ritual plant use and associated beliefs were carried out with a total of 44 Bai informants in September 2009 and May and June 2010. The results are supplemented with information on the local religion collected from June to December 2010. All documented species were vouchered, and are deposited at the herbaria of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN) and the University of Zurich (Z/ZT). Results A total of 17 species have been documented for use in incense. They are always used in mixtures and are either burned in the form of powders in a censer or as joss sticks. The smell of the smoke is the main criterion for the selection of the incense plants. Incense is burned for communication with spiritual entities at graves, temples, and cooking stoves, as well as for personal well-being. Cupressus funebris Endl., Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall., and Ligustrum sempervirens (Franch.) Lingelsh. are the most important incense species. Others serve as substitutes or are used to stretch incense powders. Conclusions In Shaxi the use of incense mixtures at the household and community level is regularly practiced for communication with ancestors, ghosts, and deities and in some cases to strengthen self-awareness. Some of the documented species are widely used in central Asia and Europe, hinting at the well documented knowledge exchange that occurred in Shaxi, which was a major hub along the influential Southern Silk Road. PMID:22165897

  15. Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Maggie L.; Ang, Li-Wei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incense burning is common in many parts of the world. Although it is perceived that particulate matter from incense smoke is deleterious to health, there is no epidemiologic evidence linking domestic exposure to cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to incense burning and cardiovascular mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Methods: We enrolled a total of 63,257 Singapore Chinese 45–74 years of age during 1993–1998. All participants were interviewed in person to collect information about lifestyle behaviors, including the practice of burning incense at home. We identified cardiovascular deaths via record linkage with the nationwide death registry through 31 December 2011. Results: In this cohort, 76.9% were current incense users, and most of the current users (89.9%) had burned incense daily for ≥ 20 years. Relative to noncurrent users, current users had a 12% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality [multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20]. The HR was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.37) for mortality due to stroke and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) for mortality due to coronary heart disease. The association between current incense use and cardiovascular mortality appeared to be limited to participants without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26) but not linked to those with a history (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.17). In addition, the association was stronger in never-smokers (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23) and former smokers (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.42) than in current smokers (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.22). Conclusions: Long-term exposure to incense burning in the home environment was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in the study population. Citation: Pan A, Clark ML, Ang LW, Yu MC, Yuan JM, Koh WP. 2014. Incense use and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health

  16. Soot-driven reactive oxygen species formation from incense burning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim P; Lung, Shih-Chun C; BéruBé, Kelly A

    2011-10-15

    This study investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a function of the physicochemistry of incense particulate matter (IPM), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and carbon black (CB). Microscopical and elemental analyses were used to determine particle morphology and inorganic compounds. ROS was determined using the reactive dye, Dichlorodihydrofluorescin (DCFH), and the Plasmid Scission Assay (PSA), which determine DNA damage. Two common types of soot were observed within IPM, including nano-soot and micro-soot, whereas DEP and CB mainly consisted of nano-soot. These PM were capable of causing oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, especially IPM and DEP. A dose of IPM (36.6-102.3μg/ml) was capable of causing 50% oxidative DNA damage. ROS formation was positively correlated to smaller nano-soot aggregates and bulk metallic compounds, particularly Cu. These observations have important implications for respiratory health given that inflammation has been recognised as an important factor in the development of lung injury/diseases by oxidative stress. This study supports the view that ROS formation by combustion-derived PM is related to PM physicochemistry, and also provides new data for IPM.

  17. Emission characteristics of carboxylates in PM2.5 from incense burning with the effect of light on acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Su-Ching; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2016-08-01

    Incense burning produces potentially harmful particulate matter. In this study we investigated the emissions of PM2.5 and gaseous acetic acid from four brands of traditional incense; Liao and Shang Lao Shan (SLS), sold in Taiwan, and Thai Yellow (Thai Y) and Thai Black (Thai B), sold in Thailand. Additionally, photochemical reactions of PM2.5 carboxylates emitted from incense burning were studied via a simulated light experiment. The average PM2.5 mass emission factor of each incense type was inversely correlated with the ash production of that incense. The Thailand incense carboxylate emissions were markedly higher than the Taiwan incense. Acetate accounted for 87.46% of total carboxylate emissions, with acetate emitted from the Thailand incense 1.26 times higher than from the Taiwan incense. Phthalate was detected in the PM2.5, indicating the presence of plasticizer. Concentrations of PM2.5 acetate, formate, pyruvate, glutarate, succinate, fumarate and tartarate were reduced in simulated light (51.5%-97.1% of those under dark), indicating that these seven types of carboxylate are easily photodegradable. In contrast, malonate, maleate, oxalate and phthalate concentrations in light were 1.17-1.84 times higher than in darkness, indicating photochemical reactions contribute to the formation of these species. The formation of the low-molecular weight dicarboxylates oxalate and malonate was most noticeable. Acetic acid, highly irritating to the respiratory system and skin, was present at high levels for all four incense types, as shown by the gaseous acetic acid/PM2.5 acetate ratios of 1.03-3.61. Burning incense indoors can generate high concentrations of PM2.5 acetate that increases the risks of respiratory and contact irritation, particularly when burning the Thailand incense. Moreover, burning incense in poorly ventilated, dimly lit indoor areas (e.g., temples and homes) can markedly increase the risk of irritation because the gaseous acetic acid is not degraded as

  18. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  19. Domestic incense burning and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Joseph Siu Kie; Wang, Feng; Lau, June Sze Man; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Incense burning is a powerful producer of carcinogens and has been considered as a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a case-control study and case-only analyses to investigate the effect of incense burning and its interaction with genetic background on NPC risk among Hong Kong Chinese. Between June 2010 and December 2012, we recruited 352 incident cases of NPC and 410 controls. We collected information on lifelong practice of domestic incense burning via interviews and genotyped 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes. We observed an increased NPC risk associated with daily burning in women [Adjusted OR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.66] but not in men. The adjusted OR for daily burning with poor ventilation was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 4.24), while that with good ventilation was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.98). Interactions between 2 SNPs (rs2074517 and rs4771436) and incense burning were significantly associated with NPC risk and tended to have a SNP exposure-response effect. Evidence for gene-environment interactions supported the knowledge that NPC is a multi-factorial disease resulting from the joint effects of environmental exposures and inherited susceptibility.

  20. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  1. New canker disease of Incense-cedar in Oregon caused by Phaeobotryon cupressi.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a native tree occurring in Oregon and California. Since the early 2000’s, a new canker disease has been observed with increasing frequency on ornamental and windbreak trees planted in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Symptoms appear as dead, flagging, small-di...

  2. "Arabian Tales": Standards of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    Virginia Standards of Learning for K-5 are listed in this paper with student activities related to observation of live theatre performances of "Arabian Tales" written and performed by the high school theater touring company, Organized Chaos. This play toured in Virginia in the academic year of 2000-2001. The play runs about 45 minutes.…

  3. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p < 0.05) between selected PAHs and OPAHs against oxidative-inflammatory responses. Strong positive correlation was observed between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and summation of total Group B2 PAHs/OPAHs (∑7PAHs/ΣOPAHs). The experimental data indicate that emissions from the environmentally friendly incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products.

  4. Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.

    1972-01-01

    This tectonic map of the Arabian peninsula, prepared for the Audi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resource, is the first of a series of peninsular maps that attempt to show regional features. Much recent information resulting from detailed geologic mapping notably within the Arabian craton, from geophysical surveys, both airborne and oceanographic in adjacent seas, from deep exploratory drilling, and from photography from the Gemini and Apollo space programs, has been used in the tectonic evaluation.

  5. Zoonoses in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. PMID:25491209

  6. Transrectal impalement of an incense stick in a child presenting as foreign body in the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Singha Mahapatra, Rajkumar; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Sarma Madduri, Vijay kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of objects that can be found in the urinary bladder often surpasses the urologist's imagination and mostly they are introduced per urethrally. Impalement injuries of the rectum with bladder perforation have been rarely reported. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of bladder perforation while assessing patients presenting with rectal impalement. In this interesting case, a young male child presented with haematuria and dysuria. He had a history of accidentally sitting on an agarbatti (Indian incense stick) stand while playing, followed by perianal pain which subsided spontaneously. Next day he presented with haematuria and dysuria. Clinical examination was inconclusive. On thorough investigation, a linear echogenic foreign body was found in the urinary bladder. The child was operated and the foreign body (incense stick) was removed. This is the first reported case of rectal impalement injury with incense stick, migrated to the urinary bladder in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24925539

  7. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

    This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  8. Incense Burning during Pregnancy and Birth Weight and Head Circumference among Term Births: The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Le-Yu; Ho, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incense burning for rituals or religious purposes is an important tradition in many countries. However, incense smoke contains particulate matter and gas products such as carbon monoxide, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxide, which are potentially harmful to health. Objectives: We analyzed the relationship between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. We also analyzed whether the associations varied by sex and along the distribution of birth outcomes. Methods: We performed ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions analysis on a sample of 15,773 term births (> 37 gestational weeks; 8,216 boys and 7,557 girls) in Taiwan in 2005. The associations were estimated separately for boys and girls as well as for the population as a whole. We controlled extensively for factors that may be correlated with incense burning and birth weight and head circumference, such as parental religion, demographics, and health characteristics, as well as pregnancy-related variables. Results: Findings from fully adjusted OLS regressions indicated that exposure to incense was associated with lower birth weight in boys (–18 g; 95% CI: –36, –0.94) but not girls (1 g; 95% CI: –17, 19; interaction p-value = 0.31). Associations with head circumference were negative for boys (–0.95 mm; 95% CI: –1.8, –0.16) and girls (–0.71 mm; 95% CI: –1.5, 0.11; interaction p-values = 0.73). Quantile regression results suggested that the negative associations were larger among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Conclusions: OLS regressions showed that prenatal incense burning was associated with lower birth weight for boys and smaller head circumference for boys and girls. The associations were more pronounced among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Further research is necessary to confirm whether incense burning has differential effects by sex. Citation: Chen LY, Ho C. 2016. Incense burning during

  9. Broadband Seismic Characterization of the Arabian Shield,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    Mohammed Al- Suwaiyel, the Vice President for Research of the King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology ( KACST ), the government agency responsible...Geophysical Research, 96 (1991) 20179- 20185. Badri, M., Qp and velocity crustal structure of central Saudi Arabia, KACST project final report 09-006 (1989...Arabian Peninsula from surface waves, KACST project final report 10-48 (1992), 259 p. Mooney, W.D., M.E. Gettings, H.R. Blank, and J.H. Healy. Saudi Arabian

  10. Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kinne, J; Kreutzer, R; Kreutzer, M; Wernery, U; Wohlsein, P

    2010-08-01

    Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants.

  11. Arabian peninsula: zone of ferment

    SciTech Connect

    Stookey, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is an area which must be approached in terms of its own values and traditions. The different states, however, present difficulties for even the most well-informed policymaker because the region is not homogeneous. Some of the states are tenuous congeries of tribal and sectarian communities that do not necessarily share the aims of the ruling group. The authors of these six essays consider (1) the economic position of the states, (2) how oil exports affect the economies of the exporting states, (3) how traditional tribal and religious societies react to change, (4) whether their social values are conducive to modernization, and (5) what factors lead to the development of dissent, and how they affect the expression of dissent. Separate abstracts were prepared for two of the essays selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 23 tables.

  12. Emission characteristics of allergenic terpenols in PM2.5 released from incense burning and the effect of light on the emissions.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Su-Ching; Tsai, Ying I

    2017-04-15

    This study investigated allergenic terpenol compounds in incense powder and smoke. The powder of two Thai brands contained higher concentrations of terpenols up to 6.15 times higher than those of two Taiwanese brands. Consequently, Thai incense makers face a higher potential risk of contact dermatitis than Taiwanese incense makers do. d-Limonene was the primary terpenol compound in the powder of Thai B (64.0%) and Thai Y (31.5%), sold in Thailand. By contrast, anisyl alcohol was the primary terpenol compound in the powder of LST (40.3%) and SC (37.7%), sold in Taiwan. After the four brands of incense were ignited, their mean PM2.5 emission factor was 18.02±6.20mgg(-1) incense. The PM2.5 mass emission factors of the Taiwanese brands were far higher than those of the Thai brands, and so were the PM2.5 terpenol emission factors, showing that the smokes of the Taiwanese incense were potentially more allergenic than those of the Thai incense. Geraniol, the most allergenic terpenol compound, was 2.8%-10.7% of total terpenol compounds in the powder of the four brands, yet was the main contributor to PM2.5, constituting 66.3%-83.5% of terpenol compounds in the smokes of the four brands. Furthermore, geraniol exhibited an IP ratio, defined as the incense/powder (IP) ratio of terpenol-related species, >1 in all four brands, and >5 in the Taiwanese brands, suggesting a greater health risk with the smoke from the Taiwanese incense. The IP ratios of other terpenol species were all <1, indicating decomposition through combustion. Additionally, the light/darkroom ratios of the terpenol species were >1, meaning that the generation of PM2.5 terpenol compounds was potentially enhanced by indoor lighting.

  13. Metal concentrations in pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata, collected from Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Sadig, M.; Alam, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a shallow semi-closed water body. Several industrial complexes have been established along its coast line during the past decade. The effluent from these facilities is being discharged into the Gulf. These discharges pose potential hazards to the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf. The Saudi Arabian government is striving to protect the marine environment of the Gulf and has commissioned several studies to assess the damage from the industrial and municipal discharges. In these studies, marine organisms, for example, fish, clams, sea urchins, oysters, and plankton, along with sediments and seawater, have been analyzed for various pollutants. This study reports metal concentrations in pearl oysters collected from the Saudi Arabian coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf.

  14. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research (NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation – Autonomous Research...NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea Ramsey R. Harcourt Applied Physics Laboratory University of...barrier layers and surface mixed layers in the N. Arabian Sea • The penetration of radiative and atmospheric fluxes into the ocean interior

  15. Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries

    SciTech Connect

    Akkad, A.A.

    1990-05-01

    In the Arabian Gulf region in general, and in Saudi Arabia in particular, demand for water in the agricultural, domestic, and industrial sectors has increased dramatically as a result of rapid development, and improved standard of living, and diversification of economic activity in agriculture and industry. This article presents an overview of supply and demand situations prevailing in the Arabian Gulf region and discusses various conventional and unconventional alternatives for meeting the growing demand for water. It also describes conservation measures and their socioeconomic effects.

  16. Ceramic compositional interpretation of incense-burner trade in the Palenque Area, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Harbottle, G.

    1982-01-01

    The Clasic Maya culture of southern Mesoamerica had a strong theocratic orientation. Notable aspects of ceremonialism in the Palenque area include incense-burning, expressed archaeologically in ceramic supports and receptacles (incensarios). Incensarios form part of a much larger body of regional ceramics now being intensively studied. Objectives are to determine manufacturing centers and the directional flow of trading relationships; therefore paste composition is accorded special importance. Compositional data are derived through sampling that is successively less extensive but more intensive (binocular examination, petrography, and neutron activation). Focussing primarily on chemical composition, data reduction is achieved by a related set of vector manipulative techniques. The resulting paste compositional reference units are evaluated by correlation with petrographic and archaeological information. Preliminary findings suggest that the ceremonial center of Palenque was the major focus of incensario manufacture.

  17. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12-14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the high

  18. Holy Smoke in Medieval Funerary Rites: Chemical Fingerprints of Frankincense in Southern Belgian Incense Burners

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12–14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the

  19. Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Rimmerman, Neta; Bregman, Tatiana; Straiker, Alex; Felder, Christian C.; Shoham, Shai; Kashman, Yoel; Huang, Susan M.; Lee, Hyosang; Shohami, Esther; Mackie, Ken; Caterina, Michael J.; Walker, J. Michael; Fride, Ester; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Burning of Boswellia resin as incense has been part of religious and cultural ceremonies for millennia and is believed to contribute to the spiritual exaltation associated with such events. Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 3 is an ion channel implicated in the perception of warmth in the skin. TRPV3 mRNA has also been found in neurons throughout the brain; however, the role of TRPV3 channels there remains unknown. Here we show that incensole acetate (IA), a Boswellia resin constituent, is a potent TRPV3 agonist that causes anxiolytic-like and antidepressive-like behavioral effects in wild-type (WT) mice with concomitant changes in c-Fos activation in the brain. These behavioral effects were not noted in TRPV3−/− mice, suggesting that they are mediated via TRPV3 channels. IA activated TRPV3 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells and in keratinocytes from TRPV3+/+ mice. It had no effect on keratinocytes from TRPV3−/− mice and showed modest or no effect on TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4, as well as on 24 other receptors, ion channels, and transport proteins. Our results imply that TRPV3 channels in the brain may play a role in emotional regulation. Furthermore, the biochemical and pharmacological effects of IA may provide a biological basis for deeply rooted cultural and religious traditions.—Moussaieff, A., Rimmerman, N., Bregman, T., Straiker, A., Felder, C. C., Shoham, S., Kashman, Y., Huang, S. M., Lee, H., Shohami, E., Mackie, K., Caterina, M. J., Walker, J. M., Fride, E., Mechoulam, R. Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain. PMID:18492727

  20. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  1. Mandibular degloving injury in an Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Tatz, Amos; Kelmer, Gal

    2013-06-01

    A 6-month-old Arabian filly escaped its handler while being led and slipped on pavement. The referring veterinarian recognized severe, soft tissue damage to the filly's lower jaw and referred the filly to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for surgical management.

  2. Tectonic synthesis of the northern Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Stasxkowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, P.; Stein, A. ); Scott, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The creation and destruction of Tethys oceans from the early Mesozoic to the present has created a complex suture zone along the Zagros/Bitlus trend. The fundamental interactions are between the Arabian and Euasian plates, but several microplates trapped between the major plates further complicate the tectonic fabric of the region. On the west, the Arabian plate slides past the African plate and the Sinai microplate along the Levant fault. The Palmyrides are related to a bend in this plate boundary and are not an offset extension of the Syrian arc. As Arabia penetrates Eurasia the Anatolian block is escaping to the west along the northern (right-lateral) and eastern (left-lateral) faults. Convergence of the Eurasian and Arabian plates resulted in ophiolite abduction (Late Cretaceous), followed by continent-continent collision (Miocene to present). The zone of collision is marked by the Bitlis-Zagrosa suture. Structural features associated with the collision include overthrusting, impactogens, and complexly folded and faulted mountain systems. Intensity and complexity of structuring decreases southward into open long-wavelength folds on the Arabian Platform. The fortuitous combination of rich source rocks, abundant reservoir rocks with primary and fracture porosity, and numerous trapping structures make this an extraordinary prolific hydrocarbon province. A structural and lithologic interpretation of 53 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes covering all of Syria, Iraq, and Kuwait, and portions of Turkey, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia has provided insights into the tectonic history of this area and its hydrocarbon accumulation.

  3. The K2/Spice Phenomenon: emergence, identification, legislation and metabolic characterization of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal incense products

    PubMed Central

    Brents, Lisa K.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) detected unregulated, psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) in purportedly all-natural herbal incense products (often known as K2 or Spice) that were being covertly abused as marijuana substitutes. These drugs, which include JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP-47,497, bind and activate the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R with remarkable potency and efficacy. Serious adverse effects that often require medical attention, including severe cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and psychiatric sequelae, are highly prevalent with SCB abuse. Consequently, progressively restrictive legislation in the US and Europe has banned the distribution, sale and use of prevalent SCBs, initiating cycles in which herbal incense manufacturers replace banned SCBs with newer unregulated SCBs. The contents of the numerous, diverse herbal incense products was unknown when SCB abuse first emerged. Furthermore, the pharmacology of the active components was largely uncharacterized, and confirmation of SCB use was hindered by a lack of known biomarkers. These knowledge gaps prompted scientists across multiple disciplines to rapidly (1) monitor, identify and quantify with chromatography/mass spectrometry the ever-changing contents of herbal incense products, (2) determine the metabolic pathways and major urinary metabolites of several commonly abused SCBs and (3) identify active metabolites that possibly contribute to the severe adverse effect profile of SCBs. This review comprehensively describes the emergence of SCB abuse and provides a historical account of the major case reports, legal decisions and scientific discoveries of the ″K2/Spice Phenomenon″. Hypotheses concerning potential mechanisms SCB adverse effects are proposed in this review. PMID:24063277

  4. First Dinosaur Tracks from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula is virtually unknown. Despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. Here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near Madar village, 47 km north of Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. This represents the first dinosaur tracksite from the Arabian Peninsula, and the only multi-taxon dinosaur ichnosite in the Middle East. Methodology/Findings Measurements were taken directly from trackway impressions, following standard ichnological conventions. The presence of bipedal trackmakers is evidenced by a long series of pes imprints preserving smoothly rounded posterior margins, no evidence of a hallux, bluntly rounded digit tips and digital divarication angles characteristic of ornithopod dinosaurs. Nearby, eleven parallel quadrupedal trackways document a sauropod herd that included large and small individuals traveling together. Based on the morphology of manus impressions along with a narrow-gauged stance, the quadrupedal trackways were made by non-titanosauriform neosauropods. Additional isolated tracks and trackways of sauropod and ornithopod dinosaurs are preserved nearby. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these discoveries present the most evocative window to date into the evolutionary history of dinosaurs of the Arabian Peninsula. Given the limited Mesozoic terrestrial record from the region, this discovery is of both temporal and geographic significance, and massive exposures of similarly-aged outcrops nearby offer great promise for future discoveries. PMID:18493306

  5. Anxiety, Depression, Hostility and General Psychopathology: An Arabian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Abdel-Sattar; Ibrahim, Radwa M.

    In Arabian cultures, the psychosocial characteristics of psychopathological trends, including depression, anxiety, and hostility remain largely unknown. Scales measuring depression, anxiety, and hostility were administered to a voluntary sample of 989 Saudi Arabian men and 1,024 Saudi women coming from different social, economical, and educational…

  6. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal") that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel to the

  7. Sediment sound velocities from sonobuoys: Arabian fan

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, R.T.; Hamilton, E.L.

    1980-02-10

    Eight variable-angle seismic reflection stations in the Arabian Fan, Northwestern Indian Ocean, provided 40 determinations of sound velocity in sediment and sedimentary rock. Sound velocity in the homogeneous, largely terrigenous fan increases smoothly with depth. Regression analysis yielded the velocity-time relationship V (km/s)=1.510+1.863t, where V is instantaneous velocity and t is one-way travel time below the sea floor to 1 s. The velocity-depth function is V (km/s)=1.510+1.200h-0.253h/sup 2/+ 0.034h/sup 3/, where h is subbottom depth in km.

  8. Arabian plate hydrocarbon geology and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Beydoun, Z.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a thought-provoking, succinct presentation of the geologic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the world's most prolific petroleum province. The fascinating subjects discussed and documented include: What are the unique geologic factors that make the Middle East such a prolific province Where are the future Mesozoic and Tertiary plays What is the virtually untapped potential of the Paleozoic section What are the play potentials for underexplored areas such as Jordan, Syria, Yemen How are deeper drilling results shaping and modifying concepts of the Arabian plate history and pointing the way to future hydrocarbon targets

  9. Wave Clouds over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Like a massive, ethereal bird gliding into the Persian Gulf, a large cluster of wave clouds spans the Arabian Sea from Oman to India. This cloud formation is likely an undular bore, which is created in the interaction between the cool, dry air in a low-pressure system with a stable layer of warm, moist air. In this case, a low-pressure system probably sits over the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Oman, and Iran and Pakistan. The strong winds generated by the low-pressure system are kicking up clouds of dust from Iran and Pakistan, and, to a lesser degree, Oman. The low-pressure system is also pushing air south-southeast, and this south-moving wave of displaced air pushes ahead of the low-pressure system like a mound of water moving ahead of a boat in calm water. The wave of cool, dry air pushes forward until it meets the wall of warm, moist air that blankets the Arabian Sea. When the two air masses clash, the cool air pushes the warm air up. The warm air rises, cools at the peak of the wave, falls again, and then rises to a slightly lower peak, and so forth, until the wave dissipates. Clouds form at the high-altitude peaks of the waves, with the most defined cloud at the front of the group, where the initial wave formed, followed by increasingly less-defined lines of cloud. The air that moves in front of the low-pressure system does not push forward in a uniform wall; instead it pushes forward in a ragged band, with one part racing ahead of another, like a line of crew racers on a river. Because the air is not uniform, there are small, interacting arcs of waves within the larger band of clouds. Undular bores are rare and hard to predict. This particular undular bore formed over the Arabian Sea on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image. Typical undular bore patterns might display one or two rows of clouds. With more than thirty waves of clouds, this cloud pattern is unusually

  10. Teleseismic P-wave Velocity Tomography Beneath The Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2004-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P-waves. The data came from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and three permanent stations (RAYN, EIL and MRNI). The KACST network consists of 38 stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period) spread throughout most of western Saudi Arabia. P wave travel time residuals were obtained for 131 earthquakes in the distance range from 30\\deg to 90\\deg, resulting in 1716 rays paths. We find a pronounced low velocity anomaly beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and southern Red Sea that likely represents a northward continuation of the Afar hotspot. We also image smaller low velocity anomalies beneath the Dead Sea Transform, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the northeastern corner of the Arabian Shield. The origin of these low velocity anomalies is uncertain.

  11. Seismic Tomography Imaging beneath the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Burov, Evgeniy; Cloetingh, Sierd; Al-arifi, Nassir; Bushenkova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Seismic tomography model of the body waves velocity in the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula, Red Sea and surrounding regions is presented. This model is computed using the P-and S-waves travel times provided by the earthquake catalogue of the International Seismological Center (ISC) 1980-2011. The Red Sea is clearly associated with higher P-velocity anomaly which may testify to the passive character of rifting. Thick lithosphere of the Arabian Platform is imaged as high-velocity anomaly down to 200-250 km depth. Below this plate we observe low-velocity which is interpreted as a mantle plume. Based on the tomography results we propose that this plume played the major role in origin of Cenozoic basaltic fields in western Arabia. In the NE side of the Arabian Plate, we clearly observe the subduction zone beneath Zagros and Makran. Key words: seismic tomography, Arabian Plate, Red Sea, Cenozoic volcanism, Passive rifting

  12. Patterns of knee osteoarthritis in Arabian and American knees.

    PubMed

    Hodge, W Andrew; Harman, Melinda K; Banks, Scott A

    2009-04-01

    This study illustrates differences in the cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritic knees in patients with more frequent hyperflexion activities of daily living compared with Western patients. Proximal tibial articular cartilage wear and cruciate ligament condition were assessed in Saudi Arabian and North American patients with varus osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty. In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) intact knees, there were significant differences in wear location, with a clearly more anterior pattern in Saudi Arabian knees. Complete ACL deficiency occurred in 25% of North American knees but only 14% of Saudi Arabian knees. These ACL-deficient knees showed the most severe cartilage wear in both groups and posterior medial wear patterns. Biomechanical descriptions of knee flexion and axial rotation during kneeling or squatting are consistent with the more pronounced anteromedial and posterolateral cartilage wear patterns observed on the Saudi Arabian knees. These observations provide insight into altered knee mechanics in 2 culturally different populations with different demands on knee flexion.

  13. Induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the lung and liver tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tajamul; Al-Attas, Omar S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Mohammed, Arif A; De Rosas, Edgard; Ibrahim, Shebl; Vinodson, Benjamin; Ansari, Mohammed G; El-Din, Khaled I Alam

    2014-06-01

    Incense smoke is increasingly being recognized as a potential environmental contaminant and is linked to malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. The detoxification of environmental contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) involves the induction of cytochrome P-450 family enzymes (CYPs) by PAHs. However, the detoxification of PAHs also results in the generation of reactive and unstable intermediary metabolites which are implicated in the oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation. It is unclear whether CYPs are similarly induced by incense smoke, which incidentally contains substantial amounts of PAHs. Here, we examined the impact of long-term incense smoke exposure on the induction of CYPs in male Wister Albino rats. Incense smoke exposure significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNAs in both lung and liver tissues. The extent of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction was significantly higher in the liver compared to that in the lung, while that of CYP1A2 was greater in the lung than in liver. Incense smoke exposure also increased malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels in lung and liver tissues, and the catalase activity in the liver tissues to significant levels. Furthermore incense smoke exposure led to a marked increase in TNF-α and IL-4 levels. The data demonstrate for the first time the capacity of incense smoke to induce CYP1 family enzymes in the target and non-target tissues. Induction of CYPs increased oxidative stress and inflammation appear to be intimately linked to promote the carcinogenesis and health complications in people chronically exposed to incense smoke.

  14. First archeointensity determinations on Maya incense burners from Palenque temples, Mexico: New data to constrain the Mesoamerica secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Camps, P.; Alva Valdivia, L. M.; Sougrati, M. T.; Cuevas-Garcia, M.; Perrin, M.

    2013-02-01

    We present archeointensity data carried out on pieces of incense burners from the ancient Maya city of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico, covering much of the Mesoamerican Classic period, from A.D. 400 to A.D. 850. We worked on pieces from 24 incense burners encompassing the five Classic ceramic phases of Palenque: Motiepa (A.D. 400-500), Cascadas (A.D. 500-600), Otulum (A.D. 600-700), Murcielagos (A.D. 700-770), and Balunté (A.D. 770-850). All the samples come from highly elaborate, flanged pedestal of incense burners that are undoubtedly assigned to a ceramic phase by means of their iconographic, morphological and stylistic analyses. Archeointensity measurements were performed with the Thellier-Thellier's method on pre-selected samples by means of their magnetic properties. We obtained archeointensities of very good technical quality from 19 of 24 pieces, allowing the determination of a precise mean value for each ceramic phase, between 29.1±0.9 μT and 32.5±1.2 μT. The firing temperatures of ceramics were estimated with Mössbauer spectroscopy between 700 °C and 1000 °C. These values ensure that a full thermo-remanent magnetization was acquired during the original heating. Our results suggest a relative stability of the field intensity during more than 400 years in this area. The abundance of archeological material in Mesoamerica contrasts with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available that are, in addition, of uneven quality. Thus, it is not possible to establish a trend of intensity variations in Mesoamerica, even using the global databases and secular variation predictions from global models. In this context, our high technical quality data represent a strong constraint for the Mesoamerican secular variation curve during the first millennium AD. The corresponding Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADM) are substantially smaller than the ones predicted by the last global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, suggesting the need for additional data to develop a

  15. Analysis of neutral nitromusks in incenses by capillary electrophoresis in organic solvents and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Roberto; Fiori, Jessica; Mancini, Francesca; Cavrini, Vanni

    2005-09-01

    Nitromusks used as fragrances in a variety of personal-care products, cleansers, and domestic deodorants, including incense sticks, are neutral nitro aromatic compounds; some of these have been reported as photosensitizers. In this work, their analysis was performed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in a methanol-based background electrolyte (BGE). In particular, a 10 mM solution of citric acid in methanol was used; under these conditions the strong suppression of the electroosmotic flow favored the use of negatively charged surfactants as additives for the anodic migration of the studied analytes. To this end, sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC) was supplemented at high concentration (190 mM) to the organic background electrolyte (BGE), showing strong indication of the ability to give micelle-like aggregates. Since nitromusks are characterized by the presence of a nitroaromatic ring with low charge density, their association with TDC aggregates can be ascribed to donor-acceptor interactions. Separation of musk xylene, musk ketone, and the banned musk moskene and musk ambrette was obtained under full nonaqueous BGE; the addition of relatively small water percentages (15% v/v) was found to be useful in improving the separation of pairs of adjacent peaks. Under optimized conditions (190 mM sodium TDC in methanol-water, 85-15 v/v containing citric acid 10 mM) the system was applied to the analysis of nitromusks in incense sticks extracted with methanol. The results were compared with those obtained by the analysis of the same samples using gas chromatography with mass detector. The expected different selectivity of separation obtained using the two techniques can be useful in the unambiguous determination of the analytes; furthermore, a substantial accord of the preliminary quantitative results achieved with the two methods was assumed as the confirmation of the potential reliability of CE performed with high percentage of organic solvent.

  16. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  17. Arabian Sea ecosystem responses to the South Tropical Atlantic teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barimalala, Rondrotiana; Bracco, Annalisa; Kucharski, Fred; McCreary, Julian P.; Crise, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the Arabian Sea response to changes in the South Tropical Atlantic (STA) sea surface temperatures (SSTs). A series of recent studies have shown that the atmospheric circulation and SSTs in the Indian Ocean, and particularly in the Arabian Sea, are affected by STA SST anomalies via a simple Gill-Matsuno mechanism. Here, we use a regional ocean model coupled with a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model to analyze the impact of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies on the IO circulation and ecosystem variability. The STA teleconnection to the Indian Ocean develops as follows: Cold SST anomalies in the Gulf of Guinea during boreal summer cause strengthening of the Somali Jet, upwelling favorable winds, cold SST anomalies and a shallower than usual thermocline in the Arabian Sea. The enhanced upwelling in the Arabian Sea, in turn, causes an increase in phytoplankton concentrations. The opposite sequence is verified for warm SST anomalies in the STA region. For a 1 °C STA anomaly, the increase/decrease in productivity represents by September up to 19% of the surface phytoplankton climatological values in the model, and up to 13% in the observations. The STA teleconnection contributes to the interannual variability in the Arabian Sea in boreal summer as much as the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole.

  18. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  19. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  20. The sentinel behaviour of Arabian babbler floaters

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Aviad

    2017-01-01

    The sentinel behaviour of 38 Arabian babbler adult floaters, who lived alone within a territory belonging to a foreign group, was studied and compared with their own sentinel behaviour in the past, when they were group members. All floaters acted as sentinels and uttered ‘alarm calls’. This suggests that sentinel activity is due at least, in part, to selfish motives. Floaters sentinelled less than they did as group members, with the decrease in sentinel activity sharper for ex-dominants than for ex-subordinates. One possible explanation for these differences is that sentinel activity is aimed not only at detecting predators, but also at detecting foreign conspecifics. Within a group, the latter incentive is stronger for breeding dominants than for subordinates, whereas all floaters alike may be trying to detect the owners of the territory in which they were roaming but also to avoid being detected by them. Other possible explanations are that floaters have less time and energy for sentinel activity because they are weaker or because foraging is more difficult in a foreign territory. This may be especially so for dominants who used to enjoy privileged access to food in their group. No significant difference was found in the rate of sentinels' ‘alarm calls’ between floaters and group members, suggesting that their main purpose is predator–prey communication, of which warning groupmates may be a side benefit. PMID:28386429

  1. Shear wave velocity structures of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Talal A.; Al-Saeed, Mohammed M.

    1994-02-01

    The shear velocity structures of the different tectonic provinces of the Arabian Peninsula has been studied using surface wave data recorded by the RYD (Riyadh) station. The inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities indicates that the Arabian shield can be modeled by two layers, each of which is 20 km thick with a shear velocity of 3.61 km/s in the upper crust and 3.88 km/s in the lower crust. The underlying upper mantle velocity is 4.61 km/s. Inversion of both Love and Rayleigh waves group velocities shows that the Arabian platform upper and lower crusts are comparable in their thicknesses to those of the shield, but with shear velocities of 3.4 and 4 km/s, respectively. The upper mantle velocity beneath the platform is 4.4 km/s and the average total thickness of the crust is 45 km.

  2. Crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Muawia, B.; Chaimov, T.A. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Analysis of available geological and geophysical data within Syria has allowed for further understanding of the geologic history of the northern Arabian platform from Proterozoic to present. Elements of the history involve: Proterozoic convergence and suturing of at least two distinct microplates, minor Cambrian extension and associated magmatism, development of a failed intracratonic rift in the early Mesozoic, and inversion of that sedimentary trough that began in the Late Cretaceous. The diverse Phanerozoic tectonic features in Syria may be due to reactivation along older zones of weaknesses in the northern Arabian plate; the proposed Proterozoic suture zone lies along strike of the present day Palmyride intracratonic mountain belt. The construction of isopach maps of the Ordovician through Quaternary sections in Syria based on regional well control and seismic reflection data demonstrates regional structural-stratigraphic relationships. Basement deformation maps, derived from superposition of the formation isopachs, indicate the transformation of an east-directed Paleozoic margin into a well-directed Mesozoic margin (Levantine margin). Contemporaneous with this margin transformation was the development of an east-northeast-trending rift (Palmyride trough) toward the craton interior. Finally, Cenozoic eastward tilting of the Arabian plate, associated with loading of the plate along the Mesopotamian foredeep and uplift of the plate along the Red Sea margin is observed across the southern Arabian platform. Eastward tilting is also observed across the southern Arabian platform. Eastward tilting is also observed on the northern platform with respect to the top of the crystalline basement, indicating a similarity in response of the entire Arabian plate to loading and uplift along its margins.

  3. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  4. Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Meliani, Samia; Benallou, Bouabdellah; Halbouche, Miloud; Haddouche, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results A total of 78.07% of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant. PMID:23835758

  5. Presence of Gasterophilus species in Arabian horses in Sanliurfa region.

    PubMed

    Gökçen, Ahmet; Sevgili, Murat; Altaş, Mehtap Gül; Camkerten, Ilker

    2008-01-01

    In this study, ivermectin was administered orally to112 Arabian horses for detection of Gasterophilus species in the Sanliurfa region between June-July 2006. Eleven (9.82%) Arabian horses were found to be infected by larvae of Gasterophilus spp. A total of 409 third stage larvae (L3) were collected from fecal samples. In the Sanliurfa region, the prevalence of three species of Gasterophilus was identified as follows: Gasterophilus intestinalis (6.25%), G. nasalis (2.67%) and G. pecorum (0.89%).

  6. How incense and joss paper burning during the worship activities influences ambient mercury concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments of an Asian temple?

    PubMed

    Shen, Huazhen; Tsai, Cheng-Mou; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Ie, Iau-Ren

    2017-01-01

    This study firstly investigated the species, concentration variation, and emission factors of mercury emitted from the burning of incenses and joss papers in an Asian temple. Both indoor and outdoor speciated mercury (GEM, GOM, and PHg) were sampled by manual samplers, while ambient GEM at an indoor site was in-situ monitored by a continuous GEM monitor. Field measurement results showed that the total atmospheric mercury (TAM) concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments were in the range of 8.03-35.72 and 6.03-31.35 ng/m(3), respectively. The indoor and outdoor ratios (I/O) of TAM in the daytime and at nighttime were in the range of 0.64-0.90 and 1.50-2.04, respectively. The concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PHg during the holiday periods were approximately 1-4 times higher than those during the non-holiday periods. GEM was the dominant mercury species in the indoor and outdoor environments and accounted for 63-81% of TAM, while the oxidized mercury accounted for 19-37% of TAM. Burning incenses and joss papers in a combustion chamber showed that the concentration of GEM from joss paper burning ranged from 4.07 to 11.62 μg/m(3), or about 13.97 times higher than that of incense burning, while the concentration of PHg from incense burning ranged from 95.91 to 135.07 ng/m(3), or about 3.29 times higher than that of joss paper burning. The emission factors of incense burning were 10.39 ng/g of GEM and 1.40 ng/g of PHg, while those of joss paper burning were 12.65 ng/g of GEM and 1.27 ng/g of PHg, respectively. This study revealed that speciated mercury emitted from worship activities had significant influence on the indoor and outdoor mercury concentrations in an Asian temple. Higher intensity of worship activities during holidays resulted in a higher concentration of speciated mercury in indoor and outdoor air, which might cause health threats to worshipers, staffs, and surrounding inhabitants through long-term exposure.

  7. The Tetramorium squaminode species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with a new record from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and keys to Arabian species

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Al Dhafer, Hathal M.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group are treated. Tetramorium squaminode Santschi, 1911 is recorded for the first time from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Keys to the two Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group, Tetramorium latinode Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 and Tetramorium squaminode, based on worker and queen castes, are given and a regional distribution map is provided. Notes on habitats of Tetramorium squaminode are presented. PMID:26019665

  8. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  9. Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Williams, Joseph B.; Champagne, Alex M.; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75–60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69–24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09–13.18%), ceramide (2.18–13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53–12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

  10. Kinematic characteristics of Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cano, M R; Vivo, J; Miró, F; Morales, J L; Galisteo, A M

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic trot characteristics of three different breeds of horse: Andalusian (AN, n = 15), Arabian (AR, n = 7) and Anglo-Arabian (AA, n = 5) using standard computer-assisted videography (25 Hz). Linear, temporal and angular parameters in fore- and hind limbs were analysed in six randomly selected strides per horse. Normalised angle-time diagrams along the complete stride were obtained for all joints angles in each breed and specific kinematic characteristics were detected graphically. AA horses displayed longer swing durations in both limbs ans a shorter angular range of motion (ARM) in scapula and pelvis inclination and in shoulder, hip and forelimb retraction-protraction angles. At lift off, stifle and tarsal joint angles were more flexed. In general, only small differences were observed in AR horse kinematics when compared with the other 2 breeds. AN horses presented negative overtracking length, which was positive in AR and AA. In AN horses the elbow and carpal joints were more flexed at the moment of maximal elevation, elbow and fore-fetlock joints also exhibited a larger ARM due to a smaller angle at maximal flexion. In the hind limbs, tarsal, hind fetlock and retraction-protraction angles presented a larger ARM in AN horses due to greater maximal flexion in the tarsal and hind fetlock joints. Fore- and hind fetlocks were also more flexed in horses from this breed. In conclusion, differences between kinematic variables at the trot were observed in the three breeds studied here, mainly in forelimb joints. The most outstanding feature was the greater forelimb flexion recorded in AN horses than in the other breeds which is consistent with the elevated movements in this breed. In AA horses, the ARM of proximal joints involved in retraction protraction in both fore- and hind limbs was smaller. All the differences observed highlighted the idiosyncratic nature of the trot in each breed; this may influence the functional

  11. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  12. Inheritance of guttural pouch tympany in the arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Blazyczek, I; Hamann, H; Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Distl, O

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the mode of inheritance of guttural pouch tympany (GPT) using pedigrees of Arabian horses. Complex segregation analyses were employed to test for the significance of nongenetic transmission and for monogenic, polygenic, and mixed monogenic-polygenic modes of inheritance. Horses affected by GPT comprised 27 Arabian purebred foals. Of these 27 animals, 22 were patients at the Clinic for Horses, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany, between 1994 and 2001 and 5 Arabian foals were from stud farms. Information on the pedigrees of these patients allowed us to classify the affected foals into four families with a total of 276 animals. The regressive logistic model analysis took into account the nonrandomness of the pedigrees through multiple single ascertainment correction. The complex segregation analysis showed that, among all other models employed, a polygenic and a mixed monogenic-polygenic model best explained the segregation of Arabian foals with GPT. Models including only nongenetic distributions and monogenic inheritance could be significantly rejected. This is the first report in which a genetic component could be shown to be responsible for GPT in horses.

  13. "Going Mobile" in Business Communication at an Arabian Gulf University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapanta, Chrysi; Nickerson, Catherine; Goby, Valerie Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a project in which undergraduate business seniors at a university in the Arabian Gulf created or evaluated the chapters of an iBook as part of their final course in business communication. Students were surveyed throughout the project, and they also participated in a focus group discussion at the end. The aim was to…

  14. Sebaceous adenitis in a 7-year-old Arabian gelding

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old Arabian gelding was presented with a 9-month history of progressive patches of nonpruritic scaling, crusting, alopecia, and leukoderma of the periocular areas and muzzle, becoming generalized over time. Sebaceous adenitis was diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Lesions resolved without treatment, coinciding with regression of a sarcoid on the neck. PMID:16808233

  15. On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

  16. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  17. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  18. Potential changes in rat spermatogenesis and sperm parameters after inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S; Hussain, Tajamul

    2013-02-28

    In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system.

  19. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.

    PubMed

    Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations.

  20. Suspended particulate variations and mass size distributions of incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in Taiwan, Taichung.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Yang, Chang-Ju; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2002-11-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. This is characteristic place of incense burning and indoor air pollution sampling site. A universal sampler, micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler and dry deposition plate were used to measure particulate concentrations. Tzu Yun Yen temple is a typical famous Buddhist-Taoist combined temple, where many pilgrims come from different areas and various belief systems indicating the eclecticism of the temple. The average number of people visiting this temple is above 5000 per day. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged between 31.2 and 87.4% and averaged 69.6+/-12.3% during the incense-burning period, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the fine particulates concentrations (PM2.5) constituted the majority of indoor-suspended particulates at Tzu Yun Yen temple. PM10 concentration was 110.1 microg m(-3) for Zhong Yuan Jie (A festival on the seventh full moon in a lunar year, otherwise known as a summer lantern festival and (or) the commemoration of the dead. Almost all temples have maximum pilgrims for the commemoration of the dead on this day.) and the 1st or 15th of nong li (Nong li is a Chinese lunar calendar system in which 1 year is divided into fixed periods, and the beginning and end of a year is determined. The new moon and full moon are the 1st and 15th, respectively of each month in the Chinese lunar calendar. Many pilgrims appeared at each temple for blessing and good luck for themselves on the 1st and 15th of each Chinese lunar month.) with numbers higher than non-Zhong Yuan Jie and non-1st or -15th day of nong li (average = 85.5 microg m(-3)). In general, the average dry deposition flux (49.4 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in the indoor environment is lower than those measured in the outdoor environment (184.0 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in this study. The mean dry deposition flux of indoor/outdoor ratio was 46.2%. The average mass size distributions were bimodal

  1. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    DouAbdul, A.A.Z.; Abaychi, J.K.; Al-Edanee, T.E.; Ghani, A.A.; Al-Saad, H.T.

    1987-03-01

    Emphasis has been placed upon the identification and qualification of compounds with potential adverse health effects on humans. Prominent among this group are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), several of which are known or suspected carcinogens. PAHs enter the marine environment from a variety of sources including petroleum pollution, industrial and domestic effluents, atmospheric particles, and biosynthesis by plants and microorganisms. Although one-third of the world's oil is produced around the Arabian Gulf, no detailed analysis have been conducted to determine PAHs in this region. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have shown the ability of marine organisms including fish to accumulation PAHs from solution or dispersion in seawater. When fish are harvested, a human health hazard may result. In the present communication, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and measure sixteen PAHs priority pollutants issued by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in fourteen species of commercially significant fish from the NW Arabian Gulf.

  2. Biodeterioration of concrete piling in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jadkowski, T.K.; Wiltsie, E.A.

    1985-03-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used materials in marine construction because of its characteristic durability in sea environments. Recent inspection of concrete piles installed in the Arabian Gulf has revealed that concrete with high content of calcareous aggregate is susceptible to biodeterioration. Marine rock borers and sponges, which are common in areas where the seabed is composed of limestone rock, have been identified as the marine species responsible for the biodeterioration. Boring organisms pose a significant threat to concrete pile structural integrity. Boreholes deteriorate concrete and expose outer pile reinforcement to seawater. This paper describes the causes and magnitude of biodeterioration of piles installed in the Arabian Gulf and presents design parameters and material specifications for the selected preventive repair system.

  3. Remotely Searching for Noctiluca Miliaris in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing monsoonal winds in the Arabian Sea result in two seasons with elevated biological activity, namely the annual summer Southwest Monsoon (SWM; June to September) and winter Northeast Monsoon (NEM; November to March) [Wiggert et al., 2005]. Generally speaking, the SWM and NEM create two geographically distinct blooms [Banse and English, 2000; Levy et al., 2007]. In the summer, winds from the southwest drive offshore Ekman transport and coastal upwelling along the northwestern coast of Africa, which brings nutrient-rich water to the surface from below the permanent thermocline [Bauer et al., 1991]. In the winter, cooling of the northern Arabian Sea causes surface waters to sink, which generates convective mixing that injects nutrients throughout the upper mixed layer [Madhupratap et al., 1996]. This fertilization of otherwise nutrient-deplete surface waters produces one of the most substantial seasonal extremes of phytoplankton biomass and carbon flux anywhere in the world [Smith, 2005].

  4. Monsoon-Driven Biogeochemical Processes in the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-03

    ton-detritus ( NPZD ) ecosystem formulation, Ryabchenko et al. (1998) utilized a more complex ecosystem model that specifically included the microbial...of these observations and the first large- scale physical-biogeochemical modeling attempts, a pre-JGOFS understanding of the Arabian Sea emerged...viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor ocean color measurements. Analyses of these new data and coupled physical-biogeochemical models have already

  5. Bay of Bengal Surface and Thermocline and the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    oceanographic processes that exchange low salinity surface and upper thermocline water of the Bay of Bengal with the salty Arabian Sea and tropical Indian Ocean ...e.g. where do the eddies come from? 2. Investigating advective pathways, and the role of isopycnal mixing, exchanging upper ocean water between the...the tropical Indian Ocean water , including the Indonesian Throughflow. APPROACH In situ observational data collected as part of ASIRI and

  6. Increasing Arabian dust activity and the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmon, F.; Nair, V. S.; Mallet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations based on satellite and ground measurements have shown a significant increase over Arabia and the Arabian Sea, attributed to an intensification of regional dust activity. Recent studies have also suggested that west Asian dust forcing could induce a positive response of Indian monsoon precipitations on a weekly timescale. Using observations and a regional climate model including interactive slab-ocean and dust aerosol schemes, the present study investigates possible climatic links between the increasing June-July-August-September (JJAS) Arabian dust activity and precipitation trends over southern India during the 2000-2009 decade. Meteorological reanalysis and AOD observations suggest that the observed decadal increase of dust activity and a simultaneous intensification of summer precipitation trend over southern India are both linked to a deepening of JJAS surface pressure conditions over the Arabian Sea. In the first part of the study, we analyze the mean climate response to dust radiative forcing over the domain, discussing notably the relative role of Arabian vs. Indo-Pakistani dust regions. In the second part of the study, we show that the model skills in reproducing regional dynamical patterns and southern Indian precipitation trends are significantly improved only when an increasing dust emission trend is imposed on the basis of observations. We conclude that although interannual climate variability might primarily determine the observed regional pattern of increasing dust activity and precipitation during the 2000-2009 decade, the associated dust radiative forcing might in return induce a critical dynamical feedback contributing to enhancing regional moisture convergence and JJAS precipitations over southern India.

  7. Pelger-Huët anomaly in an Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Tanya M; DeWitt, Shane F; Keeton, Kerry S

    2007-09-01

    A 9-year-old Arabian mare was evaluated for a 7-day history of malaise. Results of a CBC included a leukocyte concentration within the reference interval (8.4 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 6.0-14.0 x 10(3)/microL) with an apparent degenerative left shift (segmented neutrophils 1.2 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 2.5-7.5 x 10(3)/microL; hyposegmented neutrophils 1.8 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 0.0-0.2 x 10(3)/microL). Serum clinical chemistry results included increased aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities. A presumptive diagnosis of hepatitis or cholangiohepatitis was made. The horse was treated with antimicrobials and the malaise quickly resolved. However, in a recheck CBC on day 13, the apparent degenerative left shift remained. Further evaluation of the blood smear revealed many hyposegmented granulocytes with coarse mature chromatin and normal cytoplasmic features. On the basis of the microscopic examination, the horse was diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly. The patient's offspring was subsequently also diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly on the basis of blood film examination. Neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil mean nuclear scores in both affected horses (mare, range 1.5-2.6; offspring, range 1.6-3.2) were lower than those in 2 unrelated Arabian horses (range, 2.8-5.0) and 5 non-Arabian control horses (range, 2.8-5.0). Results of immunophenotyping and phagocytosis/oxidative burst assays via flow cytometry showed no difference in the expression of myeloid-specific or adhesion molecules or in neutrophil function between affected and control horses. This is the second known report of equine Pelger-Huët anomaly, both of which affected Arabian horses.

  8. The dilemma of development in the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Osama, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    With the current of Arab oil revenues it is appropriate to review the experience of the Arab oil producers in social, economic and political development over the last decade. This book, by one of Saudi Arabia's most distinguished academics, concentrates on the six oil producers of the Arabian Peninsula. (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain). The book suggests that in many respects the oil revenues have obstructed serious development because they have made the economies totally dependent on one expendable resource and this has made all the Arabian countries too vulnerable to external pressures and interests. Futhermore, the oil revenues have encouraged fantasy and wishful thinking which have skewed the development process and stimulated pseudo-development. The book makes clear that until the petro-bureaucracy adopts a realistic approach to development there can be no prospect of real development in the Arabian Peninsula. Contents: acknowledgment, preface, introduction, theoretical framework for development administration, development and planning, development of bureaucracy, the appropriate model for development administration, manpower development, the allocation of financial resources for development, conclusion. Bibliography. Index.

