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Sample records for arabian sea due

  1. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... sometimes results in copious phytoplankton production and oxygen depletion of the subsurface waters. Although red phytoplankton fluorescences have been associated with the low oxygen concentrations in the intermediate and deep waters of the Arabian Sea, ...

  2. Observational study of upper ocean cooling due to Phet super cyclone in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muni Krishna, K.

    2016-05-01

    Phet super cyclone (31 May-7 June 2010) was the most intense and also the rarest of the rare track in Arabian Sea as per the recorded history during 1877-2009. The present study focuses on the ocean physical responses to Phet cyclone using satellite and Argo observations. The sea surface temperature is decreased to 6 °C with an approximately 350 km long and 100 km width area in the Arabian Sea after the cyclone passage. The translation speed of cyclone is 3.86 m/s, the mixed layer is 79 m, and thermocline displacement is 13 m at the cooling area. With the relationship of wind stress curl and Ekman pumping velocity (EPV), the author found that the speed of EPV was increased after the passage of cyclone. So the extent of the SST drop was probably due to the moving speed of cyclone and the depth of the mixed layer.

  3. Massive outbreaks of Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Arabian Sea due to spread of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    do Rosário Gomes, Helga; Goes, Joaquim I; Matondkar, S G P; Buskey, Edward J; Basu, Subhajit; Parab, Sushma; Thoppil, Prasad

    2014-09-09

    In the last decade, the northern Arabian Sea has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms, which previously comprised mainly of diatoms, the unicellular, siliceous photosynthetic organisms favoured by nutrient-enriched waters from convective mixing. These trophically important diatom blooms have been replaced by widespread blooms of a large, green dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans, which combines carbon fixation from its chlorophyll-containing endosymbiont with ingestion of prey. Here, we report that these massive outbreaks of N. scintillans during winter are being facilitated by an unprecedented influx of oxygen deficient waters into the euphotic zone and by the extraordinary ability of its endosymbiont Pedinomonas noctilucae to fix carbon more efficiently than other phytoplankton under hypoxic conditions. We contend that N. scintillans blooms could disrupt the traditional diatom-sustained food chain to the detriment of regional fisheries and long-term health of an ecosystem supporting a coastal population of nearly 120 million people.

  4. Red Plankton in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-02

    In the Arabian Sea, sunlight and nutrients has fueled a startling occurrence of colorful phytoplankton and bacterial assemblages, which is captured in these natural color images from NASA Terra spacecraft October 2, 2004.

  5. Oil Slick, Arabian Sea, Oman

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    In this sunglint view of the Arabian Seacoast of Oman (19.0N, 59.0E) an oil slick is highlighted on the water's surface by sunglint lighting conditions. Nearly 50 percent of the oil transported worldwide passes through the Gulf of Oman, en route from the Persian Gulf and numerous ship wakes can be seen in this view. The oil slick, rounding the tip of Cape Ras Al Hadd, has formed a counterclockwise bright spiral indicating the local ocean currents.

  6. Monsoon control on trace metal fluxes in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, T. M. Balakrishnan

    2006-08-01

    Particulate fluxes of aluminium, iron, magnesium and titanium were measured using six time-series sediment traps deployed in the eastern, central and western Arabian Sea. Annual Al fluxes at shallow and deep trap depths were 0.47 and 0.46 g m-2 in the western Arabian Sea, and 0.33 and 0.47 g m-2 in the eastern Arabian Sea. There is a difference of about 0.9-1.8 g m-2y-1 in the lithogenic fluxes determined analytically (residue remaining after leaching out all biogenic particles) and estimated from the Al fluxes in the western Arabian Sea. This arises due to higher fluxes of Mg (as dolomite) in the western Arabian Sea (6-11 times higher than the eastern Arabian Sea). The estimated dolomite fluxes at the western Arabian Sea site range from 0.9 to 1.35gm-2y-1. Fe fluxes in the Arabian Sea were less than that of the reported atmospheric fluxes without any evidence for the presence of labile fraction/excess of Fe in the settling particles. More than 75% of Al, Fe, Ti and Mg fluxes occurred during the southwest (SW) monsoon in the western Arabian Sea. In the eastern Arabian Sea, peak Al, Fe, Mg and Ti fluxes were recorded during both the northeast (NE) and SW monsoons. During the SW monsoon, there exists a time lag of around one month between the increases in lithogenic and dolomite fluxes. Total lithogenic fluxes increase when the southern branch of dust bearing northwesterlies is dragged by the SW monsoon winds to the trap locations. However, the dolomite fluxes increase only when the northern branch of the northwesterlies (which carries a huge amount of dolomite accounting 60% of the total dust load) is dragged, from further north, by SW monsoon winds. The potential for the use of Mg/Fe ratio as a paleo-monsoonal proxy is examined.

  7. Mesopelagic microplankton of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Garrison, David L.; Wishner, Karen F.; Gelfman, Celia

    2003-10-01

    The Arabian Sea is notable for its dramatic monsoonal effects on euphotic zone biogeochemical processes and the large spatial extent of its mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone. As part of the US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Arabian Sea project, we sampled microplankton (organisms 20-200 μm including diatoms, dinoflagellates, ciliates, sarcodines and nauplii) at five depths from 250 to 1000 or 1100 m at six stations during four seasonal cruises in 1995. Abundances of groups of organisms at discrete depths averaged 1-2 l -1 seasonally. Mean seasonal integrated biomass of the assemblage was 29 mg C m -2 during the late Northeast Monsoon, 37 mg C m -2 during the Spring Intermonsoon, 47 mg C m -2 during the late Southwest Monsoon and 49 mg C m -2 during the early Northeast Monsoon. Overall, protozoans dominated the mesopelagic microplankton assemblage. Integrated biomass peaked during the late SW Monsoon at two stations as expected if microplankton responded to surface productivity and mesopelagic organic carbon fluxes. At three stations, microplankton biomass peaked during the early NE Monsoon; this may reflect a continuing response to SW Monsoon productivity signals by these larger, slow-growing organisms. Protozooplankton abundance did not appear to be negatively affected by low (<0.1 ml dissolved O 2 l -1) oxygen, whereas naupliar abundance and biomass were higher where oxygen concentration was higher. Total microplankton biomass was highest where oxygen concentrations and also mesozooplankton biomass were lowest, suggesting that predation also played a role in microplankton distributions. Calculations based on allometric relationships indicated that the mesopelagic heterotrophic microplankton assemblage could, on average, respire 9-38% of the particulate carbon flux that entered the system at 100 m and possibly 18-76% of the flux remaining at 250 m. Microplankton may therefore be significant carbon cyclers in the ocean's vast "twilight zone".

  8. Recent sedimentary records from the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somayajulu, B. L. K.; Yadav, D. N.; Sarin, M. M.

    1994-06-01

    An attempt is made to understand the redox conditions that prevailed in the north eastern continental margins of the Arabian Sea and in the nearby deep water regions during the past few centuries using short undisturbed sediment cores. The geochronology is accomplished using210Pb excess method and the proxy indicators chosen for productivity and associated redox changes are CaCO3, organic matter (OM), Mn and U along with major elements Fe and Al. Such changes in principle are related to high productivity in the overlying waters which in turn depend on monsoonal intensity that causes upwelling responsible for increase in productivity. Alongwith the published data on gravity cores from the same region, our measurements suggest the following: At ˜ 300 m water depth, south of 21°N, the sediment-water interface at depths of ˜ 300 m had been anoxic during the time span represented by the presently studied cores for approximately ˜ 700y as evidenced by low Mn/Al (< 0.7 × 10-2) and high U/Al (> 10-4) weight ratios. In some adjacent deeper regions, however, the environment turned oxic around ˜ 200 y BP. Whereas both Mn and Ra were lost to the overlying waters in the anoxic regions (depth ˜340m), the Mn that diffused from deeper sections appears to have mineralized at the sediment-water-interface. Studies of this type on long undisturbed cores from the margins of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, involving several proxies and geochronology by more than one method are needed to understand short term environmental (and monsoonal intensity) changes of the recent past with high resolution.

  9. Quantitative observations on tropical cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Gienko, Gennady

    2018-03-01

    The Arabian Sea basin represents a minor component of global total cyclones annually and has not featured so prominently in cyclone research compared with other basins where greater numbers of cyclones are registered each year. This paper presents the results of exploratory analysis of various features of cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea, with a particular focus on examining their temporal and spatial patterns. Track morphometry also reveals further information on track shape. The study indicates how cyclones spawned during May in the early pre-monsoon period (often strong events) have a tendency to follow more sinuous tracks, whereas cyclones occurring in October in the post-monsoon period tend to follow straighter tracks. Track sinuosity is significantly related to other attributes, including cyclone longevity and intensity. Comparisons are also drawn between the general characteristics of cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea and other ocean basins, suggesting how the size and geography of the Arabian Sea basin exert influences on these characteristics.

  10. Bay of Bengal Surface and Thermocline and the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    oceanographic processes that exchange low salinity surface and upper thermocline water of the Bay of Bengal with the salty Arabian Sea and tropical Indian Ocean ...two northern embayments of the Indian Ocean . OBJECTIVES Two northern Indian Ocean embayments, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, are so close...e.g. where do the eddies come from? 2. Investigating advective pathways, and the role of isopycnal mixing, exchanging upper ocean water between the

  11. Saudi Arabian refraction profile: Crustal structure of the Red Sea-Arabian shield transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkereit, B.; Flüh, E. R.

    1985-02-01

    An interpretation of deep seismic sounding measurements across the ocean-continent transition of the Red Sea-Saudi Arabian Shield is presented. Using synthetic seismograms based on ray tracing we achieve a good fit to observed traveltimes and some of the characteristic amplitudes of the record sections. Crustal thickness varies along the profile from 15 km in the Red Sea Shelf to 40-45 km beneath the Asir Mountains and the Saudi Arabian Shield. Based on the computation of synthetic seismograms our model requires a velocity inversion in the Red Sea-Arabian Shield transition. High-velocity oceanic mantle material is observed above continental crust and mantle, thereby forming a double-layered Moho. Our results indicate a thick sedimentary basin in the shelf area, and zone of high velocities within the Asir Mountains (probably uplifted lower crust). Prominent secondary low-frequency arrivals are interpreted as multiples.

  12. Tracer signals of the intermediate layer of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar; Plähn, Olaf

    In 1995, hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs, components F11, F12) measurements were carried out in the Gulf of Aden, in the Gulf of Oman, and in the Arabian Sea. In the Gulf of Oman, the F12 concentrations in the Persian Gulf outflow (PGW) at about 300m depth were significantly higher than in ambient surface water with saturations reaching 270%. These high values could not be caused by air-sea gas exchange. The outflow was probably contaminated with oil, and the lipophilic character of the CFCs could then lead to the observed supersaturations. The intermediate F12 maximum decreased rapidly further east and south. At the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea outflow (RSW) was saturated with F12 to about 65% at 400m depth, and decreased to 50% while descending to 800m depth. The low saturation is not surprising, because the outflow contains deep and intermediate water masses from the Red Sea which were isolated from the surface for some time. The tracer contributions to the Arabian Sea for Indian Central Water (ICW) and PGW are about equal, while below 500m depth the RSW contribution greatly exceeds ICW. Modeling the CFC budget of the Arabian Sea, the inflow of ICW north of 12°N is estimated to be 1-6 Sv, depending mainly on the strength of the flow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea.

  13. Phytoplankton response to the contrasting physical regimes in the eastern Arabian Sea during north east monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chndrasekhararao, A. V.; Kurian, Siby; Vidya, P. J.; Gauns, Mangesh; Shenoy, Damodar M.; Mulla, Amara; Naik, Hema; Reddy, T. Venugopal; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2018-06-01

    Phytoplankton abundance and composition in two contrasting physical regimes - convective mixing in the northeastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) and Arabian Sea mini warm pool (ASMWP) in the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) - were investigated during the northeast monsoon (NEM) of 2015 and 2017. Observations in 2015 were carried out late during the season, and only one station in the north (at 21°N latitude) fell within the zone of convective mixing where microplankton was dominated by diatoms. In 2017, convective mixing occurred even at 16°N latitude, but the microplankton contribution was low, presumably due to low Si/N ratios. Within the convective mixing regime of the NEAS, chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations were higher in 2015 (maximum 1080 ng L-1; average 493 ng L-1) than in 2017 (maximum 673 ng L-1; average 263 ng L-1). In contrast, picophytoplankton were dominant in the ASMWP of the SEAS with peak abundance associated with the subsurface chlorophyll maximum. A warm core eddy was present in 2015 in the SEAS where four times higher Prochlorococcus counts were found within the core of the eddy than at its periphery. This study provides the first description of the phytoplankton community in the ASMWP. Our results clearly demonstrate phytoplankton response to the contrasting physical conditions, highlighting the role of bio-physical coupling in the productivity of the Arabian Sea.

  14. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  15. Monsoon Variability in the Arabian Sea from Global 0.08 deg HYCOM Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    modes to help explain the series of events leading up to the anomalous behavior in the SC, the GW and upwelling strength . WORK COMPLETED...Number: N00014-15-1-2189 LONG-TERM GOALS The Arabian Sea upper ocean circulation switches direction seasonally due to the change in direction ...of the prevailing winds associated with the Indian Monsoon. Predictability of the monsoon circulation however is uncertain due to incomplete

  16. Remotely Searching for Noctiluca Miliaris in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing monsoonal winds in the Arabian Sea result in two seasons with elevated biological activity, namely the annual summer Southwest Monsoon (SWM; June to September) and winter Northeast Monsoon (NEM; November to March) [Wiggert et al., 2005]. Generally speaking, the SWM and NEM create two geographically distinct blooms [Banse and English, 2000; Levy et al., 2007]. In the summer, winds from the southwest drive offshore Ekman transport and coastal upwelling along the northwestern coast of Africa, which brings nutrient-rich water to the surface from below the permanent thermocline [Bauer et al., 1991]. In the winter, cooling of the northern Arabian Sea causes surface waters to sink, which generates convective mixing that injects nutrients throughout the upper mixed layer [Madhupratap et al., 1996]. This fertilization of otherwise nutrient-deplete surface waters produces one of the most substantial seasonal extremes of phytoplankton biomass and carbon flux anywhere in the world [Smith, 2005].

  17. A Profiling Float System for the North Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-29

    purpose of this Defense University Research Instrumentation Program grant was to purchase a set of profiling floats to form an upper ocean observing ...purchase a set of profiling floats to form an upper ocean observing system for the Northern Arabian Sea Circulation - autonomous research (NASCar...resolution numerical simulations. To achieve these goals the DRI will utilize new observational methods that do not rely on a traditional ship-based

  18. Environmental studies of the Arabian Sea using remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Ashlesha; Menezes, Andrew

    2006-12-01

    The Arabian Sea, situated in the western part of the northern Indian Ocean is a tropical basin. It is bounded on the east by the Indian peninsula, on the north by Baluchistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan and on the west by the landmass of Arabia and Africa. The environmental factors that influence this tropical basin are the seasonally changing winds from the northeast during winter (November-February) and southwest during summer (June to September). Accordingly, the waters of the basin will experience seasonal variations. The study aims at understanding the seasonal and inter-annual variation of the Arabian Sea using satellite-derived data. The spatial domain selected for the present study is 40 degrees E and 78 degrees E longitude and equator to 30 degrees N. The remote sensing data with respect to sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface wind, sea surface height (SSH), and chlorophyll pigment concentration during January 2002 to December 2005 were used to understand the spatio-temporal variability of the Arabian Sea. The monthly mean SST data was obtained from Modis aqua, winds from Quikscat and chlorophyll pigment concentration from SeaWiFS. The SSH anomaly data was obtained from the merged product - Topex/Poseidon ERS 1/2 satellite which is 7-day snapshot. The spatial resolution of these data is 0.3 degrees latitude x 0.3 degrees longitude. Geographical information system (GIS) was used for processing and analysing the above parameters to determine the variability and detection of oceanic processes that are responsible for such variability.The study showed a very strong inverse correlation between SST and chlorophyll concentrations. Arabian Sea undergoes cooling during summer due to upwelling and advection, and in winter due to surface cooling under reduced solar heating. Upwelling along the coasts of Somalia, Arabia, and the west coast of India brings cold and nutrient rich sub-surface waters to the surface, which supports the observed high chlorophyll

  19. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  20. Bay of Bengal Surface and Thermocline and the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    to the atmosphere. How low the SSS gets in the Bay of Bengal or how high in the Arabian Sea, depends on the oceanic exchanges between them via a...potential impact on the SST. 3 Figure 1a: Sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity ( SSS ) relationship during ASIRI 2013 cruises. The left panel...shows the hull ADCP vector, color-coded for SSS . The SST/ SSS scatter falls along a line from the warm/salty southern regions to the cool/fresher

  1. Variations of the Arabian Sea nitrogen cycle: trend or decadal variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaye, Birgit; Tim, Rixen; Böll, Anna; Wiggert, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Warmer periods of the Holocene have been characterized by a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), especially in the South Asian Monsoon sector, thereby increasing the strength and northward extension of monsoon rains. Marine sediments record increased monsoonal upwelling in the Arabian Sea during such warming periods associated with increased denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone. A similar increase can be expected due to anthropogenic warming as it may have a strong impact on Central Asia where feed-back mechanisms of stronger summer warming such as melting of glaciers and reduced albedo may increase summer monsoon strength and thus upwelling and productivity in the Arabian Sea. Models have so far had difficulties to simulate the ITCZ fluctuation in the monsoon area and to make reasonable predictions of its response to global warming. Recent data analyses showed a decrease of oxygen and an increase of nitrite concentrations in the northern part of the Arabian Sea during the last 50 years which could be related to a strengthening of the summer monsoon. To identify whether recent changes in productivity, sea surface temperatures and denitrification are related to decadal fluctuations or global warming trends, we take a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary approach that makes use of the available remote sensing records, nutrient data, and sediment trap as well as high resolution sedimentary records.

  2. Indian Monsoon and denitrification change in the Laxmi Basin (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) of the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. E.; Khim, B. K.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a famous site for the basin-wide denitrification in the globe. The Western Arabian Sea has been acknowledged by its upwelling-induced denitrification related to the Indian Monsoon system (Altabet et al., 1999). It was recently reported that the denitrification in the Eastern Arabian Sea (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) has been persistent and consistent during the mid-Pleistocene as reflected in the bulk sediment δ15N values (Tripathi et al., 2017). Based on the age model reconstructed by δ18O stratigraphy of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) together with shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data at Site U1456 drilled in the Laxmi Basin of the Eastern Arabian Sea, the glacial-interglacial fluctuations of denitrification in association with the development of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) were resolved in the context of Indian Monsoon activity. One of striking features in the Eastern Arabian Sea is that the δ15N values of bulk sediment show clear and consistent denitrification with minimum δ15N values exceeding 6‰ even during glacial periods, when its western counterpart experienced a temporal collapse of OMZ and denitrification. The Eastern Arabian Sea is fed not only by the upwelling-induced productivity in the western margin during the summer monsoon but also by the high productivity during the winter monsoon, both of which maintain the increased productivity affecting the OMZ through the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the degradation of sinking organic particles. The Eastern Arabian Sea is further influenced by the clockwise surface currents, intermediate water ventilation change by the blockage of Antarctic Intermediate Water, limited inflow from the Red Sea/Persian Gulf, and the freshwater salinity stratification due to nearby riverine discharges, all of which make the denitrification process more complicated than the Western Arabian Sea. Nonetheless, the glacial-interglacial denitrification change in the Eastern

  3. Estimates of upwelling rates in the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean based on bomb radiocarbon.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, R; Dutta, K; Somayajulu, B L K

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon measurements were made in the water column of the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean during 1994, 1995 and 1997 to assess the temporal variations in bomb 14C distribution and its inventory in the region with respect to GEOSECS measurements made during 1977-1978. Four GEOSECS stations were reoccupied (three in the Arabian Sea and one in the equatorial Indian Ocean) during this study, with all of them showing increased penetration of bomb 14C along with decrease in its surface water activity. The upwelling rates derived by model simulation of bomb 14C depth profile using the calculated exchange rates ranged from 3 to 9 m a(-1). The western region of the Arabian Sea experiencing high wind-induced upwelling has higher estimated upwelling rates. However, lower upwelling rates obtained for the stations occupied during this study could be due to reduced 14C gradient compared to that during GEOSECS.

  4. Glacial-interglacial changes and Holocene variations in Arabian Sea denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaye, Birgit; Böll, Anna; Segschneider, Joachim; Burdanowitz, Nicole; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Ramaswamy, Venkitasubramani; Lahajnar, Niko; Lückge, Andreas; Rixen, Tim

    2018-01-01

    At present, the Arabian Sea has a permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at water depths between about 100 and 1200 m. Active denitrification in the upper part of the OMZ is recorded by enhanced δ15N values in the sediments. Sediment cores show a δ15N increase during the middle and late Holocene, which is contrary to the trend in the other two regions of water column denitrification in the eastern tropical North and South Pacific. We calculated composite sea surface temperature (SST) and δ15N ratios in time slices of 1000 years of the last 25 kyr to better understand the reasons for the establishment of the Arabian Sea OMZ and its response to changes in the Asian monsoon system. Low δ15N values of 4-7 ‰ during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and stadials (Younger Dryas and Heinrich events) suggest that denitrification was inactive or weak during Pleistocene cold phases, while warm interstadials (ISs) had elevated δ15N. Fast changes in upwelling intensities and OMZ ventilation from the Antarctic were responsible for these strong millennial-scale variations during the glacial. During the entire Holocene δ15N values > 6 ‰ indicate a relatively stable OMZ with enhanced denitrification. The OMZ develops parallel to the strengthening of the SW monsoon and monsoonal upwelling after the LGM. Despite the relatively stable climatic conditions of the Holocene, the δ15N records show regionally different trends in the Arabian Sea. In the upwelling areas in the western part of the basin, δ15N values are lower during the mid-Holocene (4.2-8.2 ka BP) compared to the late Holocene ( < 4.2 ka BP) due to stronger ventilation of the OMZ during the period of the most intense southwest monsoonal upwelling. In contrast, δ15N values in the northern and eastern Arabian Sea rose during the last 8 kyr. The displacement of the core of the OMZ from the region of maximum productivity in the western Arabian Sea to its present position in the northeast was established during the middle

  5. Controlling factors of the OMZ in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resplandy, L.; Lévy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Kumar, D.

    2012-05-01

    In-situ observations indicate that the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is only weakly influenced by the strong seasonal cycle of ocean dynamic and biogeochemistry forced by the asian monsoon system and it is spatially decorrelated from the coastal upwelling systems where the biological production is the strongest. In this study we examine the factors controlling the seasonality and the spatial distribution of the OMZ in the Arabian Sea using a coupled bio-physical model. We find that the oxygen concentration in the OMZ displays a seasonal cycle with an amplitude of 5-15 % of the annual mean oxygen concentration. The OMZ is ventilated by lateral ventilation along the western boundary current and in the coastal undercurrent along India during the summer monsoon and by coastal downwelling and negative Ekman pumping during the fall intermonsoon and winter monsoon. This ventilation is counterbalanced by strong coastal upwelling and positive Ekman pumping of low oxygen waters at the base of the OMZ during the spring intermonsoon. Although the factors controlling the OMZ seasonality are associated with the men circulation, we find that mesoscale dynamics modulates them by limiting the vertical ventilation during winter and enhancing it through lateral advection during the rest of the year. Processes explaining the establishment and spatial distribution of the OMZ were quantified using a perturbation experiment initialised with no OMZ. As expected, the oxygen depletion is triggered by strong biological activity in central Arabian Sea during winter and in western and eastern boundary coastal upwelling systems during summer. We find that the 3-D ocean dynamic largely controls the spatial distribution of the OMZ. The eastward shift ensues from the northward lateral transport of ventilated waters along the western and eastern coasts and the advection offshore of low oxygen waters formed in the upwelling system.

  6. Carbon fluxes in the Arabian Sea: Export versus recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, Tim; Gaye, Birgit; Ramaswamy, Venkitasubramani

    2016-04-01

    The organic carbon pump strongly influences the exchange of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere. It is known that it responds to global change but the magnitude and the direction of change are still unpredictable. Sediment trap experiments carried out at various sites in the Arabian Sea between 1986 and 1998 have shown differences in the functioning of the organic carbon pump (OCP). An OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton operated in the upwelling region off Oman and during the spring bloom in the northern Arabian Sea. Cyanobacteria capable of fixing nitrogen seem to dominate the phytoplankton community during all other seasons. The export driven by cyanobacteria was much lower than the export driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton. Productivity and nutrient availability seems to be a main factor controlling fluxes during blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton. The ballast effect caused by inputs of dust into the ocean and its incorporation into sinking particles seems to be the main factor controlling the export during times when cyanobacteria dominate the phytoplankton community. C/N ratios of organic matter exported from blooms dominated by nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are enhanced and, furthermore, indicate a more efficient recycling of nutrients at shallower water depth. This implies that the bacterial-driven OCP operates more in a recycling mode that keeps nutrients closer to the euphotic zone whereas the OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton reduces the recycling of nutrients by exporting them into greater water-depth.

  7. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian Monsoon revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xing; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is important to marine ecosystems and human activities. It transports nutrient-rich deep water mass that supports marine biological productivity. In this study, we aim to characterize the large-scale climate forcings that drive upwelling along the western Arabian Sea coast. Studies based on ocean sediments suggest that there is a link between this coastal upwelling system and the Indian summer monsoon. However, a more direct method is needed to examine the influence of various forcings on upwelling. For this purpose, we analyse a high-resolution (about 10 km) global ocean simulation (denoted STORM), which is based on the MPI-OM model developed by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg driven by the global meteorological reanalysis NCEP over the period 1950-2010. This very high spatial resolution allows us to identify characteristics of the coastal upwelling system. We compare the simulated upwelling velocity of STORM with two traditional upwelling indices: along-shore wind speed and sea surface temperature. The analysis reveals good consistency between these variables, with high correlations between coastal upwelling and along-shore wind speed (r=0.85) as well as coastal sea surface temperature (r=-0.77). To study the impact of the monsoon on the upwelling we analyse both temporal and spatial co-variability between upwelling velocity and the Indian summer monsoon index. The spatial analysis shows that the impact of the monsoon on the upwelling is concentrated along the coast, as expected. However, somewhat unexpectedly, the temporal correlation between the coastal upwelling and the monsoon index is rather weak (r=0.26). Also, the spatial structure of upwelling in the Arabian Sea as revealed by a Principal Component Analysis is rather rich, indicating that factors other than the Monsoon are also important drivers of upwelling. In addition, no detectable trend in our coastal upwelling is found in the simulation that would match the

  8. Characterization of oceanic Noctiluca blooms not associated with hypoxia in the Northeastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Lotliker, Aneesh A; Baliarsingh, S K; Trainer, Vera L; Wells, Mark L; Wilson, Cara; Udaya Bhaskar, T V S; Samanta, Alakes; Shahimol, S R

    2018-04-01

    Intense blooms of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate, green Noctiluca scintillans, have been reported annually in the Northern Arabian Sea since the early 2000s. Although not known to produce organic toxins, these blooms are still categorized as a harmful due to their association with massive fish mortalities. Recent work has attributed these blooms to the vertical expansion of the oxygen minimum zone, driven by cultural eutrophication from major coastal cities in western India. As diatoms are preferred prey of green Noctiluca scintillans, more frequent blooms of this mixotroph will likely impact the productivity of important fisheries in the region. The present study uses a satellite algorithm to determine the distribution of both diatom and green Noctiluca blooms in the Northeastern Arabian Sea from 2009 to 2016. The results from shipboard microscopy of phytoplankton community composition were used to validate the satellite estimates. The satellite algorithm showed 76% accuracy for detection of green Noctiluca and 92% for diatoms. Shipboard measurements and data from biogeochemical-Argo floats were used to assess the relationship between oxygen concentrations and green Noctiluca blooms in the Northeastern Arabian Sea. Regardless of the presence of a Noctiluca bloom, the dissolved oxygen in the photic zone was always >70% saturated, with an average oxygen saturation >90%. The variability in the relative abundance of diatoms and green Noctiluca is not correlated with changes in oxygen concentration. These findings provide no evidence that cultural eutrophication has contributed to the decadal scale shifts in plankton composition in the Northeastern Arabian Sea oceanic waters. Conversely, the climatic warming of surface waters would have intensified stratification, thereby reducing net nutrient flux to the photic zone and decreasing silicate to nitrate ratios (Si:N); both factors that could increase the competitive advantage of the mixotroph, green Noctiluca, over

  9. Numerical modeling of benthic processes in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luff, Roger; Wallmann, Klaus; Grandel, Sibylle; Schlüter, Michael

    Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of particulate organic carbon (POC) and carbonate equilibria in deep-sea surface sediments were studied at five stations located in the western (WAST), northern (NAST), eastern (EAST), central (CAST), and southern (SAST) Arabian Sea. In situ oxygen fluxes, porewater profiles of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and Mn, pH profiles and solid-phase profiles of particulate organic carbon, Mn, and Fe were measured at each station. An early diagenesis model was applied to simulate the degradation and dissolution processes and to determine the benthic fluxes of POC, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, CO 2, HCO 3-, and CO 32-. The benthic data sets were evaluated to constrain the POC input and the kinetics of organic matter degradation used in the model. The modeling showed that the POC rain rate to the seafloor is high at the western and northern stations, and decreases towards the southeast. At stations located in the vicinity of continental margins (WAST, NAST, EAST), 5-7% of the primary production sinks to the deep-sea floor. This unusually high POC rain is either caused by dust particles that accelerate and amplify the particle export from the euphotic zone or by rapid lateral transport processes. At the more remote stations (CAST, SAST) that receive lower dust inputs, the rain efficiency decreases to 1-4%. In the model, organic matter was separated into three fractions (3-G-model) that differ considerably in reactivity. At stations WAST, NAST, EAST, and CAST the bulk of organic matter is composed of extremely labile organic matter with a first order degradation constant ( k) of 15-30 yr -1. The moderately labile fraction with a kinetic constant of 0.2-0.6 yr -1 dominates the POC input at the oligotrophic station in the southern Arabian Sea (SAST). The third fraction that has a very low reactivity ( k=2-5×10 -4 yr -1) is only a minor component of the POC rain at all investigated stations. More than 95% of the organic matter is consumed in aerobic

  10. Eddy Mediated Nutrient Pattern in the North Eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thachaparambil, M.; Moolakkal Antony, R.; B R, S.; V N, S.; N, C.; M, S.

    2016-02-01

    A Cold Core Eddy (CCE) mediated nutrient pattern in the North Eastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) is explained based on in situ measurments during March 2013 onboard FORV Sagar Sampada which was not reported earlier in the area. Samples for physical, chemical and biological parameters were collected in 5 stations along the diameter of the eddy and following standard protocols. The core of the CCE is identified at 21°20.38'N; 66°30.68'E with a diameter of 120Km. Earlier studies explaining the process and the forcing mechanism of the particular eddy records that, the eddy is short term (1-3 months) and is regular during the season. Surface waters were well oxygenated (>4.8 ml L-1) in the core. Surface value of nutrients viz., Nitrate, Nitrite, Silicate and phosphate in the core regions was 0.9µM, 0.01 µM, 0.5 µM and 0.7 µM respectively indicating upwelling in the core. Spring intermonsoon (SIM) is generally termed as a transition period between the active winter and summer seasons and as per earlier studies, high biological production and the regularly occurring Noctilica bloom is supported by the nutrient loading due to convective mixing during winter as well as regenerated production. However, present observations shows that, nutrient pumping due to the upwelling associated with the CCE also contributes for sustaining high biological production and are evident in the Chl a and mesozooplankton biovolume which records values of 4.35mg/m3 and 1.09ml/m3 respectively in the core. An intense Noctiluca blooms observed in the western flank of the eddy (Chl a 13.25 mg/m3; cell density 5.8×106 cells/litre), where Nitrate concentration records 1.04µM explains the role of such mesoscale processes in the sustenance of the HAB events. While eastern flank of the CCE showed typical open ocean condition of the season showing Nitrate 0.08µM; Chl a 0.23mg/m3; and phytoplankton cell density as 421 cells/litre. Keywords: Cold core eddy, nutrients, NEAS, SIM, biological production

  11. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  12. Dtection of Sea Level Rise within the Arabian Gulf Using Space Based GNSS Measurements and Insitu Tide Gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Ayhan, Mehmet

    In the 21st century, sea level rise is expected to be about 30 cm or even more (up to 60 cm). Saudi Arabia has very long coasts of about 3400 km and hundreds of islands. Therefore, sea level monitoring may be important in particular along coastal low lands on Red Sea and Arabian Gulf coasts. Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and lying along a parallel course in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. We expect vertical land motion within the area due to both tectonic structures of the Arabian Peninsula and oil production activities. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Continues observations were used to estimate the vertical crustal motion. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS-GPS) station is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region, and it is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are used in the computation. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and a break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.46 0.11 mm/yr. To investigate sea level variation within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed separately the monthly mean sea level measurements at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Sea level rates at the stations are first corrected for vertical land motion contamination using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, and the average sea level rate is found 2.27 0.21 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate

  13. Rifting kinematics along the Arabian Margin, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Schettino, Antonio; Zanoni, Davide; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    The Red Sea represents a young basin floored by oceanic, transitional, or thinned continental crust that formed between Nubia and Arabia. According to most authors, rifting between Nubia and Arabia started in the late Oligocene ( 27 Ma) and it is still in progress in the northern part of the Red Sea at latitudes greater than 24°N. Conversely, the area south of 20.3°N displays a linear spreading ridge extending as south as 14.8°N, which formed in the early Pliocene (the first pulse of sea floor spreading occurred during chron C3n.2n, 4.62 Ma). A transition zone (between 24°N and 20.3°N, present-day coordinates) exists between the northern and the southern sectors, characterized by a segmented spreading center that started forming at 2.58 Ma (chron 2A, late Pliocene) in the southernmost area and propagated northwards. Some authors suggest that the present-day NE-SW spreading directions can be extended back to the early Miocene. However, we are going to show, on the basis of geological evidence from the Arabian margin, that at least two phases of rifting, characterized by distinct extension directions, are necessary to explain the observed structural pattern of deformation in a wide area extending from 28°N to 20°N. At present, there is no magnetic evidence for the existence of a linear spreading center in the northern Red Sea at latitudes higher than 24°N. In this area, the syn-rift pattern of deformation along the Arabian margin is only partly coherent with the present day NE-SW sea floor spreading directions and with the observed trend of fracture zones in the Red Sea. In fact, an older set of rift structures was found during 3 field trips performed along the northern and central Red Sea Arabian margin (2015-2016), suggesting the existence of an earlier rifting stage characterized by N-S trending strike-slip faults and E-W normal faults. The objective of the field trips was to investigate the hypothesis that an early phase of N-S extension and formation of

  14. Distribution of iron, copper and manganese in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, James

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of iron, copper and manganese was studied on a zonal transect of the Arabian Sea during the SW monsoon in 2007. The distribution of metals in the eastern and western ends of the transect are completely different, with concentrations of Fe and Mn higher in the east, but copper much higher in the west. Redox cycling in the east, and enhanced ventilation in the west contributes to these processes. It seems likely that blooms of Phaeocystis sp. contribute to the pronounced surface depletion and oxicline regeneration we observe, particularly for copper. The results are very different than similar surveys in the Peru upwelling, indicating controls by very different processes. These results have important implications for carbon and nitrogen cycling, particularly for processes mediated by key Cu and Fe metalloenzymes.

  15. The Northeast Monsoon's Impact on Mixing, Phytoplankton Biomass and Nutrient Cycling in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggert, J. D.; Jones, B. H.; Dickey, T. D.; Brink, K. H.; Weller, R. A.; Marra, J.; Codispoti, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    In the northern Arabian Sea, atmospheric conditions during the Northeast (winter) Monsoon lead to deep convective mixing. Due to the proximity of the permanent pyncnocline to the sea surface, this mixing does not penetrate below 125 m. However, a strong nitracline is also present and the deep convection results in significant nitrate flux into the surface waters. This leads to nitrate concentrations over the upper 100 m that exceed 4 micrometers toward the end of the Monsoon. During the 1994/1995 US JGOFS/Arabian Sea expedition, the mean areal gross primary production over two successive Northeast Monsoons was determined to be 1.35gC/sq m/d. Thus, despite the deep penetrative convection, high rates of primary productivity were maintained. An interdisciplinary model was developed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes involved in supporting the elevated productivity. This model consists of a 1-D mixed-layer model coupled to a set of equations that tracked phytoplankton growth and the concentration of the two major nutrients (nitrate and ammonium). Zooplankton grazing was parameterized by rate constant determined by shipboard experiments. Model boundary conditions consist of meteorological time-series measured from the surface buoy that was part of the ONR Arabian Sea Experiment's central mooring. Our numerical experiments show that elevated surface evaporation, and the associated salinization of the mixed layer, strongly contributes to the frequency and penetration depth of the observed convective mixing. Cooler surface temperatures, increased nitrate entrainment, reduced water column stratification, and lower near-surface chlorophyll a concentrations all result from this enhanced mixing. The model also captured a dependence on regenerated nitrogen observed in nutrient uptake experiments performed during the Northeast Monsoon. Our numerical experiments also indicate that variability in mean pycnocline depth causes up to a 25% reduction in areal chlorophyll a

  16. From monsoon to marine productivity in the Arabian Sea: insights from glacial and interglacial climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mézo, Priscilla; Beaufort, Luc; Bopp, Laurent; Braconnot, Pascale; Kageyama, Masa

    2017-07-01

    The current-climate Indian monsoon is known to boost biological productivity in the Arabian Sea. This paradigm has been extensively used to reconstruct past monsoon variability from palaeo-proxies indicative of changes in surface productivity. Here, we test this paradigm by simulating changes in marine primary productivity for eight contrasted climates from the last glacial-interglacial cycle. We show that there is no straightforward correlation between boreal summer productivity of the Arabian Sea and summer monsoon strength across the different simulated climates. Locally, productivity is fuelled by nutrient supply driven by Ekman dynamics. Upward transport of nutrients is modulated by a combination of alongshore wind stress intensity, which drives coastal upwelling, and by a positive wind stress curl to the west of the jet axis resulting in upward Ekman pumping. To the east of the jet axis there is however a strong downward Ekman pumping due to a negative wind stress curl. Consequently, changes in coastal alongshore stress and/or curl depend on both the jet intensity and position. The jet position is constrained by the Indian summer monsoon pattern, which in turn is influenced by the astronomical parameters and the ice sheet cover. The astronomical parameters are indeed shown to impact wind stress intensity in the Arabian Sea through large-scale changes in the meridional gradient of upper-tropospheric temperature. However, both the astronomical parameters and the ice sheets affect the pattern of wind stress curl through the position of the sea level depression barycentre over the monsoon region (20-150° W, 30° S-60° N). The combined changes in monsoon intensity and pattern lead to some higher glacial productivity during the summer season, in agreement with some palaeo-productivity reconstructions.

  17. Interannual variability in phytoplankton blooms observed in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, John C.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Interannual changes in the strength and seasonal evolution of the 1979 through 1982 surface-level southwest monsoon winds are related to variations in the summer phytoplankton bloom of the northwestern Arabian Sea by synthesis of satellite ocean-color remote sensing with analysis of in-situ hydrographic and meteorological data sets. The 1979-1981 southwest monsoon phytoplankton blooms in the northwest Arabian Sea peaked during August-September, extended from the Omani coast to about 6 E, and appeared to lag the development of open-sea upwelling by at least 1 month. In all 3 years the bloom was driven by spatially distinct upward nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone forced by the physical processes of coastal upwelling and offshore Ekman pumping. Coastal upwelling was evident from May through September, yielded the most extreme concentrations of phytoplankton biomass, and along the Omani coast was limited in its impact on upper ocean biological variability to the continental shelf. Ekman pumping stimulated the development of a broad open-ocean component of the southwest monsoon phytoplankton bloom oceanward of the Omani shelf. Phytoplankton biomass on the Omani continental shelf was increased during both the early and late phases of the 1980 southwest monsoon due to stronger coastal upwelling under the most intense southwesterly winds of the four summers investigated. Diminished coastal upwelling during the early phase of the weak 1982 southwest monsoon resulted in a coastal bloom that reached a mean phytoplankton-pigment concentration that was 28 percent of that seen in 1980. The lack of a strong regional northwestern Arabian Sea bloom in late summer 1982 is attributed to the development of persistent, shallow temperature stratification that rendered Ekman pumping less effective in driving upward nutrient fluxes.