  9. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, C.R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Drysdall, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance. ?? 1986.

  10. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, C. R.; Stoeser, D. B.; Drysdall, A. R.

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance.

  11. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  12. Seasonal variations of Shamal wind in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh Almehrezi, Ali Saif Ali; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard; Priestley, Duncan

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study into seasonal Shamal wind variations in the southern Arabian Gulf. The literature on the subject is reviewed; and the site of the study is discussed from the aspects of weather and wind cycles. Collected wind data, over a thirty year period (1981 to 2010), from Bahrain, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah and NCEP is analyzed and clearly indicates that the Shamal wind is a major feature within the region. Furthermore, over this thirty year period, analysis and observations show that there has been a reduction in Shamal wind force. Due to a number of factors, but primarily its location, wind data from Bahrain is a key element of this study analysis in order to show variations in Shamal wind strength over the southern of the Arabian Gulf. The synoptic conditions which help to understand the wind cycles are analyzed in order to establish a fundamental level of environmental information. A key finding is that the winter Shamal wind in the lower atmosphere is clearly associated with an upper air trough; therefore, the location of the Middle East jet stream has an effect on Shamal wind duration. Furthermore, this finding would suggest that the Arctic oscillation has an indirect effect on the Shamal wind. Additionally, the location and strength of the surface Azores High system has an influence on the Arabian Peninsula High which subsequently affects Shamal wind strength.

  13. Severe dust storms over the Arabian Peninsula: Observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shalaby, ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Dust aerosols and dust storms have tremendous effects on human health and all development activities. Also atmospheric dust plays a major role in the Earth climate system by its interaction with radiation and clouds. Severe dust storms are considered the severest phenomena in the Arabian Peninsula, since they are occurring all the year round with maximum activity and frequency in Summer. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) has been used to simulate severe dust storms events in the Arabian Peninsula from 1998 up to 2011. This long period simulation shows a typical pattern and dynamical features of the large-scale severe dust storm in winter seasons and summer seasons. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the model outputs have been compared against ground--base observations of three AERONET stations (i.e., Kuwait, Mazeria and Solar-Village) and daily space--based observations of MISR, Deepblue and OMI. The dynamical analysis of the large—scale severe dust storms reveal the difference between winter time storms and summer time storm. Winter time storm occurs when the cold air front in the north is coupled with the extension of the Red Sea trough from the south. However, the summer time storm is associated with strong Shamal wind that extend from northern Kuwait to the southern Arabian Peninsula.

  14. Diversity of mitochondrial DNA in three Arabian horse strains.

    PubMed

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Brockmann, G A

    2016-12-14

    Arabian horse registries classify Arabian horses based on their dam lineages into five main strains. To test the maternal origin of Syrian Arabian horses, 192 horses representing the three major strains Saglawi, Kahlawi, and Hamdani were sequenced for 353 bp of their mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) region. Sequencing revealed 28 haplotypes comprising 38 sequence variations. The haplotype diversity values were 0.95, 0.91, and 0.90 in Kahlawi, Hamdani, and Saglawi strains, respectively. The pair-wise population differentiation estimates (Fst) between strains were low, ranging between 0.098 and 0.205. The haplotype diversity and the pair-wise population differentiation estimates (Fst) between strains showed high diversity within individuals of each strain and low variation between the three strains. Mitochondrial haplotypes scattered all over the neighbor-joining tree without clear separation of the three strains. In the median-joining network, the Syrian horses were grouped into seven major haplogroups. These results suggest that more than five ancestors exist that share common maternal haplotypes with other horse breeds.

  15. Factor analysis of body measurements in Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Sadek, M H; Al-Aboud, A Z; Ashmawy, A A

    2006-12-01

    Data of 13 body measurements have been analysed from 166 Arabian horses, 123 mares and 43 stallions, ranging from 49 to 298 months of age, belonging to Alzahraa stud, Cairo, Egypt. General linear model was used to study age and gender effects on these measures. Gender was a significant source of variation for most studied traits, but not for neck girth, cannon bone circumference of fore and hind legs, and pastern girth of fore and hind legs. Age significantly affected pastern girths of fore and hind legs and cannon bone circumference of fore legs, while there was no significant effect on the other measurements. Pearson correlations, adjusted for age effect, between measurements were estimated and ranged from 0.02 to 0.84 for mares and from -0.05 to 0.90 for stallions. Factor analysis with promax rotation for each gender was carried out to derive fewer independent common factors. Three factors were extracted which accounted for 66% and 67% of the total variance in mares and stallions respectively. The first, second and third factors in mares tended to describe body thickness, leg thickness and general size respectively; whereas in stallions they tended to differentiate among general size, leg thickness and body thickness respectively. The three extracted factors for each gender determine the main sources of shared variability that control body conformation in Arabian horses. These factors could be considered in selection programmes to acquire highly coordinated bodies in pure Arabian horses with fewer measurements.

  16. Multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf countries: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Bohlega, Saeed; Inshasi, Jihad; Al Tahan, Abdel Rahman; Madani, Abu Bakr; Qahtani, Hussien; Rieckmann, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing in many parts of the world. Based on the Kurtzke classification, the Arabian Gulf Region is located in a low-risk zone for MS; however, recent studies suggest a moderate-to-high prevalence nearby (31-55 MS per 10,0000 individuals), with an increase in incidence in recent years. The relapsing-remitting disease course ratio is 2.5:1 versus the primary progressive type. In a geographic area that was previously associated with low prevalence; the recent high prevalence and fast rising incidence of MS in the gulf countries, encouraged the neurologists of this region to meet in a consensus panel, in order to share our latest findings in terms of MS epidemiology and consent on MS management in the Arabian Gulf. Therefore 20 key opinion leader neurologists and MS experts representing various countries of the Arabian Gulf have met in Dubai on the 2 and 3 February 2012, they shared their latest epidemiological findings, discussed recent MS aspects in the region, and consented on MS management relevantly to this geographic area.

  17. Compilation of Published PM2.5 Emission Rates for Cooking, Candles and Incense for Use in Modeling of Exposures in Residences

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Tianchao; Singer, Brett C.; Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-08-01

    recent analysis of health impacts from air pollutant inhalation in homes found that PM2.5 is the most damaging at the population level. Chronic exposure to elevated PM2.5 has the potential to damage human respiratory systems, and may result in premature death. PM2.5 exposures in homes can be mitigated through various approaches including kitchen exhaust ventilation, filtration, indoor pollutant source reduction and designing ventilation systems to reduce the entry of PM2.5 from outdoors. Analysis of the potential benefits and costs of various approaches can be accomplished using computer codes that simulate the key physical processes including emissions, dilution and ventilation. The largest sources of PM2.5 in residences broadly are entry from outdoors and emissions from indoor combustion. The largest indoor sources are tobacco combustion (smoking), cooking and the burning of candles and incense. Data on the magnitude of PM2.5 and other pollutant emissions from these events and processes are required to conduct simulations for analysis. The goal of this study was to produce a database of pollutant emission rates associated with cooking and the burning of candles and incense. The target use of these data is for indoor air quality modeling.

  18. Benthic nitrogen loss in the arabian sea off pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schlüter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2012-01-01

    A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430 m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using (15)N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18 mmol N m(-2) day(-1). While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46 mmol N m(-2) day(-1) with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89 mmol N m(-2) day(-1). Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360 m to 40% at 1430 m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd(1)-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd(1)-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be

  19. Benthic Nitrogen Loss in the Arabian Sea Off Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schlüter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2012-01-01

    A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430 m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18 mmol N m−2 day−1. While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46 mmol N m−2 day−1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89 mmol N m−2 day−1. Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360 m to 40% at 1430 m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd1-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be

  20. Active NE-SW Compressional Strain Within the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, M. A.; ArRajehi, A.; King, R. W.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R. E.; Douad, M.; Sholan, J.; Bou-Rabee, F.

    2012-12-01

    Motion of the Arabian plate with respect to Eurasia has been remarkably steady over more than 25 Myr as revealed by comparison of geodetic and plate tectonic reconstructions (e.g., McQuarrie et al., 2003, GRL; ArRajehi et al., 2010, Tectonics). While internal plate deformation is small in comparison to the rate of Arabia-Eurasia convergence, the improved resolution of GPS observations indicate ~ NE-SW compressional strain that appears to affect much of the plate south of latitude ~ 30°N. Seven ~ NE-SW oriented inter-station baselines all indicated shortening at rates in the range of 0.5-2 mm/yr, for the most part with 1-sigma velocity uncertainties < 0.4 mm/yr. Plate-scale strain rates exceed 2×10-9/yr. The spatial distribution of strain can not be resolved from the sparse available data, but strain appears to extend at least to Riyadh, KSA, ~ 600 km west of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt that forms the eastern, collisional boundary of the Arabian plate with Eurasia (Iran). Geodetic velocities in the plate tectonic reference frame for Arabia, derived from magnetic anomalies in the Red Sea (Chu and Gordon, 1998, GJI), show no significant E-W motion for GPS stations located along the Red Sea coast (i.e., geodetic and plate tectonic spreading rates across the Red Sea agree within their resolution), in contrast to sites in the plate interior and along the east side of the plate that indicate east-directed motions. In addition, NE-SW contraction is roughly normal to ~ N-S striking major structural folds in the sedimentary rocks within the Arabian Platform. These relationships suggest that geodetically observed contraction has characterized the plate for at least the past ~ 3 Myr. Broad-scale contraction of the Arabian plate seems intuitively reasonable given that the east and north sides of the plate are dominated by active continental collision (Zagros, E Turkey/Caucasus) while the west and south sides are bordered by mid-ocean ridge spreading (Red Sea and Gulf of

  1. Examining the Experiences and Adjustment Challenges of Saudi Arabian Students in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jeremy Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences and adjustment challenges of Saudi Arabian students in the California State University (CSU) system. Specifically, the study was conducted to better understand and serve the Saudi Arabian students studying in the system. The design for this mixed method study integrated both quantitative and…

  2. Collectivists' Decision-Making: Saudi Arabian Graduate Students' Study Abroad Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakaboski, Tamara; Perez-Velez, Karla; Almutairi, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The authors in this qualitative study explored how Saudi Arabian students selected a teaching focused research institution by examining Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and U.S. national influences, institutional factors, and personal influencers. Despite the continued rise in Saudi Arabian students studying at U.S. universities, limited published research…

  3. Three new species of Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovsky (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Juan M; Azevedo, Celso O

    2016-06-01

    Three new species of Pararhabdepyris are described and illustrated: P. arabo sp. nov. (United Arabian Emirates and Yemen), P. wafrika sp. nov. (Central African Republic), P. ngangu sp. nov. (Central African Republic). The genus is recorded for the first time from the Saharo-Arabian region. A key for all species of the genus is presented.

  4. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Andrew S; Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Vaughan, Grace; Pratchett, Morgan S; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Parrotfishes (f. Labridae) are a unique and ubiquitous group of herbivorous reef fishes. We compared the distribution and ecosystem function (grazing and erosion) of parrotfishes across 75 reefs in Arabia. Our results revealed marked regional differences in the abundance, and taxonomic and functional composition of parrotfishes between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Gulf. High densities and diversity of parrotfishes, and high rates of grazing (210% year(-1)) and erosion (1.57 kgm(-2)year(-1)) characterised Red Sea reefs. Despite Arabian Sea and Red Sea reefs having broadly comparable abundances of parrotfishes, estimates of grazing (150% year(-1)) and erosion (0.43 kgm(-2)year(-1)) were markedly lower in the Arabian Sea. Parrotfishes were extremely rare within the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  5. Regional joint sets in the Arabian platform as indicators of intraplate processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P.L.; Sha'At, N.A.; Al Kadhi, A.

    1984-02-01

    The eastern part of the Saudi Arabian craton is a platform underlain by gently tilted and horizontal Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The platform contains several laterally extensive, but subdued, structures and lineaments. New microtectonic observations of dominant sets of extension and conjugate hybrid joints permit regionally significant extension directions to be inferred and the origin of the macrostructures to be assessed. The central Arabian arch developed during the Late Cretaceous to Eocene when the basin inverted as a consequence of the emplacement of ophiolite-bearing nappes on the Zagros and Oman margins. During arching, there was strike-parallel elongation of beds. At the same time as the arch amplified, the central Arabian graben system evolved as a result of the northward displacement of an East Arabian block. An important Neogene response in the Arabian platform to northeast-southwest shortening in the Zagros ranges was the formation of a swarm of northeast-striking master joints and lineaments. 41 references.

  6. Cenozoic epeirogeny of the Arabian Peninsula from drainage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W. P.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.; White, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    is generally accepted that the Arabian Peninsula has been uplifted by subcrustal processes. Positive residual depth anomalies from oceanic crust in the Red Sea and in the Gulf of Aden suggest that a region surrounding this peninsula is dynamically supported. Admittance calculations, surface wave tomography studies, and receiver function analyses all imply that regional topography is generated and maintained by some combination of mantle convective circulation and lithospheric thickness changes. Despite these significant advances, the spatial and temporal uplift rate history of the Arabian Peninsula is not well known. Here we show that a regional uplift rate history can be obtained by jointly inverting 225 longitudinal river profiles that drain this peninsula. Our strategy assumes that shapes of individual river profiles are controlled by uplift rate history and moderated by erosional processes. We used local measurements of incision rate to calibrate the relevant erosional parameters. In our inverse algorithm, uplift rate is permitted to vary smoothly as a function of space and time but upstream drainage area remains invariant. We also assume that knickzone migration is not lithologically controlled. Implications of these important assumptions have been investigated. Our results suggest that the Arabian Peninsula underwent two phases of asymmetric uplift during the last 20-30 Ma at rates of 0.05-0.1 mm a-1. The southwestern flank of the peninsula has been uplifted by 1.5-2.5 km. Regional stratigraphic constraints, the age and composition of volcanism, paleosol formation, incised peneplains, emergent marine terraces, and thermochronometric measurements corroborate our calculated patterns of uplift. Progressive development of three domal swells along the western margin of the peninsula is consistent with localized upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle.

  7. Hydrogeological influences on petroleum accumulations in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Vizgirda, J.; Burke, L.

    1995-08-01

    The stratigraphic and topographic conditions in the Arabian Gulf are appropriate for the instigation and maintenance of an active hydrodynamic regime. The setting is that of a gentle basin surrounded by topographic highs. The central Arabian highlands to the west-southwest, the Tarus-Zagros mountains to the north, and the Oman mountains to the east rim the structural low occupied by the Gulf. Elevations in these areas reach maximum values of approximately 1000 meters. Paleozoic through Cenozoic strata stretch continuously across the basin, are relatively unfaulted, and outcrop in the topographic highs. Such a setting is propitious for a regional hydrodynamic system with meteoric recharge in the topographic highs and discharge in the middle of the Gulf. The prolific oil and gas accumulations of this region would be subject to influence by these hydrodynamic processes. The existence of such a hydrodynamic regime is documented by a variety of evidence, including potentiometric data, water salinity measurements, and observed tilts in oil-water contacts. Potentiometric data for several Tertiary and Cretaceous units on the Arabian platform, in the Gulf, and in Iraq show a pattern of consistently decreasing potential from topographic highs to lows. Water salinities show a consistent, but inverse, variation with the potentiometric data. Tilted oil-water contacts in Cretaceous and Jurassic reservoirs are observed in several fields of the Gulf region. The direction and magnitude of the observed tilts are consistent with the water potential and salinity data, and suggest that petroleum accumulations are being influenced by a regional hydrodynamic drive. Basin modelling is used to simulate petroleum generation and migration scenarios, and to integrate these histories with the structural evolution of the Gulf. The integrated modelling study illustrates the influence of hydrodynamic processes on the distribution of petroleum accumulations.

  8. Seasonal circulation assessments of the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Alosairi, Y; Pokavanich, T

    2017-03-15

    Due to the continuous human activities linked to economic expansion in the Arabian Gulf area (also known as Persian Gulf), various activities have had an adverse impact on the coastal environment. Furthermore, reduction of precipitation and river flows has resulted in alterations to the hydro-environment regime at various levels. The current study uses a detailed numerical model that was validated with recent field measurements to determine the comprehensive seasonal circulations of the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf (NAG). The seasons were studied individually using a three-dimensional setup and by considering the baroclinic effects and meteorological forcing. It was found that the NAG exhibits distinctive circulation characteristics each season. In winter, a dense water mass that forms near Kuwait flows toward the southeast near-bed, whereas relatively weak Indian Ocean Surface Waters (IOSW) flow along the Iranian coast and, to a lesser extent, oppose these currents. In spring, the southeast near bed circulations are weaker, while the IOSW is in highest conditions reaching the northern latitudes of the Gulf without being significantly diluted. In summer, a thermocline develops, particularly at the main axis of the NAG, and increases the chances of upwelling. The surface water during this season is significantly controlled by wind. Most distinctive, a non-uniform flow is evident at the offshore regions along the Arabian coast due to strong density gradients. In the fall, the circulations are relatively weaker compared to other seasons; however, cyclonic features are evident at the southeast of the estuary. Well-known counter clockwise circulations NAG are evident throughout the season, but at various strengths; summer is the most active season, while fall is the least active season. In a similar manner, the along shore current varied spatially and temporally throughout the seasons.

  9. XY male pseudohermaphroditism in a captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Padilla, Luis R; Dutton, Christopher J; Bauman, Joan; Duncan, Mary

    2005-09-01

    A 2-yr-old Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) was presented for evaluation of abnormal genitalia and infantile behavior. The oryx had a penis and a scrotum, but testes were not palpable within the scrotum or inguinal canal. The total serum testosterone for the individual was lower than in age-matched males of the same species. Surgical exploration showed markedly hypoplastic intra-abdominal gonads, which demonstrated both testicular and uterine tissue on histologic examination. After karyotype analysis, the individual was classified as an XY male pseudohermaphrodite. This condition resembles two human intersex syndromes: embryonic testicular regression syndrome and partial gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, which occur in familial lines.

  10. Purkinje cell apoptosis in arabian horses with cerebellar abiotrophy.

    PubMed

    Blanco, A; Moyano, R; Vivo, J; Flores-Acuña, R; Molina, A; Blanco, C; Monterde, J G

    2006-08-01

    Purkinje cerebellar cells were studied in three Arabian horses aged between 6 and 8 months with clinical disorders in their movements, tremors and ataxia; the occurrence of apoptosis in this cell population was investigated by the (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method. Both optical and electron microscopical images showed a scant number of Purkinje cells, most of them with morphological features of apoptosis such as condensation of the nucleus and cytoplasm as well as segregation and fragmentation of the nucleus into apoptotic bodies. The TUNEL technique revealed a substantial number (65%) of positive immunoreactive Purkinje cells.

  11. Bay of Bengal Surface and Thermocline and the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    to the atmosphere. How low the SSS gets in the Bay of Bengal or how high in the Arabian Sea, depends on the oceanic exchanges between them via a...potential impact on the SST. 3 Figure 1a: Sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity ( SSS ) relationship during ASIRI 2013 cruises. The left panel...shows the hull ADCP vector, color-coded for SSS . The SST/ SSS scatter falls along a line from the warm/salty southern regions to the cool/fresher

  12. [Arabian food pyramid: unified framework for nutritional health messages].

    PubMed

    Shokr, Adel M

    2008-01-01

    There are several ways to present nutritional health messages, particularly pyramidic indices, but they have many deficiencies such as lack of agreement on a unified or clear methodology for food grouping and ignoring nutritional group inter-relation and integration. This causes confusion for health educators and target individuals. This paper presents an Arabian food pyramid that aims to unify the bases of nutritional health messages, bringing together the function, contents, source and nutritional group servings and indicating the inter-relation and integration of nutritional groups. This provides comprehensive, integrated, simple and flexible health messages.

  13. The Saudi Arabian Heat Low: A Numerical Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    hours, the temperature trace • 1 o " " . , 81 SIGMA 0 .07 RADIUS 37.1 KN 3 (a) 270 0 2 4 36 40 .0 ~ * 64 I SIGMA 0 .47 RADIUS "?q.S K" 310 11146 -OS...AD-R45 575 THE SAUDI ARABIAN HEAT LOW: A NUMERICAL PERSPECTIVE(U) 1/ 3 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH L E FREEMAN 1984 AFIT/CI/NR-84...your organization or another agency if AFIT had not?’ ( ) a. YES ( ) b. NO 3 . The benefits of AFIT research can often be expressed by the equivalent

  14. Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) embryos: A model organism for the risk assessment of the Arabian Gulf coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Suhur; Al-Naema, Nayla; Butler, Josh D; Febbo, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Fish embryos are excellent models for studies aimed at understanding toxic mechanisms and indications of possible acute and chronic effects. For the past 3 yr, an Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) fish embryo test has been developed in the authors' laboratory as a routine ecotoxicological test that can be used to support risk assessment of potential contaminants in Arabian Gulf coastal waters. Tests were conducted with 3 reference toxicants (3,4-dichloroaniline [DCA], sodium dodecyl sulfate, and zinc sulfate [Zn]) and chlorine, a disinfectant used widely in industrial cooling systems around the Arabian Gulf region. The 50% effect concentration (EC50) for DCA was 0.47 mg/L and 1.89 mg/L for embryos exposed before 6 hpf and after 168 hpf, respectively. Sublethal effects were mainly observed at concentrations above 2.5 mg/L, the effects included severe pericardial edema and tail shortage. The sodium dodecyl sulfate ionic surfactant caused mortality at both early and late stages of embryo development; it caused coagulation, severe deformity, and hemolysis. Both the EC50 and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for sodium dodecyl sulfate were 9.37 mg/L. Salinity influenced the toxicity of Zn to killifish embryos: at 40 psu Zn was found not to be toxic, whereas at 20 psu toxicity had increased significantly (p < 0.05). Values of EC50 and LC50 were 2.5 mg/L and 4 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations above 15 mg/L in embryos were often accompanied by upper abdominal edema and inhibition of growth, especially evident in the tail. Chlorine caused mortality at a lower concentration; for example, at 0.05 mg/L 33% of embryos were found dead at the end of the experiment. The LC50 for chlorine was determined to be 0.08 mg/L. Examination of the existing literature showed similar results to the present study's findings. The results suggest a more comparable sensitivity of killifish embryos to that of other fish embryo test recommended species. The present study

  15. Origin of cold bias over the Arabian Sea in Climate Models.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, S; Ajayamohan, R S

    2014-09-17

    Almost all climate models in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase five (CMIP5) were found to have a cold bias in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the northern Arabian Sea, which is linked to the biases in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). This cold SST bias was attributed to the anomalous cold winds from the north-western part of south Asian landmass during boreal winter. However, the origin of the anomalously strong cold winds over the Arabian Sea and its association with the large-scale circulation is obscure. Here we show that an equatorward bias in subtropical Jetstream during boreal spring season anomalously cools down the northern Arabian Sea and adjoining land regions in CMIP5 models. The models with stronger equatorward bias in subtropical jet are also the ones with stronger cold SST bias over the Arabian Sea. The equatorward shift coupled with enhanced strength of the subtropical jet produce a stronger upper tropospheric convergence, leading to a subsidence and divergence at lower levels over the Arabian deserts. The low entropy air flowing from the Arabian land mass cools the northern Arabian Sea. The weaker meridional temperature gradients in the colder models substantially weaken ISM precipitation.

  16. Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

    2012-07-01

    An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

  17. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Major histocompatibility complex variation in the Arabian oryx.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, P W; Parker, K M; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, G A; Rattink, A; Lievers, K

    2000-12-01

    In the 1960s, the Arabian oryx was one of the most endangered species in the world, extinct in the wild and surviving in only a few captive herds. The present day population of over 2000 descends from a small number of founders and may have restricted genetic variation for important adaptive genes. We have examined the amount of genetic variation for a class II gene in the major histocompatibility complex thought to be the most important genetic basis for pathogen resistance in vertebrates. We found three very divergent alleles, which on average, differed by 24 nucleotides and 15 amino acids in the 236-bp fragment we examined. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism, we found that in a sample of 57 animals, the alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions, although one allele was found only in four heterozygous individuals. The average heterozygosity for the 22 amino acid positions involved in antigen binding was 0.165, three times as high as that for the 56 amino acids not involved with antigen binding. Because the three alleles have such divergent sequences, it is likely that they may recognize peptides from quite different pathogens. As a result, maintenance of these variants should be considered as a goal in the captive breeding program of the Arabian oryx.

  19. Verification of a numerical ocean model of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Ray C.; Luther, Mark E.; O'Brien, James J.; Legler, David M.

    1988-12-01

    A case study evaluating the predictive capability of an upper layer circulation model of the northwest Indian Ocean is presented. The model is a nonlinear, reduced gravity model incorporating realistic boundary geometry and is forced by observed winds. Model results for the fall of 1985 are compared with and evaluated against U.S. Navy bathythermograph and NOAA satellite data collected during August-November 1985. An assessment is made of the model's ability to simulate correctly the circulation structure. Ship wind observations are converted to wind stress for model forcing by a procedure developed by Legler and Navon (1988). The model is only moderately successful in reproducing the structure of the large, rather homogeneous pool of water located off the Arabian Peninsula in September. However, the model behaves remarkably well in the dynamically active region around Socotra. Major fronts and eddies frequently observed in the region during the transition period between the southwest and the northeast monsoon appear in the 1985 model results and compare well, both temporally and spatially, with the observational data. Thus given accurate wind information, the model appears highly effective in dynamically active regions and demonstrates potential as a useful prognostic tool for evaluation of the Arabian Sea when real time winds become available.

  20. A Linear Regression and Markov Chain Model for the Arabian Horse Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    as a tax deduction? Yes No T-4367 68 26. Regardless of previous equine tax deductions, do you consider your current horse activities to be... (Mark one...E L T-4367 A Linear Regression and Markov Chain Model For the Arabian Horse Registry Accesion For NTIS CRA&I UT 7 4:iC=D 5 D-IC JA" LI J:13tjlC,3 lO...the Arabian Horse Registry, which needed to forecast its future registration of purebred Arabian horses . A linear regression model was utilized to

  1. Analysis of Shuttle Multispecral Infrared Radiometer measurements of the western Saudi Arabian shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Abbott, E.

    1987-01-01

    During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors

  2. Structure of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Across the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amri, A; Rodgers, A

    2007-01-05

    Analysis of modern broadband (BB) waveform data allows for the inference of seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle using a variety of techniques. This presentation will report inferences of seismic structure of the Arabian Plate using BB data from various networks. Most data were recorded by the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) which consists of 38 (26 BB, 11 SP) stations, mostly located on the Arabian Shield. Additional data were taken from the 1995-7 Saudi Arabian IRIS-PASSCAL Deployment (9 BB stations) and other stations across the Peninsula. Crustal structure, inferred from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, reveals thicker crust in the Arabian Platform (40-45 km) and the interior of the Arabian Shield (35-40 km) and thinner crust along the Red Sea coast. Lithospheric thickness inferred from teleseismic S-wave receiver functions reveals very thin lithosphere (40-80 km) along the Red Sea coast which thickens rapidly toward the interior of the Arabian Shield (100-120 km). We also observe a step of 20-40 km in lithospheric thickness across the Shield-Platform boundary. Seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle inferred from teleseismic P- and S-wave travel time tomography reveals large differences between the Shield and Platform, with the Shield being underlain by slower velocities, {+-}3% for P-waves and {+-}6% for S-waves. Seismic anisotropy was inferred from shear-wave splitting, using teleseismic SKS waveforms. Results reveal a splitting time of approximately 1.4 seconds, with the fast axis slightly east of north. The shear-wave splitting results are consistent across the Peninsula, with a slight clockwise rotation parallel for stations near the Gulf of Aqaba. In summary, these results allow us to make several conclusions about the tectonic evolution and current state of the Arabian Plate. Lithospheric thickness implies that thinning near the Red Sea has accompanied the rupturing of the Arabian

  3. Interannual variability and predictability over the Arabian Penuinsula Winter monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan Abid, Muhammad; Kucharski, Fred; Almazroui, Mansour; Kang, In-Sik

    2016-04-01

    Interannual winter rainfall variability and its predictability are analysed over the Arabian Peninsula region by using observed and hindcast datasets from the state-of-the-art European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal prediction System 4 for the period 1981-2010. An Arabian winter monsoon index (AWMI) is defined to highlight the Arabian Peninsula as the most representative region for the Northern Hemispheric winter dominating the summer rainfall. The observations show that the rainfall variability is relatively large over the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. The correlation coefficient between the Nino3.4 index and rainfall in this region is 0.33, suggesting potentially some modest predictability, and indicating that El Nino increases and La Nina decreases the rainfall. Regression analysis shows that upper-level cyclonic circulation anomalies that are forced by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are responsible for the winter rainfall anomalies over the Arabian region. The stronger (weaker) mean transient-eddy activity related to the upper-level trough induced by the warm (cold) sea-surface temperatures during El Nino (La Nina) tends to increase (decrease) the rainfall in the region. The model hindcast dataset reproduces the ENSO-rainfall connection. The seasonal mean predictability of the northeast Arabian rainfall index is 0.35. It is shown that the noise variance is larger than the signal over the Arabian Peninsula region, which tends to limit the prediction skill. The potential predictability is generally increased in ENSO years and is, in particular, larger during La Nina compared to El Nino years in the region. Furthermore, central Pacific ENSO events and ENSO events with weak signals in the Indian Ocean tend to increase predictability over the Arabian region.

  4. Drifter Studies of the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Arabian Sea Principal Investigator: Dr. Luca Centurioni The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 0213 La Jolla, CA 92093-0213 Email...in the Indian Ocean and in the Arabian Sea to improve the dynamical knowledge and predictability of the near-surface circulation in these regions and...have an impact on the boundary current observed on the east side of Palau? 3) Can the island rule provide a plausible explanation for observations of

  5. The ant genus Carebara Westwood in the Arabian Peninsula (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ant genus Carebara of the Arabian Peninsula is revised. Carebara abuhurayri Sharaf & Aldawood, 2011 is synonymized under Carebara arabica Collingwood & van Harten, 2001. Carebara arabica is redescribed and a Neotype is fixed based on a specimen collected from southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A new species, C. fayrouzae sp. n. is described from Saudi Arabia based on queens, major and minor workers. Keys to major and minor workers of the two Arabian Carebara species are given. PMID:24363580

  6. Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman Dr. Cheryl Ann Blain Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch...of a circulation model for the Arabian Gulf and connecting waters that realistically predicts the complex, 3-D circulation and mixing patterns in the...number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Shallow Water Dynamics in

  7. Eddies reduce denitrification and compress habitats in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Smith, Shafer; Lévy, Marina; Pauluis, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    The combination of high biological production and weak oceanic ventilation in regions, such as the northern Indian Ocean and the eastern Pacific and Atlantic, cause large-scale oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that profoundly affect marine habitats and alter key biogeochemical cycles. Here we investigate the effects of eddies on the Arabian Sea OMZ—the world's thickest—using a suite of regional model simulations with increasing horizontal resolution. We find that isopycnal eddy transport of oxygen to the OMZ region limits the extent of suboxia so reducing denitrification, increasing the supply of nitrate to the surface, and thereby enhancing biological production. That same enhanced production generates more organic matter in the water column, amplifying oxygen consumption below the euphotic zone, thus increasing the extent of hypoxia. Eddy-driven ventilation likely plays a similar role in other low-oxygen regions and thus may be crucial in shaping marine habitats and modulating the large-scale marine nitrogen cycle.

  8. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  9. Preliminary noise survey and data report of Saudi Arabian data

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R.

    1997-08-01

    From November 1995 to March 1996 a total of 9 broadband temporary stations were deployed across Saudi Arabian shield. These stations consisted of STS-2 seismometers recorded continuously at 40 sps on RefTek dataloggers. All installations were at bedrock sites. Using data sections selected randomly during the deployment, noise studies showed that most stations were exceptionally quiet with noise level near the USGS low noise model for frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz. At lower frequencies, the horizontal components showed increased noise levels, possibly due to instrumental characteristics. High-frequency (greater than 1 Hz) noise varied as much as 10 db between day and night for some stations (RAYN, TAIF) while more isolated stations (HALM) were constant. Seasonal noise levels also varied, with April to June being the quietest months. Slight changes in peak microseism frequency also occurred seasonally.

  10. Performance modeling of Arabian asphalt using HP-GPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asi, I. M.; Wahhab, H. I. Al-Abdul; Al-Dubabi, I. A.; Ali, M. F.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, Arabian neat asphalt samples were collected from different asphalt producing refineries in the Gulf countries. Another set of polymer modified samples was also included in this study. In the polymer modification process, 5,10, and 15% crumb rubber (CRT) and 3,6, and 9% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) were used. All asphalt samples were subjected to two aging processes to simulate heating, mixing, compaction, and in-service aging. The asphalt samples at the different aging stages were subjected to performance-based tests that were adapted and/or modified by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) team. High pressure gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC) was used to chemically analyze the test samples by generating profiles of their molecular size distribution. Models were built to predict the performance-based properties from the produced HP-GPC profiles.

  11. Unusual selective immunoglobulin deficiency in an Arabian foal.

    PubMed

    Boy, M G; Zhang, C; Antczak, D F; Hamir, A N; Whitlock, R H

    1992-01-01

    A 10-month-old Arabian foal was evaluated for a suspected immunoglobulin (Ig) M deficiency. Decreased to nondetectable concentrations of IgM, IgA, and IgG (T), and a normal concentration of IgG, were present. Results of in vitro testing of the blood lymphocyte blastogenesis showed a weak response to the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but normal responses to T-cell mitogens. Results of postmortem examination showed synovitis of the left tibiotarsal and both scapulohumeral joints. Atrophy and edema of the lymph nodes and lymphocyte depletion in the thymus and spleen were seen. A subacute inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the kidney, synovium, liver, and brain. Etiologic agents were not identified. This case represents a previously unreported form of immunodeficiency disease in the horse.

  12. SEISMIC DATA FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2004-07-08

    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  13. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir; Engelbrecht, Johann P.

    2016-09-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  14. Climate oscillations reflected in the Arabian Sea subseafloor microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, William; Coolen, Marco; He, Lijun; Wuchter, Cornelia; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem; Johnson, Carl; Hemingway, Jordon; Lee, Mitchell; Galy, Valier; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediment contains a vast microbial biosphere that influences global biogeochemical cycles over geological timescales. However, the environmental factors controlling the stratigraphy of subseafloor microbial communities are poorly understood. We studied a sediment core directly underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which exhibits organic carbon rich sapropelic laminae deposited under low oxygen conditions. Consistent with several other cores from the same location, age dating revealed the sapropelic layers coincide with warm North Atlantic millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger events, indicating a direct link between the strength of the OMZ and paleoclimate. A total of 214 samples spanning 13 m and 52 Kyr of deposition were selected for geochemical analyses and paleoclimate proxy measurements, as well as high-throughput metagenomic DNA sequencing of bacteria and archaea. A novel DNA extraction protocol was developed that allowed for direct (unamplified) metagenomic sequencing of DNA from each sample. This dataset represents the highest resolved sedimentary metagenomic sampling profile to date. Analysis of these data together with multiple paleoceanographic proxies show that millennial-scale paleoenvironmental conditions correlate with the metabolism and diversity of bacteria and archaea over the last glacial-interglacial cycle in the Arabian Sea. The metabolic potential for bacterial denitrification correlates with climate-driven OMZ strength and concomitant nitrogen stable isotope fractionation, whereas catabolic potential reflects changing marine organic matter sources across the Last Glacial Maximum. These results indicate that the subsisting microbial communities had been stratified to a large extent by paleoceanographic conditions at the time of deposition. Paleoenvironmental conditions should thus be considered as a mechanism that can help explain microbiome stratigraphy in marine sediment.

  15. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian Monsoon revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xing; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is important to marine ecosystems and human activities. It transports nutrient-rich deep water mass that supports marine biological productivity. In this study, we aim to characterize the large-scale climate forcings that drive upwelling along the western Arabian Sea coast. Studies based on ocean sediments suggest that there is a link between this coastal upwelling system and the Indian summer monsoon. However, a more direct method is needed to examine the influence of various forcings on upwelling. For this purpose, we analyse a high-resolution (about 10 km) global ocean simulation (denoted STORM), which is based on the MPI-OM model developed by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg driven by the global meteorological reanalysis NCEP over the period 1950-2010. This very high spatial resolution allows us to identify characteristics of the coastal upwelling system. We compare the simulated upwelling velocity of STORM with two traditional upwelling indices: along-shore wind speed and sea surface temperature. The analysis reveals good consistency between these variables, with high correlations between coastal upwelling and along-shore wind speed (r=0.85) as well as coastal sea surface temperature (r=-0.77). To study the impact of the monsoon on the upwelling we analyse both temporal and spatial co-variability between upwelling velocity and the Indian summer monsoon index. The spatial analysis shows that the impact of the monsoon on the upwelling is concentrated along the coast, as expected. However, somewhat unexpectedly, the temporal correlation between the coastal upwelling and the monsoon index is rather weak (r=0.26). Also, the spatial structure of upwelling in the Arabian Sea as revealed by a Principal Component Analysis is rather rich, indicating that factors other than the Monsoon are also important drivers of upwelling. In addition, no detectable trend in our coastal upwelling is found in the simulation that would match the

  16. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilali, Sara M.; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Zaman, Babar; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Shahri, Abdullah; Edward, Deepak P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%). Of these, 278 (69.3%) were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively). Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007). Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%), lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%), lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4%) and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%). Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study. PMID:26909216

  17. Primary productivity and nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium spp. in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Sushma G.; Matondkar, S. G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Trichodesmium was studied with the purpose of understanding its distribution, organic production and nitrogen fixation in the Arabian Sea. Out of the 143 stations sampled, a total of 93 stations showed the presence of Trichodesmium filaments. Two species of Trichodesmium namely, T. thiebautii and T. erythraeum were found. These were distributed on the basis of the physico-chemical conditions of the Arabian Sea. This was the first time that we managed to detect and record the presence of Trichodesmium thiebautii bloom in the Arabian Sea at depths as deep as 60-70 m. Total counts of Trichodesmium varied between 0 and 400737 filamentsL- 1. T. thiebautii developed in offshore waters during the fall intermonsoon, when the water temperature was around 28 °C and nitrate content was as low as 0.34 μM. After the northeast monsoon, Trichodesmium erythraeum developed in the offshore area and then spread to coastal waters. Both species of Trichodesmium together produced a total of 0.263 TgCyear- 1 and fixed a total of 0.2976 TgNyear- 1 in the Arabian Sea. The study revealed that Trichodesmium was a major contributor to the organic matter productivity of the Arabian Sea during the period from November to April. The seasonality of the blooms of Trichodesmium is discussed with the help of Ocean Color Monitoring (OCM) data and biogeochemical implication of these findings in the Arabian Sea.

  18. Tectonic and deposition model of late Precambrian-Cambrian Arabian and adjoining plates

    SciTech Connect

    Husseini, M.I. )

    1989-09-01

    During the late Precambrian, the terranes of the Arabian and adjoining plates were fused along the northeastern flank of the African plate in Gondwanaland. This phase, which ended approximately 640 to 620 Ma, was followed by continental failure (620 to 580 Ma) and intracontinental extension (600 to approximately 550 Ma). During the Infracambrian extensional phase, a triple junction may have evolved near the Sinai Peninsula and may have consisted of the (1) Jordan Valley and Dead Sea rift branch, (2) Sinai and North Egypt rift branch, and (3) the Najd wrench-rift branch. The Najd, Hawasina, and Zagros fault systems may have been transverse faults that accompanied rifting in the Arabian Gulf and Zagros Mountains, southern Oman, Pakistan, and Kerman in central Iran. While the area was extending and subsiding, the Tethys Ocean flooded the eastern side of the Arabian plate and Iran and deposited calcareous clastics, carbonates, and evaporites (including the Hormuz and Ara halites). This transgression extended into the western part of the Arabian plate via the Najd rift system. The termination of the extensional phase during the late Early Cambrian was accompanied by a major regression and terrestrial conditions on the Arabian Peninsula. However, by the Early Ordovician, as sea level peaked to a highstand, the Arabian plate was blanketed with marginal marine sediments. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Tomographic Imaging of Upper Mantle P- and S-wave Velocity Heterogeneity Beneath the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2005-08-30

    We report the estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula estimated from travel time delay tomography. We have completed travel time measurements and inversion of a partial data set provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). This study builds on previous work by Benoit et al. (2003) following the methods of VanDecar and Crosson (1990) and VanDecar (1991). Data were collected from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by KACST. The network consists of 38 stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment. This study shows the inverted P- and S-wave models computed with the combined data with all three different seismic networks (KASCST, IRIS, and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL experiment) with best coverage beneath the Arabian Shield. Tomographic images reveal low velocity features in the upper mantle along a north-south line from the southern Asir region to the northeastern portion of the Arabian Shield.

  20. Tomographic Imaging of Upper Mantle P- and S-wave Velocity Heterogeneity Beneath the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula estimated from teleseismic travel time delay tomography. We have completed travel time measurements and inversion of a data set provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). We used 401 earthquakes resulting in 3416 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals for the P-wave tomography, and 1602 ray paths with S- and SKS-wave arrivals came from 201 earthquakes for the S-wave tomography. Although the total number of rays for the S-wave model is a half of the rays for the P-wave model, the event distribution shows better azimuthal coverage. The P and S wave models yield consistent results. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the mid-eastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield does not extend north of 21°N and dips to south. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. The origin of the low velocity region under the eastern edge of the Arabian Shield is uncertain.

  1. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath The Arabian Peninsula From body and Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data came from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). The P- and S wave models were inverted from 401 earthquakes resulting in 3416 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals, and 1602 ray paths with S- and SKS-wave arrivals came from 201 earthquakes, respectively. The P and S wave models yield consistent results. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the mid-eastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield does not extend north of 21°N and dips to south. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. Surface wave tomography is being performed using fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured across the SANDSN. Preliminary phase velocity maps will be provided and compared to the body wave tomographic results.

  2. Comparison of the blood plasma catecholamines level in thoroughbred and Arabian horses during the same-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Podolak, M; Kedzierski, W; Bergero, D

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in blood plasma of two racehorses breeds: Arabian and Thoroughbred during moderate intensity exercise performed in the same conditions. The increase in plasma E level just after exercise was higher in Thoroughbreds than in Arabians. During the whole test, the Arabians showed the higher levels of NE and DA as compared to those found in Thoroughbreds.

  3. Modeling of Air-Sea Interaction and Ocean Processes for the Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and space-time variability in the Northwestern Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea on time scales from days up to several seasonal cycles . OBJECTIVES...determine the mechanisms causing vertical mixing in the Arabian Sea: wind mixing, role of air- sea interaction and surface heat and fresh water ...equatorial region and the East African Coastal current, a source of low-salinity water for the Arabian Sea. APPROACH The fast-flowing Somali

  4. Modelling the seasonality of subsurface light and primary production in the Arabian Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal changes in mixed-layer depth and phytoplankton biomass in the Arabian Sea are assessed with climatologies of ship-based hydrographic measurements and ocean-color observations from satellite.  At the close of the intermonsoons in November and especially May, the open Arabian Sea resembles the stereotypic, unperturbed tropical ocean, with a thin oligotrophic mixed layer and a pronounced subsurface chlorophyll maximum.  Both the northeast and southwest monsoons disrupt this typical tropical hydrography through mixed-layer deepening and eutrophication in the central and northern Arabian Sea.  Computations using a spectral model of light penetration suggest that seasonal changes in mixed-layer thickness and phytoplankton concentration result in pronounced fluctuations through the annual cycle in the radiant flux reaching the base of the mixed layer.  At the close of the fall and spring intermonsoons the base of the model euphotic zone is in the thermocline across all of the open Arabian Sea.  The euphotic zone appears to rise into the mixed layer of the northern Arabian Sea during both the winter and summer monsoons.  Strong seasonality in total primary production and its partitioning between the mixed layer and thermocline is predicted byb a photo-synthesis-irradiance model for a site in the western Arabian Sea (14.36° N, 57.38° E).  Modeled mixed-layer primary production depicts an intense peak for the southwest monsoon and a secondary northeast monsoon peak separated by intermonsoon period of low production.  During the fall and spring intermonsoons, in the presence of a subsurface clorophyll maximum, the model estimate of primary production in the thermocline exceeds that in the mixed layer.  Our model calculations suggest that the subsurface clorophyll maximum present in the Arabian Sea during the spring intermonsoon is a precursor of the regional, summer, phytoplankton bloom.

  5. Body and Surface wave tomography for the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data for this study come from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the SANDSN data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). For the P-wave model 3416 ray paths from P- and PKP-waves and 1602 ray paths from S- and SKS-waves for the S-wave model were used. For the Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography, we included data from the Ethiopian Broadband Seismic Experiment and obtained the maximum 1606 rays with the best coverage between periods of 44 and 140 s. The body and surface wave models yield consistent results, although the surface wave tomography shows poor horizontal resolution. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the northeastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield is separated structure from the low velocity zone beneath the northeastern edge of the Arabian Shield and dips to the south in the body wave models. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. The origin of the low velocity anomaly beneath the northeastern part of the Shield is uncertain.

  6. Seismotectonics and crustal stress across the northern Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yassminh, R.; Gomez, F. G.; Sandvol, E. A.; Ghalib, H. A.; Daoud, M.

    2013-12-01

    The region encompassing the collision of northern Arabia with Eurasia is a tectonically heterogeneous region of distributed deformation. The northern Arabia plate is bounded to the west by the subducting Sinai plate and the left-lateral Dead Sea transform. This complexity suggests that there are, multiple competing processes that may influence regional tectonics in northern Arabia and adjacent areas. Earthquake mechanisms provide insight into crustal kinematics and stress; however, reliable determination of earthquake source parameters can be challenging in a complex geological region, such as the continental collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The goal of this study is to investigate spatial patterns of the crustal stress in the northern Arabian plate and surrounding area. The focal mechanisms used in this study are based on (1) first-motion polarities for earthquakes recorded by Syrian earthquake center during 2000-2011, and (2) regional moment tensors from broadband seismic data, from Turkey and Iraq. First motion focal mechanisms were assigned quality classifications based on the variation of both nodal planes. Regional moment tensor analysis can be significantly influenced by seismic velocity structure; thus, we have divided the study area into regions based on tectonic units. For each region, a specific velocity model is defined using waveform-modeling technique prior to the regional moment tensor inversion. The resulting focal mechanisms, combined with other previously published focal mechanisms for the study area, provide a basis for stress inversion analysis. The resulting deviatoric stress tensors show the spatial distribution of the maximum horizontal stress varies from NW-SE along the Dead Sea Fault to the N-S toward the east. We interpret this to reflect the eastward change from the transform to collision processes in northern Arabia. Along the Dead Sea Fault, transposition of the sigma-1 and sigma-2 to vertical and horizontal

  7. Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols.

    PubMed

    Evan, Amato T; Kossin, James P; Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V

    2011-11-02

    Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological vertical wind shear. At the same time, anthropogenic emissions of aerosols have increased sixfold since the 1930s, leading to a weakening of the southwesterly lower-level and easterly upper-level winds that define the monsoonal circulation over the Arabian Sea. In principle, this aerosol-driven circulation modification could affect tropical cyclone intensity over the Arabian Sea, but so far no such linkage has been shown. Here we report an increase in the intensity of pre-monsoon Arabian Sea tropical cyclones during the period 1979-2010, and show that this change in storm strength is a consequence of a simultaneous upward trend in anthropogenic black carbon and sulphate emissions. We use a combination of observational, reanalysis and model data to demonstrate that the anomalous circulation, which is radiatively forced by these anthropogenic aerosols, reduces the basin-wide vertical wind shear, creating an environment more favourable for tropical cyclone intensification. Because most Arabian Sea tropical cyclones make landfall, our results suggest an additional impact on human health from regional air pollution.

  8. A pedigree-based study of mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence variation among Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A T; Del Valle, A; Bowling, M

    2000-02-01

    Through DNA sequence comparisons of a mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable region, we investigated matrilineal diversity for Arabian horses in the United States. Sixty-two horses were tested. From published pedigrees they traced in the maternal line to 34 mares acquired primarily in the mid to late 19th century from nomadic Bedouin tribes. Compared with the reference sequence (GenBank X79547), these samples showed 27 haplotypes with altogether 31 base substitution sites within 397 bp of sequence. Based on examination of pedigrees from a random sampling of 200 horses in current studbooks of the Arabian Horse Registry of America, we estimated that this study defined the expected mtDNA haplotypes for at least 89% of Arabian horses registered in the US. The reliability of the studbook recorded maternal lineages of Arabian pedigrees was demonstrated by haplotype concordance among multiple samplings in 14 lines. Single base differences observed within two maternal lines were interpreted as representing alternative fixations of past heteroplasmy. The study also demonstrated the utility of mtDNA sequence studies to resolve historical maternity questions without access to biological material from the horses whose relationship was in question, provided that representatives of the relevant female lines were available for comparison. The data call into question the traditional assumption that Arabian horses of the same strain necessarily share a common maternal ancestry.

  9. Diversity and distribution of winter phytoplankton in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, Igor; Saburova, Maria; Al-Yamani, Faiza

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton (diversity, composition, and cell abundance) was described in relation to local environmental conditions across the Arabian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Sea of Oman based on data of ROPME cruise of winter 2006. The 376 phytoplankton taxa identified in these waters represented a diverse composition of species with a prevalence of dinoflagellates and diatoms. Three peaks in the phytoplankton abundance were recorded throughout the studied area associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms in the central and northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and in the Sea of Oman and the adjacent waters. The studied area was divided into three main regions by cluster analysis based on differences in the phytoplankton composition and concentration. The Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by highly abundant, strongly diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. The Arabian Gulf was divided into two main regions along a diagonal northwest-southeast axis, with rather diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage off the south and along the Iranian coast but with flagellate-dominated phytoplankton of the north and along the Arabian coast. The distance-based linear modeling revealed a significant relationship between the phytoplankton composition and water masses as indexed by salinity. Our results demonstrated that abundance and composition of winter phytoplankton were related to water circulation pattern in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman.

  10. The Road to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Expatriate Teachers' Pedagogical Practices in the Cultural Context of Saudi Arabian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, Amani K.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored the need for culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) in Saudi Arabian higher education, especially when students have a cultural background that differs from that of their instructor. The study documented how expatriate teachers structured their pedagogical practices in the Saudi Arabian context. It examined how these…

  11. Data Collection in the Arabian Peninsula for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; Al-Amri, A M S

    2003-07-11

    We report results from the second year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We have a temporary broadband seismic station operating near the IMS primary array site (PS38) in central Saudi Arabia. We recently installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). We are working with King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology to collect and analyze data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consist of 37 digital three-component stations (26 broadband and 11 short-period). We are collaborating with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to analyze data from their 8 station national seismic network. We participated in the Workshop on Reference Events odnear the Dead Sea Rift held in Paris, France in October 2002. In this paper we present results of these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of event locations and source parameters and inference of earth structure.

  12. Tropospheric ozone pool over Arabian sea during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the remarkable and stable phenomenon-enhancement of the tropospheric ozone over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season. Satellite data (SCIAMACHY LNM, OMI/MLS and TES) showed a strong and clear ozone seasonality over AS with ~42 DU maxima in pre-monsoon season. With the help of MACC reanalysis data, our results showed that 3/4 of the enhanced ozone during this season is contributed at 0-8 km height. The main source of the ozone enhancement is believed to be a long range transport, together with a suitable meteorological condition for pollution accumulation. Local chemistry plays different roles over different altitudes. However we believe the contribution to the tropospheric ozone enhancement from the chemistry is low. The contribution of the STE is unclear. In addition, the interannual variation of the pre-monsoon tropospheric ozone enhancement over AS is discussed. The anomalies in 2005 and 2010 could be due to the dynamical variation of ozone caused by the El Niño events.

  13. Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous in Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1986-05-01

    The Cretaceous of the Arabian Peninsula is divided into three major units by regional unconformities: Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group (Berriasian-middle Aptian), middle Cretaceous Wasia Group (Albian-Turonian), and Upper Cretaceous Aruma Group (Coniacian-Maestrichtian). The profusion of named stratigraphic units in the area reflects not only the lithologic variation resulting from facies changes, but also terminologies adopted by different companies. The authors provide a stratigraphic nomenclature defining standard type sections and indicate synonymies, which follow the recommendation of 10th Geological Liaison Meeting and hence are acceptable to operators in the area. The sedimentologic history of the area was presented in a series of paleogeographic maps, which they relate to the regional tectonic framework. The maps show a predominantly carbonate shelf ramp bordering a land area to the north and west. The principal change in depositional environment occurs during the Upper Cretaceous, as a result of tectonic activity. Less significant changes are attributed to eustatic sea level fluctuations, on which tilting caused by tectonic movement may be superposed during the Lower and middle Cretaceous. The major producing horizons lie below the regional unconformities; secondary porosity in the shelf reefal buildups was developed during subaerial exposure in the Shuaiba Formation (early-middle Aptian), in the Mishrif Formation (late Cenomanian), and in the Simsima Formation (Maestrichtian).

  14. Wave-cloud lines over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, C. E.; Reeder, M. J.; Berry, G. J.

    2014-04-01

    Meteosat visible satellite images between 2006 and 2011 show wave-cloud lines over the Arabian Sea in all months outside the summer monsoon (June-September). These lines are most frequent between January and May (2-3 per month in a given year). All wave-cloud lines in the region propagate offshore. As these wave-cloud lines are associated with coherent convergence lines, the objective technique described by Berry and Reeder is applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis and a climatology of convergence lines at 850 hPa developed. Despite the coarse resolution of the ERA-Interim reanalysis, the statistical properties of these lines are broadly constant with those deduced from the Meteosat visible satellite images. The generation mechanism is investigated in a simulation with the Met Office Unified Model of a particular wave-cloud line (12 March 2011). The process appears to be similar to that over northwestern Australia, which has been documented previously. During the day, a synoptic-scale northeasterly flow opposes the inland advection of the sea breeze on the west coast of India. However, as the daytime turbulence decays and the boundary layer stabilizes, the northeasterly flow accelerates, pushing offshore the leading edge of the sea breeze during the late evening and early hours of the morning. A wave is generated as the northeasterlies penetrate the marine boundary layer, and this wave propagates westward, producing cloud at its leading edge where there is strong ascent.

  15. Response of the Arabian Sea to global warming and associated regional climate shift.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Prasanna; Roshin, Raj P; Narvekar, Jayu; Kumar, P K Dinesh; Vivekanandan, E

    2009-12-01

    The response of the Arabian Sea to global warming is the disruption in the natural decadal cycle in the sea surface temperature (SST) after 1995, followed by a secular warming. The Arabian Sea is experiencing a regional climate-shift after 1995, which is accompanied by a five fold increase in the occurrence of "most intense cyclones". Signatures of this climate-shift are also perceptible over the adjacent landmass of India as: (1) progressively warmer winters, and (2) decreased decadal monsoon rainfall. The warmer winters are associated with a 16-fold decrease in the decadal wheat production after 1995, while the decreased decadal rainfall was accompanied by a decline of vegetation cover and increased occurrence of heat spells. We propose that in addition to the oceanic thermal inertia, the upwelling-driven cooling provided a mechanism that offset the CO(2)-driven SST increase in the Arabian Sea until 1995.

  16. Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Eastward shift and maintenance of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Understanding the paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2016-09-01

    The dominance of Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea (ASOMZ) instead of the more bio-productive and likely more oxygen consuming western part is the first part of the paradox. The sources of oxygen to the ASOMZ were evaluated through the distributions of different water masses using the extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis, whereas the sinks of oxygen were evaluated through the organic matter remineralization, using the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU). The contributions of major source waters to the Arabian Sea viz. Indian Deep water (dIDW), Indian Central water (ICW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and Red Sea Water (RSW) have been quantified through the eOMP analysis which shows that the PGW and RSW are significant for the eastward shift of ASOMZ instead of voluminous ICW and dIDW. The distribution of Net Primary Production (NPP) and AOU clearly suggest the transport of organic detritus from the highly productive western Arabian Sea to its eastern counterpart which adds to the eastward shifting of ASOMZ. A revised estimate of the seasonal variation of areal extent and volume occupied by ASOMZ through analysis of latest available data reveals a distinct intensification of ASOMZ by 30% and increase in its volume by 5% during the spring-summer transition. However, during this seasonal transition the productivity in the Arabian Sea shows 100% increase in mean NPP. This disparity between ASOMZ and monsoonal variation of productivity is the other part of the paradox, which has been constrained through apparent oxygen utilization, Net Primary Production along with a variation of core depths of source waters. This study reveals a subtle balance between the circulation of marginal oxygen-rich water masses from the western Arabian Sea and organic matter remineralization in the eastern Arabian Sea in different seasons that explains the maintenance of ASOMZ throughout the year.

  18. Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Ward, B B; Devol, A H; Rich, J J; Chang, B X; Bulow, S E; Naik, Hema; Pratihary, Anil; Jayakumar, A

    2009-09-03

    Primary production in over half of the world's oceans is limited by fixed nitrogen availability. The main loss term from the fixed nitrogen inventory is the production of dinitrogen gas (N(2)) by heterotrophic denitrification or the more recently discovered autotrophic process, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are responsible for about 35% of oceanic N(2) production and up to half of that occurs in the Arabian Sea. Although denitrification was long thought to be the only loss term, it has recently been argued that anammox alone is responsible for fixed nitrogen loss in the OMZs. Here we measure denitrification and anammox rates and quantify the abundance of denitrifying and anammox bacteria in the OMZ regions of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and the Arabian Sea. We find that denitrification rather than anammox dominates the N(2) loss term in the Arabian Sea, the largest and most intense OMZ in the world ocean. In seven of eight experiments in the Arabian Sea denitrification is responsible for 87-99% of the total N(2) production. The dominance of denitrification is reproducible using two independent isotope incubation methods. In contrast, anammox is dominant in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific OMZ, as detected using one of the isotope incubation methods, as previously reported. The abundance of denitrifying bacteria always exceeded that of anammox bacteria by up to 7- and 19-fold in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and Arabian Sea, respectively. Geographic and temporal variability in carbon supply may be responsible for the different contributions of denitrification and anammox in these two OMZs. The large contribution of denitrification to N(2) loss in the Arabian Sea indicates the global significance of denitrification to the oceanic nitrogen budget.

  19. Warming of the Eurasian landmass is making the Arabian Sea more productive.

    PubMed

    Goes, Joaquim I; Thoppil, Prasad G; Gomes, Helga do R; Fasullo, John T

    2005-04-22

    The recent trend of declining winter and spring snow cover over Eurasia is causing a land-ocean thermal gradient that is particularly favorable to stronger southwest (summer) monsoon winds. Since 1997, sea surface winds have been strengthening over the western Arabian Sea. This escalation in the intensity of summer monsoon winds, accompanied by enhanced upwelling and an increase of more than 350% in average summertime phytoplankton biomass along the coast and over 300% offshore, raises the possibility that the current warming trend of the Eurasian landmass is making the Arabian Sea more productive.

  20. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  1. Capripoxvirus disease in an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Greth, A; Gourreau, J M; Vassart, M; Nguyen-Ba-Vy; Wyers, M; Lefevre, P C

    1992-04-01

    Lumpy skin disease caused by a capripoxvirus was observed in a captive-bred female Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) at the National Wildlife Research Center, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Clinical signs included severe general depression with fever, anorexia, greater than 1,000 nodular cutaneous lesions and gradual recovery over 2 mo. The virus was found by electron microscopy and paired sera showed an increasing virus neutralization antibody titer against capripoxvirus. A serologic survey of the herd of 90 oryx showed a low prevalence (2%) of this infection. This report describes the first case of lumpy skin disease in an Arabian oryx.

  2. Past, present, and future changes in marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, Katharina; Segschneider, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The work presented here aims at a better understanding of the Asian Monsoon system including the marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea. Changes in the past as recorded in marine sediments, as simulated over the past 1000 years, and under forcing by anthropogenic CO2 emissions by numerical model simulations are investigated. The investigation is based on three columns: a sediment core taken in the Arabian Sea (core SO130-275KL taken off Pakistan), a pre-industrial model run from 850 - 1850 with the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) including the marine and terrestrial carbon cycle and forced by solar variations and volcanic eruptions, and a continuation of this simulation to 2005 under the historical anthropogenic CO2 forcing which allows a comparison with present day climatology. In a first step we compare model results for a set of biogeochemical tracers within the water column and the sediment mixed with observations in the Arabian Sea. We further analyse correlations between Monsoon forcing (represented by zonal wind speed at 850 hPA, short wave radiation, Indian summer precipitation) and biogeochemical parameters, with particular focus on denitrification rates and fluxes to the sediment. This analysis is focused on three regions: off Somalia and off Oman for the summer monsoon, and the central Arabian Sea for the winter monsoon. For the summer monsoon, the highest correlation is found between zonal wind speed and calcite flux to the sediment off Somalia, for the winter monsoon the correlation is highest for short wave radiation in the central Arabian Sea. Time series of mixed layer depth and integrated primary production within the upper 100 m of the ocean from a CMIP5 historical experiment (1850-2005) show, at the location of the sediment core SO130-275KL, little correlation during the summer monsoon, but good correlation during the winter monsoon. As a result, the sediment core is more likely to document winter monsoon conditions

  3. Ammonia oxidation rates and nitrification in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Silvia E.; Babbin, Andrew R.; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrification rates, as well as the relationships between rates and ammonia oxidizer abundance (both archaeal and bacterial), were investigated in the Arabian Sea. Ammonia oxidation rates were measured directly using 15N-NH4+stable isotope additions in gas-impermeable, trace metal clean trilaminate bags (500 mL) at in situ temperature. Tracer incubations were performed at three stations at depths above, below, and within the oxycline of the open-ocean oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Ammonia oxidation rates were similar to previous open-ocean measurements, ranging from undetectable to 21.6 ± 0.1 nmol L-1 d-1. The highest rates at each station occurred at the primary nitrite maximum (above the OMZ), and rates were very low at depths greater than 900 m. The abundances of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were estimated using theamoA gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Both AOA and AOB amoA were detected above, within, and below the OMZ, although the AOA were always more abundant than the AOB, by a factor of 35-216. Nitrification rates were not directly correlated to AOA or AOB amoA abundance. These rates offer new insight into the role of nitrification in the mesopelagic zone. The abundance of AOA amoA genes at 1000 m suggests that ˜50% of the microbial biomass could be autotrophic. Additionally, the integrated nitrification rate at depth implies that nitrification could consume most of the ammonium produced by the flux of organic carbon in the mesopelagic zone.

  4. Characteristics of convective boundary layer over the Arabian sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Parasnis, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) over the oceanic regions plays an important role in regulating the transport of energy and moisture upward into the atmosphere from the surface. CBL structure over the Arabian sea region has been explored using the aerological soundings at two ships viz. SHIRSHOV (12.5{degrees}N, 68{degrees}E ) and OKEAN (14.5{degrees} N, 66{degrees} E) during MONSOON-77. Conserved variable analysis of the mean data sets obtained during the period of 29 June - 16 July, 1977 revealed salient features of the CBL over these regions. The vertical gradients of saturation point parameters viz. virtual potential temperature ({Theta}{sub v}), equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub e}), saturated equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub es}), saturation pressure deficit (P*) and the mixing ratio (q) were used to characterize the different sublayers such as subcloud layer, cloud layer and inversion/stable layer. The mean cloud base was around 950 hPa and the subcloud layer has nearly constant {Theta}{sub v}. The moist layer was associated with unstable {Theta}{sub es} with nearly constant value of P* ({approximately} -40 hPa). This cloud layer was capped by the stable (over OKEAN). The {Theta}{sub e} minimum over OKEAN was observed at 650 hPa (50 hPa above the CBL top) indicating that at some time the convection had reached deeper levels. The {Theta}{sub e} -q diagrams showed a characteristic mixing line up through the cloud and stable layer to the top of CBL. The low level stability analysis using the {Theta}{sub e} and {Theta}{sub es} profiles indicated conditions favorable for shallow convection over OKEAN and for deep convection over SHIRSHOV. The above characteristic features could be attributed to the prevailing weather conditions at OKEAN and SHIRSHOV. The results are discussed.

  5. Deep Upwelling Beneath the Northeastern Afro-Arabian Continent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, M.; Wittlinger, G.; Debayle, E.; Sieminski, A.; Montagner, J. P.; Lepine, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    A large low shear-wave velocity anomaly is observed at upper-mantle depths beneath the northeastern Afro-Arabian continent, from the Turkana depression, South-West of Ethiopia, to the Red sea and South of Arabia. The question of connection between this anomaly and a source of material rising from the lower mantle is of major concern for understanding how a plume associated with the African superswell could interact with the upper mantle structure in the region. Thanks to the deployment of five broadband stations in Ethiopia and Yemen (INSU-RLBM), complementing several sets of broad-band stations in Arabia, Ethiopia and Djibouti (IRIS, Geoscope, PASSCAL) we address this question by using two broadband seismological tools: 1) higher-mode surface wave tomography and 2) receiver function technique. Higher-mode surface waves tomography shows a clear low shear-wave velocity anomaly down to 400 km depth beneath the Ethiopian plateau and the Afar depression. In a paper by Debayle et al. (2001), no continuity of this anomaly with a deeper low-velocity anomaly is observed beneath Ethiopia. Instead, a deeper low-velocity anomaly (down to ~500-600 km depth) was observed farther north beneath the Red Sea and South of Arabia, suggesting a possible link with lower mantle material rising there. Applying a SVD receiver function technique to a set of broad-band records from Arabia to Ethiopia, including Yemen, we discuss the above suggestion by looking at the seismic discontinuities of the upper-mantle transition zone.

  6. Earliest Phanerozoic or latest Proterozoic fossils from the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Awramik, S.M.; Morrison, K.; Hadley, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    We report here the first biologically definable fossils from pre-Saq (pre-Middle Cambrian) rocks of the Arabian Shield. They include the distinctive helically coiled tubular filaments of the oscillatorialean blue-green alga Obruchevella parva as well as two size classes of spheroidal unicells of uncertain affinity. Also present is the conical stromatolite Conophyton and unidentified stromatolites. All occur in cherty limestones of the Jubaylah Group, northern Saudi Arabia, a nonmarine to locally marine taphrogeosynclinal sequence that fills depressions along the northwest-trending Najd faults. Conophyton has heretofore been found only in strata older than about 680 Ma (except for puzzling records in modern hot springs) while Obruchevella is so far known only from rocks between about 680 and 470 Ma old. Thus it appears that the Jubaylah Group is close to the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition. The simple spheroidal nanno-fossils are not diagnostic as to age. Their relationships within what appears to be early diagenetic chert suggest a classical algal-mat association. The brecciated and microchanneled appearance of much of the fossiliferous rock, its locally dolomitic nature, and the prevalence of cryptalgalaminate favors a very shallow, locally turbulent, and perhaps episodically exposed marine or marginal marine setting. The Jubaylah Group lies unconformably beneath the Siq Sandstone (basal member of the Saq Sandstone) of medial Cambrian age, rests nonconformably on crystalline basement, and has yielded a K-Ar whole-rock age (on andesitic basalt) of ???540 Ma. To judge from the fossils, however, that age may be as much as 100 Ma or more too young. ?? 1979.

  7. Deposition Rates and Characterization of Arabian Mineral Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne mineral dust directly and indirectly impacts on global climate, continental and marine biochemistry, human and animal health, agriculture, equipment, and visibility. Annual global dust emissions are poorly known with estimates differing by a factor of at least two. Local dust emission and deposition rates are even less quantified. Dust deposition rate is a key parameter, which helps to constrain the modeled dust budget of the atmosphere. However, dust deposition remains poorly known, due to the limited number of reliable measurements. Simulations and satellite observations suggest that coastal dusts contribute substantially to the total deposition flux into the Red Sea. Starting December 2014, deposition samplers, both the "frisbee" type, and passive samplers for individual particle scanning electron microscopy were deployed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), along the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. Sampling periods of one month were adopted. The deposition rates range from 3 g m-2 month-1 for fair weather conditions to 23 g m-2 month-1 for high dust events. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of deposited dust samples show mineralogical compositions different from any of the parent soils, the former consisting mainly of gypsum, calcite, and smaller amounts of albite, montmorillonite, chlorite, quartz and biotite. The deposited dust samples on the other hand contain more gypsum and less quartz than the previously collected soil samples. This presentation discusses the results from XRD, chemical analysis and SEM-based individual particle analysis of the soils and the deposited dust samples. The monthly dust accumulation rates and their seasonal and spatial variability are compared with the regional model predictions. Data from this study provide an observational basis for validating the regional dust mass balance along the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain.

  8. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care.

  9. Arabian-Nubian Shield: incomplete vision and opened questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Garni, Saad Al; Hussaini, Adeeb Al; Alnahdi, Mubarak; Shammari, Abdullah Al; Abu-Alam, Tamer

    2015-04-01

    The Arabian-Nubian Shield is a juvenile crust formed during the Pan-African Orozgeny due the closure of the Mozambican ocean as a result of East- and West-Gondwanaland collision. The shield records part of Earth's history of about 300 Myr. The formation of the shield is close related to the activity of the major pre-Mesozoic shear zone on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Najd Fault System exhumed several metamorphic complexes in different setting; some of them were exhumed in extension setting as metamorphic core complexes, others were exhumed in compressional setting or in oblique compression setting as strike-slip complexes. The metamorphic complexes represent middle crustal level rocks (25 - 50 km depth) exhumed to a shallower level (of about 14 km depth). At the depth of 14 km the shield was intruded by syn-tectonic granitic suites known as older granites. These metamorphic complexes have an acidic composition in contrast to the average basic composition of the shield. Detrital-zircon geochronological data from Nubian sandstone indicate that the metamorphic complexes exhumed completely to the Earth's surface by the end of the Pan-African orogeny. There are some open questions still need to be addressed to complete our vision of the shield. Some of these questions are: What are the protoliths of the metamorohic complexes? These protoliths are juvenile rocks formed during the Pan-African orogeny and have acidic composition but no information available about the origin, the tectonic setting or the formation mechanism of these rocks. What is the relation between the exhumation of the metamorphic complexes to a crustal level of about 14 km and the intrusion of the syn-tectonic granites to the same crustal level. How did the metamorphic complexes exhumed to the Earth's surface by the end of the Pan-African orogeny?

  10. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  11. Aerosol Optical Depth over Arabian Peninsula: a Validation of ECHAM5-HAM against Ground-Based and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawad, Faisal Al; Mamdouh, Khoder; Almazroui, Mansour; Alghamdi, Mansour

    2016-04-01

    This research validates aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the global climate - aerosol model (ECHAM5-HAM) for the period 2005 - 2011 over Arabian Peninsula. The ECHAM5-HAM AOD is evaluated at mid visible wavelength (550 nm) against AOD observation at three AERONET ground-base stations, and against satellite AOD measurements carried out by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Average AOD monthly data for the period 2005 - 2011 is extracted from the model ECHAM5-HAM and compared to three AERONET stations located over Arabian Peninsula representing western (Hada Al-Sham), central (Solar Village) and eastern (Kuwait) regions. In addition, semillar comparison to MODIS AOD were carried out over all and over six sub-regions of Arabian Peninsula. The model overestimates the Angstrom Exponent by 0.69 and underestimate AOD by -0.15, but the model AOD is in a good correlation with observation (0.66) over Arabian Peninsula. This makes the model capable of predicting successfully the aerosol annual cycle over Arabian Peninsula. The ECHAM5-HAM model overestimates the Angstom Exponent and underestimates AOD over Arabian Peninsula, but it correlates well with observation. This implys that the model can be improved for regions dominated by dust, and can be effective in studying the various aspects of aerosol interactions in the atmosphere including investigating the direct and indirect enfluence of aerosols on the climate of Arabian Peninsula.

  12. Tectonic controls on the stratigraphic architecture and hydrocarbons systems of the Arabian Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowski, G.J. Jr.; Norton, I.O.

    1995-12-31

    Arabian Platform sediments consist of major sequences separated by tectonically controlled unconformities. These tectonic events, at the plate margins, controlled the orientation and distribution of sedimentary facies on the stable platform. Eustacy and subsidence were the principle controls on the actual facies that formed.

  13. Biological data from a data-deficient shark: the Arabian smoothhound Mustelus mosis (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae).

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M; Henderson, A C; Farrell, E D; Weekes, L B

    2016-06-01

    The present study provides information on length distribution, reproductive biology and diet of Mustelus mosis based on individuals caught in waters off the eastern Arabian Peninsula. Although ageing of vertebral centra was attempted, band pairs were of low clarity and counts could not be confidently assigned.

  14. The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus, a new Indo-Pacific species in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Dalyan, C; Eryilmaz, L

    2009-05-01

    The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea (Iskenderun Bay, Turkey). The presence of this Indo-Pacific fish in the Mediterranean Sea is probably because of migration from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.

  15. Mass sedimentation of the swimming crab Charybdis smithii (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bernd; Boetius, Antje

    During cruise Meteor 33/1 in the northern Arabian Sea in September/October 1995, large numbers of the portunid crab Charybdis smithii were observed swimming in the open ocean. In a photographic survey at three abyssal stations in the northern Arabian Sea (NAST, WAST, CAST), even higher densities of Charybdis smithii - up to 1 crab m -2 - were found dead on the sea floor. Average sizes of the crabs were around 34-44 mm carapace width, indicating that the animals died prematurely, before returning to the breeding grounds presumable on the shelves of India or Oman. The average weight of the crabs was 10-14 g wet weight. From the photographic quantification it can be deduced that these large food falls represent a significant carbon input of at least 10-30% of the annual flux of POC as measured in sediment traps in this region. The exceptionally high microbial chitinase activity in the surface sediment layers detected at the same stations indicates that this energy is utilized and channelled into the deep-sea benthic food web of the deep Arabian Sea. There are frequent observations of dense Charybdis smithii swarms in the Arabian Sea from different years; however, it is not certain whether such large food falls as observed during M 33/1 are regular seasonal events that repeat each year.

  16. Selective brain cooling in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): a physiological mechanism for coping with aridity?

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Strauss, W Maartin; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea; Shobrak, Mohammed; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-11-15

    Selective brain cooling is a thermoregulatory effector proposed to conserve body water and, as such, may help artiodactyls cope with aridity. We measured brain and carotid blood temperature, using implanted data loggers, in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the desert of Saudi Arabia. On average, brain temperature was 0.24±0.05°C lower than carotid blood temperature for four oryx in April. Selective brain cooling was enhanced in our Arabian oryx compared with another species from the same genus (gemsbok Oryx gazella gazella) exposed to similar ambient temperatures but less aridity. Arabian oryx displayed a lower threshold (37.8±0.1°C vs 39.8±0.4°C), a higher frequency (87±6% vs 15±15%) and a higher maximum magnitude (1.2±0.2°C vs 0.5±0.3°C) of selective brain cooling than did gemsbok. The dominant male oryx displayed less selective brain cooling than did any of the other oryx, but selective brain cooling was enhanced in this oryx as conditions became hotter and drier. Enhanced selective brain cooling in Arabian oryx supports the hypothesis that selective brain cooling would bestow survival advantages for artiodactyl species inhabiting hot hyper-arid environments.

  17. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  18. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sabbah, Ismail; Sorribas, Mar; Adame, José Antonio; Cuevas, Emilio; Sharifi, Faisal Al; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR) values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean), frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula) as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr) is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  19. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia.

  20. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction.

  1. Humanities and Social Science Courses in Undergraduate Engineering Curricula: The Case of the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted between the minimum required number of humanities and social science credits for graduation at top-tier undergraduate universities in the US and similar, English-medium universities in the Arabian Gulf. It was found that on average the US universities required students to complete a higher proportion of humanities…

  2. Relationship between Curie isotherm surface and Moho discontinuity in the Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman M.; Saud, Ramzi

    2016-10-01

    The Arabian shield is a Precambrian complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks located approximately one-third of the way across the western Arabian Peninsula, with uncommon exposures along the Red Sea coast. We used aeromagnetic data acquired by others over the past several decades to estimate the depth to the Curie temperature isotherm throughout this region. Our goal was to further understand the lithospheric structure, thermal activity, and seismicity to assist in geothermal exploration. We also compared the Curie temperature isotherm with the crustal thickness to investigate the possibility that mantle rocks are magnetic in some parts of the Arabian shield. Depths to the Curie isotherm were estimated by dividing the regional aeromagnetic grid into 26 overlapping windows. Each window was then used to estimate the shape of the power spectrum. The windows had dimensions of 250 × 250 km to allow investigation of depths as deep as 50 km. The results show the presence of a Curie isotherm at a depth of 10-20 km near the Red Sea, increasing to 35-45 km in the interior of the Arabian shield. The Curie isotherm generally lies above the Moho in this region but deepens into the mantle in some locations, notably beneath the Asir Terrane.

  3. Bilateral occurrence of granulosa-theca cell tumors in an Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Frederico, Lisa M.; Gerard, Mathew P.; Pinto, Carlos R.F.; Gradil, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    An Arabian mare was referred for right granulosa-theca cell tumor (GTCT) evaluation. The mare was presented 4.5 years later for a left GTCT, after successfully conceiving and delivering a normal foal in the interim. The concurrent or nonconcurrent occurrence of bilateral GTCT in mares appears to be rare. PMID:17542368

  4. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  5. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  6. Molecular Assay and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus among Infected Egyptian and Saudi Arabian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed MS; Sofy, Ahmed R; Mousa, Adel A; Ahmed, Mohamed A; Alganzory, Mohamed R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a common cause of liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotyping among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients using different molecular techniques. HCV RNA viral load was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. For HCV genotyping, RT-PCR hybridization fluorescence-based method and reverse hybridization line probe assay (INNO-LiPA) were used. A total of 40 anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic hepatitis C were examined for HCV RNA, genotyping, and different laboratory investigations. In the present study, HCV genotypes 4, mixed 4.1b, and 1 were detected in patients of both countries, while genotype 2 was only detected in Saudi Arabian patients. Genotyping methods for HCV showed no difference in the classification at the genotype level. With regard to HCV subtypes, INNO-LiPA assay was a reliable test in HCV genotyping for the detection of major genotypes and subtypes, while RT-PCR-based assay was a good test at the genotype level only. HCV genotype 4 was found to be the predominant genotype among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. In conclusion, data analysis for detecting and genotyping HCV was an important factor for understanding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of HCV among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. PMID:26512201

  7. Evidence for anomalous mantle upwelling beneath the Arabian Platform from travel time tomography inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Burov, Evgeniy; Cloetingh, Sierd; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Bushenkova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of P-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula, Red Sea, and surrounding regions. This model was computed with the use of travel time data from the global catalogue of the International Seismological Center (ISC) for the years of 1980-2011. The reliability of the model was tested with several synthetic tests. In the resulting seismic model, the Red Sea is clearly associated with a higher P-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle at least down to 300 km depth. This anomaly might be caused by upward deviation of the main mantle interfaces caused by extension and thinning of the lithosphere due to passive rifting. Thick lithosphere of the Arabian Platform is imaged as a high-velocity anomaly down to 200-250 km depth. Below this plate, we observe a low-velocity structure that is interpreted as a hot mantle upwelling. Based on the tomography results, we propose that this upper mantle anomaly may represent hot material that migrates westward and play a major role in the formation of Cenozoic basaltic lava fields in western Arabia. On the northeastern side of the Arabian Plate, we clearly observe a dipping high-velocity zone beneath Zagros and Makran, which is interpreted as a trace of subduction or delamination of the Arabian Plate lithosphere.

  8. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Heather A.; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

  9. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  10. Assessment of the Climate Vulnerabilities of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, T.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula (AP), like many places around the world, is apparently witnessing the impacts (amount, patterns, and frequency of precipitation) of global warming. Precipitation over the AP is largely controlled by two main wind regimes, the winter (October to March) northerlies or northwesterlies, hereafter referred to as westerlies, and the summer (April to September) monsoonal wind regimes. The global monthly Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data (spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal resolution: monthly; operational period: January 1979 to November 2011) was used to investigate the nature and magnitude of precipitation variations over the AP throughout 1979 - 2010. Trends in CMAP-derived precipitation patterns were examined over the winter and summer seasons throughout Periods I (1979-1995) and II (1996-2010). Reversals in precipitation patterns were observed in Periods I and II, where areas witnessing an increase in precipitation in Period I showed a decrease in precipitation throughout Period II, and vice versa for the remaining areas. Our findings suggest: (1) an increase in precipitation during Period I over the southeastern and southwestern coastal areas of AP (e.g., Muscat, Sanaa, and Jeddah) that is probably related to the intensification of the monsoons at the expense of the westerlies, (2) an increase in precipitation during Period II over the northwestern and southeastern of AP (e.g., northwestern Saudi Arabia, Empty Quarter, western and southwestern Oman, and eastern Yemen) is here attributed to intensification of the westerlies, and 3) the general similarity of annual trend patterns to the summer trend (Period I) and to winter trend (Period II) suggest that the annual trends are largely controlled by monsoonal wind regimes in Period I and by the westerlies in Period II. Outputs (i.e., precipitation) of climatic models (CCSM4.0) over the AP are being extracted (for upcoming 100 years) , downscaled

  11. Genetic study of gestation length in Andalusian and Arabian mares.

    PubMed

    Valera, M; Blesa, F; Dos Santos, R; Molina, A

    2006-09-01

    The length of gestation in Andalusian, or Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Arabian (AB) mares reared in Spain was analysed, based on 766 spontaneous full-term deliveries appertaining to 141 mares of SPB breed and 72 mares of AB breed in 31 breeding seasons. The data were obtained from the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera stud farm in Cádiz, Spain. The mean length of gestation was of 336.8+/-0.48 days in the SPB mares and 340.3+/-0.63 days in AB mares. To assess the accurate prediction of time of birth the potential effect of a number of factors was investigated. The influences of the breed, mare, month and year of mating, age of the mother, number of births and sex of the foal were statistically significant. The factor have the greatest influence over the gestation length was the mare itself, with a correlation among consecutive births of around 0.4. The effect of inbreeding, both of the mare and foal, was negligible. Gestation length shortened as the breeding season progressed: in both breeds, a delay of 1 month in mating corresponded to a decrease of 3 days in the gestation length. According to our results, gestation length decrease as the mare gets older, with the shortest gestation periods when the mare is 10-12 years old, and from this point on, it slowly increases. The gestation period shortens as the 4th or 5th birth approaches, and then gets progressively longer. The range of variation in gestation length due to the number of births to the mare is of 2.9 days for the AB mares, and 2.2 days for SPB mares. The heritability for the gestation length for AB and the SPB breeds was 0.2, with a repeatability of 0.36 and 0.37, for SPB and AB breeds, respectively. With the data from both breeds, and using a classical approach, the response to selection was estimated if mares with extreme gestation lengths were culled, i.e. lengths which are under 310 days, or over 360 days. According to our results, in the case of SPB, a decrease of 14-45% would occur in the number

  12. Recent observed climate change over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsarmi, Said; Washington, Richard

    2011-06-01

    We have examined trends in temperature and precipitation parameters for the Arabian Peninsula (AP) during the last 2 to 3 decades. The data set has been carefully quality controlled and checked for homogeneity. Although of low density (21 stations) and relatively short time period, a clear picture of climate change in the region has emerged. The general pattern of the AP mean annual temperature trend is one of warming, with 14 of 21 stations show statistically significant warming at 0.05 level and most at 0.001 level and only one (Seeb) showing statistically significant cooling. The highest statistically significant mean annual warming trends are found in Oman (Sur = 1.03°C decade-1) and Emirates (Dubai = 0.81°C decade-1). The season of maximum warming in mean temperature is March to April. The highest monthly mean temperature trend in the AP occurs in Sur in May (1.47°C decade-1). There is a broad statistically significant increase in mean annual maximum temperature in AP in 12 out of 21 stations, with the highest trends in central and eastern/southeastern AP. Only SW AP and the Gulf of Oman do not show warming. The highest monthly maximum temperature trend in the AP occurs in Bahrain in March (2.27°C decade-1). The second highest significant warming trends are reported in Doha in February (1.54°C decade-1). For minimum temperature, 16 out of 21 stations show statistically significant warming trends, with the highest annual trends observed in the Emirates (Dubai = 1.24°C decade-1), northwest Oman (Sohar = 1.17°C decade-1) and Qatar (Doha = 1.13°C decade-1). The highest monthly minimum temperature warming rate occurred in October. Both Dubai and Kuwait reported the highest significant rate of 2.00°C decade-1. The general mean annual diurnal temperature range trend is negative in the AP, with six out of 21 stations show statistically significant negative trends while three stations show statistically significant positive trends. Trends in mean annual

  13. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saudi Arabian schoolchildren in relation to sources of exposure.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Stark, Christopher; Mohammed, Nuredin; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I; Göen, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contain a number of known carcinogenic compounds, and urinary biomarkers have been widely used as a measure of exposure but quantitative relationships with exposure variables have proved elusive. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between exposures to phenanthrene and pyrene from atmospheric and dietary sources with the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes in urine as biomarkers of exposure. The study population consisted of 204 male schoolchildren attending three schools in different parts of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia who provided urine samples on each of three consecutive days. Outdoor air measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were made at the schools and the children provided information on diet, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and incense, and various lifestyle factors through a questionnaire. Mixed models with random effects for subjects nested within site were fitted in order to examine the relationship between exposure variables and urinary PAH metabolites. A unit increase (1 ng m(-3)) in ambient pyrene (particulate plus gaseous phase) was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI: 1.01%, 5.13%) increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration. A unit increase in ambient phenanthrene was associated with a 1.01% (95% CI: 0.03%, 2.02%) increase in total hydroxyphenanthrene concentrations. Consumption of chargrilled food increased the 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrene concentrations by 24% (95% CI: 11%, 37%) and 17% (95% CI: 8%, 26%) respectively. We did not find evidence of association for environmental tobacco smoke exposure or incense burning. It is concluded that both respiratory exposure and consumption of chargrilled food are considerable sources of PAH exposure in this population as reflected by concentrations of urinary biomarkers.

  14. Clinical, histopathological and metabolic responses following exercise in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Payton, M E; Valberg, S J

    2016-10-01

    A previous report suggests a substantial incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses performing endurance racing. This study compared formalin histopathology and clinical and metabolic responses to a standardised field exercise test (SET) between Arabians with and without ER. Arabian horses with (n = 10; age 15.4 ± 5.6 years) and without (n = 9; 12.9 ± 6.1 years) prior ER were stall-rested for 24-48 h, after which paired ER and control horses were fitted with a telemetric ECG and performed a 47 min submaximal SET. Plasma glucose, lactate, electrolyte and total protein concentrations and packed cell volume were measured before and immediately after exercise. Blood and percutaneous gluteal muscle samples were also obtained before and 3 h after exercise for measurement of plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle glycogen concentration, respectively. Histopathologic analysis of formalin-fixed pre-exercise muscle sections was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and non-parametric tests (P <0.05). No horses displayed clinical signs of ER during exercise, and plasma CK increased similarly in ER and control Arabians. Muscle glycogen, heart rate, and remaining plasma variables did not differ between horses with ER and control horses. Horses with ER had more internalised nuclei in mature myofibers, more aggregates of cytoplasmic glycogen and desmin, and higher myopathic scores than control horses. Although many horses with ER had histopathologic evidence of chronic myopathy, muscle glycogen concentrations and metabolic exercise responses were normal. Results did not support a consistent metabolic myopathy or a glycogen storage disorder in Arabians with ER.

  15. Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Frost, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    New Nd, Sr and O isotopic data for granitoid rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield are presented together with published Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotopic data and all available geologic and geochronologic information to re-evaluate the terranes defined for the Saudi Arabian part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Three groups of terranes are identified: 1) the western arc terranes, 2) the eastern arc terranes, and 3) the Khida terrane. The Khida terrane is the only terrane composed of pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust. The western arc terranes are of oceanic arc affinity, and have the least radiogenic Pb and Sr and most radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and some of the lowest ??18O values of any rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield. Although some previous studies have characterized the eastern arc terranes as of continental affinity, this study shows that they too are composed of Neoproterozoic oceanic arcs, although their sources have slightly elevated 208Pb/204Pb, Nd, Sri, and ??18O values compared to the western arc terranes. These data suggest that either the isotopic composition of the mantle source for the western arc terranes is more depleted than that of the eastern arc terranes or the eastern arc terranes have been mixed with a small amount of cratonic source material, or both. We further elaborate on the Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah fault zone as a major boundary within the Saudi Arabian portion of the East African Orogen. With further study, its northern extension may be shown to pass through what has been defined as the Hail terrane, and its southern extension appears to lie under cover east of the Tathlith-Malahah terrane and extend into Yemen. It may represent the collision zone between East and West Gondwana, and at the very least it is an important suture between groups of arc terranes of contrasting isotopic composition caught between two converging continents.

  16. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea: A 3D ecosystem modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.; Fasham, Michael J. R.; Gorchakov, Victor A.

    2007-12-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecosystem model was used to examine the factors determining the spatio-temporal distribution of denitrification in the Arabian Sea. The ecosystem model includes carbon and nitrogen as currencies, cycling of organic matter via detritus and dissolved organic matter, and both remineralization and denitrification as sinks for material exported below the euphotic zone. Model results captured the marked seasonality in plankton dynamics of the region, with characteristic blooms of chlorophyll in the coastal upwelling regions and central Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon, and also in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon as the mixed layer shoals. Predicted denitrification was 26.2 Tg N yr -1,the greatest seasonal contribution being during the northeast monsoon when primary production is co-located with the zone of anoxia. Detritus was the primary organic substrate consumed in denitrification (97%), with a small (3%) contribution by dissolved organic matter. Denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone was predicted to be fuelled almost entirely by organic matter supplied by particles sinking vertically from the euphotic zone above (0.73 mmol N m -2 d -1) rather than from lateral transport of organic matter from elsewhere in the Arabian Sea (less than 0.01 mmol N m -2 d -1). Analysis of the carbon budget in the zone of denitrification (north of 10°N and east of 55°E) indicates that the modelled vertical export flux of detritus, which is similar in magnitude to estimates from field data based on the 234Th method, is sufficient to account for measured bacterial production below the euphotic zone in the Arabian Sea.

  17. Isostatic Model and Isostatic Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-04-01

    The isostatic modeling represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction, it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Although there exist several isostatic compensation schemes, it is usually supposed that a choice of the model is not an important factor to first order, since the total weight of compensating masses remains the same. We compare two alternative models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which cannot be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also, the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from existing seismic observations. The second isostatic model includes the Moho, which is based on seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). According to this model, the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield is less dense than under the Platform. In the Arabian platform, the maximum density coincides with the Rub' al Khali, one of the richest oil basin in the world. This finding agrees with previous studies, showing that such basins are often underlain by dense mantle, possibly related to an eclogite layer that has caused their subsidence. The mantle density variations might be also a result of variations of the lithosphere thickness. With the combined isostatic model, it is possible to minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies correspond well to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies, showing isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere, are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  18. Comparison of Arabian plate motion using satellite laser ranging and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A. O.; Fernandes, R. M.; Schillak, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Two different space based observations have been used to estimate the velocity of the Arabian plate motion. The first set of observations is using the Saudi Arabia Laser Ranging Observatory (SALRO - 7832), which is situated in the middle of Arabian tectonic plate. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observations of about 20 global SLR stations to LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites collected for 14 years (1996-2009) have been used to determine Riyadh SLR station positions. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The velocities of SALRO were computed in reference to the ITRF2008 terrestrial reference frame. The second set of observations consists of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations of 15 GPS stations acquired in campaign and continuous mode for the period 2003 to 2009 (having at least 3 years' data span). Multi-year processing of stations having at least 3 years' time span and excluding stations within the deformation zone of Red Sea Ridge, such that they are distributed evenly within the rigid (interior) part of the Arabian plate. The Bernese 5.0/ADNEQ2 and GIPSY/OASIS 6.1 software packages were used to compute the daily solutions of coordinate time series applying the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) strategy. The velocities were estimated with respect to ITRF2008 and four estimates of the angular velocities for the Arabian plate have been computed using different datasets: independent Bernese and GIPSY solutions, combination of the GPS solutions only, and including the SLR solution. We present direct comparison between all different solutions showing that the Arabian tectonic plate motion determined from Riyadh SLR data and GPS data are in a good agreement with recent estimates, in particular with the global geodetic model GEODVEL and the geophysical MORVEL model.

  19. Vanadium and nickel content of Nowruz spill tar flakes on the Saudi Arabian coastline and their probable environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

    1984-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf is experiencing the worst oil spill in its history. The spill originates from two war damaged Iranian oil wells in the Nowruz oil field. Much of the oil is entering Saudi Arabian waters and washes ashore in the form of tar like flakes. In late March and early April 1983, fish, snake, turtle, and bird kills of different magnitude were noted along the Saudi Arabian coastline. In the early days of the spill Saudi Arabian authorities suspected sources other than the Nowruz spill to be causing the kills. Research was initiated to identify the origin of tar like flakes, their environmental impact and the cause of fish, snake, turtle and bird kills. This paper discusses some of the results of this research.

  20. Late quaternary time series of Arabian Sea productivity: Global and regional signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, Steven C.; Prell, W. L.; Murray, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Modern annual floral and faunal production in the northwest Arabian Sea derives primarily from upwelling induced by strong southwest winds during June, July, and August. Indian Ocean summer monsoon winds are, in turn, driven by differential heating between the Asian continent and the Indian ocean to the south. This differential heating produces a strong pressure gradient resulting in southwest monsoon winds and both coastal and divergent upwelling off the Arabian Peninsula. Over geologic time scales (10(exp 4) to 10(exp 6) years), monsoon wind strength is sensitive to changes in boundary conditions which influence this pressure gradient. Important boundary conditions include the seasonal distribution of solar radiation, global ice volume, Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, and the elevation and albedo of the Asian continent. To the extent that these factors influence monsoon wind strength, they also influence upwelling and productivity. In addition, however, productivity associated with upwelling can be decoupled from the strength of the summer monsoon winds via ocean mechanisms which serve to inhibit or enhance the nutrient supply in the intermediate waters of the Indian Ocean, the source for upwelled waters in the Arabian Sea. To differentiate productivity associated with wind-induced upwelling from that associated with other components of the system such as nutrient sequestering in glacial-age deep waters, we employ a strategy which monitors independent components of the oceanic and atmospheric subsystems. Using sediment records from the Owen Ridge, northwest Arabian Sea, we monitor the strength of upwelling and productivity using two independent indicators, percent G. bulloides and opal accumulation. We monitor the strength of southwest monsoon winds by measuring the grain-size of lithogenic dust particles blown into the Arabian Sea from the surrounding deserts of the Somali and Arabian Peninsulas. Our current hypothesis is that the variability associated

  1. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    VALBERG, S. J.; McKENZIE, E. C.; EYRICH, L. V.; SHIVERS, J.; BARNES, N. E.; FINNO, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reasons for performing study Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. Objectives To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Study design Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Methods Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann–Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Results Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (P<0.05) pro-ER (12/13) and retro-ER (21/25) horses than controls (4/14). Degenerating myofibres were not evident in any biopsies. Retro-ER horses had amylase-resistant polysaccharide (6/25, P<0.05) and higher scores for cytoplasmic glycogen, rimmed vacuoles and rod-like bodies. A few control horses (3/14) and significantly (P<0.05) more pro-ER (12/13) and retro-ER (18/25) horses had disrupted myofibrillar alignment and large desmin and αβ-crystallin positive cytoplasmic aggregates. Prominent Z-disc degeneration and focal myofibrillar disruption with regional accumulation of β-glycogen particles were identified on electron microscopy of the 2 pro-ER samples. Conclusions In a subset of Arabian horses with intermittent episodes of exertional

  2. 77 FR 61046 - The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka Al-Qa'ida in the South Arabian Peninsula, as...

  3. Viral hemorrhagic fevers in the Tihamah region of the western Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zakham, Fathiah; Al-Habal, Mohammed; Taher, Rola; Alaoui, Altaf; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) refers to a group of diseases characterized by an acute febrile syndrome with hemorrhagic manifestations and high mortality rates caused by several families of viruses that affect humans and animals. These diseases are typically endemic in certain geographical regions and sometimes cause major outbreaks. The history of hemorrhagic fever in the Arabian Peninsula refers to the 19th century and most outbreaks were reported in the Tihamah region-the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula in the west and southwest of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Herein, we describe the agents that cause VHFs and their epidemiology in Tihamah, the history of the diseases, transmission, species affected, and clinical signs. Finally, we address challenges in the diagnosis and control of VHFs in this region.

  4. Estimation of Phytoplankton Responses to Hurricane Gonu over the Arabian Sea Based on Ocean Color Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxiao; Zhao, Hui

    2008-08-21

    In this study the authors investigated phytoplankton variations in the Arabian Sea associated with Hurricane Gonu using remote-sensing data of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST) and winds. Additional data sets used for the study included the hurricane and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data. Hurricane Gonu, presenting extremely powerful wind intensity, originated over the central Arabian Sea (near 67.7ºE, 15.1ºN) on June 2, 2007; it traveled along a northwestward direction and made landfall in Iran around June 7. Before Hurricane Gonu, Chl-a data indicated relatively low phytoplankton biomass (0.05-0.2 mg m(-3)), along with generally high SST (>28.5 ºC) and weak wind (.

  5. Physical and biological response of the Arabian Sea to tropical cyclone Phyan and its implications.

    PubMed

    Byju, P; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2011-06-01

    The response to the tropical cyclone Phyan, which developed in the eastern Arabian Sea during 9-11 November 2009, was rapid cooling of sea surface temperature (SST), enhancement of chlorophyll a and two-fold increase in net primary productivity (NPP). Cooling of SST was immediate in response to the strong wind-mixing, and the subsequent upward Ekman pumping sustained the cooling even after the dissipation of Phyan. The biological response mediated by the upward Ekman pumping driven vertical transport of subsurface nutrient showed a time lag of 3-4 days. The CO₂ flux to the atmosphere associated with Phyan was 0.123 Tg C, which accounted for ~85% of the total out-gassing from the eastern Arabian Sea during November. Thus, an increased occurrence of cyclones in a warming environment will lead to an enhanced biomass production and also increase in CO₂ out-gassing.

  6. Sequential stratigraphy of Jurassic and Cretaceous in the central Saudi Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Le Nindre, Y.M.; Manivit, J.; Vaslet, D. ); Manivit, H. Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris )

    1991-08-01

    Depositional sequences and system tracts in the Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Central Saudi Arabian platform have been established on the basis of precise lithofacies analysis, detailed sedimentologic interpretation, and accurate age determination by ammonites, nautoli, brachipods, echinoids, and nannoflora. A eustatic depositional model integrated with accepted worldwide sequential stratigraphic data is proposed, and appears to correlate fairly well with the 1988 global sea level chart by Haq and others, particularly for the Lower and Middle Jurassic and the Middle and Upper Cretaceous. Ages determined by accurate biostratigraphic data enable time correlations to be made with third-order eustatic cycles from Vail's 1988 global chart. Eustatic changes therefore appear to be the main factors of sedimentary control during the Jurassic and Cretaceous on the Arabian platform.

  7. Geochemical evidence for anoxic deep water in the Arabian Sea during the last glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Sarin, M.M. )

    1993-03-01

    Various paleoceanographic studies have indicated that the deep ocean was probably depleted in dissolved oxygen during the last glacial period ([approximately]18 kyr B.P.; [delta][sup 18]O, stage 2) compared to present time. However, direct evidence of low oxygen content in the deep waters has been lacking. Here, the authors report geochemical evidence of near anoxic conditions in the deep Arabian Sea during the entire last glacial cycle ([delta][sup 18]O; stages 2, 3, and 4). Anoxia is inferred from the concomitant enrichment of organic carbon and authigenic uranium in the glacial sections of a core from the deep eastern Arabian Sea. The anoxic conditions during the last glacial period, probably caused by a change in deep water circulation, evidently enhanced preservation of organic matter and simultaneous removal of uranium from seawater. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. An overview of historical harmful algae blooms outbreaks in the Arabian Seas.

    PubMed

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-09-15

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs), often composed of oceanic plants called phytoplankton, are potentially harmful to the marine life, water quality, human health, and desalination plants, a chief source of potable water in the Arabian Gulf. The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the frequency of HAB outbreaks in the Arabian Seas. This increase is mainly caused by the unprecedented economic growth in the region. The increased human activities in the region have added more stress to the marine environment and contributed to the changes observed in the properties of the marine ecosystem: high temperature and salinity, high evaporation rates, limited freshwater inflow, shallow nature, pollution. However, very few studies that cover the HAB outbreaks, causes, impacts and biological characteristics over the region have been published. This work presents a comprehensive overview of historical HAB outbreaks recorded in the region, and investigate their causes and impact, and seasonal variability.

  9. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles.

  10. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity.

  11. The phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon of 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, John C.; Mcclain, Charles R.; Luther, Mark E.; Hay, William W.

    1991-01-01

    The present study investigates the biological variability of the northwestern Arabian Sea during the 1979 southwest monsoon by the synthesis of satellite ocean color remote sensing with an analysis of in situ hydrographic and meteorological data sets and the results of wind-driven modeling of upper-ocean circulation. The phytoplankton bloom peaked during August-September, extended from the Oman coast to about 65 deg E, and lagged behind the development of open-sea upwelling by at least 1 mo. The pigment distributions, hydrographic data, and model results all suggest that the boom was driven by spatially distinct upward nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone forced by the physical processes of coastal upwelling and offshore Ekman pumping. Coastal upwelling was evident from May through September, yielded the most extreme concentrations of phytoplankton biomass, and, along the Arabian coast, was limited to the continental shelf in the promotion of high concentrations of phytoplankton.

  12. Arabian Peninsula and northeast Africa as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of the earth, looking southeast. Saudia Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean.

  13. The Butana Region of Central Sudan: Sahara Craton or Arabian-Nubian Shield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Butana region lies 250 km south east of Khartoum and is one of the few exposures of Proterozoic basement in Central Sudan. The area is characterized by a flat surface and isolated basement exposures. Various authors have allocated the region to part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or to part of the reworked Sahara Craton. Although the area is indeed located in the rough region of this transition, little information exists on the details of the basement geology in Butana. Field work indicates that the geology of the study area is similar to the other parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area consists of low-grade metavolcanic rocks (arc assemblage), pre- and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions. In particular the presence of serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbro and high-grade metamorphic rocks may identify it as part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The main metamorphic foliation trend in the low-grade rocks is northeast-southwest with steep foliation plains and sub-horizontal lineation. In the high-grade rocks, at least three deformation phases were observed in the field. D1 associates with northeast-southwest foliation planes and D2 associates with high temperature folding mechanism which gave the high-grade rocks domal pattern. While D3 is a faulting phase with brittle features. The peak metamorphism most probably occurred after the D2 as indicated by the migmatic features. Geochronological work is in progress in order to identify uniquely if the region should be allocated to the Arabian-Nubian Shield or the Sahara Craton.

  14. The Saudi Arabian Quandary: The Economy’s Inability to Sustain Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    ODTÜ Gelişme Dergisi, 31 (Haziran), 2004, The Saudi Arabian quandary: The economy’s inability to sustain growth Robert Looney Naval...and stagnation. The economy appeared incapable of sustaining growth without a rising infusion of oil revenues. The purpose of this paper is to...government gave to social expenditures and defense. The implications are that if the economy is to achieve self- sustained growth independent of

  15. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  16. The history of the Arabian platform evolution in the Late Permian and Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1995-03-01

    On the basis of comprehensive investigations of the Upper Permian and Triassic sequences of the Arabian platform, three stages were recognized, corresponding to distinct time intervals. The first stage corresponds to the Latest Permian-Early Triassic, the second - to the Early-Middle Triassic, the third - to the Late Triassic. Special maps were plotted for the second and third stages, reflecting major paleogeographic and paleotectonic events. An effort was made to test the oil potential of the sequences.