  18. Monsoonal upwelling in the western Arabian Sea since the middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Asian monsoon has long been argued to be a product of the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau, and simulation experiments have confirmed the key role of the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau in transforming regional atmospheric and oceanic circulations. However, temporal constraints on the strengthening of the Asian monsoon inferred from foraminifer isotopic and faunal data and terrestrial climatic and ecological records are inconsistent with each other, which has obscured the tectonic-climatic linkage. In particular, discriminating the post-middle Miocene global cooling from the monsoon upwelling cooling is critical, but poorly understood due to the lack of adequate constraints for monsoonal upwelling. Here we present new middle to late Miocene biomarker-based reconstructions of sea-surface temperature (SST) for the western Arabian Sea. Our new SSTs capture a long-term ocean cooling since ca. 14.8 Ma and a major drop in SST in the period 11-10 Ma after which the SSTs reached similar values as the Holocene. The new SST record is consistent with planktonic foraminifer, siliceous biota, and geochemical tracer studies, suggestive of ocean cooling and high productivity associated with monsoonal upwelling. The 11-10 Ma ocean cooling is not clearly expressed in other tropical oceans, indicating that the ocean cooling in the western Arabian Sea is not a simple reflection of global cooling. We interpret the 11-10 Ma ocean cooling as representing the establishment of monsoonal upwelling in the western Arabian Sea, triggered by strong cyclonic activities as a result of the Neogene outward expansion of the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Climate oscillations reflected in the Arabian Sea subseafloor microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, William; Coolen, Marco; He, Lijun; Wuchter, Cornelia; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem; Johnson, Carl; Hemingway, Jordon; Lee, Mitchell; Galy, Valier; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediment contains a vast microbial biosphere that influences global biogeochemical cycles over geological timescales. However, the environmental factors controlling the stratigraphy of subseafloor microbial communities are poorly understood. We studied a sediment core directly underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which exhibits organic carbon rich sapropelic laminae deposited under low oxygen conditions. Consistent with several other cores from the same location, age dating revealed the sapropelic layers coincide with warm North Atlantic millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger events, indicating a direct link between the strength of the OMZ and paleoclimate. A total of 214 samples spanning 13 m and 52 Kyr of deposition were selected for geochemical analyses and paleoclimate proxy measurements, as well as high-throughput metagenomic DNA sequencing of bacteria and archaea. A novel DNA extraction protocol was developed that allowed for direct (unamplified) metagenomic sequencing of DNA from each sample. This dataset represents the highest resolved sedimentary metagenomic sampling profile to date. Analysis of these data together with multiple paleoceanographic proxies show that millennial-scale paleoenvironmental conditions correlate with the metabolism and diversity of bacteria and archaea over the last glacial-interglacial cycle in the Arabian Sea. The metabolic potential for bacterial denitrification correlates with climate-driven OMZ strength and concomitant nitrogen stable isotope fractionation, whereas catabolic potential reflects changing marine organic matter sources across the Last Glacial Maximum. These results indicate that the subsisting microbial communities had been stratified to a large extent by paleoceanographic conditions at the time of deposition. Paleoenvironmental conditions should thus be considered as a mechanism that can help explain microbiome stratigraphy in marine sediment.

  20. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian monsoon revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, X.; Hünicke, B.; Tim, N.; Zorita, E.

    2015-11-01

    Studies based on upwelling indices (sediment records, sea-surface temperature and wind) suggest that upwelling along the western coast of Arabian Sea is strongly affected by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). In order to examine this relationship directly, we employ the vertical water mass transport produced by the eddy-resolving global ocean simulation STORM driven by meteorological reanalysis over the last 61 years. With its very high spatial resolution (10 km), STORM allows us to identify characteristics of the upwelling system. We analyze the co-variability between upwelling and meteorological and oceanic variables from 1950 to 2010. The analyses reveal high interannual correlations between coastal upwelling and along-shore wind-stress (r=0.73) as well as with sea-surface temperature (r0.83). However, the correlation between the upwelling and the ISM is small and other factors might contribute to the upwelling variability. In addition, no long-term trend is detected in our modeled upwelling time series.

  1. Upper Ocean Measurements from Profiling Floats in the Arabian Sea During NASCar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    top-level goals] OBJECTIVES The work proposed here is designed to examine the seasonal evolution of the upper ocean in the northern Arabian...Sea over several seasonal cycles, with the specific objectives of (1) Documenting the spatial variations in the seasonal cycle of the upper ocean...circulation of the Arabian Sea and the seasonal and spatial evolution of the surface mixed layer, and would be used in conjunction with HYCOM model

  2. Post-rift deformation of the Red Sea Arabian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoni, Davide; Schettino, Antonio; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the Oligocene, the Red Sea rift nucleated within the composite Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield. After about 30 Ma-long history of continental lithosphere thinning and magmatism, the first pulse of oceanic spreading occurred at around 4.6 Ma at the triple junction of Africa, Arabia, and Danakil plate boundaries and propagated southward separating Danakil and Arabia plates. Ocean floor spreading between Arabia and Africa started later, at about 3 Ma and propagated northward (Schettino et al., 2016). Nowadays the northern part of the Red Sea is characterised by isolated oceanic deeps or a thinned continental lithosphere. Here we investigate the deformation of thinned continental margins that develops as a consequence of the continental lithosphere break-up induced by the progressive oceanisation. This deformation consists of a system of transcurrent and reverse faults that accommodate the anelastic relaxation of the extended margins. Inversion and shortening tectonics along the rifted margins as a consequence of the formation of a new segment of ocean ridge was already documented in the Atlantic margin of North America (e.g. Schlische et al. 2003). We present preliminary structural data obtained along the north-central portion of the Arabian rifted margin of the Red Sea. We explored NE-SW trending lineaments within the Arabian margin that are the inland continuation of transform boundaries between segments of the oceanic ridge. We found brittle fault zones whose kinematics is consistent with a post-rift inversion. Along the southernmost transcurrent fault (Ad Damm fault) of the central portion of the Red Sea we found evidence of dextral movement. Along the northernmost transcurrent fault, which intersects the Harrat Lunayyir, structures indicate dextral movement. At the inland termination of this fault the evidence of dextral movement are weaker and NW-SE trending reverse faults outcrop. Between these two faults we found other dextral transcurrent

  3. Large-scale control of the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion in August

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Hua; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2017-12-01

    The summer monsoon inversion in the Arabian Sea is characterized by a large amount of low clouds and August as the peak season. Atmospheric stratification associated with the monsoon inversion has been considered a local system influenced by the advancement of the India-Pakistan monsoon. Empirical and numerical evidence from this study suggests that the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion is linked to a broader-scale monsoon evolution across the African Sahel, South Asia, and East Asia-Western North Pacific (WNP), rather than being a mere byproduct of the India-Pakistan monsoon progression. In August, the upper-tropospheric anticyclone in South Asia extends sideways corresponding with the enhanced precipitation in the subtropical WNP, equatorial Indian Ocean, and African Sahel while the middle part of this anticyclone weakens over the Arabian Sea. The increased heating in the adjacent monsoon systems creates a suppression effect on the Arabian Sea, suggesting an apparent competition among the Africa-Asia-WNP monsoon subsystems. The peak Sahel rainfall in August, together with enhanced heating in the equatorial Indian Ocean, produces a critical effect on strengthening the Arabian Sea thermal inversion. By contrast, the WNP monsoon onset which signifies the eastward expansion of the subtropical Asian monsoon heating might play a secondary or opposite role in the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion.

  4. Orbital-scale denitrification changes in the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Khim, Boo-Keun; Ikehara, Minoru; Lee, Jongmin

    2018-05-04

    Denitrification in the Arabian Sea is closely related to the monsoon-induced upwelling and subsequent phytoplankton production in the surface water. The δ 15 N values of bulk sediments collected at Site U1456 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 reveal the orbital-scale denitrification history in response to the Indian Monsoon. Age reconstruction based on the correlation of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) δ 18 O values with the LR04 stack together with the shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data assigns the study interval to be 1.2 Ma. Comparison of δ 15 N values during the last 800 kyrs between Site U1456 (Eastern Arabian Sea) and Site 722B (Western Arabian Sea) showed that δ 15 N values were high during interglacial periods, indicating intensified denitrification, while the opposite was observed during glacial periods. Taking 6‰ as the empirical threshold of denitrification, the Eastern Arabian Sea has experienced a persistent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to maintain strong denitrification whereas the Western Arabian Sea has undergone OMZ breakdown during some glacial periods. The results of this study also suggests that five principal oceanographic conditions were changed in response to the Indian Monsoon following the interglacial and glacial cycles, which controls the degree of denitrification in the Arabian Sea.

  5. High salinity events in the northern Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhankun; DiMarco, Steven F.; Jochens, Ann E.; Ingle, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Moored observations in the northern Arabian Sea (NAS) show substantial velocity, temperature and dissolved oxygen fluctuations, accompanied by episodic high salinity intrusions with maximum values≥37.3 on time scales of 2-10 days after the passage of Cyclone Gonu in 2007. These events are characterized by a rapid increase in temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen followed by an abrupt decline. The mechanisms behind these high salinity events are investigated using a comprehensive dataset of temperature and salinity profiles from ARGO floats and sea surface height anomaly maps. The spatial and temporal distribution of the Persian/Arabian Gulf outflow to the Sea of Oman is also studied using ARGO profiles. Persian Gulf water (PGW) is mainly measured close to the Strait of Hormuz or along the Oman coast on the continental slope in the Sea of Oman. Both mooring and ARGO data show that high salinity PGW can be advected off the slope and into the interior. More high salinity water is measured in the interior of the Sea of Oman within three months after the Gonu passage in summer 2007, which is caused by the combination effect of the oceanic responses to Cyclone Gonu and a clockwise eddy circulation located at northern Ras al Hadd. At other times, the high salinity water appears more in isolated patches and rare in the interior. This study provides a first look at the high salinity events appearing after Gonu and the properties and dynamics of the PGW in the northern Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman.

  6. Spatial variation in coral reef fish and benthic communities in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Maha T; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Berumen, Michael L

    2017-01-01

    Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3-24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers. Coral cover was considerably lower on inshore reefs, likely due to a 2010 bleaching event. Community analyses showed inshore reefs to be characterized by turf algae, slower-growing corals, lower herbivore diversity, and highly abundant turf-farming damselfishes. Offshore reefs had more planktivorous fishes, a more diverse herbivore assemblage, and faster-growing corals . All reefs appear to be impacted by overfishing, and inshore reefs seem more vulnerable to thermal bleaching. The study provides a description of the spatial variation in biomass and community structure in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea and provides a basis for spatial prioritization and subsequent marine protected area design in Thuwal.

  7. Enhanced export of carbon by salps during the northeast monsoon period in the northern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Sarin, M. M.; Rengarajan, R.

    2005-07-01

    A drifting sediment trap was deployed and 234Th activity in the water column was measured to calculate export flux of carbon at a time-series station in the northern Arabian Sea (lat. 21°30' N; long. 64°00' E) during the winter monsoon, 10-23 February 1997. The sampling period was characterised by an extensive salp swarm, and salp faecal pellets were the dominant contributors to the particulate matter in the sediment traps. Average 234Th flux out of the photic zone was 2300 dpm m -2 d -1 and average POC/ 234Th ratio in trap-derived particles was 0.14 mg/dpm. Average 234Th-derived export flux of carbon was about 332 mg m -2 d -1, representing 36% of the daily primary production (PP) (925 mg C m -2 d -1). Export of about one-third of the daily PP during the end of the winter monsoon could be due to the episodic nature of salp swarms. Salp swarms are frequently observed in the Arabian Sea and may be a significant pathway for rapid export of carbon from the euphotic zone.

  8. Spatial variation in coral reef fish and benthic communities in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3–24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers. Coral cover was considerably lower on inshore reefs, likely due to a 2010 bleaching event. Community analyses showed inshore reefs to be characterized by turf algae, slower-growing corals, lower herbivore diversity, and highly abundant turf-farming damselfishes. Offshore reefs had more planktivorous fishes, a more diverse herbivore assemblage, and faster-growing corals. All reefs appear to be impacted by overfishing, and inshore reefs seem more vulnerable to thermal bleaching. The study provides a description of the spatial variation in biomass and community structure in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea and provides a basis for spatial prioritization and subsequent marine protected area design in Thuwal. PMID:28603671

  9. Using GNSS for Assessment Recent Sea Level Rise in the Northwestern Part of the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A. O.; Bos, M. S.; Fernandes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the global warming acting recently (in the 21st century) on the planet Earth, an associated sea level rise is predicted to reach up to 30 cm to 60 cm in some regions. Sea level monitoring is important for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, since it is surrounded by very long cost of about 3400 km in length and hundreds of isolated islands. The eastern coast line of KSA, in the Arabian Gulf, needs some monitoring in the long term, due to low land nature of the region. Also, the ongoing oil withdrawal activities in the area, may affect the regional sea level rise. In addition to these two facts, the tectonic structure of the Arabian Peninsula is one factor. The Regional Relative sea level in the eastern cost of Saudi Arabia has been estimated in the past using tide gauge data of more than 28 years using the vertical displacement of permanent Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS stations having time span of only about 3 years. In this paper, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. Longer time span of GNSS observations were included and 500 synthetic time series were estimated and seasonal signals were analysed. it is concluded that the varying seasonal signal present in the GNSS time series causes an underestimation of 0.1 mm/yr for short time series of 3 years. In addition to the implications of using short time series to estimate the vertical land motion, we found that if the varying seasonal signals are present in the data, the problem is aggravated. This finding can be useful for other studies analyzing short GNSS time series.

  10. Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols.

    PubMed

    Evan, Amato T; Kossin, James P; Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V

    2011-11-02

    Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological vertical wind shear. At the same time, anthropogenic emissions of aerosols have increased sixfold since the 1930s, leading to a weakening of the southwesterly lower-level and easterly upper-level winds that define the monsoonal circulation over the Arabian Sea. In principle, this aerosol-driven circulation modification could affect tropical cyclone intensity over the Arabian Sea, but so far no such linkage has been shown. Here we report an increase in the intensity of pre-monsoon Arabian Sea tropical cyclones during the period 1979-2010, and show that this change in storm strength is a consequence of a simultaneous upward trend in anthropogenic black carbon and sulphate emissions. We use a combination of observational, reanalysis and model data to demonstrate that the anomalous circulation, which is radiatively forced by these anthropogenic aerosols, reduces the basin-wide vertical wind shear, creating an environment more favourable for tropical cyclone intensification. Because most Arabian Sea tropical cyclones make landfall, our results suggest an additional impact on human health from regional air pollution.

  11. Robust Projected Weakening of Winter Monsoon Winds Over the Arabian Sea Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathi, V.; Suresh, I.; Lengaigne, M.; Izumo, T.; Vialard, J.

    2017-10-01

    The response of the Indian winter monsoon to climate change has received considerably less attention than that of the summer monsoon. We show here that all Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models display a consistent reduction (of 6.5% for Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 and 3.5% for 4.5, on an average) of the winter monsoon winds over the Arabian Sea at the end of 21st century. This projected reduction weakens but remains robust when corrected for overestimated winter Arabian Sea winds in CMIP5. This weakening is driven by a reduction in the interhemispheric sea level pressure gradient resulting from enhanced warming of the dry Arabian Peninsula relative to the southern Indian Ocean. The wind weakening reduces winter oceanic heat losses to the atmosphere and deepening of convective mixed layer in the northern Arabian Sea and hence can potentially inhibit the seasonal chlorophyll bloom that contributes substantially to the Arabian Sea annual productivity.

  12. Multidecadal variations in the early Holocene outflow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S. J. A.; Ganssen, G. M.; Davies, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    We present Holocene stable oxygen isotope data from the deep Arabian Sea off Somalia at a decadal time resolution as a proxy for the history of intermediate/upper deep water. These data show an overall δ18O reduction by 0.5‰ between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. superimposed upon short-term δ18O variations at a decadal-centennial timescale. The amplitude of the decadal variations is 0.3‰ prior, and up to 0.6‰ subsequent, to ˜8.1 kyr B.P. We conclude from modeling experiments that the short-term δ18O variations between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. most likely document changes in the evaporation-precipitation balance in the central Red Sea. Changes in water temperature and salinity cause the outflowing Red Sea Water to settle roughly 800 m deeper than today.

  13. Eastward shift and maintenance of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Understanding the paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2016-09-01

    The dominance of Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea (ASOMZ) instead of the more bio-productive and likely more oxygen consuming western part is the first part of the paradox. The sources of oxygen to the ASOMZ were evaluated through the distributions of different water masses using the extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis, whereas the sinks of oxygen were evaluated through the organic matter remineralization, using the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU). The contributions of major source waters to the Arabian Sea viz. Indian Deep water (dIDW), Indian Central water (ICW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and Red Sea Water (RSW) have been quantified through the eOMP analysis which shows that the PGW and RSW are significant for the eastward shift of ASOMZ instead of voluminous ICW and dIDW. The distribution of Net Primary Production (NPP) and AOU clearly suggest the transport of organic detritus from the highly productive western Arabian Sea to its eastern counterpart which adds to the eastward shifting of ASOMZ. A revised estimate of the seasonal variation of areal extent and volume occupied by ASOMZ through analysis of latest available data reveals a distinct intensification of ASOMZ by 30% and increase in its volume by 5% during the spring-summer transition. However, during this seasonal transition the productivity in the Arabian Sea shows 100% increase in mean NPP. This disparity between ASOMZ and monsoonal variation of productivity is the other part of the paradox, which has been constrained through apparent oxygen utilization, Net Primary Production along with a variation of core depths of source waters. This study reveals a subtle balance between the circulation of marginal oxygen-rich water masses from the western Arabian Sea and organic matter remineralization in the eastern Arabian Sea in different seasons that explains the maintenance of ASOMZ throughout the year.

  14. Ammonia oxidation rates and nitrification in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Silvia E.; Babbin, Andrew R.; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrification rates, as well as the relationships between rates and ammonia oxidizer abundance (both archaeal and bacterial), were investigated in the Arabian Sea. Ammonia oxidation rates were measured directly using 15N-NH4+stable isotope additions in gas-impermeable, trace metal clean trilaminate bags (500 mL) at in situ temperature. Tracer incubations were performed at three stations at depths above, below, and within the oxycline of the open-ocean oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Ammonia oxidation rates were similar to previous open-ocean measurements, ranging from undetectable to 21.6 ± 0.1 nmol L-1 d-1. The highest rates at each station occurred at the primary nitrite maximum (above the OMZ), and rates were very low at depths greater than 900 m. The abundances of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were estimated using theamoA gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Both AOA and AOB amoA were detected above, within, and below the OMZ, although the AOA were always more abundant than the AOB, by a factor of 35-216. Nitrification rates were not directly correlated to AOA or AOB amoA abundance. These rates offer new insight into the role of nitrification in the mesopelagic zone. The abundance of AOA amoA genes at 1000 m suggests that ˜50% of the microbial biomass could be autotrophic. Additionally, the integrated nitrification rate at depth implies that nitrification could consume most of the ammonium produced by the flux of organic carbon in the mesopelagic zone.

  15. Climate oscillations reflected in the microbiome of Arabian Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, W. D.; Coolen, M.; He, L.; Wuchter, C.; Irigoien, X.; Hemingway, J. D.; Johnson, C.; Chust, G.; Moore, K.; Galy, V.; Giosan, L.

    2016-12-01

    More than 1029 microbial cells reside in marine sediment, but the forces underlying their vertical distribution are poorly understood. Sedimentary communities are shaped to a large extent through selection by the modern environment such as energy availability and porosity. However, some microbes within certain settings reflect depositional conditions suggesting they have experienced no or weak selection after burial. Here, we show that in sediments underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), the stratigraphy of some subsisting bacteria records their selection to changing paleo-environmental conditions over relatively short (e.g., centennial to millennial) timescales. We performed the highest resolved sedimentary metagenomic profile to date and coupled it with multiple paleoceanographic proxies. Despite being vertically separated, bacterial communities deposited under recurring low-oxygen conditions are more similar to one another than those deposited under higher oxygen. Furthermore, genomic potential for denitrification recurringly correlates with OMZ strength and paleo-denitrification proxies. In contrast, the genomic potential for oxygen-dependent metabolism, specifically genes encoding mono-oxygenases, is correlated with bioturbated sediment intervals deposited under higher oxygen concentrations. These patterns correlate strongly with the strength of the OMZ whose strength is teleconnected to North Atlantic climate. While the primary electron acceptors nitrate and nitrite are depleted at the sediment surface, metagenomes revealed mixed acid and Entner-Dourdoroff fermentation pathways encoded by many of the denitrifier groups. Fermentation has thus enabled the long-term subsistence of these bacteria whose stratigraphy serves as a proxy for changing paleoceanographic conditions and potential climate feedback mechanisms.

  16. Basin-wide Millennial Cycles in Arabian Sea Climate Over the Last Glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, A.; Marcantonio, F.

    2005-05-01

    High-frequency Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) and Heinrich cycles first discovered in the records of North Atlantic ice and marine sediments have been found to extend beyond the North Atlantic There is ample evidence for these millennial cycles of climate variability in the sediments of the Arabian Sea. We employ uranium-series radionuclide proxies to determine changes in the fluxes of sedimentary components in two cores from the western (W) and northeastern (NE) Arabian Sea in order to investigate fluctuations of export production and wind strength on a large regional scale during the last glacial period. In the NE Arabian Sea off of the Pakistani margin, 230Th-derived detrital (eolian) fluxes are highest during periods consistent with the timing of North Atlantic D-O stadial and H 1-7 events. Authigenic uranium concentrations, which we interpret as a proxy for primary productivity, also show an increase during North Atlantic D-O interstadials. Preliminary results from W Arabian Sea sediments off of the Oman margin corroborate that these millennial cycles in productivity and eolian fluxes are indeed basin-wide events. Authigenic U concentrations in these sediments are, on average, about twice those measured in the NE Arabian Sea, suggesting, qualitatively, an enhancement of primary productivity in the western part of the basin. In contrast, fluxes of eolian material to the Oman margin are, on average, more than 10 times lower than those delivered to the Pakistani margin, even though the patterns of millennial variability are virtually identical. We associate enhanced export production and a decreased eolian input during relatively warmer D-O interstadials with an intensification of southwest monsoonal winds. Similarly, decreased export production is coincident with an increase in eolian fluxes during North Atlantic stadial and H events. These results provide strong evidence for a basin-wide atmospheric teleconnection between Arabian Sea and North Atlantic climate on sub

  17. Seasonal spreading of the Persian Gulf Water mass in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, T. G.; Ikeda, M.; Kumar, S. Prasanna

    2001-08-01

    The characteristics of the subsurface salinity maximum associated with the Persian Gulf Water mass (PGW) are used to quantify the spreading and mixing of PGW in the thermocline of the Arabian Sea based on a bimonthly climatology of temperature and salinity. Examination of the seasonal cycles of heat and freshwater fluxes in the Persian Gulf region indicates that PGW forms as a result of elevated evaporative cooling in conjunction with reduced insolation during winter. Maps are presented of the distributions of depth, salinity, and geostrophic flow on σθ = 26.5, which nearly coincides with the core of the PGW. After intense mixing in the Strait of Hormuz, the property fields suggest that warm (>17°C) and high-salinity (>36.2 psu) PGW enters the Arabian Sea to form a subsurface salinity extremum between 200 and 300 m. We have found variability in the distribution of PGW in the Arabian Sea associated with monsoonal changes in the Arabian Sea circulation. During the winter monsoon, there is southward spreading of PGW along the western boundary; during summer it is not present. Lateral mixing with low-salinity water from the Bay of Bengal in the region south of 10°N and along the west coast of India during winter accounts for changes in the characteristics of PGW along these paths. Associated with the Findlater Jet during summer, the entire thermohaline structure is vertically displaced along the coasts of Somalia and Arabia. Ekman convergence in the central Arabian Sea accounts for deepening of the PGW. Either lateral or vertical mixing would cause changes in PGW properties in these regions. During this time, PGW spreads predominantly southward along the central Arabian Sea, as indicated by a tongue of high salinity.

  18. Variations in productivity and eolian fluxes in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the past 110 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, Ali; Marcantonio, Franco; Schulz, Hartmut

    2004-04-01

    High-resolution (one to two samples/ka) radionuclide proxy records from core 93KL in the northeastern Arabian Sea provide evidence for millennial climate variability over the past 110 ka. We interpret 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes as a proxy for eolian input, and authigenic uranium concentrations as a proxy for past productivity. We attribute orbital and suborbital variations in both proxies to changes in the intensity of the southwest Indian Ocean monsoon. The highest 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes occur at times that are consistent with the timing of the Younger Dryas, Heinrich events 1-7 and cold Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial events recorded in the GISP2 ice core. Such high dust fluxes may be due to a weakened southwest monsoon in conjunction with strengthened northwesterlies from the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia. Authigenic uranium concentrations, on the other hand, are highest during warm Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials when the southwest monsoon is intensified relative to the northwesterly winds. Our results also indicate that on orbital timescales maximum average eolian fluxes coincide with the timing of marine isotopic stage (MIS) 2 and 4, while minimum fluxes occur during MIS 1, 3 and 5. Although the forcing mechanism(s) controlling suborbital variabilities in monsoonal intensity is still debated, our findings suggest an atmospheric teleconnection between the low-latitude southwest monsoon and North Atlantic climate.

  19. Past, present, and future changes in marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, Katharina; Segschneider, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The work presented here aims at a better understanding of the Asian Monsoon system including the marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea. Changes in the past as recorded in marine sediments, as simulated over the past 1000 years, and under forcing by anthropogenic CO2 emissions by numerical model simulations are investigated. The investigation is based on three columns: a sediment core taken in the Arabian Sea (core SO130-275KL taken off Pakistan), a pre-industrial model run from 850 - 1850 with the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) including the marine and terrestrial carbon cycle and forced by solar variations and volcanic eruptions, and a continuation of this simulation to 2005 under the historical anthropogenic CO2 forcing which allows a comparison with present day climatology. In a first step we compare model results for a set of biogeochemical tracers within the water column and the sediment mixed with observations in the Arabian Sea. We further analyse correlations between Monsoon forcing (represented by zonal wind speed at 850 hPA, short wave radiation, Indian summer precipitation) and biogeochemical parameters, with particular focus on denitrification rates and fluxes to the sediment. This analysis is focused on three regions: off Somalia and off Oman for the summer monsoon, and the central Arabian Sea for the winter monsoon. For the summer monsoon, the highest correlation is found between zonal wind speed and calcite flux to the sediment off Somalia, for the winter monsoon the correlation is highest for short wave radiation in the central Arabian Sea. Time series of mixed layer depth and integrated primary production within the upper 100 m of the ocean from a CMIP5 historical experiment (1850-2005) show, at the location of the sediment core SO130-275KL, little correlation during the summer monsoon, but good correlation during the winter monsoon. As a result, the sediment core is more likely to document winter monsoon conditions

  20. Diagnosing CO2 fluxes and seasonality in the Arabian Sea as an Ocean-Dominated Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Dai, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a large marginal sea of the Indian Ocean characterized by highly predictable annual circulation cycle driven by Asian monsoon. The Arabian Sea is generally sources to atmospheric CO2. In this study, we applied the physical-biogeochemical coupled approach previously adopted for diagnosis of CO2 fluxes in Ocean-dominated margin (OceMar) to assesses the CO2 fluxes and their seasonality in Arabian Sea using data collected during five US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study cruises (ttn-043, ttn-045, ttn-049, ttn-053, ttn-054) conducted from September 1994 to December 1995. The pCO2 estimated during the 5 cruises was 396±5μatm, 359±7 μatm, 373±7 μatm, 379±9 μatm and 387±12 μatm, respectively, which agreed well with the pCO2 observed during the cruises of 389±8 μatm, 361±6 μatm, 366±6 μatm, 371±8 μatm and 367±11 μatm from underway measurements. This strongly suggests that our semi-analytical diagnostic approach in the OceMar framework can evaluate the pCO2 in Arabian Sea. Our coupled diagnostic approach assumes that water mass mixing, biological response and air-sea exchange under steady state over a similar time scale. This assumption should be justified at the region with intensified upwelling where decoupling between upwelling and biological response may occur, where only water mass mixing and air-sea CO2 exchange should be accounted for. This presentation will also examine the seasonality of the CO2 dynamics and its controls.

  1. Revisiting the Observed Correlation Between Weekly Averaged Indian Monsoon Precipitation and Arabian Sea Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D.; Miller, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Dust influences the Indian summer monsoon on seasonal timescales by perturbing atmospheric radiation. On weekly time scales, aerosol optical depth retrieved by satellite over the Arabian Sea is correlated with Indian monsoon precipitation. This has been interpreted to show the effect of dust radiative heating on Indian rainfall on synoptic (few-day) time scales. However, this correlation is reproduced by Earth System Model simulations, where dust is present but its radiative effect is omitted. Analysis of daily variability suggests that the correlation results from the effect of precipitation on dust through the associated cyclonic circulation. Boundary layer winds that deliver moisture to India are responsible for dust outbreaks in source regions far upwind, including the Arabian Peninsula. This suggests that synoptic variations in monsoon precipitation over India enhance dust emission and transport to the Arabian Sea. The effect of dust radiative heating upon synoptic monsoon variations remains to be determined.

  2. Revisiting the observed correlation between weekly averaged Indian monsoon precipitation and Arabian Sea aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Disha; Miller, Ron L.

    2017-10-01

    Dust influences the Indian summer monsoon on seasonal time scales by perturbing atmospheric radiation. On weekly time scales, aerosol optical depth retrieved by satellite over the Arabian Sea is correlated with Indian monsoon precipitation. This has been interpreted to show the effect of dust radiative heating on Indian rainfall on synoptic (few-day) time scales. However, this correlation is reproduced by Earth System Model simulations, where dust is present but its radiative effect is omitted. Analysis of daily variability suggests that the correlation results from the effect of precipitation on dust through the associated cyclonic circulation. Boundary layer winds that deliver moisture to India are responsible for dust outbreaks in source regions far upwind, including the Arabian Peninsula. This suggests that synoptic variations in monsoon precipitation over India enhance dust emission and transport to the Arabian Sea. The effect of dust radiative heating upon synoptic monsoon variations remains to be determined.

  3. Seismic anisotropy and subduction-induced mantle fabrics beneath the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mohamed, Abdelnasser A.; Yu, Youqiang; Fat-Helbary, Raafat E.

    2014-04-01

    For most continental areas, the mechanisms leading to mantle fabrics responsible for the observed anisotropy remain ambiguous, partially due to the lack of sufficient spatial coverage of reliable seismological observations. Here we report the first joint analysis of shear-wave splitting measurements obtained at stations on the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea. More than 1100 pairs of high-quality splitting parameters show dominantly N-S fast orientations at all 47 stations and larger-than-normal splitting times beneath the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD). The uniformly N-S fast orientations and large splitting times up to 1.5 s are inconsistent with significant contributions from the lithosphere, which is about 50-80 km thick beneath the AAD and even thinner beneath the Red Sea. The results can best be explained by simple shear between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere associated with northward subduction of the African/Arabian Plates over the past 150 Ma.

  4. Sea level rise within the west of Arabian Gulf using tide gauge and continuous GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, M. E.; Alothman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and located in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. To investigate sea level variations within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed individually the monthly means at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Vertical land motions are included into the relative sea level measurements at the tide gauges. Therefore sea level rates at the stations are corrected for vertical land motions using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model then we found the average sea level rise rate of 2.27 mm/yr. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS) GPS station, which is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain, is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are downloaded from http://www-gps.mit.edu/~tah/. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and one break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.48 ± 0.11 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate at each of the other tide gauge stations studied here in the region, we computed average sea level rise rate of 2.44 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf.

  5. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea: A 3D ecosystem modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.; Fasham, Michael J. R.; Gorchakov, Victor A.

    2007-12-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecosystem model was used to examine the factors determining the spatio-temporal distribution of denitrification in the Arabian Sea. The ecosystem model includes carbon and nitrogen as currencies, cycling of organic matter via detritus and dissolved organic matter, and both remineralization and denitrification as sinks for material exported below the euphotic zone. Model results captured the marked seasonality in plankton dynamics of the region, with characteristic blooms of chlorophyll in the coastal upwelling regions and central Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon, and also in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon as the mixed layer shoals. Predicted denitrification was 26.2 Tg N yr -1,the greatest seasonal contribution being during the northeast monsoon when primary production is co-located with the zone of anoxia. Detritus was the primary organic substrate consumed in denitrification (97%), with a small (3%) contribution by dissolved organic matter. Denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone was predicted to be fuelled almost entirely by organic matter supplied by particles sinking vertically from the euphotic zone above (0.73 mmol N m -2 d -1) rather than from lateral transport of organic matter from elsewhere in the Arabian Sea (less than 0.01 mmol N m -2 d -1). Analysis of the carbon budget in the zone of denitrification (north of 10°N and east of 55°E) indicates that the modelled vertical export flux of detritus, which is similar in magnitude to estimates from field data based on the 234Th method, is sufficient to account for measured bacterial production below the euphotic zone in the Arabian Sea.

  6. Dynamics behind warming of the southeastern Arabian Sea and its interruption based on in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Simi; Natesan, Usha; Latha, Ganesan; Venkatesan, Ramasamy

    2018-05-01

    A study of the inter-annual variability of the warming of the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the spring transition months was carried out from 2013 to 2015 based on in situ data from moored buoys. An attempt was made to identify the roles of the different variables in the warming of the SEAS (e.g., net heat flux, advection, entrainment, and thickness of the barrier layer during the previous northeast monsoon season). The intense freshening of the SEAS (approximately 2 PSU) occurring in each December, together with the presence of a downwelling Rossby wave, supports the formation of a thick barrier layer during the northeast monsoon season. It is known that the barrier layer thickness, varying each year, plays a major role in the spring warming of the SEAS. Interestingly, an anomalously thick barrier layer occurred during the northeast monsoon season of 2012-2013. However, the highest sea surface temperature (31 °C) was recorded during the last week of April 2015, while the lowest sea surface temperature (29.7 °C) was recorded during the last week of May 2013. The mixed layer heat budget analysis during the spring transition months proved that the intense warming has been mainly supported by the net heat flux, not by other factors like advection and entrainment. The inter-annual variability analysis of the net heat flux and its components, averaged over a box region of the SEAS, showed a substantial latent heat flux release and a reduction in net shortwave radiation in 2013. Both factors contributed to the negative net heat flux. Strong breaks in the warming were also observed in May due to the entrainment of cold sub-surface waters. These events are associated with the cyclonic eddy persisting over the SEAS during the same time. The entrainment term, favoring the cooling, was stronger in 2015 than that in 2013 and 2014. The surface temperatures measured in 2013 were lower than those in 2014 and 2015 despite the presence of a thick barrier layer. The

  7. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian Monsoon revisited in a high resolution ocean simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xing; Hünicke, Birgit; Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Studies based on sediment records, sea-surface temperature and wind suggest that upwelling along the western coast of Arabian Sea is strongly affected by the Indian summer Monsoon. We examine this relationship directly in an eddy-resolving global ocean simulation STORM driven by atmospheric reanalysis over the last 61 years. With its very high spatial resolution (10 km), STORM allows us to identify characteristics of the upwelling system. We analyse the co-variability between upwelling and meteorological and oceanic variables from 1950 to 2010. The analysis reveals high interannual correlations between coastal upwelling and along-shore wind-stress (r = 0.73) as well as with sea-surface temperature (r = -0.83). However, the correlation between the upwelling and the Monsoon is small. We find an atmospheric circulation pattern different from the one that drives the Monsoon as the main modulator of the upwelling variability. In spite of this, the patterns of temperature anomalies that are either linked to Arabian Sea upwelling or to the Monsoon are spatially quite similar, although the physical mechanisms of these links are different. In addition, no long-term trend is detected in our modelled upwelling in the Arabian Sea.

  8. Monsoon Variability in the Arabian Sea from Enhanced and Standard Horizontal Resolution Coupled Climate Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClean, J.; Veneziani, C.; Maltrud, M. E.; Taylor, M.; Bader, D. C.; Branstetter, M. L.; Evans, K. J.; Mahajan, S.

    2016-02-01

    The circulation of the upper ocean in the Arabian Sea switches direction seasonally due to the change in direction of the prevailing winds associated with the Indian Monsoon. Predictability of the monsoon circulation, however, is uncertain due to incomplete understanding of the physical processes operating on the monsoon and other time scales, particularly interannual and intraseasonal. We use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with enhanced horizontal resolution in each of its components relative to standard coupled climate model resolution, to better understand these time scale interactions. A standard resolution CESM counterpart is used to assess how horizontal resolution impacts the depiction of these processes. In the enhanced resolution case, 0.25° Community Atmosphere Model 5 (CAM5) is coupled to, among other components, the tripolar nominal 0.1° Parallel Ocean Program 2 (POP2). The fine resolution CESM simulation was run for 85 years; constant 1850 preindustrial forcing was used throughout the run, allowing us to isolate internal variability of the coupled system. Model parameters were adjusted ("tuned") to produce an acceptably small top of the atmosphere radiation imbalance. The reversal of the Somali Current (SC), the western boundary current off northeast Africa, has typically been associated with that of the monsoon. The SC reverses from southwestward in boreal winter to northeastward in summer; coastal upwelling is induced by the summer monsoonal winds. Recently it has been shown from new observations that the SC starts to reverse prior to the monsoon switch. Westward propagating Rossby waves have been implicated as responsible for the early SC reversal. We will discuss the sequencing of remote and local forcing on the timing of the spring inter-monsoonal switch in the direction of the SC and the appearance of the Great Whirl off the Oman Coast. Particularly, we consider how the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) acts to modify the seasonal strength and

  9. An integrated weather and sea-state forecasting system for the Arabian Peninsula (WASSF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallos, George; Galanis, George; Spyrou, Christos; Mitsakou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Bartsotas, Nikolaos; Kalogrei, Christina; Athanaselis, Ioannis; Sofianos, Sarantis; Vervatis, Vassios; Axaopoulos, Panagiotis; Papapostolou, Alexandros; Qahtani, Jumaan Al; Alaa, Elyas; Alexiou, Ioannis; Beard, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, large industrial conglomerates such as the Saudi ARAMCO, require a series of weather and sea state forecasting products that cannot be found in state meteorological offices or even commercial data providers. The two major objectives of the system is prevention and mitigation of environmental problems and of course early warning of local conditions associated with extreme weather events. The management and operations part is related to early warning of weather and sea-state events that affect operations of various facilities. The environmental part is related to air quality and especially the desert dust levels in the atmosphere. The components of the integrated system include: (i) a weather and desert dust prediction system with forecasting horizon of 5 days, (ii) a wave analysis and prediction component for Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, (iii) an ocean circulation and tidal analysis and prediction of both Red Sea and Arabian Gulf and (iv) an Aviation part specializing in the vertical structure of the atmosphere and extreme events that affect air transport and other operations. Specialized data sets required for on/offshore operations are provided ate regular basis. State of the art modeling components are integrated to a unique system that distributes the produced analysis and forecasts to each department. The weather and dust prediction system is SKIRON/Dust, the wave analysis and prediction system is based on WAM cycle 4 model from ECMWF, the ocean circulation model is MICOM while the tidal analysis and prediction is a development of the Ocean Physics and Modeling Group of University of Athens, incorporating the Tidal Model Driver. A nowcasting subsystem is included. An interactive system based on Google Maps gives the capability to extract and display the necessary information for any location of the Arabian Peninsula, the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf.

  10. Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemence, Caulle; Meryem, Mojtahid; Karoliina, Koho; Andy, Gooday; Gert-Jan, Reichart; Gerhard, Schmiedl; Frans, Jorissen

    2014-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy. C. Caulle1, M. Mojtahid1, K. Koho2,3, A. Gooday4, G. J. Reichart2,3, G. Schmiedl5, F. Jorissen1 1UMR CNRS 6112 LPG-BIAF, University of Angers, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 2Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, The Netherlands 3Royal Netherland Institute for Sea Research (Royal NIOZ), Landsdiep 4, 1797 SZ 't Horntje (Texel) 4Southampton Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK 5Department of Geosciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany The thermohaline circulation oxygenates the deep ocean sediment and therefore enables aerobic life on the sea-floor. In the past, interruption of this deep water formation occurred several times causing hypoxic to anoxic conditions on the sea-floor leading to major ecological turnover. A better understanding of the interaction between climate and bottom water oxygenation is therefore essential in order to predict future oceanic responses. Presently, permanent (stable over decadal timescale) low-oxygen conditions occur naturally at mid-water depths in the northern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea). Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) are key areas to understand the hypoxic-anoxic events and their impact on the benthic ecosystem. In this context, a good knowledge of the ecology and life cycle adaptations of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages living in these low oxygen areas is essential. A series of multicores were recovered from three transects showing an oxygen gradient across the OMZ: the Murray Ridge, the Oman margin and the Indian margin. The stations located at the same depths showed slightly different oxygen concentrations and large differences in organic matter content. These differences are mainly related to the geographic location in the Arabian Sea. We investigated at these stations live and dead benthic

  11. Late quaternary time series of Arabian Sea productivity: Global and regional signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, Steven C.; Prell, W. L.; Murray, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Modern annual floral and faunal production in the northwest Arabian Sea derives primarily from upwelling induced by strong southwest winds during June, July, and August. Indian Ocean summer monsoon winds are, in turn, driven by differential heating between the Asian continent and the Indian ocean to the south. This differential heating produces a strong pressure gradient resulting in southwest monsoon winds and both coastal and divergent upwelling off the Arabian Peninsula. Over geologic time scales (10(exp 4) to 10(exp 6) years), monsoon wind strength is sensitive to changes in boundary conditions which influence this pressure gradient. Important boundary conditions include the seasonal distribution of solar radiation, global ice volume, Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, and the elevation and albedo of the Asian continent. To the extent that these factors influence monsoon wind strength, they also influence upwelling and productivity. In addition, however, productivity associated with upwelling can be decoupled from the strength of the summer monsoon winds via ocean mechanisms which serve to inhibit or enhance the nutrient supply in the intermediate waters of the Indian Ocean, the source for upwelled waters in the Arabian Sea. To differentiate productivity associated with wind-induced upwelling from that associated with other components of the system such as nutrient sequestering in glacial-age deep waters, we employ a strategy which monitors independent components of the oceanic and atmospheric subsystems. Using sediment records from the Owen Ridge, northwest Arabian Sea, we monitor the strength of upwelling and productivity using two independent indicators, percent G. bulloides and opal accumulation. We monitor the strength of southwest monsoon winds by measuring the grain-size of lithogenic dust particles blown into the Arabian Sea from the surrounding deserts of the Somali and Arabian Peninsulas. Our current hypothesis is that the variability associated

  12. The phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon of 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, John C.; Mcclain, Charles R.; Luther, Mark E.; Hay, William W.