  17. Role of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes in juvenile idiopathic epilepsy in Arabian foals.

    PubMed

    Lichter-Peled, Anat; Polani, Sagi; Stanyon, Roscoe; Rocchi, Mariano; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila

    2013-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy (JIE) in Arabian foals resembles benign-familial neonatal convulsion (BFNC) syndrome, a rare idiopathic epilepsy of new-born humans. BFNC syndrome exhibits genetic heterogeneity, as has been hypothesised to occur in Arabian foals, and is known to be caused by mutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes. The close phenotypic characteristics of both Arabian foals and children suggest these epileptic syndromes are caused by the same genetic disorder. In horses, the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes are located on the terminal region of chromosomes 22 and 9, respectively, essentially homologous to their location on chromosomes 20q13.3 and 8q24 in humans. Gene trees for the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes between horses and other mammals, particularly humans and mice, were constructed and compared to widely accepted mammalian phylogenetic trees. The KCNQ2 gene tree exhibited close clustering between horses and humans, relative to horses and mice, in contrast to the evolutionary trees of other mammals. Distance values between the horse and human groups were lower as opposed to those found between the horse and mouse groups. The similarity between the horse and the human, especially for the KCNQ2 gene, where the majority of mutations causing BFNC have been found, supports the hypothesis of similar heritable and genetic patterns of the disease in both species and suggests that contrary to the classic mouse-model concept, humans may be a more suitable model for the study of JIE in Arabian foals.

  18. Plate kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottenberg, Helen Carrie

    This work utilizes the Four-Dimensional Plates (4DPlates) software, and Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) to examine plate-scale, regional-scale and local-scale kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression in Ethiopia. First, the 4DPlates is used to restore the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Afar Depression and the Main Ethiopian Rift to development of a new model that adopts two poles of rotation for Arabia. Second, the 4DPlates is used to model regional-scale and local-scale kinematics within the Afar Depression. Most plate reconstruction models of the Afro-Arabian Rift System relies on considering the Afar Depression as a typical rift-rift-rift triple junction where the Arabian, Somali and Nubian (African) plates are separating by the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian Rift suggesting the presence of "sharp and rigid" plate boundaries. However, at the regional-scale the Afar kinematics are more complex due to stepping of the Red Sea propagator and the Gulf of Aden propagator onto Afar as well as the presence of the Danakil, Ali Sabieh and East Central Block "micro-plates". This study incorporates the motion of these micro-plates into the regional-scale model and defined the plate boundary between the Arabian and the African plates within Afar as likely a diffused zone of extensional strain within the East Central Block. Third, DInSAR technology is used to create ascending and descending differential interferograms from the Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-Band data for the East Central Block to image active crustal deformation related to extensional tectonics and volcanism. Results of the DInSAR study indicate no strong strain localization but rather a diffused pattern of deformation across the entire East Central Block.

  19. A Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Model of the Arabian Plate, Iranian and Turkish Plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalib, Hafidh; Gritto, Roland; Sibol, Matthew; Herrmann, Robert; Aleqabi, Ghassan; Carron, Pierre; Wagner, Robert; Ali, Bakir; Ali, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Translational and rotational interaction between the Arabian, African and Eurasian plates over time has resulted in a challenging seismotectonic framework that is least understood in the Middle East region, in particular. Sea floor spreading along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, transform faulting along the Dead Sea and Own fracture zone, and compressional suture zones form the seismic and tectonic boundaries between the Arabian plate, the Iranian and Turkish plateaus. One objective of this effort is to map the three-dimensional shear-wave velocity variation using surface waves recorded by the broadband stations of North Iraq Seismographic Network (NISN), re-established Iraq Seismographic Network (ISN), and local stations of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN). Analysis of the seismograms netted a new seismicity map for the region consisting of about 2000 well located small to medium size earthquakes using all available phase arrivals including those published by the neighboring Syrian, Iranian and Turkish networks. Analysis of Rayleigh wave pure-path dispersion curves produced detailed maps showing the lateral and vertical variation of seismic velocities throughout the Middle East. These maps show a thick (10-15km) sedimentary layer that overlay the crystalline basement and a Conrad and Moho discontinuities at depths of 20-25km and 45-55km, respectively. The maps also show that the Arabian plate exhibits higher shear-wave velocities than found across the Turkish and Iranian plateaus; imprint of the Zagros Mountain roots extends down as deep as the Moho; and that the tectonic boundaries along the Dead Sea, Taurus and Zagros are more pronounced with depth describing a 60km or thicker Arabian plate. Future plans involving body wave velocity tomography modeling, high frequency wave attenuation, and moment tensor analysis to estimate the focal mechanism and magnitude of events are in preparation.

  20. Deglacial temperature patterns in the Arabian Sea and mechanisms for Indian monsoon failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.; Pausata, F. S. R.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Both paleoclimate data and climate model simulations demonstrate that the Indian monsoon system responds to remote coolings in the North Atlantic. The textbook examples are the stadial events associated with the last deglaciation — the Younger Dryas and Heinrich Stadial 1 — when the monsoon weakened dramatically and caused drying throughout the Indian Ocean rim. The mechanism by which the North Atlantic influences the monsoon system is not completely clear: locally cool SSTs, increases in continental albedo, and southward migration of the intertropical convergence zone have all been raised as possibilities. Here we synthesize biomarker and foraminiferal estimates of temperature to study the evolution of the Arabian Sea water column during the deglaciation and test hypotheses of monsoon failure during stadials. Alkenone and Mg/Ca data clearly indicate that the Arabian Sea cools during the YD and H1, although H1 cooling is partly obscured by the overall warming trend associated with orbital forcing and rising greenhouse gases. In contrast, TEX86 data record warmings during the YD and H1. The stark difference between the TEX86 response and the alkenone and foraminiferal data, as well as comparison with climate model simulations, indicates that TEX86 is most likely acting as a subsurface temperature proxy in the Arabian Sea over these timescales. Taken together, the paleoclimate data describe a pattern of surface cooling and subsurface warming in response to North Atlantic cooling. This oceanographic response is in excellent agreement with both timeslice and transient model simulations spanning the last deglaciation, and strongly supports the hypothesis that locally cool SSTs are a requisite for monsoon failure. Furthermore, subsurface warming causes a destratification of the Arabian Sea water column and provides a mechanism for previously observed reductions in productivity during stadial events.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of Arabian-Iranian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Klemme, H.D.; Coury, A.B.; Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Undiscovered, conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin are estimated at probability levels of 95%, 5%, and statistical mean. Estimates for oil are 72, 337, and 174 billion bbl; for gas, they are 299, 1, 792, and 849 tcf. Petroleum occurrences can be accounted for in five definitive geologic settings of plays. Undiscovered resource potential is assessed, assuming that new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays. The five plays listed in sequence are: (1) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (2) Lower and middle Cretaceous sandstone, (3) Lower and middle Cretaceous limestone, (4) Jurassic, and (5) Permian. The Permian play is located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extends northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub'al Khali in Saudi Arabia. It accounts for more than four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil. The Lower and middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the heat of the Arabian Gulf, with significant potential extending northwest into Iraq. This play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil. The Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros foldbelt of Iran and Iraq, and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil.

  2. Monsoon Variability in the Arabian Sea from Global 0.08 deg HYCOM Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Monsoon Variability in the Arabian Sea from Global 0.08...the sequence of events leading up to the early reversal of the western boundary current (WBC) circulation, we are using an existing forced global ...hybrid vertical coordinate system. The model simulation was forced with 0.5° Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction (NOGAPS) fluxes for

  3. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-20

    zone . The crustal models correlate well with geologic and tectonic features. The upper mantle tomograms show the images of the subducted Neotethys...Zhao, D., A. Hasegawa, H. Kanamori (1994). Deep structure of Japan subduction zone as derived from local, regional and teleseismic events, J. Geophys...AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2010-1043 Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas M. Nafi Toksöz Robert D. Van

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Klemme, H.D.; Coury, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels); 72,337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub'al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil. 5 references, 16 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Tectonic and depositional model of the Arabian and adjoining plates during the Silurian-Devonian

    SciTech Connect

    Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-01-01

    During the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian, the western part of the Arabian Peninsula was covered by polar glaciers that advanced from the south pole in African Gondwana. During this period, nondeposition, erosion, or marginal marine conditions prevailed in eastern and northern Arabia. When the glaciers melted in the Early Silurian, sea level rose sharply and the paleo-Tethys Ocean transgressed the Arabian and adjoining plates depositing a thick, organic-rich shale directly over the glaciogenic and periglacial rocks and related unconformities. The post-glacial sequence coarsens upward reflecting the passage of a coastline prograding northward from African and Arabian Gondwana to northern Arabia. A sea level drop in the Late Silurian placed the study area in a terrestrial environment; however, as sea level recovered in the Early Devonian, a carbonate sequence blanketed most of the area. The transgression, however, was interrupted by regional uplift and local orogenic movements in the Middle and Late Devonian. These movements constitute the onset of Hercynian tectonism, which resulted in erosion of the older sequences, depositional hiatuses, and regional facies changes.

  6. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Lüke, Claudia; Speth, Daan R; Kox, Martine A R; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria.

  7. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region.

  8. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Pomilla, Cristina; Amaral, Ana R; Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List.

  9. Biomass of zooplankton estimated by acoustical sensors in the Arabian sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, D.V.

    1996-11-22

    The long term goal of our overall research program is the development of data-based models to predict ecological relationships of zooplankton, phytoplankton and the physical environment in the sea. The overall objective of the work carried out within the scope of this particular contract was to acoustically measure the dynamics of zooplankton and micronekton in the northern Arabian Sea during several seasons. The scientific focus was to examine the impact, if any, of the two annual monsoons that are thought to drive the ecosystem response in the area. This particular project involved the design and construction of two sensors which were then deployed in the Arabian Sea by several of our co-PIVs in the ONR ARI on Forced Upper Ocean Dynamics during the time period in which the JGOFS program also focused their efforts on the northern Arabian Sea. This contract involved only the development, calibration and maintenance of the instrumentation. The data processing, other than that which has been necessary for the purposes of quality assurance, was not induded in our original proposal.

  10. Carbonate-evaporite sequences of the late Jurassic, southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Whittle, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The carbonate-evaporite sequences of the Upper Jurassic Arab and overlying Hith formations in the southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf form many supergiant and giant fields that produce from the Arab Formation and are excellent examples of a classic reservoir/seal relationship. The present-day sabkha depositional setting that extends along most of the southern and southwestern coasts of the Arabian Gulf provides an analog to these Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks. In fact, sabkha-related diagenesis of original grain-supported sediments in the Arab and Hith formations has resulted in five distinct lithofacies that characterize the reservoir/seal relationship: (1) oolitic/peloidal grainstone, (2) dolomitic grainstone, (3) dolomitic mudstone, (4) dolomitized grainstone, and (5) massive anhydrite. Interparticle porosity in grainstones and dolomitic grainstones and intercrystalline porosity in dolomitized rocks provide the highest porosity in the study area. These sediments accumulated in four types of depositional settings: (1) supratidal sabkhas, (2) intertidal mud flats and stromatolitic flats, (3) shallow subtidal lagoons, and (4) shallow open-marine shelves. The diagenetic history of the Arab and Hith formations in the southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf suggests that the anhydrite and much of the dolomitization are a result of penecontemporaneous sabkha diagenesis. The character and timing of the paragenetic events are responsible for the excellent porosity of the Arab Formation and the lack of porosity in the massive anhydrites of the Hith, which together result in the prolific hydrocarbon sequences of these formations.

  11. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  12. First evidence of denitrification vis-à-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since Late Miocene.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shubham; Tiwari, Manish; Lee, Jongmin; Khim, Boo-Keun

    2017-02-21

    In the Arabian Sea, South Asian monsoon (SAM)-induced high surface water productivity coupled with poor ventilation of intermediate water results in strong denitrification within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Despite the significance of denitrification in the Arabian Sea, we have no long-term record of its evolution spanning the past several million years. Here, we present the first record of denitrification evolution since Late Miocene (~10.2 Ma) in the Eastern Arabian Sea, where the SAM generates moderate surface water productivity, based on the samples retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355. We find that (i) the SAM was persistently weaker from ~10.2 to 3.1 Ma; it did not intensify at ~8 Ma in contrast to a few previous studies, (ii) on tectonic timescale, both the SAM and the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) varied synchronously, (iii) the first evidence of denitrification and productivity/SAM intensification was at ~3.2-2.8 Ma that coincided with Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP), and (iv) the modern strength of the OMZ where denitrification is a permanent feature was attained at ~1.0 Ma.

  13. Application of mitochondrial genes sequences for measuring the genetic diversity of Arabian oryx.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Shobrak, Mohammad; Homaidan, Ali A Al; Farhan, Ahmad H Al; Sadoon, Mohammad Al

    2011-01-01

    Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) had faced extinction in the wild more than three decades ago and was saved by the prudent efforts of captive breeding programs. A clear understanding of the molecular diversity of contemporary Arabian oryx population is important for the long term success of captive breeding and reintroduction of this potentially endangered species. We have sequenced the segments of mitochondrial DNA including12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and control region (CR) genes of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced animals. Although the sequences of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and Cyt-b were found to be identical for all the samples, typical sequence variations in the CR gene were observed in the form of 7 haplotypes. One of these haplotypes has been reported earlier while the remaining 6 haplotypes are novel and represent different lineages from the founders. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities were found to be 0.789 and 0.009 respectively. The genetic distances among the 7 mtDNA haplotypes varied from 0.001 to 0.017. These findings are of potential relevance to the management of captive breeding programs for the conservation of Arabian oryx.

  14. Measuring the genetic diversity of Arabian Oryx using microsatellite markers: implication for captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A; Shobrak, Mohammad; Homaidan, Ali A Al; Sadoon, Mohammad Al; Farhan, Ahmad H Al

    2010-04-01

    Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) is an endangered antelope that is being protected by captive breeding programs. However, the long term success of these programs mainly depends on the prudent use of molecular information for conservation management. We have used an array of seven microsatellite loci to examine the molecular diversity in a representative population of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced Arabian oryx. The locus-wise mean observed heterozygosity (0.601) was found to be comparatively higher than the mean expected heterozygosity (0.565). The specimen-wise observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.143 to 1.00 with an average of 0.60 whereas the mean d(2) varied from 0.57 to 1023.428 with an average value of 223.357. The results of Shannon information index (I = 0.898) also indicated a high level of within population genetic diversity. The average gene flow was 0.298, ranging between 0.204 and 0.424 for different loci. In conclusion, the information about the extent of heterozygosity, allelic diversity and inbreeding/outbreeding depression using microsatellite markers could be of potential relevance for the management of captive breeding programs for the conservation of Arabian oryx.

  15. Kinematic evolution of the southwestern Arabian continental margin: implications for the origin of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voggenreiter, W.; Hötzl, H.

    The tectonic and magnetic evolution of the Jizan coastal plain (Tihama Asir) in southwest Arabia was dominated by SW-NE lithospheric extension related to the development of the Red Sea Rift. A well-exposed, isotopically-dated succession of magmatic rocks (Jizan Group volcanics, Tihama Asir Magmatic Complex) allows a kinematic analysis for this part of the Arabian Red Sea margin. A mafic dyke swarm and several generations of roughly NW-trending normal faults characterized the continental rift stage from Oligocene to early Miocene time. Major uplift of the Arabian graben shoulder probably began about 14 Ma ago. By this time, extension and magmatism ceased in the Jizan area and were followed by an approximately 10 Ma interval of tectonic and magmatic quiescence. A second phase of extension began in the Pliocene and facilitated a vast outpouring of alkaliolivine basalts on the coastal plain. The geometry of faulting in the Jizan area supports a Wernicke-type simple-shear mechanism of continental rifting for the southern Arabian continental margin of the Red Sea.

  16. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Kox, Martine A.R.; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria. PMID:27077014

  17. A new view on dam lines in Polish Arabian horses based on mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Głazewska, Iwona; Wysocka, Anna; Gralak, Barbara; Sell, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Polish Arabian horses are one of the oldest and the most important Arab populations in the world. The Polish Arabian Stud Book and the Genealogical Charts by Skorkowski are the main sources of information on the ancestors of Polish Arabs. Both publications were viewed as credible sources of information until the 1990s when the data regarding one of the dam lines was questioned. The aim of the current study was to check the accuracy of the pedigree data of Polish dam lines using mtDNA analysis. The analyses of a 458 bp mtDNA D-loop fragment from representatives of 15 Polish Arabian dam lines revealed 14 distinct haplotypes. The results were inconsistent with pedigree data in the case of two lines. A detailed analysis of the historical sources was performed to explain these discrepancies. Our study revealed that representatives of different lines shared the same haplotypes. We also noted a genetic identity between some lines founded by Polish mares of unknown origin and lines established by desert-bred mares.

  18. Whole-genome scan for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, A; Spötter, A; Blazyczek, I; Diesterbeck, U; Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Distl, O

    2009-12-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary disease in foals of several breeds, including thoroughbreds, Arabian, Quarter and warmblood horses. We performed a whole-genome scan for GPT in 143 horses from five Arabian and five German warmblood families and genotyped 257 microsatellites. Chromosome-wide significant linkage was detected on ECA2 and ECA15 using multipoint non-parametric linkage analyses. Analyses stratified by sex revealed chromosome-wide significant linkage on ECA2 for fillies and chromosome-wide significant linkage on ECA15 for colts. For Arabian colts, the quantitative trait locus (QTL) on ECA15 was genome-wide significant. Haplotypes including two to four microsatellites within the QTL on ECA2 and 15 in fillies and colts, respectively, were significantly associated with GPT for both breeds. Thus, our analysis indicated sex-specific QTL, a fact which is in agreement with a two- to fourfold higher incidence of GPT in females. This is the first report of QTL for equine GPT and a first step towards identifying genes responsible for GPT.

  19. A Numerical Study of Circulation and Water Exchange in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Muchamad Al; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-04-01

    Ocean circulation and water mass variability in semi-enclosed and marginal sea of the Arabian Gulf are numerically simulated using a three-dimensional model of Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model is forced by relatively high-frequency of atmospheric forcing and tides. The numerical simulations are compared with a set data of moored and spatially distributed measurements of temperature, salinity, current velocity, and sea-surface height. The model results generally agree well with temporal variation of the observed current velocity during spring and neap tide, as well as seasonal variation of temperature and salinity in surface and sub-surface depths. Seasonal variability of water mass and circulation in the Arabian Gulf affected by the propagation of Indian Ocean Surface Water to the Arabian Gulf, air-sea heat fluxes, and mesoscale eddy activities are discussed. Sensitivity study using different source of atmospheric data for forcing of the model, as well as climatology data and global ocean model for specifying values in open boundaries of the model are conducted towards implementation of the model operationally. Further development of the model by coupling it with atmospheric model most likely will increase the skill of the model and provide better understanding on how the complex air-sea interaction affecting circulation and water mass exchange in this region.

  20. Trace elements in fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab river, Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Abaychi, J.; Al-Saad, H.T.

    1988-02-01

    In the Arabian Gulf region, recently, vast industrial, agricultural, economic and social developments have taken place, in addition to an increase in population. This may enhance the magnitude of environmental pollution year by year. No detailed study has been undertaken to assess the concentrations of trace elements in commercial species of fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab River, despite the fact that fish are considered an essential part of the diet in the region. Therefore, an investigation was carried out on the concentration of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in the following fish species from the Arabian Gulf: Tylosurus strongylurus, Eleutheoronema tetradactum, Pomadasys arel, Platycephalus indicus, Ilisha elongata, Thryssa hamiltonii, Arius thalassinus, Acanthophagrus luteus, Johnieops sina, Liza dussumeiri, Hilsa ilisha, Nematolosa nasus and Otoliths argenteus, and on species from the Shatt al-Arab River: Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi, Barbus xanthopterus, Barbus scheich, Aspius vorax, Cyprinus carpio, and Barbus grypus. Trace element levels in sediment samples from the area were also determined since sediments can accumulate different elements and may reflect the extent of pollution by these elements.

  1. Acidification in Arabian Gulf--insights from pH and temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Gevao, B; Al-Ghadban, A N; Nithyanandan, M; Al-Shamroukh, D

    2012-05-01

    The detrimental effects of increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and other greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution has led to a concerted international effort to control their release and abate the environmental and human health impacts. CO(2) is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis of plants in the terrestrial environment and by aquatic sequestration. In the Middle East and other arid countries, terrestrial removal is minimal. The most likely removal pathway for CO(2) in arid regions around the world is by aquatic sequestration. In the Middle East the major sink is the Arabian Gulf which leads to acidification of the marine environment. Biweekly pH concentration measurements in surface waters of the northern Arabian Gulf over a four year period in this study suggest that the Arabian Gulf waters are becoming increasingly acidic with time. Supporting evidence for increased CO(2) sequestration comes from increased marine primary productivity over the past decade. Biological effects, such as coral bleaching, observed during this period suggest that urgent action is required to reverse the trend and protect marine life. The data highlight the fact that this semi-enclosed sea is undergoing a rapid degradation which may affect the oceanic chemistry and biogeochemical cycle much earlier than predicted for most oceanic waters.

  2. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region. PMID:26120422

  3. First evidence of denitrification vis-à-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since Late Miocene

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shubham; Tiwari, Manish; Lee, Jongmin; Khim, Boo-Keun; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Clift, Peter D.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Andò, Sergio; Bendle, James A.P.; Aharonovich, Sophia; Griffith, Elizabeth M.; Gurumurthy, Gundiga P.; Hahn, Annette; Iwai, Masao; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, A. Ganesh; Liddy, Hannah M.; Lu, Huayu; Lyle, Mitchell W.; Mishra, Ravi; Radhakrishna, Tallavajhala; Routledge, Claire M.; Saraswat, Rajeev; Saxena, Rakesh; Scardia, Giancarlo; Sharma, Girish K.; Singh, Arun D.; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Tauxe, Lisa; Xu, Zhaokai; Yu, Zhaojie

    2017-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, South Asian monsoon (SAM)-induced high surface water productivity coupled with poor ventilation of intermediate water results in strong denitrification within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Despite the significance of denitrification in the Arabian Sea, we have no long-term record of its evolution spanning the past several million years. Here, we present the first record of denitrification evolution since Late Miocene (~10.2 Ma) in the Eastern Arabian Sea, where the SAM generates moderate surface water productivity, based on the samples retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355. We find that (i) the SAM was persistently weaker from ~10.2 to 3.1 Ma; it did not intensify at ~8 Ma in contrast to a few previous studies, (ii) on tectonic timescale, both the SAM and the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) varied synchronously, (iii) the first evidence of denitrification and productivity/SAM intensification was at ~3.2–2.8 Ma that coincided with Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP), and (iv) the modern strength of the OMZ where denitrification is a permanent feature was attained at ~1.0 Ma. PMID:28220851

  4. Regime shift in Arabian dust activity, triggered by persistent Fertile Crescent drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Michael; Yu, Yan; Kalashnikova, Olga V.

    2015-10-01

    The Arabian Peninsula has experienced pronounced interannual to decadal variability in dust activity, including an abrupt regime shift around 2006 from an inactive dust period during 1998-2005 to an active period during 2007-2013. Corresponding in time to the onset of this regime shift, the climate state transitioned into a combined La Niña and negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which incited a hiatus in global warming in the 2000s. Superimposed upon a long-term regional drying trend, synergistic interactions between these teleconnection modes triggered the establishment of a devastating and prolonged drought, which engulfed the Fertile Crescent, namely, Iraq and Syria, and led to crop failure and civil unrest. Dried soils and diminished vegetation cover in the Fertile Crescent, as evident through remotely sensed enhanced vegetation indices, supported greater dust generation and transport to the Arabian Peninsula in 2007-2013, as identified both in increased dust days observed at weather stations and enhanced remotely sensed aerosol optical depth. According to backward trajectory analysis of dust days on the Arabian Peninsula, increased dust lifting and atmospheric dust concentration in the Fertile Crescent during this recent, prolonged drought episode supported a greater frequency of dust events across the peninsula with associated northerly trajectories and led to the dust regime shift. These findings are particularly concerning, considering projections of warming and drying for the eastern Mediterranean region and potential collapse of the Fertile Crescent during this century.

  5. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian Monsoon revisited in a high resolution ocean simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xing; Hünicke, Birgit; Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo

    2017-03-01

    Studies based on sediment records, sea-surface temperature and wind suggest that upwelling along the western coast of Arabian Sea is strongly affected by the Indian summer Monsoon. We examine this relationship directly in an eddy-resolving global ocean simulation STORM driven by atmospheric reanalysis over the last 61 years. With its very high spatial resolution (10 km), STORM allows us to identify characteristics of the upwelling system. We analyse the co-variability between upwelling and meteorological and oceanic variables from 1950 to 2010. The analysis reveals high interannual correlations between coastal upwelling and along-shore wind-stress (r = 0.73) as well as with sea-surface temperature (r = -0.83). However, the correlation between the upwelling and the Monsoon is small. We find an atmospheric circulation pattern different from the one that drives the Monsoon as the main modulator of the upwelling variability. In spite of this, the patterns of temperature anomalies that are either linked to Arabian Sea upwelling or to the Monsoon are spatially quite similar, although the physical mechanisms of these links are different. In addition, no long-term trend is detected in our modelled upwelling in the Arabian Sea.

  6. First evidence of denitrification vis-à-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Shubham; Tiwari, Manish; Lee, Jongmin; Khim, Boo-Keun; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Clift, Peter D.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Andò, Sergio; Bendle, James A. P.; Aharonovich, Sophia; Griffith, Elizabeth M.; Gurumurthy, Gundiga P.; Hahn, Annette; Iwai, Masao; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, A. Ganesh; Liddy, Hannah M.; Lu, Huayu; Lyle, Mitchell W.; Mishra, Ravi; Radhakrishna, Tallavajhala; Routledge, Claire M.; Saraswat, Rajeev; Saxena, Rakesh; Scardia, Giancarlo; Sharma, Girish K.; Singh, Arun D.; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Tauxe, Lisa; Xu, Zhaokai; Yu, Zhaojie

    2017-02-01

    In the Arabian Sea, South Asian monsoon (SAM)-induced high surface water productivity coupled with poor ventilation of intermediate water results in strong denitrification within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Despite the significance of denitrification in the Arabian Sea, we have no long-term record of its evolution spanning the past several million years. Here, we present the first record of denitrification evolution since Late Miocene (~10.2 Ma) in the Eastern Arabian Sea, where the SAM generates moderate surface water productivity, based on the samples retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355. We find that (i) the SAM was persistently weaker from ~10.2 to 3.1 Ma it did not intensify at ~8 Ma in contrast to a few previous studies, (ii) on tectonic timescale, both the SAM and the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) varied synchronously, (iii) the first evidence of denitrification and productivity/SAM intensification was at ~3.2–2.8 Ma that coincided with Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP), and (iv) the modern strength of the OMZ where denitrification is a permanent feature was attained at ~1.0 Ma.

  7. Oil and development in the Arabian Gulf: A selected annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    This past decade has witnessed a vast proliferation of literature on the Arabian Gulf region. In this book the author provides a systematic guide to the literature in order to assist those conducting research on the area. The author is primarily concerned with the national, regional and international role of Arabian Gulf oil between 1973 and 1983. He includes more general sources, however, if they are partly devoted to the subject or if they provide information essential to the understanding of the particular economic systems or the place of Arabian Gulf oil within the world energy situation. Sources of a technical nature have been excluded, such as those dealing with the science and technology of Arab oil. The main languages of the material selected for inclusion are English and Arabic, with French, German, Italian, and Spanish sources in smaller number. The Arabic sources are appended separately after the Western language sections in each chapter. The sources of information cited include books, monographs, articles, journals, theses, annual reports, directories, government documents, and various unpublished papers and documents.

  8. Red cell parameters in infant and children from the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Mekaini, Lolowa A Al; Denic, Srdjan; Jabri, Omar N Al; Narchi, Hassib; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Al-Hammadi, Suleiman

    2015-01-01

    α+-Thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia are frequent causes of microcytosis and a common diagnostic challenge in Arabian children. In this study, their prevalences and effects on the red cell parameters were evaluated in 28,457 children aged one day to 6 years. α+-Thalassemia trait was considered to be present when mean cell volume (MCV) was <94 fL at birth and iron deficiency anemia when red cell distribution width (RDW) was >14.5%. The prevalence of α+-thalassemia trait was 15.7% (502/3,191), which was similar to previously reported values for adults (9-14%). Iron deficiency anemia peaked at 7 months (53%) and then declined at a rate of 8% per year. The nadirs of red blood cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) occurred at two months of age (physiological anemia). Subsequently, Hb increased at a rate similar to that of MCV, demonstrating the two processes are coupled. The third percentile MCV in children older than 3 months was ≤64 fL, which was significantly lower than that in European children. The third percentile Hb, on the other hand, was similar to that in European children. Thus, α+-thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia are exceptionally frequent in Arabian children and their red cell indices are considerably different from European-based norms. Careful interpretation of red cell parameters is required for the evaluation of microcytic anemia in Arabian children.

  9. Shear-Wave Splitting Beneath the Arabian Shield and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. E.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Red Sea Rift zone is composed of distinct geologic provinces in close proximity to one another resulting from the rifting and rotation of the African plate relative to the Arabian plate. Since the rift zone is a prototype of a newly formed oceanic basin, understanding of its geodynamic framework will provide important constraints on how seafloor spreading initiates and how continental rifting evolves. Our goal is to extend previous studies of this complex tectonic environment to generate a more complete characterization of the lithospheric structure in the Red Sea region. As part of this work, shear-wave splitting analysis, following the method of Silver and Chan (1991), has been employed to measure seismic anisotropy near the Red Sea Rift. This allows us to compare the anisotropic signature obtained with different candidate models of continental rifting to investigate mantle deformation and rifting mechanics. Data for our study comes from both the eight stations of the PASSCAL Saudi Arabia Broadband Array, which operated from November 1995 to March 1997, as well as the 25 broadband stations of the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN). Data from the SANDSN are uniquely available to us through collaboration with the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. Splitting parameters, including fast polarization directions and delay times, have been determined for S, SKS, and other core refracted phases recorded at the Saudi Arabian stations. Stations along the eastern margin of the Red Sea display little variation with back azimuth and generally indicate a rift-parallel fast polarization direction. This is consistent with a single anisotropic layer model with hexagonal symmetry and a horizontally oriented fast axis. However, stations extending into the central region of the Arabian Peninsula display more pronounced back azimuth dependence. This may be associated with either lateral variations across the study area or with more complicated

  10. Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemence, Caulle; Meryem, Mojtahid; Karoliina, Koho; Andy, Gooday; Gert-Jan, Reichart; Gerhard, Schmiedl; Frans, Jorissen

    2014-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy. C. Caulle1, M. Mojtahid1, K. Koho2,3, A. Gooday4, G. J. Reichart2,3, G. Schmiedl5, F. Jorissen1 1UMR CNRS 6112 LPG-BIAF, University of Angers, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 2Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, The Netherlands 3Royal Netherland Institute for Sea Research (Royal NIOZ), Landsdiep 4, 1797 SZ 't Horntje (Texel) 4Southampton Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK 5Department of Geosciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany The thermohaline circulation oxygenates the deep ocean sediment and therefore enables aerobic life on the sea-floor. In the past, interruption of this deep water formation occurred several times causing hypoxic to anoxic conditions on the sea-floor leading to major ecological turnover. A better understanding of the interaction between climate and bottom water oxygenation is therefore essential in order to predict future oceanic responses. Presently, permanent (stable over decadal timescale) low-oxygen conditions occur naturally at mid-water depths in the northern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea). Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) are key areas to understand the hypoxic-anoxic events and their impact on the benthic ecosystem. In this context, a good knowledge of the ecology and life cycle adaptations of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages living in these low oxygen areas is essential. A series of multicores were recovered from three transects showing an oxygen gradient across the OMZ: the Murray Ridge, the Oman margin and the Indian margin. The stations located at the same depths showed slightly different oxygen concentrations and large differences in organic matter content. These differences are mainly related to the geographic location in the Arabian Sea. We investigated at these stations live and dead benthic

  11. Diversity, distribution, and expression of diazotroph nifH genes in oxygen-deficient waters of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Amal; Al-Rshaidat, Mamoon M D; Ward, Bess B; Mulholland, Margaret R

    2012-12-01

    The Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), the largest suboxic region in the world's oceans, is responsible for up to half of the global mesopelagic fixed nitrogen (N) loss from the ocean via denitrification and anammox. Dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is usually attributed to cyanobacteria in the surface ocean. Model prediction and physiological inhibition of N(2) fixation by oxygen, however, suggest that N(2) fixation should be enhanced near the oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ) of the Arabian Sea. N(2) fixation and cyanobacterial nifH genes (the gene encoding dinitrogenase reductase) have been reported in surface waters overlying the Arabian Sea ODZ. Here, water samples from depths above and within the Arabian Sea ODZ were examined to explore the distribution, diversity, and expression of nifH genes. In surface waters, nifH DNA and cDNA sequences related to Trichodesmium, a diazotroph known to occur and fix N(2) in the Arabian Sea, were detected. Proteobacterial nifH phylotypes (DNA but not cDNA) were also detected in surface waters. Proteobacterial nifH DNA and cDNA sequences, as well as nifH DNA and cDNA sequences related to strictly anaerobic N -fixers, were obtained from oxygen-deficient depths. This first report of nifH gene expression in subsurface low-oxygen waters suggests that there is potential for active N(2) fixation by several phylogenetically and potentially metabolically diverse microorganisms in pelagic OMZs.

  12. Neurochemical organization and morphology of the sleep related nuclei in the brain of the Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx.

    PubMed

    Davimes, Joshua G; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Bennett, Nigel C; Mohammed, Osama B; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R; Gravett, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    The Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx, is a member of the superorder Cetartiodactyla and is native to the Arabian Desert. The desert environment can be considered extreme in which to sleep, as the ranges of temperatures experienced are beyond what most mammals encounter. The current study describes the nuclear organization and neuronal morphology of the systems that have been implicated in sleep control in other mammals for the Arabian oryx. The nuclei delineated include those revealed immunohistochemically as belonging to the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems within the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, midbrain and pons. In addition, we examined the GABAergic neurons and their terminal networks surrounding or within these nuclei. The majority of the neuronal systems examined followed the typical mammalian organizational plan, but some differences were observed: (1) the neuronal morphology of the cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) and pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nuclei, as well as the parvocellular subdivision of the orexinergic main cluster, exhibited Cetartiodactyl-specific features; (2) the dorsal division of the catecholaminergic anterior hypothalamic group (A15d), which has not been reported in any member of the Artiodactyla studied to date, was present in the brain of the Arabian oryx; and (3) the catecholaminergic tuberal cell group (A12) was notably more expansive than previously seen in any other mammal. The A12 nucleus has been associated functionally to osmoregulation in other mammals, and thus its expansion could potentially be a species specific feature of the Arabian oryx given their native desert environment and the need for extreme water conservation.

  13. Estimates of upwelling rates in the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean based on bomb radiocarbon.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, R; Dutta, K; Somayajulu, B L K

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon measurements were made in the water column of the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean during 1994, 1995 and 1997 to assess the temporal variations in bomb 14C distribution and its inventory in the region with respect to GEOSECS measurements made during 1977-1978. Four GEOSECS stations were reoccupied (three in the Arabian Sea and one in the equatorial Indian Ocean) during this study, with all of them showing increased penetration of bomb 14C along with decrease in its surface water activity. The upwelling rates derived by model simulation of bomb 14C depth profile using the calculated exchange rates ranged from 3 to 9 m a(-1). The western region of the Arabian Sea experiencing high wind-induced upwelling has higher estimated upwelling rates. However, lower upwelling rates obtained for the stations occupied during this study could be due to reduced 14C gradient compared to that during GEOSECS.

  14. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE.

  15. Comparison of plasma biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred and Purebred Arabian horses during the same-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, W; Bergero, D

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare changes of blood parameters induced by the same work and performed in the same conditions in two racehorse breeds, Thoroughbred and Purebred Arabian. The effect of moderate-intensity exercise was studied in 20 stallions--ten Thoroughbreds, aged 2-3 years and the same number of Purebred Arabians, 3-4 years old. All the horses were administrated the same effort test consisting in 1200 m gallop at a speed typical of the daily training sessions. Three jugular venous blood samples were collected for each horse: at rest, just after the end of the gallop and after 30-minute rest. In the gathered blood, a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined as well as plasma level of glucose (Glc), triacylglycerols (TG), glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), total plasma proteins (TP) and the activity of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the Arabian horses, an increase in levels of TP, glycerol, FFA and CK activity measured just after exercise was higher than that in Thoroughbreds. Similarly, after a 30-minute rest, a post-exercise rise of TP, AST, glycerol and FFA proved to be higher in the Arabian horses compared to that in the Thoroughbreds. Only TG plasma concentration measured 30 minutes following the effort was significantly lower in the Arabian horses than in Thoroughbreds. It can be concluded that the Thoroughbred horses adapted better to the effort test applied in this study as compared to the Purebred Arabian horses. The parameters related to lipid metabolism proved to be the most sensitive indicators of breed differences in relation to moderate-intensity exercise.

  16. The Northeast Monsoon's Impact on Mixing, Phytoplankton Biomass and Nutrient Cycling in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggert, J. D.; Jones, B. H.; Dickey, T. D.; Brink, K. H.; Weller, R. A.; Marra, J.; Codispoti, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    In the northern Arabian Sea, atmospheric conditions during the Northeast (winter) Monsoon lead to deep convective mixing. Due to the proximity of the permanent pyncnocline to the sea surface, this mixing does not penetrate below 125 m. However, a strong nitracline is also present and the deep convection results in significant nitrate flux into the surface waters. This leads to nitrate concentrations over the upper 100 m that exceed 4 micrometers toward the end of the Monsoon. During the 1994/1995 US JGOFS/Arabian Sea expedition, the mean areal gross primary production over two successive Northeast Monsoons was determined to be 1.35gC/sq m/d. Thus, despite the deep penetrative convection, high rates of primary productivity were maintained. An interdisciplinary model was developed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes involved in supporting the elevated productivity. This model consists of a 1-D mixed-layer model coupled to a set of equations that tracked phytoplankton growth and the concentration of the two major nutrients (nitrate and ammonium). Zooplankton grazing was parameterized by rate constant determined by shipboard experiments. Model boundary conditions consist of meteorological time-series measured from the surface buoy that was part of the ONR Arabian Sea Experiment's central mooring. Our numerical experiments show that elevated surface evaporation, and the associated salinization of the mixed layer, strongly contributes to the frequency and penetration depth of the observed convective mixing. Cooler surface temperatures, increased nitrate entrainment, reduced water column stratification, and lower near-surface chlorophyll a concentrations all result from this enhanced mixing. The model also captured a dependence on regenerated nitrogen observed in nutrient uptake experiments performed during the Northeast Monsoon. Our numerical experiments also indicate that variability in mean pycnocline depth causes up to a 25% reduction in areal chlorophyll a

  17. Seasonal and interannual variations in the nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, T.; Baum, A.; Gaye, B.; Nagel, B.

    2014-10-01

    The Arabian Sea plays an important role in the marine nitrogen cycle because of its pronounced mid-water oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in which bio-available nitrate (NO3-) is reduced to dinitrogen gas (N2). As the nitrogen cycle can respond fast to climate-induced changes in productivity and circulation, the Arabian Sea sediments are an important palaeoclimatic archive. In order to understand seasonal and interannual variations in the nitrogen cycle, nutrient data were obtained from the literature published prior to 1993, evaluated, and compared with data measured during five expeditions carried out in the framework of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) in the Arabian Sea in 1995 and during a research cruise of RV Meteor in 2007. The data comparison showed that the area characterized by a pronounced secondary nitrite maximum (SNM) was by 63% larger in 1995 than a similarly determined estimate based on pre-JGOFS data. This area, referred to as the core of the denitrifying zone, showed strong seasonal and interannual variations driven by the monsoon. During the SW monsoon, the SNM retreated eastward due to the inflow of oxygen-enriched Indian Ocean Central Water (ICW). During the NE monsoon, the SNM expanded westward because of the reversal of the current regime. On an interannual timescale, a weaker SW monsoon decreased the inflow of ICW from the equatorial Indian Ocean and increased the accumulation of denitrification tracers by extending the residence time of water in the SNM. This is supported by palaeoclimatic studies showing an enhanced preservation of accumulative denitrification tracers in marine sediments in conjunction with a weakening of the SW monsoon during the late Holocene.

  18. Female reproductive tract anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eljarah, Abdulhakeem H; Al-Zghoul, Mohd B; Jawasreh, Khaleel; Ismail, Zuhair A Bani; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Elhalah, Ashraf N; Alsumadi, Maen M

    2012-01-01

    Female reproductive anatomy of the Arabian oryx is unknown. In this study, reproductive tracts of seven female Arabian oryx (aged 2 to 7 years) were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Observations and measurements were obtained in situ from dead animals during necropsy. Animals were allocated into two groups: cycling (n = 3; follicles or corpora lutea present) and not-cycling (n = 4; follicles or corpora lutea absent). Different reproductive tract segments for each animal in both groups were measured using a digital caliper. The mean, SD and range for each reproductive tract segment were generated and compared between groups. Female oryx reproductive anatomy share some anatomical characteristics with that of domestic ruminants except that the oryx uterus has no distinct uterine body and the cervix has two internal openings for each respective uterine horn. In addition, there were more than 8 rows of caruncles within each uterine horn. There were significant differences in the length and width (P < 0.05), but not in height, of both the right and left ovaries between cycling and not-cycling animals (P > 0.05). Posterior and anterior vaginal lengths varied between cycling and not-cycling groups (P < 0.05). Length of right and left oviducts, left and right uterine horns, cervix and vulva did not vary between cycling and not-cycling groups (P > 0.05). Defining this unique morphology of female Arabian oryx reproductive anatomy will help in the development of appropriate reproductive techniques in order to propagate this endangered species and control its reproduction.

  19. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, G.; Kalenderski, S.; Osipov, S.; Bangalath, H.

    2014-07-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred on 18-20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, North-Eastern Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front and associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates, Rub al Khali, An Nafud and Ad Dahna deserts, and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. The total amount of dust generated by the storm reached 93.76 Mt. About 80% of this amount deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt, and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligothrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we roughly estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea to be 6 Mt.

  20. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, G.; Kalenderski, S.; Osipov, S.; Bangalath, H.

    2015-01-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  1. Mesoscale variability in the Arabian Sea and its impact of the Persian Gulf Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hegaret, P.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean circulation around the Arabian Peninsula is mainly dominated by the monsoon, from Southwest in winter, Northeast in summer. During the intermonsoon, the mesoscale variability is driven by eddies with a strong vertical influence. We focus here on the Northern Arabian Sea, which is connected to a strong evaporation basin, the Persian Gulf, via the Sea of Oman. The warm and salty water produced in the Persian Gulf (PGW for Persian Gulf Water) is advected around the eddies with differents paths for each seasons. Using monthly averaged altimetric, winds, heat fluxes and thermohaline data, we describe the onset and evolution of the mesoscale eddies and other features in the Northern Arabian Sea and their variations between each seasons and every years. Those structures have a deep reaching impact on the water masses, particularly on the PGW. From here we will focus on the spring intermonsoon, a season in which the circulation in less wind driven, as the summer or winter. We will use the results from the PhysIndien 2011 experiment directed by the SHOM. EOFs extracted from altrimetric data show that this year is representative of this season. With a higher spatial resolution we focus on the advection of the PGW by the mesoscale gyres. Three of them, one cylonic and two anticyclonics, stay stationnary through the season along the Omani coast. They advect diluted PGW far South from its known climatological extension. As well they send the PGW vein through the Iranian coast and break the current in submesoscale structures; filaments and a lens of PGW were recorded during the experiment. Using the results on the mesoscale circulation, we will present the characteristics and trajectory of such a PGW lens.

  2. A Frameshift Mutation in KIT is Associated with White Spotting in the Arabian Camel

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Heather; Isaza, Ramiro; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Ahmed, Ayeda; Almathen, Faisal; Youcef, Cherifi; Gaouar, Semir; Antczak, Douglas F.; Brooks, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    While the typical Arabian camel is characterized by a single colored coat, there are rare populations with white spotting patterns. White spotting coat patterns are found in virtually all domesticated species, but are rare in wild species. Theories suggest that white spotting is linked to the domestication process, and is occasionally associated with health disorders. Though mutations have been found in a diverse array of species, fewer than 30 genes have been associated with spotting patterns, thus providing a key set of candidate genes for the Arabian camel. We obtained 26 spotted camels and 24 solid controls for candidate gene analysis. One spotted and eight solid camels were whole genome sequenced as part of a separate project. The spotted camel was heterozygous for a frameshift deletion in KIT (c.1842delG, named KITW1 for White spotting 1), whereas all other camels were wild-type (KIT+/KIT+). No additional mutations unique to the spotted camel were detected in the EDNRB, EDN3, SOX10, KITLG, PDGFRA, MITF, and PAX3 candidate white spotting genes. Sanger sequencing of the study population identified an additional five KITW1/KIT+ spotted camels. The frameshift results in a premature stop codon five amino acids downstream, thus terminating KIT at the tyrosine kinase domain. An additional 13 spotted camels tested KIT+/KIT+, but due to phenotypic differences when compared to the KITW1/KIT+ camels, they likely represent an independent mutation. Our study suggests that there are at least two causes of white spotting in the Arabian camel, the newly described KITW1 allele and an uncharacterized mutation. PMID:28282952

  3. Compositions of micas in peraluminous granitoids of the eastern Arabian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Bray, Edward A.

    1994-05-01

    Compositions and pleochroism of micas in fourteen peraluminous alkali-feldspar granites in the eastern part of the Late Proterozoic Arabian Shield are unlike those of micas (principally biotite) in most calc-alkaline granitoid rocks. Compositions of these micas are distinguished by elevated abundances of Li2O, F, and numerous cations and by low MgO abundances. These micas, constituents of highly evolved rare-metal enriched granitoids, represent an iron-lithium substitution series that ranges from lithium-poor siderophyllite to lithium-rich ferroan lepidolite. The eastern Arabian Shield also hosts six epizonal granitoids that contain colorless micas. Compositions of these micas, mostly muscovite, and their host granitoids are distinct from those of the iron-lithium micas and their host granitoids. Compositions of the analyzed micas have a number of petrogenetic implications. The twenty granitoids containing these micas form three compositional groups that reflect genesis in particular tectonic regimes; mica compositions define the same three groups. The presence of magmatic muscovite in six of these shallowly crystallized granitoids conflicts with experimental data indicating muscovite stability at pressures greater than 3 kbar. Muscovite in the Arabian granitoids probably results from its non-ideal composition; the presence of muscovite cannot be used as a pressure indicator. Finally, mineral/matrix partition coefficients are significantly greater than 1.0 for a number of cations, the rare-earth elements in particular, in many of the analyzed iron-lithium micas. Involvement of these types of micas in partial melting or fractionation processes can have a major influence on silicate liquid compositions.

  4. Implementation of field cardio-respiratory measurements to assess energy expenditure in Arabian endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Goachet, A G; Julliand, V

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible.

  5. The uplift history of the Arabian Plateau as inferred from geomorphologic analysis of its northwestern edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, Oded; Zilberman, Ezra; Feinstein, Shimon; Calvo, Ran; Gvirtzman, Zohar

    2016-03-01

    The Arabian Plateau (AP) is an Oligocene sub-horizontal regional planation surface, extending throughout the western half of the Arabian Peninsula. Its present elevation of about 1 km required a prominent uplift since the Late Eocene. In order to reconstruct the uplift history, we documented abundant abrasive and fluvial terraces that were left along and across the raised Judea Mountains (JM), which comprised the NW edge of the AP. Using the ages of those terraces and the differences in height between them, we found that the JM was uplifted in three major phases: a few hundred meters during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, ~ 500 m during the Early Miocene-early Middle Miocene, and ~ 350 m during the Late Pliocene. The two earliest uplift phases predate the formation of the Dead-Sea Transform (DST), which today separates the JM from the AP, meaning that these two phases affected the continuous rigid lithosphere extending southeastwards to the AP interiors. Moreover, restoration of the paleogeography predating the lateral offset along the DST eliminates the main height differences across it and suggests that the DST does not play a major role in the vertical position of its bordering plates, but rather forms a relatively narrow deformation strip within the AP. Those two early phases of uplift can be corroborated by previous thermochronology studies, which exhibit similar ages around the Red Sea but may reflect the uplift age of the entire region. The present sub-horizontal morphology of the AP is in contrast to the presumed original northeastward drainage and may suggest a subsequent long-wave moderate tilting to the SW. Three possible mechanisms were suggested for the uplift of the AP: a long wavelength flexure of the Arabian plate during early stages of the uplift, and lithospheric thinning or dynamic topography during later stages of the uplift.

  6. Venous Thromboembolism Risk and Adequacy of Prophylaxis in High Risk Pregnancy in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Al-Bahar, Awatef; Al-Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Results: Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. Conclusion: A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis. PMID:26517701

  7. Monsoon control on faunal composition of planktic foraminifera in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, P.; Siccha, M.; Kucera, M.; Schulz, H.

    2013-12-01

    Being among the most productive open ocean basins, sea surface properties in the Arabian Sea are highly influenced by the seasonal reversal of the monsoonal wind system. During boreal summer wind direction from the southwest induces strong upwelling along the coast off Somalia and Oman. Vertical transport of cold and nutrient-rich deep-water masses by Ekman pumping reduces sea surface temperature and triggers primary productivity. Reversed cold and dry winds during boreal winter lead to cooling of the surface- and subsurface-waters and hereby to deep convective mixing, bringing nutrients into the photic zone and enhancing primary productivity especially in the northern part of the Arabian Sea. Here, we study the influence of the different seasonal monsoon systems on the faunal composition of planktic foraminifera, in order to improve our understanding how the faunal community record is influenced by the respective monsoon systems and to provide baseline information for the reconstruction of ancient monsoon conditions. We used published core-top foraminiferal databases, significantly increased in spatial coverage by new contributions. The resulting combined database consists of 413 core-top samples spanning the Arabian Sea and the Northern Indian Ocean to 10° S. The seasonal sea surface properties at these stations could be binned into categories of different monsoon influence, based on satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentrations. Interpretation of species response to environmental control is based on multivariate statistical analyses of each of the categorical bins. First results show that samples influenced only by winter- and summer monsoon conditions, respectively, feature specifiable faunal composition. Globigerina bulloides is mostly associated with summer upwelling conditions, whereas Globigerina falconensis and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata are typical species of winter conditions. Redundancy analysis reveals preferences of species populations with

  8. New Interpretations of the Rayn Anticlines in the Arabian Basin Inferred from Gravity Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryan Anticlines comprise of a regularly-spaced set of super-giant anticlines oriented NNW, developed due to E-W compression in the Arabian Basin. Most prominent of these being: the Ghawar Anticline, followed by the Summan, Khurais Anticlines and Qatar Arch. Gravity anomaly is largely characteristic for both Ryan Anticlines and its smaller size version the Jinadriah Anticline in the Riyadh Salt Basin. It displays a bipolar gravity field - a zone of gravity high running along the fold axis that is flanked by asymmetric gravity lows. Available structural models commonly infer structural uplift for the median gravity high but ignore the flanking lows. Here we interpret the bipolar gravity anomaly due primarily to such anticline structures, while, the flanking gravity lows are due to greater sediment thickness largely compacted and deformed over the basement depressions. Further complexities are created due to the salt layer and its migration at the lower horizons of sediment strata. Such diagnostic gravity anomaly pattern is taken here as an evidence for basement tectonics due to prevailing crustal dynamics in the Arabian Basin. Density inversion provides details on the subsurface density variation due to the folding and structural configuration for the sediment layers, including the salt layer, affected by basement deformation. This interpretation is largely supported by gravity forward and inversion models given in the present study what is partly constrained by the available seismic, MT and deep resistivity lines and surface geologic mapping. Most of the oil-gas fields in this part of the Arabian Basin are further known for salt diapirism. In this study the gravity interpretation help in identification of salt diapirism directly overlying the basement is firstly given here for Jinadriah Anticline; that is next extended to a regional geologic cross-section traversing the Ryan Anticlines to infer probable subsurface continuation of salt diapirs directly overlying

  9. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  10. From plume head to continental lithosphere in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Mordechai; Goldstein, Steven L.