    1991-01-01

    The present study investigates the biological variability of the northwestern Arabian Sea during the 1979 southwest monsoon by the synthesis of satellite ocean color remote sensing with an analysis of in situ hydrographic and meteorological data sets and the results of wind-driven modeling of upper-ocean circulation. The phytoplankton bloom peaked during August-September, extended from the Oman coast to about 65 deg E, and lagged behind the development of open-sea upwelling by at least 1 mo. The pigment distributions, hydrographic data, and model results all suggest that the boom was driven by spatially distinct upward nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone forced by the physical processes of coastal upwelling and offshore Ekman pumping. Coastal upwelling was evident from May through September, yielded the most extreme concentrations of phytoplankton biomass, and, along the Arabian coast, was limited to the continental shelf in the promotion of high concentrations of phytoplankton.

  13. Picophytoplankton variability: Influence of winter convective mixing and advection in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemal, Suchandan; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Shankar, D.; Remya, R.; Roy, Rajdeep

    2018-04-01

    The deepening of mixed layer and ensuing changes in optical and physicochemical properties of euphotic zone can influence phytoplankton community dynamics in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon. The response of picophytoplankton community to such changes during winter convective mixing is not well understood. Herein, we have compared variations in the picophytoplankton community structure during early (November-December 2012), peak (end-January 2014) and late (mid-February 2015) winter monsoon from three separate cruises in the southern northeastern Arabian Sea. The higher Synechococcus abundance owing to entrainment of nutrients in mixed layer was observed during peak winter monsoon, while the concomitant changes in nitrate concentration, light and oxygen environment restricted Prochlorococcus growth resulting in lower abundance during the same period. This highlights the diverse responses of picophytoplankton groups to physicochemical changes of water column during winter convective mixing. The divinyl chlorophyll b/a ratio (marker for Prochlorococcus ecotypes) indicated prevalence of one low-light adapted ecotype (sensitive to light shock) in sub-surface water, one high-light adapted ecotype in surface water during early winter monsoon and both disappeared during intense mixing period in peak winter monsoon. Subsequently, a distinct low-light adapted ecotype, capable to tolerate light shock, was noticed during late winter monsoon and we argue that this ecotype is introduced to southern northeastern Arabian Sea through advection from north by sub-surface circulation. The total picophytoplankton biomass available to microbial loop is restored during late winter monsoon, when stratification begins, with a higher abundance of Synechococcus and the re-occurrence of Prochlorococcus population in the region. These inferences indicate that variability in picophytoplankton community structure and their contribution to the microbial loop are driven by

  14. The Red Sea structural architecture assessment based on yield strength spatial variations and Arabian margin preexisting structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, T.; Furlong, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    Rift initiation and localization might reflect spatial changes in the lithospheric yield strength. However, this does not appear to be the case in the Red Sea extensional system where fission track analysis shows no significant changes in the geothermal gradient prior to the Red Sea rift onset. In contrast, though the whole Red Sea rift initiated 25 Ma ago, its extensional architecture changes dramatically along strike from narrow localized spreading in the south to asymmetrical diffuse extension north of 21° latitude. This onset of diffuse extension has been recorded in the north-western Arabian margin as old as 33 Ma. Such diversity in the extensional style might reflect along strike yield strength variations as a consequence of the geological setting in the Arabian margin. The north-western Arabian basin, which is part of the Arabian margin, bounded by Qiba high from the east, the Arabian shield from the south and the west and Syrian plateau from the north. The basin accommodates part of the Red Sea diffuse extension and has a preexisting structural architecture represented in the Cenozoic failed rift that called Sarhan graben. Our goal is to analyze the current lithospheric yield strength spatial variations along the Red Sea rift and emphasize their relationship with the Arabian margin structural architecture. We hypothesize that the north-western Arabian margin's lithospheric weakness and structural diversity are playing an important role in producing region of diffuse extension by their interaction with the forces applied by far field stresses represented by the New Tethys slab pull. On the other hand, the south-western Arabian margin interacts with the far field stresses as a single strong block in which led to localize the extension in the southern Red Sea. Our work may improve the scientific community understanding for how rifts initiate and evolve over time.

  15. Seasonal variation of hydrographic and nutrient fields during the US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, J. M.; Codispoti, L. A.; Gaurin, S.; Jones, B.; Manghnani, V.; Zheng, Z.

    nutrient concentrations. This PGW salinity maximum is associated with the suboxic portions of the Arabian Sea's oxygen minimum zone. The salinity maximum associated with Red Sea Water (RSW, core σθ=27.2) in the JGOFS study region is clearly evident at the southermost sampling site at 10'N (S-15). Elsewhere, this signal is weak or absent and salinity on the 27.2 σθ surface tends to increase towards the Persian Gulf, suggesting that the disappearance of this salinity maximum is due, at least in part, to the influence of the Persian Gulf outflow. Inorganic nitrogen-to-phosphate ratios were lower (frequently much lower) than the standard Redfield ratio of 15/1-16/1 (by atoms) at all times and all depths suggesting that inorganic nitrogen was more important than phosphate as a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, and that the effects of denitrification dominated the effects of nitrogen fixation. The water upwelling off the Omani coast during the SW Monsoon has inorganic nitrogen to silicate ratios that were higher (˜2/1) than the ˜1/1 ratio often assumed as the ratio of uptake during diatom growth. The temporal evolution of inorganic nitrogen-to-silicate ratios suggests major alteration by diatom uptake only during the late SW Monsoon cruise (TN050) in August-September 1995. Widespread moderate surface layer nutrient concentrations occurred during the late NE Monsoon. A zone of high offshore nutrient concentrations was encountered during the SW Monsoon, but instead of being associated with offshore upwelling it may represent offshore advection from the coastal upwelling zone, the influence of an eddy, or both. Although our data do not contradict previous suggestions that the volume of subtoxic water may be reduced the SW Monsoon, they suggest a weaker re-oxygenation than indicated by some previous work. Similarly, they do not confirm results suggesting that secondary nitrite maxima may be common in waters with oxygen concentrations >5 μM.

  16. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Lüke, Claudia; Speth, Daan R; Kox, Martine A R; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria.

  17. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Kox, Martine A.R.; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria. PMID:27077014

  18. The World's Most Isolated and Distinct Whale Population? Humpback Whales of the Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S.; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to “Critically Endangered” on the IUCN Red List. PMID:25470144

  19. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Pomilla, Cristina; Amaral, Ana R; Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List.

  20. First evidence of denitrification vis-à-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since Late Miocene.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shubham; Tiwari, Manish; Lee, Jongmin; Khim, Boo-Keun

    2017-02-21

    In the Arabian Sea, South Asian monsoon (SAM)-induced high surface water productivity coupled with poor ventilation of intermediate water results in strong denitrification within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Despite the significance of denitrification in the Arabian Sea, we have no long-term record of its evolution spanning the past several million years. Here, we present the first record of denitrification evolution since Late Miocene (~10.2 Ma) in the Eastern Arabian Sea, where the SAM generates moderate surface water productivity, based on the samples retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355. We find that (i) the SAM was persistently weaker from ~10.2 to 3.1 Ma; it did not intensify at ~8 Ma in contrast to a few previous studies, (ii) on tectonic timescale, both the SAM and the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) varied synchronously, (iii) the first evidence of denitrification and productivity/SAM intensification was at ~3.2-2.8 Ma that coincided with Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP), and (iv) the modern strength of the OMZ where denitrification is a permanent feature was attained at ~1.0 Ma.

  1. First evidence of denitrification vis-à-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Shubham; Tiwari, Manish; Lee, Jongmin; Khim, Boo-Keun; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Clift, Peter D.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Andò, Sergio; Bendle, James A. P.; Aharonovich, Sophia; Griffith, Elizabeth M.; Gurumurthy, Gundiga P.; Hahn, Annette; Iwai, Masao; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, A. Ganesh; Liddy, Hannah M.; Lu, Huayu; Lyle, Mitchell W.; Mishra, Ravi; Radhakrishna, Tallavajhala; Routledge, Claire M.; Saraswat, Rajeev; Saxena, Rakesh; Scardia, Giancarlo; Sharma, Girish K.; Singh, Arun D.; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Tauxe, Lisa; Xu, Zhaokai; Yu, Zhaojie

    2017-02-01

    In the Arabian Sea, South Asian monsoon (SAM)-induced high surface water productivity coupled with poor ventilation of intermediate water results in strong denitrification within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Despite the significance of denitrification in the Arabian Sea, we have no long-term record of its evolution spanning the past several million years. Here, we present the first record of denitrification evolution since Late Miocene (~10.2 Ma) in the Eastern Arabian Sea, where the SAM generates moderate surface water productivity, based on the samples retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355. We find that (i) the SAM was persistently weaker from ~10.2 to 3.1 Ma it did not intensify at ~8 Ma in contrast to a few previous studies, (ii) on tectonic timescale, both the SAM and the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) varied synchronously, (iii) the first evidence of denitrification and productivity/SAM intensification was at ~3.2-2.8 Ma that coincided with Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP), and (iv) the modern strength of the OMZ where denitrification is a permanent feature was attained at ~1.0 Ma.

  2. Kinematic evolution of the southwestern Arabian continental margin: implications for the origin of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voggenreiter, W.; Hötzl, H.

    The tectonic and magnetic evolution of the Jizan coastal plain (Tihama Asir) in southwest Arabia was dominated by SW-NE lithospheric extension related to the development of the Red Sea Rift. A well-exposed, isotopically-dated succession of magmatic rocks (Jizan Group volcanics, Tihama Asir Magmatic Complex) allows a kinematic analysis for this part of the Arabian Red Sea margin. A mafic dyke swarm and several generations of roughly NW-trending normal faults characterized the continental rift stage from Oligocene to early Miocene time. Major uplift of the Arabian graben shoulder probably began about 14 Ma ago. By this time, extension and magmatism ceased in the Jizan area and were followed by an approximately 10 Ma interval of tectonic and magmatic quiescence. A second phase of extension began in the Pliocene and facilitated a vast outpouring of alkaliolivine basalts on the coastal plain. The geometry of faulting in the Jizan area supports a Wernicke-type simple-shear mechanism of continental rifting for the southern Arabian continental margin of the Red Sea.

  3. Bio-Optical Properties of the Arabian Sea as Determined by In-Situ and SeaWifs Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trees, Charles C.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this work was to characterize optical and fluorescence properties in the euphotic zone during two British Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) Arabian Sea cruises. This was later expanded in 1995 to include three U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea Cruises. The region was to be divided into one or more "bio-optical provinces", within each of which a single set of regression models was to be developed to relate the vertical distribution of irradiance attenuation and normalized fluorescence (SF and NF) to remote sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient [K(490)]. The working hypothesis was that over relatively large spatial and temporal scales, the vertical profiles of bio-optical properties were predictable.

  4. Dissolved and particulate trace metals in coastal waters of the Gulf and Western Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, S. W.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Fukai, R.

    Concentrations of chemical species of selected heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) were determined in surface waters from a series of coastal sites in Bahrain, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Sultanate of Oman. Analyses were carried out on bulk sea water samples as well as on suspended particulates by anodic stripping voltammetry. Heavy metal concentrations were relatively low with the exception of some "hot spots" which occurred in the vicinity of industrial and port activities. Average copper levels along the coast of UAE were generally higher than those measured in sea water from either Bahrain of Oman. Waters from the more populated and industrialised northwest coast of Oman were found to contain approximately 3 to 4-fold higher Cd and Zn (pH 4-4.5) concentrations than those from the southern coast, an undeveloped region adjacent to the more open waters of the Arabian Sea. Possible reasons for the observed regional variations in trace metal concentrations in Oman are discussed in terms of natural and anthropogenic input sources. Average concentrations in the Gulf (inside the Strait of Hormuz) were 510 ng 1 -1 (Cu), 340 ng 1 -1 (Zn), 20 ng 1 -1 (Cd), 16 ng 1 -1 (Hg) and 76 ng 1 -1 (Pb); in the western Arabian Sea along the coast of Oman concentrations averaged 290 ng 1 -1 (Cu), 180 ng 1 -1 (Zn), 37 ng 1 -1 (Cd), 11 ng 1 -1 (Hg) and 80 ng 1 -1 (Pb). Ranges of concentrations for these metals in Gulf and western Arabian Sea waters approach those which have been reported for open surface waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea indicating that, in general, the coastal waters of this region are not impacted by metal pollution and that the existing natural levels can be used as a point of reference for future pollutant studies.

  5. Monsoon control on faunal composition of planktic foraminifera in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, P.; Siccha, M.; Kucera, M.; Schulz, H.

    2013-12-01

    Being among the most productive open ocean basins, sea surface properties in the Arabian Sea are highly influenced by the seasonal reversal of the monsoonal wind system. During boreal summer wind direction from the southwest induces strong upwelling along the coast off Somalia and Oman. Vertical transport of cold and nutrient-rich deep-water masses by Ekman pumping reduces sea surface temperature and triggers primary productivity. Reversed cold and dry winds during boreal winter lead to cooling of the surface- and subsurface-waters and hereby to deep convective mixing, bringing nutrients into the photic zone and enhancing primary productivity especially in the northern part of the Arabian Sea. Here, we study the influence of the different seasonal monsoon systems on the faunal composition of planktic foraminifera, in order to improve our understanding how the faunal community record is influenced by the respective monsoon systems and to provide baseline information for the reconstruction of ancient monsoon conditions. We used published core-top foraminiferal databases, significantly increased in spatial coverage by new contributions. The resulting combined database consists of 413 core-top samples spanning the Arabian Sea and the Northern Indian Ocean to 10° S. The seasonal sea surface properties at these stations could be binned into categories of different monsoon influence, based on satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentrations. Interpretation of species response to environmental control is based on multivariate statistical analyses of each of the categorical bins. First results show that samples influenced only by winter- and summer monsoon conditions, respectively, feature specifiable faunal composition. Globigerina bulloides is mostly associated with summer upwelling conditions, whereas Globigerina falconensis and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata are typical species of winter conditions. Redundancy analysis reveals preferences of species populations with

  6. Increasing frequency of extremely severe cyclonic storms over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Underwood, Seth

    2017-12-01

    In 2014 and 2015, post-monsoon extremely severe cyclonic storms (ESCS)—defined by the WMO as tropical storms with lifetime maximum winds greater than 46 m s-1—were first observed over the Arabian Sea (ARB), causing widespread damage. However, it is unknown to what extent this abrupt increase in post-monsoon ESCSs can be linked to anthropogenic warming, natural variability, or stochastic behaviour. Here, using a suite of high-resolution global coupled model experiments that accurately simulate the climatological distribution of ESCSs, we show that anthropogenic forcing has likely increased the probability of late-season ECSCs occurring in the ARB since the preindustrial era. However, the specific timing of observed late-season ESCSs in 2014 and 2015 was likely due to stochastic processes. It is further shown that natural variability played a minimal role in the observed increase of ESCSs. Thus, continued anthropogenic forcing will further amplify the risk of cyclones in the ARB, with corresponding socio-economic implications.

  7. Seasonal variation of pteropods from the Western Arabian Sea sediment trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R.; Verma, K.; Mergulhao, L. P.; Sinha, D. K.; Shanvas, S.; Guptha, M. V. S.

    2006-11-01

    Sediment trap samples collected from the Western Arabian Sea yielded a rich assemblage of intact and non-living (opaque white) pteropod tests from a water depth of 919 m during January to September 1993. Nine species of pteropods were recorded, all (except one) displaying distinct seasonality in abundance, suggesting their response to changing hydrographical conditions influenced by the summer/winter monsoon cycle. Pteropod fluxes increased during the April-May peak of the intermonsoon, and reached maximum levels in the late phase of the southwest summer monsoon, probably due to the shallowing of the mixed layer depth. This shallowing, coupled with enhanced nutrient availability, provides ideal conditions for pteropod growth, also reflected in corresponding fluctuations in the flux of the foraminifer Globigerina bulloides. Pteropod/planktic foraminifer ratios displayed marked seasonal variations, the values increasing during the warmer months of April and May when planktic foraminiferal fluxes declined. The variation in fluxes of calcium carbonate, organic carbon and biogenic opal show positive correlations with fluxes of pteropods and planktic foraminifers. Calcium carbonate was the main contributor to the total particulate flux, especially during the SW monsoon. In the study area, pteropod flux variations are similar to the other flux patterns, indicating that they, too could be used as a potential tool for palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the recent past.

  8. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  9. Spacebased Observations of the Oceanic Responses to Monsoons in South China Sea and Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Xiao-Su; Liu, W. Timothy

    2000-01-01

    A large percentage of the world's population and their agrarian economy must endure the vagaries of the monsoons over the tropical oceans between Africa and the Philippines. We know very little about the oceanic responses to changes of the monsoon in the South China Sea (SCS), which is under the influence of the East Asian Monsoon System, and the Arabian Sea (AS), which is dominated by the Indian Monsoon System; oceanic observations are sparse in both regions. Data from spaceborne microwave scatterometers and radiometers have been used to estimate the two major atmospheric forcing, momentum flux and latent heat flux (LHF), which change with the monsoon winds. Spaceborne sensors also observed the surface signatures of the oceanic response: SST and sea level changes (SLC. Sufficient durations of these data have recently become available to allow the meaningful studies of the annual cycles and interannual anomalies. In SCS, the winter monsoon is strong and steady but the summer monsoon is weak and has large intraseasonal fluctuations. In AS, the summer monsoon is much stronger than the winter monsoon. Significant correlations between LHF and SST tendency, and between curl of wind stress and SLC are found in both oceans. In the north SCS, winds are strong and dry, LHF is high, and ocean cooling is also large in fall; LHF is low and the ocean warms up in spring. In AS, LHF and SST tendency have a semi annual period; LHF is high in summer when the wind is strong and in winter when the wind is dry. Along the coast of Oman, the strong summer southwest monsoon causes intense upwelling, low SST and LHF in summer; such wind-driven SST changes is not as obvious along the Vietnam coast because of the weaker summer monsoon. The negative correlation between curl of wind stress and SLC found in the central basins of both SCS and AS agrees with a simple Ekman pumping scenario. Cyclonic winds drive surface divergence and upwelling in the ocean; the rise of the thermocline causes

  10. In situ spectral response of the Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman coastal waters to bio-optical properties.

    PubMed

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-10-01

    Mapping of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) over the coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the satellite-based observations, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer), has shown inferior performance (Chl-a overestimation) than that of deep waters. Studies in the region have shown that this poor performance is due to three reasons: (i) water turbidity (sediments re-suspension), and the presence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), (ii) bottom reflectance and (iii) incapability of the existing atmospheric correction models to reduce the effect of the aerosols from the water leaving radiance. Therefore, this work focuses on investigating the sensitivity of the in situ spectral signatures of these coastal waters to the algal (chlorophyll: Chl-a), non-algal (sediments and CDOM) and the bottom reflectance properties, in absence of contributions from the atmosphere. Consequently, the collected in situ spectral signatures will improve our understanding of Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman water properties. For this purpose, comprehensive field measurements were carried out between 2013 and 2016, over Abu-Dhabi (Arabian Gulf) and Fujairah (Sea of Oman) where unique water quality data were collected. Based on the in situ water spectral analysis, the bottom reflectance (water depth<20m) are found to degrade the performance of the conventional ocean color algorithms more than the sediment-laden waters where these waters increase the R rs at the blue and red ranges. The increasing presence of CDOM markedly decreases the R rs in the blue range, which is conflicting with the effect of Chl-a. Given the inadequate performance of the widely used ocean-color algorithms (OC3: ocean color 3, OC2: ocean color 2) in retrieving Chl-a in these very shallow coastal waters, therefore, a new algorithm is proposed here based on a 3-bands ratio approach using [R rs (656) -1 -R rs (506) -1 ]×R rs (661). The selected optimum bands (656nm, 506nm, and 661nm) from

  11. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.

    2011-06-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this water mass can be advected offshore across the gulf or towards its northern coast by the regional gyres. The Red Sea Water outflow is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the SSH measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are more often related to the anomalous water masses that they encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW are found in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, in particular during summer.

  12. The biogeochemistry of Arabian Sea surficial sediments: A review of recent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Greg

    2005-05-01

    The Arabian Sea’s unusual features have drawn attention from oceanographers and other scientists since the late 1800s. Water-column processes, including the seasonally reversing monsoon-driven circulation and the associated upwelling and productivity, as well as a basin-wide, mid-water layer of intense oxygen depletion have been the foci of many studies. However, the importance of benthic processes in the Arabian Sea has also been recognized. Both the abyssal region and the continental margins have been sites of major studies focused on the biology and geochemistry of surficial sediments and key biogeochemical processes that occur across the benthic boundary layer, especially in the last decade. A summary of benthic studies carried out up to the 1990s is followed by descriptions and syntheses of biological and geochemical studies conducted since that time. The results highlight that the benthic system of the Arabian Sea is highly dynamic, with evidence of strong benthic-pelagic coupling displayed as a cross-basin trophic gradient and in benthic response to seasonal variability in productivity and C flux. Benthic biogeochemical processes, especially on the upper slope and within the oxygen minimum zone, including denitrification, phosphogenesis, and fluxes of trace metals, nutrients and dissolved organic matter, may be of global significance but remain poorly quantified. Sedimentary organic matter distributions across the Arabian Sea have served to fuel an ongoing debate over the controlling environmental factors. Recent studies have illustrated that factors including the supply of reactive organic matter, oxygen exposure, digestion and mixing by the benthos, sorptive preservation, and sediment dilution, winnowing and down-slope transport, all interact in a complex fashion and with varied impact to determine distributions of sedimentary organic matter across the different margins of this basin. Notable features include the facts that it is only at the core of the

  13. An overview of historical harmful algae blooms outbreaks in the Arabian Seas.

    PubMed

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-09-15

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs), often composed of oceanic plants called phytoplankton, are potentially harmful to the marine life, water quality, human health, and desalination plants, a chief source of potable water in the Arabian Gulf. The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the frequency of HAB outbreaks in the Arabian Seas. This increase is mainly caused by the unprecedented economic growth in the region. The increased human activities in the region have added more stress to the marine environment and contributed to the changes observed in the properties of the marine ecosystem: high temperature and salinity, high evaporation rates, limited freshwater inflow, shallow nature, pollution. However, very few studies that cover the HAB outbreaks, causes, impacts and biological characteristics over the region have been published. This work presents a comprehensive overview of historical HAB outbreaks recorded in the region, and investigate their causes and impact, and seasonal variability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  15. Forecasters Handbook for the Middle East/Arabian Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    much of the Northeast Monsoon. j. Dust storms are infrequent during the NE Monsoon season except in the northern Red Sea where vigorous extratropical ... storm 3-30 affecting the Gulf of Aden and the southern Red Sea on June 26, 1979. 3-12 Isopleths of mean pressure differences (mb) between 3-38 strong...areas but increases the wind stress effect known as "water pileup" (analogous to " storm surge" along open coasts). 2.4 Monsoon Regimes A set of criteria

  16. Arabian Plate Deformation: The role of inherited structures in the localization of strain in the Red Sea extensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaajani, T.; Furlong, K.; Malservisi, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Red Sea rift structural architecture changes dramatically along strike from narrow localized spreading (with creation of new oceanic crust) in the south to asymmetrical diffuse extension north of 21 ° latitude. The region of diffuse extension falls within a triangle that is bounded to the east by the Sarhan graben, (a Cenozoic failed rift), to the west by the northern Red Sea Rift, and to the south by the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. Geological observations appear to show that tectonic stresses acting on inherited structures within the NW Arabian margin are associated with the region of diffuse extension. In contrast, in the southern Red Sea, a single strong block within the SW Arabian margin led to localize the extension there. Using current velocities from more than 30 GNSS stations distributed within the Arabian plate, we are able to map its rigidity and the distribution of strain along the plate margin. The data show that the transition between the two styles of extension within the Red Sea (crustal accretion vs crustal extension) corresponds with a transition between rigid behavior and diffuse extension within the Arabian Plate. This suggests that the preexisting structures within the Arabian plate play a significant role in the style of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  17. Recent changes in the summer monsoon circulation and their impact on dynamics and thermodynamics of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratik, Kad; Parekh, Anant; Karmakar, Ananya; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2018-05-01

    The present study examines changes in the low-level summer monsoon circulation over the Arabian Sea and their impact on the ocean dynamics using reanalysis data. The study confirms intensification and northward migration of low-level jet during 1979 to 2015. Further during the study period, an increase in the Arabian Sea upper ocean heat content is found in spite of a decreasing trend in the net surface heat flux, indicating the possible role of ocean dynamics in the upper ocean warming. Increase in the anti-cyclonic wind stress curl associated with the change in the monsoon circulation induces downwelling over the central Arabian Sea, favoring upper ocean warming. The decreasing trend of southward Ekman transport, a mechanism transporting heat from the land-locked north Indian Ocean to southern latitudes, also supports increasing trend of the upper ocean heat content. To reinstate and quantify the role of changing monsoon circulation in increasing the heat content over the Arabian Sea, sensitivity experiment is carried out using ocean general circulation model. In this experiment, the model is forced by inter-annual momentum forcing while rest of the forcing is climatological. Experiment reveals that the changing monsoon circulation increases the upper ocean heat content, effectively by enhancing downwelling processes and reducing southward heat transport, which strongly endorses our hypothesis that changing ocean dynamics associated with low-level monsoon circulation is causing the increasing trend in the heat content of the Arabian Sea.

  18. A study on the seasonal variability of upwelling and its effects on physical parameters in Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rohit Kumar; Shaji, Chithra; Ojha, Satya P.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2017-04-01

    The upwelling in Arabian Sea is an important phenomenon, mainly occurring along the southwest coast of India during summer monsoon, which increases the biological productivity in the region. The south west coast of Arabian sea region accounts for about 53% of fish yield of the total fish production in Arabian Sea, thus it is imperative to study and understand the process of upwelling in this region. To study the upwelling features in southwest coast of India, monthly Ekman mass transport is estimated using analyzed wind and derived products from Oceansat-II scatterometer data. Seasonal variability of Ekman mass transport has been analyzed to study the occurrences of coastal upwelling in this region. Results show prominent region of upwelling along southwest coast of India is between 7° and 15° N. Transport estimate demonstrate that the strong offshore Ekman mass transport, as high as -2000 kg/m/s, was observed during summer monsoon months due to favorable wind conditions. Very weak offshore transport, as low as -200 kg/m/s, was observed during pre-monsoon months as winds were weak and spatially variable. Moderate offshore transport, up to -750 kg/m/s, was observed during winter monsoon months. The upwelling associated ocean surface features such as Sea-surface temperature (SST, from AVHRR), chlorophyll concentration (AQUA-MODIS), wind stress curl derived from Oceansat-II and sea surface salinity (SSS, from Aquarius) were examined to demonstrate the spatial and temporal evolution of upwelling in this region. With the advancement of the summer monsoon and upwelling, the monthly mean SST range reaches up to 26-27°C (August - September) from about 29-30°C (April - May). The monthly mean Chlorophyll concentration reaches up to 25-30 mg/m3 (August-September) from 0.1-0.2 mg/m3 (January-February). The monthly SSS which was observed to be about 34 psu (December 2102- January 2013) reaches to 36.5 psu (August-September). Analysis of SST from different sources suggests

  19. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-03-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season. Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea), in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  20. Denitrification rates and excess nitrogen gas concentrations in the Arabian Sea oxygen deficient zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devol, A. H.; Uhlenhopp, A. G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Brandes, J. A.; Jayakumar, D. A.; Naik, H.; Gaurin, S.; Codispoti, L. A.; Yoshinari, T.

    2006-09-01

    Rates of canonical, i.e. heterotrophic, water-column denitrification were measured by 15N incubation techniques at a number of coastal and open ocean stations in the Arabian Sea. Measurements of N 2:Ar gas ratios were also made to obtain independent estimates of N 2 excess resulting from denitrification. Measured denitrification rates ( 15NO 3-→15-14N 2) at open ocean stations averaged 9.1±1.0 nmol N l -1 d -1 ( n=15), and coastal rates averaged 33.2±12.4 nmol N l -1 d -1 ( n=18). When extrapolated to the entire Arabian Sea, deep measurements within the offshore perennial suboxic zone indicate an overall denitrification rate of 41 Tg N a -1±18 Tg N a -1, which is within the range (10-44 Tg N a -1) of previous estimates for canonical denitrification in the region based on stoichiometric calculations and electron transport system activity. Nitrogen excess gas measurements predict a larger nitrogen anomaly than estimated by classical stoichiometric methods (maximum anomaly=23 μg at N l -1 vs. 13 μg at N l -1, respectively). This mismatch may result from incorrect assumptions of Redfield stoichiometry inherent in the nitrate deficit calculation, inputs of new nitrogen through N-fixation, N 2 contributions from sedimentary denitrification along continental margins, the anammox reaction, and metal catalyzed denitrification reactions. Nevertheless, if denitrification is defined as the conversion of combined nitrogen to a gaseous end product, then the data suggest that denitrification in the Arabian Sea may have been underestimated so far.

  1. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Compean, Pedro; Ellis, Joanne; Cúrdia, João; Payumo, Richard; Langner, Ute; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-10-15

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm -2 and 160piecesm -2 ) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of the South Asia Monsoon on the Wind Sea and Swell Patterns in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    Ocean surface gravity waves have a considerable impact on coastal and offshore infrastructures, and are determinant on ship design and routing. But waves also play an important role on the coastal dynamics and beach erosion, and modulate the exchanges of momentum, and mass and other scalars between the atmosphere and the ocean. A constant quantitative and qualitative knowledge of the wave patterns is therefore needed. There are two types of waves at the ocean surface: wind-sea and swell. Wind-sea waves are growing waves under the direct influence of local winds; as these waves propagate away from their generation area, or when their phase speed overcomes the local wind speed, they are called swell. Swell waves can propagate thousands of kilometers across entire ocean basins. The qualitative analysis of ocean surface waves has been the focus of several recent studies, from the wave climate to the air-sea interaction community. The reason for this interest lies mostly in the fact that waves have an impact on the lower atmosphere, and that the air-sea coupling is different depending on the wave regime. Waves modulate the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass across the air-sea interface, and this modulation is different and dependent on the prevalence of one type of waves: wind sea or swell. For fully developed seas the coupling between the ocean-surface and the overlaying atmosphere can be seen as quasi-perfect, in a sense that the momentum transfer and energy dissipation at the ocean surface are in equilibrium. This can only occur in special areas of the Ocean, either in marginal seas, with limited fetch, or in Open Ocean, in areas with strong and persistent wind speed with little or no variation in direction. One of these areas is the Arabian Sea, along the coasts of Somalia, Yemen and Oman. The wind climate in the Arabian sea is under the direct influence of the South Asia monsoon, where the wind blows steady from the northeast during the boreal winter, and

  3. The influence of oxic degradation on the sedimentary biomarker record II. Evidence from Arabian Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Reichart, Gert-jan

    2002-09-01

    Biomarker accumulation rates in nine different time slices in three cores on and at the foot of a submarine high in the northern Arabian Sea (the Murray Ridge) were measured to investigate the influence of oxygen exposure time on the preservation of biomarker signals in the sedimentary record. All three sites experienced the same history of surface water productivity and sediment supply but had different bottom-water redox conditions due to their different positions (in, just below, well below) relative to the present location of the intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Past variations in the intensity and position of the OMZ, known from a wide variety of proxies (TOC content, distribution and abundance of planktonic and benthic foraminifera and pteropods, trace metals, and δ 15N), enabled specific biomarker (i.e., n-alkanes, steroids, alkenones, alkyldiols, C 26 fatty acid, loliolide, biphytane diols, and archaeal tetraether lipids) accumulation rates at contrasting oxygen exposure times to be compared. The results indicate that these accumulation rates can vary by more than an order of magnitude for marine biomarkers. In addition, there are significant differences in the degree of oxic degradation of different types of biomarkers: Terrestrial n-alkanes are much more resistant than alkenones and n-alkyl diols, which are more refractory than steroids and biphytane diols. These differences in degree of oxic degradation indicate that biomarker distributions will change on increasing exposure to oxygen. These findings have a significant impact on the application of biomarkers to sedimentary settings in which oxygen exposure time is likely to change significantly.

  4. 28-ka History of Sea Surface Temperature, Primary Productivity and Planktonic Community Variability in the Western Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, A.; Marcantonio, F.; Bianchi, T.

    2006-12-01

    Uranium-series radionuclides and organic compounds, which represent major groups of planktonic organisms, have been measured in western Arabian Sea sediments that span the past 28 ka. Variability of the Indian Ocean monsoons and their influence on primary productivity, sea surface temperature (SST), and planktonic community structure has been investigated. The average alkenone-derived SST for the glacial was ~3°C lower than that measured for the Holocene. We also identify, for the first time, an interval of exceptionally low SSTs between 19-18.1 ka BP (15.3°C at 18.5 ka). During this time, the low SSTs coincide with high cumulative biomarker fluxes (CBF). We propose that intensification of winter northeast monsoon winds during the glacial period resulted in cold SSTs, deep convective mixing, and enhanced primary productivity. Following the last termination, and within the Holocene, SSTs vary by ~2°C with high CBFs occurring at times of relatively warmer SSTs. The fluxes of dinoflagellates and zooplankton relative to the total flux of organisms remain constant throughout the record. However, transitioning from the glacial to the Holocene, diatom fluxes comparatively increase relative to the total flux of organisms, while those of coccolithophorids decrease. Considering that the Indian Ocean monsoons are an important component of the global climate system, a shift in the planktonic ecosystem structure in the Arabian Sea may have important implications for the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon.

  5. Arabian Night and Sea Story - Biomarkers from a Giant Mass Transport Deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratenkov, Sophia; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Clift, Peter D.; George, Simon C.

    2016-04-01

    The study of mass transport deposits (MTDs) is an important field of research due to the potential insights into catastrophic events in the past and modern geohazard threats (e.g. tsunamis). Submarine mass movements are very significant processes in sculpturing the structure of continental margins, particularly in their extent and magnitude that have consequences both in the modern day, as well as in the geological past. An understanding of the complex stratigraphy of a submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) might help in reconstructing the provenance and transport pathways of sedimentary material and thus give important insights into sedimentary dynamics and processes triggering specific events. Drilling operations during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 Arabian Sea Monsoon, which took place during April and May, 2015 cored two sites in Laxmi Basin. Site U1456 was cored to 1109.4 m below seafloor (mbsf), with the oldest recovered rock dated to ~13.5-17.7 Ma. Site U1457 was cored to 1108.6 mbsf, with the oldest rock dated to ~62 Ma. At each site, we cored through ~330 m and ~190 m of MTD material. The MTD layers mainly consist of interbedded lithologies of dark grey claystone, light greenish calcarenite and calcilutite, and conglomerate/breccia, with ages based on calcareous nannofossil and foraminifer biostratigraphy ranging from the Eocene to early Miocene (Pandey et al., 2015). This MTD, known as Nataraja Slide, is the third largest MTD known from the geological record and the second largest on a passive margin. Calvés et al. (2015) identified a potential source area offshore Sourashstra on the Indian continental margin and invoked the single step mass movement model to explain the mechanism of emplacement. Initial shipboard work demonstrated the high variability in total organic carbon and total nitrogen levels in different layers within the MTD, which raises a number of questions related to the source and composition of the organic

  6. Cascading of high salinity bottom waters from the Arabian/Persian Gulf to the northern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Solovyev, Vladimir; Francis, Xavier; Hyder, Patrick; Chen, Feng; Asif, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Cascading (aka shelf convection) is a specific type of buoyancy driven current in which dense water is formed over the continental shelf and then descends down the slope to a greater depth. The cascades of dense water down continental slopes provide a mechanism for shelf-ocean exchange in many parts of the world's oceans (Shapiro et al, 2003). Dense water is formed on the shelf by a number of processes, with high evaporation, limited river discharge and low precipitation being the major processes in warm climates (Ivanov et al, 2004). The formation and outflow of high salinity waters in the near-bottom layer of the Arabian/Persian Gulf is an example of dense water cascading (Bower et al 2000). Despite of its importance for the self-cleaning and the state of the marine ecosystem in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, the properties of the outflow have so far mainly been analysed using climatologically averaged data or observations of a limited set of parameters (mainly temperature), see (Bower et al 2000). In this paper we study the dynamics of the flow using a comprehensive set of observational data (temperature, salinity velocity and turbidity profiles) obtained during the GRASP (Gulf Reconnaissance And Selective Profiling) observational campaign in the Gulf of Oman, which are complemented by the results of numerical modelling of the area using a number of 3D ocean models, and some ARGO T/S profiles. The GRASP measurements were carried out using an Aqualog climbing moored profiler, which was equipped with a Seabird CTD sensor, a Nortek Aquadopp current meter and a Seapoint turbidity meter. The Ocean circulation models used in the study include PGM4 and IND12 (UK Met Office); and AS20 and AG60 (University of Plymouth). All models are based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) codebase with a resolution from 9 km down to 1.8 km. The models were calibrated and validated against ARGO float profiles in the area. The study revealed the mesoscale and sub

  7. The effect of millennial-scale changes in Arabian Sea denitrification on atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Altabet, Mark A; Higginson, Matthew J; Murray, David W

    2002-01-10

    Most global biogeochemical processes are known to respond to climate change, some of which have the capacity to produce feedbacks through the regulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Marine denitrification-the reduction of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen-is an important process in this regard, affecting greenhouse gas concentrations directly through the incidental production of nitrous oxide, and indirectly through modification of the marine nitrogen inventory and hence the biological pump for CO2. Although denitrification has been shown to vary with glacial-interglacial cycles, its response to more rapid climate change has not yet been well characterized. Here we present nitrogen isotope ratio, nitrogen content and chlorin abundance data from sediment cores with high accumulation rates on the Oman continental margin that reveal substantial millennial-scale variability in Arabian Sea denitrification and productivity during the last glacial period. The detailed correspondence of these changes with Dansgaard-Oeschger events recorded in Greenland ice cores indicates rapid, century-scale reorganization of the Arabian Sea ecosystem in response to climate excursions, mediated through the intensity of summer monsoonal upwelling. Considering the several-thousand-year residence time of fixed nitrogen in the ocean, the response of global marine productivity to changes in denitrification would have occurred at lower frequency and appears to be related to climatic and atmospheric CO2 oscillations observed in Antarctic ice cores between 20 and 60 kyr ago.