    1996-08-01

    The lithosphere of the Arabian-Nubian shield was mainly formed during an interval of about 150 million years near the end of the Proterozoic aeon. The events recorded in the rocks of the shield indicate that an oceanic plateau, formed by the head of an upwelling mantle plume, was later overprinted with continent-like characteristics by plate convergence and its associated magmatism. Similar sequences of events are seen in the geological record from Archaean to recent times, suggesting that the transformation from plume head to continental lithosphere has been an important component of continent generation throughout Earth history.

  11. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  12. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Blank, H.R.; Healy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is

  13. Multiple regression approach to optimize drilling operations in the Arabian Gulf area

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Betairi, E.A.; Moussa, M.M.; Al-Otaibi, S.

    1988-03-01

    This paper reports a successful application of multiple regression analysis, supported by a detailed statistical study to verify the Bourgoyne and Young model. The model estimates the optimum penetration rate (ROP), weight on bit (WOB), and rotary speed under the effect of controllable and uncontrollable factors. Field data from three wells in the Arabian Gulf were used and emphasized the validity of this model. The model coefficients are sensitive to the number of points included. The correlation coefficients and multicollinearity sensitivity of each drilling parameter on the ROP are studied.

  14. Precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula: Global Forcing and Tele-connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, NIranjan; Abouelmagd, Abdou A.; McCabe, Matthew F.; Molini, Annalisa

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the spatio-temporal variability of precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula, its relationships with large-scale climate indices and atmospheric circulation patterns, and its possible connection with the dynamics of sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and in the Mediterranean. Whether El Niño-Southern Oscillation has been shown to be one of the primary drivers of precipitation inter-annual variability over this region, the role of North Atlantic Oscillation in shaping the extremely intermittent hydro-climatology of the Arabian Peninsula has been scarcely explored in the literature. Using a composite analysis of Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation data for winter months (DJFM), we observed that during El Niño years when the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) persist in a negative phase, the Arabian Peninsula receives more rainfall while precipitation drastically decreases during La Niña years and when NAO is in its positive phase. Also, El Niño winters are more conducive to a negative NAO phase. Basing on NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, we also found a distinct shift in phase of Rossby wave patterns during El Niño and La Niña years, most likely mediated by the winter sub-tropical stream. Rossby waves are known to have an equivalent barotropic structure that projects to the lower troposphere. Our analysis highlighted how the jet stream position is shifted towards low latitudes during El Niño years. Since the subtropical jet stream is also affecting precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula - being the core of the subtropical jet stronger during the winter over this region - we conjecture that the combined effect of the shift in the position of the jet stream and the change of phase of Rossby waves (with associated low level vorticity anomalies) during El Niño years could result in an increase of onshore moisture advection from neighboring oceans.This could be the cause of increased precipitation in particular

  15. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-05-01

    The authors report zircon U-Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr data from sample Z-103, a fine-grained granodiorite from the Jabal Khida region of the Saudi Arabian Shield (lat 21/sup 0/19'N; long 44/sup 0/50'W). The measurements yield conclusive evidence for continental crust of early Proterozoic age (approx.1630 Ma) at that locality. Furthermore, lead-isotope data indicate an even earlier, perhaps Archean, crustal history for the source of the lower Proterozoic rocks. 17 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  17. Identification of source for excess methane in marine atmosphere over Arabian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameswara Rao, D.; Jani, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Systematic air sampling has been done on board 'Sagar Pachmi' in the costal region of Arabian Sea along the cruise track from Cochin to Goa during November 2010 to find the source for excess methane in marine atmosphere over Arabian Sea. Ambient air was collected into a 10L SS cylinders at 7bar pressure and also in a 200cc evacuated glass bulbs for isotopic and concentration measurements from a height of ~5 meters above Sea surface at different latitude intervals. The carbon isotopic composition (delta13C) in these samples were measured using dual inlet IRMS after methane is converted in to CO2 using conventional method. Methane concentrations in all these samples vary from 1880 to 1943 ppbv where as its delta13C value vary in a narrow range of -44.9 to -46.5‰. The CH4 concentrations are more than that of tropospheric values (1775 ppbv) over the costal waters of Arabian Sea from Kanyakumari to Mumbai during the month of November-December from 2003-2007. It is estimated that an excess methane of ~ 7 - 11% in these samples. In general, it is believed that CH4 concentrations in marine atmosphere are related to emissions from the Arabian Sea due to upwelling which brings methane rich water to the surface. The excess methane in these samples is either from methane rich water in surface waters or wind flown from land surface to sampling location. Our data suggests that excess methane must have come from land to Ocean surface since the wind direction is NE in these samples. Also, there is an increase of CH4 concentrations with increasing wind speed. This also indicates that CH4 emissions must have come from land surface. The values of delta13C of CH4 in these samples are enriched compared to that of from tropospheric value (-47.1‰) which indicates that the excess methane is thermogenic type and probably the methane must have come from land. We estimated the delta13C of CH4 for this excess methane and they vary between -39 to -25‰. It indicates that the source for

  18. Rupture of the lateral lobe of the biceps brachii tendon in an Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Spadari, A; Spinella, G; Romagnoli, N; Valentini, S

    2009-01-01

    Rupture of the lateral lobe of the proximal tendon of the biceps brachii muscle was diagnosed in an Arabian horse. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only report of this condition in horses. Although clinical signs were helpful in the identification of the location of disease, ultrasonographic examination was a more definitive and non- invasive means of diagnosing the pathological condition. Bursoscopic examination of the intertubercular bursa was also useful in obtaining confirmation of the diagnosis, and for debridement and lavage of the bursa.

  19. Characterization of male reproductive anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Eljarah, A; Al-Zghoul, M B; Jawasreh, K; Ababneh, M; Alsumadi, M; Alhalah, A; Ismail, Z Bani

    2012-07-01

    Reproductive tracts of four male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Shaumari Nature Reserve in Jordan were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Animals were allocated into two groups based on their age: Group 1 (n = 2, males were 12 and 14 mo old) and Group 2 (n = 2, males were 7 and 9 yrs old). Observations regarding the morphology, position and orientation of different reproductive organs were made. The external and internal genital organs of male oryx were similar to other domestic ruminant species with minor differences.

  20. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study1234

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Fatimah M; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M; Kumosani, Taha A; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking. Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. Design: A case-control study was conducted among 120 breast cancer cases and 120 controls. The study population was drawn from patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from June to August 2009. Participants completed questionnaires on diet and medical history, and serum samples were collected from all women to measure circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. Results: The participants had a mean age of 47.8 y and a mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) of 30.0. Breast cancer cases had significantly lower (mean ± SD) serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (9.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL) than did controls (15.4 ± 12.3 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In comparison with those in the highest category of vitamin D status for this population (≥20 ng/mL), the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for invasive breast cancer were 6.1 (2.4, 15.1) for women with a serum 25(OH)D concentration <10 ng/mL and 4.0 (1.6, 10.4) for women with a serum concentration of ≥10 to <20 ng/mL (P-trend = 0.0001). Conclusion: An inverse association exists between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817231. PMID:23697705

  1. Peralkaline and peraluminous granites and related mineral deposits of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Existing geochemical and geologic data for many parts of the Arabian Shield were compiled as a basis for evaluating the resource potential of the granites of the Shield. Commodities associated with granites that have potential for economic mineral deposits include tin, tungsten, molybdenum, beryllium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements, and fluorite. Prospecting methods useful in discriminating those granites having significant economic potential include reconnaissance geologic mapping, petrographic and mineralogic studies, geochemical sampling of rock and wadi sediment, and radiometric surveying.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  3. Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

    1999-11-15

    A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

  4. Regional caprock-destroying dolomite on the middle jurassic to early cretaceous Arabian shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Broomhall, R.W.; Allan, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Massive, stratigraphically-discordant dolomite occurs on the late Mesozoic Arabian Shelf in the northern portion of Aramco's main producing area. This dolomite is associated with solution-collapse of Hith-Arab anhydrite seals and with enhancement of porosity and permeability in tight limestone seals within the region. By destroying regional caprocks, dolomitization has had an adverse effect on oil accumulation. The spatial extent of this dolomite was determined by the examination of Formation Density/Compensated Neutron wireline logs and sample description logs from 50 onshore and offshore wells. Fluid inclusion geothermometry reveals that baroque dolomite precipitated from brine with salinities of 223,000 to 249,000 ppm TDS at temperatures of 102 to 134/sup 0/C onshore and 131 to 155/sup 0/C offshore. Petroleum fluid inclusions within the baroque dolomite indicate hydrocarbon migration contemporaneous with dolomitization. Carbon and oxygen isotope data suggest that that brine which precipitated baroque dolomite was also responsible for the massive recrystallization of shelf limestone to form host dolomite. Chemical analyses of formation waters suggest that brine which migrated out of halite deposits during burial was the dolomitizing fluid. The geological and geochemical attributes of Arabian Shelf dolomites strongly resemble those reported for dolomite associated with Alpine and Mississippi Valley-type carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits in Europe and North America.

  5. Timing, cause and consequences of mid-Holocene climate transition in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Rajeev; Naik, Dinesh Kumar; Nigam, Rajiv; Gaur, Anuruddh Singh

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct centennial scale quantitative changes in surface seawater temperature (SST), evaporation-precipitation (from Mg/Ca and δ18O of surface dwelling planktic foraminifera), productivity (from relative abundance of Globigerina bulloides), carbon burial (from %CaCO3 and organic carbon [%Corg]) and dissolved oxygen at sediment-water interface, covering the entire Holocene, from a core collected from the eastern Arabian Sea. From the multi-proxy record, we define the timing, consequences and possible causes of the mid-Holocene climate transition (MHCT). A distinct shift in evaporation-precipitation (E-P) is observed at 6.4 ka, accompanied by a net cooling of SST. The shift in SST and E-P is synchronous with a change in surface productivity. A concurrent decrease is also noted in both the planktic foraminiferal abundance and coarse sediment fraction. A shift in carbon burial, as inferred from both the %CaCO3 and %Corg, coincides with a change in surface productivity. A simultaneous decrease in dissolved oxygen at the sediment-water interface, suggests that changes affected both the surface and subsurface water. A similar concomitant change is also observed in other cores from the Arabian Sea as well as terrestrial records, suggesting a widespread regional MHCT. The MHCT coincides with decreasing low-latitude summer insolation, perturbations in total solar intensity and an increase in atmospheric CO2.

  6. Oblique sinistral transpression in the Arabian shield: The timing and kinematics of a Neoproterozoic suture zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.R.; Kattan, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah-Ruwah fault zone is a belt of highly strained rocks that extends in a broad curve across the northeastern Arabian shield. It is a subvertical shear zone, 5-30 km wide and over 600 km long, and is interpreted as a zone of oblique sinistral transpression that forms the suture between the Afif terrane and the Asir-Jiddah-Hijaz-Hulayfah superterrane. Available data suggest that the terranes began to converge sometime after 720 Ma, were in active contact at about 680 Ma, and were in place, with suturing complete, by 630 Ma, The fault zone was affected by sinistral horizontal and local vertical shear, and simultaneous flattening and fault-zone-parallel extension. Structures include sinistral sense-of-shear indicators, L-S tectonite, and coaxial stretching lineations and fold axes. The stretching lineations switch from subhorizontal to subvertical along the fault zone indicating significant variation in finite strain consistent with an origin by oblique transpression. The sense of shear on the fault zone suggests sinistral trajectories for the converging terranes, although extrapolating the shear sense of the suture zone to infer far-field motion must be done with caution. The amalgamation model derived from the chronologic and structural data for the fault zone modifies an existing model of terrane amalgamation and clarifies the definitions of two deformational events (the Nabitah orogeny and the Najd fault system) that are widely represented in the Arabian shield. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Seasonal characteristics of the large-scale moisture flux transport over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, H.; Ammar, K.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between the lower tropospheric (1000 to 850 hPa) large-scale moisture flux transport and the precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula (AP), on a seasonal basis, using the NCEP-NCAR gridded dataset for the 53-year period (1958-2010), is investigated. The lower tropospheric moisture flux divergence occurs due to the Hadley cell-based descending air over the AP, as well as due to the presence of Somali jet in dry season (June to September) for the southern (≤22° N) AP domain, leading to significantly reduced precipitation in the AP. The AP thus acts more as a net transporter of moisture flux from adjacent Sea areas to nearby regions. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Artic Oscillation (AO) climatic indices are found to modulate significantly the net seasonal moisture flux into the AP region animating from the Mediterranean Sea, and the Arabian Sea, both for the northern (≥22° N) and southern AP domains.

  8. A field experiment to assess impact of chemically dispersed oil on Arabian Gulf corals

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gore, R.S.; Cuddeback, J.E.; Hofmann, J.E.; Marszalek, D.S.

    1983-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted on a coral reef at Jurayd Island (Saudi Arabia) in the Arabian Gulf to study the effects of chemically dispersed oil on local corals. Portions of the reef were exposed to predetermined concentrations of oil alone, dispersant alone, and oil-plus-dispersant mixtures. Areas of the reef not exposed to any of the toxicants were used as controls. Arabian Light Crude and Corexit 9527 dispersant were the test toxicants. Two series of experiments were conducted beginning in September 1981, one with a 24-hour exposure period and the other with a 5-day (120-hour) exposure period. Corals were stained for growth rate studies and extensively photographed to document any observed effects. Corals were examined for biological impacts immediately after the exposures, and then at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and hydrocarbon content were recorded during the exposure periods. Coral growth appeared unaffected by exposure to the toxicants. Some Acropora species corals exposed to dispersed oil for 5 days exhibited delayed effects, which became apparent during the relatively cold winter season.

  9. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes.

  10. Trace-element geochemistry of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, John S.; Knight, R.J.; VanTrump, G.; Budahn, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations determined for all of the trace elements included in this study of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield are best described by log-normal distributions. The trace elements are divided into two groups: (1) compatible lithophile and siderophile elements (strontium, cobalt, scandium, manganese, europium, and titanium) and (2) incompatible lithophile elements (uranium, thorium, tantalum, rubidium, and rare-earth elements, except europium). The compatible elements exhibit greatest concentrations in the metaluminous postorogenic granites, and concentrations decrease with increasing degree of magma evolution. Economic potential for these elements and other geochemically similar elements is considered to be low. The concentrations of the incompatible elements increase with increasing degree of magma evolution and are greatest in the peralkaline and peraluminous granites. There is some geologic evidence that pegmatite and vein-forming processes were operative toward the end stage of postorogenic magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Shield, and therefore there is some probability for economic potential for these elements. It is suggested that such potential is greatest where highly evolved postorogenic granites intruded volatile (generally water )-rich country rocks.

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  12. Parameters influencing prevalence and outcome of tendonitis in Thoroughbred and Arabian racehorses.

    PubMed

    Kalisiak, O

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis are among most prevalent musculoskeletal injuries observed in racehorses. The aim of this study was to determine which horse and race-related parameters can help to diminish the possibility of injury or--when injury has occurred--to evaluate the potential for the horse to continue a successful career after convalescence. Special attention was given to the comparison of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses. 187 horses with ultrasonographically visible lesions were included in the study. Following parameters were analyzed: structure (Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon [SDFT], Deep Digital Flexor Tendon [DDFT], Suspensory Ligament [SL]); percentage of cross sectional area increase; hypoechogenic lesion character; in horses with SDF tendonitis - tendonitis grade according to Genovese. This study showed that Thoroughbreds are more at risk of musculoskeletal problems than Arabian racehorses. In both breeds, the most frequent injuries concern SDFT, then SL. Over 95% of tendonitis concern forelimbs. In Thoroughbreds, the prevalence of tendonitis is higher in bigger horses, in males when compared to females and in fence/steeple racehorses when compared to flat track racehorses. The inside limb is more at risk of SDF tendonitis, when the external limb - of SL desmitis. Tendonitis severity increases with age and is greater in steeplechasers when compared to flat track racehorses. The outcome of tendonitis without hypoechogenic lesion is much better than that with hypoechogenic lesion. Evaluation of hypoechogenic lesion length is an easy and accurate prognosis tool, as the chances of returning to racing drop dramatically with lesions longer than 12 cm.

  13. Distribution of membrane lipids of planktonic Crenarchaeota in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Hopmans, Ellen C; Prahl, Fredrick G; Wakeham, Stuart G; Schouten, Stefan

    2002-06-01

    Intact core tetraether membrane lipids of marine planktonic Crenarchaeota were quantified in water column-suspended particulate matter obtained from four depth intervals ( approximately 70, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 m) at seven stations in the northwestern Arabian Sea to investigate the distribution of the organisms at various depths. Maximum concentrations generally occurred at 500 m, near the top of the oxygen minimum zone, and the concentrations at this depth were, in most cases, slightly higher than those in surface waters. In contrast, lipids derived from eukaryotes (cholesterol) and from eukaryotes and bacteria (fatty acids) were at their highest concentrations in surface waters. This indicates that these crenarchaeotes are not restricted to the photic zone of the ocean, which is consistent with the results of recent molecular biological studies. Since the Arabian Sea has a strong oxygen minimum zone between 100 and 1,000 m, with minimum oxygen levels of <1 microM, the abundance of crenarchaeotal membrane lipids at 500 m suggests that planktonic Crenarchaeota are probably facultative anaerobes. The cell numbers we calculated from the concentrations of membrane lipids are similar to those reported for the Central Pacific Ocean, supporting the recent estimation of M. B. Karner, E. F. DeLong, and D. M. Karl ( Nature 409:507-510, 2001) that the world's oceans contain ca. 10(28) cells of planktonic Crenarchaeota.

  14. Mapping of Coral Reef Environment in the Arabian Gulf Using Multispectral Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Romdhane, H.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs of the Arabian Gulf are subject to several pressures, thus requiring conservation actions. Well-designed conservation plans involve efficient mapping and monitoring systems. Satellite remote sensing is a cost-effective tool for seafloor mapping at large scales. Multispectral remote sensing of coastal habitats, like those of the Arabian Gulf, presents a special challenge due to their complexity and heterogeneity. The present study evaluates the potential of multispectral sensor DubaiSat-2 in mapping benthic communities of United Arab Emirates. We propose to use a spectral-spatial method that includes multilevel segmentation, nonlinear feature analysis and ensemble learning methods. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used for comparison of classification performances. Comparative data were derived from the habitat maps published by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. The spectral-spatial method produced 96.41% mapping accuracy. SVM classification is assessed to be 94.17% accurate. The adaptation of these methods can help achieving well-designed coastal management plans in the region.

  15. Locomotor, cardiocirculatory and metabolic adaptations to training in Andalusian and Anglo-Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A; Santisteban, R; Rubio, M D; Agüera, E I; Escribano, B M; Castejón, F M

    1999-02-01

    The effects of two training programmes in 20 Andalusian and 12 Anglo-Arabian horses were evaluated by an increasing intensity work test at velocities of 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 m sec(-1). Heart rate was monitored and blood samples were drawn at rest and after each velocity to analyse packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate and potassium levels. Furthermore, the programmes were video-taped and stride length, duration and frequency, stance (restraint and propulsion), swing phase durations and stride vertical component were measured. The training protocol of the Andalusian horses produced significant decreases in the cardiovascular, haematological and metabolic responses to exercise. Locomotory training adaptation consisted of an increased stride frequency and a reduced stride length and vertical stride component. The last variable was the limiting factor of stride length both before and after training in the Andalusian horses. A different training protocol for show-jumping competition in Anglo-Arabian horses failed to show significant differences in the studied parameters to the work test, although an increase in stride length at velocities of over 6 m sec(-1) was observed. Stride vertical component did not have an effect on the physiological response to exercise, either before or after training.

  16. Dust Optical Properties Over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula Derived from the AERONET Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Yu, H.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Dust optical properties over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula are extracted from the quality assured multi-year datasets obtained at 14 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We select the data with (a) large aerosol optical depth (AOD >= 0.4 at 440 nm) and (b) small Angstrom exponent (A(sub ext)<= 0.2) for retaining high accuracy and reducing interference of non-dust aerosols. The result indicates that the major fraction of high aerosol optical depth days are dominated by dust over these sites even though it varies depending on location and time. We have found that the annual mean and standard deviation of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, real refractive index, and imaginary refractive index for Saharan and Arabian desert dust is 0.944 +/- 0.005, 0.752 +/- 0.014, 1.498 +/- 0.032, and 0.0024 +/- 0.0034 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively. Dust aerosol selected by this method is less absorbing than the previously reported values over these sites. The weaker absorption of dust from this study is consistent with the studies using remote sensing techniques from satellite. These results can help to constrain uncertainties in estimating global dust shortwave radiative forcing.

  17. Lower Carboniferous rugose corals from the Arabian Plate: An insight from the Hakkari area (SE Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denayer, Julien; Hoşgör, Izzet

    2014-01-01

    The Köprülü Formation of the Hakkari area (SE Turkey) is composed of a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic succession of Early Carboniferous age. The lower part of the formation yielded an abundant but poorly diversified coral fauna composed of small non-dissepimented solitary rugose corals, namely Rotiphyllum cf. simulatumFedorowski 2009, Zaphrentites parallela (Carruthers, 1910), cf. Gorizdronia, gen. et sp. indet., Amplexizaphrentis sp. and Amplexizaphrentis zapense sp. nov. and specimens of Caninia cf. cornucopiaeMichelin in Gervais 1840, a dissepimented solitary coral showing a counter septum-related columella. The lower part of the Köprülü Formation is of supposed late Tournaisian age based on micropaleontological data. However, the coral assemblage indicates rather an early Viséan age. The Hakkari corals form a strongly facies-related association ("Cyathaxonia fauna") and are compared to other areas with some difficulties. The most similar, time-equivalent faunal associations is that of the Sinai Peninsula (NE Egypt). Both localities belonged, during Early Carboniferous times, to the Arabian Platform situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. The Gondwana-related Taurides units (Aladağ), North Iran Block and Afghanistan, characterized by a dominant carbonate facies and more diversified coral faunas, formed during these times, the distal parts of the Arabian Platform.

  18. Rapid late Pleistocene/Holocene uplift and coastal evolution of the southern Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren W.; Bailey, Richard M.; Hampton, Brian A.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Lu, Zhong; Clark, David W.; James, Rhodri H. R.; Al Ramadan, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43-53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17-30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3-5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.

  19. The effect of millennial-scale changes in Arabian Sea denitrification on atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Altabet, Mark A; Higginson, Matthew J; Murray, David W

    2002-01-10

    Most global biogeochemical processes are known to respond to climate change, some of which have the capacity to produce feedbacks through the regulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Marine denitrification-the reduction of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen-is an important process in this regard, affecting greenhouse gas concentrations directly through the incidental production of nitrous oxide, and indirectly through modification of the marine nitrogen inventory and hence the biological pump for CO2. Although denitrification has been shown to vary with glacial-interglacial cycles, its response to more rapid climate change has not yet been well characterized. Here we present nitrogen isotope ratio, nitrogen content and chlorin abundance data from sediment cores with high accumulation rates on the Oman continental margin that reveal substantial millennial-scale variability in Arabian Sea denitrification and productivity during the last glacial period. The detailed correspondence of these changes with Dansgaard-Oeschger events recorded in Greenland ice cores indicates rapid, century-scale reorganization of the Arabian Sea ecosystem in response to climate excursions, mediated through the intensity of summer monsoonal upwelling. Considering the several-thousand-year residence time of fixed nitrogen in the ocean, the response of global marine productivity to changes in denitrification would have occurred at lower frequency and appears to be related to climatic and atmospheric CO2 oscillations observed in Antarctic ice cores between 20 and 60 kyr ago.

  20. Distribution and Phase Association of Some Major and Trace Elements in the Arabian Gulf Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaham, A. S.; El-Sayed, M. A.

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-four sediment samples were collected from the Arabian Gulf (ROPME Sea) and analysed for their grain size distribution and carbonate contents as well as the major elements Ca, Mg, Fe and Al and macro and trace elements Mn, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cu, Cr, V, Ni and Hg. Concentration of trace elements are found comparable to previous data published for samples taken before and after the Gulf War, and reflect the natural background level. Grain size analyses, aluminium and carbonate measurements support the presence of two major sediment types: (1) a terrigenous, fine-grained and Al rich type predominating along the Iranian side; and (2) a coarse-grained and carbonate rich type predominating along the Arabian side of the Gulf. Investigation of the correlation of the elements analysed with the sediment type indicates that they could be grouped under two distinct associations: (1) carbonate association including Ca and Sr; and (2) terrigenous association comprising Al, Fe, Mg, Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V, Ni and Hg. Element/Al ratios calculated for the mud non-carbonate fraction indicate that the Euphrates and Tigris rivers have minor importance as sediment sources to the Gulf. Most of the elements have exceptionally high aluminium ratios in sediments containing more than 85-90% carbonate. These sediments are restricted to the southern and south-eastern part of the area where depth is shallow and temperature and salinity are high. Both biological accumulation and chemical and biochemical coprecipitation could be responsible for this anomaly.

  1. The secondary calcification of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma assemblages in Arabian Sea waters and surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolalipour, Samereh; Schulz, Hartmut; Darling, Kate F.

    2014-05-01

    The planktic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (N. pachyderma (sin); Darling et al., 2006) has been recently considered as a (paleo) climatic index in Arabian Sea waters, where increased abundance correlates to the South West monsoon upwelling. Genetic characterization of living specimens collected in multinets off the Oman margin and in the central Arabian Sea indicate the presence of an new genotype of N. pachyderma (Type VIII) (Darling et al., submitted) in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Ecological investigation on these samples reveals that this new genotype, which is the only one to date found in this region, can tolerate warm water temperatures of up to 28° C. It was also found alive below the photic zone within the prominent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea. To extend our knowledge and understanding of this N. pachyderma Type VIII genotype, we have focused on a morphological analysis of randomly picked specimens (live and dead) from the multinets collected from 200 m down to 700 m water column and from core top sediments distributed over a wide range of water depths (607-3951 m) off the Oman margin in the Arabian Sea. We here use Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the size, shape variation and test wall structure of the penultimate chamber. High resolution measurements confirm the model of chamber growth in non-spinose bilamellar foraminifera of a three or four-layered test wall. As ontogenetic calcite, we were able to visualize the inner lining, the outer layer and the outermost layer formed during the growth of the ultimate chamber. Some of the specimens also showed a fourth layer, which can be attributed to encrustation, observed in higher-latitude specimens of both hemispheres to result from secondary calcification as a terminal step in ontogenetic maturation. To verify the test wall growth and secondary calcification the measurements of the layers were related to the maximum test diameter of the shell. The measurement

  2. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  3. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  4. Male Saudi Arabian Freshman Science Majors at Jazan University: Their Perceptions of Parental Educational Practices on Their Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2012-01-01

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education…

  5. Ad Duwayhi, Saudi Arabia: Geology and geochronology of a neoproterozoic intrusion-related gold system in the Arabian shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Zahony, S.G.; Leavitt, J.D.; Portacio, J.S.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Fleck, Robert J.; Stein, Holly J.

    2004-01-01

    In light of our findings at Ad Duwayhi, a reassessment of similar intrusion-hosted deposits in the Arabian shield is warranted, and areas of late- to postorogenic plutonism, particularly in the Afif composite terrane, should be considered prospective for intrusion-related gold systems.

  6. Exploring When and Why to Use Arabic in the Saudi Arabian EFL Classroom: Viewing L1 Use as Eclectic Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khresheh, Asim

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate when and why to use Arabic as L1 in the Saudi Arabian EFL classroom. For this purpose, 45 classroom observations were performed for beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels of students. 5 classes were chosen randomly for each level and each class was observed three times. Based on the classroom observations,…

  7. ZFAT gene variant association with multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf population: A genetic basis for gender-associated susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bourguiba-Hachemi, Sonia; Ashkanani, Tebah K.; Kadhem, Fatema J.; Almawi, Wassim Y.; Alroughani, Raed; Fathallah, M. Dahmani

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful genetic markers to investigate the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). A genome wide association study identified 7 SNPs associated with interferon-β therapy response, however, not with MS risk in a Spanish population. To investigate these findings in a different cohort, the 7 SNPs were investigated in an Arabian Gulf population. The SNPs were analyzed in 268 subjects (156 patients and 112 healthy volunteers) from the Arabian Gulf region using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and KBioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR genotyping methods. Associations between the SNPs and MS were investigated using logistic regression. The present study observed, for the first time, that in an Arabian Gulf population, the ZFAT rs733254 polymorphism (T>G) is a gender-specific risk marker for MS. ZFAT was associated with MS in women but not in men. The G variant was highly associated with the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR)=2.38 and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45–3.91); P=0.0014]. Whereas variant T was a significantly protective factor [OR=0.420 (95% CI, 0.25–0.69); P=0.0014, recessive model]. The findings of the present study provide a genetic basis for the gender-associated susceptibility to MS. In addition, this MS-associated rs733254 SNP may predict MS onset in females from the Arabian Gulf population. PMID:27572828

  8. Source Credibility during the Gulf War: A Q-Study of Rural and Urban Saudi Arabian Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makaty, Safran S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studies how male Saudi Arabians sought and placed credibility in information sources about the Gulf War. Finds two groups: global-oriented, who were international radio-oriented; and village-oriented, primarily rural, who placed more trust in domestic media. Shows that all relied more heavily on broadcast media than on print media. (SR)

  9. Does size matter? Comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica) in the Saudi desert.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-04-01

    Heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the normal limits of homeothermy, is widely viewed as a key adaptation of arid-adapted ungulates. However, desert ungulates with a small body mass, i.e. a relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio and a small thermal inertia, are theoretically less likely to employ adaptive heterothermy than are larger ungulates. We measured body temperature and activity patterns, using implanted data loggers, in free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx, ±70 kg) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica, ±15 kg) inhabiting the same Arabian desert environment, at the same time. Compared to oryx, sand gazelle had higher mean daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 47.3, P = 0.0005), higher minimum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 42.6, P = 0.0006) and higher maximum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 11.0, P = 0.02). Despite these differences, both species responded similarly to changes in environmental conditions. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, maximum daily body temperature increased (F(1,6) = 84.0, P < 0.0001), minimum daily body temperature decreased (F(1,6) = 92.2, P < 0.0001), and daily body temperature amplitude increased (F(1,6) = 97.6, P < 0.0001) as conditions got progressively hotter and drier. There were no species differences in activity levels, however, both gazelle and oryx showed a biphasic or crepuscular rhythm during the warm wet season but shifted to a more nocturnal rhythm during the hot dry season. Activity was attenuated during the heat of the day at times when both species selected cool microclimates. These two species of Arabian ungulates employ heterothermy, cathemerality and shade seeking very similarly to survive the extreme, arid conditions of Arabian deserts, despite their size difference.

  10. The sensitivity of the southwest monsoon phytoplankton bloom to variations in aeolian iron deposition over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggert, Jerry D.; Murtugudde, Raghu G.

    2007-05-01

    A coupled, 3-D biophysical ocean general circulation model is used to investigate how aeolian iron deposition affects the Arabian Sea ecosystem. Two separate aeolian iron deposition fields, derived from the GISS and GOCART atmospheric transport models, have been applied as surface boundary conditions. The model results exhibit widespread biogeochemical sensitivity to the choice of deposition field. With GOCART deposition, SW Monsoon phytoplankton blooms in the western and central Arabian Sea are enhanced and exhibit greater realism. The central Arabian Sea bloom is supported by supplemental input of horizontally advected iron from a pool that undergoes a yearlong progression that begins in the Gulf of Oman, where the difference in aeolian iron enrichment between the two deposition fields is most prevalent. The GOCART-enhanced blooms result in a more pronounced shift toward netplankton, an increase in euphotic zone export flux of up to a 20% during the SW Monsoon and an additional annual biogenic export of 3.5 TgC. The potential ramifications of regional N-cycle alteration through stimulation of N2-fixation that is promoted by significant aeolian mineral flux needs to be explored. The canonical thinking that the northern Arabian Sea is invariably iron replete is now being challenged by both our model results and recent observational studies. As well, our results indicate that Arabian Sea iron concentrations are strongly modulated by the specific nature of aeolian mineral deposition. Thus climate or land use influences on dust mobilization could exercise leading-order controls on regional biogeochemical variability, metabolic status and air-sea exchanges of CO2.

  11. Precambrian to Jurassic rocks of Arabian Gulf and adjacent areas: their facies, depositional setting, and hydrocarbon habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Kendal, C.G.S.C.

    1986-08-01

    The first sediments to onlap the metamorphosed Precambrian Arabian shield were Infracambrian (Proterozoic) to Middle Cambrian carbonates, clastics, and evaporites. The oldest Arabian reservoir rocks occur in the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic Era Salt of the Huqf Group, which forms the Birba field of Oman. The Middle Cambrian sequence was followed by Late Cambrian through Early Permian marine sandstones and continental to littoral siltstones and variegated shales. The first commercial oil discovered in the Arabian Gulf region occurs in fluvial sands of the Ordovician to Permian Haima and Haushi Groups of the Marmul field in south Oman. These strata are also productive in other fields and are sealed by unconformable contact with the Al Khlata Formation or beneath shale of the Albian Nahr Umr Formation. The deeply buried kerogen sediments of the Huqf Group to the southeast are believed to be the source rocks for these fields of south Oman. The Late Permian to Triassic deposits of the Arabian Peninsula are mainly widespread carbonates and evaporites that were deposited during a period of relative tectonic stability. Their deposition on an epeiric shelf was punctuated by a series of transgressions and regressions. Significant gas reserves have been proven in deep wells in the Arabian Gulf. These wells penetrate large deep structures in the Permian Khuff shelf carbonates. These carbonates have developed secondary porosity and lie beneath interbedded shale and dolomites of the Sudair or Suwei Formation. The source of gas in the Khuff is unknown but could lie in more deeply buried formations. The large deep structures of the Khuff are considered to be among the most attractive for gas potential in the region today. 14 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Reactivation of the Pleistocene trans-Arabian Wadi ad Dawasir fluvial system (Saudi Arabia) during the Holocene humid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Albert; Mahjoub, Ayman; Neubert, Eike; Preusser, Frank; Schwalb, Antje; Szidat, Sönke; Wulf, Gerwin

    2016-10-01

    The Wadi ad Dawasir fluvial system in central Saudi Arabia is investigated using remote sensing and sedimentology, in combination with bio-proxy analyses (molluscs and ostracods). Age control is provided by radiocarbon as well as luminescence dating, using both quartz and feldspar grains. It is shown that the fluvial system was active from the Asir Mountains across the partially sand-covered interior of the Arabian Peninsula to the Arabian Gulf during the Holocene humid period. Sedimentology and faunal analysis reveal the presence of perennial streams and a permanent freshwater lake in the distal reach of the Dawasir system that are synchronous with fluvial accumulation in the headwaters of its major tributary, Wadi Tathlith. The increased runoff during the Holocene led to a re-activation of streams that largely followed pre-existing Late Pleistocene courses and eroded into older sediments. The absence of Holocene lakes in most of the Rub' al-Khali implies that trans-Arabian rivers were mainly fed by precipitation in the Asir Mountains. Monsoonal rainfall was apparently stronger there as well as in the northern, south-eastern and southern part of the Arabian Peninsula (southern Yemen and Oman), but it apparently did not directly affect the interior during the Holocene. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows a narrow trans-Arabian green freshwater corridor as the result of phases of sustained flow lasting up to several centuries. The permanent availability of water and subsistence for wildlife provided a favourable environment for human occupation as documented by Neolithic stone tools that are found all along Wadi ad Dawasir.

  13. Deletion of 2.7 kb near HOXD3 in an Arabian horse with occipitoatlantoaxial malformation.

    PubMed

    Bordbari, M H; Penedo, M C T; Aleman, M; Valberg, S J; Mickelson, J; Finno, C J

    2017-01-23

    In the horse, the term occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM) is used to describe a developmental defect in which the first cervical vertebra (atlas) resembles the base of the skull (occiput) and the second cervical vertebra (axis) resembles the atlas. Affected individuals demonstrate an abnormal posture and varying degrees of ataxia. The homeobox (HOX) gene cluster is involved in the development of both the axial and appendicular skeleton. Hoxd3-null mice demonstrate a strikingly similar phenotype to Arabian foals with OAAM. Whole-genome sequencing was performed in an OAAM-affected horse (OAAM1) and seven unaffected Arabian horses. Visual inspection of the raw reads within the region of HOXD3 identified a 2.7-kb deletion located 4.4 kb downstream of the end of HOXD4 and 8.2 kb upstream of the start of HOXD3. A genotyping assay revealed that both parents of OAAM1 were heterozygous for the deletion. Additional genotyping identified two of 162 heterozygote Arabians, and the deletion was not present in 371 horses of other breeds. Comparative genomics studies have revealed that this region is highly conserved across species and that the entire genomic region between Hoxd4 and Hoxd3 is transcribed in mice. Two additional Arabian foals diagnosed with OAAM (OAAM 2 and 3) were genotyped and did not have the 2.7-kb deletion. Closer examination of the phenotype in these cases revealed notable variation. OAAM3 also had facial malformations and a patent ductus arteriosus, and the actual malformation at the craniocervical junction differed. Genetic heterogeneity may exist across the HOXD locus in Arabian foals with OAAM.

  14. Modeling of circulation in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman: Skill assessment and seasonal thermohaline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azhar, Muchamad; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-03-01

    Hindcast simulations of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) are quantitatively evaluated with basin-wide hydrographic data and time series measurements. The model shows comparable skill in reproducing moored observations of current velocities structure in upper and bottom depths. The skill in simulating observed temperature is higher of 0.93 (scale 0-1) in upper depths compared to 0.52 in bottom depths. Model results are sensitive to parameterization of water clarity. A lower sensitivity was noticed to KPP, GLS, and MY2.5 turbulence closures. When coastal turbid water parameterization is used, accuracy of the model in reproducing seasonal and spatial variations of temperature and salinity increased by 25% compared to the clear water case whereas only 10% increase was noticed when applying KPP turbulent closure. The model reproduces well anticlockwise circulation in the Gulf. A stronger surface inflow of fresher water to the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz is simulated in summer compared to winter conditions, mainly due to upper layer horizontal gradient of density between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Less seasonal variability of outflow between 0.15 and 0.20 m s-1 at 50 m to bottom depth around the Strait of Hormuz was noticed in the model results. Modeled surface layer stratification is stronger in summer than winter and varies spatially in the Arabian Gulf with highest stratification near the Strait of Hormuz. Overall, the stratification in shallow water area of the Arabian Gulf remains low throughout the year.

  15. The role of the Arabian Sea in the global ocean nitrogen cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Six, Katharina D.; Gaye, Birgit; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

    2010-05-01

    The Arabian Sea covers only a small area of the world oceans, but has a significant influence on the global cycle of nitrogen. It is one of the three oceanic regions where a mid water oxygen minimum zone has been observed. Under hypoxic conditions the oxygen source used by bacteria to reduce organic matter is nitrate. This leads to the progressive reduction of biologically available nitrogen to elemental nitrogen, the denitrification. The depletion of nitrate, a macro nutrient, affects the biological production, in turn the carbon cycle and, thus, the global climate. In order to preserve the observed global ratio of P to N, the opposite process, the nitrogen fixation, occurring in surface waters, should balance on long times scales the oceanic loss of nitrogen. To date, the oceanic budget of fixed nitrogen is still poorly understood. Neither reliable estimates of the magnitude of the nitrate loss during denitrification in the Arabian Sea and in the world oceans nor knowledge about climate induced variations in the nitrogen cycle are available. This study aims to simulate the global nitrogen cycle with special emphasis on the Arabian Sea. The modelling approach, based on the isotopic signature of nitrate, permits to evaluate the transformations between N-species within the cycle. Therefore, the hypotheses formulated in literature on the occurrence of different mechanisms and their relative rates can be tested. Particular focus is on crucial processes as the denitrification and nitrification. The consideration of the almost parallel isotopic fractionation of oxygen, which is fixed in nitrate, gives additional insight into the rate of nitrification. The study concentrates furthermore on potential climate feedbacks of the nitrogen cycle. The modelling tool is the ocean general circulation model MPIOM (1°x1°, 40 vertical levels) with the biogeochemistry submodel HAMOCC5.1 embedded. Such an instrument offers the unique opportunity of tracking single processes and

  16. Scavenger assemblages under differing trophic conditions: a case study in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janßen, Felix; Treude, Tina; Witte, Ursula

    Baited cameras and traps were deployed at four stations in the deep Arabian Sea to investigate the composition of the necrophagous fauna and to evaluate whether regional differences in trophic conditions are reflected by differing scavenger assemblages. The ophidiid fish Barathrites iris, the large lysianassoid amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, the aristeid prawn Plesiopenaeus armatus, and zoarcid fishes of the genus Pachycara were abundant at the bait at all stations. The ophidiid Holcomycteronus aequatorius, the liparid fish Paraliparis sp., and galatheid crabs of the genus Munidopsis occurred in considerable numbers at single sites. Trap catches further contained lysianassoid amphipods of the genera Paralicella, Abyssorchomene and Paracallisoma. In contrast to scavenger assemblages of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, macrourid fishes were virtually absent at the bait. E. gryllus and B. iris consumed the main proportion of the bait, while consumption was at most moderate in all other taxa. Feeding strategies of the respective taxa are inferred from their behavior at the bait and discussed with regard to the profit that can be drawn from food falls. Differences between stations were pronounced with respect to species dominating bait consumption. E. gryllus appeared in highest numbers at the bait in the productive northern and central Arabian Sea where a relatively high availability of food items is expected to sustain high population densities. High numbers of B. iris in the least productive southern part indicate their ability to persist under food-poor conditions and may correspond to a high dependency on food falls. E. gryllus and B. iris both occurred in smaller numbers in the particularly productive western Arabian Sea. This may reflect a reduced dependency on food falls, due to an access to alternative food sources, rather than small population densities. Smaller numbers of E. gryllus and B. iris resulted in slower bait consumption and gave Pachycara spp. the

  17. Characterizing Mineral Dust from the Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is one of the Earth's major sources of atmospheric dust. Along with profound negative effects on human activity and natural processes in this region, dust is an important nutrient source for the oligothrophic northern Red Sea. From preliminary observations it is estimated that some 18-20 major dust storms per year deposit about 6 Mt of mineral dust into the Red Sea. To better understand the optical properties, health, and ecological impacts of dust, we study the mineralogical, chemical and morphological properties of surface soil samples collected at prevbiously identified potential dust sources along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. Many of these dust sources lie within a narrow coastal region and because of their proximity to the Red Sea, are important contributors to the dust/nutrient balance, during both dusty and fair weather conditions. Bulk samples were collected from the top 10 mm of soils from three sites along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. The soil samples were sieved to separate the < 38μm particle fractions for chemical and mineralogical analysis. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was applied to measure the mineral content of the dust. The chemical composition of individual particles was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). From the XRD analysis of the sieved samples from An Masayat (23.3322 N, 38.9481 E), Buthna (23.2960 N, 38.9384 E) and Rabugh pipeline Road (23.292 N, 38.91 E), it was found that the dust was composed largely of hematite, goethite, calcite, dolomite, quartz, chlorite, muscovite, amphibole, epidote and plagioclase. Our results are being compared to, and show similarities to those of Engelbrecht et al. , collected at 15 Middle East sites. Both the mineralogical content and chemical composition of samples bear the signatures of the regional geology. Engelbrecht, J. P., McDonald, E. V., Gillies, J. A., Jayanty, R. K. M., Casuccio, G., and Gertler, A. W., 2009

  18. Response of benthic foraminifera to phytodetritus in the eastern Arabian Sea under low oxygen conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, Annekatrin; Wukovits, Julia; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Witte, Ursula; Hunter, William; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    At water depths between 100 and 1500 m a permanent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) impinges on the sea floor in the eastern Arabian Sea, exposing benthic organisms to anoxic to suboxic conditions. The flux of organic matter to the sea floor is relatively high at these depths but displays seasonal variation. Deposition of relatively fresh phytodetrital material (phytoplankton remains) can occur within a short period of time after monsoon periods. Several organism groups including foraminifera are involved to different extent in the processing of phytodetritus in the OMZs of the northern Arabian Sea. A series of in situ feeding experiments were performed to study the short-term processing (< 11 days) of organic carbon, nitrogen and nutritional demands of foraminifera at different oxygen concentrations on the continental margin in the eastern Arabian Sea. For the experiments, a single pulse of isotopically labeled phytodetritus was added to the sediment along a depth transect (540-1100 m) on the Indian Margin, covering the OMZ core and the lower OMZ boundary region. Uptake of phytodetritus within 4 days shows the relevance of phytodetritus as food source for foraminifera. Lower content of phytodetrital carbon recorded in foraminifera from more oxygenated depths shows greater food uptake by foraminifera in the OMZ core than in the OMZ boundary region. The foraminiferal assemblage living under almost anoxic conditions in the OMZ core is dominated by species typically found in eutroph environments (such as Uvigerinids) that are adapted to high flux of organic matter. The elevated carbon uptake can also result from missing food competition by macrofauna or from greater energy demand in foraminifera to sustain metabolic processes under hypoxic stress. Variable levels and ratios of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen indicate specific nutritional demands and storage of food-derived nitrogen in some foraminifera species under near anoxia where the mean phytodetrital nitrogen content

  19. Investigating Transition Zone Thickness Variation under the Arabian Plate: Evidence Lacking for Deep Mantle Upwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliá, J.; Tang, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Zahran, H.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic outcrops in Arabia - locally known as harrats - span more than 2000 km along the western half of the Arabian plate, from eastern Yemen to southern Syria. The magmatism is bimodal in character, with older volcanics (30 to 20 My) being tholeiitic-to-transitional and paralleling the Red Sea margin, and younger volcanics (12 Ma to Recent) being transitional-to-strongly-alkalic and aligning in a more north-south direction. The bimodal character has been attributed to a two-stage rifting process along the Red Sea, where the old volcanics would have produced from shallow sources related to an initial passive rifting stage, and young volcanics would have originated from one or more deep-seated mantle plumes driving present active rifting. Early models suggested the harrats would have resulted from either lateral flow from the Afar plume in Ethiopia, or more locally from a separate mantle plume directly located under the shield. Most recently, tomographic images of the Arabian mantle have suggested the northern harrats could be resulting from flow originating at a deep plume under Jordan. In this work, we investigate the location of deep mantle plumes under the Arabian plate by mapping transition zone thickness with teleseismic receiver functions. The transition zone is bounded by seismic discontinuities, nominally at 410 and 660 km depth, originating from phase transitions in the olivine-normative component of the mantle. The precise depth of the discontinuities is strongly dependent on temperature and, due to the opposing signs of the corresponding Clapeyron slopes, positive temperature anomalies are expected to result in thinning of the transition zone. Our dataset consists of ~5000 low-frequency (fc < 0.25 Hz) receiver function waveforms obtained at ~110 broadband stations belonging to a number of permanent and temporary seismic networks in the region. The receiver functions were migrated to depth and stacked along a ~2000 km long record section

  20. Evidence for eddy formation in the eastern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, John G.; Johnson, Donald R.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal formation of a large (500-800 km diameter) anticyclonic eddy in the upper 300-400 m of the eastern Arabian Sea during the northest monsoon period (December-April) is indicated fom hydrographic and satellite altimetry sea level observations, as well as from numerical model experiments. The center of the eddy circulation is approximately 10 deg N, 70 deg E, just to the west of the north-south Laccadive Island chain. In this paper the eddy is called the Laccadive High (LH). In some ways it is like a mirrorlike counterpart to the Great Whirl that develops during the southwest monsoon of the Somali coast (western Arabian Sea). The LH occurs at the same latitude but on the opposite side of the basin during the reversed monsoon. It is different from the Great Whirl, however, in its formation process, its intensity, and its decay. The hydrographic data obtained from surveys all during a single season give sufficiently close station spacing to allow reasonable contouring of the geopotential surfaces and of the properties within and around the LH region with minimum time aliasing. The Geostat altimeter record extends over 4 years, during which the seasonal variability of the LH indicates a dynamic relief of approximately 15-20 cm, which is in good agreement with the hydrographics observations. The altimetry time series also suggests a westward translation of the LH by January with a subsequent dissipation in midbasin. The model used is a wind-forced three-layer primitive equation model which depicts a LH agreement with the timing, position, and amplitude of both the hydrographic and altimetric measurements. The numerical simulation includes a passive tracer located in the Western Bay of Bengal; the western advection of the tracer around the south coasts of Sri Lanka and India in December and January is consistent with the appearance of low-salinity water observed to extend into the Arabian Sea during this period. The modeling studies suggest that both local and

  1. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 μg/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 μg/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 μg/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 μg/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 μg/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 μg/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 μg/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present

  2. Change Detection Analysis of Costal Habitat Using Remote Sensing Technologies in the Western Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabian Coast) over a Thirty-Year Period.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Idris, N.; Johnson, S. H.; Qurban, M. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Many factors can severely affect the growth and abundance of the marine ecosystems. For example, due to anthropogenic and natural forces, benthic habitats including but not limited to mangroves, sea grass, salt marshes, macro algae, and coral reefs have been experiencing high levels of declination. Furthermore, aerosols and their propellants are suspected contributors to marine habitat degradation. Although several studies reveal that the Arabian Gulf habitats have suffered deleterious impacts after the Gulf War and the following six month off-shore oil spill, limited research exists to track the changes in benthic habitats over the past three decades using remote sensing. Document changes in costal habitats over the past thirty years were better observed with the use of multispectral remote sensors such as Landsat-5, Landsat-7, and Landsat8 (OLI). Change detection analysis was performed on the three Landsat images (Landsat-5 for the 1987 image, Landsat-7 for the 2000, and Landsat-8 for the 2013 image). The images were then modified, masked off from open water and land. An unsupervised classification was performed which cluster similar classes together. The supervised classification displayed the seven following classes: coral reefs, macro algae, sea grass, salt marshes, mangroves, water, and land. Compared to 1987 image to 2000 scene, there was a noticeable increase in the extensiveness of salt marsh and macro algae habitats. However, a significant decrease in salt marsh habitats were apparent in the 2013 scene.

  3. Measurements of CO and CH4 in the troposphere over Saudi Arabia, India, and the Arabian Sea during the 1979 International Summer Monsoon Experiment /MONEX/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, R. E.; Condon, E. P.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    During the 1979 Summer MONEX, 150 air samples collected over Saudi Arabia, India, and the Arabian Sea were analyzed for CO and CH4. Near Dhahran and over the Ganges Valley there were high concentrations of CO, around 300 ppbv, in the boundary layer. Out over the Saudi Arabian desert there was no sharp increase in the boundary layer. It is suggested that these high concentrations originate from pollution sources. Low values of CO, down to 80 ppbv, are found over the Arabian Sea as the monsoon progresses, and these may originate from the Southern Hemisphere. Methane over Saudi Arabia (1.59 ppmv) is a little higher than that over the Arabian Sea (1.54 ppmv) probably because the latter region is influenced by air from the Southern Hemisphere.

  4. 75 FR 2920 - In the Matter of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, Also Known as Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al- Arab, Also Known as al-Qa'ida Organization in...

  5. 77 FR 61046 - The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka Al-Qa'ida in the South...

  6. Hydrodynamic evaluation of long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Abubaker; Elshorbagy, Walid

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive basin wide hydrodynamic evaluation has been carried out to assess the long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents on the salinity and seawater temperature of the Arabian Gulf (AG) using Delft3D-Flow model. The long term impacts of climate change scenarios A2 and B1 of the IPCC-AR4 on the AG hydrodynamics were evaluated. Using the current capacity and production rates of coastal desalination, power, and refinery plants, two projection scenarios until the year 2080 with 30 year intervals were developed namely the realistic and the optimistic discharge scenarios. Simulations of the individual climate change scenarios ascertained overall increase of the AG salinity and temperature and decrease of precipitation. The changes varied spatially with different scenarios as per the depth, proximity to exchange with ocean water, flushing, vertical mixing, and flow restriction. The individual tested scenarios of coastal projected discharges showed significant effects but within 10-20 km from the outfalls.