  8. Response of benthic foraminifera to phytodetritus in the eastern Arabian Sea under low oxygen conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, Annekatrin; Wukovits, Julia; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Witte, Ursula; Hunter, William; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    At water depths between 100 and 1500 m a permanent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) impinges on the sea floor in the eastern Arabian Sea, exposing benthic organisms to anoxic to suboxic conditions. The flux of organic matter to the sea floor is relatively high at these depths but displays seasonal variation. Deposition of relatively fresh phytodetrital material (phytoplankton remains) can occur within a short period of time after monsoon periods. Several organism groups including foraminifera are involved to different extent in the processing of phytodetritus in the OMZs of the northern Arabian Sea. A series of in situ feeding experiments were performed to study the short-term processing (< 11 days) of organic carbon, nitrogen and nutritional demands of foraminifera at different oxygen concentrations on the continental margin in the eastern Arabian Sea. For the experiments, a single pulse of isotopically labeled phytodetritus was added to the sediment along a depth transect (540-1100 m) on the Indian Margin, covering the OMZ core and the lower OMZ boundary region. Uptake of phytodetritus within 4 days shows the relevance of phytodetritus as food source for foraminifera. Lower content of phytodetrital carbon recorded in foraminifera from more oxygenated depths shows greater food uptake by foraminifera in the OMZ core than in the OMZ boundary region. The foraminiferal assemblage living under almost anoxic conditions in the OMZ core is dominated by species typically found in eutroph environments (such as Uvigerinids) that are adapted to high flux of organic matter. The elevated carbon uptake can also result from missing food competition by macrofauna or from greater energy demand in foraminifera to sustain metabolic processes under hypoxic stress. Variable levels and ratios of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen indicate specific nutritional demands and storage of food-derived nitrogen in some foraminifera species under near anoxia where the mean phytodetrital nitrogen content

  9. Characterizing Mineral Dust from the Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is one of the Earth's major sources of atmospheric dust. Along with profound negative effects on human activity and natural processes in this region, dust is an important nutrient source for the oligothrophic northern Red Sea. From preliminary observations it is estimated that some 18-20 major dust storms per year deposit about 6 Mt of mineral dust into the Red Sea. To better understand the optical properties, health, and ecological impacts of dust, we study the mineralogical, chemical and morphological properties of surface soil samples collected at prevbiously identified potential dust sources along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. Many of these dust sources lie within a narrow coastal region and because of their proximity to the Red Sea, are important contributors to the dust/nutrient balance, during both dusty and fair weather conditions. Bulk samples were collected from the top 10 mm of soils from three sites along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. The soil samples were sieved to separate the < 38μm particle fractions for chemical and mineralogical analysis. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was applied to measure the mineral content of the dust. The chemical composition of individual particles was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). From the XRD analysis of the sieved samples from An Masayat (23.3322 N, 38.9481 E), Buthna (23.2960 N, 38.9384 E) and Rabugh pipeline Road (23.292 N, 38.91 E), it was found that the dust was composed largely of hematite, goethite, calcite, dolomite, quartz, chlorite, muscovite, amphibole, epidote and plagioclase. Our results are being compared to, and show similarities to those of Engelbrecht et al. , collected at 15 Middle East sites. Both the mineralogical content and chemical composition of samples bear the signatures of the regional geology. Engelbrecht, J. P., McDonald, E. V., Gillies, J. A., Jayanty, R. K. M., Casuccio, G., and Gertler, A. W., 2009

  10. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrographic characterization of southeast Arabian Sea during the wane of southwest monsoon and spring intermonsoon.

    PubMed

    Vimal Kumar, K G; Dinesh Kumar, P K; Smitha, B R; Habeeb Rahman, H; Josia, Jacob; Muraleedharan, K R; Sanjeevan, V N; Achuthankutty, C T

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal variation of the hydrography along the southeast Arabian Sea is described using data collected onboard FORV Sagar Sampada in September--October 2003 (later phase of Southwest monsoon, SWM) and March--April 2004 (Spring inter monsoon, SIM). During the later phase of the SWM, upwelling was in the withdrawal phase and the frontal structure was clearer in the northern sections (13 and 15 degrees N lat) indicating strong upwelling in the area. The driving force of upwelling is identified as the combination of alongshore wind stress and remote forcing with a latitudinal variability. Although a more prominent upwelling was found in the north, a maximum surface Chlorophyll-a was found in the south (10 degrees N). During the SIM, the area was characterized by oligotrophic water with relatively high Sea Surface Temperature (>29 degrees C) and low salinity (33.8 to 35.4). During March, the surface hydrography was found to be controlled mainly by the intrusion of low-saline waters from the south, while during September by the high saline water from the north. The presence of various water masses [Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), Red Sea Water (RSW)] and their seasonal variations in the region is discussed and their decreasing influence towards the south is noted during both periods of observation. During the SWM, the dynamic topography showed the equator-ward flow of the West India Coastal Current (WICC) at the surface and a pole-ward coastal under current at sub-thermocline depth. During the SIM, surface circulation revealed the WICC flowing pole-ward north of 13 degrees N, but equator-ward flow in the south, with a clockwise circulation around the Lakshadweep High.

  12. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  13. Spatio-temporal variation in δ13CDIC of a tropical eutrophic estuary (Cochin estuary, India) and adjacent Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavya, P. S.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupta, G. V. M.; Sudharma, K. V.; Sudheesh, V.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in the Cochin estuary, a tropical eutrophic estuary along the southwest coast of India, and the adjacent coastal Arabian Sea was measured to understand spatio-temporal variability in sources and processes controlling inorganic carbon (C) dynamics in this estuarine-coastal system. δ13CDIC in the Cochin estuary showed wide variation during three different seasons (premonsoon: - 12.2 to - 3.26‰; monsoon: - 13.6 to - 5.69‰; and postmonsoon: - 6.34 to + 0.79‰). Detailed mixing curve approximation modeling along with relationships of δ13CDIC with dissolved oxygen and nutrients suggest dominant role of freshwater mixing and degassing of CO2 on DIC dynamics during wet seasons (premonsoon and monsoon). Excess CO2 brought in by rivers and in situ production due to respiration in the Cochin estuary result into one of the highest pCO2 observed in estuarine systems, leading to its degassing. During postmonsoon, a relatively dry period with high salinity, calcite precipitation was a major process with calcite saturation index > 1 at few locations. Relatively lower average surface values of δ13CDIC in the coastal Arabian Sea (premonsoon: + 0.95‰; monsoon: + 0.88‰; and postmonsoon: + 0.66‰) compared to the predicted open ocean value along with mixing curve modeling suggest dominance of respiration/organic matter (OM) degradation over primary productivity. Estuarine influence on coastal DIC dynamics was observed in nearshore region ( 10 km), whereas evidence of upwelling was found at farther locations.

  14. Processes controlling trace element geochemistry of Arabian Sea sediments during the last 25,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirocko, Frank; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Devey, Colin

    2000-11-01

    Thirty seven deep-sea sediment cores from the Arabian Sea were studied geochemically (49 major and trace elements) for four time slices during the Holocene and the last glacial, and in one high sedimentation rate core (century scale resolution) to detect tracers of past variations in the intensity of the atmospheric monsoon circulation and its hydrographic expression in the ocean surface. This geochemical multi-tracer approach, coupled with additional information on the grain size composition of the clastic fraction, the bulk carbonate and biogenic opal contents makes it possible to characterize the sedimentological regime in detail. Sediments characterized by a specific elemental composition (enrichment) originated from the following sources: river suspensions from the Tapti and Narbada, draining the Indian Deccan traps (Ti, Sr); Indus sediments and dust from Rajasthan and Pakistan (Rb, Cs); dust from Iran and the Persian Gulf (Al, Cr); dust from central Arabia (Mg); dust from East Africa and the Red Sea (Zr/Hf, Ti/Al). C org, Cd, Zn, Ba, Pb, U, and the HREE are associated with the intensity of upwelling in the western Arabian Sea, but only those patterns that are consistently reproduced by all of these elements can be directly linked with the intensity of the southwest monsoon. Relying on information from a single element can be misleading, as each element is affected by various other processes than upwelling intensity and nutrient content of surface water alone. The application of the geochemical multi-tracer approach indicates that the intensity of the southwest monsoon was low during the LGM, declined to a minimum from 15,000-13,000 14C year BP, intensified slightly at the end of this interval, was almost stable during the Bölling, Alleröd and the Younger Dryas, but then intensified in two abrupt successions at the end of the Younger Dryas (9900 14C year BP) and especially in a second event during the early Holocene (8800 14C year BP). Dust discharge by

  15. Sediment provenance in the Laxmi Basin of the Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khim, B. K.; Horikawa, K.; Asahara, Y.; Kim, J. E.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 conducted to drill 1109.4 m penetration at Site U1456 in the Laxmi Basin of the Arabian Sea. Four lithologic units are defined onboard at Site U1456 (Pandey et al., 2016). Unit I is 121 m long, consisting mostly of pelagic carbonates (nannofossil ooze and/or foraminifera-rich nannofossil ooze) interbedded with thin terrigenous (clay, silt, and sand) turbidite layers. The age model of Unit I was determined by the correlation of δ18O fluctuations of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) to LR04 stacks, estimating 1.2 Ma. A total of 60 samples, collected in the context of magnetic susceptibility (MS) changes at a discrete interval from a composite section (Holes U1456A and U1456C) of Unit I, were analyzed to measure Nd and Sr isotopes of detrital fraction. Based on Nd and Sr isotopes, the sediment provenance in the Laxmi Basin during the last 800 kyrs was traced in response to the monsoon activity between the interglacial and glacial periods. ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr vary in a range from -12.4 to -8.0 and from 0.712 to 0.727, respectively. The correlation between ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr is quite linear, indicating that the sediments were provided mainly by two dominant sources. Considering the ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr end-members of sediment sources (i.e., river sediments), the Tapi River and Narmada River are the main contributors of sediments to Site U1456 with a little influence by the modern Indus River. However, the glacial sediments from the Indus River and the Mahi River may supply an additional fraction, leading to less ɛNd and more 87Sr/86Sr at Site U1456. Judged by the sediment sources, the sediments in the Laxmi Basin are characterized by the mixture of different provenances. In addition, it should be noted that the low ɛNd and high 87Sr/86Sr values coincide largely with high MS and vice versa, irrespectively of the glacial-interglacial change. Thus, rather than the sediment provenances, ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr

  16. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Lévy, Marina; Smith, Shafer

    2018-01-01

    The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from -50 to +50 %) on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years), the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades). Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100-200 m) of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there. The increased

  17. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  18. An Update of Sea Level Rise in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Bos, Machiel; Fernandes, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Relative sea level variations in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf have been estimated in the past using no more than 10 to 15 years of observations. In Alothman et al. (2014), we have almost doubled the period to 28.7 years by examining all available tide gauge data in the area and constructing a mean gauge time-series from seven coastal tide gauges. We found for the period 1979-2007 a relative sea level rise of about 2mm/yr, which correspond to an absolute sea level rise of about 1.5mm/yr based on the vertical displacement of GNSS stations in the region. By taking into account the temporal correlations we concluded that previous published results underestimate the true sea level rate error in this area by a factor of 5-10. In this work, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. In addition, we compare our results with GRACE derived ocean bottom pressure time series which are a good proxy of the changes in water mass in this area over time.

  19. Bio-Optical Properties of the Arabian Sea as Determined by In Situ and Sea WiFS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trees, Charles C.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this work was to characterize optical and fluorescence properties in the euphotic zone during two British Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) Arabian Sea cruises. This was later expanded in 1995 to include three U.S. JGOFS Arabian Sea Cruises. The region was to be divided into one or more "bio-optical provinces," within each of which a single set of regression models was to be developed to relate the vertical distribution of irradiance attenuation and normalized fluorescence (SF and NF) to remote sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient. The working hypothesis was that over relatively large spatial and temporal scales, the vertical profiles of bio-optical properties were predictable. The specific technical objectives were: (1) To characterize the vertical distribution of the inherent and apparent optical properties by measuring downwelling and upwelling irradiances, upwelling radiances, scalar irradiance of PAR, and beam transmissions at each station - from these data, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients, irradiance reflectances, remote sensing reflectances, surface-leaving radiances and beam attenuation coefficients were determined; (2) To characterize the spectral absorption of total particulate, detrital, and dissolved organic material at each station from discrete water samples; (3) To describe the vertical distribution of photoadaptive properties in the water column by measuring profiles of stimulated (SF) and natural (NF) fluorescence and examining relationships between SF and NF as a function of diffuse optical depth, pigment biomass and primary productivity; and (4) To establish locally derived, in-water algorithms relating remote sensing reflectance spectra to diffuse attenuation coefficients, phytoplankton pigment concentrations and primary productivity, through intercomparisons with in situ measurements, for application to SeaWiFS data.

  20. Effects of seasonal anoxia on the distribution of phosphorus fractions in the surface sediments of southeastern Arabian Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheesh, V.; Movitha, M.; Hatha, A. A. Mohamed; Renjith, K. R.; Resmi, P.; Rahiman, Mujeeb; Nair, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The seasonal upwelling along the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) brings cold, nutrient-rich low oxygen subsurface water to the continental shelf. The subsurface oxygen deficiency due to upwelling is severe in some years, the intensity of which could profoundly influence the nutrient cycling along the SEAS. Herein, we studied the effect of seasonal anoxia on fractionation of phosphorus during the peak upwelling period of August 2013. Abundance of five fractions of phosphorus (P), namely exchangeable or loosely sorbed P (Pads), iron-bound P (PFe), authigenic P (Paut), detrital apatite plus other inorganic P (Pdet) and organic P (Porg), in surface sediments of SEAS shelf has been studied using a sequential extraction procedure (SEDEX) to examine their distributions and sources. Total P (TP) concentrations ranged from 209 to 1081 μg g-1 with an average of 508 ± 256 μg g-1. Among the five P fractions, the authigenic P was the dominant species, representing about 60% of TP. The relative abundance of P fractions was in the order: Paut>Pdet>Porg>PFe> Pads. Multivariate analyses revealed that the P fractions were primarily associated with the organic constituents and fine sediments. The hypoxic bottom condition associated with summer monsoon upwelling significantly reduced the concentrations of PFe, Pads and Porg in the surface sediments. The enhanced release of organic bound and iron oxides bound P under low oxygen condition was evident from the enhanced C/P and N/P ratios and lower C/N ratio in the sediments. The intense biomineralization of organic matter and reduction of Fe-Mn oxides due to the periodic anoxia resulted in the transformations of their associated P fractions and enhanced accumulation as authigenic calcium phosphate mineral.

  1. Are Low Salinity Waters the Remedy to Noctiluca scintillans Blooms in the Arabian Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) is a mixotrophic, green dinoflagellate that for the past two decades has been producing problematic algal blooms in the Arabian Sea (AS). As a mixotroph, Noctiluca obtains energy from both consumption of phytoplankton as well as its intracellular photosynthesizing endosymbionts named, Pedinomonas noctilucae. It is this autotrophic and heterotrophic dual capability that has largely enabled Noctiluca to be a highly dominant species at the planktonic trophic layer in the AS. Exacerbated by non-point source/point-source pollution in the AS, ocean acidification, and intensified monsoons, Noctiluca currently algal blooms can be as big as three times the size of Texas. By depleting the AS of oxygen, clogging the gills of fish, and altering the AS food web, these algal blooms result in mass fish die offs. In turn this propagates financial and food insecurity issues in countless coastal communities. However, through satellite imaging over the years, it has been observed that the proliferation of Noctiluca is precluded or encounters a "wall" about mid-way along the west coast of India. It is theorized that this "wall" is due to a significant change in salinity. Snow from atop the Himalayan Mountains melts and adds fresh water to the Bay of Bengal (BB), and in winter the East Indian Coastal Current (EICC) carries this fresher water around the southern tip of India and towards the AS. It is believed that this dilution effect impedes the growth of Noctiluca further south. Ultimately, in this study the salinity gradient from the Bay of Bengal (BB) around the horn of India into the AS was replicated in six pairs of culture bottles. Noctiluca was grown in six different salinities including 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, and 38 psu. Algae grown in the 34 and 38 psu bottles, were healthier and 38 psu treated Noctiluca provided optimal conditions for its photosynthesizing endosymbionts. Noctiluca does not grow well at lower salinities, thus applications of low

  2. Late Holocene SST and primary productivity variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea as a recorder for winter monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Anna; Gaye, Birgit; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Variability in the oceanic environment of the Arabian Sea region is strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon cycle of alternating wind directions. Strong south-westerly winds during the summer monsoon induce upwelling of nutrient rich waters along the coast off Somalia, Oman and southwest India, which result in high rates of primary production. In the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan on the other hand, primary production and sea surface temperatures are linked to northeast monsoonal winds that cool the sea surface and drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity during the winter season. In this study, we analyzed alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) variations and proxies of primary productivity (organic carbon and δ15N) in a well-laminated sediment core from the Pakistan continental margin to establish the first high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene. Over the last 2400 years reconstructed SST in the northeastern Arabian Sea decreased whereas productivity increased, imaging a long-term trend of northeast monsoon strengthening in response to insolation-induced southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The comparison of our winter monsoon record with records of summer monsoon intensity suggests that summer and winter monsoon strength was essentially anti-correlated over the late Holocene throughout the Asian monsoon system. In addition, SST variations recorded off Pakistan match very well with Northern Hemisphere temperature records supporting the growing body of evidence that Asian climate is linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change. It reveals a consistent pattern of increased summer monsoon activity in the northeastern Arabian Sea during northern hemispheric warm periods (Medieval Warm Period, Roman Warm Period) and strengthened winter monsoon activity during hemispheric colder periods (Little Ice Age).

  3. Temporal and Spatial Variability of the Ras Al-Hadd Jet/Front in the Northwest Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Shaqsi, Hilal Mohamed Said

    Thirteen years of 1.1 km resolution daily satellites remote sensing sea surface temperature datasets (2002-2014), sea surface winds, sea surface height, Argo floats, daily three-hour interval wind datasets, and hourly records of oceanography physical parameters from mooring current meters were processed and analyzed to investigate the dynamics, temporal and spatial variability of the Ras Al-Hadd Jet off the northwest Arabian Sea. Cayula and Cornillon single image edge detection algorithm was used to detect these thermal fronts. The Ras Al-Hadd thermal front was found to have two seasonal peaks. The first peak occurred during the intensified southwest monsoon period (July/August), while the second peak was clearly observed during the transitional period or the Post-Southwest monsoon (September-October). Interannual and intraseasonal variability showed the occurrence of the Ras Al-Hadd thermal fronts in the northwest Arabian Sea. The southwest monsoon winds, the Somalia Current, the East Arabian Current, and the warmer high salinity waters from the Sea of Oman are the main factors influencing the creation of the Ras Al-Hadd Jet. Based on direct observations, current velocity in the Cape Ras Al-Hadd Jet exceeded 120 cms-1, and the wind speed was over 12 ms-1 during the southwest monsoon seasons. The mean width and the mean length of the Jet were approximately 40 km and 260 km, respectively. Neither the winter monsoon, nor the Pre-Southwest monsoon seasons showed signs of the Ras Al-Hadd Jet or fronts in the northwest Arabian Sea.

  4. Weight dependence of arsenic concentration in the Arabian Sea tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the arsenic concentration in the edible muscle of Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus toggel (hereafter called tuna and longtail tune) as they have great commercial value. These fish are widely available along the coastal line of Pakistan and are consumed abundantly in large bulk. Thus, it was felt justifiable on the basis of safety of human health that data, in the first instance, be obtained on arsenic concentration in tuna as a function of weight to check whether the metal distribution was species-specific or it depended on individual mode of development. Themore » data, the first of the kind so far presented on the Arabian Sea tuna, would thus provide the required baseline quantitative information needed in future studies on the physiological processes regulating the distribution and uptake of arsenic by these and other species of fish common to the region.« less

  5. Physical Controls on Oxygen Distribution and Denitrification Potential in the North West Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queste, Bastien Y.; Vic, Clément; Heywood, Karen J.; Piontkovski, Sergey A.

    2018-05-01

    At suboxic oxygen concentrations, key biogeochemical cycles change and denitrification becomes the dominant remineralization pathway. Earth system models predict oxygen loss across most ocean basins in the next century; oxygen minimum zones near suboxia may become suboxic and therefore denitrifying. Using an ocean glider survey and historical data, we show oxygen loss in the Gulf of Oman (from 6-12 to <2 μmol kg-1) not represented in climatologies. Because of the nonlinearity between denitrification and oxygen concentration, resolutions of current Earth system models are too coarse to accurately estimate denitrification. We develop a novel physical proxy for oxygen from the glider data and use a high-resolution physical model to show eddy stirring of oxygen across the Gulf of Oman. We use the model to investigate spatial and seasonal differences in the ratio of oxic and suboxic water across the Gulf of Oman and waters exported to the wider Arabian Sea.

  6. Winter monsoon circulation of the northern Arabian Sea and Somali Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2000-03-01

    The winter monsoon circulation in the northern inflow region of the Somali Current is discussed on the basis of an array of moored acoustic Doppler current profiler and current meter stations deployed during 1995-1996 and a ship survey carried out in January 1998. It is found that the westward inflow into the Somali Current regime occurs essentially south of 11°N and that this inflow bifurcates at the Somali coast, with the southward branch supplying the equatorward Somali Current and the northward one returning into the northwestern Arabian Sea. This northward branch partially supplies a shallow outflow through the Socotra Passage between the African continent and the banks of Socotra and partially feeds into eastward recirculation directly along the southern slopes of Socotra. Underneath this shallow surface flow, southwestward undercurrent flows are observed. Undercurrent inflow from the Gulf of Aden through the Socotra Passage occurs between 100 and 1000 m, with its current core at 700-800 m, and is clearly marked by the Red Sea Water (RSW) salinity maximum. The observations suggest that the maximum RSW inflow out of the Gulf of Aden occurs during the winter monsoon season and uses the Socotra Passage as its main route into the Indian Ocean. Westward undercurrent inflow into the Somali Current regime is also observed south of Socotra, but this flow lacks the RSW salinity maximum. Off the Arabian peninsula, eastward boundary flow is observed in the upper 800 m with a compensating westward flow to the south. The observed circulation pattern is qualitatively compared with recent high-resolution numerical model studies and is found to be in basic agreement.

  7. Large organic-walled Protista ( Gromia) in the Arabian Sea: Density, diversity, distribution and ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda da Silva, A.; Gooday, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    The genus Gromia includes large marine protists ('gromiids') with filose pseudopodia and sack-like organic tests. The first deep-water species were discovered in the 1990s on the Oman Margin of the Arabian Sea and subsequently found on the Pakistan Margin. We present a survey of gromiids in samples collected off Oman in 2002 and off Pakistan in 2003. In addition to the two species ( Gromia sphaerica and Gromia pyriformis) already described from this area, at least eight undescribed gromiid species were present. Sausage shaped, grape shaped and spherical morphotypes were represented among this material. On the Oman Margin, gromiids occurred in densities up to several thousand individuals m -2 at 1400 and 1700 m but were much less common at 1100 and 2000 m. Apart from G. pyriformis, which was fairly common (several hundred individuals m -2) at 1000 m, gromiids were uncommon in core samples taken off Pakistan, with 11 indiv. m -2 at 1200 m and 19 indiv. m -2 at 1850 m. On both margins, these protists occurred at depths >1000 m where bottom-water oxygen concentrations exceeded ˜0.2 ml l -1 (=8.92 μM l -1) land sediments were fully bioturbated and oxidised. However, they were not observed at similar oxygen levels above the OMZ. Most gromiids lived on the sediment surface with their apertures facing down and their pseudopodia presumably deployed into the sediment to feed on surficial material and associated bacteria. We conclude that these large protists may play an important ecological role in the bathyal Arabian Sea, particularly in carbon cycling but also in structuring the surficial sediments. In addition, their tests, particularly those of G. sphaerica, provide substrates for attached Foraminifera.

  8. MODIS-Aqua detects Noctiluca scintillans and hotspots in the central Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Priyaja, P; Rafeeq, M; Sudhakar, M

    2016-01-01

    Northern Arabian Sea is considered as an ecologically sensitive area as it experiences a massive upwelling and long-lasting algal bloom, Noctiluca scintillans (green tide) during summer and spring-winter, respectively. Diatom bloom is also found to be co-located with N. scintillans and both have an impact on ecology of the basin. In-house technique of detecting species of these blooms from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data was used to generate a time-series of images revealing their spatial distribution. A study of spatial-temporal variability of these blooms using satellite data expressed a cyclic pattern of their spread over a period of 13 years. An average distribution of the blooms for January-March period revealed a peak in 2015 and minimum in 2013. Subsequently, a time-series of phytoplankton species images were generated for these 2 years to study their inter-annual variability and the associated factors. Species images during active phase of the bloom (February) in 2015 indicated development of N. scintillans and diatom in the central Arabian Sea also, up to 12° N. This observation was substantiated with relevant oceanic parameters measured from the ship as well as satellite data and the same is highlight of the paper. While oxygen depletion and release of ammonia associated with N. scintillans are detrimental for waters on the western side; it is relatively less extreme and supports the entire food chain on the eastern side. In view of these contrasting eco-sensitive events, it is a matter of concern to identify biologically active persistent areas, hot spots, in order to study their ecology in detail. An ecological index, persistence of the bloom, was derived from the time-series of species images and it is another highlight of our study.

  9. Polychaete community structure in the South Eastern Arabian Sea continental margin (200-1000 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Jaleel, K. U.; Anil Kumar, P. R.; Nousher Khan, K.; Correya, Neil S.; Jacob, Jini; Philip, Rosamma; Sanjeevan, V. N.; Damodaran, R.

    2014-11-01

    Macrofaunal polychaete communities (>500 μm) in the South Eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) continental margin (200-1000 m) are described, based on three systematic surveys carried out in 9 transects (at ~200 m, 500 m and 1000 m) between 7°00‧and 14°30‧N latitudes. A total of 7938 polychaetes belonging to 195 species were obtained in 136 grab samples collected at 27 sites. Three distinct assemblages were identified in the northern part of the SEAS margin (10-14°30‧N), occupying the three sampled depth strata (shelf edge, upper and mid-slope) and two assemblages (shelf edge and slope) in the south (7-10°N). Highest density of polychaetes and dominance of a few species were observed in the shelf edge, where the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinged on the seafloor, particularly in the northern transects. The resident fauna in this region (Cossura coasta, Paraonis gracilis, Prionospio spp. and Tharyx spp.) were characteristically of smaller size, and well suited to thrive in the sandy sediments in OMZ settings. Densities were lowest along the most northerly transect (T9), where dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were extremely low (<0.15 ml l-1, i.e.<6.7 μmol l-1). Beyond the realm of influence of the OMZ (i.e. mid-slope, ~1000 m), the faunal density decreased while species diversity increased. The relative proportion of silt increased with depth, and the dominance of the aforementioned species decreased, giving way to forms such as Paraprionospio pinnata, Notomastus sp., Eunoe sp. and lumbrinerids. Relatively high species richness and diversity were observed in the sandy sediments of the southern sector (7-9°N), where influence of the OMZ was less intense. The area was also characterized by certain species (e.g. Aionidella cirrobranchiata, Isolda pulchella) that were nearly absent in the northern region. The gradients in DO concentration across the core and lower boundary of the OMZ, along with bathymetric and latitudinal variation in sediment

  10. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Jish Prakash, P.; Lersch, Traci; Anisimov, Anatolii; Shevchenko, Illia

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m-2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of < 10 and < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) particle size fractions in the dust deposits.X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin

  11. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Smith, Shafer; Levy, Marina

    2017-04-01

    The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming of sea-surface temperatures is expected to expand the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the World's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo records and future climate projections indicate strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from -50% to +50%) on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years), the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades). Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased lateral ventilation. The enhanced lateral ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100-200m) of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic

  12. Late Glacial-Holocene record of benthic foraminiferal morphogroups from the eastern Arabian Sea OMZ: Paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, K.; Bharti, S. K.; Singh, A. D.

    2018-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is characterized today by a well-developed and perennial oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at mid-water depths. The Indian margin where the OMZ impinges provides sediment records ideal to study past changes in the OMZ intensity and its vertical extent in response to the changes of monsoon-driven primary productivity and intermediate water ventilation. Benthic foraminifera, depending upon their adaptation capabilities to variation in sea floor environment and microhabitat preferences, develop various functional morphologies that can be potentially used in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. In this study, we analysed benthic foraminiferal morphogroups in assemblage records of the last 30 ka in a sediment core collected from the lower OMZ of the Indian margin (off Goa). In total, nine morphogroups within two broadly classified epifaunal and infaunal microhabitat categories are identified. The abundance of morphogroups varies significantly during the late Glacial, Deglacial and Holocene. It appears that monsoon wind driven organic matter flux, and water column ventilation governing the OMZ intensity and sea-bottom oxygen condition, have profound influence on structuring the benthic foraminiferal morphogroups. We found a few morphogroups showing major changes in their abundances during the periods corresponding to the northern hemisphere climatic events. Benthic foraminifera with planoconvex tests are abundant during the cold Heinrich events, when the sea bottom was oxygenated due to a better ventilated, weak OMZ; whereas, those having tapered/cylindrical tests dominate during the last glacial maximum and the Holocene between 5 and 8 ka BP, when the OMZ was intensified and poorly ventilated, leading to oxygen-depleted benthic environment. Characteristically, increased abundance of taxa with milioline tests during the Heinrich 1 further suggests enhanced ventilation attributed probably to the influence of oxygen-rich Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW).

  13. Tectonic Configuration of the Western Arabian Continental Margin, Southern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    1986-08-01

    The young continental margin of the western Arabian Peninsula is uplifted 3.5 to 4 km and is well exposed. Rift-related extensional deformation is confined to a zone 150 km wide inland of the present coastline at 17 to 18° N and its intensity increases gradually from east to west. Extension is negligible near the crest of the Arabian escarpment, but it reaches a value of 8 to 10% in the western Asir, a highly dissected mountainous region west of the escarpment. There is an abrupt increase in extensional deformation in the foothills and pediment west of the Asir (about 40 km inland of the shoreline) where rocks in the upper plate of a system of low-angle normal faults with west dips are extended by 60 to 110%. The faults were active 23 to 29 Ma ago and the uplift occurred after 25 Ma ago. Tertiary mafic dike swarms and plutons of gabbro and granophyre 20 to 23 Ma old are concentrated in the foothills and pediment as well. The chemistry of the dikes suggests (1) fractionation at 10 to 20 kbar, (2) a rapid rise through the upper mantle and lower crust, and (3) differentiation and cooling at 1 Atm to 5 kbar. Structural relations between dikes, faults and dipping beds indicate that the mechanical extension and intrusional expansion were partly coeval, but that most of the extension preceded the expansion. A tectonic reconstruction of pre-Red Sea Afro/Arabia suggests that the early rift was narrow with intense extension confined to an axial belt 20 to 40 km wide. Steep Moho slopes probably developed during rift formation as indicated by published gravity data, two published seismic interpretations and the surface geology.

  14. Delineation of marine ecosystem zones in the northern Arabian Sea during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalin, Saleem; Samuelsen, Annette; Korosov, Anton; Menon, Nandini; Backeberg, Björn C.; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of marine autotrophic abundance, expressed as chlorophyll concentration, is monitored from space and used to delineate the surface signature of marine ecosystem zones with distinct optical characteristics. An objective zoning method is presented and applied to satellite-derived Chlorophyll a (Chl a) data from the northern Arabian Sea (50-75° E and 15-30° N) during the winter months (November-March). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to statistically delineate the Chl a into zones with similar surface distribution patterns and temporal variability. The PCA identifies principal components of variability and the CA splits these into zones based on similar characteristics. Based on the temporal variability of the Chl a pattern within the study area, the statistical clustering revealed six distinct ecological zones. The obtained zones are related to the Longhurst provinces to evaluate how these compared to established ecological provinces. The Chl a variability within each zone was then compared with the variability of oceanic and atmospheric properties viz. mixed-layer depth (MLD), wind speed, sea-surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), nitrate and dust optical thickness (DOT) as an indication of atmospheric input of iron to the ocean. The analysis showed that in all zones, peak values of Chl a coincided with low SST and deep MLD. The rate of decrease in SST and the deepening of MLD are observed to trigger the algae bloom events in the first four zones. Lagged cross-correlation analysis shows that peak Chl a follows peak MLD and SST minima. The MLD time lag is shorter than the SST lag by 8 days, indicating that the cool surface conditions might have enhanced mixing, leading to increased primary production in the study area. An analysis of monthly climatological nitrate values showed increased concentrations associated with the deepening of the mixed layer. The

  15. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, andmore » mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.« less

  16. Influence of nutrient fluxes on phytoplankton community and harmful algal blooms along the coastal waters of southeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. Sathish; Kumaraswami, M.; Rao, G. Durga; Ezhilarasan, P.; Sivasankar, R.; Rao, V. Ranga; Ramu, K.

    2018-06-01

    The seasonal variation in phytoplankton composition as well as the influencing factors on phytoplankton community were examined for the coastal waters of Kochi, southeastern Arabian Sea during 2015. The elevated flux of total nitrogen (TN) and silica (Si) during the summer monsoon (SM) induced the harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Scrippsiella trochoidea (11.9 × 105 cells L-1) and Karenia mikimotoi (6 × 105 cells L-1) near the inlets of Kochi estuary. Blooms of S. trochoidea were recorded for the first time in the Indian waters. The satellite data of chlorophyll-a showed the significant correlation with insitu observations of phytoplankton abundance and provided a better understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution. The canonical correspondence analysis indicates that the increased TN and Si fluxes and lower temperature induced the HABs during the SM. The reduction in the load of N and Si in the coastal waters of southeastern Arabian Sea is essential for controlling the HABs.

  17. Tropospheric ozone maxima observed over the Arabian Sea during the pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    An enhancement of the tropospheric ozone column (TOC) over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season is reported in this study. The potential sources of the AS spring ozone pool are investigated by use of multiple data sets (e.g., SCIAMACHY Limb-Nadir-Matching TOC, OMI/MLS TOC, TES TOC, MACC reanalysis data, MOZART-4 model and HYSPLIT model). Three-quarters of the enhanced ozone concentrations are attributed to the 0-8 km height range. The main source of the ozone enhancement is considered to be caused by long-range transport of ozone pollutants from India (˜ 50 % contributions to the lowest 4 km, ˜ 20 % contributions to the 4-8 km height range), the Middle East, Africa and Europe (˜ 30 % in total). In addition, the vertical pollution accumulation in the lower troposphere, especially at 4-8 km, was found to be important for the AS spring ozone pool formation. Local photochemistry, on the other hand, plays a negligible role in producing ozone at the 4-8 km height range. In the 0-4 km height range, ozone is quickly removed by wet deposition. The AS spring TOC maxima are influenced by the dynamical variations caused by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly during the El Niño period in 2005 and 2010 with a ˜ 5 DU decrease.

  18. Microplastic in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Baalkhuyur, Fadiyah M; Bin Dohaish, El-Jawaher A; Elhalwagy, Manal E A; Alikunhi, Nabeel M; AlSuwailem, Abdulaziz M; Røstad, Anders; Coker, Darren J; Berumen, Michael L; Duarte, Carlos M

    2018-06-01

    This study assesses the presence of microplastic litter in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of 26 commercial and non-commercial fish species from four difference habitats sampled along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. A total of 178 individual were examined for microplastics. In total, 26 microplastic fragments were found. Of these, 16 being films (61.5%) and 10 being fishing thread (38.5%). FTIR analysis revealed that the most abundant polymers were polypropylene and polyethylene. The grouper (Epinephelus spp.) sampled at Jazan registered the highest number of ingested microplastics. This fish species is benthic and feeds on benthic invertebrates. Although differences in the abundance of microplastic ingestion among species were not statistically significant, a significant change was observed when the level of ingestion of microplastics particles was compared among the habitats. The higher abundance of microplastics particles may be related to the habitats of fish and the presence of microplastics debris near the seabed. The results of this study represent a first evidence that microplastic pollution represents an emerging threat to Red Sea fishes, their food web and human consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical control of interannual variations of the winter chlorophyll bloom in the northern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girijakumari Keerthi, Madhavan; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Levy, Marina; Vialard, Jerome; Parvathi, Vallivattathillam; de Boyer Montégut, Clément; Ethé, Christian; Aumont, Olivier; Suresh, Iyyappan; Parambil Akhil, Valiya; Moolayil Muraleedharan, Pillathu

    2017-08-01

    The northern Arabian Sea hosts a winter chlorophyll bloom, triggered by convective overturning in response to cold and dry northeasterly monsoon winds. Previous studies of interannual variations of this bloom only relied on a couple of years of data and reached no consensus on the associated processes. The current study aims at identifying these processes using both ˜ 10 years of observations (including remotely sensed chlorophyll data and physical parameters derived from Argo data) and a 20-year-long coupled biophysical ocean model simulation. Despite discrepancies in the estimated bloom amplitude, the six different remotely sensed chlorophyll products analysed in this study display a good phase agreement at seasonal and interannual timescales. The model and observations both indicate that the interannual winter bloom fluctuations are strongly tied to interannual mixed layer depth anomalies ( ˜ 0.6 to 0.7 correlation), which are themselves controlled by the net heat flux at the air-sea interface. Our modelling results suggest that the mixed layer depth control of the bloom amplitude ensues from the modulation of nutrient entrainment into the euphotic layer. In contrast, the model and observations both display insignificant correlations between the bloom amplitude and thermocline depth, which precludes a control of the bloom amplitude by daily dilution down to the thermocline depth, as suggested in a previous study.

  20. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plähn, Olaf; Rhein, Monika; Fine, Rana A.; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    In 1995, concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbon compound CFC-12 in the outflow water from the Persian Gulf were 8-40 fold higher than normally caused by air-sea gas exchange. At that time, the anomaly was restricted to the Gulf of Oman north of 20°N, while in 1998 the signal had spread southwestward to 12°N. The sources of this CFC-12 input of about 6400 kg are most likely the fire extinguishers and solvents used during and after the Gulf War in 1991. This CFC-12 signal is a new feature of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) which can be used to track and quantify the spreading and dilution of PGW in the northern Indian Ocean. The contaminated PGW spreads southward with a mean velocity of 0.02-0.025 m s-1. At 20°N, the anomaly is diluted by a factor of more than two, and east of the island Socotra by a factor of four. A mean transport of less than 0.5·106 m³ s-1 is calculated for PGW assuming a mean dilution rate of 30% from the source signal in the Gulf of Oman to the western Arabian Sea.

  1. Heavy metals in fish from the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean: effect of origin, fish species and size and correlation among the metals.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Massadeh, Adnan M; Al-Athamneh, Ahmad M; Jaradat, Qasem M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the levels of As, Cu, Pb, and Cd in fish from Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal levels were compared with international standards. The levels among fish types and origin, the relationship among metals, and the correlation between the levels and fish size were statistically tested. Fish type and origin significantly affected the levels. None of the fish contained As, Cu, and Pb above the FAO and EU codes. However, Cd exceeded the Jordanian, FAO, and EC codes from the three origins. As and Cd positively correlated with each other in Arabian Sea fish. As and Pb correlated negatively, but Cu and Cd did not correlate with fish size. This study indicates that Cd is common in fish from the three origins regardless the fish size. This warrants continuous monitoring for heavy metals, especially Cd, in internationally traded fish.

  2. Mesopelagic fishes of the Arabian Sea: distribution, abundance and diet of Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis, and Stomias nebulosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Mari; Bollens, Stephen M.; Burkhalter, Brenda; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich

    Four species of predatory fishes - Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis and Stomias nebulosus - were collected on two cruises to the Arabian Sea during 1995. We present data on the abundances, horizontal and vertical distributions, and diet of these fishes. We also discuss briefly the importance of the oxygen minimum zone and predation on myctophid fishes to the ecology of these mesopelagic predators. Chauliodus pammelas and C. sloani appear to have only partially overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea, with C. pammelas more common to the north and C. sloani more common to the south. Our data support previous results suggesting that diel vertical migration is the norm for these species, with smaller individuals usually nearer to the surface and larger individuals tending to stay deeper. In contrast to Chauliodus, Stomias affinis and S. nebulosus appear to have largely overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea. However, they may have slightly different vertical distributions, with S. affinis living slightly shallower (especially at night) than S. nebulosus. All four species spend most of their time in the oxygen minimum zone, entering the surface oxygenated waters (100-150 m) only at night (if at all). The diets of C. pammelas, C. sloani, and S. affinis consisted mainly of lanternfishes, Myctophidae, and other fishes. In contrast, S. nebulosus, the smaller of the two Stomias species, ate mostly copepods and other crustaceans. This differential feeding may allow the two Stomias species to co-occur. Three of these four stomiids appear to play an important role in predation on myctophid fish populations in the Arabian Sea.

  3. Paired N and O isotopic analysis of nitrate and nitrite in the Arabian Sea oxygen deficient zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T. S.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is home to one of the three main oceanic oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). We present paired nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope measurements of nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) from the central Arabian Sea in order to understand the effects of N biogeochemistry on the distribution of these species in the low oxygen waters. Within the ODZ, NO2- accumulated in a secondary NO2- maximum (SNM), though the shape and magnitude of the SNM, along with the isotopic composition of NO3- and NO2-, were highly dependent on the location within the ODZ. We also explored water mass mixing within the Arabian Sea as an explanatory factor in the distribution of NO2- in the SNM. The intrusion of Persian Gulf Water at depth may influence the shape of the NO2- peak by introducing small amounts of dissolved oxygen (O2), favoring NO2- oxidation. There was also evidence that vertical mixing may play a role in shaping the top of the SNM peak. Finally, we present evidence for NO2- oxidation and NO2- reduction co-occurring within the ODZ, as has been previously suggested in the Arabian Sea, as well as in other ODZs. The decoupling of the N and O isotopes of NO3-, deviating from the expected 1:1 ratio for dissimilatory NO3- reduction, indicates that NO2- oxidation has a significant influence on the isotopic composition of NO3-. Additionally, the N isotopes of NO2- were generally fit well by Rayleigh curves for NO2- oxidation. However, the removal of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the domain reflects the importance of NO2- reduction to N2.

  4. Bacterioplankton activity in the surface waters of the Arabian Sea during and after the 1994 SW monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomroy, Alan; Joint, Ian

    1999-03-01

    Bacterial biomass and production were measured on two cruises to the northwestern Arabian Sea in 1994; the first cruise took place towards the end of the SW monsoon in September, and the second cruise during the inter-monsoon period in November and December. Although phytoplankton production was significantly higher during the monsoon, bacterial numbers showed little difference. Bacteria were most abundant in the euphotic zone and highest bacterial numbers were measured during the monsoon period in the Gulf of Oman and the shelf waters off southern Oman; in these regions, numbers ranged from 0.9 to 1.6×10 9 bacteria l -1. On both cruises, bacteria were less abundant in the euphotic zone of the central Arabian Sea and typically ca 0.8×10 9 cells l -1 were present. The majority of bacteria (80-95%) were small cocci that were larger (median diameter 0.40 μm) during the monsoon period than the inter-monsoon, when the cells had a diameter of 0.36 μm; there was no comparable change in cell dimensions of bacteria present as rods. Bacterial production was measured by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 3H-leucine. On both cruises, uptake rates were highest on the Omani shelf and decreased offshore. In the central Arabian Sea, thymidine incorporation rates were similar in the monsoon and inter-monsoon periods, but higher rates of leucine incorporation were measured during the monsoon period. Bacterial production was a relatively small proportion of phytoplankton production in both periods sampled; bacterial production was equivalent to between 10 and 30% of the daily primary production in the Arabian Sea.

  5. Understanding how physical-biological coupling influences harmful algal blooms, low oxygen and fish kills in the Sea of Oman and the Western Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Paul J; Piontkovski, Sergey; Al-Hashmi, Khalid

    2017-01-15

    In the last decade, green Noctiluca scintillans with its symbiont and other dinoflagellates such as Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans and Scrippsiella trochoidea have become the dominant HABs, partially replacing the previously dominant diatoms and red Noctiluca scintillans, especially during the northeast monsoon. Fish kills in the Sea of Oman are linked to a slow seasonal decline in oxygen concentration from January to November, probably due to the decomposition of a series of algal blooms and the deep, low oxygen waters periodically impinging the Omani shelf. In the western Arabian Sea, cyclonic eddies upwell low oxygen, nutrient-rich water and the subsequent algal bloom decays and lowers the oxygen further and leads to fish kills. Warming of the surface waters by 1.2°C over the last 5 decades has increased stratification and resulted in a shoaling of the oxycline. This has increased the probability and frequency of upwelling low oxygen water and subsequent fish kills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A 28-ka history of sea surface temperature, primary productivity and planktonic community variability in the western Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, Ali; Marcantonio, Franco; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Waterson, Elizabeth J.

    2007-12-01

    Uranium series radionuclides and organic biomarkers, which represent major groups of planktonic organisms, were measured in western Arabian Sea sediments that span the past 28 ka. Variability in the past strength of the southwest and northeast monsoons and its influence on primary productivity, sea surface temperature (SST), and planktonic community structure were investigated. The average alkenone-derived SST for the last glacial period was ˜3°C lower than that measured for the Holocene. Prior to the deglacial, the lowest SSTs coincide with the highest measured fluxes of organic biomarkers, which represent primarily a planktonic suite of diatoms, coccolithophorids, dinoflagellates, and zooplankton. We propose that intensification of winter northeast monsoon winds during the last glacial period resulted in deep convective mixing, cold SSTs and enhanced primary productivity. In contrast, postdeglacial (<17 ka) SSTs are warmer during times in which biomarker fluxes are high. Associated with this transition is a planktonic community structure change, in which the ratio of the average cumulative flux of diatom biomarkers to the cumulative flux of coccolithophorid biomarkers is twice as high during the deglacial and Holocene than the average ratio during the last glacial period. We suggest that this temporal transition represents a shift from a winter northeast monsoon-dominated (pre-17 ka) to a summer southwest monsoon-dominated (post-17 ka) wind system.

  7. Winter and summer monsoon water mass, heat and freshwater transport changes in the Arabian Sea near 8°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramma, Lothar; Brandt, Peter; Schott, Friedrich; Quadfasel, Detlef; Fischer, Jürgen

    The differences in the water mass distributions and transports in the Arabian Sea between the summer monsoon of August 1993 and the winter monsoon of January 1998 are investigated, based on two hydrographic sections along approximately 8°N. At the western end the sections were closed by a northward leg towards the African continent at about 55°E. In the central basin along 8°N the monsoon anomalies of the temperature and density below the surface-mixed layer were dominated by annual Rossby waves propagating westward across the Arabian Sea. In the northwestern part of the basin the annual Rossby waves have much smaller impact, and the density anomalies observed there were mostly associated with the Socotra Gyre. Salinity and oxygen differences along the section reflect local processes such as the spreading of water masses originating in the Bay of Bengal, northward transport of Indian Central Water, or slightly stronger southward spreading of Red Sea Water in August than in January. The anomalous wind conditions of 1997/98 influenced only the upper 50-100 m with warmer surface waters in January 1998, and Bay of Bengal Water covered the surface layer of the section in the eastern Arabian Sea. Estimates of the overturning circulation of the Arabian Sea were carried out despite the fact that many uncertainties are involved. For both cruises a vertical overturning cell of about 4-6 Sv was determined, with inflow below 2500 m and outflow between about 300 and 2500 m. In the upper 300-450 m a seasonally reversing shallow meridional overturning cell appears to exist in which the Ekman transport is balanced by a geostrophic transport. The heat flux across 8°N is dominated by the Ekman transport, yielding about -0.6 PW for August 1993, and 0.24 PW for January 1998. These values are comparable to climatological and model derived heat flux estimates. Freshwater fluxes across 8°N also were computed, yielding northward freshwater fluxes of 0.07 Sv in January 1998 and 0

  8. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Wolff, G. A.; Billett, D. S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope at bathyal depths. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC (mg TOC)-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (<250 mg HC (mg TOC)-1). δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values were identified on both margins, particularly the Oman margin, and may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes between the two margins may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have provided an organic-rich food source for foraminifera at these sites. Our data

  9. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Billett, D. S. M.; Wolff, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope from 100 to 1000 m water depth. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). These two margins are contrasting both in terms of the abundance of sedimentary organic matter and the intensity of the OMZ. Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC mg TOC-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (< 250 mg HC mg TOC-1). The δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values, particularly at the Oman margin, may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have

  10. The Sedimentology and Origins of a Giant Mass Transport Deposit: The Nataraja Slide, Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, S. K.; Clift, P. D.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Calves, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Nataraja Slide was recently discovered by seismic mapping off the west coast of India in the Arabian Sea. Volumetrically estimated to be 19,000 km3, it is the second largest mass transport deposit known on a passive margin. Understanding how this deposit was emplaced is important to constrain how mass wasting affects the bathymetry of sedimentary basins, as well as the effects triggered by such a large event, including tsunamis. The Nataraja Slide was emplaced at 10.8 Ma as a result of collapse of the western India margin, which traveled 550 km into the basin. The deposit has been cored in two locations by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355, where it is 330 m (Site U1456) and 190 m thick (Site U1457). The presence of various deformation structures and the occurrence of a predominantly reworked calcareous nannofossil assemblages are used to define the top of the deposit. The deposit appears to consist of two units at Site U1456 with 22 m of upper Miocene hemipelagic sediment separating them, suggesting emplacement in two large pulses. At both sites, the mass transport deposit has a coarse carbonate-dominated base, composed of clast-supported breccia overlain by massive calcarenite associated with high-energy current transport, and calcilutite. These strata are overlain by steeply inclined, slumped but otherwise coherent pyritized, siliciclastic mudstones and minor volumes of matrix-supported conglomerates, interpreted as debris flows. Emplacement appears to have eroded significant thicknesses of Indus Fan turbidites at Site U1456, as there is a hiatus that is a minimum of 2.5 m.y. at the base. At Site U1457, the slide directly overlies Paleocene reddish mudstones on the eastern flank of the Laxmi Ridge, which likely diverted the sediment to the south in the Laxmi Basin and away from the main Arabian Sea basin. Bulk sediment Nd and Sr isotope geochemistry show a provenance, similar to those of the Tapti and Narmada rivers in western

  11. Comparative geochemistry of Indian margin (Arabian Sea) sediments: Estuary to continental slope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Greg; Mowbray, Stephen; Kurian, Siby; Sarkar, Amit; White, Carol; Anderson, Amy; Vergnaud, Bianca; Johnstone, Gisele; Brear, Samuel; Woulds, Clare; Naqvi, Wajih; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Factors controlling the distribution of organic matter in the Arabian Sea have been the subject of much research and debate ever since organic-rich slope deposits were associated with the mid-water oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) However, the debate remains open, and numerous interacting factors have been invoked as important controls. A limitation of most previous studies is that they have been restricted to limited portions of the margin, and have not included molecular-level tracers that allow distinction of organic matter (OM) source and degradation state as factors in OM distribution. We report results from sites across the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea, which were analysed for carbon and nitrogen compositions (elemental and isotopic), grain size and indices of OM source and degradation state. Site locations ranged from the Mandovi/Zuari estuaries to depths of ~2000m on the continental slope, thus spanning both the semi-permanent OMZ on the upper slope (~200-1300m) and the seasonal hypoxic zone that impinges on the shelf. Source indices showed mixed marine and terrigenous OM within the estuaries, but overwhelming predominance (80%+) of marine OM on the shelf and slope, even in nearshore deposits. Thus, riverine OM is heavily diluted or efficiently remineralised within or immediately offshore of the estuaries. Any terrigenous OM that is exported appears to be retained in nearshore muds; lignin phenols indicate that the small terrigenous OM content of slope sediments is of different origin, potentially from rivers to the north. Organic C contents of surface shelf and slope sediments varied from <0.5 wt% in relict shelf sands to a maximum of >7 wt% at upper slope sites within the OMZ, then decreasing to ≤1wt% at 2000m. However, major variability (~5 wt%) occured within the OMZ at sites with near-identical depths and bottom-water oxygen. A strong relationship between organic C and grain size was seen for OMZ sediments, but lower C loadings were found for sites on

  12. The Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative: Sustained Cabled Ocean Observing Systems in the Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, S.; Du Vall, K.; Dimarco, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. began developing an ocean observing system that would help the Sultanate of Oman better manage the health of their fisheries. The resulting cutting-edge, fiber-optic cabled ocean observatory was installed in the northern Sea of Oman and became operational in August of 2005; this summer the system surpassed the milestone of 2100 days of successful operation. A second, deepwater cabled observatory was installed farther to the south, where the Sea of Oman meets the Arabian Sea, in January, 2010. Both systems monitor physical properties throughout the water column including current velocity, temperature, pressure, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity. The entirely subsea nature of the fiber-optic cabled observatory capitalizes on several advantages over traditional buoyed systems including a lack of exposure to environmental wear and tear, collision, vandalism and theft. The systems are both cabled to nearby shore facilities, where the data are relayed instantly to Houston via satellite for processing, analysis and modeling - the data may also be used in making real time decisions. Many challenges were encountered between the design / development stage and the operation a reliable, long-term, real-time observing system in a dynamic marine environment. Examples of obstacles we encountered and overcame include: maintaining upright mooring strings under differential current velocities; minimizing points of weakness in the system, especially the number of wet mates; recognizing the need for cathodic protection in unanticipated places; protecting vulnerable sensors from biofouling; developing a climate-controlled shore facility in a harsh and remote environment; ensuring an uninterrupted power supply and availability of additional power bursts when required; and lengthening the life of the system while reducing the need for maintenance. The design and obstacles and scientific questions being addressed by the Lighthouse

  13. Distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of decapods in the Arabian Sea, with implications for vertical flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincks, Sarah L.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich; Butler, Mari; Kremer, Patricia M.; Craddock, James E.

    Macrozooplankton and micronekton samples were collected on two cruises in the Arabian Sea conducted during the Spring Intermonsoon period (May) and the SW Monsoon period (August) of 1995. Discrete depth samples were collected down to depths of 1000-1500 m. Quantitative gut content analyses were performed on four species of decapod shrimps, Gennadas sordidus, Sergia filictum, Sergia creber, and Eupasiphae gilesii, as well as on the pelagic crab Charybdis smithii. Of the shrimps, only S. filictum and S. creber increased significantly in abundance between the Spring Intermonsoon and SW Monsoon seasons. These four species were found at all depths sampled, and most did not appear to be strong vertical migrators. G. sordidus and S. filictum did appear to spread upward at night, especially during the SW Monsoon, but this movement did not include the entire population. S. creber showed signs of diel vertical migration only in some areas. All four shrimp species except, to some degree, S. creber lived almost exclusively within the oxygen minimum zone (150-1000 m), and are likely to have respiratory adaptations that allow them to persist under such conditions. Feeding occurred at all depths throughout these species' ranges, but only modest feeding occurred in the surface layer (0-150 m). G. sordidus appeared to feed continuously throughout the day and night. Estimated contribution of fecal material to vertical flux ranged from <0.01-2.1% of particulate flux at 1000 m for the shrimps and 1.8-3.0% for C. smithii.

  14. Heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the Arabian Sea:. Basinwide response to year-round high primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducklow, H. W.; Smith, D. C.; Campbell, L.; Landry, M. R.; Quinby, H. L.; Steward, G. F.; Azam, F.

    Heterotrophic bacterial abundance and productivity were measured during five and four cruises, respectively, in the northwest Arabian Sea as part of the US JGOFS Process Study, which provided a new view of seasonal bacterial dynamics in that part of the basin influenced by monsoonal forcing. In this paper, surface layer data are used to address two questions concerning the influence of the monsoon cycle on bacterial dynamics: (1) Is there a bacterial bloom in the SW Monsoon? and (2) Is bacterial production low during the oligotrophic Spring Intermonsoon? An extensive comparison of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, unprecedented at this scale, detected essentially the same heterotrophic bacterial populations and distributions, with some between-cruise differences. Use of the two methods allowed us to extend our observations in space and time. Bacterial productivity, both in the surface layer and integrated over the euphotic zone, was elevated less than 2-fold during the Southwest Monsoon. Levels of bacterial abundance and production were low during the Northeast Monsoon, then increased in March during the Spring Intermonsoon. There was some stimulation of abundance or production inshore in response to coastal upwelling. In general, the basin was enriched in bacterial biomass >5×10 8 cells l -1 throughout the year, relative to other tropical regimes, presumably in response to overall high PP and DOC levels. Seasonally uniform DOC levels may be regulated in part by intense bacterial utilization rates, but also reflect seasonal consistency in PP.

  15. Radionuclide and biomarker proxies of past ocean circulation and productivity in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, A.; Marcantonio, F.; Bianchi, T. S.; Canuel, E. A.; Waterson, E. J.

    2005-05-01

    We present new excess 231Pa/230Th activity ratios and lipid biomarker results from northeastern Arabian Sea sediments (core 93KL) spanning the past 50 ka in an effort to constrain further the relationship between climate at low and high latitudes. 231Pa/230Th activity ratios are maintained at values significantly higher than the water-column production ratio of 0.093. Average 231Pa/230Th activity ratios are lower during the last glacial period than during the Holocene. The lowest 231Pa/230Th activity ratios coincide with the timing of Heinrich Events 1-5. Profiles of lipid biomarker fluxes and 231Pa/230Th activity ratios from 32 to 12 ka show similar patterns, suggesting that 231Pa is more efficiently scavenged relative to 230Th at times when diatoms make up a proportionally larger part of the primary biomass signal. In the Holocene, high 231Pa/230Th activity ratios may indicate enhanced 231Pa export from the southern to the northern Indian Ocean via intensified thermohaline circulation.

  16. Correlation between some selected trace metal concentrations in six species of fish from the Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-07-01

    The role of trace metals in marine ecosystems has been keenly investigated during recent years. It is known that abundance of essential trace metals regulates the metal content in the organisms by homeostatic control mechanisms, which when cease to function cause essential trace metals to act in an either acutely or chronically toxic manner. Therefore, a correlation study based on essential and non-essential trace metal concentrations is imperative for extending the existing knowledge of bioaccumulation of trace metals in marine organisms. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to bring out quantitative correlations between the concentrations of iron,more » copper, lead and zinc in the edible muscle tissue of six species of marine fish: Salmon (salmon sole); tuna (thunnus thynnus); pomfret silver (pampus argenteus); Pomfret black (formioniger); long tail tuna (thynnus tonggel) and Indian oil sardine (sardinella longiceps). These fish are abundantly available in Pakistan along the coastal line of the Arabian Sea and have great commercial value. The computational analysis on the trace metal correlation was conducted using an MSTAT statistical package.« less

  17. Potential new production in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea: Estimation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhan, Haigang; Du, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Using satellite-derived and in situ data, the wind-driven potential new production (nitrate supply) for the 300 km wide coastal band in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea (AS) during the southwest monsoon is estimated. The upward nitrate flux to the euphotic zone is generally based on the physical processes of coastal transport (Ekman transport and geostrophic transport) and offshore Ekman pumping. The coastal geostrophic current in the western AS influences the upwelling intensity and latitudinal distributions of nitrate supply. The Oman and Somalia upwelling regions have similar level of potential new production (nitrate supply) during the summer monsoon, while the satellite estimates of primary production off Oman are 2 times greater than those off Somalia. The much higher potential f-ratio in the Somalia upwelling region indicates that the primary production could be limited by availability of other macronutrients (e.g., silicate). The correlation analysis of the primary production and the aerosol optical thickness shows that the Oman upwelling region displays a stronger coupling between the atmospheric deposition and the phytoplankton abundance. The high summertime dust levels in the atmosphere are suggested to contribute to the high primary production in the Oman upwelling region.

  18. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption.

  19. Coupled sea surface temperature-seawater δ18O reconstructions in the Arabian Sea at the millennial scale for the last 35 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Pallavi; Kroon, Dick; Singh, Arun Deo; Ganeshram, Raja S.; Ganssen, Gerald; Elderfield, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Two sediment cores from the western (905; 10.46°9'N, 51.56°4'E, water depth 1586 m) and eastern (SK17; 15°15'N, 72°58'E, water depth 840 m) Arabian Sea were used to study past sea surface temperatures (SST) and seawater δ18O (δ18Ow) variations for the past 35 ka. We used coupled Mg/Ca-δ18O calcite variability in two planktonic foraminiferal species: Globigerinoides ruber, which thrives throughout the year, and Globigerina bulloides, which occurs mainly when surface waters contain high nutrients during upwelling or convective mixing. SSTs in both areas based on Mg/Ca in G. ruber were ˜3 to 4°C lower during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ˜21 ka) than today and the Holocene period. The SST records based on G. bulloides also indicate general cooling, down to 18°C in both areas. SSTs in the western Arabian Sea based on G. bulloides were always lower than those based on G. ruber, indicating the presence of strong seasonal temperature contrast during the Holocene and LGM. We interpret the consistent presence of this seasonal temperature contrast to reflect a combination of seasonal summer upwelling (SW monsoon) and winter convective mixing (NE monsoon) in the western Arabian Sea. In the eastern Arabian Sea, G. bulloides-based SSTs were slightly lower (about 1°C) than G. ruber-based SSTs during the Holocene, indicating the almost absence of a seasonal temperature gradient, similar to today. However, a large seasonal temperature contrast occurred during the LGM which favors the assumption that strong NE monsoon winds forced winter upwelling or convective mixing offshore Goa. SST and δ18Ow reconstructions reveal evidence of millennial-scale cycles, particularly in the eastern Arabian Sea. Here, the stadial periods (Northern Hemisphere cold periods such as Younger Dryas and Heinrich events) are marked by increasing SSTs and salty sea surface conditions relative to those during the interstadial periods. Indeed, the δ18Ow record shows evidence of low

  20. Speciation of phosphorus in the continental shelf sediments in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar; Kurian, John; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Tripathy, Subhasish

    2016-03-01

    The distributions of various forms of phosphorus (P) and their relation with sediment geochemistry in two core sediments near Karwar and Mangalore offshore have been studied through the modified SEDEX procedure (Ruttenberg et al., 2009) and bulk chemical analysis. The present study provides the first quantitative analysis of complete phosphorus speciation in the core sediments of the Eastern Arabian shelf. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Al-Ti-Zr ternary diagram suggest low to moderate source area weathering of granodioritic to tonalitic source rock composition, despite the intense orographic rainfall in the source area. Due to the presence of same source rock and identical oxic depositional environment, the studied sediments show the same range of variation of total phosphorus (24 to 83 μmol/g) with a down-depth depleting trend. Organic bound P and detrital P are the two major chemical forms followed by iron-bound P, exchangeable/loosely bound P and authigenic P. The authigenic P content in the sediments near Mangalore coast varies linearly with calcium (r=0.88) unlike that of Karwar coast. The different reactive-phosphorus pools exhibit identical depleting trend with depth. This indicates that the phosphorus released from the organic matter and Fe bound fractions are prevented from precipitating as authigenic phosphates in the deeper parts of the sediment column. The low concentration of total P, dominance of detrital non-reactive fraction of P and inhibition of formation of authigenic phosphate result in the absence of active phosphatization in the Eastern Arabian Shelf in the studied region. High sedimentation rate (35-58 cm/kyr) and absence of winnowing effect appear to be the dominant factor controlling the P-speciation in the studied sediments.

  1. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in effluent-dominated Saudi Arabian coastal waters of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aasim M; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Alarif, Walied; Kallenborn, Roland; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and the pesticide atrazine were investigated in seawater samples collected from stations located at effluent dominated sites in the Saudi Arabian coastal waters of the Red Sea. PPCPs were analysed using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A multi component method for the ultra-trace level quantification of 13 target PPCPs in Seawater was developed and validated for the here performed study. The method procedure is described in detail in the supplementary material section. 26 samples from 7 distinct locations (2 directly influenced by continuous sewage release) were chosen for the sampling of surface seawater. Based upon local sales information, 25 target substances (20 PPCPs, 4 pesticides and 1 stimulant) were chosen for the here reported method development. Thirteen PPCPs were detected and quantified in a total of 26 seawater samples. Metformin, diclofenac, acetaminophen, and caffeine were identified as the most abundant PPCPs, detected in maximum concentration higher than 3 μg/L (upper quantification limit for the here developed method). Concentrations were in the range of 7- >3000 (metformin), 3000 ng/L (caffeine). The contribution of direct sewage release on the PPCP levels detected was obvious, the target PPCPs were detected in the Al-Arbaeen and Al-Shabab coastal lagoons in high concentrations due to the low water exchange with the open sea and still ongoing sewage releases in the lagoons. Also, substantial amounts of antibiotics were detected in all samples. Levels and distribution profile of the detected PPCPs revealed high level release rates and give raise to concern on potential environmental risks associated with the here document long term exposure on the fragile coastal marine environment of the region but particularly in the nearby protected

  2. Identification of new deep sea sinuous channels in the eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ravi; Pandey, D K; Ramesh, Prerna; Clift, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea channel systems are recognized in most submarine fans worldwide as well as in the geological record. The Indus Fan is the second largest modern submarine fan, having a well-developed active canyon and deep sea channel system. Previous studies from the upper Indus Fan have reported several active channel systems. In the present study, deep sea channel systems were identified within the middle Indus Fan using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data. Prominent morphological features within the survey block include the Raman Seamount and Laxmi Ridge. The origin of the newly discovered channels in the middle fan has been inferred using medium resolution satellite bathymetry data. Interpretation of new data shows that the highly sinuous deep sea channel systems also extend to the east of Laxmi Ridge, as well as to the west of Laxmi Ridge, as previously reported. A decrease in sinuosity southward can be attributed to the morphological constraints imposed by the elevated features. These findings have significance in determining the pathways for active sediment transport systems, as well as their source characterization. The geometry suggests a series of punctuated avulsion events leading to the present array of disconnected channels. Such channels have affected the Laxmi Basin since the Pliocene and are responsible for reworking older fan sediments, resulting in loss of the original erosional signature supplied from the river mouth. This implies that distal fan sediments have experienced significant signal shredding and may not represent the erosion and weathering conditions within the onshore basin at the time of sedimentation.

  3. Variations of oxygen-minimum and primary productivity recorded in sediments of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Sonja; Rostek, Frauke; Bard, Edouard; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Marchal, Olivier

    1999-11-01

    Two deep-sea sediment cores from the northeastern and the southeastern Arabian Sea were studied in order to reconstruct the palaeoenvironments of the past glacial cycles. Core 136KL was recovered from the high-productivity area off Pakistan within the modern oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ). By contrast, modern primary productivity at the site of MD900963 close to Maldives is moderate and bottom waters are today well oxygenated. For both cores, we reconstructed the changes in palaeoproductivity using a set of biomarkers (alkenones, dinosterol and brassicasterol); the main result is that primary productivity is enhanced during glacial stages and lowered during interstadials. The proxies associated with productivity show a 23 kyr cyclicity corresponding to the precession-related insolation cycle. Palaeoredox conditions were studied in both cores using a new organic geochemical parameter (C 35/C 31- n-alkane ratio) developed by analysing surface sediments from a transect across the OMZ off Pakistan. The value of this ratio in core 136KL shows many variations during the last 65 kyr, indicating that the OMZ was not stable during this time: it disappeared completely during Heinrich- and the Younger Dryas events, pointing to a connection between global oceanic circulation and the stability of the OMZ. The C 35/C 31 ratio determined in sediments of core MD900963 shows that bottom waters remained rather well oxygenated over the last 330 kyr, which is confirmed by comparison with authigenic metal concentrations in the same sediments. A zonally averaged, circulation-biogeochemical ocean model was used to explore how the intermediate Indian Ocean responds to a freshwater flux anomaly at the surface of the North Atlantic. As suggested by the geochemical time series, both the abundance of Southern Ocean Water and the oxygen concentration are significantly increased in response to this freshwater perturbation.

  4. Remote sensing of bacterial response to degrading phytoplankton in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Priyaja, P; Dwivedi, R; Sini, S; Hatha, M; Saravanane, N; Sudhakar, M

    2016-12-01

    A remote sensing technique has been developed to detect physiological condition of phytoplankton using in situ and moderate imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data. The recurring massive mixed algal bloom of diatom and Noctiluca scintillans in the Northern Arabian Sea during winter-spring was used as test bed to study formation, growth and degradation of phytoplankton. The ratio of chlorophyll (chl) to particulate organic carbon (POC) was considered as an indicator of phytoplankton physiological condition and used for the approach development. Algal blooms represent the areas of new production, and therefore, knowledge of their degradation is important to the study microbial loop and export carbon flux. Relation of chl/POC ratio with bacterial abundance revealed Gaussian distribution. Bacteria were strongly correlated with POC, and hence, the latter which is available from satellite data could be used as a proxy for remote assessment of bacteria. Thresholds for active and degrading phytoplankton were determined using the ratio computed from the satellite data. The criteria were implemented on MODIS data to generate an image representing distribution of degrading algal bloom. Bacteria abundance data from two validation cruises during dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria bloom confirmed well match up of phytoplankton degradation information from the satellite. Comparison of environmental parameters during decay phase of dinoflagellate (N. scintillans bloom (winter) and Trichodesmium bloom (summer) revealed that degradation after active Trichodesmium bloom was more severe as compared to the N. scintillans. The present study also highlights the prediction capability of phytoplankton degradation using a time series of satellite retrieved chlorophyll/POC images.

  5. Characteristics of monsoon inversions over the Arabian Sea observed by satellite sounder and reanalysis data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Sanjeev; Narayanan, M. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2016-04-01

    Monsoon inversion (MI) over the Arabian Sea (AS) is one of the important characteristics associated with the monsoon activity over Indian region during summer monsoon season. In the present study, we have used 5 years (2009-2013) of temperature and water vapour measurement data obtained from satellite sounder instrument, an Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard MetOp satellite, in addition to ERA-Interim data, to study their characteristics. The lower atmospheric data over the AS have been examined first to identify the areas where MIs are predominant and occur with higher strength. Based on this information, a detailed study has been made to investigate their characteristics separately in the eastern AS (EAS) and western AS (WAS) to examine their contrasting features. The initiation and dissipation times of MIs, their percentage occurrence, strength, etc., has been examined using the huge database. The relation with monsoon activity (rainfall) over Indian region during normal and poor monsoon years is also studied. WAS ΔT values are ˜ 2 K less than those over the EAS, ΔT being the temperature difference between 950 and 850 hPa. A much larger contrast between the WAS and EAS in ΔT is noticed in ERA-Interim data set vis-à-vis those observed by satellites. The possibility of detecting MI from another parameter, refractivity N, obtained directly from another satellite constellation of GPS Radio Occultation (RO) (COSMIC), has also been examined. MI detected from IASI and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the NOAA satellite have been compared to see how far the two data sets can be combined to study the MI characteristics. We suggest MI could also be included as one of the semipermanent features of southwest monsoon along with the presently accepted six parameters.

  6. Locating Noctiluca Miliaris in the Arabian Sea: An Optical Proxy Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, Patricia S.; Roesler, Collin S.; Drapeau, Susan L.; Matondkar, S. G. Prabhu; Goes, Joaquim I.; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Coincident with shifting monsoon weather patterns over India, the phytoplankter Noctiluca miliaris has recently been observed to be dominating phytoplankton blooms in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons. Identifying the exact environmental and/or ecological conditions that favor this species has been hampered by the lack of concurrent environmental and biological observations on time and space scales relevant to ecologic and physiologic processes. We present a bio-optical proxy for N. miliaris measured on highly resolved depth scales coincident with hydrographic observations with the goal to identify conducive hydrographic conditions for the bloom. The proxy is derived from multichannel excitation chlorophyll a fluorescence and is validated with microscopy, pigment composition, and spectral absorption. Phytoplankton populations dominated by either diatoms or other dinoflagellates were additionally discerned. N. miliaris populations in full bloom were identified offshore in low-nutrient and low-N : P ratio surface waters within a narrow temperature and salinity range. These populations transitioned to high-biomass diatom-dominated coastal upwelling populations. A week later, the N. miliaris blooms were observed in declining phase, transitioning to very-low-biomass populations of non-N. miliaris dinoflagellates. There were no clear hydrographic conditions uniquely associated with the N. miliaris populations, although N. miliaris was not found in the upwelling or extremely oligotrophic waters. Taxonomic transitions were not discernible in the spatial structure of the bloom as identified by the ocean color Chl imagery, indicating that in situ observations may be necessary to resolve community structure, particularly for populations below the surface.

  7. Ozone in the marine boundary layer of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during post winter period - continental influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Prabha R.; George, Susan K.; David, Liji Mary; Parameswaran, Krishnaswamy

    Ozone plays a key role in controlling the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and hence the lifetime of a variety of trace gases in the atmosphere. In pristine marine boundary layer (MBL), entire chemistry is initiated by the photolysis of ozone and the subsequent formation of OH radical from water vapour. Also in such environment, photochemical destruction is considered as a major sink in global ozone budget. Even though large number of studies on near surface ozone has been carried out over land such studies are very few over oceanic environments. This paper presents the observational results on the spatial variations of near-surface ozone over Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea as revealed by the cruise-based measurements (cruise No. SK223) conducted as part of Integrated Campaign for Aerosol gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of Indian Space Research Organisation (IGBP). Online measurements of ozone have been carried out by using a UV Photometric Analyser (model 49C of Thermo Electron Corporation, USA). Ozone mixing ratio was observed to be significantly high over northern Bay of Bengal (20-28 ppb) compared to southern Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. Minimum levels of ozone ( 5 ppb) have been measured in the central Bay of Bengal region. Over Arabian Sea latitudinal variation was not prominently observed. The over all latitudinal gradient is estimated to be 1.2 ppb/o latitude over Bay of Bengal with longitudinal gradient showing variation depending on the latitude sector. It was maximum (of 1.2ppb/o longitude) over the mid Bay of Bengal region ( 15o N). Longitudinal variation was not significant over northern and southern regions. A close examination of surface airflow patterns and the air mass back trajectories revealed increase in ozone level associated with continental outflow from the northern and central parts of the subcontinent. The diurnal pattern also showed variations depending on the proximity to inhabited land

  8. Effects of composition of labile organic matter on biogenic production of methane in the coastal sediments of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Kirchman, David L; Bharathi, P A Loka

    2011-11-01

    Coastal regions are potential zones for production of methane which could be governed by ecological/environmental differences or even sediment properties of a niche. In order to test the hypothesis that methanogenesis in most marine sediments could be driven more by proteins than by carbohydrates and lipid content of labile organic matter (LOM), incubation experiments were carried out with sediments from different environmental niches to measure methane production. The methane production rates were examined in relationship to the sediment biochemistry, i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. The gas production measured by head space method ranged from 216 ng g( -1) day( -1) in the mangrove sediments to 3.1 μg g( -1) day( -1) in the shallow Arabian Sea. LOM ranged from 1.56 to 2.85 mg g( -1) in the shallow Arabian Sea, from 3.35 to 5.43 mg g( -1) in the mangrove estuary, and from 0.66 to 0.70 mg g( -1) in the sandy sediments with proteins contributing maximum to the LOM pool. Proteins influenced methane production in the clayey sediments of shallow depths of the Arabian Sea (r = 0.933, p < 0.001) and mangrove estuary (r = 0.981, p < 0.001) but in the sandy beach sediments, carbohydrates (r = 0.924, p < 0.001) governed the net methane production. The gas production was more pronounced in shallow and surface sediments and it decreased with depth apparently governed by the decrease in lability index. Thus, the lability index and protein content are important factors that determine methane production rates in these coastal ecosystems.

  9. Enhanced Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Sequestration in Sediments Underlying the Core of the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, S. Q.; Mazumdar, A.; Peketi, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Carvalho, M.; Da Silva, R.; Roy, R.; Mapder, T.; Roy, C.; Banik, S. K.; Ghosh, W.

    2017-12-01

    The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea in the northern Indian Ocean is one of the three major global sites of open ocean denitrification. The functionally anoxic water column between 150 to 1200 mbsl plays host to unique biogeochemical processes and organism interactions. Little is known, however, about the consequence of the low dissolved oxygen on the underlying sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Here we present, for the first time, a comprehensive investigation of sediment biogeochemistry of the Arabian Sea OMZ by coupling pore fluid analyses with microbial diversity data in eight sediment cores collected across a transect off the west coast of India in the Eastern Arabian Sea. We observed that in sediments underlying the core of the OMZ, high organic carbon sequestration coincides with a high diversity of all bacteria (the majority of which are complex organic matter hydrolyzers) and sulfate reducing bacteria (simple organic compound utilizers). Depth-integrated sulfate reduction rate also intensifies in this territory. These biogeochemical features, together with the detected shallowing of the sulfate-methane interface and buildup of pore-water sulfide, are all reflective of heightened carbon-sulfur cycling in the sediments underlying the OMZ core. Our data suggests that the sediment biogeochemistry of the OMZ is sensitive to minute changes in bottom water dissolved oxygen, and is dictated by the potential abundance and bioavailability of complex to simple carbon compounds which can stimulate a cascade of geomicrobial activities pertaining to the carbon-sulfur cycle. Our findings hold implications in benthic ecology and sediment diagenesis.

  10. The Plio-Pleistocene Evolution of the Indian Ocean Monsoonal System: Evidence from the Arabian Sea and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, K. E.; Maslin, M. A.; Mackay, A. W.; Leng, M. J.; Kingston, J.; Deino, A.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to identify the teleconnections between high latitude forcing and tropical monsoonal circulation in order to understand climate change in East Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene. Here we present a record of aeolian dust transport to the Arabian Sea between approximately 2.9 and 2.3 million years ago (Ma), constructed from the high-resolution XRF scanning of sediment cores from ODP Sites 721 and 722. Variations in the delivery of aeolian dust to the Arabian Sea, reflected in normalised flux of titanium, show that monsoonal circulation prior to 2.6 Ma, and after 2.5 Ma, was highly variable and primarily driven by orbitally-forced changes in tropical summer insolation, strongly modulated by the 400,000 year cycle of orbital eccentricity. This is confirmed by the presence of lakes in the East African Rift Valley during key eccentricity maxima. The dust record is coupled with the analysis of a well-dated series of diatomite units from the Baringo-Bogoria Basin which document the rhythmic cycling of large, precessionally-driven freshwater lakes which periodically occupied the Central Kenyan Rift Valley between 2.7 and 2.58 Ma. Analysis of one of these lake sequences using stable oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica, combined with the XRF analysis of whole-sample geochemistry, reveals that the deep lake phase was characterised by fluctuations in rainfall and lake depth over cycles lasting, on average, 1,400 years. The presence of these millennial-scale fluctuations is confirmed by evidence of abrupt climate cycles in the oceanic dust record from the Arabian Sea.

  11. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across themore » lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.« less

  12. Sediment deposition rates on the continental margins of the eastern Arabian Sea using 210Pb, 137Cs and 14C.

    PubMed

    Somayajulu, B L; Bhushan, R; Sarkar, A; Burr, G S; Jull, A J

    1999-09-30

    Eight gravity cores from the active eastern continental margins of the Arabian Sea were dated using 210Pbxs, 137Cs and 14C. The short-term (< or = 100 years) sedimentation rates range from 0.06 to 0.66 cm/year where as the long-term (> or = 1000 years) ones using AMS 14C on planktonic foraminifera varied from 0.004 to 0.13 cm/year. For long-term chronology (< or = 50,000 years) AMS dating of well-cleaned planktonic foraminifera is most suited.

  13. Assessing the applicability of organic SST proxies in an upwelling region (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattaud, J.; van Erk, M. R.; Reichart, G. J.; Schulz, H.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Schouten, S.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple organic proxies have the potential to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST), but their behaviour is not completely understood within upwelling areas. This holds in particular for the recently developed Long chain Diol Index1 (LDI), based on the ratio of 1,15-diols over 1,13-diols, both likely produced by Eustigmatophytes. We tested the applicability of the LDI by comparing it to the more established temperature proxies TEX86 and Uk¢37 in a sediment core (spanning the last 76 ky) from the northern Arabian Sea and in surface sediments (Pakistan margin). In the surface sediments, Uk¢37- and LDI-SSTs agree well with annual mean SST, but the TEX86-SST substantially overestimates SST. A better agreement is observed, when the 0-200 m TEX86 calibration is used, suggesting TEX86 reflects subsurface temperatures. The results from the sediment core reveal that the SST records differ in absolute reconstructed temperature and show different patterns. TEX86 subsurface temperatures show a continuous increase toward the Holocene and no stadial/interstadial differences, while the LDI-SST is constant around 26°C with the exception of some short-term cooling events during periods of intensified upwelling. The Uk¢37-SST varies between 22 and 26°C and follows the global δ18Obenthic foram curve and thus is representing mean annual SST in this region3. During stadials, the reduced monsoon and low upwelling intensity resulted in warming of the subsurface waters2, as indicated by higher TEX86 temperatures, while global cooling led to colder surface waters as reflected in lower Uk¢37-SSTs, thus reducing the thermal gradient in the water column2. During the interstadials, which are periods of strong upwelling3, there is a high proportion of 1,14-diols (>40%). This probably disturbs the LDI-SST signal because the diatoms that produce the 1,14-diols are also generating small amounts of the 1,13-diols4. This suggests that care has to be taken in applying the LDI in upwelling

  14. Benthic biological and biogeochemical patterns and processes across an oxygen minimum zone (Pakistan margin, NE Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Gregory L.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) impinging on continental margins present sharp gradients ideal for testing environmental factors thought to influence C cycling and other benthic processes, and for identifying the roles that biota play in these processes. Here we introduce the objectives and initial results of a multinational research program designed to address the influences of water depth, the OMZ (˜150-1300 m), and organic matter (OM) availability on benthic communities and processes across the Pakistan Margin of the Arabian Sea. Hydrologic, sediment, and faunal characterizations were combined with in-situ and shipboard experiments to quantify and compare biogeochemical processes and fluxes, OM burial efficiency, and the contributions of benthic communities, across the OMZ. In this introductory paper, we briefly review previous related work in the Arabian Sea, building the rationale for integrative biogeochemical and ecological process studies. This is followed by a summary of individual volume contributions and a brief synthesis of results. Five primary stations were studied, at 140, 300, 940, 1200 and 1850 m water depth, with sampling in March-May (intermonsoon) and August-October (late-to-postmonsoon) 2003. Taken together, the contributed papers demonstrate distinct cross-margin gradients, not only in oxygenation and sediment OM content, but in benthic community structure and function, including microbial processes, the extent of bioturbation, and faunal roles in C cycling. Hydrographic studies demonstrated changes in the intensity and extent of the OMZ during the SW monsoon, with a shoaling of the upper OMZ boundary that engulfed the previously oxygenated 140-m site. Oxygen profiling and microbial process rate determinations demonstrated dramatic differences in oxygen penetration and consumption across the margin, and in the relative importance of anaerobic processes, but surprisingly little seasonal change. A broad maximum in sediment OM content occurred on

  15. Three-dimensional imaging of the S-velocity structure for the crust and the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Sea from Rayleigh wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchete, V.