  7. Effect of oil pollution on euendolithic cyanobacteria of the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Thukair, Assad A

    2002-02-01

    Microbial euendoliths (true borer) cyanobacteria are carbonate-boring microorganisms found in modern and ancient marine environments. Modern euendoliths include a wide range of prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes, which have been reported world-wide. The importance of euendolithic cyanobacteria concerns their role in bio-erosion of calcium carbonate substrates and as ecological indicators of shallow, tropical and subtropical marine environments. Arabian Gulf ooids from four sites along the east coast of Saudi Arabia have been bored and inhabited by several species of euendolithic cyanobacteria. This assemblage of different species exists simultaneously within the same ooid grain. Comparisons of 1989 and 1992 data reveal a drastic reduction in active euendoliths, and the average numbers of colonies in these ooids. This study reveals the harmful effect of the 1991 oil spill on these unique microorganisms residing in these ooids.

  8. Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1990-11-01

    Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

  9. Weight dependence of arsenic concentration in the Arabian Sea tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the arsenic concentration in the edible muscle of Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus toggel (hereafter called tuna and longtail tune) as they have great commercial value. These fish are widely available along the coastal line of Pakistan and are consumed abundantly in large bulk. Thus, it was felt justifiable on the basis of safety of human health that data, in the first instance, be obtained on arsenic concentration in tuna as a function of weight to check whether the metal distribution was species-specific or it depended on individual mode of development. The data, the first of the kind so far presented on the Arabian Sea tuna, would thus provide the required baseline quantitative information needed in future studies on the physiological processes regulating the distribution and uptake of arsenic by these and other species of fish common to the region.

  10. Massive outbreaks of Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Arabian Sea due to spread of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    do Rosário Gomes, Helga; Goes, Joaquim I; Matondkar, S G P; Buskey, Edward J; Basu, Subhajit; Parab, Sushma; Thoppil, Prasad

    2014-09-09

    In the last decade, the northern Arabian Sea has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms, which previously comprised mainly of diatoms, the unicellular, siliceous photosynthetic organisms favoured by nutrient-enriched waters from convective mixing. These trophically important diatom blooms have been replaced by widespread blooms of a large, green dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans, which combines carbon fixation from its chlorophyll-containing endosymbiont with ingestion of prey. Here, we report that these massive outbreaks of N. scintillans during winter are being facilitated by an unprecedented influx of oxygen deficient waters into the euphotic zone and by the extraordinary ability of its endosymbiont Pedinomonas noctilucae to fix carbon more efficiently than other phytoplankton under hypoxic conditions. We contend that N. scintillans blooms could disrupt the traditional diatom-sustained food chain to the detriment of regional fisheries and long-term health of an ecosystem supporting a coastal population of nearly 120 million people.

  11. Monitoring red tide with satellite imagery and numerical models: a case study in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-02-15

    A red tide event that occurred in August 2008 in the Arabian Gulf was monitored and assessed using satellite observations and numerical models. Satellite observations revealed the bloom extent and evolution from August 2008 to August 2009. Flow patterns of the bloom patch were confirmed by results from a HYCOM model. HYCOM data and satellite-derived sea surface temperature data further suggested that the bloom could have been initiated offshore and advected onshore by bottom Ekman layer. Analysis indicated that nutrient sources supporting the bloom included upwelling, Trichodesmium, and dust deposition while other potential sources of nutrient supply should also be considered. In order to monitor and detect red tide effectively and provide insights into its initiation and maintenance mechanisms, the integration of multiple platforms is required. The case study presented here demonstrated the benefit of combing satellite observations and numerical models for studying red tide outbreaks and dynamics.

  12. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  13. Diversity and bioactive potentials of culturable heterotrophic bacteria from the surficial sediments of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Anas, Abdulaziz; Nilayangod, Charulatha; Jasmin, C; Vinothkumar, Saradavey; Parameswaran, P S; Nair, Shanta

    2016-12-01

    Marine sediments accommodate plethora of diverse microorganisms with varying ecological functions. In the present study, we isolated bacteria from surficial sediments of south east Arabian Sea (AS) and evaluated their bioactive potentials. A total of 131 isolates belonging to the phylum: γ-Proteobacteria (63%), Bacillales (34%) and Micrococcaceae (3%) were isolated. Among these, about 40% of the isolates showed the presence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes such as PKS or NRPS or both. Organic extracts of nearly 50% of these organisms were cytotoxic to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and were bactericidal to human pathogens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp., while 20-30% of them were bactericidal to Vibrio sp. and Staphylococcus sp. too. In all, 8 isolates, belonging to Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus sp. and/or Lysinibacillus sp. displayed high level of bactericidal/cytotoxic properties. The study proposes AS sediment as a rich source for microorganisms with prospective bioactive molecules.

  14. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area.

  15. Petrology and chemistry of Jebel Tanumah complex, Khamis Mushayt, Southern Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassief, M. O.; Ali, H. M.; Zakir, F. A.

    The mafic intrusive complex at Jebel Tanumah is located 15 km north-west of Khamis Mushayt in the southern Arabian Shield and includes olivine-bearing gabbro as well as amphibole-diopside-hornblende gabbro cumulates. These rocks have been generally metamorphosed to upper greeenschist-lower amphibolite facies. Fourteen white rock silicate analyses indicate that the majority of the rocks are calc-alkaline to tholeiitic in composition. The two major structural units in the Khamis Mushayt region identified by Coleman consist of the basement complex of Asir Mountains and the younger metamorphic rocks. Syntectonic granitic rocks intruded the antiforms characterizing the younger rocks whereas the lower parts of the synforms are intruded by post-tectonic intrusions of layered gabbros such as the one studied at Jebel Tanumah.

  16. Interpretation of electrophoretograms of seven microsatellite loci to determine the genetic diversity of the Arabian Oryx.

    PubMed

    Arif, I A; Khan, H A; Shobrak, M; Al Homaidan, A A; Al Sadoon, M; Al Farhan, A H; Bahkali, A H

    2010-02-09

    Microsatellite markers are commonly used for examining population structure, especially inbreeding, outbreeding and gene flow. An array of microsatellite loci, preferably with multiallelic presentation, is preferable for ensuring accurate results. However, artifact peaks or stutters in the electrophoretograms significantly hamper the reliable interpretation of genotypes. We interpreted electrophoretograms of seven microsatellite loci to determine the genetic diversity of the Arabian Oryx. All the alleles of different loci exhibited good peak resolutions and hence were clearly identified. Moreover, none of the stutter peaks impaired the recognition or differentiation between homozygote and heterozygote. Our findings suggest that correct identification of alleles in the presence of co-amplified nonspecific fragments is important for reliable interpretation of microsatellite data.

  17. What is your diagnosis? Peritoneal fluid from an Arabian horse after colic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Suzanne M; Christian, John A; Paige Jackson, L; Hawkins, Jan F; Sojka, Janice E

    2008-06-01

    A 16-year-old castrated male Arabian horse was presented to the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 4-hour history of colic. Initial examinations provided strong evidence for small intestinal obstruction. Abdominal surgery revealed a strangulating lipoma, and 25 feet of small intestine were resected. Postoperatively, the horse developed obstructive ileus due to adhesion formation, which required a second laparotomy. During and after surgery, the abdomen was lavaged with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). One week after the second surgery, evaluation of peritoneal fluid revealed an inflammatory exudate, with many macrophages containing amorphous to granular, pink to magenta phagocytosed material. Extracellular aggregates of the material were also observed. The material was consistent with CMC. To our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate the phagocytosis of CMC by peritoneal fluid macrophages.

  18. Doppler echocardiographic description of double-inlet left ventricle in an Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Sedacca, Cassidy D; Bright, Janice M; Boon, June

    2010-08-01

    Univentricular atrioventricular (AV) connections are rare and complex congenital cardiac anomalies in which both AV valves communicate into a large, common (single) receiving chamber. The common chamber can be of left, right, or mixed ventricular morphology. Although well documented in people, reports of the double-inlet ventricle malformation are rare in the veterinary literature. This report provides description of an Arabian horse with a double-inlet univentricular connection of left ventricular type, a hypoplastic subpulmonary right ventricle, two muscular ventricular septal defects, and a stenotic mitral valve. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography enabled antemortem diagnosis, and provided an assessment of intracardiac hemodynamics. The findings indicate that Doppler echocardiography is a useful, noninvasive tool for evaluating equine patients with congenital univentricular AV connections, such as a double-inlet left ventricle.

  19. First report of cerebellar abiotrophy in an Arabian foal from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sadaba, S.A.; Madariaga, G.J.; Botto, C.M. Corbi; Carino, M.H.; Zappa, M.E.; García, P. Peral; Olguín, S.A.; Massone, A.; Díaz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) was found in a six-month-old Arabian filly with signs of incoordination, head tremor, wobbling, loss of balance and falling over, consistent with a cerebellar lesion. Normal hematology profile blood test and cerebrospinal fluid analysis excluded infectious encephalitis, and serological testing for Sarcocystis neurona was negative. The filly was euthanized. Postmortem X-ray radiography of the cervical cephalic region identified not abnormalities, discounting spinal trauma. The histopathological analysis of serial transverse cerebellar sections by electron microscopy revealed morphological characteristics of apoptotic cells with pyknotic nuclei and degenerate mitochondria, cytoplasmic condensation and areas with absence of Purkinje cells, matching with CA histopathological characteristics. The indirect DNA test for CA was positive in the filly, and DNA test confirmed the CA carrier state in the parents and the recessive inheritance of the disease. To our knowledge this is the first report of a CA case in Argentina. PMID:28116251

  20. RADIATION PROTECTION IN AN INTERVENTIONAL LABORATORY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND SAUDI ARABIAN HOSPITALS.

    PubMed

    Alahmari, Mohammed Ali S; Sun, Zhonghua; Bartlett, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the use of protection devices and attitudes of interventional professionals (including radiologists, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, medical imaging technicians and nurses) towards radiation protection will differ between Saudi Arabian and Australian hospitals. Hard copies of an anonymous survey were distributed to 10 and 6 clinical departments in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia and metropolitan hospitals in Western Australia, respectively. The overall response rate was 43 % comprising 110 Australian participants and 63 % comprising 147 Saudi participants. Analysis showed that Australian respondents differed significantly from Saudi respondents with respect to their usages of leaded glasses (p < 0.001), ceiling-suspended lead screen (p < 0.001) and lead drape suspended from the table (p < 0.001). This study indicates that the trained interventional professionals in Australia tend to adhere to benefit from having an array of tools for personal radiation protection than the corresponding group in Saudi Arabia.

  1. Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1990-01-01

    Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

  2. Regional consensus opinion for the management of Beta thalassemia major in the Arabian Gulf area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thalassemia syndrome has diverse clinical presentations and a global spread that has far exceeded the classical Mediterranean basin where the mutations arose. The mutations that give rise to either alpha or beta thalassemia are numerous, resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from carrier state to life-threatening, inherited hemolytic anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. Beta thalassemia major constitutes a remarkable challenge to health care providers. The complications arising due to the anemia, transfusional iron overload, as well as other therapy-related complications add to the complexity of this condition. To produce this consensus opinion manuscript, a PubMed search was performed to gather evidence-based original articles, review articles, as well as published work reflecting the experience of physicians and scientists in the Arabian Gulf region in an effort to standardize the management protocol. PMID:24044606

  3. Undiscovered oil and gas resources of Lower Silurian Qusaiba-Paleozoic total petroleum systems, Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas potential of 128 of the world’s petroleum provinces (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). In each province, the USGS defined Total Petroleum Systems, and Assessment Units in each Total Petroleum System, and then quantitatively estimated the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources. Of the eight global regions studied by the USGS, the Arabian Peninsula portion of the Middle East region was estimated to contain the greatest volumes of undiscovered oil and gas. The Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation is the source rock for some of the most important Total Petroleum Systems of the Middle East region. For example, the sources of the gas in the supergiant North field of Qatar and Iran and recent giant light oil discoveries in central Saudi Arabia were largely organic-rich, Qusaiba marine mudstones.

  4. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna.

  5. Engima of a thermal anomaly - A TM/AVHRR study of the volcanic Arabian highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Masuoka, P. M.

    1987-01-01

    Discovery of a large thermal anomaly in the western Arabian highlands on Landsat TM imagery is reported. The anomaly, 15 C warmer than surroundings, forms a 2-km-wide arc around the southern flank of Jebel Chada, a volcano active in 1256 AD. It is recorded by AVHRR imagery as well, despite the 1.1-km spatial resolution of this sensor. Air photos and geologic maps show no bedrock unit that corresponds to the anomaly. Digital techniques were applied to the TM and AVHRR data, including contrast enhancement, density slicing, principal components analysis, and construction of multiband composite images. It is concluded that the anomaly results from a thin cover of volcanic ash or cinder that is optically indistinguishable from underlying basalt, rather than from internal (volcanic or hydrologic) heat sources.

  6. Speciation of phosphorus in the continental shelf sediments in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar; Kurian, John; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Tripathy, Subhasish

    2016-03-01

    The distributions of various forms of phosphorus (P) and their relation with sediment geochemistry in two core sediments near Karwar and Mangalore offshore have been studied through the modified SEDEX procedure (Ruttenberg et al., 2009) and bulk chemical analysis. The present study provides the first quantitative analysis of complete phosphorus speciation in the core sediments of the Eastern Arabian shelf. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Al-Ti-Zr ternary diagram suggest low to moderate source area weathering of granodioritic to tonalitic source rock composition, despite the intense orographic rainfall in the source area. Due to the presence of same source rock and identical oxic depositional environment, the studied sediments show the same range of variation of total phosphorus (24 to 83 μmol/g) with a down-depth depleting trend. Organic bound P and detrital P are the two major chemical forms followed by iron-bound P, exchangeable/loosely bound P and authigenic P. The authigenic P content in the sediments near Mangalore coast varies linearly with calcium (r=0.88) unlike that of Karwar coast. The different reactive-phosphorus pools exhibit identical depleting trend with depth. This indicates that the phosphorus released from the organic matter and Fe bound fractions are prevented from precipitating as authigenic phosphates in the deeper parts of the sediment column. The low concentration of total P, dominance of detrital non-reactive fraction of P and inhibition of formation of authigenic phosphate result in the absence of active phosphatization in the Eastern Arabian Shelf in the studied region. High sedimentation rate (35-58 cm/kyr) and absence of winnowing effect appear to be the dominant factor controlling the P-speciation in the studied sediments.

  7. MODIS-Aqua detects Noctiluca scintillans and hotspots in the central Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Priyaja, P; Rafeeq, M; Sudhakar, M

    2016-01-01

    Northern Arabian Sea is considered as an ecologically sensitive area as it experiences a massive upwelling and long-lasting algal bloom, Noctiluca scintillans (green tide) during summer and spring-winter, respectively. Diatom bloom is also found to be co-located with N. scintillans and both have an impact on ecology of the basin. In-house technique of detecting species of these blooms from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data was used to generate a time-series of images revealing their spatial distribution. A study of spatial-temporal variability of these blooms using satellite data expressed a cyclic pattern of their spread over a period of 13 years. An average distribution of the blooms for January-March period revealed a peak in 2015 and minimum in 2013. Subsequently, a time-series of phytoplankton species images were generated for these 2 years to study their inter-annual variability and the associated factors. Species images during active phase of the bloom (February) in 2015 indicated development of N. scintillans and diatom in the central Arabian Sea also, up to 12° N. This observation was substantiated with relevant oceanic parameters measured from the ship as well as satellite data and the same is highlight of the paper. While oxygen depletion and release of ammonia associated with N. scintillans are detrimental for waters on the western side; it is relatively less extreme and supports the entire food chain on the eastern side. In view of these contrasting eco-sensitive events, it is a matter of concern to identify biologically active persistent areas, hot spots, in order to study their ecology in detail. An ecological index, persistence of the bloom, was derived from the time-series of species images and it is another highlight of our study.

  8. Geochemical imprints of genotypic variants of Globigerina bulloides in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadekov, Aleksey Yu.; Darling, Kate F.; Ishimura, Toyoho; Wade, Christopher M.; Kimoto, Katsunori; Singh, Arun Deo; Anand, Pallavi; Kroon, Dick; Jung, Simon; Ganssen, Gerald; Ganeshram, Raja; Tsunogai, Urumu; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-10-01

    Planktonic foraminifera record oceanic conditions in their shell geochemistry. Many palaeoenvironmental studies have used fossil planktonic foraminifera to constrain past seawater properties by defining species based on their shell morphology. Recent genetic studies, however, have identified ecologically distinct genotypes within traditionally recognized morphospecies, signaling potential repercussions for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Here we demonstrate how the presence of Globigerina bulloides cryptic genotypes in the Arabian Sea may influence geochemical signals of living and fossil assemblages of these morphospecies. We have identified two distinct genotypes of G. bulloides with either cool water (type-II) or warm water (type-I) temperature preferences in the Western Arabian Sea. We accompany these genetic studies with analyses of Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of individual G. bulloides shells. Both Mg/Ca and δ18O values display bimodal distribution patterns. The distribution of Mg/Ca values cannot be simply explained by seawater parameters, and we attribute it to genotype-specific biological controls on the shell geochemistry. The wide range of δ18O values in the fossil assemblage also suggests that similar controls likely influence this proxy in addition to environmental parameters. However, the magnitude of this effect on the δ18O signals is not clear from our data set, and further work is needed to clarify this. We also discuss current evidence of potential genotype-specific geochemical signals in published data on G. bulloides geochemistry and other planktonic foraminiferal species. We conclude that significant caution should be taken when utilizing G. bulloides geochemistry for paleoclimate reconstruction in the regions with upwelling activity or oceanographic fronts.

  9. Early cretaceous platform-margin configuration and evolution in the central Oman mountains, Arabian peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, B.R. ); Smewing, J.D. )

    1993-02-01

    The Hajar Supergroup (Middle Permian-Lower Cretaceous) of northeastern Oman records rifting and development of a passive margin along the edge of the Arabian platform facing Neo-Tethys. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part, comprising the Sahtan, Kahmah, and Wasia groups, was deposited during the maximum extent of the broad epicontinental sea landward of this margin. These limestone units reach a total of 1500 m in thickness and correlate with the hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Arabian Peninsula. The trace of the Jurassic and Cretaceous margin in northeastern Oman followed a zigzag series of rift segments, resulting in promontories and reentrants that changed in position through time in response to the configuration and differential motion of underlying rift blocks. Synsedimentary normal faulting occurred locally in the Middle Jurassic, whereas in the Late Jurassic, the margin was eroded from variable uplift of up to 300 m before subsiding to below storm wave base. This uplift may have been caused by compression from oceanic crust that obducted along the southeastern side of the platform. The Lower Cretaceous succession in the central Oman Mountains and adjacent subsurface began with regional drowning around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. The succession in the east (Saih Hatat) records a single regressive sequence, ending in the progradation of the shallow-water carbonate platform by the Cenomanian. However, the succession in the west (Jebel Akhdar and interior) is dominated by shallow-water carbonate facies, but punctuated by a second regional drowning in the late Aptian. A third, Late Cretaceous drowning terminated deposition of the Wasia Group in the Turonian and was caused by convergence of oceanic crust and foreland basic formation. The record of tectonic behavior of carbonate platforms has important implications for the development of hydrocarbon source rocks and porosity. 68 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Hydrographic characterization of southeast Arabian Sea during the wane of southwest monsoon and spring intermonsoon.

    PubMed

    Vimal Kumar, K G; Dinesh Kumar, P K; Smitha, B R; Habeeb Rahman, H; Josia, Jacob; Muraleedharan, K R; Sanjeevan, V N; Achuthankutty, C T

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal variation of the hydrography along the southeast Arabian Sea is described using data collected onboard FORV Sagar Sampada in September--October 2003 (later phase of Southwest monsoon, SWM) and March--April 2004 (Spring inter monsoon, SIM). During the later phase of the SWM, upwelling was in the withdrawal phase and the frontal structure was clearer in the northern sections (13 and 15 degrees N lat) indicating strong upwelling in the area. The driving force of upwelling is identified as the combination of alongshore wind stress and remote forcing with a latitudinal variability. Although a more prominent upwelling was found in the north, a maximum surface Chlorophyll-a was found in the south (10 degrees N). During the SIM, the area was characterized by oligotrophic water with relatively high Sea Surface Temperature (>29 degrees C) and low salinity (33.8 to 35.4). During March, the surface hydrography was found to be controlled mainly by the intrusion of low-saline waters from the south, while during September by the high saline water from the north. The presence of various water masses [Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), Red Sea Water (RSW)] and their seasonal variations in the region is discussed and their decreasing influence towards the south is noted during both periods of observation. During the SWM, the dynamic topography showed the equator-ward flow of the West India Coastal Current (WICC) at the surface and a pole-ward coastal under current at sub-thermocline depth. During the SIM, surface circulation revealed the WICC flowing pole-ward north of 13 degrees N, but equator-ward flow in the south, with a clockwise circulation around the Lakshadweep High.

  11. Seasonal and interannual variations of the nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, T.; Baum, A.; Gaye, B.; Nagel, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is strongly influenced by the Asian monsoon and plays an important role as a climate archive and in the marine nitrogen cycle, because bio-available NO3- is reduced to dinitrogen gas (N2) in its mid-water oxygen minimum layer (OMZ). In order to investigate seasonal and interannual variations of the nitrogen cycle, nutrient data were obtained from the literature prior to 1993, evaluated, and compared with data measured during five expeditions in 1995 as well as a research cruise in 2007. Our results imply that the area characterized by a pronounced secondary nitrite maximum (SNM) was by 63% larger in 1995 than before. This area, referred to as the core of the denitrifying zone, shows strong seasonal and interannual variations driven by the monsoon. During the SW monsoon the SNM retreats eastwards due to the inflow of oxygen-enriched Indian Ocean Central Water (ICW) and it expands westwards during the NE monsoon because of the reversal of the current regime, which allows the propagation of denitrification signals from the Indian shelf into the open Arabian Sea. On an interannual time-scale an enhanced SW monsoon increases NO3- losses by increasing the upwelling-driven carbon export into the subsurface waters. An associate enhanced inflow of ICW increases the transport of denitrification signals from the SNM into the upwelling region and compensates NO3- losses by enhanced NO3- supply from the Indian Ocean. The latter sustains an enhanced productivity, which in turn transfers denitrification signals into the sedimentary records. On glacial interglacial time scales sea level changes affecting the inflow of ICW seem to increase variations in the accumulation of denitrification tracers in the SNM by reducing the residence time during glacial periods.

  12. Melengestrol acetate implant contraception in addax (Addax Nasomaculatus) and Arabian oryx (Oryx Leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Hall-Woods, Monica L; Bauman, Karen L; Bauman, Joan E; Fischer, Martha; Houston, E William; Asa, Cheryl S

    2007-07-01

    Melengestrol acetate (MGA) implants were used for contraception in three addax and three Arabian oryx females housed at the Saint Louis Zoo. Serum estradiol and progesterone or fecal estrogen and progestin analysis and ultrasonography of reproductive tracts were used for monitoring changes before, during, and after MGA treatment. Follicular development and irregular uterine fluid accumulation were detected in all females during MGA treatment. Although housed with an intact male for all or most of the contraceptive period, no pregnancies occurred.One female addax may have ovulated, based on sustained elevated progesterone levels, and another showed continued follicle development, as seen by fluctuating estradiol concentrations. Reversibility was documented in two of the three addax that resumed reproductive cycles post-MGA-implant removal, whereas the third, a peripubertal female, did not cycle before, during, or after treatment. Addax females were lost to further follow-up after transfer to another institution, so the possibility of subsequent pregnancies is not known.All three Arabian oryx ovulated during the initial MGA treatment, but two of the three females had implants past the typical 2-year efficacy period. They had regular ovulatory cycles after implant removal, with mean cycle length of 27.5+/-1.5 days and mean luteal phase duration of 15.2+/-0.7 days. Reversibility was further shown in all three oryx by pregnancies after placement with a male approximately 2 years after MGA implant removal. Two produced healthy calves, but the third died owing to an unrelated terminal illness in the mother. Zoo Biol 26:299-310, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Seasonal response of zooplankton to monsoonal reversals in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sharon; Roman, Michael; Prusova, Irina; Wishner, Karen; Gowing, Marcia; Codispoti, L. A.; Barber, Richard; Marra, John; Flagg, Charles

    The US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study was designed to provide a seasonally and spatially resolved carbon budget for a basin exhibiting some of the highest and lowest concentrations of plant biomass in the world's ocean. During the US JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea (September 1994-January 1996), the absolute maximum in biomass of epipelagic zooplankton in the entire study was observed during the Southwest Monsoon season inshore of the Findlater Jet in the area of upwelling. The greatest contrast between high and low biomass in the study area also was observed during the Southwest Monsoon, as was the strongest onshore-offshore gradient in biomass. Lowest biomass throughout the study was observed at the most offshore station (S15), outside the direct influence of the monsoon forcing. The greatest day/night contrasts in biomass were observed nearshore in all seasons, with nighttime biomass exceeding daytime in the Northeast Monsoon season, but daytime exceeding nighttime in the Southwest Monsoon season. The diel vertical migration patterns in general reversed between the monsoons at all stations in the southern part of the study area. Virtually, no diel vertical migration of zooplankton took place in any season at the station with strong, persistent subsurface suboxic conditions (N7), suggesting that these conditions suppress migration. Based on the distribution of biomass, we hypothesize that inshore of the Findlater Jet, zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton is the dominant pathway of carbon transformation during both monsoon seasons, whereas offshore the zooplankton feed primarily on microplankton or are carnivorous, conditions that result in reduction of the carbon flux mediated by the zooplankton. Predation by mesopelagic fish, primarily myctophids, may equal daily growth of zooplankton inshore of the Findlater Jet during all seasons. This suggests that the food web inshore of the Findlater Jet is well integrated, may have evolved during past periods of

  14. Pneumococcal disease in the Arabian Gulf: recognizing the challenge and moving toward a solution.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Abdulkarim, Emad; Alattar, Fatma; Al Lawati, Faryal; Al Khatib, Hisham; Al Maslamani, Muna; Al Obaidani, Idris; Al Salah, Mosaab; Farghaly, Mohamed; Husain, Entesar H; Mokadas, Eiman

    2013-12-01

    Pneumococcal disease has substantial incidence, morbidity and mortality in older adults. Decreased birth rates and longer lifespans indicate that the global population is aging, although rates of aging differ between countries [1]. In 2010, the proportion of the population aged >60 years in the general Arab Region was 7%, and this proportion is expected to rise to 19% by 2050 for the region as a whole [2]; the United Nations estimates for the individual countries of the Arabian Gulf by 2050 are 25.7%, 24.9%, 20.7%, 26.7% and 10.5% in the Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman, respectively, which are comparable to the 26.9% predicted for the USA and lower than that predicted in European countries, in which the 2050 estimates are 32.7%, 34.0% and 38.1% for France, the UK and Germany, respectively [1]. Globally and in the Gulf Region, pneumococcal disease is an increasingly important public health burden in the elderly. The burden of pneumococcal disease can be reduced by effective vaccination programs, but the recommendations on pneumococcal vaccination in adults vary widely. The major barriers to vaccine implementation among healthcare professionals are an incomplete awareness of pneumococcal disease and the vaccination options in adults. The Gulf Advocate Group calls for healthcare providers in the countries of the Arabian Gulf (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman) to support awareness and education programs about adult pneumococcal disease, particularly in high-risk groups such as those >65 years of age, those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hematological malignancy, organ and bone marrow transplantation or chronic kidney or lung diseases and pilgrims undertaking the Hajj to improve pneumococcal disease surveillance and optimize and disseminate recommendations for adult vaccination. The Gulf Advocate Group recommends following the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for pneumococcal vaccination [3,4].

  15. Major events in the late Precambrian to early Triassic geohistory of the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, T.E.; Connally, T.C.; Van der Eem, J.G.L.A. )

    1993-09-01

    The late Precambrian to Early Triassic of the Arabian Peninsula occur in five supergroups. Their geohistory resulted from sedimentation along fluvial to midshelf facies tracts, eustatic oscillation and periodic uplift. The first supergroup, Plate Precambrian-Middle Cambrian, includes the Siq/Salib and Yatib formations. Deposited by north-eastward-flowing braided streams, they eroded and buried an Arabian shield topography. The Saq Formation lies in angular unconformity on the Siq which documents early Middle Cambrian uplift. Supergroup two, Middle Cambrian-middle Caradocian, the Burj and Saq formations, the Hanadir, Kahfah, and Ra'an members, Qasim Formation, were deposited on a stable continental margin in fluvio-deltaic to midshelf settings. Coastal onlap occurred in the Middle Cambrian, early Llanvirn, middle Llandeilo and early Caradoc. Middle Caradocian uplift deeply eroded parts of central and southern Arabia. Supergroup three of middle Caradocian-early Llandoverian are the Quwarah Member, Qasim Formation and the Zarqa/Sarah formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic shallow shelf. Late Ashgill uplift, combined with glacially induced sea level lowering, incised valleys up to 2000 ft (610 m) deep. Supergroup four, early Llandovery-Middle Carboniferous, includes the Qalibah, Tawil, Jauf, Jubah and Berwath formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic marine, river dominated system. The Quysaiba and Sharawra members, Qalibah Formation, were the offshore clays and prodelta sands, the Tawil-Jubah were the fluvial to delta front, and the Berwath the delta plain facies. Deep pre-Tawil erosion documents late Silurian-Early Devonian uplift. The fifth supergroup are the Juwayl, Unayzah, Khuff and Sudair formations. The first two units were deposited in a glacio-fluvial system which eroded and infilled a Hercynian topography. The Khuff transgression occurred during the Artinsklan-Tartarian and the Early Triassic regressive Sudair documents renewed uplift.

  16. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenawy, Ahmed; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Raj, Jerry

    2014-05-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the peninsula (i.e., cyclonic, anticyclonic and directional). These large-scale patterns were first defined for the observed climate (1960-2013), allowing for an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in circulation-rainfall relationships over the peninsula using rainfall data from 209 weather observatories. The same methodology was then applied to assess how the defined weather types will be presented in future climate simulations (under RCP45 and RCP85 emission scenarios) and to explore their probable dependency with rainfall characteristics. In this regard, daily simulated SLP derived from an ensemble of 12 climate models within the CMIP5 project were used for two future time-slices (2035-2060 and 2075-2100). Our findings indicate that the cyclonic (C) type represented the most frequent classification with 69.2% of days, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also found that the main circulation features influencing winter (spring) rainfall across the peninsula are the strong influence of the anticyclonic (easterly and southeasterly) air masses. Generally, the role of airflows originating from the Indian Ocean is larger than those of the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. The trend results of defined weather types show that the cyclonic (anticyclonic) conditions tend to decrease (increase). This picture is likely to continue during the 21st century. The only exception corresponds to the summer season. Here, understanding the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula can be important for the understanding of climatic variability and thus developing circulation-based downscaling methods in this region.

  17. Plio-Pleistocene paleoclimatic variability: results from the NW Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakasam, M.; Gupta, A. K.; Yuvaraja, A.; Velu, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene period is marked by numerous changes in Earth's climate and tectonics. The early Pliocene average global surface temperature of ~3° C was warmer than today and the sea level was high around 10-20 m, whereas the continents adjudicated its present day position. In this study we discussed about Indian monsoon variability during the Plio-Pleistocene. Numerous investigations were carried out over the last two decades to understand Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability and its relation to Himalayan tectonics. The ISM is a principal factor to the economy of the south Asian countries playing immense role in changing fauna and flora on land as well as socio-economic conditions of this region. The Arabian Sea is a natural laboratory to carry out paleoclimatic studies on marine sediments. In this study four Ocean Drilling Programme sediment cores were used from the northwestern Arabian Sea, Leg 117, Holes 722B, 731A (Owen Ridge) and 728B, 730A (Oman margin). The planktonic foraminiferal species abundances, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) wt.% and carbonate concentration (CaCO3) proxies were utilised to understand Plio-Pleistocene Indian monsoon variability. The relative abundances of Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species reveal changes in upwelling and mixed layer since the Pliocene. Our results demonstrate that intense upwelling occurred during 5 to ~3.7 Ma, 1.5Ma to Recent and an abrupt change was recorded around 0.1 Ma at all the Holes. The weakening of upwelling occurred from 3.5 Ma to ~1.5 Ma, hence we argue that this is due to Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. Mixed layer species show higher abundances from 2 Ma to 0.8 Ma. The TOC wt.% varies from 7.8% to 0.5% and productive increased many fold during 4 to 2 Ma. The results of TOC and CaCO3 are inversely correlated indicating role of carbonate dissolution.

  18. Living Behaviors and Molecular Characterization of Benthic Foraminifera in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Khalil, Amjad; Holzmann, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The benthic foraminifera are among the major carbonate producers in modern Arabian Gulf waters and are found living in all marine habitats. They have been recognized as proxies to assess paleoenvironmental changes, however, their biological behaviors in modern environments needs to be further studied. The current study attempts to explain the biology of benthic foraminifera in terms of their living behaviors and molecular characterization, from different regions of the western side of the Arabian Gulf. Accordingly, two major groups of benthic foraminifera, namely rotaliids and miliolids, are examined under laboratory conditions. Results illustrate that the rotaliids are more resistant to environmental changes than miliolids, as their granular reticulopodial network is stronger than among the miliolids, with high cytoplasmic streaming. The pseudopodia extend out from both primary and secondary apertures, and aid the organism in locomotion by attaching to the wall of hard substrate. As a result they drag their whole bodies toward the direction of motion. In rotaliids, the movement rate is high and is attributed to the extension of pseudopodia through all apertures, compared with miliolids in which pseudopodia extend out from the primary aperture only. The innate behavior of both groups was observed as a function of external stimulus, i.e., light, nutrients, and availability of substrate. The observation on average life span reflected that the rotaliids was able to survive longer than miliolids. Molecular analysis reveals the presence of four groups, i.e., Ammonia, Murrayinella, Glabratellina, and Elphidium which support the morphological taxonomy at the genus level. However, BLAST analysis contradicts the species level taxonomy, which challenges the classification based upon hard-shell morphology. Nevertheless, monophyletic clustering is observed among all major groups. The study concludes that the morphological taxonomy needs to be augmented by molecular analysis

  19. Distribution of mercury in molluscs, seawaters and coastal sediments of Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al-Kahtany, Khaled

    2016-12-01

    In order to assess the distribution of mercury along the Tarut coast, Arabian Gulf, Thirty eight (38) sediment samples, twenty six (26) seawater samples, and forty (40) Mollusca specimens were collected from the Tarut coast. The concentrations of Mercury in the sediments of the studied area (average = 0.55 μg/g) are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea, and the Gulf of Finland. The concentrations of Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (median effect concentration (MEC), and probable effect concentration (PEC) indicating possible Hg contamination. According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), thirty four (34) samples occur in class 4 and four (4) samples occur in class 5, which means that the sediments of the Tarut Island are largely contaminated with Hg. Enrichment factor (EF) results (average = 1.76) suggested that, the coastal sediments of the Tarut Island are considered to entirely originate from the crustal materials or natural processes. The studied sediments show lower values (Igeo<0) indicating that the sediments are unpolluted. These sediments according to contamination factor (Cf) are considered contaminated with Hg (1 < CF < 3). The Hg concentration in water samples (average = 30 μg/g) considered high. Comparison with Hg contents in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Hg. The suggested natural sources of Hg in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources are the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents exceeded in the study area and in Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  20. The maturation history of the Paleozoic hydrocarbon system of the Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    This poster defines the Paleozoic hydrocarbon system of the Arabian Platform, presents an interpretation of its thermal and burial history and uses those results to describe the maturation history of the Lower Silurian source rock. Geohistory analysts were used to delineate source rock kitchens and to guide searches for previously unrecognized sources. The Paleozoic hydrocarbon system is one of the areally largest hydrocarbon systems in the world and one of the least drilled. It contains one of the world`s largest gas fields, is one of the largest potential gas resources on earth, and contains one of the largest emerging oil plays. It is present in both the Zagros Foldbelt and the Arabian Platform. The Lower Silurian Qusaiba source and the Triassic Sudair regional seal define the boundaries of the system. The Paleozoic hc system evolved in basically five stages: (1) simultaneous sediment accumulation and structural formation during the Paleozoic; (2) major tectonism and erosion in Late Paleozoic (Hercynian); (3) Triassic deposition of a regional seal; (4) Mesozoic charging primarily from the Lower Silurian sources; and (5) re-initiation of maturation of Paleozoic sources and charging of the Zagros compressional traps during Neogene collision with Eurasia. We have also interpreted the filling history of North Dome to explain why it contains gas rather than oil. A combination of late trap growth and late gas generation apparently displaced the previously resident oils and left a trap with a gas rich in condensate. The Silurian may have been exhausted by this time, thus indicating that other sources may have contributed significantly to North Dome.

  1. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  2. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  3. Interannual variability of the Arabian Sea Warm Pool: observations and governing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. R.; Jitendra, V.; GirishKumar, M. S.; Ravichandran, M.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.

    2015-04-01

    The near-surface layers in the Arabian Sea progressively warm up from February to early May resulting in the formation of pool of warm waters popularly known as the Arabian Sea Warm Pool (ASWP). The availability of high quality TMI sea surface temperature (SST) data for the years 1998-2010 is exploited to describe the evolution of the ASWP on seasonal and interannual time scales and to explain the associated mechanisms. The multi-year (1998-2010) averaged TMI SSTs during April-May show peak values of the ASWP in excess of 30 °C with its core >30.5 °C extending offshore as a well-marked southwestward tongue stretching from the southwest coast of India. The ASWP shows both seasonal and interannual variability in the evolution of spatio-temporal characteristics such as amplitude, phase and spatial extent. Among these 13 years, the ASWP was most (least) pronounced during 1998, 2003 and 2010 (1999, 2000, 2001 and 2008). The mechanisms that govern the observed interannual variability of the ASWP are examined addressing the most relevant issues such as—(1) dynamic pre-conditioning: background pycnocline topography influenced by the westward propagating Rossby waves during October-May, (2) thermal pre-conditioning: background SST/heat content signal during October-January influenced by the strength of the preceding year's summer monsoon and the post-monsoon cyclones during October-December, (3) haline pre-conditioning: near-surface vertical salinity stratification during November-February influenced by the advection of low saline waters from the Bay of Bengal, (4) influence of surface net heat flux forcing during February-May, and (5) influence of El Nino/La Nina.

  4. Neotectonic map of Syria and some aspects of Late Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern boundary zone of the Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukieh, M.; Trifonov, V. G.; Dodonov, A. E.; Minini, H.; Ammar, O.; Ivanova, T. P.; Zaza, T.; Yusef, A.; Al-Shara, M.; Jobaili, Y.

    2005-09-01

    The neotectonic map of Syria, 1:500,000, was compiled by the authors in 2003-2004. The map shows tectonic features formed or continued to develop during the Neogene and Quaternary in Syria and adjacent territories, including the Mediterranean realm. The neotectonic structure of the region was formed as a result of three phases of deformation. During the Early Miocene first phase, the Arabian plate moved along the Dead Sea-Jordan segments of the Levant (Dead Sea) transform fault zone, Roum fault and its continuation in the continental slope of the Mediterranean. The chain of the coastal anticlines in the "Arabian" side of the transform zone and the Lattaqie oblique (sinistral-thrust) boundary fault zone in the north were formed under the NNW-trending compression. The Lattaqie zone continued by the Cyprus arc in the west and by the Taurus (Bitlis) thrust in the east and further by the Main Thrust of the Zagros. After "quiet" (for Syria) epoch of the Middle Miocene when the Arabian plate moved to the NE, during the Late Miocene second phase of deformation, the Arabian plate moved again to the NNW along the same transform boundary. But a part of the Late Miocene plate motion (up to 20 km) resulted by shortening in the Anti-Leban-Palmyride fold-thrust belt that separated the Aleppo block from the main part of the Arabian plate. During the Pliocene-Quaternary third phase of deformation, the recent structural pattern of the Levant zone was formed in Lebanon and the northwestern Syria. At the same time, the Serghaya and smaller sinistral faults branched out the Levant zone and the system of the W-E-trending convex to the south dextral faults ruptured the Palmyrides and the stable part of the Arabian plate. The total Pliocene-Quaternary sinistral offset on the young Levant zone segments and the associated faults has reached 35-40 km, like on the Dead Sea-Jordan segments of the Levant fault zone. The faults, demonstrating the Pliocene-Quaternary activity are still active now

  5. Geographical differences in seasonality of CZCS-derived phytoplankton pigment in the Arabian Sea for 1978 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.; English, D. C.

    In situ measurements of phytoplankton chlorophyll in the Arabian Sea were taken largely along temporally and spatially unevenly distributed sections, scarce especially prior to the operation of NASA's Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Herein, the CZCS pigment observations between late 1978 and mid-1986 north of 10°N, including the outer Gulf of Oman, are depicted for 14 subregions beyond the continental shelves as daily means, often only five days apart. To eliminate bias from electronic overshoot, the data were reprocessed with a more conservative cloud screen than used for NASA's Global Data Set. The pattern, derived from the older in situ observations, of one period with elevated chlorophyll almost everywhere during the Southwest Monsoon (SWM) and one additional late-winter bloom in the north, is confirmed. The differing nitrate silicate ratios in freshly entrained water in the central and northern Arabian Sea seem to lead to different succession and perhaps to differing vertical fluxes, and during winter favor blooms only in the north. The spatial pigment pattern in the outer Gulf of Oman is not an extension of that of the northwestern Arabian Sea. The seasonal physical forcing explains much of the timing of pigment concentration changes, but not the levels maintained over long periods. From the CZCS observations it is unclear whether the period of high phytoplankton productivity expected during the SWM in the open Arabian Sea lasts for about two or four months. During this entire season, chlorophyll values in the upper layers rarely exceed 1-2 mg m -3 outside the zone influenced by the Arabian upwelling. Near 15°N, however, fluxes into sediment traps at 3 km depth indicate an onset of high primary production very soon after the arrival of the SWM and suggest a long period of high production in the open sea. The partial temporal disconnect during the SWM between pigment changes in the upper part of the euphotic zone and of fluxes into the traps is

  6. Arabian Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of low-albedo (dark) barchan sand dunes in a crater located in western Arabia Terra. Small dunes like these are common in the craters of western Arabia Terra and they are often the source of finer, dark sediment that forms windstreaks further downwind. The steepest slopes on the dunes, their slipfaces, are pointed toward the southeast (lower right), indicating that the dominant winds in this location come from the opposite direction.

    Location near: 6.4oN, 346.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  7. Tritirachium candoliense sp. nov., a novel basidiomycetous fungus isolated from the anoxic zone of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Cathrine Sumathi; Boekhout, Teun; Müller, Wally H; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    A fungal culture (FCAS11) was isolated from coastal sediments of the Arabian Sea during the anoxic season. Multigene phylogenetic analyses confidentially place the organism as a novel species within the recently defined class Tritirachiomycetes, subphylum Pucciniomycotina, phylum Basidiomycota. We named the new species Tritirachium candoliense and provide the first description of a member of this class from a marine environment. DNA sequences and morphological characters distinguish T. candoliense from previously described Tritirachium species. Its growth characteristics, morphology, and ultrastructural features showed that under anoxic conditions the species grows slowly and produces mainly hyphae with only few blastoconidia. Electron microscopy revealed differences when the culture was exposed to anoxic stress. Notable ultrastructural changes occur for example in mitochondrial cristae, irregularly shaped fat globules and the presence of intracellular membrane invaginations. We assume that the growth characteristics and substrate utilization patterns are an adaptation to its source location, the seasonally anoxic environment of the Arabian Sea.

  8. Two newly recognized species of Hemidactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Smíd, Jiří; Moravec, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Busais, Salem M; Wilms, Thomas; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus revealed that the recently described H. saba and two unnamed Hemidactylus species from Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen form a well-supported monophyletic group within the Arabian radiation of the genus. The name 'Hemidactylus saba species group' is suggested for this clade. According to the results of morphological comparisons and the molecular analyses using two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (cmos, mc1r, rag1, rag2) genes, the name Hemidactylus granosus Heyden, 1827 is resurrected from the synonymy of H. turcicus for the Sinai and Saudi Arabian species. The third species of this group from Yemen is described formally as a new species H. ulii sp. n. The phylogenetic relationships of the members of 'Hemidactylus saba species group' are evaluated and the distribution and ecology of individual species are discussed.

  9. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  10. Bio-Optical Properties of the Arabian Sea as Determined by In-Situ and SeaWifs Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trees, Charles C.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this work was to characterize optical and fluorescence properties in the euphotic zone during two British Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) Arabian Sea cruises. This was later expanded in 1995 to include three U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea Cruises. The region was to be divided into one or more "bio-optical provinces", within each of which a single set of regression models was to be developed to relate the vertical distribution of irradiance attenuation and normalized fluorescence (SF and NF) to remote sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient [K(490)]. The working hypothesis was that over relatively large spatial and temporal scales, the vertical profiles of bio-optical properties were predictable.

  11. Multiple environmental factors influence the spatial distribution and structure of reef communities in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Feary, David A; Heron, Scott F; Pratchett, Morgan S; Burt, John A

    2013-07-30

    Multivariate analysis revealed distinct sub-regional coral communities among the southern Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, and Gulf of Oman. Differences in community structure among locations were associated with considerable spatial heterogeneity in oceanic conditions, and strong directional environmental gradients. Despite clear community differences, considerable changes to coral community structure have occurred throughout the northeastern Arabian Peninsula as compared with previous studies. The most dramatic of these are the apparent changes from Acropora dominated to poritid and faviid dominated communities, particularly in the southern Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz. Although temperature and salinity have previously been cited as the major environmental factors structuring coral communities around the region, additional environmental parameters, including chlorophyll-a, surface currents and winds are shown to be important in structuring reef communities throughout the northeastern Arabian Peninsula.

  12. Rb-Sr isotopic studies of postorogenic granites from the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Futa, Kiyoto

    1987-01-01

    Available data indicate that postorogenic granites tend to be older in the southern part of the Arabian Shield. This suggests that plutonism started in the south and progressed to the north. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values also form a regional pattern. These ratios tend to be higher in the eastern part of the Arabian Shield, and suggest one source of continental affinity to the east and one of oceanic affinity to the west. The distribution of initial strontium isotope ratios does not clearly discriminate between the various models for Shield evolution; however, a sedimentary source region of mixed end members seems more compatible with the data pattern than models based on discrete boundaries between unrelated accreted blocks.

  13. Revision of Afro-Malagasy Otomops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) with the description of a new Afro-Arabian species.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Taryn M C; Richards, Leigh R; Taylor, Peter J; Napier, Melanie C; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2015-12-09

    The paucity of data for the molossid bat Otomops throughout its range has hindered our ability to resolve the number of Otomops species present within the Afro-Malagasy region (including the Arabian Peninsula). This paper employed an integrative approach by combining morphometric (cranial morphology) and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome b and D-loop sequences, nuclear intron sequences and microsatellites) data to identify the number of Otomops taxa occurring in the Afro-Malagasy region. Three taxa were identified, two of which could be assigned to existing species, i.e. O. martiensseni and O. madagascariensis. The third taxon, previously recognised as O. martiensseni (Matschie 1897), is described herein as a new species, Otomops harrisoni sp. nov., and can be differentiated from O. martiensseni s.s. based on both molecular and morphometric data. Locality data of specimens belonging to O. harrisoni suggest that its distribution range extends from the Arabian Peninsula through to Eritrea and south to Ethiopia and Kenya.

  14. The effect of seasonal changes on the selection of biocide inhibitors for Arabian Gulf seawater for water injection purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Al-Muhanna, K.; Al-Bazzaz, W.

    1997-08-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the most effective biocide inhibitor for Northern Arabian Gulf Seawater. This seawater will be used for water injection purposes for some oil fields in Kuwait. Arabian Gulf Seawater is known to be very saline during the summer months and less saline during the rainy season of spring. The biocide inhibitors were tested in a rig with six side streams biofouling monitoring tubes (SBMT). Bacterial nutrients were added to the system and carbon steel studs were placed along the tubes of the biocide evaluation test rig (BETR). After a month, a thin, slimy, and black deposit was formed on the carbon steel studs. The deposit contained 107 general aerobic bacteria (GAB), 107 general anaerobic bacteria (GAnB) and 105 sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The most effective biocide inhibitor was found to be a fatty amine aryl quaternary inhibitor at 50% dosage.

  15. Upper Ocean Mixing Processes and Circulation in the Arabian Sea during Monsoons using Remote Sensing, Hydrographic Observations and HYCOM Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Arabian Sea experiences more evaporation than precipitation and is connected to the warm and highly saline waters of the Persian Gulf and Red Sea...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Upper Ocean Mixing Processes and Circulation in the...and Ocean Sciences University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 phone: (803) 777-2572 fax: (803) 777-6610 email: sbulusu@geol.sc.edu

  16. Temporal assessment of seroconversion in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, C P; Bailey, T A; O'Donovan, D; Wernery, U; Alexandersen, S

    2008-12-13

    Ten male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were vaccinated with a commercially available standard aqueous foot-and-mouth-disease vaccine containing aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, and their antibody titres against serotypes O and A were measured using solid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test. Mean elisa antibody titres greater than 1.45 log(10) were recorded for serotype A, but low elisa titres were recorded for serotype 0; low titres were recorded by VNT for both serotypes.

  17. Geochemistry and preliminary assessment of resource potential for postorogenic granites of the southwestern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, George; Bush, C.A.; Vaughn, R.B.; Bartel, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Regional geochemical patterns are not consistent with the north-south trending microplate boundary that has been proposed by other workers. Correlation coefficients for trace-element data obtained during the current study also argue against sharp compositional breaks in the protolith for the postorogenic granites. Consideration of the data presented here and similar data for granitoids of the eastern Arabian Shield, suggest the existence of a compositionally gradational protolith of continental affinity to the east and oceanic affinity to the west.

  18. The Upper-Layer Circulation of the Japan Sea and the Arabian Marginal Seas and Gulfs: Historical Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    The Upper-Layer Circulation of the Japan Sea and the Arabian Marginal Seas and Gulfs: Historical Data Analysis Dr. Amy S. Bower Department of...circulation of the Japan Sea is characterized by significant temporal and spatial variability due to several factors, including seasonal fluctuations in the...these branches. The long-range objective of the Japan Sea study is to understand the dynamical processes that govern this variability. The long-range

  19. Paired N and O isotopic analysis of nitrate and nitrite in the Arabian Sea oxygen deficient zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T. S.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is home to one of the three main oceanic oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). We present paired nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope measurements of nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) from the central Arabian Sea in order to understand the effects of N biogeochemistry on the distribution of these species in the low oxygen waters. Within the ODZ, NO2- accumulated in a secondary NO2- maximum (SNM), though the shape and magnitude of the SNM, along with the isotopic composition of NO3- and NO2-, were highly dependent on the location within the ODZ. We also explored water mass mixing within the Arabian Sea as an explanatory factor in the distribution of NO2- in the SNM. The intrusion of Persian Gulf Water at depth may influence the shape of the NO2- peak by introducing small amounts of dissolved oxygen (O2), favoring NO2- oxidation. There was also evidence that vertical mixing may play a role in shaping the top of the SNM peak. Finally, we present evidence for NO2- oxidation and NO2- reduction co-occurring within the ODZ, as has been previously suggested in the Arabian Sea, as well as in other ODZs. The decoupling of the N and O isotopes of NO3-, deviating from the expected 1:1 ratio for dissimilatory NO3- reduction, indicates that NO2- oxidation has a significant influence on the isotopic composition of NO3-. Additionally, the N isotopes of NO2- were generally fit well by Rayleigh curves for NO2- oxidation. However, the removal of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the domain reflects the importance of NO2- reduction to N2.