    2017-04-01

    A 3D imaging of S-velocity for the Arabian Sea crust and upper mantle structure is presented in this paper, determined by means of Rayleigh wave analysis, for depths ranging from zero to 300 km. The crust and upper mantle structure of this region of the earth never has been the subject of a surface wave tomography survey. The Moho map performed in the present study is a new result, in which a crustal thickening beneath the Arabian Fan sediments can be observed. This crustal thickening can be interpreted as a quasi-continental oceanic transitional structure. A crustal thickness of up to 20 km also can be observed for the Murray Ridge system in this Moho map. This crustal thickening can be due to that the Murray Ridge System consists of Indian continental crust. This continental crust is extremely thinned to the southwest of this region, as shown in this Moho map. This area can be interpreted as oceanic in origin. In the depth range from 30 to 60 km, the S-velocity presents its lower values at the Carlsberg Ridge region, because it is the younger region of the study area. In the depth range from 60 to 105 km of depth, the S-velocity pattern is very similar to that shown for the previous depth range, except for the regions in which the asthenosphere is reached, for these regions appear a low S-velocity pattern. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), or equivalently the lithosphere thickness, determined in the present study is also a new result, in which the lithosphere thickness for the Arabian Fan can be estimated in 60-70 km. The lower lithospheric thickness observed in the LAB map, for the Arabian Fan, shows that this region may be in the transition zone between continental and oceanic structure. Finally, a low-velocity zone (LVZ) has been determined, for the whole study area, located between the LAB and the boundary of the asthenosphere base (or equivalently the lithosphere-asthenosphere system thickness). The asthenosphere-base map calculated in the

  16. Trichodesmium blooms and warm-core ocean surface features in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Jyothibabu, R; Karnan, C; Jagadeesan, L; Arunpandi, N; Pandiarajan, R S; Muraleedharan, K R; Balachandran, K K

    2017-08-15

    Trichodesmium is a bloom-forming, diazotrophic, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria widely distributed in the warmer oceans, and their bloom is considered a 'biological indication' of stratification and nitrogen limitation in the ocean surface layer. In the first part of this paper, based on the retrospective analyses of the ocean surface mesoscale features associated with 59 Trichodesmium bloom incidences recorded in the past, 32 from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, and 27 from the rest of the world, we have showed that warm-core features have an inducing effect on bloom formation. In the second part, we have considered the environmental preferences of Trichodesmium bloom based on laboratory and field studies across the globe, and proposed a view about how warm-core features could provide an inducing pre-requisite condition for the bloom formation in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Proposed that the subsurface waters of warm-core features maintain more likely chances for the conducive nutrient and light conditions required for the triggering of the blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBattista, Joseph D.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Piatek, Marek J.; Bowen, Brian W.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Howard Choat, J.; McIlwain, Jennifer H.; Priest, Mark A.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-06-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish ( Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper ( Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  18. Fresh Water River discharges as observed by SMOS in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) are two peculiar regions in the Indian Ocean exhibiting a wide range of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) values. In the BoB, the strong summer monsoon rainfall and the continental run-offs into these semi-enclosed basins result in an intense dilution of the surface seawater in the northern part of the Bay, thereby inducing some of the lowest SSS water masses found in the tropical belt. In the AS, because of the intense variability associated with the monsoon cycle, water mass structure in the upper layers of the AS shows enormous variability in the space and time. As such, the role of the salinity in these regions is crucial in the ocean dynamics of these regions. After more than 7 years in orbit, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission [1] continues to provide a series of salinity data that could be used to monitor the SSS variations in these climatically relevant regions, provided that systematic errors due to land contamination are reduced. Recently-developed algorithms for SSS retrieval [2] have improved the filtering criteria and the mitigation of the systematic bias, providing coherent SSS retrievals close to the land masses. In this work we have analyzed the SSS in 2-degree boxes located at the mouth of the main rivers in the BoB: Ganges-Brahmaputra, Irrawady, Mahanadi, Godovari; and in the AS: Indus. We have first tried to validate the SMOS salinity retrievals with in situ measurements. Since there is few available in situ data, we have also compared the climatological SSS behavior derived from SMOS with the ones provided by the World Ocean Atlas [3]. We have also compared the SMOS SSS data with historical data of discharges [4] and [5], ocean currents from the Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-time (OSCAR) [6], Sea Surface Temperature from Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) [7],[8] and [9] and Chlorophyll data [10]. The conclusion of this work is that, when the proper

  19. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2017-09-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  20. Uptake of phytodetritus by benthic foraminifera under oxygen depletion at the Indian margin (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, A. J.; Witte, U.; Kucera, M.; Heinz, P.

    2014-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera in sediments on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea, where the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges on the continental slope, are exposed to particularly severe levels of oxygen depletion. Food supply for the benthic community is high but delivered in distinct pulses during upwelling and water mixing events associated with summer and winter monsoon periods. In order to investigate the response by benthic foraminifera to such pulsed food delivery under oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 mL L-1 (4.5 μmol L-1), an in situ isotope labeling experiment (13C, 15N) was performed on the western continental slope of India at 540 m water depth (OMZ core region). The assemblage of living foraminifera (>125 μm) in the uppermost centimeter at this depth is characterized by an unexpectedly high population density of 3982 individuals 10 cm-2 and a strong dominance by few calcareous species. For the experiment, we concentrated on the nine most abundant taxa, which constitute 93% of the entire foraminiferal population at 0-1 cm sediment depth. Increased concentrations of 13C and 15N in the cytoplasm indicate that all investigated taxa took up labeled phytodetritus during the 4 day experimental phase. In total, these nine species had assimilated 113.8 mg C m-2 (17.5% of the total added carbon). Uptake of nitrogen by the three most abundant taxa (Bolivina aff. B. dilatata, Cassidulina sp., Bulimina gibba) was 2.7 mg N m-2 (2% of the total added nitrogen). The response to the offered phytodetritus varied largely among foraminiferal species with Uvigerina schwageri being by far the most important species in short-term processing, whereas the most abundant taxa Bolivina aff. B. dilatata and Cassidulina sp. showed comparably low uptake of the offered food. We suggest the observed species-specific differences are related to species biomass and specific feeding preferences. In summary, the experiment in the OMZ core region shows rapid processing of fresh

  1. Uptake of phytodetritus by benthic foraminifera under oxygen depletion at the Indian Margin (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, A. J.; Witte, U.; Kucera, M.; Heinz, P.

    2013-09-01

    Benthic foraminifera in sediments on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea where the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges on the continental slope are exposed to particularly severe levels of oxygen depletion. Food supply for the benthic community is high but delivered in distinct pulses during upwelling and water mixing events associated with summer and winter monsoon periods. In order to investigate the response by benthic foraminifera to such pulsed food delivery under oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 mL L-1 (4.5 μmol L-1), an in situ isotope labeling experiment (13C, 15N) was performed at the western continental slope of India at 540 m water depth (OMZ core region). The assemblage of living foraminifera (>125 μm) in the uppermost centimeter at this depth is characterized by an unexpectedly high population density of 3982 ind. 10 cm-2 and a strong dominance by few calcareous species. For the experiment, we concentrated on the nine most abundant taxa, which constitute 93% of the entire foraminifera population at 0-1 cm sediment depth. Increased concentrations of 13C and 15N in the cytoplasm indicate that all investigated taxa took up the labeled phytodetritus during the 4 day experimental phase. In total, these nine species had assimilated 113.8 mg C m-2 (17.5% of the total added carbon). The uptake of nitrogen by the three most abundant taxa (Bolivina aff. B. dilatata, Cassidulina sp., Bulimina gibba) was 2.7 mg N m-2 (2% of the total added nitrogen) and showed the successful application of 15N as tracer in foraminiferal studies. The short-term response to the offered phytodetritus varied largely among foraminiferal species with Uvigerina schwageri being by far the most important species in short-term processing whereas the most abundant taxa Bolivina aff. B. dilatata and Cassidulina sp. showed comparably low uptake of the offered food. We suggest that the observed species-specific differences are related to individual biomass of species and to specific

  2. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

    2013-03-01

    Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison

  3. Comparative organic geochemistry of Indian margin (Arabian Sea) sediments: estuary to continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; White, C.; Anderson, A.; Vergnaud, B.; Johnstone, G.; Brear, S.; Woulds, C.; Naqvi, S. W.; Kitazato, H.

    2014-02-01

    Surface sediments from sites across the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea were analysed for their carbon and nitrogen compositions (elemental and stable isotopic), grain size distributions and biochemical indices of organic matter (OM) source and/or degradation state. Site locations ranged from the estuaries of the Mandovi and Zuari rivers to depths of ~ 2000 m on the continental slope, thus spanning nearshore muds and sands on the shelf and both the semi-permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the upper slope (~ 200-1300 m) and the seasonal hypoxic zone that impinges on the shelf. Source indices showed mixed marine and terrigenous OM within the estuaries, and overwhelming predominance (80%+) of marine OM on the shelf and slope. Thus, riverine OM is heavily diluted by autochthonous marine OM and/or is efficiently remineralised within or immediately offshore of the estuaries. Any terrigenous OM that is exported appears to be retained in nearshore muds; lignin phenols indicate that the small terrigenous OM content of slope sediments is of different origin, potentially from rivers to the north. Organic C contents of surface shelf and slope sediments varied from < 0.5 wt % in relict shelf sands to over 7 wt % at slope sites within the OMZ, decreasing to ≤ 1 wt % at 2000 m. Major variability (~ 5 wt %) was found at slope sites within the OMZ of similar depth and near-identical bottom-water oxygen concentration. A strong relationship between organic C and sediment grain size was seen for sediments within the OMZ, but lower C loadings were found for sites on the shelf and below the OMZ. Diagenetic indices confirmed that lower C content below the OMZ is associated with greater extent of OM degradation, but that C-poor shelf sediments are not consistently more degraded than those within the OMZ. Together, the results indicate that OM enrichment on the upper slope can be explained by physical controls (winnowing and/or dilution) on the shelf and progressive OM degradation

  4. Response of the Surface Circulation of the Arabian Sea to Monsoonal Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, L. M.; Hormann, V.; Lumpkin, R.; Foltz, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    We use two decades of drifter and satellite data to examine the monthly evolution of the surface circulation of the Arabian Sea, which reverses annually in response to the Indian monsoon winds. Most significantly, we find that in the transition from winter to summer circulations, northward flow appears along the length of the western boundary as early as March or April, one or two months before the onset of the southwest monsoon winds. This reversal is initiated by annual Rossby waves, which in turn are initiated by wind curl forcing during the previous southwest monsoon. These results lead us to speculate that there is an oceanic mechanism through which one monsoon may precondition the next. Previous studies of monsoon circulations with lower temporal resolution have highlighted basin-wide currents and connections that are not found to exist in the monthly fields. In particular, we find that the Northeast Monsoon Current does not reach the western boundary and there is no counter-rotating gyre system during boreal winter. South of the equator, the eastward-flowing South Equatorial Counter Current (SECC) is present year-round, even though equatorial winds are strongly influenced by the monsoons. Semi-annual variability of the SECC is governed by Ekman pumping over the south equatorial gyre (or Seychelles dome) and, surprisingly, it is weakest during the northeast monsoon. This region has important influence on the atmosphere and its link to the monsoons deserves further investigation. The East African Coastal Current feeds into the SECC from the boundary. During the southwest monsoon it overshoots the equator and splits, feeding both northward into the Somali Current and eastward into the SECC after looping back across the equator. This apparent retroflection of the EACC is what was previously known as the southern gyre and is obscured at the surface by strong, locally wind-driven, cross-equatorial Ekman transport. Finally, there is broad, strong eastward flow at

  5. Retreived bacteria from Noctiluca miliaris (green) bloom of the northeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Subhajit; Matondkar, S. G. Prabhu; Furtado, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, seasonal blooms of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris have appeared in the open-waters of the northern Arabian Sea (NAS). This study provides the first characterization of bacteria from a seasonal bloom of green Noctiluca of NAS (20°N-17°N and 64°E-70°E), during the spring-inter-monsoon cruise of Sagar Sampada 253, in March 2007. Bacterial growth as assessed by most-probable number (MPN) and plate counts, revealed `variable-physiotypes' over a wide range of salinities (0%-25% w/v NaCl), pH levels (5-8.5), and organic nutrient strengths, in comparison to non-bloom waters. MPN indices of bacteria in surface waters of bloom stations *DWK and *PRB, corresponded to (3.08-4.41)×103 cells/mL at 3.5% NaCl (w/v), and (2.82-9.49)×102 cells/mL at 25% (w/v) NaCl in tryptone-yeast extract broth (TYE). Plate counts were (1.12-4)×106 CFU/mL at 0% (w/v) NaCl, (1.28-3.9)×106 CFU/mL at 3.5% (w/v) NaCl, and (0.4-7)×104 CFU/mL at 25% NaCl (w/v) on TYE. One-tenth-strength Zobell's gave (0.6-3.74)×105 CFU/mL at pH 5 to (3.58-7.5)×105 CFU/mL at pH 8.5. These bacteria were identified to the genera Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Staphylococcus, Planococcus, Dietzia, Virgibacillus, Micrococcus, Sporosarcinae, Leucobacter, and Halomonas. The identity of three strains (GUFBSS253N2, GUFBSS253N30, and GUFBSS253N84) was confirmed through 16S rDNA sequence homology as Bacillus cohnii, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus cereus. The ˜2-3-fold higher plate counts of culturable bacteria from the open-waters of the NAS indicate that these bacteria could critically determine the biogeochemical dynamics of the bloom and its milieu. The role of these bacteria in sustaining/terminating the bloom is under evaluation.

  6. Infant botulism due to consumption of contaminated commercially prepared honey. First report from the Arabian Gulf States.

    PubMed

    van der Vorst, Maria M J; Jamal, Wafaa; Rotimi, Vincent O; Moosa, Alie

    2006-01-01

    To report the first case of infant botulism in Arabian Gulf States. A 6-week-old infant, presenting with signs of sepsis, was intubated and ventilated due to progressive weakness. Infant botulism was suspected with acute flaccid paralysis and a history of honey consumption. An electromyogram showed decreased amplitude of compound muscle action potential in all motor nerves, preserved sensory responses; the motor terminal latencies and motor conduction velocities were normal. Blood, stool and honey samples were sent for culture. Stool and honey cultures showed two identical strains of Clostridium botulinum. This case shows that the infant botulism occurred from the ingested contaminated honey. Hence vigilance should be maintained when a baby is fed honey and shows signs of progressive weakness because the disease can quickly progress to respiratory failure.

  7. The Arabian Sea as a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region during the late Southwest Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, S. W. A.; Moffett, J. W.; Gauns, M. U.; Narvekar, P. V.; Pratihary, A. K.; Naik, H.; Shenoy, D. M.; Jayakumar, D. A.; Goepfert, T. J.; Patra, P. K.; Al-Azri, A.; Ahmed, S. I.

    2010-07-01

    Extensive observations were made during the late Southwest Monsoon of 2004 over the Indian and Omani shelves, and along a transect that extended from the southern coast of Oman to the central west coast of India, tracking the southern leg of the US JGOFS expedition (1994-1995) in the west. The data are used, in conjunction with satellite-derived data, to investigate long-term trends in chlorophyll and sea surface temperature, indicators of upwelling intensity, and to understand factors that control primary production (PP) in the Arabian Sea, focussing on the role of iron. Our results do not support an intensification of upwelling in the western Arabian Sea, reported to have been caused by the decline in the winter/spring Eurasian snow cover since 1997. We also noticed, for the first time, an unexpected development of high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition off the southern Omani coast. This feature, coupled with other characteristics of the system, such as a narrow shelf and relatively low iron concentrations in surface waters, suggest a close similarity between the Omani upwelling system and the Peruvian and California upwelling systems, where PP is limited by iron. Iron limitation of PP may complicate simple relationship between upwelling and PP assumed by previous workers, and contribute to the anomalous offshore occurrence of the most severe oxygen (O2) depletion in the region. Over the much wider Indian shelf, which experiences large-scale bottom water O2-depletion in summer, adequate iron supply from reducing bottom-waters and sediments seems to support moderately high PP; however, such production is restricted to the thin, oxygenated surface layer, probably because of the unsuitability of the O2-depleted environment for the growth of oxygenic photosynthesizers.

  8. Geodetic constraints on present-day motion of the Arabian Plate: Implications for Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrajehi, Abdullah; McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert; Daoud, Mohamed; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Ergintav, Semih; Gomez, Francisco; Sholan, Jamal; Bou-Rabee, Firyal; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Haileab, Biniam; Fisseha, Shimelles; Asfaw, Laike; Mahmoud, Salah; Rayan, Ali; Bendik, Rebecca; Kogan, Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Five years of continuously recording GPS observations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia together with new continuous and survey-mode GPS observations broadly distributed across the Arabian Peninsula provide the basis for substantially improved estimates of present-day motion and internal deformation of the Arabian plate. We derive the following relative, geodetic Euler vectors (latitude (°N), longitude (°E), rate (°/Myr, counterclockwise)) for Arabia-Nubia (31.7 ± 0.2, 24.6 ± 0.3, 0.37 ± 0.01), Arabia-Somalia (22.0 ± 0.5, 26.2 ± 0.5, 0.40 ± 0.01), Arabia-India (18.0 ± 3.8, 87.6 ± 3.3, 0.07 ± 0.01), Arabia-Sinai (35.7 ± 0.8, 17.1 ± 5.0, 0.15 ± 0.04), and Arabia-Eurasia (27.5 ± 0.1, 17.6 ± 0.3, 0.404 ± 0.004). We use these Euler vectors to estimate present-day stability of the Arabian plate, the rate and direction of extension across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and slip rates along the southern Dead Sea fault south of the Lebanon restraining bend (4.5-4.7 ± 0.2 mm/yr, left lateral; 0.8-1.1 ± 0.3 mm/yr extension) and the Owens fracture zone (3.2-2.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr, right lateral, increasing from north to south; 1-2 mm/yr extension). On a broad scale, the Arabian plate has no resolvable internal deformation (weighted root mean square of residual motions for Arabia equals 0.6 mm/yr), although there is marginally significant evidence for N-S shortening in the Palmyride Mountains, Syria at ≤ 1.5 mm/yr. We show that present-day Arabia plate motion with respect to Eurasia is consistent within uncertainties (i.e., ±10%) with plate tectonic estimates since the early Miocene when Arabia separated from Nubia. We estimate the time of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting from present-day Arabia motion, plate tectonic evidence for a 70% increase in Arabia-Nubia relative motion at 13 Ma, and the width of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and find that rifting initiated roughly simultaneously (±2.2 Myr) along the strike of the Red Sea from the Gulf of Suez to the Afar

  9. Organic carbon preservation in Southeastern Arabian Sea sediments since mid-Holocene: Implications to South Asian Summer Monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagoji, Siddhesh S.; Tiwari, Manish

    2017-09-01

    The earlier studies show a contrasting long-term trend of the South Asian Summer Monsoon (SASM) after attaining the precessional forcing induced mid-Holocene maximum. The increasing total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of marine sediments in the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) has been interpreted to imply strengthening SASM since mid-Holocene by a few studies. However, TOC concentration is also influenced by redox conditions, sedimentation rate, and an influx of terrigenous matter depending on the regional settings. So, it needs to be ascertained whether the TOC concentration of the sediments in the SEAS is a signal of productivity related to the SASM strength or preservation. Therefore, we studied multiple proxies (TOC, total nitrogen, atomic C/N, δ13Corg, CaCO3, and major and trace elements concentration) for determining the productivity, redox conditions, detrital supply, and provenance in a sediment core from the upper continental slope of the SEAS spanning the past ˜4700 years at centennial scale resolution. The present study shows that the observed increase in the TOC values since the mid-Holocene is a result of better preservation caused by increased sedimentation rate and enhanced reducing conditions. We further show that the SASM has been declining since mid-Holocene after attaining a precession-forced maximum, which corroborates the earlier model ensemble studies.

  10. Megafaunal responses to strong oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, Sarah J.; Bett, Brian J.; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2009-03-01

    The Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which intersects the continental margin between approximately 100 and 1200 m, is one of the world's largest deep-water oxygen-deficient water masses. We analysed megafaunal organisms seen in images obtained using a wide-angle survey photographic (WASP) system at nine sites (140-1850 m water depth) across the OMZ on the Pakistan Margin during the late-monsoon period (August-September 2003). The visible megafauna comprised: (1) the megabenthos sensu strictu ( s.s.), (2) large polychaetes and (3) the benthopelagic megafauna (fish, natant decapods and octopods). Large protozoans, mainly the foraminiferan Pelosina sp., were counted but not included in the megafauna. The megabenthos s.s. were rare at the seasonally hypoxic 140-m site (O 2=0.11 ml l -1), entirely absent in the OMZ core and most of the lower transition zone (300-900 m; O 2=0.12-0.15 ml l -1), but peaked in abundance (27.94 indiv. m -2) at 1000 m (O 2=0.16 ml l -1). Densities were much lower at 1100 and 1200 m (0.52-0.69 indiv. m -2; O 2=0.25-0.38 ml l -1), and declined to minimal values (0.01 indiv. m -2) at 1850 m (O 2=1.68 ml l -1). There was no correlation with depth, dissolved-oxygen concentration or sediment organic chemistry variables (%C org, %Total N, C:N, δ13C, δ15N). Pelosina sp. was the only strictly benthic organism visible at 400 and 700 m. Fish and natant decapods were fairly common at 300 m, and fish were the only metazoans seen in photographs from 700 m. Large polychaetes, almost certainly Linopherus sp., were very abundant in photographs from 900 m, where megabenthos s.s. were absent, and somewhat less abundant at 1000 m. Suspension-feeding cnidarians and tunicates were abundant at 1100 and 1200 m, respectively. The number of megabenthos s.s. species visible at each site ranged from six (1000 and 1850 m) to 11 (1100 and 1200 m). Diversity ( H'(log e)) was the lowest at 1000 and 1850 m and the highest at 1100 m, with intermediate values at 140

  11. Sink or link? The bacterial role in benthic carbon cycling in the Arabian sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzato, L.; Van Oevelen, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2013-06-01

    The bacterial loop, the consumption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by bacteria and subsequent transfer of bacterial carbon to higher trophic levels, plays a prominent role in pelagic aquatic food webs. However, its role in sedimentary ecosystems is not well documented. Here we present the results of isotope tracer experiments performed under in situ oxygen conditions in sediments from inside and outside the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) to study the importance of the microbial loop in this setting. Particulate organic matter, added as phytodetritus, was processed by bacteria, protozoa and metazoans, while dissolved organic matter was processed only by bacteria and there was very little, if any, transfer to higher trophic levels within the experimental period. This lack of significant transfer of bacterial-derived carbon to metazoan consumers indicates that the bacterial loop is rather inefficient in these sediments. Moreover, metazoans directly consume labile particulate organic matter resources and thus compete with bacteria for phytodetritus.

  12. Trace metal enrichment and organic matter sources in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea along southwest India (Kerala coast).

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S K; Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sujatha, C H

    2015-12-30

    The geochemical distribution and enrichment of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea, along southwest India, Kerala coast. The results of geochemical indices indicated that surficial sediments of five transects are uncontaminated with respect to Mn, Zn and Cu, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Co and Ni, and moderately to strongly contaminated with Pb. The deposition of trace elements exhibited three different patterns i) Cd and Zn enhanced with settling biodetritus from the upwelled waters, ii) Pb, Co and Ni show higher enrichment, evidenced by the association through adsorption of iron-manganese nodules onto clay minerals and iii) Cu enrichment observed close to major urban sectors, initiated by the precipitation as Cu sulfides. Correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to confirm the origin information of metals and the nature of organic matter composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Niche segregation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Angela; Villanueva, Laura; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have emerged as significant factors in the marine nitrogen cycle and are responsible for the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and dinitrogen gas, respectively. Potential for an interaction between these groups exists; however, their distributions are rarely determined in tandem. Here we have examined the vertical distribution of AOA and anammox bacteria through the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one of the most intense and vertically exaggerated OMZs in the global ocean, using a unique combination of intact polar lipid (IPL) and gene-based analyses, at both DNA and RNA levels. To screen for AOA-specific IPLs, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method targeting hexose-phosphohexose (HPH) crenarchaeol, a common IPL of cultivated AOA. HPH-crenarchaeol showed highest abundances in the upper OMZ transition zone at oxygen concentrations of ca. 5 μ, coincident with peaks in both thaumarchaeotal 16S rDNA and amoA gene abundances and gene expression. In contrast, concentrations of anammox-specific IPLs peaked within the core of the OMZ at 600 m, where oxygen reached the lowest concentrations, and coincided with peak anammox 16S rDNA and the hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) gene abundances and their expression. Taken together, the data reveal a unique depth distribution of abundant AOA and anammox bacteria and the segregation of their respective niches by >400 m, suggesting no direct coupling of their metabolisms at the time and site of sampling in the Arabian Sea OMZ. PMID:21593795

  14. Assessment of MODIS-Aqua chlorophyll-a algorithms in coastal and shelf waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilstone, Gavin H.; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Miller, Peter I.; Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Kumar, T. Srinivasa; Suresh, T.; Ragavan, B. R.; Menon, Harilal B.

    2013-08-01

    The use of ocean colour remote sensing to facilitate the monitoring of phytoplankton biomass in coastal waters is hampered by the high variability in absorption and scattering from substances other than phytoplankton. The eastern Arabian Sea coastal shelf is influenced by river run-off, winter convection and monsoon upwelling. Bio-optical parameters were measured along this coast from March 2009 to June 2011, to characterise the optical water type and validate three Chlorophyll-a (Chla) algorithms applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua (MODIS-Aqua) data against in situ measurements. Ocean Colour 3 band ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM) and Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chla algorithms were evaluated. OC3M performed better than GSM and GIOP in all regions and overall, was within 11% of in situ Chla. GSM was within 24% of in situ Chla and GIOP on average was 55% lower. OC3M was less affected by errors in remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ) and by spectral variations in absorption coefficient (aCDOM(λ)) of coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM) and total suspended matter (TSM) compared to the other algorithms. A nine year Chla time series from 2002 to 2011 was generated to assess regional differences between OC3M and GSM. This showed that in the north eastern shelf, maximum Chla occurred during the winter monsoon from December to February, where GSM consistently gave higher Chla compared to OC3M. In the south eastern shelf, maximum Chla occurred in June to July during the summer monsoon upwelling, and OC3M yielded higher Chla compared to GSM. OC3M currently provides the most accurate Chla estimates for the eastern Arabian Sea coastal waters.

  15. Live (Rose Bengal stained) foraminiferal faunas from the northern Arabian Sea: faunal succession within and below the OMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulle, Clemence; Koho, Karoliina; Mojtahid, Meryem; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jorissen, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Live (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera from the Murray Ridge, within and below the northern Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), were studied in order to determine the relationship between faunal composition, bottom-water oxygenation (BWO), pore-water chemistry and organic matter (organic carbon and phytopigment) distribution. A series of multicores were recovered from a ten-station oxygen (BWO: 2µM - 78µM) and bathymetric (885 - 3010m depth) transect during the winter monsoon in January 2009. Foraminifera were investigated from three different size fractions (63-125µm, 125-150µm and >150µm). The larger foraminifera (>125µm) were strongly dominated by agglutinated species (e.g. Reophax spp.). In contrast, in the 63-125µm fraction, calcareous taxa were more abundant, especially in the core of the OMZ. On the basis of a Principal Components Analysis, three foraminiferal groups were identified and correlated to the environmental parameters by Canonical Correspondence Analysis. The faunas from the shallowest stations, in the core of the OMZ (BWO: 2µM), were composed of "low oxygen" species, typical of the Arabian Sea OMZ (e.g., Rotaliatinopsis semiinvoluta, Praeglobobulimina sp., Bulimina exilis, Uvigerina peregrina type parva). These taxa are adapted to the very low BWO conditions and to high phytodetritus supplies. The transitional group, typical for the lower part of the OMZ (BWO: 5-16µM), is composed of species, which are tolerant as well to low-oxygen concentrations, but may be less critical with respect to organic supplies (e.g. Globocassidulina subglobosa, Ehrenbergina trigona). Below the OMZ (BWO: 26-78µM), where food availability is more limited and becomes increasingly restricted to surficial sediments, cosmopolitan calcareous taxa were present, such as Bulimina aculeata, Melonis barleeanus, Uvigerina peregrina and Epistominella exigua. Miliolids were uniquely observed in this last zone, reflecting the higher BWO and/or lower organic

  16. Analysis of humpback whale sounds in shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea: An indication of breeding habitat.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Madan M; Latha, G; Thirunavukkarasu, A

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was to present the acoustical identification of humpback whales, detected by using an autonomous ambient noise measurement system, deployed in the shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the period January to May 2011. Seven types of sounds were detected. These were characteristically upsweeps and downsweeps along with harmonics. Sounds produced repeatedly in a specific pattern were referred to as phrases (PQRS and ABC). Repeated phrases in a particular pattern were referred to as themes, and from the spectrographic analysis, two themes (I and II) were identified. The variation in the acoustic characteristics such as fundamental frequency, range, duration of the sound unit, and the structure of the phrases and themes are discussed. Sound units were recorded from mid-January to mid-March, with a peak in February, when the mean SST is approx. 28 degree C, and no presence was recorded after mid-March. The temporal and thematic structures strongly determine the functions of the humpback whale song form. Given the use of song in the SEAS, this area is possibly used as an active breeding habitat by humpback whales during the winter season.

  17. Feeding ecology of the copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis near the lower interface of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    Feeding ecology of the calanoid copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis collected in the Arabian Sea at one station during the Spring Intermonsoon and during the Southwest Monsoon of 1995 was studied with transmission electron microscopy of gut-contents. Highest abundances of these animals occurred from ˜400 to 1100 m, near the lower interface of the oxygen minimum zone and at the inflection point where oxygen starts to increase. We expected that their gut-contents would include particles and cells that had sunk relatively undegraded from surface waters as well as those from within the oxygen minimum zone, and that gut-contents would differ between the Spring Intermonsoon and the more productive SW Monsoon. Overall, in both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis was omnivorous, and consumed a variety of detrital particles, prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs, gram-negative bacteria including metal-precipitating bacteria, aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, microheterotrophs, virus-like particles and large virus-like particles, as well as cuticle and cnidarian tissue. Few significant differences in types of food consumed were seen among life stages within or among various depth zones. Amorphous, unidentifiable material was significantly more abundant in guts during the Spring Intermonsoon than during the late SW Monsoon, and recognizable cells made up a significantly higher portion of gut-contents during the late SW Monsoon. This is consistent with the Intermonsoon as a time when organic material is considerably re-worked by the surface water microbial loop before leaving the euphotic zone. In both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis had consumed what appeared to be aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, similar to those we had previously found in gut-contents of several species of zooplankton from the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical Pacific. By intercepting sinking material, populations of Lucicutia aff. L. grandis act as a filter for carbon

  18. Living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas along a strong bottom-water oxygen gradient on the Indian margin (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulle, C.; Mojtahid, M.; Gooday, A. J.; Jorissen, F. J.; Kitazato, H.

    2015-02-01

    Rose Bengal stained foraminiferal assemblages were analysed along a five-station bathymetric transect across the core and the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea. Sediment cores were collected using the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during RV Yokosuka cruise YK08-11 in the post-monsoon season (October 2008) at water depths ranging from 535 to 2000 m, along a gradient from almost anoxic to well-oxygenated (0.3 to 108 μM) bottom waters. Stained foraminiferal densities were very high in the OMZ core (535 m) and decreased with depth. The faunas were dominated (40-80%) by non-calcareous taxa at all stations. These were mainly species of Reophax and Lagenammina but also included delicate monothalamous taxa (organic-walled "allogromiids", agglutinated saccamminids, psammosphaerids and tubular forms). These new data from the Indian margin are compared to previous studies from the Murray Ridge, the Pakistan margin and the Oman margin. The fact that similar species were found at sites with comparable bottom-water oxygen concentrations but with very different surface water productivity suggests that, within the strongly developed Arabian Sea OMZ, bottom-water oxygen concentration, and not the organic flux to the sea floor, is the main factor controlling the species composition of the foraminiferal communities. Several foraminiferal species (e.g. Praeglobobulimina sp. 1, Ammodiscus sp. 1, Bolivina aff. dilatata) were confined to the core of the OMZ and are presently known only from the Arabian Sea. Because of their association with extremely low-oxygen concentration, these species may prove to be good indicators of past OMZ variability in the Arabian Sea.

  19. Living (Rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas along a strong bottom-water oxygen gradient on the Indian margin (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulle, C.; Mojtahid, M.; Gooday, A. J.; Jorissen, F. J.; Kitazato, H.

    2015-08-01

    Rose-Bengal-stained foraminiferal assemblages (> 150 μm) were analysed along a five-station bathymetric transect across the core and the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea. Sediment cores were collected using the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during the RV Yokosuka cruise YK08-11 in the post-monsoon season (October 2008) at water depths ranging from 535 to 2000 m, along a gradient from almost anoxic to well-oxygenated (0.3 to 108 μM) bottom waters. Stained benthic foraminifera were investigated from two different size fractions (150-300 μm and > 300 μm). Stained foraminiferal densities were very high in the core of the OMZ (at 535 and 649 m) and decreased at deeper sites. The faunas (> 150 μm) were dominated (40-80 %) by non-calcareous taxa at all stations. These were mainly species of Reophax and Lagenammina but also included delicate monothalamous taxa (organic-walled "allogromiids", agglutinated saccamminids, psammosphaerids and tubular forms). These new data from the Indian margin are compared to previous studies from the Murray Ridge, the Pakistan margin and the Oman margin. The fact that similar species were found at sites with comparable bottom-water oxygen concentrations but with very different surface water productivity suggests that, within the strongly developed Arabian Sea OMZ, bottom-water oxygen concentration, and not the organic flux to the sea floor, is the main factor controlling the species composition of the foraminiferal communities. Several foraminiferal species (e.g. Praeglobobulimina sp. 1, Ammodiscus sp. 1, Bolivina aff. dilatata) were confined to the core of the OMZ. These species are presently known only from the Arabian Sea. Because of their association with extremely low oxygen concentrations, these species may be good markers for very low oxygen concentrations, and could be used to reconstruct past OMZ variability in the Arabian Sea.

  20. DNA damage in marine rock oyster (Saccostrea Cucullata) exposed to environmentally available PAHs and heavy metals along the Arabian Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Subhodeep; Vashistha, Deepti; Saha Sarker, Munmun; Sarkar, A

    2018-04-30

    Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S. cucullata due to exposure to environmentally available PAHs and also heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn) along the Arabian Sea coast, Goa, India exclusively around the entire coast of Goa. First, we determined significant correlation between DI in S. cucullata and the extent of exposure to and bioaccumulation of different PAH compounds including 2-3 aromatic ring PAHs (R 2 , 0.95), 4-6 aromatic ring PAHs (R 2 , 0.85), oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs, R 2 , 0.84) and total PAHs (t-PAHs, R 2 , 0.98). Second, we observed dose-dependent decrease in DI in S. cucullata with increasing concentrations of different PAH components in oyster tissues. We substantiated our field observations with appropriate laboratory controls using benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Third, we performed stepwise multiple regression analyses of different water quality parameters including pH, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrite (NO 2 ), nitrate (NO 3 ), phosphate (PO 4 ), turbidity and also t-PAH-biota, t-PAH-water with DI as the dependent variable. Among all these parameters, only four parameters such as t-PAH-biota in combination with DO, BOD and NO 2 showed significant correlation (R¯ 2 = 0.95) with loss in DI in S. cucullata. Based on these results, we created a map indicating the percentage of DNA damage in S. cucullata exposed to PAHs and heavy metals at each sampling location along

  1. Present-Day Kinematics of the Dead Sea Transform and Internal Deformation within the Sinai and Arabian Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, F. G.; Yassminh, R.; Cochran, W. J.; Reilinger, R. E.; Barazangi, M.

    2015-12-01

    An updated GPS velocity field along the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) provides a basis for assessing off-transform strain within the Sinai and Arabian plates along entire length of this left-lateral, continental transform. As one of the main tectonic elements in the eastern Mediterranean region, an improved kinematic view of the DSF elucidates the broader understanding of the regional tectonic framework, as well as contributes to refining the earthquake hazard assessment. Reconciling short-term (geodetic) measurements of crustal strain with neotectonic data on fault movements can yield insight into the mechanical and rheological properties of crustal deformation associated with transform tectonics. In addition to regional continuous GPS stations, this study assembles results from campaign GPS networks in Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan spanning more than a decade. 1-sigma uncertainties on velocities range from less than 0.4 mm/yr (continuous stations and older GPS survey sites) to about 1.0 mm/yr (newer survey sites). Analyses using elastic block models suggest slip rates of 4.0 - 5.0 mm/yr along the southern and central DSF and slip rates of 2.0 - 3.0 mm/yr along the northern DSF, and fault locking depths also vary along strike of the transform. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of GPS observations permits analyzing residual strains within the adjacent plates, after plate boundary strain is removed. A key observation is horizontal stretching within the Sinai plate, which may be related to pull by the subducted slab of the Sinai plate. Within the Arabian plate, areas of horizontal stretching generally correlate with locations of Quaternary volcanism.

  2. δ15Nbulk oscillations linked to monsoon-induced denitrification during the past 1 m.y. in the Eastern Arabian Sea (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khim, B. K.; Kim, J. E.; Lee, J.; Ikehara, M.; Clift, P. D.; Pandey, D.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Science Party, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is characterized by a large pool of denitrifying water at intermediate water depths, which plays an important role in the marine nitrogen cycle and resultant response to climate change. A growing body of research emphasizes strong linkage between denitrification strength in the Arabian Sea and climate change at both orbital and millennial timescales. Drilling by International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 was conducted at Site U1456 in the Laxmi Basin, Eastern Arabian Sea, 475 km from the Indian coastline and 820 km south of the modern Indus River Delta. Four lithologic units are defined onboard at the Site U1456. A total of 282 samples were collected from a composite section of Unit I consisting of Holes U1456A and U1456C. Unit I is composed mostly of nannofossil ooze and/or foraminifer-rich nannofossil ooze with interbedded clay, silt, and sand layers. Oxygen isotope measurements of planktonic foraminifera (G. ruber and G. sacculifer), together with shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data, constrain the age of Unit I to younger than about 1.2 Ma. The δ15Nbulk values fluctuate from 4.5‰ to 9.6‰ with a mean of 7.3(±0.95)‰. Higher δ15Nbulk values coincide with interglacial intervals whereas lower δ15Nbulk values correspond to glacial intervals, representing clear glacial-interglacial cyclicity. These variations demonstrate the distinct climatic linkage with the degree of denitrification at orbital timescales, in association with changes in hydrography and productivity. The relation between denitrification and monsoon intensity, previously reported for the continental margins of the Arabian Sea, is also recorded in the deep water sediments.

  3. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E.; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25–28 gill rakers, and 37–38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region. PMID:27551217

  4. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25-28 gill rakers, and 37-38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region.

  5. Live foraminiferal faunas (Rose Bengal stained) from the northern Arabian Sea: links with bottom-water oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulle, C.; Koho, K. A.; Mojtahid, M.; Reichart, G. J.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2013-09-01

    Live (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera from the Murray Ridge, within and below the northern Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), were studied in order to determine the relationship between faunal composition, bottom-water oxygenation (BWO), pore-water chemistry and organic matter (organic carbon and phytopigment) distribution. A series of multicores were recovered from a ten-station oxygen (BWO: 2-78 μM) and bathymetric (885-3010 m depth) transect during the winter monsoon in January 2009. Foraminifera were investigated from three different size fractions (63-125 μm, 125-150 μm and > 150 μm). The larger foraminifera (> 125 μm) were strongly dominated by agglutinated species (e.g. Reophax spp.). In contrast, in the 63-125 μm fraction, calcareous taxa were more abundant, especially in the core of the OMZ, suggesting an opportunistic behaviour. On the basis of a Principal Component Analysis, three foraminiferal groups were identified, reflecting the environmental parameters along the study transect. The faunas from the shallowest stations, in the core of the OMZ (BWO: 2 μM), were composed of "low oxygen" species, typical of the Arabian Sea OMZ (e.g., Rotaliatinopsis semiinvoluta, Praeglobobulimina spp. , Bulimina exilis, Uvigerina peregrina typeparva). These taxa are adapted to the very low BWO conditions and to high phytodetritus supplies. The transitional group, typical for the lower part of the OMZ (BWO: 5-16 μM), is composed of more cosmopolitan taxa tolerant to low-oxygen concentrations (Globocassidulina subglobosa, Ehrenbergina trigona). Below the OMZ (BWO: 26-78 μM), where food availability is more limited and becomes increasingly restricted to surficial sediments, more cosmopolitan calcareous taxa were present, such as Bulimina aculeata, Melonis barleeanus, Uvigerina peregrina and Epistominella exigua. Miliolids were uniquely observed in this last group, reflecting the higher BWO. At these deeper sites, the faunas exhibit a clear depth

  6. Live (Rose Bengal stained) foraminiferal faunas from the northern Arabian Sea: faunal succession within and below the OMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulle, C.; Koho, K. A.; Mojtahid, M.; Reichart, G. J.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2014-02-01

    Live (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera from the Murray Ridge, within and below the northern Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), were studied in order to determine the relationship between faunal composition, bottom water oxygenation (BWO), pore water chemistry and organic matter (organic carbon and phytopigment) distribution. A series of multicores were recovered from a ten-station oxygen (BWO: 2-78 μM) and bathymetric (885-3010 m depth) transect during the winter monsoon in January 2009. Foraminifera were investigated from three different size fractions (63-125 μm, 125-150 μm and >150 μm). The larger foraminifera (>125 μm) were strongly dominated by agglutinated species (e.g. Reophax spp.). In contrast, in the 63-125 μm fraction, calcareous taxa were more abundant, especially in the core of the OMZ. On the basis of a principal components analysis, three foraminiferal groups were identified and correlated to the environmental parameters by canonical correspondence analysis. The faunas from the shallowest stations, in the core of the OMZ (BWO: 2 μM), were composed of "low oxygen" species, typical of the Arabian Sea OMZ (e.g. Rotaliatinopsis semiinvoluta, Praeglobobulimina sp., Bulimina exilis, Uvigerina peregrina type parva). These taxa are adapted to the very low BWO conditions and to high phytodetritus supplies. The transitional group, typical for the lower part of the OMZ (BWO: 5-16 μM), is composed of species that are tolerant as well to low-oxygen concentrations, but may be less critical with respect to organic supplies (e.g. Globocassidulina subglobosa, Ehrenbergina trigona). Below the OMZ (BWO: 26-78 μM), where food availability is more limited and becomes increasingly restricted to surficial sediments, cosmopolitan calcareous taxa were present, such as Bulimina aculeata, Melonis barleeanus, Uvigerina peregrina and Epistominella exigua. Miliolids were uniquely observed in this last zone, reflecting the higher BWO and/or lower organic

  7. Chemical characterization of ambient aerosol collected during the southwest monsoon and intermonsoon seasons over the Arabian Sea: Labile-Fe(II) and other trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefert, Ronald L.; Johansen, Anne M.; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    1999-02-01

    Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) to certain regions of the oceans is an important nutrient source of Fe to the biota, and the ability of the biota to uptake Fe is dependent on the speciation of the Fe. Therefore understanding the speciation of Fe in the atmosphere is critical to understanding the role of Fe as a nutrient source in surface ocean waters. Labile ferrous iron (Fe(II)) concentrations as well as total concentrations for Fe and other important trace metals, cations, and anions were determined over the Arabian Sea for two nonconsecutive months during 1995. Ambient aerosol samples were collected during the Indian Ocean intermonsoon and southwest monsoon seasons over the Arabian Sea. Sampling took place aboard the German research vessel Meteor in the months of May (leg M32/3; intermonsoon) and July/August (leg M32/5; southwest monsoon). Both cruise tracks followed the 65th east meridian, traveling for 30 days each (from north to south during leg M32/3 and from south to north during leg M32/5). A high-volume dichotomous virtual impactor with an aerodynamic cutoff size of 3 μm was used to collect the fine and coarse aerosol fractions for metal analysis. A low volume collector was used to collect aerosol samples for anion and cation analysis. The analysis for labile-Fe(II) was done immediately after sample collection to minimize any possible Fe redox reactions which might occur during sample storage. The analytical procedure involved filter extraction in a formate/formic acid buffered solution at pH 4.2 followed by colorimetric quantification of soluble Fe(II). Metals, anions, and cations were analyzed after the cruise. Total atmospheric aqueous-labile-Fe(II) concentrations during the intermonsoon were between 4.75 and <0.4 ng m-3, of which most (>80%) was present in the fine fraction (<3.0 μm). During the southwest monsoon, atmospheric aqueous-labile-Fe(II) concentrations were consistently below the detection limit (<0.34 to <0.089 ng m-3, depending on

  8. Mechanisms and Effects of Summertime Transport of African Dust Through the Tokar Mountain Gap to the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Very high dust loading over the Red Sea region in summer strongly affects the nutrition balance and thermal and dynamic regimes of the sea. The observations suggest that small-scale local dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand and quantify these processes we present here the first high resolution modeling study of the dust outbreak phenomena in June 2012 over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula using the WRF-Chem model. We identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including: synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea most of the dust transport occurs beyond 2 km above ground level and is strengthened by a pressure gradient formed by low pressure over the eastern Mediterranean and high pressure over the Arabian Peninsula. Across the central and southern parts of the Red Sea dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. During the study period dust is a dominant contributor (87%) to aerosol optical depth (AOD), producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. WRF-Chem simulations demonstrate that both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. During the dust outbreak 49.2 Tg of dust deposits within the calculation domain, which is approximately 90% of the total dust emission of 54.5 Tg. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations but generally underestimate the observed AOD maximum values.

  9. Trichodesmium erythraeum (Ehrenberg) bloom along the southwest coast of India (Arabian Sea) and its impact on trace metal concentrations in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anoop A.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Rajagopalan, M.

    2007-02-01

    The incidence of a large scale Trichodesmium erythraeum bloom along the southwest coast of India (Arabian Sea) observed in May 2005 is reported. Around 4802 filaments of T. erythraeum ml -1 seawater was observed and a colony consisted of 3.6 × 10 5 cells. The bloom was predominant off Suratkal (12° 59'N and 74° 31'E) with a depth of about 47 m, covering an area of 7 km in length and 2 km width. The concentrations of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Nickel and Cobalt were determined in samples collected from the bloom and non-bloom sites using stripping voltammetry. The observed hydrographical and meteorological parameters were found to be favorable for the bloom. The concentrations of Zinc, Cadmium and Nickel were found to be higher at bloom stations, while the concentrations of Lead, Copper and Cobalt were found to be very low at bloom stations. Elevated concentrations of Cadmium and Cobalt were observed at Valappad mainly due to the decomposition of detrital material produced in the bloom. Statistically significant differences ( P > 0.01) in metal concentrations between the bloom and non-bloom stations were not observed except for Copper. Metals such as Lead, Copper and Cobalt were removed from the seawater at all places where bloom was observed. Cadmium was found to be slowly released during the decaying process of the bloom.

  10. Observed seasonal and interannual variability of the near-surface thermal structure of the Arabian Sea Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. R.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.

    2017-06-01

    The observed seasonal and interannual variability of near-surface thermal structure of the Arabian Sea Warm Pool (ASWP) is examined utilizing a reanalysis data set for the period 1990-2008. During a year, the ASWP progressively builds from February, reaches its peak by May only in the topmost 60 m water column. The ASWP Index showed a strong seasonal cycle with distinct interannual signatures. The years with higher (lower) sea surface temperature (SST) and larger (smaller) spatial extent are termed as strong (weak) ASWP years. The differences in the magnitude and spatial extent of thermal structure between the strong and weak ASWP regimes are seen more prominently in the topmost 40 m water column. The heat content values with respect to 28 °C isotherm (HC28) are relatively higher (lower) during strong (weak) ASWP years. Even the secondary peak in HC28 seen during the preceding November-December showed higher (lower) magnitude during the strong ASWP (weak) years. The influence of the observed variability in the surface wind field, surface net air-sea heat flux, near-surface mixed layer thickness, sea surface height (SSH) anomaly, depth of 20 °C isotherm and barrier layer thickness is examined to explain the observed differences in the near-surface thermal structure of the ASWP between strong and weak regimes. The surface wind speed is much weaker in particular during the preceding October and February-March corresponding to the strong ASWP years when compared to those of the weak ASWP years implying its important role. Both stronger winter cooling during weak ASWP years and stronger pre-monsoon heating during strong ASWP years through the surface air-sea heat fluxes contribute to the observed sharp contrast in the magnitudes of both the regimes of the ASWP. The upwelling Rossby wave during the preceding summer monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons is stronger corresponding to the weak ASWP regime when compared to the strong ASWP regime resulting in greater

  11. An annual cycle of phytoplankton biomass in the Arabian Sea, 1994 1995, as determined by moored optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, C. S.; Marra, J.; Dickey, T. D.; Weller, R.

    A surface-to-bottom mooring in the central Arabian Sea (15.5°N, 61.5°E) deployed from October 1994 to October 1995, included fluorometers, PAR irradiance sensors, Lu 683 sensors, and a spectral radiometer. An annual cycle of phytoplankton biomass was determined by transforming signals from the optical sensors into chlorophyll a (chl a). Half-yearly phytoplankton blooms with water-column stratification were observed near the end of each monsoon, as well as biomass increases in response to mesoscale flow features. During the Northeast Monsoon, the integrate water-column chl a rose from 15 to 25 mg m -2, while during the Southwest Monsoon, chl a increased from 15 to a maximum >40 mg m -2. We present an empirical relationship between the ratio of downwelling Ed443/ Ed550 (blue to green wavelength ratio) and integral euphotic zone chl a determined by moored fluorometers ( r2=0.73). There is a more significant relationship between Ed443/ Ed550 measured at one depth in the water column (65 m) and the average vertical attenuation coefficient for PAR (K PAR) between 0 and 65 m ( r2=0.845). Because biofouling was a significant problem at times, data return from any one sensor was incomplete. However, optical sensor/data intercomparison helped fill gaps while permitting investigation of the temporal variability in observed phytoplankton biomass.

  12. Sedimentary pigments and nature of organic matter within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (Indian margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasiq, K. T.; Kurian, S.; Karapurkar, S. G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentary pigments, carbon and nitrogen content and their stable isotopes were studied in three short cores collected from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS). Nine pigments including chlorophyll a and their degradation products were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Astaxanthin followed by canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin were the major carotenoids detected in these cores. The total pigment concentration was high in the core collected from 500 m water depth (6.5 μgg-1) followed by 800 m (1.7 μgg-1) and 1100 m (1.1 μgg-1) depths respectively. The organic carbon did not have considerable control on sedimentary pigments preservation. Pigment degradation was comparatively high in the core collected from the 800 m site which depended not only the bottom dissolved oxygen levels, but also on the faunal activity. As reported earlier, the bottom water dissolved oxygen and presence of fauna have good control on the organic carbon accumulation and preservation at Indian margin OMZ sediments. The C/N ratios and δ13C values for all the cores conclude the marine origin of organic matter and δ15N profiles revealed signature of upwelling associated denitrification within the water column.

  13. Antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical composition of seaweeds collected from Saudi Arabia (Red Sea and Arabian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Moubayed, Nadine M S; Al Houri, Hadeel Jawad; Al Khulaifi, Manal M; Al Farraj, Dunia A

    2017-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the antibacterial activity of selected brown and green marine algae collected from Saudi Arabia Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. The methanolic and acetone extracts were tested against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans in an attempt to be used as an alternative to commonly used antibiotics. Both brown seaweed species Sargassum latifolium B and Sargassum platycarpum A methanolic extracts were found to be active against gram positive than gram negative; however, S. latifolium acetone extract gave the highest inhibitory activity against Salmonella sp. On the other hand, Cladophorasocialis organic extract demonstrated higher antibacterial activity than the fresh extract but both C. socialis extracts revealed decreased activity compared to Sargassum extracts. Cladophora methanolic extract showed an obvious effect on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The present work shows a comparable therapeutic potency of the tested seaweed members Sargassum and Cladophora extracts in treating human microbial pathogens to synthetic chemical antibiotics. A remarkable higher antioxidant DPPH free radical scavenging effect was recorded with Sargassum sp. compared to Cladophora sp. FTIR Infrared Spectrometer analysis together with the high performance liquid chromatography provided a detailed description of the possible functional constituents and the major chemical components present in marine macroalgae particularly in brown seaweeds to be mainly of phenolic nature to which the potent antimicrobial activity is being attributed.

  14. Sink or link? The bacterial role in benthic carbon cycling in the Arabian Sea's oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzato, L.; Van Oevelen, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2013-11-01

    The bacterial loop, the consumption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by bacteria and subsequent transfer of bacterial carbon to higher trophic levels, plays a prominent role in pelagic food webs. However, its role in sedimentary ecosystems is not well documented. Here we present the results of isotope tracer experiments performed under in situ oxygen conditions in sediments from inside and outside the Arabian Sea's oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to study the importance of the microbial loop in this setting. Particulate organic matter, added as phytodetritus, was processed by bacteria, protozoa and metazoans, while dissolved organic matter was processed only by bacteria and there was very little, if any, transfer to higher trophic levels within the 7 day experimental period. This lack of significant transfer of bacterial-derived carbon to metazoan consumers indicates that the bacterial loop is rather inefficient, in sediments both inside and outside the OMZ. Moreover, metazoans directly consumed labile particulate organic matter resources and thus competed with bacteria for phytodetritus.

  15. On the existence of free and metal complexed sulfide in the Arabian Sea and its oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theberge, Stephen M.; Luther, George W.; Farrenkopf, Anna M.

    Free hydrogen sulfide was not detected in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea during legs D1 (September 1992) and D3 (October-November 1992) of the Netherlands Indian Ocean Programme (NIOP). However, sulfide complexed to metals was detected by cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry at 2 nM or less throughout the water column. A slight increase in sulfide was measured in the OMZ relative to the surface waters and may be related to sulfur release from organic matter during decomposition. Sulfide complexes are of two general types at low concentrations of metal and sulfide. First, metals such as Mn, Fe, Co and Ni form complexes with bisulfide ion (HS -) that are kinetically labile to dissociation and are reactive. Second, metals such as Cu and Zn form multinuclear complexes with sulfide (S 2-) that are kinetically inert to dissociation; thus, they are less reactive than free (bi)sulfide and the labile metal bisulfide complexes. Zinc and copper sulfide complexes are important in allowing hydrogen sulfide to persist in seawater which contains measurable oxygen.

  16. Tectonic configuration of the western Arabian continental margin, southern Red Sea, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    A tectonic reconstruction of pre-Red Sea Afro/Arabia suggests that the early rift was narrow with intense extension confined to an axial belt 20 to 40 km wide. Steep Moho slopes probably developed during rift formation as indicated by published gravity data, two published seismic interpretations and the surface geology.

  17. Vertical zonation and distributions of calanoid copepods through the lower oxycline of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishner, Karen F.; Gelfman, Celia; Gowing, Marcia M.; Outram, Dawn M.; Rapien, Mary; Williams, Rebecca L.

    2008-08-01

    This paper provides the first comprehensive analysis of calanoid copepod vertical zonation and community structure at midwater depths (300-1000 m) through the lower oxygen gradient (oxycline) (0.02 to ∼0.3 ml/L) of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Feeding ecology was also analyzed. Zooplankton were collected with a double 1 m 2 MOCNESS plankton net in day and night vertically-stratified oblique tows from 1000 m to the surface at six stations during four seasons as part of the 1995 US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea project. The geographic comparison between a eutrophic more oxygenated onshore station and an offshore station with a strong OMZ served as a natural experiment to elucidate the influence of depth, oxygen concentration, season, food resources, and predators on the copepod distributions. Copepod species and species assemblages of the Arabian Sea OMZ differed in their spatial and vertical distributions relative to environmental and ecological characteristics of the water column and region. The extent and intensity of the oxycline at the lower boundary of the OMZ, and its spatial and temporal variability over the year of sampling, was an important factor affecting distributional patterns. Calanoid copepod species showed vertical zonation through the lower OMZ oxycline. Clustering analyses defined sample groups with similar copepod assemblages and species groups with similar distributions. No apparent diel vertical migration for either calanoid or non-calanoid copepods at these midwater depths was observed, but some species had age-related differences in vertical distributions. Subzones of the OMZ, termed the OMZ Core, the Lower Oxycline, and the Sub-Oxycline, had different copepod communities and ecological interactions. Major distributional and ecological changes were associated with surprisingly small oxygen gradients at low oxygen concentrations. The calanoid copepod community was most diverse in the most oxygenated environments (oxygen

  18. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Aspergillus terreus isolated from the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Stief, Peter; Fuchs-Ocklenburg, Silvia; Kamp, Anja; Manohar, Cathrine-Sumathi; Houbraken, Jos; Boekhout, Teun; de Beer, Dirk; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2014-02-11

    A wealth of microbial eukaryotes is adapted to life in oxygen-deficient marine environments. Evidence is accumulating that some of these eukaryotes survive anoxia by employing dissimilatory nitrate reduction, a strategy that otherwise is widespread in prokaryotes. Here, we report on the anaerobic nitrate metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus terreus (isolate An-4) that was obtained from sediment in the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea, a globally important site of oceanic nitrogen loss and nitrous oxide emission. Axenic incubations of An-4 in the presence and absence of oxygen and nitrate revealed that this fungal isolate is capable of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium under anoxic conditions. A ¹⁵N-labeling experiment proved that An-4 produced and excreted ammonium through nitrate reduction at a rate of up to 175 nmol ¹⁵NH₄⁺ g⁻¹ protein h⁻¹. The products of dissimilatory nitrate reduction were ammonium (83%), nitrous oxide (15.5%), and nitrite (1.5%), while dinitrogen production was not observed. The process led to substantial cellular ATP production and biomass growth and also occurred when ammonium was added to suppress nitrate assimilation, stressing the dissimilatory nature of nitrate reduction. Interestingly, An-4 used intracellular nitrate stores (up to 6-8 μmol NO₃⁻ g⁻¹ protein) for dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Our findings expand the short list of microbial eukaryotes that store nitrate intracellularly and carry out dissimilatory nitrate reduction when oxygen is absent. In the currently spreading oxygen-deficient zones in the ocean, an as yet unexplored diversity of fungi may recycle nitrate to ammonium and nitrite, the substrates of the major nitrogen loss process anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.

  19. Decomposition of Spectral Signatures of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter Absorption and its Spatial Distribution Along Southeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamed Ashraf, P.; Souda, V. P.; Minu, P.

    2016-02-01

    The process of photosynthesis involves the conversion of inorganic carbon into organic carbon and the light availability is the crucial factor affecting photosynthesis in case 2 waters. Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a major competitor for light apart from suspended sediments and phytoplankton. The objective was 1) to understand the spatial, vertical and seasonal variability of CDOM by decomposing spectral signatures of absorption in the UV region and to identify the source of CDOM in the study area. The study was carried out for the period 2013 May to 2014 December on monthly basis. Samples from 9 spatial stations, covering estuarine, barmouth and marine region were collected along coastal waters off Kochi, Southeastern Arabian Sea. Two spectral range from 200nm to 400nm were selected for the study, ie. between 275-295 and 350-400. Slope between 275-295nm (S275-295) showed no variation spatially and seasonally except for estuarine station. But slope between 350-400nm (S350-400) exhibited considerable variations spatially, seasonally and vertically. Lower values of ratio between S275-295 and S350-400 in surface waters during monsoon season indicated presence of CDOM with heavy molecular weight of terrigenous origin. Premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons had higher ratio indicating presence of CDOM with lighter molecular weight. Autocthonous origin and degradation of terrigenous matter produces CDOM with light molecular weight. The ratio is found to be increasing from estuary to offshore stations. Hence it is inferred that, the chemical nature of CDOM is affected by both physical and biological components in dynamically unstable case 2 coastal waters. The results presented here shows difference in spectral slope to estimate optical properties of CDOM which is relevant for the description of underwater optics and to the development of ocean colour remote sensing algorithms in the region.

  20. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Aspergillus terreus isolated from the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A wealth of microbial eukaryotes is adapted to life in oxygen-deficient marine environments. Evidence is accumulating that some of these eukaryotes survive anoxia by employing dissimilatory nitrate reduction, a strategy that otherwise is widespread in prokaryotes. Here, we report on the anaerobic nitrate metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus terreus (isolate An-4) that was obtained from sediment in the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea, a globally important site of oceanic nitrogen loss and nitrous oxide emission. Results Axenic incubations of An-4 in the presence and absence of oxygen and nitrate revealed that this fungal isolate is capable of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium under anoxic conditions. A 15N-labeling experiment proved that An-4 produced and excreted ammonium through nitrate reduction at a rate of up to 175 nmol 15NH4+ g-1 protein h-1. The products of dissimilatory nitrate reduction were ammonium (83%), nitrous oxide (15.5%), and nitrite (1.5%), while dinitrogen production was not observed. The process led to substantial cellular ATP production and biomass growth and also occurred when ammonium was added to suppress nitrate assimilation, stressing the dissimilatory nature of nitrate reduction. Interestingly, An-4 used intracellular nitrate stores (up to 6–8 μmol NO3- g-1 protein) for dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Conclusions Our findings expand the short list of microbial eukaryotes that store nitrate intracellularly and carry out dissimilatory nitrate reduction when oxygen is absent. In the currently spreading oxygen-deficient zones in the ocean, an as yet unexplored diversity of fungi may recycle nitrate to ammonium and nitrite, the substrates of the major nitrogen loss process anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. PMID:24517718

  1. Microbial community dynamics and taxon-specific phytoplankton production in the Arabian Sea during the 1995 monsoon seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. L.; Landry, M. R.; Christensen, S.; Garrison, D.; Gowing, M. M.; Bidigare, R. R.; Campbell, L.

    As part of the US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study in 1995, we investigated temporal and spatial patterns in microbial dynamics and production during the late Southwest (SW) Monsoon (August-September 1995) and the early Northeast (NE) Monsoon (November-December 1995) seasons using the seawater-dilution technique. Experiments were coupled with population assessments from high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and microscopy to estimate further taxon-specific phytoplankton growth, grazing and production. Dilution estimates of total primary production varied substantially, from 7 to 423 μg C l -1 d -1, and were generally in good agreement with rate estimates from 14C-uptake incubations. Both primary production and secondary bacterial production were, on average, 2.5× higher during the SW Monsoon than the NE Monsoon. Relative to the total community, photosynthetic prokaryotes contributed 23% and 53% of production during the SW and NE Monsoons, respectively. Prochlorococcus spp. production was well balanced by grazing losses, while >50% of Synechococcus spp. production during the SW Monsoon appeared to escape grazing by protists. Diatoms comprised >30% of primary production at a high biomass station during the SW Monsoon but <30% at all stations during the NE Monsoon. Growth rates of Synechococcus spp. and diatoms appeared to be limited by inorganic nitrogen concentrations, while Prochlorococcus spp., dinoflagellates and Phaeocystis spp. were not. Losses to protistan grazing were strongly correlated with phytoplankton biomass and production. Despite sufficient prey levels, protistan biomass was modest and constant across the region during both seasons. Of the larger taxa, diatoms were grazed the least effectively with only 50% of daily production accounted for by protistan grazing. Combined estimates of protistan and mesozooplankton grazing at upwelling stations during the SW Monsoon leave ˜10% of primary production unaccounted for and available for

  2. Could Aerosol Dust Plume-derived Trace Metals and Inorganic Nutrient be Fueling the Recent Growth and Proliferation of Noctiluca scintillans Blooms in the Arabian Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. S.; Ang, A.; Gomes, H. R.; Goes, J. I.

    2016-12-01

    Noctiluca scintillans, a species of mixotrophic dinoflagellate, has been proliferating in the Arabian Sea for the past 20 years in winter when convective mixing brings up nutrient-rich waters from deeper depths. It is believed that the unique mixotrophic nature of this organism, where it is able to feed on other phytoplankton, as well as photosynthesize by hosting a large endosymbiotic population of Pedinomonas noctilucae, gives it a greater competitive advantage over other phytoplankton. It is believed that this physiological plasticity of Noctiluca is responsible for the species shift from a diatom dominated ecosystem of the past in the Arabian sea, to the current widespread blooms of Noctiluca. Here we have attempted to examine how Noctiluca are able to sustain themselves over an extended period when nutrients from winter convective mixing are completely exhausted in the euphotic zone. In this study we test the hypotheses, that new inputs of nutrients from anthropogenic sources such as sewage and land-based nutrient runoff as well as from thick aeolian dust storms from the nearby regions such as Oman and Iran allow Noctiluca to survive and grow from winter into the spring inter-monsoon season. A recently cultured strain of Arabian Sea green Noctiluca grown in media amended with dust collected from Oman and Iran, different trace metals (Iron, Selenium and Cobalt) as well as nutrients (Nitrate, Ammonium and Urea) has been used to test our hypotheses. This is the first time such experiments have been conducted in the laboratory as previously no Noctiluca culture survived beyond 6 months. Growth of Noctiluca was measured in terms of cell count and the photosynthetic efficiency of cells using the fluorescence induction and relaxation technique which deduces the quantum efficiency of photochemistry in PSII. Moreover, we also measured the ammonia content in the cells which has long been suspected to provide buoyancy to cells and/or serve as a nitrogenous nutrient to

  3. Large Scale Patterns of Antimicrofouling Defenses in the Hard Coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an Environmental Gradient along the Saudi Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Martin; Al Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Saha, Mahasweta; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the patterns of antimicrofouling defenses across the Red Sea may hint at the susceptibility of corals to global change. We investigated microfouling pressure as well as the relative strength of 2 alternative antimicrofouling defenses (chemical antisettlement activity, mucus release) along the pronounced environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast in 2 successive years. Microfouling pressure was exceptionally low along most of the coast but sharply increased at the southernmost sites. Mucus release correlated with temperature. Chemical defense tended to anti-correlate with mucus release. As a result, the combined action of mucus release and chemical antimicrofouling defense seemed to warrant sufficient defense against microbes along the entire coast. In the future, however, we expect enhanced energetic strain on corals when warming and/or eutrophication lead to higher bacterial fouling pressure and a shift towards putatively more costly defense by mucus release. PMID:25485603

  4. Joint influence of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and Northern Arabian Sea Temperatures on the Indian Summer Monsoon in a Global Climate Model Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Proxy-based studies confirmed that the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) shows large variations during the Holocene. These changes might be explained by changes in orbital conditions and solar insolation but are also thought to be associated to changes in oceanic conditions, e.g. over the Indo-Pacific-Warm-Pool region. However, due to the nature of these (proxy-based) analyses no conclusion about atmospheric circulation changes during dry and wet epochs are possible. Here, a fully-coupled global climate simulation (AOGCM) covering the past 6000 years is analysed regarding ISM variability. Several dry and wet epochs are found, the most striking around 2ka BP (dry) and 1.7ka BP (wet). As only orbital parameters change during integration, we expect these "shorter-term" changes to be associated with changes in oceanic conditions. During 1.7ka BP the sea surface temperatures (SST) over the Northern Arabian Sea (NARAB) are significantly warmer compared to 2ka BP, whereas cooler conditions are found over the western Pacific Ocean. Additionally, significant differences are found over large parts of the North Atlantic. To explain in how far these different ocean basins are responsible for anomalous conditions during 1.7ka BP, several sensitivity experiments with changed SST/SIC conditions are carried out. It is found that neither the SST's in the Pacific nor in the Indian Ocean are able to reproduce the anomalous rainfall and atmospheric circulation patterns during 1.7ka on its own. Instead, anomalous dry conditions during 2ka BP and wet conditions during 1.7ka BP are associated with a shift of the Indo-Pacific-Warm-Pool (IPWP) and simultaneous anomalous sea-surface temperatures over the NARAB region. Eventually, it is tested in how far this hypothesis holds true for other dry and wet events in the AOGCM data during the whole 6000 years. In general, a shift of the IPWP without anomalous SST conditions over the NARAB region (and vice versa) is not sufficient to cause long

  5. A note on the possible connection between the El Chichón eruption and ocean production in the northwest Arabian Sea during 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) has provided what may be the most convincing evidence to date of a large-scale ocean response to a volcanic eruption. Brock and McClain's (1992) 4-year time series of pigments over the Arabian Sea appears to reveal a slowdown in production over much of this basin. Apparently, the entire southwest monsoon relaxed beneath the tremendous pall of the El Chichón aerosol cloud that had overshadowed the region 4 months earlier, producing dramatically reduced concentrations of phytoplankton during summer and fall 1982.

  6. Geochemical record of Holocene to Recent sedimentation on the Western Indus continental shelf, Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limmer, David R.; BöNing, Philipp; Giosan, Liviu; Ponton, Camilo; KöHler, Cornelia M.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Tabrez, Ali R.; Clift, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiproxy geochemical analysis of two cores recovered from the Indus Shelf spanning the Early Holocene to Recent (<14 ka). Indus-23 is located close to the modern Indus River, while Indus-10 is positioned ˜100 km further west. The Holocene transgression at Indus-10 was over a surface that was strongly weathered during the last glacial sea level lowstand. Lower Holocene sediments at Indus-10 have higherɛNdvalues compared to those at the river mouth indicating some sediment supply from the Makran coast, either during the deposition or via reworking of older sediments outcropping on the shelf. Sediment transport from Makran occurred during transgressive intervals when sea level crossed the mid shelf. The sediment flux from non-Indus sources to Indus-10 peaked between 11 ka and 8 ka. A hiatus at Indus-23 from 8 ka until 1.3 ka indicates non-deposition or erosion of existing Indus Shelf sequences. HigherɛNdvalues seen on the shelf compared to the delta imply reworking of older delta sediments in building Holocene clinoforms. Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mg/Al and Sr isotopes are all affected by erosion of detrital carbonate, which reduced through the Holocene. K/Al data suggest that silicate weathering peaked ca. 4-6 ka and was higher at Indus-10 compared to Indus-23. Fine-grained sediments that make up the shelf have geochemical signatures that are different from the coarser grained bulk sediments measured in the delta plain. The Indus Shelf data highlight the complexity of reconstructing records of continental erosion and provenance in marine settings.

  7. Chemical characterization of ambient aerosol collected during the northeast monsoon season over the Arabian Sea: Labile-Fe(II) and other trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Anne M.; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2003-07-01

    Ambient aerosol samples were collected over the Arabian Sea during the month of March of 1997, aboard the German R/V Sonne, as part of the German Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) project. This is the third study in a series of analogous measurements taken over the Arabian Sea during different seasons of the monsoon. Dichotomous high-volume collector samples were analyzed for ferrous iron immediately after collection, while trace metals, anions, and cations were determined upon return to the laboratory. The main crustal component was geochemically well represented by the average crustal composition and amounted to 5.94 ± 3.08 μg m-3. An additional crustal constituent of clay-like character, rich in water-soluble Ca and Mg, was seen in the fine fraction in air masses of Arabian origin. Total ferrous iron concentrations varied from 3.9 to 17.2 ng m-3 and averaged 9.8 ± 3.4 ng m-3, with 87.2% of Fe(II) present in the fine aerosol fraction. Fe(II) concentrations accounted for on average 1.3 ± 0.5% of the total Fe. While ferrous iron in the coarse fraction appeared to be correlated with the main crustal component, the fine Fe(II) fraction exhibited a more complex behavior. The anthropogenic contribution to the aerosol, as traced by Pb, Zn, and some anions and cations, was found to be considerably larger, especially during the first 10 days of this cruise, than in previously collected samples from the inter-monsoon and southwest monsoon of 1995.

  8. Gamma-emitting radionuclides in the shallow marine sediments off the Sindh coast, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Qureshi, Riffat M; Ahmad, Nasir; Solaija, Tariq Jamal

    2006-01-01

    Determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in shallow marine sediments off the Sindh coast has been carried out using a gamma spectrometry technique. The activity concentration measured in various sediment samples off the Sindh coast has been found to vary from 15.93 +/- 5.22 to 30.53 +/- 4.70 Bq kg(-1) for 226Ra, from 11.72 +/- 1.22 to 33.94 +/- 1.86 Bq kg(-1) for 228Ra and from 295.22 +/- 32.83 to 748.47 +/- 28.75 Bq kg(-1) for 40K. The calculated mean values of radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate and effective dose are 98 Bq kg(-1), 49 nGy h(-1) and 0.06 mSv y(-1), respectively. No artificial radionuclide was detected in the samples measured from the study area. As no data on radioactivity of the coastal environment of Pakistan are available, the data presented here will serve as baseline information on radionuclide concentration in shallow sea sediments off the Sindh coast. The data will also be useful for tracking pollution inventories from unusual radiological events (if any) in the territorial waters of the study area. Further, the information presented will contribute to modelling of a regional radioactivity database from the perspectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database and Global Marine Radioactivity Database.

  9. Improved marine reservoir age estimation and palaeoclimate synchronisation of the early Holocene Levantine/NW-Arabian region based on identification of the S1 tephra in Dead Sea and Tayma palaeolake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Wulf, Sabine; Schwab, Markus J.; Serb, Johanna; Plessen, Birgit; Appelt, Oona; Brauer, Achim

    2017-04-01

    Due to a lack of tephras identified in marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records from the Levantine-Arabian area, this region is still not sufficiently connected to the eastern Mediterranean tephrostratigraphical lattice. Here we report on the first finding of cryptotephra in the Holocene lacustrine sediment records of the Dead Sea and the Tayma palaeolake (NW Arabian Peninsula). The major elemental chemistry of the rhyolitic glass shards proves this tephra identical to the distal 'S1 tephra' identified in the Yammoûneh palaeolake, Lebanon (Develle et al, 2009), in a marine sediment record from the SE Levantine basin (Hamann et al., 2010) and in the Sodmein Cave archaeological site in Egypt (Barton et al., 2015). The 'S1 tephra', most likely corresponding to the early Holocene 'Dikkartın' dome eruption of the Erciyes Daǧ volcano in central Anatolia, Turkey, has been dated in the marine record at 8830 ± 140 cal yr BP. We present new age estimates of the 'S1 tephra' based on radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant remains (Migowski et al., 2004) and pollen concentrates (Dinies et al., 2015), which reveal modelled ages of 8939 ± 83 cal yr BP in the Dead Sea sediments and 9041 ± 254 cal yr BP in Tayma. This allows the estimation of an early Holocene marine reservoir age of ca. 320 years in the SE Levantine Sea. The timing of the volcanic eruption during the early Holocene humid period, which led to the formation of sapropel S1 in the Mediterranean Sea, and the identification of the 'S1 tephra' more than 1200 km to the south are crucial for the synchronisation of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records in the eastern Mediterranean region. References: Barton et al., 2015. The role of cryptotephra in refining the chronology of Late Pleistocene human evolution and cultural change in North Africa. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 118, 151-169. Develle et al., 2009. Early Holocene volcanic ash fallout in the Yammoûneh lacustrine basin (Lebanon): Tephrochronological

  10. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid; Al-Juboury, Ali

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  11. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  12. Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.

    1972-01-01

    This tectonic map of the Arabian peninsula, prepared for the Audi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resource, is the first of a series of peninsular maps that attempt to show regional features. Much recent information resulting from detailed geologic mapping notably within the Arabian craton, from geophysical surveys, both airborne and oceanographic in adjacent seas, from deep exploratory drilling, and from photography from the Gemini and Apollo space programs, has been used in the tectonic evaluation.

  13. Flux and accumulation of sedimentary particles off the continental slope of Pakistan: a comparison of water column and seafloor estimates from the oxygen minimum zone, NE Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, H.; von Rad, U.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the lack of bioturbation, the laminated muds from the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) off Pakistan provide a unique opportunity to precisely determine the vertical and lateral sediment fluxes in the near shore part of the northeastern Arabian Sea, and to explore the effects of the margin topography and the low oxygen conditions on the accumulation of organic matter and other particles. West of Karachi, in the Hab river area of EPT and WPT (Eastern and Western PAKOMIN Traps), 16 short sediment profiles from water depths between 250 m and 1970 m on a depth transect crossing the OMZ (~ 120 to ~ 1200 m water depth) were investigated, and correlated on the basis of a thick, light-gray- to reddish-colored turbidite layer. Varve counting yielded a date for this layer of AD 1905 to 1888. We adopted the young age which agrees with 210Pb- dating, and used this isochronous stratigraphic marker bed to calculate sediment accumulation rates, that we could directly compare with the flux rates from the sediment traps installed within the water column above. All traps in the area show exceptionally high, pulsed winter fluxes of up to 5000 mg m-2 d-1 in this margin environment. The lithic flux at the sea floor is as high as 4000 mg m-2 d-1 , and agrees remarkably well with the bulk winter flux of material. This holds as well for the individual bulk components (organic carbon, calcium carbonate, opal, lithic fraction). However, the high winter flux events (HFE) by their extreme mass of remobilized matter terminated the recording in the shallow traps by clogging the funnels. Based on our comparisons, we argue that HFE for the past 5000 yr most likely occurred as regular events within the upper OMZ off Pakistan. Coarse fraction and foraminiferal accumulation rates from sediment surface samples along the Hab transect show distribution patterns that seem to be a function of water depth and distance from the shelf. Some of these sediment fractions show sudden shifts at the lower boundary

  14. Evaluation of CMIP5 and CORDEX Derived Wind Wave Climate in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, P.; Behera, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impact on surface ocean wave parameters need robust assessment for effective coastal zone management. Climate model skill to simulate dynamical General Circulation Models (GCMs) and Regional Circulation Models (RCMs) forced wind-wave climate over northern Indian Ocean is assessed in the present work. The historical dynamical wave climate is simulated using surface winds derived from four GCMs and four RCMs, participating in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) and Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX-South Asia), respectively, and their ensemble are used to force a spectral wave model. The surface winds derived from GCMs and RCMs are corrected for bias, using Quantile Mapping method, before being forced to the spectral wave model. The climatological properties of wave parameters (significant wave height (Hs), mean wave period (Tp) and direction (θm)) are evaluated relative to ERA-Interim historical wave reanalysis datasets over Arabian Sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BoB) regions of the northern Indian Ocean for a period of 27 years. We identify that the nearshore wave climate of AS is better predicted than the BoB by both GCMs and RCMs. Ensemble GCM simulated Hs in AS has a better correlation with ERA-Interim ( 90%) than in BoB ( 80%), whereas ensemble RCM simulated Hs has a low correlation in both regions ( 50% in AS and 45% in BoB). In AS, ensemble GCM simulated Tp has better predictability ( 80%) compared to ensemble RCM ( 65%). However, neither GCM nor RCM could satisfactorily predict Tp in nearshore BoB. Wave direction is poorly simulated by GCMs and RCMs in both AS and BoB, with correlation around 50% with GCMs and 60% with RCMs wind derived simulations. However, upon comparing individual RCMs with their parent GCMs, it is found that few of the RCMs predict wave properties better than their parent GCMs. It may be concluded that there is no consistent added value by RCMs over GCMs forced wind-wave climate over

  15. Responses of the picophytoplankton community to temperature fronts in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitbavkar, Smita; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2018-07-01

    We investigated the responses of the picophytoplankton (< 3 μm) community to a temperature filament and front through high resolution spatial ( 1 NM) sampling (November-23 to December-11, 2012) in the northeastern Arabian Sea (69°E, 18.85°N to 20.25°N). Samples were collected at discrete depths within the 100 m water column. Synechococcus dominated the picophytoplankton community numerically and in terms of biomass along the entire transect. To investigate the patterns of variability in picophytoplankton distribution, depending on the water mass characteristics, the entire transect was divided into four zones (1) south of filament (SFIL) with warm oligotrophic waters, (2) filament (FIL) with cooler and low saline waters, (3) north of filament (NFIL) with relatively cooler waters than the SFIL and (4) front (FRO) with relatively cooler and less saline waters than the FIL. Depth-integrated abundance and biomass of Synechococcus were relatively higher within the FIL and FRO whereas Prochlorococcus and picoeukaryotes were abundant in SFIL and NFIL. Redundancy analysis of environmental variables and picophytoplankton abundance showed that lower saline water mass within the mesoscale features harbored relatively higher Synechococcus abundance and biomass. Two Synechococcus ecotypes were distinguished based on the fluorescence intensity of the accessory pigment, phycoerythrin; the one with higher intensity (open ocean ecotype) dominating in the FIL and the other with lower intensity in the FRO (coastal ecotype). The relatively lower saline surface water mass at the FRO, probably a result of coastal advection, could have introduced the latter ecotype. Vertically, a positive correlation of Prochlorococcus with nutrients and Synechococcus with temperature corroborates their higher and lower abundance and biomass, respectively in the deeper waters. The positive correlation of Synechococcus with the total chlorophyll biomass indicates a similar response to environmental

  16. A multiproxy approach to understanding the "enhanced" flux of organic matter through the oxygen deficient waters of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, R. G.; Neibauer, J.; Biladeau, C.; van der Elst, K.; Devol, A. H.