  20. Infections in travellers returning to Turkey from the Arabian peninsula: a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Erdem, H; Ak, O; Elaldi, N; Demirdal, T; Hargreaves, S; Nemli, S A; Cag, Y; Ulug, M; Naz, H; Gunal, O; Sirmatel, F; Sipahi, O R; Alpat, S N; Ertem-Tuncer, G; Sozen, H; Evlice, O; Meric-Koc, M; Dogru, A; Koksaldi-Motor, V; Tekin, R; Ozdemir, D; Ozturk-Engin, D; Savasci, U; Karagoz, E; Cekli, Y; Inan, A

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings pooling people from different parts of the world-the largest of which is to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, for Hajj-may impose risks for acquisition and dissemination of infectious diseases. A substantial number of pilgrims to Hajj and Umrah are Turkish citizens (456,000 in 2014) but data are lacking on scale of the problem. We did a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study in Turkey to explore the range of infections among inpatients who had recently returned from the Arabian Peninsula. Our inclusion criteria were patients who had acquired an infection during their trip to an Arabian Peninsula country, or who became symptomatic within 1 week of their return. The data were collected retrospectively for January 1, 2013 and March 1, 2015. 185 Turkish patients were recruited to the study across 15 referral centers with travel associated infectious diseases after returning from Arabian Peninsula countries (predominantly Saudi Arabia 163 [88.1 %] for religious purposes 162 [87.5 %]). Seventy four (40.0 %) of them were ≥ 65 years old with numerous comorbidities including diabetes (24.3 %) and COPD (14.1 %). The most common clinical diagnosis was respiratory tract infections (169 [91.5 %]), followed by diarrheal diseases (13 [7 %]), and there was one case of MERS-CoV. Patients spent a median of 5 (3-7) days as hospital inpatients and overall mortality was 1.1 %. Returning travellers from the Arabian Peninsula present as inpatients with a broad range of infectious diseases similar to common community acquired infections frequently seen in daily medical practices in Turkey.

  1. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield From the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Transition Beneath North America and the Bulk Composition of the North American Crust, Ph.D. Thesis, pp., Saint Louis University, 2000. (UNCLASSIFIED...coordinate to backazimuth, in steps of 15’. The north direction points to the top of fig- ure. The number of events displayed is indicated close to...Coleman, 1977). To the east , the Shield is bounded by the Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Phanerozoic Arabian Platform, which dip gently east - ward and

  2. Late Holocene SST and primary productivity variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea as a recorder for winter monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Anna; Gaye, Birgit; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Variability in the oceanic environment of the Arabian Sea region is strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon cycle of alternating wind directions. Strong south-westerly winds during the summer monsoon induce upwelling of nutrient rich waters along the coast off Somalia, Oman and southwest India, which result in high rates of primary production. In the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan on the other hand, primary production and sea surface temperatures are linked to northeast monsoonal winds that cool the sea surface and drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity during the winter season. In this study, we analyzed alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) variations and proxies of primary productivity (organic carbon and δ15N) in a well-laminated sediment core from the Pakistan continental margin to establish the first high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene. Over the last 2400 years reconstructed SST in the northeastern Arabian Sea decreased whereas productivity increased, imaging a long-term trend of northeast monsoon strengthening in response to insolation-induced southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The comparison of our winter monsoon record with records of summer monsoon intensity suggests that summer and winter monsoon strength was essentially anti-correlated over the late Holocene throughout the Asian monsoon system. In addition, SST variations recorded off Pakistan match very well with Northern Hemisphere temperature records supporting the growing body of evidence that Asian climate is linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change. It reveals a consistent pattern of increased summer monsoon activity in the northeastern Arabian Sea during northern hemispheric warm periods (Medieval Warm Period, Roman Warm Period) and strengthened winter monsoon activity during hemispheric colder periods (Little Ice Age).

  3. Iron bacterial phylogeny and their execution towards iron availability in Equatorial Indian Ocean and coastal Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasabapathy, Raju; Mohandass, Chellandi; Vijayaraj, Ajakkalamoole Srinivas; Madival, Varsha Vinayak; Meena, Ram Murti

    2013-01-01

    Based on distinct colony morphology, color, size, shape and certain other traits, 92 bacterial isolates were investigated to understand their managerial ability on iron from the Arabian Sea and Equatorial Indian Ocean samples. The ARDRA (amplified rDNA restriction analysis) applied to eliminate the duplication of the bacterial strains, resulted 39 different banding patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing data indicate the dominancy of three phylogenetic groups, alpha-Proteobacteria (10.25%), gamma-Proteobacteria (35.89%) and Bacilli (53.84%) in these waters. Marinobacter and Bacillus were the only common genera from both of the regions. Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Rheinheimera, Staphylococcus and Idiomarina were some of the other genera obtained from the Arabian Sea. Erythrobacter, Roseovarius, Sagittula and Nitratireductor were found mostly in Equatorial Indian Ocean. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequence data of some of our iron bacterial strains belong to novel species and one isolate ASS2A could form a new genus. Close to 23% of the isolates were able to produce high affinity sets of ligands like siderophores to mediate iron transport into the cell. The current study indicated that the Equatorial Indian Ocean species were well adapted to oxidize iron as an electron acceptor and the Arabian Sea species preferably go through siderophore production.

  4. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    PubMed

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf.

  5. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares.

  6. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  7. The Malaria Transition on the Arabian Peninsula: Progress toward a Malaria-Free Region between 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W.; Amratia, Punam; Zamani, Ghasem; Mundia, Clara W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Zahrani, Mohammad H.; Al Jasari, Adel; Fikri, Mahmoud; Atta, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden. PMID:23548086

  8. Thermochronometric evidence for diffuse extension and two-phase rifting within the Central Arabian Margin of the Red Sea Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, E.; Stockli, D. F.; Johnson, P. R.; Hager, C.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical time-temperature models derived from a 2-D network of apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages reveal a three-stage thermotectonic history for the central Arabian rift flank (CARF) of the Red Sea Rift (RSR) system. The pre-rift Arabian-Nubian Shield existed as part of a passive Paleo-Tethyan margin until a widespread tectonic event at 350 Ma exhumed the proto-CARF to mid-to-upper crustal structural levels. After remaining thermally stable through the Mesozoic, the first phase of RSR extension began with a distinct rift pulse at 23 Ma when fault blocks across a 150 km wide area were exhumed along a diffuse set of rift-parallel faults from an average pre-rift flank depth of 1.7 ± 0.8 km. This rift onset age is mirrored in thermochronometric and sequence stratigraphic analyses elsewhere along the Red Sea Nubian and Arabian margins, confirming that rifting occurred concomitantly along the full Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system. Diffuse lithospheric extension lasted for 8 Myr before a second rift pulse at 15 Ma, coincident with regional stress realignment, transferred active faulting basinward toward the modern RSR axial trough. CARF time-temperature models indicate that the prevalent rift style during both RSR extensional phases was one of localized, structurally controlled block faulting and contemporaneous dike injection, not wholesale rift flank uplift.

  9. Climatic controls on the interannual to decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust activity: Toward the development of a seasonal dust prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Wang, Fuyao; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh

    2015-03-01

    The observed climatic controls on springtime and summertime Saudi Arabian dust activities during 1975-2012 are analyzed, leading to development of a seasonal dust prediction model. According to empirical orthogonal function analysis, dust storm frequency exhibits a dominantly homogeneous pattern across Saudi Arabia, with distinct interannual and decadal variability. The previously identified positive trend in remotely sensed aerosol optical depth since 2000 is shown to be a segment of the decadal oscillation in dust activity, according to long-duration station record. Regression and correlation analyses reveal that the interannual variability in Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency is regulated by springtime rainfall across the Arabian Peninsula and summertime Shamal wind intensity. The key drivers of Saudi Arabian dust storm variability are identified. Winter-to-spring La Niña enhances subsequent spring dust activity by decreasing rainfall across the country's primary dust source region, the Rub' al Khali Desert. A relatively cool tropical Indian Ocean favors frequent summer dust storms by producing an anomalously anticyclonic circulation over the central Arabian Peninsula, which enhances the Shamal wind. Decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency is associated with North African rainfall and Sahel vegetation, which regulate African dust emissions and transport to Saudi Arabia. Mediterranean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) also regulate decadal dust variability, likely through their influence on Sahel rainfall and Shamal intensity. Using antecedent-accumulated rainfall over the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, and Mediterranean SSTs, as low-frequency predictors, and tropical eastern Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SSTs as high-frequency predictors, Saudi Arabia's seasonal dust activity is well predicted.

  10. Pan-African shear zone-hosted gold mineralization in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer; Grosch, Eugene; Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    A new tectonic model of the exhumation mechanism of the Arabian-Nubian Shield will be presented at the EGU2013 by Abu-Alam and Stüwe (2013). According to this new tectonic model, the shear zones of the Arabian-Nubian Shield can be classified into two types; deep-seated and relatively shallow shear zones. The deep-seated shear zones are accompanied with deep sub-horizontal crustal channel flows which are response to the exhumation of the metamorphic complexes from the peak condition depth to a shallower crustal level (ductile-brittle transition). An example of these deep-seated shear zones is the Najd Fault System - the largest shear zone on the Earth. At the ductile-brittle transition crustal level, the deep-seated shear zones were overprinted by a greenschist facies condition or the ?2 and ?3 of the principle stresses may be flipped with each other. This flipping can produce other conjugate shallow shear zones in a greenschist facies conditions. The Egyptian gold deposits can be classified into three main types (Botros, 2004), These are stratabound deposits, non-stratabound deposits and placer gold deposits. The non-stratabound deposits are the most common (ex: Sukari, Wadi Allaqi, Abu Marawat, Atalla, El-Sid and Atud gold mines). They are found in form of vein type mineralization or as disseminated mineralization hosted in volcanics and volcaniclastic rocks (volcanogenic massive sulphides). Spatial and temporal relationships between gold veins and structures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield suggest a genetic relationship between mineralization and major tectonic events. At Sukari, Wadi Allaqi and Abu Marawat areas, the gold is hosted in quartz veins parallel to a deep-seated NW-SE to NNW-SSE shear zones. For Atud, El-Sid and Atalla area, the gold is hosted in NE-SW veins parallel to a shallow shear zone but at the conjugate point with a deep-seated NW-SE shear zone. According to the new tectonic model, we propose the following model for gold formation (non

  11. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  12. Thermal insulation and clothing area factors of typical Arabian Gulf clothing ensembles for males and females: measurements using thermal manikins.

    PubMed

    Al-ajmi, F F; Loveday, D L; Bedwell, K H; Havenith, G

    2008-05-01

    The thermal insulation of clothing is one of the most important parameters used in the thermal comfort model adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) [BS EN ISO 7730, 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva.] and by ASHRAE [ASHRAE Handbook, 2005. Fundamentals. Chapter 8. American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA.]. To date, thermal insulation values of mainly Western clothing have been published with only minimal data being available for non-Western clothing. Thus, the objective of the present study is to measure and present the thermal insulation (clo) values of a number of Arabian Gulf garments as worn by males and females. The clothing ensembles and garments of Arabian Gulf males and females presented in this study are representative of those typically worn in the region during both summer and winter seasons. Measurements of total thermal insulation values (clo) were obtained using a male and a female shape thermal manikin in accordance with the definition of insulation as given in ISO 9920. In addition, the clothing area factors (f cl) determined in two different ways were compared. The first method used a photographic technique and the second a regression equation as proposed in ISO 9920, based on the insulation values of Arabian Gulf male and female garments and ensembles as they were determined in this study. In addition, fibre content, descriptions and weights of Arabian Gulf clothing have been recorded and tabulated in this study. The findings of this study are presented as additions to the existing knowledge base of clothing insulation, and provide for the first time data for Arabian Gulf clothing. The analysis showed that for these non-Western clothing designs, the

  13. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  14. Holocene coastal carbonates and evaporites of the southern Arabian Gulf and their ancient analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharhan, A. S.; Kendall, C. G. St. C.

    2003-06-01

    The Holocene sediments of the coast of the United Arab Emirates in the southeastern Arabian Gulf are frequently cited in the literature as type examples for analogous assemblages of carbonates, evaporites and siliciclastics throughout the geologic record. This paper is intended as a convenient single source for the description of sediments of this region, providing information on how to reach the classic localities and some of the analogs. The Holocene sediments of the region accumulate over an area that is 500 km long and up to 60 km wide. The sediments collecting offshore are predominantly pelecypod sands mixed with lime and argillaceous mud, with these latter fine sediments increasing as the water deepens. The pelecypod-rich sediments also collect east of Abu Dhabi Island both in the deeper tidal channels between the barrier island lagoons and in deeper portions of the protected lagoons. West of Abu Dhabi Island the shallow water margin is the site of coral reefs and coralgal sands, whereas to the east oolites accumulate on the tidal deltas of channels located between barrier islands. Grapestones accumulate to the lee of the reefs and the oolite shoals where cementation becomes more common. They are particularly common on the less protected shallow water margins of the lagoons west of Abu Dhabi Island. Pelleted lime muds accumulate in the lagoons in the lee of the barrier islands of the eastern Abu Dhabi. Lining the inner shores of the protected lagoons of Abu Dhabi and on other islands to the west are cyano-bacterial mats and mangrove swamps. Landward of these, a prograding north facing shoreline is formed by supratidal salt flats (sabkhas), in which evaporite minerals are accumulating. This paper describes the localities associated with (1) the mangrove swamps of the west side of the Al Dhabaiya peninsula; (2) the indurated cemented carbonate crusts, cyanobacterial flats and sabkha evaporites on the shore of the Khor al Bazam south of Qanatir Island; (3) the

  15. SSMI Wind Speed Climatology of the Time of Monsoon Wind Offset in the Western Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    2000-01-01

    Forecasting the time of onset of monsoon wind in the western Arabian Sea, which is believed to precede the onset of rainfall along the west coast of India, is an important unsolved problem. Prior to measurements of the surface wind field by satellite, there was an absence of suitable surface wind observations. NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) surface wind vectors revealed that the time of the 1997 onset of 12 m/s southwest monsoon wind speeds in the western Arabian Sea preceded the onset of monsoon rainfall in Goa, India, by 3 - 4 days. Wind speed and direction data were necessary to establish a dynamical mechanism between times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed off Somalia and rainfall in Goa. Except for NSCAT, no satellite scatterometer wind product recorded adequately sampled 2-day 1deg x 1deg averaged wind vectors, which are the required space and time scales, to examine the wind-rain relationship in other years. However, the greater-than-95% steadiness of summer monsoon winds allows an opportunity to use satellite measurements of surface wind speed. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) recorded surface wind speed with adequate sampling to produce a 1-day, 1deg x 1deg data product during 1988 - 1998. SSMI data had been uniformly processed throughout the period. Times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed off Somalia determined with the SSMI data set were 21 May 1988, 24 May 1989, 17 May 1990, 28 May 1991, 8 June 1992, 28 May 1993, 30 May 1994, 7 June 1995, 29 May 1996, 12 June 1997, and 15 May 1998. Uncertainty of the 1992 and 1996 times of onset were increased because of the absence of SSMI data on 6 and 7 June 1992 and on 30 May 1996. Correlations of timing of monsoon wind onset with El Nino will be described. Variability of the time difference between times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed and Goa rainfall will be discussed. At the time of submission of the abstract, the Goa rainfall data have not arrived from the India Meteorological Department.

  16. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  17. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Billett, D. S. M.; Wolff, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope from 100 to 1000 m water depth. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). These two margins are contrasting both in terms of the abundance of sedimentary organic matter and the intensity of the OMZ. Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC mg TOC-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (< 250 mg HC mg TOC-1). The δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values, particularly at the Oman margin, may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have

  18. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Wolff, G. A.; Billett, D. S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope at bathyal depths. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC (mg TOC)-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (<250 mg HC (mg TOC)-1). δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values were identified on both margins, particularly the Oman margin, and may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes between the two margins may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have provided an organic-rich food source for foraminifera at these sites. Our data

  19. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.; Damaty, Hend M. El

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5%) have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8%) were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25%) followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20%) and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%). Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion: S. equi easily

  20. Monitoring Aquifer Depletion from Space: Case Studies from the Saharan and Arabian Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.

    2013-12-01

    Access to potable fresh water resources is a human right and a basic requirement for economic development in any society. In arid and semi-arid areas, the characterization and understanding of the geologic and hydrologic settings of, and the controlling factors affecting, these resources is gaining increasing importance due to the challenges posed by increasing population. In these areas, there is immense natural fossil fresh water resources stored in large extensive aquifers, the transboundary aquifers. Yet, natural phenomena (e.g., rainfall patterns and climate change) together with human-related factors (e.g., population growth, unsustainable over-exploitation, and pollution) are threatening the sustainability of these resources. In this study, we are developing and applying an integrated cost-effective approach to investigate the nature (i.e., natural and anthropogenic) and the controlling factors affecting the hydrologic settings of the Saharan (i.e., Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System [NSAS], Northwest Sahara Aquifer System [NWSA]) and Arabian (i.e., Arabian Peninsula Aquifer System [APAS]) aquifer systems. Analysis of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) inter-annual trends over the NSAS and the APAS revealed two areas of significant TWS depletions; the first correlated with the Dakhla Aquifer System (DAS) in the NSAS and second with the Saq Aquifer System (SAS) in the APAS. Annual depletion rates were estimated at 1.3 × 0.66 × 109 m3/yr and 6.95 × 0.68 × 109 m3/yr for DAS and SAS, respectively. Findings include (1) excessive groundwater extraction, not climatic changes, is responsible for the observed TWS depletions ;(2) the DAS could be consumed in 350 years if extraction rates continue to double every 50 years and the APAS available reserves could be consumed within 60-140 years at present extraction (7.08 × 109 m3/yr) and depletion rates; and (3) observed depletions over DAS and SAS and their

  1. Crustal stress across the northern Arabian plate and the relationship with the plate boundary forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassminh, Rayan

    The region encompassing the collision of northern Arabia with Eurasia is a tectonically heterogeneous region of distributed deformation. The northern Arabia plate is bounded to the west by the subducting Sinai plate and the left-lateral Dead Sea transform. This complexity suggests that there are multiple competing processes that may influence regional tectonics in northern Arabia and adjacent areas. Earthquake mechanisms provide insight into crustal kinematics and stress; however, reliable determination of earthquake source parameters can be challenging in a complex geological region, such as the continental collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The goal of this study is to investigate spatial patterns of the crustal stress in the northern Arabian plate and surrounding area. The focal mechanisms used in this study are based on (1) first-motion polarities for earthquakes recorded by Syrian earthquake center during 2000-2011, and (2) regional moment tensors from broadband seismic data, from Turkey and Iraq. First motion focal mechanisms were assigned quality classifications based on the variation of both nodal planes. Regional moment tensor analysis can be significantly influenced by seismic velocity structure; thus, we have divided the study area into regions based on tectonic units. For each region, the velocity model is described using a waveform-modeling technique prior to the regional moment tensor inversion. The resulting focal mechanisms, combined with other previously published focal mechanisms for the study area, provide a basis for stress inversion analysis. The resulting deviatoric stress tensors show the spatial distribution of the maximum horizontal stress varies from NW-SE along the Dead Sea Fault to the N-S toward the east. We interpret this to reflect the eastward change from the transform to collision processes in northern Arabia. Along the Dead Sea Fault, transposition of the sigma-1 and sigma-2 to vertical and horizontal

  2. A lead isotope study of mineralization in the Saudi Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Doe, B.R.; Roberts, R.J.; Delevaux, M.H.; Gramlich, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    New lead isotope data are presented for some late Precambrian and early Paleozoic vein and massive sulfide deposits in the Arabian Shield. Using the Stacey Kramers (1975) model for lead isotope evolution, isochron model ages range between 720 m.y. and 420 m.y. Most of the massive sulfide deposits in the region formed before 680 m.y. ago, during evolution of the shield. Vein type mineralization of higher lead content occurred during the Pan African event about 550 m.y. ago and continued through the Najd period of extensive faulting in the shield that ended about 530 m.y. ago. Late post-tectonic metamorphism may have been responsible for vein deposits that have model ages less than 500 m.y. Alternatively some of these younger model ages may be too low due to the mineralizing fluids acquiring radiogenic lead from appreciably older local crustal rocks at the time of ore formation. The low207Pb/204Pb ratios found for the deposits in the main part of the shield and for those in north-eastern Egypt, indicate that the Arabian craton was formed in an oceanic crustal environment during the late Precambrian. Involvement of older, upper-crustal material in the formation of the ore deposits in this part of the shield is precluded by their low207Pb/204Pb and208Pb/204Pb characteristics. In the eastern part of the shield, east of longitude 44??20???E towards the Al Amar-Idsas fault region, lead data are quite different. They exhibit a linear207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb relationship together with distinctly higher208Pb/204Pb characteristics. These data imply the existence of lower crustal rocks of early Proterozoic age that apparently have underthrust the shield rocks from the east. If most of the samples we have analyzed from this easterly region were mineralized 530 m.y. ago, then the age of the older continental rocks is 2,100??300 m.y. (2??). The presence of upper crustal rocks, possibly also of early Proterozoic age, is indicated by galena data from Hailan in South Yemen and also

  3. Understanding the paleohydrological setting of the Arabian Peninsula: An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emil, M. K.; Sultan, M.; Sturchio, N. C.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Rub Al Khali (RAK), encompasses one of the World's largest (area: 650,000 km2) aquifer systems, the Rub Al Khali Aquifer System (RAKAS) of the Arabian Peninsula. In this study, we develop and apply an integrated and cost-effective approach, involving geophysical, geochemical, isotopic, field, and remote sensing investigations to understand the origin, evolution, and the factors controlling the paleo and current distribution of the RAKAS groundwater. Paleohydrological setting of the RAK is investigated by exploring the spatial relations between plaeo-drainage, paleo-lakes, faults, and sapping features. The following investigations were accomplished: (1) groundwater samples were collected from wells in the western portion of the Rub Al Khali and analyzed for their solute chemistry, stable isotopic composition (O, H), and Cl-36 and C-14 ages; (2) paleo-topography (prior to dune encroachment) was extracted using elevations within inter-dunal areas; (3) drainage systems were extracted using standard stream delineation techniques; (4) a regional mosaic of dual polarized (HH,HV) ALOS PALSAR data (10 m resolution) was created covering entire Arabian Peninsula; (5) paleo-drainage systems across the RAK were mapped using PALSAR data and SRTM-derived networks; and (6) Landsat 8 imagery and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were used to map the distribution of paleo-lakes and to delineate sapping features. Findings include: (1) presence of relatively fresh (TDS ranging from 800 - 2,800 mg/L in deeper wells) suitable for drinking and/or irrigation; (2) major ions are Na, Ca, Cl, SO4 and HCO3; (3) radiocarbon model ages range from 1,400 to 30,600 years before present, but conservative Cl-36 model ages indicate much higher residence time (up to 750,000 years or more); (4) Cl-36 ages and stable isotopic compositions indicate that groundwater recharge in previous wet climatic periods; (5) features with stubby looking geometry, theater-like heads, U-shaped profile, flat floors and

  4. Interference of lithospheric folding in Central Asia by simultaneous Indian and Arabian plate indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, J. H. W.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.; Burov, E.; Sokoutis, D.; Kaban, M.; Tesauro, M.; Burg, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Although large-scale folding of the crust and the lithosphere in Central Asia as a result of the indentation of India has been extensively documented, the impact of continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia has been largely overlooked. The resulting Neogene shortening and uplift of the Zagros, Albors, Kopet Dagh and Kaukasus mountain belts in Iran and surrounding areas is characterised by a simultaneous onset of major topography growth at ca. 5 Ma. At the same time, the adjacent Caspian, Turan and Amu Darya basins underwent an acceleration in subsidence. It is common knowledge that waves with different orientations will interfere with each other. Folding, by its nature similar to a standing wave, is not likely to be an exception. We demonstrate that collision of the Eurasian plate with the Arabian and Indian plates generates folding of the Eurasian lithosphere in two different directions and that interaction between both generates characteristic interference patterns that can be recognised from the regional gravity signal. We present evidence for interference of lithospheric folding patterns induced by Arabian and Indian collision with Eurasia. Wavelengths (from 50 to 250 km) and spatial patterns are inferred from satellite-derived topography and gravity models and attest for rheologically stratified lithosphere with relatively strong mantle rheology (thickness of strong mechanical core on the order of 40-50 km) and less competent crust (thickness of the mechanical core on the order of 10-15 km). The observations are compared with inferences from numerical and analogue tectonic experiments for a quantitative assessment of factors such as lithosphere rheology and stratification, lateral variations in lithosphere strength, thermo-mechanical age and distance to the plate boundary on the activity of folding as a mechanism of intra-plate deformation in this area. The observed interference of the patterns of folding appears to be primarily the result of spatial

  5. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Tao, Weichun; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Jish Prakash, P.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Shi, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems.In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation.This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a-1. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  6. Rubidium-strontium geochronology and plate-tectonic evolution of the southern part of the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Robert J.; Greenwood, W.R.; Hadley, D.G.; Anderson, R.E.; Schmidt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium studies of Precambrian volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield document an early development of the Arabian craton between 900 and 680 m.y. (million years) ago. Geologic studies indicate an island-arc environment characterized by andesitic (dioritic) magmas, volcaniclastic sedimentation, rapid deposition, and contemporaneous deformation along north or northwest-trending axes. Magmatic trends show consistent variation in both composition and geographic location as a function of age. The oldest units belong to an assemblage of basaltic strata exposed in western Saudi Arabia that yield an age of 1165:!:110 m.y. The oldest andesitic strata studied yield an age of 912:!:76 m.y. The earliest plutonic units are diorite to trondhjemite batholiths that range from 800 to 9,00 m.y. in age and ,occur along the western and southern parts of Saudi Arabia. Younger plutonic units, 680 to 750 m.y. in age, range from quartz diorite to granodiodte and become more abundant in the central and northeastern parts of the Arabian Shield. Initial 'Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for both dioritic groups range from 0.7023 to 0.7030 and average 0.7027. The absence of sialic detritus in sedimentary units and the evidence for an island-arc environment suggest the early development of the Arabian craton at a convergent plate margin between plates of oceanic lithosphere. Active subduction apparently extended from at least 900 m.y. to about 680 m.y. Subsequent to this subduction-related magmatism and tectonism, called the Hijaz tectonic cycle, the Arabian craton was sutured to the late Precambrian African plate in a collisional event. This period of orogeny, represented in Arabia and eastern Africa by the Mozambiquian or Pan-African event, extended from some time before 650 m.y. to at least 540 m.y. and perhaps 520 m.y. B.P. Although the tectonic processes of subduction and continental collision during the 900+ to 500-m.y. period require similar directions of plate convergence, the

  7. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis identifies major gene loci for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16-26 Mb and 34-55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64-65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT.

  8. Predicting Relationship of Smoking Behavior Among Male Saudi Arabian College Students Related to Their Religious Practice.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.

  9. Evidence for the direct oxidation of organic nitrogen to N2 gas in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Mark; Purdy, Kevin J

    2012-09-01

    We performed a suite of (15)N incubations ((15)NO(2)(-), (15)NO(3)(-) and (15)NH(4)(+)) with and without the organic-nitrogen (N) compound allylthiourea (ATU), in the suboxic waters of the Arabian Sea. Production of (29)N(2) in control (-ATU) incubations with either (15)NH(4)(+)+(14)NO(2)(-), or their analogues, (15)NO(2)(-)+(14)NH(4)(+), though small, confirmed the presence of anammox. In contrast, when we added ATU, along with (15)NO(2)(-) and (14)NH(4)(+), there was a much greater production of (29)N(2), with 92% of the (15)N-label being recovered as (29)N(2) on average. Such stimulated production of (29)N(2) could not be due to anammox, as the addition of ATU, along with (15)NH(4)(+)+(14)NO(2)(-), only produced (29)N(2) equivalent to that in the controls. The ratios of (29)N(2) to (30)N(2) produced also precluded stimulation of denitrification. We present this as evidence for a hitherto uncharacterised metabolism potentially capable of oxidising organic-N (e.g. NH(2) groups) directly to N(2) gas at the expense of NO(2)(-).

  10. Analysis of the spatio-temporal variability of seawater quality in the southeastern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, Nahla; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Al Shehhi, Maryam Rashed; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-05-15

    In this study, seawater quality measurements, including salinity, sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Secchi disk depth (SDD), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO), were made from June 2013 to November 2014 at 52 stations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf. Significant variability was noticed for all collected parameters. Salinity showed a decreasing trend, and Chl-a, DO, pH, and SDD demonstrated increasing trends from shallow onshore stations to deep offshore ones, which could be attributed to variations of ocean circulation and meteorological conditions from onshore to offshore waters, and the likely effects of desalination plants along the coast. Salinity and temperature were high in summer and low in winter while Chl-a, SDD, pH, and DO indicated an opposite trend. The CTD profiles showed vertically well-mixed structures. Qualitative analysis of phytoplankton showed a high diversity of species without anomalous species found except in Ras Al Khaimah stations where diatoms were the dominating ones.

  11. Satellite detection of complex aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula/Gulf. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.P.

    1992-03-01

    Satellite detection of complex aerosols, in particular, Oil smoke over water and dust over land, is generally difficult. On 1 March 1991, a smoke plume generated by burning Kuwaiti oil wells and a dust storm over the southwestern Arabian Peninsula, provide the opportunity to study both of these effects. Utilizing NOAA-11 AVHRR data, a two dimensional scatter plot analysis technique was employed to determine and classify the radiative signatures of the smoke and dust. A two dimensional mask routine was then used to assess the reliability of the scatter plot analyses and spatially display the results. A channel 1 to channel 2 radiance ratio and a channel 4 brightness temperature combination provided the best separation of the smoke signature from water. The dust plume was unambiguously represented by a channel 5 brightness temperature minus channel 4 brightness temperature image and a channel 4 brightness temperature combination. Together the 2D scatter plot technique and 2D mask form the groundwork for a possible detection algorithm. Aersol Detection, Scatter Plot, Mask.

  12. Transcriptionally active heterotrophic diazotrophs are widespread in the upper water column of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bird, Clare; Wyman, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Pelagic nitrogen fixation makes an important contribution to the fixed nitrogen budget of the world's oceans. Filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria are significant players in this process but less is known of the potential activity of heterotrophic diazotrophs, although they are present and can be quite numerous in the nitrogen-deplete surface waters of the tropical and sub-tropical oceans. In this study we focused on the potential activity of several clades of heterotrophic nitrogen-fixers identified by phylogenetic analysis of 44 non-Trichodesmium-related, nifH (encoding the Fe-subunit of nitrogenase) clones from the Arabian Sea. Specific Northern slot blot protocols were developed to quantify nifH mRNAs from each clade and showed that two groups of Gammaproteobacteria, including the previously characterized UMB clade, and a third, novel phylotype affiliated with cluster III anaerobes, were actively expressing nitrogenase in the equatorial waters of this region. Transcripts (nifH mRNAs) from the latter clade were particularly abundant and were also detected in the suboxic waters of the oxygen minimum zone further north. Like the gammaproteobacterial groups, nifH expression by these organisms appeared to be insensitive to combined nitrogen concentrations and was readily detected in the nutrient-replete waters below the upper mixed layer as well as at shallower depths.

  13. Correlation between some selected trace metal concentrations in six species of fish from the Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-07-01

    The role of trace metals in marine ecosystems has been keenly investigated during recent years. It is known that abundance of essential trace metals regulates the metal content in the organisms by homeostatic control mechanisms, which when cease to function cause essential trace metals to act in an either acutely or chronically toxic manner. Therefore, a correlation study based on essential and non-essential trace metal concentrations is imperative for extending the existing knowledge of bioaccumulation of trace metals in marine organisms. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to bring out quantitative correlations between the concentrations of iron, copper, lead and zinc in the edible muscle tissue of six species of marine fish: Salmon (salmon sole); tuna (thunnus thynnus); pomfret silver (pampus argenteus); Pomfret black (formioniger); long tail tuna (thynnus tonggel) and Indian oil sardine (sardinella longiceps). These fish are abundantly available in Pakistan along the coastal line of the Arabian Sea and have great commercial value. The computational analysis on the trace metal correlation was conducted using an MSTAT statistical package.

  14. Residence time of pollutants discharged in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwestern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Patgaonkar, Rupali S; Vethamony, P; Lokesh, K S; Babu, M T

    2012-08-01

    A 2D Hydrodynamic-Particle Analysis model was applied to the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) to estimate the residence time of pollutants. The tidal currents in the Gulf have a strong E-W component, which prevents the material in the north being transported towards south. In the regions situated very close to the open boundary, where the GoK waters exchange freely with the northern Arabian Sea, dilution takes place rapidly with the incoming waters and hence, the residence time is on the order of 1 day. Influence of eddies and a dynamic barrier across the Sikka-Mundra section on the residence time is apparent. Eastern GoK shows a relatively large residence time, on the order of 2-4 days, warranting caution while releasing industrial wastes in the northeastern Gulf. The region around location-5 behaves like a bay; the dissolved matter gets trapped in this bay and the residence time increases by 3-4 days.

  15. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption.

  16. Potential new production in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea: Estimation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhan, Haigang; Du, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Using satellite-derived and in situ data, the wind-driven potential new production (nitrate supply) for the 300 km wide coastal band in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea (AS) during the southwest monsoon is estimated. The upward nitrate flux to the euphotic zone is generally based on the physical processes of coastal transport (Ekman transport and geostrophic transport) and offshore Ekman pumping. The coastal geostrophic current in the western AS influences the upwelling intensity and latitudinal distributions of nitrate supply. The Oman and Somalia upwelling regions have similar level of potential new production (nitrate supply) during the summer monsoon, while the satellite estimates of primary production off Oman are 2 times greater than those off Somalia. The much higher potential f-ratio in the Somalia upwelling region indicates that the primary production could be limited by availability of other macronutrients (e.g., silicate). The correlation analysis of the primary production and the aerosol optical thickness shows that the Oman upwelling region displays a stronger coupling between the atmospheric deposition and the phytoplankton abundance. The high summertime dust levels in the atmosphere are suggested to contribute to the high primary production in the Oman upwelling region.

  17. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  18. Pilot study of the prevalence of head lice infestation in a population of Saudi Arabian children.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    1987-06-01

    The prevalence of infestation with the head louse, Pediculus capitis, was assessed among the child population, from birth to 10 years old inclusive, of the rapidly expanding Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Over a period of two months, 300 consecutive children attending the general practitioner for any reason were examined specifically to identify those infested with head lice: 37 cases of active infestation were found, which is an overall prevalence of 12%. An interesting distribution, however, was noted in respect of age, ranging from less than 2% in the first year of life, rising rapidly to around 30% in ages six to eight years, thereafter declining steadily to about 16% by age 10 years. The distribution of infestation among males and females was broadly similar. These results show a high head lice infestation, particularly in the early school years, where presumably interpersonal contacts are most frequent, facilitating contagious spread. As the head lice is known to spread several viral and rickettsial diseases, such as relapsing fever and typhus, greater efforts should be made towards patient education in hygiene, and towards identifying and treating the disease when found.

  19. Hydrological extremes in hyperarid regions: A diagnostic characterization of intense precipitation over the Central Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kondapalli Niranjan; Entekhabi, Dara; Molini, Annalisa

    2015-03-01

    Aridity is typically associated with deep and dry daytime boundary layers, stable nighttime stratification, divergent flows, and limited large-scale moisture advection. All these factors are paramount in regulating the hydroclimatology of hyperarid regions, resulting in extremely intermittent—and often intense—local precipitation patterns. However, the link between synoptic-scale forcing and intense precipitation over arid regions has been scarcely investigated in the literature and still remains exceedingly unexplored. We present here a diagnostic study of intense precipitation in the Central Arabian Peninsula, based on the analysis of local extreme signatures embedded in synoptic patterns. Special emphasis is given to the genesis of winter extremes over the Peninsula, and to possible effects of synchronization between the atmospheric circulation over the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Based on composites of the tropospheric circulation for a large ensemble of intense events, we show that moisture necessary to trigger winter extremes over the Peninsula starts to build up in average 8 days before heavy rainfall occurrence, mainly as a consequence of the interplay between the Mediterranean and the Monsoonal circulation. Moisture advection is in turn associated with an upper troposphere cyclonic circulation and pronounced potential vorticity intrusions. Overall, our results demonstrate how large-scale precursors can be effectively used to improve the predictability of rainfall extremes in hyperarid regions.

  20. Groundwater evaporation from salt pans: Examples from the eastern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Stephan; Horovitz, Marcel; Rausch, Randolf; Michelsen, Nils; Mallast, Ulf; Köhne, Maximilian; Siebert, Christian; Schüth, Christoph; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    The major groundwater resources of the Arabian Peninsula are stored in the large sedimentary basins in its eastern part. Evaporation from continental salt pans (playas) is an important process in water resources assessments of its upper principal aquifers - the Upper Mega Aquifer system - as it constitutes a significant sink. However, literature values on evaporation rates vary widely and usually report about coastal salt pans where seawater evaporation is assumed. The present study applies different methods to provide a comprehensive picture of groundwater evaporation from salt pans of the Upper Mega Aquifer system. A remote sensing approach provided the spatial distribution and total salt pan area of about 36,500 km2. Hydrochemical and isotopic investigations revealed that from about 10% (3600 km2 ± 1600 km2) of the mapped salt pan area seawater evaporates. To estimate the groundwater evaporation rate from continental salt pans a laboratory column experiment was set up, implying a mean annual evaporation rate of about 42 mm ± 13 mm. In-situ analysis of water table fluctuations in the field suggested about 3 mm a-1 originate from recently infiltrated rainwater leading to an annual net groundwater evaporation of 39 mm ± 13 mm. Relating this number to the mapped salt pan area, from which groundwater evaporates, provides a total annual groundwater loss of 1.3 km3 ± 0.5 km3 for the Upper Mega Aquifer system.

  1. Novel Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase Gene Mutations in Saudi Arabian Hyperuricemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mohammed; Al-Arfaj, Abdulrahman Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Fahad Al-Arfaj, Hussein; Reddy Parine, Narasimha; Purusottapatnam Shaik, Jilani; Khan, Zahid; Ali Khan Pathan, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, a steady increase in the incidence of HPRT-related hyperuricemia (HRH) has been observed in Saudi Arabia. We examined all the nine exons of HPRT gene for mutations in ten biochemically confirmed hyperuricemia patients, including one female and three normal controls. In all, we identified 13 novel mutations in Saudi Arabian HPRT-related hyperuricemia patients manifesting different levels of uric acid. The Lys103Met alteration was highly recurrent and was observed in 50% of the cases, while Ala160Thr and Lys158Asn substitutions were found in two patients. Moreover, in 70% of the patients ≥2 mutations were detected concurrently in the HPRT gene. Interestingly, one of the patients that harbored Lys103Met substitution along with two frameshift mutations at codons 85 and 160 resulting in shortened protein demonstrated unusually high serum uric acid level of 738 μmol/L. Two of the seven point mutations that resulted in amino acid change (Lys103Met and Val160Gly) were predicted to be damaging by SIFT and Polyphen and were further analyzed for their protein stability and function by molecular dynamics simulation. The identified novel mutations in the HPRT gene may prove useful in the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:25136576

  2. Conducting Environmental Health Research in the Arabian Middle East: Lessons Learned and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadig, Mohamed; Ali, Habiba I.; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Campbell, Alan; Ng, Shu Wen; Reeves, Lisa; Chan, Ronna L.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Funk, William E.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Leith, David; Popkin, Barry; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Rusyn, Ivan; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Arabian Gulf nations are undergoing rapid economic development, leading to major shifts in both the traditional lifestyle and the environment. Although the pace of change is brisk, there is a dearth of environmental health research in this region. Objective: We describe challenges and successes of conducting an environmental epidemiologic study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a Gulf nation in the Middle East, with an inter-disciplinary team that includes in-country academic and government collaborators as well as U.S. academic collaborators. Discussion: We present several issues, including study and data collection design, exposure assessment, scheduling and time coordination, quality assurance and quality control, and institutional review board protocols. These topics are considered in a cultural context. Benefits of this research included building linkages among multinational, interdisciplinary team members, generating data for local environmental decision making, and developing local epidemiologic research capacity. The Middle Eastern culture of hospitality greatly benefited the project team. Conclusion: Cultural differences impact multiple aspects of epidemiologic research and should be respectfully addressed. Conducting international population-based environmental research poses many challenges; these challenges can be met successfully with careful planning, cultural knowledge, and flexibility. Lessons learned are applicable to interdisciplinary research all over the world. The research conducted will benefit the environmental and public health agencies of the UAE and provide the nation’s leadership with country-specific environmental health data that can be used to protect the public’s health in a rapidly changing environment. PMID:22356946

  3. Biostimulation of indigenous microorganisms for bioremediation of oily hypersaline microcosms from the Arabian Gulf Kuwaiti coasts.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, Dina M; Al-Deieg, Maha; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2017-05-15

    Hypersaline soil and water samples were collected in summer and winter from the "sabkha" area at the Kuwaiti shore of the Arabian Gulf. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed, and found suitable for microbial oil-removal. Summer- and winter-microcosms were treated with individual cation (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+)) salts, and with animal blood and commercial yeast, as cost-effective vitamin sources. Those microcosms were exposed to the open environment for six winter and six summer months, and analyzed for their hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms at time zero and in two month intervals. The hydrocarbonoclastic microbial communities in the microcosms consisted of halophilic bacteria and haloarchaea. The constituent bacterial species varied according to the season. Three species, Dietzia kunjamensis, Marinobacter lacisalsi and Halomonas oxialensis consistently occurred both in summer- and winter-samples, but the remaining species were different. On the other hand, the haloarchaeal communities in summer and winter were quite similar, and consisted mainly of Haloferax spp and Halobacterium spp. Treating the microcosms with cations and with vitamin-containing natural products enhanced microbial numbers and oil-removal. The effectiveness of the cations in oil-removal was in the order; Fe(3+) (94%) > Ca(2+) (89%) > Mg(2+) (85%) > K(+) (82%). Thus, oily microcosms amended with trivalent and divalent cations lost most of the oil, and those amended with commercial yeast and with animal blood, as vitamin sources, lost 78% and 72% oil, respectively.

  4. Is the trend in chlorophyll-a in the Arabian Sea decreasing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Prince; Prakash, Satya; Rahaman, Hasibur; Ravichandran, M.; Nayak, Shailesh

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies of satellite-derived Chlorophyll concentrations (Chl-a) in the western Arabian Sea (AS) have suggested an increasing temporal trend, but the length of the records used have typically been too short to resolve longer-term trends, if any. Our analysis of a long term satellite ocean color data shows a change of trend in the summer chlorophyll for the western AS before and after 2003; Chl-a concentration was indeed increasing till 2003, but appears to be declining since then, indicating a secular multi-year trend in Chl-a variability. However, this trend is not uniform over the entire region. Analysis of wind, sea surface temperature (SST), Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) and thermocline depth, suggests that the declining summer monsoon chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration may be due to increasing SLA in this region. The earlier observed biological changes in the western AS could be an artifact of the change in local winds and ocean dynamics, which may be a part of the natural long-term variability.

  5. Paleoclimatic changes and human cultural evolution in and around the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anma, Ryo

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of paleoenvironmental changes in and around the Arabian Peninsula have suggested that extremely wet periods occurred during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene; these periods started around the termination of glacial periods and continued during the initial rapid warming that followed. During these periods, flood waters transported enormous amounts of sediments from mountains to plains. Once the thermal maximum was reached and temperature stabilized at a high level, the water environment also stabilized and the climate became dryer. Although gradual changes in atmospheric temperature may have had only a minor direct influence on human activities, drastic changes in the water environment in responses to changes in the average atmospheric and surface water temperatures of just a few degrees had a stronger influence on human culture, possibly leading to the development of agriculture and civilizations. Domestication of animals started at the beginning of a wet period in the early Holocene, whereas the first cities were constructed during its latest stage. The need to control flooding may have led humans to build cities and, thus, to the development of early civilizations.

  6. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  7. Geology and tin-greisen mineralization of the Akash granite, northern Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Smith, Charles W.

    The western margin of the postorogenic Akash granite, 30 km E of Ha'il in the northern Arabian Shield, is greisenized and contains anomalous concentrations of Sn. The pluton intrudes metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and crops out as a 10 by 15 km elliptical body with its long axis oriented N. It consists predominantly of metaluminous alkali-feldspar granite or syenogranite, with accessory biotite and muscovite, and traces of fluorite. Greisenization extends discontinuously in a zone at least 3 km long parallel to the western contact, and along E-trending hematitic quartz veins for more than 2 km from the contact. The veins occupy fractures that were probably conduits for ascending mineralizing fluids. Within about 20 m of the contact, they are enclosed in quartz—white mica greisen containing hematite, fluorite, and locally, topaz and cassiterite. Composite chip samples from the greisenized zone have an average Sn content of 710 ppm, and a maximum of 1600 ppm. Anomalous values for Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Bi and Cu also occur, but none of the samples contain detectable W. Three samples of hematitic quartz averaged 126 ppm Sn, and one contained 200 ppm W.

  8. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg‑1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg‑1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg‑1) and tea (10–97 μg kg‑1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg‑1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  9. Upper mantle structure of the southern Arabian margin: insights from teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Leroy, Sylvie; Keir, Derek; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Boschi, Lapo; Rolandone, Frédérique; Stuart, Graham W.; Khanbari, Khaled; El Hussain, Issa

    2015-04-01

    We image the lithospheric and upper asthenospheric structure beneath the central and eastern parts of the northern Gulf of Aden rifted continental margin with 59 broadband stations to evaluate the role of transform fault zones on the evolution of magma-poor continental margins. We use teleseismic tomography to compute a relative P wave velocity model in eastern Yemen and southern Oman down to 400 km depth. Our model shows low velocity anomalies located in the vicinity of five major fracture zones and regions of recent volcanism. These low velocity anomalies are likely caused by localized asthenospheric upwelling and partial melting, caused by small-scale convection promoted by gradients in LAB (lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary) topography near the fracture zones. In addition, low velocities underlie regions of elevated topography in between major sedimentary basins. We suggest locally buoyant mantle creates uplift and dynamic topography on the rift mar- gin that impacts the course of seasonal rivers and the sedimentation at the mouth of those rivers. Our new P wave velocity model suggests that the dynamic topography and recent volcanism in the central and eastern Gulf of Aden could be due to small-scale convection at the edge of the Arabian plate and/or in the vicinity of fracture zones.

  10. Short-term fate of phytodetritus in sediments across the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, J. H.; Woulds, C.; Schwartz, M.; Cowie, G. L.; Levin, L. A.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    The short-term fate of phytodetritus was investigated across the Pakistan margin of the Arabian Sea at water depths ranging from 140 to 1850 m, encompassing the oxygen minimum zone (~100-1100 m). Phytodetritus sedimentation events were simulated by adding ~44 mmol 13C-labelled algal material per m2 to surface sediments in retrieved cores. Cores were incubated in the dark, at in situ temperature and oxygen concentrations. Overlying waters were sampled periodically, and cores were recovered and sampled (for organisms and sediments) after durations of two and five days. The labelled carbon was subsequently traced into bacterial lipids, foraminiferan and macrofaunal biomass, and dissolved organic and inorganic pools. The majority of the label (20 to 100%) was in most cases left unprocessed in the sediment at the surface. The largest pool of processed carbon was found to be respiration (0 to 25% of added carbon), recovered as dissolved inorganic carbon. Both temperature and oxygen were found to influence the rate of respiration. Macrofaunal influence was most pronounced at the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone where it contributed 11% to the processing of phytodetritus.

  11. Short-term fate of phytodetritus across the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, J. H.; Woulds, C.; Schwartz, M.; Cowie, G. L.; Levin, L. A.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2007-07-01

    The short-term fate of phytodetritus was investigated across the Pakistan margin of the Arabian Sea at water depths ranging from 140 to 1850 m, encompassing the oxygen minimum zone (~100-1100 m). Phytodetritus sedimentation events were simulated by adding 13C-labelled algal material to surface sediments in retrieved cores. Cores were incubated at in situ temperature and oxygen concentrations. Overlying waters were sampled periodically, and cores were recovered and sampled (for organisms and sediments) after durations of two and five days. The labelled carbon was subsequently traced into bacterial lipids, foraminiferan and macrofaunal biomass, and dissolved organic and inorganic pools. The majority of the label was left unprocessed in the sediment at the surface. The largest pool of processed carbon was found to be respiration, recovered as dissolved inorganic carbon. Both temperature and oxygen were found to influence the rate of respiration. Macrofaunal influence was most pronounced at the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone where it dominated the processing of phytodetritus.

  12. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates for racing traits of Arabian horses in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, B; Kocak, O

    2005-10-01

    The racing records for Arabian horses used in the study were obtained from the Turkish Jockey Club. The traits used in the study were racing time, best racing time, rank, annual earnings, earnings per start, log annual earnings and log earnings per start. Genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure using the DFREML program. The effects of age, sex and origin of horse were significant for each trait. The effect of year was significant on time and earning traits, but not rank. The effect of month on time traits was also significant. Heritability estimates of the entire data set were 0.280, 0.281, 0.069, 0.139, 0.174, 0.152 and 0.171 for racing time, best racing time, rank, annual earnings, earnings per start, log annual earnings and log earnings per start respectively. Estimates of repeatability varied from 0.349 to 0.500 for racing time, from 0.430 to 0.524 for best racing time and from 0.129 to 0.171 for rank depending on the data set used in the analyses. Best racing time was the most appropriate trait for selection in this study, as this might lead to genetic improvement than other traits.

  13. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  14. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  15. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-01-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg−1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg−1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg−1) and tea (10–97 μg kg−1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg−1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey. PMID:28150749

  16. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-02

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg(-1). In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg(-1)), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg(-1)) and tea (10-97 μg kg(-1)) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg(-1), and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  17. The effect of relaxing massage on heart rate and heart rate variability in purebred Arabian racehorses.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Sylwester; Janczarek, Iwona; Kędzierski, Witold; Stachurska, Anna; Wilk, Izabela

    2016-09-04

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of relaxing massage on the heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in young racehorses during their first racing season. In the study, 72 Purebred Arabian racehorses were included. The study was implemented during the full race season. The horses from control and experimental groups were included in regular race training 6 days a week. The horses from the experimental group were additionally subject to the relaxing massage 3 days a week during the whole study. HR and HRV were assumed as indicators of the emotional state of the horses. The measurements were taken six times, every 4-5 weeks. The HRV parameters were measured at rest, during grooming and saddling the horse and during warm-up walking under a rider. The changes of the parameters throughout the season suggest that the relaxing massage may be effectively used to make the racehorses more relaxed and calm. Moreover, the horses from the experimental group had better race performance records.

  18. The Arabian cradle: mitochondrial relicts of the first steps along the southern route out of Africa.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Alves, Marco; Costa, Marta D; Pereira, Joana B; Silva, Nuno M; Cherni, Lotfi; Harich, Nourdin; Cerny, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B; Pereira, Luísa

    2012-02-10

    A major unanswered question regarding the dispersal of modern humans around the world concerns the geographical site of the first human steps outside of Africa. The "southern coastal route" model predicts that the early stages of the dispersal took place when people crossed the Red Sea to southern Arabia, but genetic evidence has hitherto been tenuous. We have addressed this question by analyzing the three minor west-Eurasian haplogroups, N1, N2, and X. These lineages branch directly from the first non-African founder node, the root of haplogroup N, and coalesce to the time of the first successful movement of modern humans out of Africa, ∼60 thousand years (ka) ago. We sequenced complete mtDNA genomes from 85 Southwest Asian samples carrying these haplogroups and compared them with a database of 300 European examples. The results show that these minor haplogroups have a relict distribution that suggests an ancient ancestry within the Arabian Peninsula, and they most likely spread from the Gulf Oasis region toward the Near East and Europe during the pluvial period 55-24 ka ago. This pattern suggests that Arabia was indeed the first staging post in the spread of modern humans around the world.

  19. Serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx Pallas, 1776).

    PubMed

    Greth, A; Calvez, D; Vassart, M; Lefèvre, P C

    1992-12-01

    Tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (Taif, Riyadh and Mahazat as Said, Saudi Arabia; San Diego, United States of America [USA]; Shaumari, Jordan; Qatar; and Bahrain). No antibodies to Pasteurella multocida type E or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. Antibodies to Brucella abortus, P. multocida type B, P. multocida type D, lumpy skin disease virus and Akabane virus were detected in 2, 1, 5, 2 and 1 animals, respectively. Evidence of P. multocida type A, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydia psittaci and parainfluenza 3 virus was found in 3 herds (prevalence in the main herd [n = 78]: 8%), 3 herds (8%), 6 herds (7%) and 5 herds (15%), respectively. Evidence of antibodies against bluetongue virus was found in five oryx from the USA and in one oryx from the Taif herd. Antibody vaccinal titres against rinderpest virus (and the virus of peste des petits ruminants, due to cross-reactions) were found in almost all the herds. This is the first report of antibodies against B. abortus, C. burnetti, C. psittaci, parainfluenza 3 virus and Akabane virus in the genus Oryx.

  20. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013.

  1. Seismic reflection structure of intracratonic palmyride fold-thrust belt and surrounding Arabian platform, Syria

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.H.; Barazangi, M.; Best, J. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Al-Otri, M.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-03-01

    Seismic reflection and drill-hole data from central Syria provide a detailed view of the subsurface structure (10-15 km depth) of the relatively little-studied intracratonic Palmyride fold and thrust belt. The data set, together with surface geologic mapping, constrains a structural/stratigraphic section spanning the northeast sector of the belt and the surrounding subprovinces of the Arabian platform. The seismic reflection and drill-hole data show Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences thickening abruptly into the Palmyrides from the adjacent, arched Paleozoic platforms Neogene (alpine) folding and thrusting of the Mesozoic basin, as documented on the seismic data, are sharply restricted to the narrow width of the belt ({approximately}100 km), in contrast to the relatively undeformed Phanerozoic strata of the platforms to the north and south. The seismic and drill-hole data support the hypothesis that the palmyrides began as a Permian-Triassic failed rift connected to the Levantine passive continental margin, which was inverted and complexly deformed by the interfering effects of Cenozoic movements along the Dead Sea transform fault system and the Turkish Bitlis convergent zone. The seismic data provide a first view into the extent and depth of the early basin formation and subsequent compressional deformation, and as such represent a necessary element for constraining reconstructions of northern Middle East plate motions. 20 figs.

  2. Evolution to decay of upwelling and associated biogeochemistry over the southeastern Arabian Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, G. V. M.; Sudheesh, V.; Sudharma, K. V.; Saravanane, N.; Dhanya, V.; Dhanya, K. R.; Lakshmi, G.; Sudhakar, M.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Observations along 10 shelf transects in 2012 near 10°N in the southeastern Arabian Sea revealed the usual warm oligotrophic conditions during the winter monsoon and upwelling of oxygen-deficient, nutrient-rich cool water during the summer monsoon (SM). By changing an oligotrophic to a nutrient-replete condition, the upwelling is the major process that regulates the biogeochemistry of this shelf. Its onset is perceptible at 100 m depth between January and March. The upwelling reaches the surface layer in May and intensifies during June-July but withdraws completely and abruptly by October. Despite the nutrient injection, the primary production during SM, integrated for euphotic zone, is comparable to that during the preceding spring intermonsoon (SIM). Again, as usual, the high oxygen demand coupled with low concentration in the upwelled subsurface waters causes severe oxygen depletion below the shallow pycnocline. The oxygen concentrations/saturations of 2012 on the midshelf are similar from those of mid-1958 to early 1960, except for marginally higher values during the peak upwelling period due to relatively weak upwelling in 2012. This implies little anthropogenic influence on coastal hypoxia unlike many other coastal regions. In 2012, the inner shelf system shifted from net autotrophy in SIM to net heterotrophy in SM but on an annual basis it was net autotrophic (gross primary production to community respiration ratio, GPP/R:1.11 ± 0.84) as organic production exceeded consumption.

  3. Interference of lithospheric folding in western Central Asia by simultaneous Indian and Arabian plate indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, J. H. W.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.; Burov, E.; Tesauro, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Kaban, M.

    2013-08-01

    Large-scale intraplate deformation of the crust and the lithosphere in Central Asia as a result of the indentation of India has been extensively documented. In contrast, the impact of continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia on lithosphere tectonics in front of the main suture zone, has received much less attention. The resulting Neogene shortening and uplift of the external Zagros, Alborz, Kopeh Dagh and Caucasus Mountain belts in Iran and surrounding areas is characterised by a simultaneous onset of major topography growth at ca. 5 Ma. At the same time, subsidence accelerated in the adjacent Caspian, Turan and Amu Darya basins. We present evidence for interference of lithospheric folding patterns induced by the Arabian and Indian collision with Eurasia. Wavelengths and spatial patterns are inferred from satellite-derived topography and gravity models. The observed interference of the patterns of folding appears to be primarily the result of spatial orientation of the two indenters, differences in their convergence velocities and the thermo-mechanical structure of the lithosphere west and east of the Kugitang-Tunka Line.

  4. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  5. Competition over guarding in the Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps), a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Dattner, Arnon; Zahavi, Amotz; Zahavi, Avishag

    2016-01-01

    Observations on 12 groups comprised of two adult males and one adult female (some included one or two fledglings), tame, individually marked, Arabian babblers ( Turdoides squamiceps) in the rift valley in Israel revealed that the babblers compete to guard. The pattern of guarding and the way by which one sentinel replaces another reflect the dominance relationships within the group. The dominant (alpha) male guarded more than any other individual. It interfered with and replaced the guarding by the adult beta male more than it did with the yearlings. About one-third of the replacements occurred less than one minute after the sentinel had assumed guarding. Whereas the dominant often replaced its subordinates directly; subordinates hardly ever replaced their dominants directly. The alpha male often allofed the beta male during the replacement. Replacements and allofeeding of the beta males by the alpha males increased significantly during courtship, when competition over breeding was maximal, and dropped back to their previous level at the start of incubation, highlighting the competitive basis underlying the act of guarding. Competition over altruistic acts, as shown here for guarding, is not compatible with explanations based on the assumption that altruistic acts reduce the fitness (reproductive success) of the altruist. We suggest, in contrast, that by investing in guarding and by intervening in the guarding of its competitors, a babbler demonstrates and signals its quality and its control over its competitors, thereby increasing its prestige and consequently its direct fitness. PMID:26834986

  6. Distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of decapods in the Arabian Sea, with implications for vertical flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincks, Sarah L.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich; Butler, Mari; Kremer, Patricia M.; Craddock, James E.

    Macrozooplankton and micronekton samples were collected on two cruises in the Arabian Sea conducted during the Spring Intermonsoon period (May) and the SW Monsoon period (August) of 1995. Discrete depth samples were collected down to depths of 1000-1500 m. Quantitative gut content analyses were performed on four species of decapod shrimps, Gennadas sordidus, Sergia filictum, Sergia creber, and Eupasiphae gilesii, as well as on the pelagic crab Charybdis smithii. Of the shrimps, only S. filictum and S. creber increased significantly in abundance between the Spring Intermonsoon and SW Monsoon seasons. These four species were found at all depths sampled, and most did not appear to be strong vertical migrators. G. sordidus and S. filictum did appear to spread upward at night, especially during the SW Monsoon, but this movement did not include the entire population. S. creber showed signs of diel vertical migration only in some areas. All four shrimp species except, to some degree, S. creber lived almost exclusively within the oxygen minimum zone (150-1000 m), and are likely to have respiratory adaptations that allow them to persist under such conditions. Feeding occurred at all depths throughout these species' ranges, but only modest feeding occurred in the surface layer (0-150 m). G. sordidus appeared to feed continuously throughout the day and night. Estimated contribution of fecal material to vertical flux ranged from <0.01-2.1% of particulate flux at 1000 m for the shrimps and 1.8-3.0% for C. smithii.

  7. Phylogeography of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Hall, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever is an acute zoonotic viral disease caused by Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) that affects ruminants and humans in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. We used phylogenetic analyses to understand the demographic history of RVFV populations, using sequence data from the three minigenomic segments of the virus. We used phylogeographic approaches to infer RVFV historical movement patterns across its geographic range, and to reconstruct transitions among host species. Results revealed broad circulation of the virus in East Africa, with many lineages originating in Kenya. Arrival of RVFV in Madagascar resulted from three major waves of virus introduction: the first from Zimbabwe, and the second and third from Kenya. The two major outbreaks in Egypt since 1977 possibly resulted from a long-distance introduction from Zimbabwe during the 1970s, and a single introduction took RVFV from Kenya to Saudi Arabia. Movement of the virus between Kenya and Sudan, and CAR and Zimbabwe, was in both directions. Viral populations in West Africa appear to have resulted from a single introduction from Central African Republic. The overall picture of RVFV history is thus one of considerable mobility, and dynamic evolution and biogeography, emphasizing its invasive potential, potentially more broadly than its current distributional limits. PMID:28068340

  8. The Khida terrane - Geology of Paleoproterozoic rocks in the Muhayil area, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia is underlain by Neoproterozoic terranes of oceanic affinity that were accreted during Pan-African time (about 680- 640Ma). Geologicalmappingandisotopicinvestigations during the 1980’s,however, provided the first evidence for Paleoproterozoic continental crust within the east- central part of the shield in Saudi Arabia. These studies delineated an older basement domain, herein referred to as the Khida terrane (Fig. l), which is defined as that part of the southern Afif composite terrane underlain by Paleoproterozoicto Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). The isotopic and geochronologic work to support our current studies within the Khida terrane are discussed in a companion abstract (Whitehouse et al., this volume). The regional geology and geochronology of the region has been summarized in detail by Johnson (1996). The current study is based on the continued use of samples previously collected in the Khida area by the authors and others as well as new field work conducted by us in 1999. This work further defines the occurrence of late Paleoproterozoic rocks at Jabal Muhayil, which is located at the eastern margin of the exposed terrane (Fig. 1). Our isotopic work is at an early stage and this abstract partly relates geologic problems that remain to be resolved. 

  9. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane J; Mirabal, Sheyla; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-03-01

    Modern day Iran is strategically located in the tri-continental corridor uniting Africa, Europe and Asia. Several ethnic groups belonging to distinct religions, speaking different languages and claiming divergent ancestries inhabit the region, generating a potentially diverse genetic reservoir. In addition, past pre-historical and historical events such as the out-of-Africa migrations, the Neolithic expansion from the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Aryan treks from the Central Asian steppes, the westward Mongol expansions and the Muslim invasions may have chiseled their genetic fingerprints within the genealogical substrata of the Persians. On the other hand, the Iranian perimeter is bounded by the Zagros and Albrez mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts, which may have restricted gene flow from neighboring regions. By utilizing high-resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and reanalyzing our previously published Y-chromosomal data, we have found a previously unexplored, genetic connection between Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Furthermore, the regional distribution of mtDNA haplogroups J, I, U2 and U7 also provides evidence of barriers to gene flow posed by the two major Iranian deserts and the Zagros mountain range.

  10. Geology and tin-greisen mineralization of the Akash granite, northern Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The western margin of the postorogenic Akash granite, 30 km E of Ha'il in the northern Arabian Shield, is greisenized and contains anomalous concentrations of Sn. The pluton intrudes metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and crops out as a 10 by 15 km elliptical body with its long axis oriented N. It consists predominantly of metaluminous alkali-feldspar granite or syenogranite, with accessory biotite and muscovite, and traces of fluorite. Greisenization extends discontinuously in a zone at least 3 km long parallel to the western contact, and along E-trending hematitic quartz veins for more than 2 km from the contact. The veins occupy fractures that were probably conduits for ascending mineralizing fluids. Within about 20 m of the contact, they are enclosed in quartz-white mica greisen containing hematite, fluorite, and locally, topaz and cassiterite. Composite chip samples from the greisenized zone have an average Sn content of 710 ppm, and a maximum of 1600 ppm. Anomalous values for Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Bi and Cu also occur, but none of the samples contain detectable W. Three samples of hematitic quartz averaged 126 ppm Sn, and one contained 200 ppm W. ?? 1986.

  11. Mortality of shallow reef corals in the western Arabian Gulf following aerial exposure in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, Y. H.; Allen, K. W.; Estudillo, R. A.

    1995-05-01

    Aerial exposure of patch reef corals occurred in Tarut Bay, western Arabian Gulf, (Saudi Arabia) between December 1991 and May 1992, and coincided with extreme low spring tides (below the predicted lowest astronomical tide-LAT). Colonies of Acropora and Stylophora occurring at the highest levels on the tops of patch reef platforms were most affected by the low tides. Corals fully exposed to air suffered total mortality, whereas those not fully exposed suffered tissue damage to their upper parts. Exposure occurred during winter months when air and water temperatures are at their lowest in the gulf. Coupling of extremely low spring tides with wind-induced negative surges (below LAT) are not regular events but are not infrequent. Cold temperatures and exposure may act in concert to produce disproportionate mortalities of reef flat corals in the shallow coastal areas of eastern Saudi Arabia. It is highly unlikely that the Gulf War oil spill played any role in the observed damage to reef corals in the Gulf in 1992.

  12. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plähn, Olaf; Rhein, Monika; Fine, Rana A.; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    In 1995, concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbon compound CFC-12 in the outflow water from the Persian Gulf were 8-40 fold higher than normally caused by air-sea gas exchange. At that time, the anomaly was restricted to the Gulf of Oman north of 20°N, while in 1998 the signal had spread southwestward to 12°N. The sources of this CFC-12 input of about 6400 kg are most likely the fire extinguishers and solvents used during and after the Gulf War in 1991. This CFC-12 signal is a new feature of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) which can be used to track and quantify the spreading and dilution of PGW in the northern Indian Ocean. The contaminated PGW spreads southward with a mean velocity of 0.02-0.025 m s-1. At 20°N, the anomaly is diluted by a factor of more than two, and east of the island Socotra by a factor of four. A mean transport of less than 0.5·106 m³ s-1 is calculated for PGW assuming a mean dilution rate of 30% from the source signal in the Gulf of Oman to the western Arabian Sea.

  13. An assessment of the Nimbus-7/CZCS calibration for May 1986 using satellite and in situ data from the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hay, Bernward J.; Mcclain, Charles R.; Petzold, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A hydrographic survey of the central Arabian Sea was conducted in May 1986 and stations were correlated with Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) overpasses. As calibration of the CZCS degraded severely during its lifetime, pigment concentrations from samples at four sites in the Arabian Sea were used to refine the calibration of the CZCS. This vicarious calibration technique provided a final estimate of the sensor's sensitivity loss for sensor Gain 2. Calibration using normalized water-leaving radiance for the 520 nm and 550 nm bands showed considerable final sensor degradation. Future missions must incorporate calibration validation programs in order to maintain derived product accuracy requirements. Profiles of pigment concentration, salinity, temperature, and light attenuation are used to describe the bio-optical characteristics of the Arabian Sea during the intermonsoon period.

  14. Extremely high aerosol loading over Arabian Sea during June 2008: The specific role of the atmospheric dynamics and Sistan dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Rashki, A.; Houssos, E. E.; Goto, D.; Nastos, P. T.

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on analyzing the extreme aerosol loading and the mechanisms, source areas and meteorological conditions that favored the abnormal dust exposure towards Arabian Sea during June 2008. The analysis reveals that the spatial-averaged aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Arabian Sea in June 2008 is 0.5 (78.2%) higher than the 2000-2013 mean June value and is mostly attributed to the enhanced dust activity and several (18) dust storms originated from the Sistan region (Iran-Afghanistan borders). Landsat images show that the marshy lakes in Sistan basin got dried during the second half of June 2008 and the alluvial silt and saline material got easily eroded by the intense Levar winds, which were stronger (>15-20 m s-1) than the climatological mean for the month of June. These conditions led to enhanced dust exposure from Sistan that strongly affected the northern and central parts of the Arabian Sea, as forward air-mass trajectories show. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis reveals an abnormal intensification and spatial expansion of the Indian low pressure system towards northern Arabian Sea in June 2008. This suggests strengthening of the convection over the arid southwest Asia and exposure of significant amount of dust, which can reach further south over Arabian Sea favored by the enhanced cyclonic circulation. MODIS imagery highlighted several dust storms originated from Sistan and affecting Arabian Sea during June 2008, while the SPRINTARS model simulations of increased AOD and dust concentration over Sistan and downwind areas are in agreement with ground-based and satellite observations.

  15. Effects of composition of labile organic matter on biogenic production of methane in the coastal sediments of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Kirchman, David L; Bharathi, P A Loka

    2011-11-01

    Coastal regions are potential zones for production of methane which could be governed by ecological/environmental differences or even sediment properties of a niche. In order to test the hypothesis that methanogenesis in most marine sediments could be driven more by proteins than by carbohydrates and lipid content of labile organic matter (LOM), incubation experiments were carried out with sediments from different environmental niches to measure methane production. The methane production rates were examined in relationship to the sediment biochemistry, i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. The gas production measured by head space method ranged from 216 ng g( -1) day( -1) in the mangrove sediments to 3.1 μg g( -1) day( -1) in the shallow Arabian Sea. LOM ranged from 1.56 to 2.85 mg g( -1) in the shallow Arabian Sea, from 3.35 to 5.43 mg g( -1) in the mangrove estuary, and from 0.66 to 0.70 mg g( -1) in the sandy sediments with proteins contributing maximum to the LOM pool. Proteins influenced methane production in the clayey sediments of shallow depths of the Arabian Sea (r = 0.933, p < 0.001) and mangrove estuary (r = 0.981, p < 0.001) but in the sandy beach sediments, carbohydrates (r = 0.924, p < 0.001) governed the net methane production. The gas production was more pronounced in shallow and surface sediments and it decreased with depth apparently governed by the decrease in lability index. Thus, the lability index and protein content are important factors that determine methane production rates in these coastal ecosystems.

  16. Acoustic doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from the R/V T.G. THOMPSON is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises on the THOMPSON are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996. The first of these cruises, a transit of the R/V THOMPSON into the northern Arabian Sea area from Singapore, was a calibration and training cruise that took place between September 18 and October 7, 1994. (The cruises on the THOMPSON are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JOGFS cruise designated TN039.) The remaining cruises have been and will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Seven of these cruises, referred to as process cruises, will follow a set cruise track, making hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The remainder of the cruises while not restricted to the set cruise track, will generally stay within the region defined by the track during the deployment and retrieval of moored equipment and the towing of a SeaSoar. Each cruise will last between two weeks and one month. ADCP data will be collected on all the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises. This system, referred to as the AutoADCP, makes it possible to collect the ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and assures constant data coverage and uniform data quality. The AutoADCP system is an extension of RD Instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with ``user exit`` programs. This data report presents ADCP results from the first four JGOFS cruises, TN039 through TN042, concentrating on the data collection and processing methods.

  17. Arabian Shield magmatic cycles and their relationship with Gondwana assembly: Insights from zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, F. A.; Foden, J. D.; Collins, A. S.; Payne, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Shield preserves a protracted magmatic record of amalgamated juvenile terranes that host a diverse range of early Neoproterozoic to Cambrian granitoids intruding volcanosedimentary basin assemblages that have corollaries in other parts of the East African Orogen. New zircon U-Pb geochronology of 19 granitoids intruding eight Arabian Shield terranes, define four discrete magmatic events: island arc (∼845 Ma), syncollisional (∼710 Ma), post-tectonic (∼620 Ma) and anorogenic (∼525 Ma). Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic analyses indicate that all studied granitoids are juvenile with typical εHf values of >+5 to +10 and Stenian-Tonian (∼1100-900 Ma) model ages, regardless of their precise intrusive ages or spatial relationship. Subtle changes in isotopic signatures between ∼850 and 600 Ma, suggest the result from changes in granite source materials brought about by; basaltic underplating, limited crustal interaction with Palaeoproterozoic basement and a change to lithospheric delamination/subduction roll-back processes driving juvenile ANS crustal growth. The cycle of granite intrusion reflects accretionary cycles initiated during Mozambique Ocean closure and during Gondwana amalgamation and final assembly. Post-tectonic magmatism is divided into a ∼636-600 Ma phase and post 600 Ma event that reflects first subduction and then within-plate related processes. The identification of magmatism at ∼525 Ma is now the youngest granitoid identified so far in the Saudi Arabian Shield and may change the identified age of the regional, basal Palaeozoic unconformity. This late magmatism may be generated by the Najd Fault reactivation correlating with the Malagasy/Kunnga Orogeny that marked the final stages of Gondwana assembly.

  18. New insights into the provenance of Saudi Arabian Palaeozoic sandstones from heavy mineral analysis and single-grain geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, Alexander; Hinderer, Matthias; Meinhold, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Saudi Arabian Palaeozoic siliciclastics cover a stratigraphic range from the Cambrian to the Permian. They crop out along the eastern margin of the Arabian Shield and are comprised of highly mature sandstones. Their heavy mineral assemblage reflects their mineralogical maturity and is dominated by the ultra-stable phases zircon, tourmaline and rutile. Less stable accessories are apatite, staurolite and garnet. Standard heavy mineral analysis of samples from two study areas in central/northern (Tabuk area) and southern (Wajid area) Saudi Arabia reveals distinct changes in provenance. Cambrian-Ordovician sandstones are first-cycle sediments, probably sourced from the 'Pan-African' basement. The overlying Hirnantian glaciogenic deposits consist of recycled Cambrian-Ordovician material. Devonian-Permian sandstones show a significant influx of fresh basement material, as attested by an increase of meta-stable heavy minerals. Single-grain geochemical analysis of rutile and garnet has proven to be a powerful supplementary technique. Rutile varietal studies reveal distinct differences in host rock lithologies between the two study areas: the Tabuk area contains predominantly felsic rutiles, whereas the Wajid area has more mafic input. Zr-in-rutile thermometry identified granulite-facies detritus in the lower Palaeozoic of the Tabuk area and has the potential to further define source areas. The distribution patterns of garnet host rock lithologies are remarkably similar in both study areas. They are dominated by amphibolite-facies metasediments and intermediate to felsic igneous rocks. Garnets derived from granulite-facies metasediments, which are scarce in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, also occur. Possible source rocks for high-grade garnets can be found in Yemen or farther south in the Mozambique Belt.

  19. Evidence of low density sub-crustal underplating beneath western continental region of India and adjacent Arabian Sea: Geodynamical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, O. P.; Agrawal, P. K.; Negi, J. G.

    1996-07-01

    The known high mobility of the Indian subcontinent during the period from 80 to 53 Ma has evoked considerable interest in recent times. It appears to have played an important role in shaping the subcontinental structures of western India and the adjoining Arabian Sea. During this period, a major catastrophic event took place in the form of Deccan volcanism, which coincides with the biological mass extinction at the K-T boundary, including the death of dinosaurs. The origin of Deccan volcanism is still being debated. Geophysically, western India and its offshore regions exhibit numerous prominent anomalies which testify to the abnormal nature of the underlying crust-lithosphere. In this work, we develop a two-dimensional structural model of these areas along two long profiles extending from the eastern basin of the Arabian Sea to about 1000 km inland. The model, derived from the available gravity data in the oceanic and continental regions, is constrained by seismic and other relevant information in the area, and suggests, for the first time, the presence of an extensive low-density (2.95-3.05 g/cm 3) sub-crustal underplating. Such a layer is found to occur between depths of 11 and 20 km in the eastern basin of the Arabian Sea, and betweeen 45 and 60 km in the continental region where it is sandwiched in the lower lithosphere. The low density may have been caused as a result of serpentinization or fractionation of magma by a process related in some way to the Deccan volcanic event. Substantial depletion of both oceanic and continental lithosphere is indicated. We hypothesize that the present anatomy of the deformed lithosphere of the region at the K-T boundary is the result of substantial melt generated owing to frictional heat possibly giving rise to a hot cell like condition at the base of the lithosphere, resulting from the rapid movement of the Indian subcontinent between 80 and 53 Ma.

  20. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groucutt, Huw S.; White, Tom S.; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Parton, Ash; Crassard, Rémy; Shipton, Ceri; Jennings, Richard P.; Parker, Adrian G.; Breeze, Paul S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    The Empty Quarter (or Rub' al Khali) of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest continuous sandy desert in the world. It has been known for several decades that Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, representing phases of wetter climate, are preserved there. These sequences have yielded palaeontological evidence in the form of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils and have been dated using various radiometric techniques. However, evidence for human presence during these wetter phases has until now been ephemeral. Here, we report on the first stratified and dated archaeology from the Empty Quarter, recovered from the site of Mundafan Al-Buhayrah (MDF-61). Human occupation at the site, represented by stone tools, has been dated to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 using multiple luminescence dating techniques (multigrain and single grain OSL, TT-OSL). The sequence consists primarily of lacustrine and palustrine sediments, from which evidence for changing local environmental conditions has been obtained through analysis of fossil assemblages (phytoliths and non-marine molluscs and ostracods). The discovery of securely-dated archaeological material at ∼100 to 80 ka in the Empty Quarter has important implications for hypotheses concerning the timing and routes of dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa, which have been much debated. Consequently, the data presented here fill a crucial gap in palaeoenvironmental and archaeological understanding of the southern Arabian interior. Fossils of H. sapiens in the Levant, also dated to MIS 5, together with Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites in Arabia and India are thought to represent the earliest dispersal of our species out of Africa. We suggest that the widespread occurrence of similar lithic technologies across southern Asia, coupled with a growing body of evidence for environmental amelioration across the Saharo-Arabian belt, indicates that occupation of the Levant by H. sapiens during MIS 5

  1. Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kruse, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal shortages of groundwater are common in parts of the Arabian Shield, where complex basement hydrogeology can make siting of water wells difficult. To identify optimal production well locations, six 200-400 m-long Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic traverses and ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) were run at the western edge of the Arabian Shield near At-Taif town, Saudi Arabia. Here wadi sediments overlie fractured Precambrian basement, which in turn overlies unfractured basement. The fractured basement forms the water supply aquifer. Both VLF and VES data indicate significant lateral heterogeneity in the electrical conductivity of both wadi and basement deposits over lengths scales as small as ∼100 m. VES results correlate closely with data from two wells in the study area. The change in resistivity at the wadi-to-fractured basement contact is relatively subtle, but the transition from low resistivity fractured basement to high resistivity unfractured basement is well resolved. Inferred wadi thicknesses range from 0 to 14 m; the electrically conductive fractured basement extends from wadi down to 12-32 m depth. VES data indicate the fractured basement aquifer thickens progressively to the south in this area. A production well, sited on the basis of the VES analysis, successfully yielded 70m3/day. The relationship between VLF and VES data is complex, suggesting that the terrain is heterogeneous on the scale of the different effective sampling volumes of the two methods, and/or that fracture azimuth is locally heterogeneous. Overall resistivities in this study are similar to those observed at other locations in Saudi Arabia, suggesting these methods may be widely applicable for siting of groundwater wells in the complex basement of the Arabian Shield.

  2. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  3. Ants of the Genus Solenopsis Westwood 1840 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula with Description of a New Species, Solenopsis elhawagryi

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2012-01-01

    Ants of the genus Solenopsis Westwood in the Arabian Peninsula are revised. Six species are treated: Solenopsis elhawagryi Sharaf & Aldawood sp. n., S. geminata (Fabricius, 1804), S. omana Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, S. saudiensis Sharaf & Aldawood, 2011, S. sumara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, and S. zingibara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996. Solenopsis elhawagryi is described from Beljorashi Governorate, Al Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, based on worker castes and the queen with notes on this species biology and ecology. Solenopsis sumara workers are redescribed and illustrated for the first time and a lectotype is designated. An identification key to the Arabian and Egyptian species is provided with scanning electron micrographs to facilitate species recognition. PMID:23226211

  4. Limpets of the genus Cellana (Patellogastropoda) from Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: species identification based on DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Fatima Hayat Shaheen; Ayub, Zarrien; Begum, Samar; Siddiqui, Ghazala; Roberts, David

    2016-07-01

    The true limpets are found in the intertidal zone of the rocky shores of Pakistan, North Arabian Sea. Partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I was used to estimate the degree of genetic differentiation among the morphological forms of Cellana, which were considered as three separate species earlier in Pakistan. The study revealed that the three morphs of Cellana on COI sequence generated a single haplotype and matched with the COI sequence of Cellana karachiensis. This point out the phenotypic plasticity between the proposed species.

  5. Molecular and cytogenetic studies in a case of XX SRY-negative sex reversal in an Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Pasolini, M P; Auletta, L; Esposito, L; Iannuzzi, L; Peretti, V

    2012-01-01

    An 18-month-old Arabian foal characterized by a stallion-like appearance was submitted for cytogenetic and molecular genetics examinations due to abnormalities of external genitalia and the presence of ovotestis-like structures in the abdominal cavity. By RB-banding the animal showed the normal female equine karyotype (2n = 64,XX). Molecular analysis revealed the absence of the SRY and ZFY genes and the presence of ZFX, a typical female equine condition. The entire RSPO1 coding region was examined to exclude its involvement. Although a SNP was found in exon 3, it was not responsible for an amino acid substitution.

  6. Saudi arabian students' chemistry achievement and science attitudes stemming from lecture-demonstration and small group teaching methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Harold; Al-Faleh, Nasser

    The study was designed to determine differences between two chemistry teaching methods on students' chemistry achievement and attitudes toward science. The two methods were the large lecture-demonstration and small-group laboratory approaches to teaching chemistry. The subjects were 74 eleventh-grade Saudi Arabian students randomly assigned to the two treatment groups. The findings revealed that the small-group laboratory students exhibited significantly greater chemistry achievement than students in the lecture-demonstration group on both immediate and delayed posttests. The results also indicated that students taught by the lab approach possessed more desirable attitudes toward science.

  7. The erosion-corrosion of copper-based and nickel-based alloys in warm polluted Arabian Gulf seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.A.; Islam, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the erosion-corrosion behavior of copper-nickel alloys (90:10 Cu/Ni and 7030 Cu/Ni), nickel-copper alloy UNS N04400 and nickel-based alloys (UNS N06022, N06030 and UNS S32550) used as heat exchanger tubes, in warm flowing Arabian Gulf seawater containing up to 5 ppm of sulphide ions. Visual and optical examinations of the internal surfaces of the tubes were carried out to compare the susceptibilities to erosion-corrosion attack of the different alloys, taking into consideration the nature of the product films formed.

  8. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W.; Rohner, Christoph A.; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C.; Mair, James M.; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P < 0.05). Mean estimated total length (TL) for sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.01). Of the male sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720–6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  9. Interpretation of detailed aerial gamma-ray survey, Jabal Ashirah area, southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey of the Jabal Ashirah area in the southeastern Arabian Shield has been analyzed using computer-classification algorithms. The analysis resulted in maps that show radiometric map units and gamma-ray anomalies indicating the presence of possible concentrations of potassium and uranium. The radiometric-unit map was interpreted to 'produce a simplified radiolithic map that was correlated with the mapped geology. The gamma-ray data show uranium anomalies that coincide with a tin-bearing granite, but known gold and nickel mineralization do not have any associated gamma-ray signatures.

  10. The Khida terrane - Geochronological and isotopic evidence for Paleoproterozoic and Archean crust in the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehouse, M.J.; Stoeser, D.B.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Khida terrane of the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia has been proposed as being underlain by Paleoproterozoic to Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). Detailed geological aspects of the Khida terrane, particularly resulting from new fieldwork during 1999, are discussed in a companion abstract (Stoeser et al., this volume). We present conventional and ion- microprobe U-Pb zircon geoenronology, Nd whole-rock, and feldspar Pb isotopic data that further elucidate the pre-Pan-African evolution of the Khida terrane. Locations for the Muhayil samples described below are shown in figure 2 of Stoeser et al. (this volume). 

  11. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W; Rohner, Christoph A; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C; Mair, James M; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P < 0.05). Mean estimated total length (TL) for sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.01). Of the male sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720-6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean.

  12. Multiscale Local Forcing of the Arabian Desert Daytime Boundary Layer, and Implications for the Dispersion of Surface-Released Contaminants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Sheu, Rong-Shyang

    2000-05-01

    Four 6-day simulations of the atmospheric conditions over the Arabian Desert during the time of the 1991 detonation and release of toxic material at the Khamisiyah, Iraq, weapons depot were performed using a mesoscale model run in a data-assimilation mode. These atmospheric simulations are being employed in a forensic analysis of the potential contribution of the toxic material to so-called Gulf War illness. The transport and concentration of such surface-released contaminants are related strongly to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth and the horizontal wind speed in the PBL. The product of the PBL depth and the mean wind speed within it is referred to as the ventilation and is used as a metric of the horizontal transport within the PBL. Thus, a corollary study to the larger forensic analysis involves employing the model solutions and available data in an analysis of the multiscale spatial variability of the daytime desert PBL depth and ventilation as they are affected by surface forcing from terrain elevation variations, coastal circulations, and contrasts in surface physical properties.The coarsest computational grid spanned the entire northern Arabian Desert and surrounding areas of the Middle East, and represented the large-scale PBL modulation by the orography. The PBL depths were greatest over the high elevations of the western Arabian Peninsula and over the Zagros Mountains in western Iran and were shallowest over water bodies and the lower elevations in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Higher-resolution grids in the nest (the smallest grid increment was 3.3 km) showed that the PBL depth minimum in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley was likely a consequence of compensating subsidence associated with the thermally forced daytime upward motion over the Zagros Mountains to the east in Iran, with possible contributions from an elevated mixed layer. Further local modulation of the daytime desert PBL occurred as a result of the inland penetration of the coastal sea

  13. The miswak (chewing stick) and oral health. Studies on oral hygiene practices of urban Saudi Arabians.

    PubMed

    al-Otaibi, Meshari

    2004-01-01

    The miswak, a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth, is made from the plant Salvadora persica. For religious and cultural reasons, miswak use is firmly established and widespread in Saudi Arabia and most other Muslim countries. Only recently has scientific evaluation of the miswak been undertaken. The aims of the thesis were: 1) to explore current oral hygiene habits and oral health awareness among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and educational level (papers I and II); 2) to compare mechanical plaque removal and gingival health after miswak use and toothbrushing (paper III); 3) to compare the effect of miswak use and toothbrushing on subgingival plaque microflora (paper IV). In papers I and II, structured interviews were conducted with 1200 regular patients at two centres in the city of Makkah, providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age, into 6 age groups from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each centre. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subjects' age, gender, and educational levels and analysed statistically by a generalized linear model and ANOVA. In papers III and IV, the subjects comprised 15 healthy Saudi Arabian male volunteers aged 21 to 36 years, attending the Dental Center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah City. A single-blind, randomised crossover design was used. The Turesky modified Quigley-Hein plaque and Löe-Silness gingival indices and digital photographs of plaque distribution were recorded in Paper III and in Paper IV plaque was sampled for DNA-testing. Inhibition zones around miswak material were examined on agar plates with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and the leukotoxicity of this bacterium was analysed in a bioassay with macrophages +/- miswak extracts (paper IV). In papers I and II, 73% of the subjects used a toothbrush and 65% used a miswak daily

  14. Arabian Night and Sea Story - Biomarkers from a Giant Mass Transport Deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratenkov, Sophia; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Clift, Peter D.; George, Simon C.

    2016-04-01

    The study of mass transport deposits (MTDs) is an important field of research due to the potential insights into catastrophic events in the past and modern geohazard threats (e.g. tsunamis). Submarine mass movements are very significant processes in sculpturing the structure of continental margins, particularly in their extent and magnitude that have consequences both in the modern day, as well as in the geological past. An understanding of the complex stratigraphy of a submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) might help in reconstructing the provenance and transport pathways of sedimentary material and thus give important insights into sedimentary dynamics and processes triggering specific events. Drilling operations during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 Arabian Sea Monsoon, which took place during April and May, 2015 cored two sites in Laxmi Basin. Site U1456 was cored to 1109.4 m below seafloor (mbsf), with the oldest recovered rock dated to ~13.5-17.7 Ma. Site U1457 was cored to 1108.6 mbsf, with the oldest rock dated to ~62 Ma. At each site, we cored through ~330 m and ~190 m of MTD material. The MTD layers mainly consist of interbedded lithologies of dark grey claystone, light greenish calcarenite and calcilutite, and conglomerate/breccia, with ages based on calcareous nannofossil and foraminifer biostratigraphy ranging from the Eocene to early Miocene (Pandey et al., 2015). This MTD, known as Nataraja Slide, is the third largest MTD known from the geological record and the second largest on a passive margin. Calvés et al. (2015) identified a potential source area offshore Sourashstra on the Indian continental margin and invoked the single step mass movement model to explain the mechanism of emplacement. Initial shipboard work demonstrated the high variability in total organic carbon and total nitrogen levels in different layers within the MTD, which raises a number of questions related to the source and composition of the organic

  15. Biophysical isopycnic-coordinate modelling of plankton dynamics in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olascoaga, M. J.; Idrisi, N.; Romanou, A.

    A Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model is coupled to the Miami Isopycnic-Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) to study plankton dynamics in the Arabian Sea. Experiments oriented to testing the NPZD-MICOM coupled model sensitivity to variations in several parameters are performed. Particular attention is paid to the rates of detritus sinking and maximum phytoplankton growth rate. The coarse features of the blooms are captured by all the experiments considered, and agree with earlier models for the biological activity of the region. Intensity, duration, and peaks of the blooms are found to be quite sensitive to the parameter choices. The existence of an offshore deep chlorophyll maximum in the model is found to be closely related to the increase of the detritus sinking rate. The use of temperature-dependent maximum growth rate of phytoplankton and the increase of detritus sinking rate are shown to improve model results compared with in situ and satellite observations. The differences between the present results and those from previous modelling efforts in the region, where few- or multi-layer hydrodynamical models or even fixed-level hydrodynamical models have been employed, are found to be in the same range as the differences among the results from the various sensitivity experiments presented here. This indicates that a small uncertainty in the knowledge of the ecosystem model parameters can be more important in ecosystem modelling than the uncertainty associated to the differences in the vertical coordinate representation of the underlying hydrodynamical model. There are still biological processes, such as denitrification which affect the vertical distribution of nutrient concentrations, that are not included neither in the previous works in the area nor in the present work. This might mask any potential advantages of the present NPZD-MICOM coupled model, especially at mid-depths in the ocean.

  16. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer in a Saudi Arabian Population

    PubMed Central

    Alkhayal, Khayal A.; Awadalia, Zainab H.; Vaali-Mohammed, Mansoor-Ali; Al Obeed, Omar A.; Al Wesaimer, Alanoud; Halwani, Rabih; Zubaidi, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D, causally implicated in bone diseases and human malignancies, exerts its effects through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor modulating the expression of several genes in different pathways. Genetic variants in the VDR gene have been associated with several cancers in different population including colorectal cancer. Objective To assess the association of VDR gene polymorphisms in relation with colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Saudi population. Methods The polymorphisms of VDR gene (BsmI, FokI, ApaI and TaqI) were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of segments of interest followed by Sanger sequencing. One hundred diagnosed CRC patients and 100 healthy control subjects that were age and gender matched were recruited. Results We did not observe significant association of any of the four VDR polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk in the overall analysis. Although not statistically significant, the AA genotype of BsmI conferred about two-fold protection against CRCs compared to the GG genotype. Stratification of the study subjects based on age and gender suggests statistically significant association of CRC with the ‘C’ allele of ApaI in patients >57 years of age at disease diagnosis and BsmI polymorphism in females. In addition, statistically significant differences were observed for the genotypic distributions of VDR-BsmI, ApaI and TaqI SNPs between Saudi Arabian population and several of the International HapMap project populations. Conclusion Despite the absence of correlation of the examined VDR polymorphisms with CRCs in the combined analysis, ApaI and BsmI loci are statistically significantly associated with CRC in elderly and female patients, respectively. These findings need further validation in larger cohorts prior to utilizing these SNPs as potential screening markers for colorectal cancers in Saudi population. PMID:27309378

  17. The Role of Tigris Euphrates Discharge on Coastal SST in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.; Sanders, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Tigris-Euphrates (T-E) river system provides most of the freshwater recharge into the Arabian/Persian Gulf, through the Shatt el-Arab, into the northern Gulf. Over the past decades, increased dam storage for irrigation and hydropower throughout the region has modified the characteristics of this flow. As a result, flow into the Iraqi Marshes has been reduced by at least half, with reduction in both peak and overall flow, and a corresponding decrease in flow through the Shatt el-Arab. This change in flow characteristics is observable in the waters on the Northern Gulf and in Kuwait bay. AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 8 day data was assembled for the time period 1985-2010. Time series were extracted for sea surface temperature (SST) for locations in the Northern and Central Gulf and Kuwait Bay. These were compared with regional precipitation and GRACE water equivalent thickness variations in the upper and lower T-E basin, and published flow estimates. Results were used to examine 1) the overall impact of discharge on SST in the coastal area affected by T-E watershed discharge; 2) the impact of reduced flow years due to damming and drought years on the differences between coastal and bay SST and central Gulf SST. Annual peak flow in the period Dec-April was found to provide a lowering of coastal SST by more than 1C compared with more well mixed water in the central Gulf. This effect was not seen to be less than half during drought years (e.g. 2006-2008). Climate models predict end of century scenarios of precipitation similar to those seen during 2007-2008. The impact of this lower discharge from the Shatt el-Arab combined with predicted regional warming may result in habitat changes in coastal waters in the Northern Gulf.

  18. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  19. Plectranthias alcocki, a new anthiine fish species (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Arabian Sea, off southwest India.

    PubMed

    Bineesh, K K; Akhilesh, K V; Gopalakrishnan, A; Jena, J K

    2014-04-04

    A new species of anthiine fish, Plectranthias alcocki n. sp. is described and illustrated based on two specimens, (63.7-72.5 mm SL), recently collected from deep-waters of the Arabian Sea, off Kollam, Kerala, India. The following combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: Dorsal-fin rays X, 15; anal-fin rays III, 7; pectoral-fin rays 14, all unbranched; pelvic-fin rays I, 5; lateral-line complete, the pored lateral-line scales 28; scales above lateral line to origin of dorsal fin 1; scales dorsally on head extending to posterior nostrils; no scales on maxilla or chin; gill rakers 5 + 11 (2 + 7 developed); circumpeduncular scales 10; fourth dorsal spine longest, 2.8 (2.6) in head length (HL), longest dorsal-fin soft ray (second)  2.4 (2.7) in head length; body depth 34.4 (35)% SL; head length 46 (49.8)% SL; orbital length 8.6 in SL; margin of preopercle finely serrate, the serrae 33 (28), ventral edge without antrorse spines; dorsal fin continuous and notched; first anal-fin spine 4.9 (5.6) in HL, second anal-fin spine 2.2 (2.6) in HL; pelvic fins relatively short, 4.0-4.3 in SL; the dorsal fin with a black blotch at base of fourth to eighth spines, one at base of the last three spines, and two at base of soft portion of fin, the dark pigment extending onto adjacent body.

  20. Remote sensing of bacterial response to degrading phytoplankton in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Priyaja, P; Dwivedi, R; Sini, S; Hatha, M; Saravanane, N; Sudhakar, M

    2016-12-01

    A remote sensing technique has been developed to detect physiological condition of phytoplankton using in situ and moderate imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data. The recurring massive mixed algal bloom of diatom and Noctiluca scintillans in the Northern Arabian Sea during winter-spring was used as test bed to study formation, growth and degradation of phytoplankton. The ratio of chlorophyll (chl) to particulate organic carbon (POC) was considered as an indicator of phytoplankton physiological condition and used for the approach development. Algal blooms represent the areas of new production, and therefore, knowledge of their degradation is important to the study microbial loop and export carbon flux. Relation of chl/POC ratio with bacterial abundance revealed Gaussian distribution. Bacteria were strongly correlated with POC, and hence, the latter which is available from satellite data could be used as a proxy for remote assessment of bacteria. Thresholds for active and degrading phytoplankton were determined using the ratio computed from the satellite data. The criteria were implemented on MODIS data to generate an image representing distribution of degrading algal bloom. Bacteria abundance data from two validation cruises during dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria bloom confirmed well match up of phytoplankton degradation information from the satellite. Comparison of environmental parameters during decay phase of dinoflagellate (N. scintillans bloom (winter) and Trichodesmium bloom (summer) revealed that degradation after active Trichodesmium bloom was more severe as compared to the N. scintillans. The present study also highlights the prediction capability of phytoplankton degradation using a time series of satellite retrieved chlorophyll/POC images.

  1. Temporal variations of LH and testosterone in arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ancrenaz, M; Blanvillain, C; Delhomme, A; Greth, A; Sempéré, A J

    1998-09-01

    To determine the onset of puberty in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), a longitudinal study was conducted in 5 captive males at the National Wildlife Research Centre, Taif (Saudi Arabia). From birth to 20 months of age, twice weekly, animals were weighed and blood was assayed for LH and testosterone. Four periods were defined by analysis of the hormonal profile. During the first 5 months (corresponding to prepuberty), mean LH concentrations increased significantly while testosterone remained basal. Testosterone increased significantly during the second period (from 6 to 7 months) while LH decreased significantly. The testosterone pattern suggests that the animals reached puberty at around 7 months old. Mean LH concentrations remained at a similar level before and after puberty and increased significantly between the 12th and 13th months of life. This increment correspond to the transition between two further periods. The third period (8-12 months) was characterized by testosterone peaks of 2.4 +/- 0.1 ng ml-1 which irregularly occurred over a period of 26.6 +/- 2.7 days and was followed by a fourth period, during which peaks were seen at 24.1 +/- 1.6-day intervals and reached 4.7 +/- 0.2 ng ml-1. This last period probably corresponds to the mature stage of puberty. The testosterone cyclicity in oryx, coinciding with the estrous cycle length of the female, would permit the male to be fertile throughout the year and could be an adaptive response to the opportunistic and aseasonal reproductive cycle of the female.

  2. Association between TLR-9 polymorphisms and colon cancer susceptibility in Saudi Arabian female patients

    PubMed Central

    Semlali, Abdelhabib; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Al Amri, Abdullah; Azzi, Arezki; Arafah, Maha; Kohailan, Muhammad; Shaik, Jilani P; Almadi, Majid Abdulrahman; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Alharbi, Othman; Ali Azzam, Nahla; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud

    2017-01-01

    Objective The authors aimed to explore the relationship between the expression/polymorphisms of TLR-9 and susceptibility to colon cancer development in the Saudi Arabian population. Methods In total, blood samples from 115 patients with colon cancer and 102 participants without colon cancer were analyzed in this study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the TLR-9 gene, including two sites within the TLR-9 gene’s promoter region (rs352144 and rs187084) and one site in a TLR-9 intron region (rs5743839). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from logistic regression models after adjusting for age, gender, and tumor localization. To investigate the differential expression of TLR-9 in colon cancer, TLR-9 expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on 40 matched normal and colon tissues. Results The authors found that TLR-9 expression was decreased in colon cancer tissues as compared with that in normal tissues. Moreover, significant associations between the TLR-9 rs187084 SNP and colon cancer risk were observed in female patients only. In rs187084, the T allele had a significantly lower frequency (2.8 times) in female cancer patients than in controls (0.27 vs 0.41). The TLR-9 rs352139 and rs352144 SNPs were significantly associated with colon cancer development when the tumor was located in the rectal area. Conclusion The findings support the hypothesis that TLR-9 has an anticancer role in colon cancer development. Furthermore, genetic variation may influence colon cancer development, and SNPs in TLR-9 could serve as biomarkers for decision making in the treatment of females with rectal cancer. PMID:28031717

  3. Shamals and climate variability in the Northern Arabian Gulf from 1973 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Senafi, F.; Anis, A.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents key results from analysis of surface meteorological observations collected in the Northern Arabian Gulf (N AG). The dataset, which spans a 40-years period (1973-2012; Kuwait airport), was used to examine climate variability in the N AG, and the relation to Shamal events (strong NW winds that commonly create large dust storms) and teleconnection patterns (North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino Southern Oscillation, and Indian Ocean Dipole). Results of the analysis indicate that during the 40-year period the climate in the region experienced a general trend of increase in temperature (0.8 ^oC), decreasein barometric pressure (1 mb), reduction in humidity (6%), and decrease in visibility (9%). Significant correlations were found between the three teleconnection patterns and the meteorological conditions suggesting that seasonal variability in air temperature, barometric pressure, and precipitation are closely related to the teleconnection patterns. Analysis of the 40-year period suggests that on average Shamal events occur at a rate of 10 events per year with 85% of the events occuring during the summer and winter. These events resulted in abrupt changes in meteorological conditions: an increase in wind speed of 2.7 m/s, an increase in temperature during summer of 0.8 ^oC, and a decrease of -1.5 ^oC during winter, a decrease in barometric pressure during summer of -0.6 mb and a increase of 7.8 mb during winter, a decrease in visibility of -1.7 km, and reduction in humidity of -4.3 %.

  4. Comparative ergoespirometric adaptations to a treadmill exercise test in untrained show Andalusian and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Castejón-Riber, Cristina; Muñoz, Ana; Trigo, Pablo; Riber, Cristina; Santisteban, Rafael; Castejón, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Significant differences exist in the respiratory adaptation to exercise in different equine breeds. This research describes the ergoespirometric response to exercise of Andalusian (AN) and Arabian (A) horses, both selected according to morphological criteria. Thirteen untrained male horses (6 AN and 7 A) performed a treadmill exercise test (TET) with a slope of 6%, with workloads starting from 5 m/s and increasing 1 m/s every 3 min until the horses were not able to keep the required velocity. Tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate, minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), exercise time to fatigue (ETF) and respiratory aerobic threshold (RAT) were determined. AN horses presented higher TV and VE, whereas respiratory rate, VO2 and VCO2 were lower at the same velocities. RER was similar between breeds. ETF was longer in A horses (556.7 ± 66.5 in AN vs. 607.1 ± 71.1 s in A) and no significant differences were found in RAT (5.50 ± 0.50 in AN vs. 5.86 ± 1.07 m/s in A). In summary, despite the more intense ventilatory response to exercise at the same velocity, AN horses had lower VO2. The AN horse develops a more intense ventilatory response to fixed velocities than the A horse and it could be interesting to clarify the role of the locomotion characteristics in this response.

  5. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  6. Locating Noctiluca Miliaris in the Arabian Sea: An Optical Proxy Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, Patricia S.; Roesler, Collin S.; Drapeau, Susan L.; Matondkar, S. G. Prabhu; Goes, Joaquim I.; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Coincident with shifting monsoon weather patterns over India, the phytoplankter Noctiluca miliaris has recently been observed to be dominating phytoplankton blooms in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons. Identifying the exact environmental and/or ecological conditions that favor this species has been hampered by the lack of concurrent environmental and biological observations on time and space scales relevant to ecologic and physiologic processes. We present a bio-optical proxy for N. miliaris measured on highly resolved depth scales coincident with hydrographic observations with the goal to identify conducive hydrographic conditions for the bloom. The proxy is derived from multichannel excitation chlorophyll a fluorescence and is validated with microscopy, pigment composition, and spectral absorption. Phytoplankton populations dominated by either diatoms or other dinoflagellates were additionally discerned. N. miliaris populations in full bloom were identified offshore in low-nutrient and low-N : P ratio surface waters within a narrow temperature and salinity range. These populations transitioned to high-biomass diatom-dominated coastal upwelling populations. A week later, the N. miliaris blooms were observed in declining phase, transitioning to very-low-biomass populations of non-N. miliaris dinoflagellates. There were no clear hydrographic conditions uniquely associated with the N. miliaris populations, although N. miliaris was not found in the upwelling or extremely oligotrophic waters. Taxonomic transitions were not discernible in the spatial structure of the bloom as identified by the ocean color Chl imagery, indicating that in situ observations may be necessary to resolve community structure, particularly for populations below the surface.

  7. Recent heat flow survey and sea-floor spreading in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franken, D.; Al Amri, Z. M.

    2013-12-01

    Saudi Aramco obtained 225 new heat flow measurements along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, using an 11 m long Lister-type probe. To allow for geological control, most of the measurements were made along 2D seismic lines. In shallow areas, measurements were performed in bathymetric deeps to improve data coverage. It was observed that water bottom temperatures show an undisturbed linear gradient from ~ 21.2 °C at ~500 m water depth, to ~ 21.8 °C at ~2500 m. Consequently, high quality measurements were made from water depths as shallow as 400 m. Hard grounds on top of Pleistocene sediments prevented penetration of the probe near the toes of Upper Miocene salt glaciers terminating at the axial ridge. Based on this survey and previous data, the heat flow values range from ~80 -100 mWm-2 along the shoreline to over 350 mWm-2 at the axial ridge. However, anomalously low values between 8 and 20 mWm-2 were measured on the spreading axis where seismic data indicate Pleistocene sediments overlie volcanic rocks, probably due to groundwater circulation. One anomalously high heat flow value of 1136 mWm-2 was measured near the axial ridge, at a place where Pleistocene sediments overlie mobile salt, probably due to hydrothermal activity. In general, the regional distribution of heat flow in the eastern Red Sea shows exponential decay away from the inferred spreading axis. This is consistent with the inference that seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea started around 15 Ma.

  8. Effects of fluoxetine on the swimming and behavioural responses of the Arabian killifish.