    2015-10-01

    Free-drifting sediment net traps were deployed 14 times at depths between 80 and 500 m for 1-3 days each during the late monsoon/intermonsoon transition in the central Arabian Sea. Two locations (19.5 and 15.5° N) were within the permanently oxygen deficient zone, and a third (11° N) had a shallow and thin oxygen minimum. The secondary nitrite maximum, which serves as a tracer of the oxygen deficient zone (ODZ) zone, thinned from ∼ 250 m thick at stations 19.5 and 15.5° N to ∼ 50 m thick at station 11° N. Overall, organic carbon fluxes ranged from 13.2 g m2 yr-1 at 80 m to a minimum of 1.1 g m2 yr-1 at 500 m. Fluxes at the more oxygenated 11° N station attenuate faster than within the permanent ODZ. Martin curve attenuation coefficients for 19.5 and 15.5° N are 0.59 and 0.63 and for 11° N it is 0.98. At least six potential mechanisms might explain why sinking particles sinking through the ODZ are more effectively transferred to depth; (M1) oxygen effects, (M2) microbial loop efficiencies and chemoautotrophy, (M3) changes in zooplankton dynamics, (M4) additions of ballast that might sorb and protect organic matter from decay, (M5) inputs of refractory organic matter, and (M6) changes in sinking speeds. These mechanisms are intertwined, and were explored using a combination of mineral (XPS) and organic matter characterizations of the sinking material and ship-board incubation experiments. Evidence was found supporting an oxygen effect and/or changes in the efficiency of the microbial loop including the addition of chemoautotrophic carbon to the sinking flux in the upper 500 m. Less evidence was found for the other potential mechanisms. A simple conceptual model consistent with our and other recent data suggests that the upper ODZ microbial community determines the initial flux attenuation, and that deeper in the water column zooplankton and sinking speed become more important. The exact interplay between the various mechanisms remains to be further

  17. Evidence of Himalayan uplift as seen in Neogene records of Indian monsoon variability from ODP Hole 722B, NW Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthusamy, Prakasam; Gupta, Anil K.; Saini, Naresh K.

    2013-04-01

    The Indian monsoon is one of the most interesting climatic features on Earth impacting most populous countries of South and East Asia. It is marked by seasonal reversals of wind direction with southwesterly winds in summer (June-September) and northeasterly winds in winter (December-February). The monsoon not only impacts socioeconomic conditions of Asia but also brings important changes in fauna and flora, ocean upwelling and primary productivity in the Arabian Sea. The Himalaya has undergone several phases of rapid uplift and exhumation since the early Miocene which led to major intensification of the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is driven by the thermal contrast between land and sea, and is intimately linked with the latitudinal movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The effect of Indian monsoon variability and the Himalayan uplift can be seen in numerous proxy records across the region. In this study we discussed about the Indian monsoon intensification and the Himalayan uplift since the early Miocene based on multi proxy records such as planktic foraminiferal relative abundances (Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species), total organic carbon (TOC), CaCO3 and elemental data from ODP Hole 722B (2028 mbsf), northwestern Arabian Sea. The TOC, CaCO3 and elemental variations of the ODP Hole 722B suggest multi phase of monsoonal intensification and Himalayan uplifts. Our results suggest that in the early Miocene (23.03 Ma) to ~15Ma, the wind strength and productivity were low. A major change is observed at ~15 Ma, during which time numerous proxies show abrupt changes. TOC, CaCO3 and Elemental analyses results reveal that a major change in the productivity, wind strength and chemical weathering starts around 15 Ma and extends up to 10 Ma. This suggests that a major Himalayan uplift occurred during ~15-10 Ma that drove Indian monsoon intensification. A similar change is also observed during 5 to 1 Ma. These long

  18. xs231Pa/xs230Th ratios in Northeastern Arabian Sea Sediments: Tracing Changes in Thermohaline Circulation over the past 50 ka?}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, A.; Marcantonio, F.

    2004-12-01

    Patterns of millennial changes in productivity and eolian fluxes in the northeastern Arabian Sea are related to stadial-interstadial temperature variations observed in the Greenland ice cores. In an effort to constrain further the relationship between climate at low and high latitudes, we present new xs231Pa/xs230Th results from northeastern Arabian Sea sediments (core 93KL) spanning the past 50 ka. The unique difference in residence time between oceanic 231Pa and 230Th has allowed the xs231Pa/xs230Th activity ratio in sediments from ocean basins to be used as a proxy for various paleoclimatic indicators such as particle flux, particle composition, and thermohaline circulation. Over the past 50 ka, initial xs231Pa/xs230Th activity ratios in sediment from core 93KL are maintained at values significantly higher than the water-column production ratio of 0.093, ranging from 0.138 ( ˜16 ka) to 0.206 ( ˜4.3 ka). Average xs231Pa/xs230Th activity ratios are lower during the last glacial period than during the Holocene. In addition, there are sub-Milankovitch variations superimposed on the pattern of glacial-interglacial variability that are consistent with the timing of North Atlantic climate events. The most prominent feature of the pattern is that the lowest xs231Pa/xs230Th activity ratios coincide with the timing of Heinrich events 1 through 5. In contrast, the highest ratios are usually associated with interstadials. Increased productivity and boundary scavenging seem to exert some control on the variability we observe in the xs231Pa/xs230Th activity ratios. However, changing patterns of ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) also seem to influence these ratios. Specifically, low xs231Pa/xs230Th activity ratios during the Heinrich events may be caused by a slowdown in THC, which leads to a lower supply of Pa to our site in the northeastern Arabian Sea.

  19. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, R.

    2012-12-01

    During the last ice age, several abrupt warming events took place, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature increase. The leading hypothesis to explain their occurrence postulates that the warming was caused by abrupt disruptions of the North Atlantic Current due to meltwater discharge from destabilized ice sheets (Heinrich events). However, the number of warming events outnumber the those of ice-sheet collapse. Thus, the majority of D-O events are not attributed to surface freshwater anomalies, and the underlying mechanism behind their occurrence remain unexplained. Using a simple dynamical model of sea ice and an overturning circulation, I show the existence of self-sustained relaxation oscillations in the overturning circulation. The insulating effect of sea ice is shown to paradoxically lead to a net loss of heat from the top layer of the polar ocean when sea ice retreats. Repeated heat loss results in a denser top layer and a destabilized water column, which triggers convection. The convective state pulls the system out of its preferred mode of circulation, setting up relaxation oscillations. The period of oscillations in this case is linked to the geometry of the ocean basin, if solar forcing is assumed to remain constant. If appropriate glacial freshwater forcing is applied to the model, a pattern of oscillation is produced that bears remarkable similarity to the observed fluctuations in North Atlantic climate between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present.; Comparison of NGRIP δ 18-O (proxy for near surface air temperature) between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present, showing Bond cycles (left) with the model output when forced with appropriate glacial freshwater forcing (right).

  20. Predominance of anaerobic bacterial community over aerobic community contribute to intensify ‘oxygen minimum zone’ in the eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, M.-J.; Paropkari, A. L.; Fernandes, C. E. G.; Loka Bharathi, P. A.; Krishnakumari, L.; Fernando, V.; Nampoothiri, G. E.

    2011-08-01

    The presence of a delicately poised mid-depth oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) makes the Arabian Sea a unique and important ecosystem. So far, various aspects responsible for its formation have been studied. However, the contributions from bacterial groups mediating its formation and maintaining its intensity are described for the first time in this study. Thus, we hypothesize that the bacterial dynamics along with organic carbon loading result in bringing about differences in the intensity of OMZ between two stations in the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS). Water column from 2 stations, one from offshore and another from slope, in the EAS were examined for phytoplankton diversity and pertinent groups of culturable bacteria. Vertical profiles of dissolved oxygen, productivity, chlorophyll a, total organic carbon and different physiological groups of bacteria showed well-defined stratified patterns in tandem with physical and chemical stratifications of the water column. The phytoplankton diversity was higher at the slope station (SS) and was dominated by the heterotrophic dinoflagellates. The offshore station (OS) on the other hand, showed lower diversity dominated by diatoms ( p<0.05). This observation could imply relatively higher autotrophy at the OS. Our results show that OMZ from these 'oligotrophic' regions is dominated by anaerobic bacteria. We believe that these bacteria contribute to intensify the OMZ in the EAS. Further, a higher abundance of viable anaerobic bacteria (TVC anaero) and other anaerobic groups at the SS than the OS suggest that the OMZ is relatively much more intense near the slope. Besides, total organic carbon (TOC) load is three-fold higher at the SS than at OS implying its higher accumulation and lower degradability in slope waters. Settling of this more preserved organic carbon in mid-slope sediments in contact with OMZ results in one of the highest enrichments of sedimentary TOC in the world oceans.

  1. Phylogenetic analyses and nitrate-reducing activity of fungal cultures isolated from the permanent, oceanic oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Cathrine Sumathi; Menezes, Larissa Danielle; Ramasamy, Kesava Priyan; Meena, Ram M

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the active role of fungi as denitrifiers in terrestrial ecosystems have stimulated an interest in the study of the role of fungi in oxygen-deficient marine systems. In this study, the culturable diversity of fungi was investigated from 4 stations within the permanent, oceanic, oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea. The isolated cultures grouped within the 2 major fungal phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; diversity estimates in the stations sampled indicated that the diversity of the oxygen-depleted environments is less than that of mangrove regions and deep-sea habitats. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA sequences revealed a few divergent isolates that clustered with environmental sequences previously obtained by others. This is significant, as these isolates represent phylotypes that so far were known only from metagenomic studies and are of phylogenetic importance. Nitrate reduction activity, the first step in the denitrification process, was recorded for isolates under simulated anoxic, deep-sea conditions showing ecological significance of fungi in the oxygen-depleted habitats. This report increases our understanding of fungal diversity in unique, poorly studied habitats and underlines the importance of fungi in the oxygen-depleted environments.

  2. Monsoon Variability In The Western Arabian Sea During Last 10,000 Years BP: A Planktic Foraminiferal Abundances And It's Stable Isotope Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Tiwari, M.; Sinha, D. K.; Ramesh, R.

    2007-12-01

    : The western Arabian Sea responds to the southwest monsoon winds by upwelling colder and nutrient rich waters from the deeper layers, causing a reduction in the sea surface temperature and enhanced biological productivity. A number of paleoclimatic studies have been carried out in this region to elucidate past monsoon variability (Sirocco et al., 1993; Gupta et al, 2003; Tiwari, 2005; Saher et.al.; 2007). Globigerina bulloides, a planktic foraminiferal species normally inhabiting surface ocean waters in temperate latitudes ( Be and Tolderlund , 1977) also becomes abundant at tropical latitudes upwelling occurs, and in these cases its abundance can exceed considerably. The conspicuous fluctuation in the abundance of Gg.bulloides during upwelling and non upwelling intervals is established through several studies ( Thiede and Junger, 1980, Gupta et al, 2003) This robust relation has been used as a proxy for wind velocity at several different times in the past in the Arabian Sea (Anderson et.al., 2002). A significant result from some of these centennially resolved Holocene records is declining abundance of Globigerina bulloides which is paralleled by reduced insolation record and this has been inferred as declining strength of Asian Monsoon. We are presenting here the data from the core SS4018 from near the Gulf of Aden, Western Arabian Sea taken at a water depth of 2830 m, precisely dated by the radiocarbon method using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry on planktonic foraminiferal separates. We have carried out the planktic foraminiferal census counts for each sample to know the relative abundance of key species. In addition to this, we have also employed multi- proxy approach such as oxygen and carbon isotopes of planktic foraminiferal tests, TOC, CaCO3 (%) to strengthen our interpretation and also to understand the relationships amongst the proxies themselves. Abundance of the key planktic foraminiferal species and other proxy records reveal at least 3 major climatic

  3. Planktic foraminiferal assemblages from laminated sediments of the northeastern Arabian Sea: a high-resolution study over the last two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, Philipp; Lückge, Andreas; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; Schulz, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Modern planktic foraminiferal assemblages in the Arabian Sea are largely controlled by seasonal shifts of surface water properties. Boreal summer (June-September) heating of the Asian landmass and Tibetan Plateau leads to northward migration of the ITCZ and develops an intense atmospheric pressure gradient. Strong monsoonal winds from the southwest lead to coastal- and open ocean upwelling, especially in the western Arabian Sea along the coast of Somalia and Oman. Opposite directed dry and cold winds lead to deep convective mixing during boreal winter (January-March) and breakup of the thermal stratification. Deepening of the mixed-layer thus enables nutrient transport into the photic zone with enhanced primary production. Here we study planktic foraminiferal assemblages from the dominantly winter monsoon controlled Pakistan Margin off Karachi. We sampled annually laminated sediments from box core SO90-39KG and ca. 2-m-long piston core SO130-275KL from the same station. High sedimentation rates and varve-like lamination provides a particular record with very precise age control. Box core 39KG offers a record of the last 100 years with 2-year-resolution and 275KL provides a ca. 10-year-resolution during the last 2100 years. We calculated foraminiferal flux rates after photometric identification and subtraction of light-colored event layers, consisting solely of terrigeneous matter to enable comparison with flux rates from sediment trap stations. We identified a total of 28 planktic foraminiferal (PF) species/morphotypes in the fraction >150μm. During the relatively short period of the past two millennia, several species showed comparatively large fluctuations on decadal time scales, not seen in bioturbated records. Globigerina bulloides, a species generally associated with high primary production rates, fluctuates between ca. 10% and 45%. Highest relative share was observed during periods 1593-1413, 1023-923, 483-393, 63- -7 years AD. Average PF accumulation rates

  4. The middle Holocene climatic records from Arabia: Reassessing lacustrine environments, shift of ITCZ in Arabian Sea, and impacts of the southwest Indian and African monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzel, Yehouda; Kushnir, Yochanan; Quade, Jay

    2015-06-01

    A dramatic increase in regional summer rainfall amount has been proposed for the Arabian Peninsula during the middle Holocene (ca. 9-5 ka BP) based on lacustrine sediments, inferred lake levels, speleothems, and pollen. This rainfall increase is considered primarily the result of an intensified Indian summer monsoon as part of the insolation-driven, northward shift of the boreal summer position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to over the deserts of North Africa, Arabia, and northwest India. We examine the basis for the proposed drastic climate change in Arabia and the shifts in the summer monsoon rains, by reviewing paleohydrologic lacustrine records from Arabia. We evaluate and reinterpret individual lake-basin status regarding their lacustrine-like deposits, physiography, shorelines, fauna and flora, and conclude that these basins were not occupied by lakes, but by shallow marsh environments. Rainfall increase required to support such restricted wetlands is much smaller than needed to form and maintain highly evaporating lakes and we suggest that rainfall changes occurred primarily at the elevated edges of southwestern, southern, and southeastern Arabian Peninsula. These relatively small changes in rainfall amounts and local are also supported by pollen and speleothems from the region. The changes do not require a northward shift of the Northern Hemisphere summer ITCZ and intensification of the Indian monsoon rainfall. We propose that (a) latitudinal and slight inland expansion of the North African summer monsoon rains across the Red Sea, and (b) uplifted moist air of this monsoon to southwestern Arabia highlands, rather than rains associated with intensification of Indian summer monsoon, as proposed before, increased rains in that region; these African monsoon rains produced the modest paleo-wetlands in downstream hyperarid basins. Furthermore, we postulate that as in present-day, the ITCZ in the Indian Ocean remained at or near the equator all

  5. Chemical characterization of ambient aerosol collected during the southwest monsoon and intermonsoon seasons over the Arabian Sea: Anions and cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Anne M.; Siefert, Ronald L.; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    1999-11-01

    Ambient aerosol samples were collected over the northern Indian Ocean during two 1 month-long research cruises (German R/V Meteor) that took place during the intermonsoon (May) and SW monsoon (July/August) of 1995. A high volume and two small volume collectors were used to collect samples, which were subsequently analyzed for ferrous iron, 32 elements, and anions and cations. The present paper focuses on the bulk aerosol material, the ions, while utilizing some of the trace metal data that were presented in more detail in our previous paper [Siefert et al., 1999]. Data are analyzed and interpreted with the aid of principal component and multiple linear regression analyses. Intermonsoon samples were strongly influenced by continental material, both of crustal and anthropogenic origin. The crustal component (24.5±13% of the total suspended particulate mass (TSP), 6.0±4.4 μg m-3) contained 3.2% gypsum (CaSO4). While more than half of the TSP (21.2±9.6 μg m-3) during the SW monsoon was sea-salt-derived due to the strong winds prevailing during this season, only 1.7±1.1% (0.7±0.4 μg m-3) was found to be of crustal origin. Sulfate (SO42-) sources were determined and quantified with linear regression analyses utilizing specific tracers for the independent variables. Lead (Pb) was found to be a more reliable surrogate for anthropogenic SO42- compared to nitrate (NO3-) during the relatively polluted intermonsoon. Soluble calcium (Ca2+) served as the tracer for gypsum, and methane sulfonate (MSA) served as the tracer for biogenically derived SO42- during both seasons. On the basis of this analysis, 75% of the non-sea-salt sulfate (NSS-SO42-) (0.8±0.2 μg m-3, representing ˜2.4% of TSP) was found to be of biogenic origin during the SW monsoon with the remaining 25% of anthropogenic origin. During the intermonsoon, NSS-SO42- accounted for 2.1±1.2 μg m-3 (˜9.2% of TSP) and had a composition that was 65% anthropogenic, 21% biogenic, and 14% gypsum-derived. Linear

  6. Near-inertial kinetic energy budget of the mixed layer and shear evolution in the transition layer in the Arabian Sea during the monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Sudip; Tandon, Amit; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Thomas Farrar, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present the horizontal kinetic energy (KE) balance of near-inertial currents in the mixed layer and explain shear evolution in the transition layer using observations from a mooring at 15.26° N in the Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. The highly sheared and stratified transition layer at the mixed-layer base varies between 5 m and 35 m and correlates negatively with the wind stress. Results from the mixed layer near-inertial KE (NIKE) balance suggest that wind energy at times can energize the transition layer and at other times is fully utilized within the mixed layer. A simple two layer model is utilized to study the shear evolution in the transition layer and shown to match well with observations. The shear production in this model arises from alignment of wind stress and shear. Although the winds are unidirectional during the monsoon, the shear in the transition layer is predominantly near-inertial. The near-inertial shear bursts in the observations show the same phasing and magnitude at near-inertial frequencies as the wind-shear alignment term.

  7. The Jebel Ohier deposit—a newly discovered porphyry copper-gold system in the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield, Red Sea Hills, NE Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierlein, F. P.; McKeag, S.; Reynolds, N.; Bargmann, C. J.; Bullen, W.; Murphy, F. C.; Al-Athbah, H.; Brauhart, C.; Potma, W.; Meffre, S.; McKnight, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing exploration in the Red Sea Hills of NE Sudan has led to the identification of a large alteration-mineralization system within a relatively undeformed Neoproterozoic intrusive-extrusive succession centered on Jebel Ohier. The style of mineralization, presence of an extensive stockwork vein network within a zoned potassic-propylitic-argillic-advanced argillic-altered system, a mineralization assemblage comprising magnetite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite (±gold, silver and tellurides), and the recurrence of fertile mafic to intermediate magmatism in a developing convergent plate setting all point to a porphyry copper-gold association, analogous to major porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in Phanerozoic supra-subduction settings such as the SW Pacific. Preliminary U-Pb age dating yielded a maximum constraint of c. 730 Ma for the emplacement of the stockwork system into a significantly older ( c. 800 Ma) volcanic edifice. The mineralization formed prior to regional deformation and accretion of the host terrane to a stable continental margin at by c. 700 Ma, thus ensuring preservation of the deposit. The Jebel Ohier deposit is interpreted as a relatively well-preserved, rare example of a Neoproterozoic porphyry Cu-Au system and the first porphyry Cu-Au deposit to be identified in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  8. In situ observations of coral bleaching in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea during the 2015/2016 global coral bleaching event

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Hardenstine, Royale S.; Emms, Madeleine A.; Jensen, Thor; Voolstra, Christian R.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    Coral bleaching continues to be one of the most devastating and immediate impacts of climate change on coral reef ecosystems worldwide. In 2015, a major bleaching event was declared as the “3rd global coral bleaching event” by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, impacting a large number of reefs in every major ocean. The Red Sea was no exception, and we present herein in situ observations of the status of coral reefs in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea from September 2015, following extended periods of high temperatures reaching upwards of 32.5°C in our study area. We examined eleven reefs using line-intercept transects at three different depths, including all reefs that were surveyed during a previous bleaching event in 2010. Bleaching was most prevalent on inshore reefs (55.6% ± 14.6% of live coral cover exhibited bleaching) and on shallower transects (41% ± 10.2% of live corals surveyed at 5m depth) within reefs. Similar taxonomic groups (e.g., Agariciidae) were affected in 2015 and in 2010. Most interestingly, Acropora and Porites had similar bleaching rates (~30% each) and similar relative coral cover (~7% each) across all reefs in 2015. Coral genera with the highest levels of bleaching (>60%) were also among the rarest (<1% of coral cover) in 2015. While this bodes well for the relative retention of coral cover, it may ultimately lead to decreased species richness, often considered an important component of a healthy coral reef. The resultant long-term changes in these coral reef communities remain to be seen. PMID:29672556

  9. In situ observations of coral bleaching in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea during the 2015/2016 global coral bleaching event.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Alison A; Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Hardenstine, Royale S; Emms, Madeleine A; Jensen, Thor; Voolstra, Christian R; Berumen, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    Coral bleaching continues to be one of the most devastating and immediate impacts of climate change on coral reef ecosystems worldwide. In 2015, a major bleaching event was declared as the "3rd global coral bleaching event" by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, impacting a large number of reefs in every major ocean. The Red Sea was no exception, and we present herein in situ observations of the status of coral reefs in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea from September 2015, following extended periods of high temperatures reaching upwards of 32.5°C in our study area. We examined eleven reefs using line-intercept transects at three different depths, including all reefs that were surveyed during a previous bleaching event in 2010. Bleaching was most prevalent on inshore reefs (55.6% ± 14.6% of live coral cover exhibited bleaching) and on shallower transects (41% ± 10.2% of live corals surveyed at 5m depth) within reefs. Similar taxonomic groups (e.g., Agariciidae) were affected in 2015 and in 2010. Most interestingly, Acropora and Porites had similar bleaching rates (~30% each) and similar relative coral cover (~7% each) across all reefs in 2015. Coral genera with the highest levels of bleaching (>60%) were also among the rarest (<1% of coral cover) in 2015. While this bodes well for the relative retention of coral cover, it may ultimately lead to decreased species richness, often considered an important component of a healthy coral reef. The resultant long-term changes in these coral reef communities remain to be seen.

  10. The abundance of functional genes, cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA, and bacterial community structure of intertidal soil from Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Jitendra; Yousuf, Basit; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-06-01

    The Gulf of Cambay is a trumpet-shaped inlet of the Arabian Sea, located along the west coast of India and confronts a high tidal range with strong water currents. The region belongs to a semi-arid zone and saline alkaline intertidal soils are considered biologically extreme. The selected four soil types (S1-S4) were affected by salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. Soil salinity ranged from 20 to 126 dS/m, soil pH 8.6-10.0 with high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Abundance of the key functional genes like cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA involved in biogeochemical cycling were targeted using qPCR, which varied from (2.36 ± 0.03) × 10(4) to (2.87 ± 0.26) × 10(8), (1.18 ± 0.28) × 10(6) to (1.01 ± 0.26) × 10(9), (1.41 ± 0.21) × 10(6) to (1.29 ± 0.05) × 10(8) and (8.47 ± 0.23) × 10(4) to (1.73 ± 0.01) × 10(6) per gram dry weight, respectively. The microbial community structure revealed that soils S1 and S3 were dominated by phylum Firmicutes whereas S4 and S2 showed an abundance of Proteobacterial clones. These soils also represented Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria clones. Molecular phylogeny showed a significant variation in the bacterial community distribution among the intertidal soil types. A high number of novel taxonomic units were observed which makes the intertidal zone a unique reservoir of unidentified bacterial taxa that may be explored further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Isostatic response of the Alula-Fartak and Owen transforms in the Eastern Gulf of Aden and the adjoining Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, M.; Searle, R. C.

    2006-04-01

    The Alula-Fartak and Owen transforms are the active parts of major fracture zones with a distinct topographic expression in the Eastern Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea, respectively. While the Alula-Fartak transform offsets the Sheba Ridge by about 180 km and is associated with a broad steep-sided valley with a relief of nearly 3.5 km, the Owen transform offsets the Carlsberg Ridge by nearly 300 km and is associated with a broad step-like valley surrounded by deeper water depths. The gravity and topography data along several profiles selected across these two transforms have been analysed using cross-spectral analysis in order to investigate their isostatic compensation. The observed admittance estimates have been compared with three theoretical isostatic compensation models, two local compensation models (Airy I and II) and one regional compensation (plate) model. Comparing the longer wavelength admittance estimates suggests that the regional compensation model gives the best fit for both the Alula-Fartak transform and the Owen transform, with effective elastic thickness (Te) of 5 km and slightly less than 10 km, respectively. For the Alula-Fartak transform, the Airy II model might also be acceptable, though with large scatter in the observed values: it suggests a mean value of 9 km for the mantle layer with a 6 km thick crust. For the Owen transform, on the other hand, the two local compensation models failed. The difference in Te estimate between the two transforms could be ascribed to differences in thermal structure arising from their varied tectonic history. A comparison with the isostatic response estimates of transform/fracture zones along the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggests that the regional compensation model is generally applicable for transform/fracture zone topography along such mid-ocean ridges.

  12. Evaluation of metal enrichment and trophic status on the basis of biogeochemical analysis of shelf sediments of the southeastern Arabian Sea, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S. K.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the distribution of environmentally relevant metals and organic matter in the shelf sediments of the southeastern Arabian Sea using biogeochemical proxies for the assessment of environmental quality and trophic status. The distribution of metals in the study site followed the order: Fe>Mg>Pb>Ni>Mn>Co>Cu>Zn>Cd. High biological productivity associated with upwelling leads to significant accumulation of Cd higher than crustal abundance in the shelf region. The enrichment factor (EF) of metals demonstrate enrichment of Pb and Co which suggests the anthropogenic influence and not redox conditions. The sediment quality guidelines (SQG) in comparison with metal concentration revealed adverse effects, possibly occurring in marine benthic species. The spatial trend of metal enrichment along transects is appreciably controlled by the adsorption to fine grained sediments. The multivariate statistical analyses, such as correlations and principal component analysis (PCA) clearly indicated the control of texture, association of clay minerals in the degree of trace metal (Cd, Pb, Ni and Co) contamination from anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Low levels of Zn, preferably display scavenging by Fe/Mn metal oxides. Biochemical descriptors in sediments indicated meso-oligotrophic conditions prevailing in the summer monsoon. The ratios among various biogeochemical parameters such as total organic carbon/total nitrogen (TOC/TN<10), protein/carbohydrate (PRT/CHO<1) displayed that the organic matter deposited of marine origin which is relatively old with potentially low nutritional value. The close relationship between biochemical components and phytopigments suggest a major contribution of autochthonous phytodetritus derived organic matter. The study provides important information about sediment biogeochemistry and metal contamination from a potential fishery zone of Indian exclusive economic zone.

  13. PM 2.5 mass concentrations in comparison with aerosol optical depths over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean during winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, S.

    An analysis of PM 2.5 mass concentrations and 0.5 μm aerosol optical depths (AODs) during the Northeast winter monsoon seasons of 1996-2000 is performed and intercompared. AODs are found to show diurnal variations over Coastal India (CI) (west coast) while they are relatively smooth over the Arabian Sea (AS) (5-20°N) and tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) (5°N-20°S). PM 2.5, PM 10 and total mass concentrations show less variations in a day over these oceanic regions. Columnar AODs are found to increase with an increase in the marine boundary layer aerosol concentrations over CI and AS while an opposite trend is seen over TIO. The yearly-mean AODs and mass concentrations are found to increase over CI and AS, over TIO the mass concentrations increased while the AODs decreased during 1996-2000. It is found from the 7-days air back trajectory analyses that at different altitudes air masses can originate from different source regions leading to changes in chemical, physical and optical characteristics of the aerosol between the surface and column. The differences in the surface and columnar measurements could also occur due to changes in the meteorological conditions, wind patterns, in addition to changes in production and subsequently the transport of aerosols. Least-squares fits to the above intercomparison resulted in intercepts of 0.24 and 0.22 over CI and AS indicating that the background AODs over these oceanic regions are higher. An examination of the daily-mean wind speeds and PM 2.5 mass concentrations yielded an index of wind dependence of 0.04 for AS and 0.07 for TIO. The background PM 2.5 mass concentrations are also found to be high at 36 and 25 μg m -3 over AS and TIO, respectively, indicating a stronger influence from the continent. Frequency distribution figures show that 28% of the PM 2.5 values over CI lie in the 60-80 μg m -3 range. Over AS the dominant mode of distribution is 40-60 μg m -3 with a peak value of 42%. Over TIO PM 2.5 values are found to

  14. Predicting Change in Eelgrass Distribution Due to Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted ...

  15. A multiproxy approach to understanding the "enhanced" flux of organic matter through the oxygen-deficient waters of the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Richard G.; Neibauer, Jacquelyn A.; Biladeau, Christina; van der Elst, Kelsey; Devol, Allan H.

    2016-04-01

    Free-drifting sediment net traps were deployed 14 times at depths between 80 and 500 m for 1-3 days each during the late monsoon-intermonsoon transition in the central Arabian Sea. Two locations (19.5 and 15.5° N) were within the permanently oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ), and a third (11° N) had a shallow and thin oxygen minimum. The secondary nitrite maximum, which serves as a tracer of the ODZ, thinned from ˜ 250 m thick at stations 19.5 and 15.5° N to ˜ 50 m thick at station 11° N. Overall, organic carbon fluxes ranged from 13.2 g m2 yr-1 at 80 m to a minimum of 1.1 g m2 yr-1 at 500 m. Fluxes at the more oxygenated 11° N station attenuate faster than within the permanent ODZ. Martin curve attenuation coefficients for 19.5 and 15.5° N are respectively 0.59 and 0.63 and for 11° N it is 0.98. At least six potential mechanisms might explain why particles sinking through the ODZ are more effectively transferred to depth: (M1) oxygen effects, (M2) microbial loop efficiencies and chemoautotrophy, (M3) changes in zooplankton dynamics, (M4) additions of ballast that might sorb and protect organic matter from decay (M4a) or change sinking speeds (M4b), (M5) inputs of refractory organic matter and (M6) temperature effects. These mechanisms are intertwined, and they were explored using a combination of mineral (XPS) and organic matter characterizations of the sinking material, shipboard incubation experiments, and evaluations of existing literature. Direct evidence was found supporting an oxygen effect and/or changes in the efficiency of the microbial loop including the addition of chemoautotrophic carbon to the sinking flux in the upper 500 m. Less direct evidence was found for the other potential mechanisms. A simple conceptual model consistent with our and other recent data suggests that the upper ODZ microbial community determines the initial flux attenuation, and that zooplankton and sinking speed become more important deeper in the water column. The exact

  16. Mesoscale and Synoptic Summertime Circulations and Their Impact on Visibility in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleuterio, D. P.; Walker, A. L.

    2005-12-01

    Although frequently characterized as a region of relatively persistent northwesterly winds, often referred to as the 40-day shamal, several researchers have recognized significant temporal and spatial variability in the summer low level winds in the Arabian Gulf. In addition to the synoptically driven gradient between the subtropical high to the north and the monsoon trough across the Gulf of Oman and Northern Arabian Sea, there are complex interactions between the Saudi Arabian and Pakistani heat lows, land-sea breeze circulations, and coastal terrain influence due to the proximity of the Zagros Mountains. These interactions frequently result in several distinct wind regimes within the Arabian Gulf, to include weak thermally and dynamically forced southerlies in the southern Gulf, a diurnally varying region of convergence/ divergence across the central Gulf, and northwesterly shamal type flow in the northern Gulf. The relative orientation and strength of these wind regimes and the strength of the subsidence inversion at the top of the marine boundary layer greatly impact the aerosol loading over water and resulting visibility due to wind-blown sand, dust, and smoke. Several case studies are examined to explore the interaction between mesoscale and synoptic forcing and the resulting spatial and temporal variability in visibility and aerosol optical depth. Conditions range from two to three day periods of rapid and persistent regional clearing with freshening northwesterly winds, to persistent periods of moderate to poor visibility in marine haze under light winds, to large scale events that create a distinct wind and dust front, severely reducing visibility through much of Iraq, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, and extending well into the Arabian Gulf. These strong, widespread events may be correlated with synoptically forced conditions farther north. Alternatively, smaller scale regional plumes of mobilized dust are often created by mesoscale events which, in conjunction

  17. The Arabian Sea as a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region during the late Southwest Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, S. W. A.; Moffett, J. W.; Gauns, M. U.; Narvekar, P. V.; Pratihary, A. K.; Naik, H.; Shenoy, D. M.; Jayakumar, D. A.; Goepfert, T. J.; Patra, P. K.; Al-Azri, A.; Ahmed, S. I.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive observations during the late Southwest Monsoon of 2004 over the Indian and Omani shelves, and along an east-west transect reveal a mosaic of biogeochemical provinces including an unexpected high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition off the southern Omani coast. This feature, coupled with other characteristics of the system, suggest a close similarity between the Omani upwelling system and the Peruvian and California upwelling systems, where primary production (PP) is limited by iron. An intensification of upwelling, reported to have been caused by the decline in the winter/spring Eurasian snow cover since 1997, is not supported by in situ hydrographic and chlorophyll measurements as well as a reanalysis of ocean colour data extending to 2009. Iron limitation of PP may complicate simple relationship between upwelling and PP assumed by previous workers, and contribute to the anomalous offshore occurrence of the most severe oxygen (O2) depletion in the region. Over the Indian shelf, affected by very shallow O2-deficient zone, high PP is restricted to a thin, oxygenated surface layer probably due to unsuitability of the O2-depleted environment for the growth of oxygenic photosynthesizers.

  18. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    the Red Sea and the western part of the Gulf of Aden. The extent of this effect is explained by channeling of the asthenospheric magma by the rift. The subdued penetration into the Gulf of Aden is probably due to the important segmentation of the rift. The continental domain is not affected by rifting in the Gulf of Aden. The main thermal effect of the Arabian plate is probably the channeling of the Afar plume to the North.

  19. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  20. Global Coastal Exposure due to Sea-level Rise beyond Tipping Points with Multiple Warming Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawatari, R.; Iseri, Y.; Kiguchi, M.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sea-level is observed and estimated to continue rising. In the future, the rise could be abrupt and irreversible in century to millennial timescale even if we conduct strong reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Greenland ice sheet and West Antarctic ice sheet are considered as attributable climate systems which would significantly enhance presently-projected sea-level rise by several meters if global mean temperature passes certain "Tipping points" which would exist around +1-5 degree Celsius above present temperature (1980-1999 average). Therefore, vulnerable coastal low-lying area, especially small islands, deltas or poor developing countries, would suffer from semi-permanent inundation and forced to counteract due to the enhanced sea-level rise. This study estimate range of sea-level rise until the year 2300 and 3000 considering excess of tipping points with using multiple levels of temperature scenarios which consist of excess tipping points and non-excess tipping points pathways. We extract state-of-the-art knowledge of tipping elements from paper reviewing to express reasonable relationship between temperature and abruptly-changing sea-level transition across the ages. This study also calculate coastal exposure globally as affected population, area and asset below the estimated sea-level for each countries with overlaying 30 arc-second gridded topography, population distribution and the sea-level. The result indicates which country would be critically affected if we follow overshooting pathways. Furthermore, this study visualize uncertain coastal exposure due to sea-level rise in the future from the multiple warming pathways. This estimation of possible future beyond tipping point would be useful information for decision-makers to establish new planning of defense, migration or mitigation for the future societies.

  1. Multi-decadal storminess fluctuations of Black Sea due to North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey; Saprykina, Yana; Grigorieva, Victoria; Aydoǧan, Berna; Aydoǧan, Burak

    2017-04-01

    Storminess variability is of key importance for many marine applications, naval and coastal engineering. Studying the evolution of this phenomenon along with large scale atmospheric patterns and being able to predict them is crucial for in the context of rising sea level due to climate change what make the low-lying coasts in the Black Sea to become increasingly vulnerable to marine hazards. The aim of this work is to clarify the trends, statistics and reasons of variations of storminess in dependence of such climatic characteristic as NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation Index). The analysis of Black Sea storminess activity was performed on the base of visual wave observations (Voluntary Observing Ship or VOS) for the period 1970-2011. Annual means and maximum heights of wind-driven seas and swell waves averaging over whole Black Sea area were investigated separately. The both wind-driven seas and swell demonstrate the decreasing in heights about 10% the same as their periods for the chosen time frame. Parametric spectral analysis was performed. The periods of wave height fluctuations for wind-driven seas and swell were shown to coincide with each other and with periods of low frequency fluctuation of NOA: 14 and 4 year respectively. Correlation coefficients of wave height and NOA were 0.3 for swell and 0.4 for wind-driven sea. Nonlinear regularities of NAO fluctuations were investigated using wavelet and spavlet (spectra of modules of wavelet coefficients) analyses. Their influence on variability of storminess in Black Sea is discussed. The reported study was funded by RFBR (project No. 16-55-76002 ERA_a) and by TUBITAK (project No. 116M061) in frame of BS STEMA project.

  2. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  3. Increasing cloudiness in Arctic damps the increase in phytoplankton primary production due to sea ice receding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, S.; Babin, M.; Tremblay, J.-É.

    2013-06-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas are among the marine regions most affected by climate change. Here we present the results of a diagnostic model used to assess the primary production (PP) trends over the 1998-2010 period at pan-Arctic, regional and local (i.e. 9.28 km resolution) scales. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) above and below the sea surface was estimated using precomputed look-up tables of spectral irradiance, taking as input satellite-derived cloud optical thickness and cloud fraction parameters from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and sea ice concentration from passive microwaves data. A spectrally resolved PP model, designed for optically complex waters, was then used to assess the PP trends at high spatial resolution. Results show that PP is rising at a rate of +2.8 TgC yr-1 (or +14% decade-1) in the circum-Arctic and +5.1 TgC yr-1 when sub-Arctic seas are considered. In contrast, incident PAR above the sea surface (PAR(0+)) has significantly decreased over the whole Arctic and sub-Arctic Seas, except over the perennially sea-ice covered waters of the Central Arctic Ocean. This fading of PAR(0+) (-8% decade-1) was caused by increasing cloudiness during summer. Meanwhile, PAR penetrating the ocean (PAR(0-)) increased only along the sea ice margin over the large Arctic continental shelf where sea ice concentration declined sharply since 1998. Overall, PAR(0-) slightly increased in the circum-Arctic (+3.4% decade-1), while it decreased when considering both Arctic and sub-Arctic Seas (-3% decade-1). We showed that rising phytoplankton biomass (i.e. chlorophyll a) normalized by the diffuse attenuation of photosynthetically usable radiation (PUR), accounted for a larger proportion of the rise in PP than did the increase in light availability due to sea-ice loss in several sectors, and particularly in perennially and seasonally open waters. Against a general backdrop of rising productivity over Arctic shelves

  4. Regional seismic wave propagation (Lg and Sn) and Pn attenuation in the Arabian Plate and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Damegh, Khaled; Sandvol, Eric; Al-Lazki, Ali; Barazangi, Muawia

    2004-05-01

    Continuous recordings of 17 broadband and short-period digital seismic stations from a newly established seismological network in Saudi Arabia, along with digital recordings from the broadband stations of the GSN, MEDNET, GEOFON, a temporary array in Saudi Arabia, and temporary short period stations in Oman, were analysed to study the lithospheric structure of the Arabian Plate and surrounding regions. The Arabian Plate is surrounded by a variety of types of plate boundaries: continental collision (Zagros Belt and Bitlis Suture), continental transform (Dead Sea fault system), young seafloor spreading (Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden) and oceanic transform (Owen fracture zone). Also, there are many intraplate Cenozoic processes such as volcanic eruptions, faulting and folding that are taking place. We used this massive waveform database of more than 6200 regional seismograms to map zones of blockage, inefficient and efficient propagation of the Lg and Sn phases in the Middle East and East Africa. We observed Lg blockage across the Bitlis Suture and the Zagros fold and thrust belt, corresponding to the boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. This is probably due to a major lateral change in the Lg crustal waveguide. We also observed inefficient Lg propagation along the Oman mountains. Blockage and inefficient Sn propagation is observed along and for a considerable distance to the east of the Dead Sea fault system and in the northern portion of the Arabian Plate (south of the Bitlis Suture). These mapped zones of high Sn attenuation, moreover, closely coincide with extensive Neogene and Quaternary volcanic activity. We have also carefully mapped the boundaries of the Sn blockage within the Turkish and Iranian plateaus. Furthermore, we observed Sn blockage across the Owen fracture zone and across some segments of the Red Sea. These regions of high Sn attenuation most probably have anomalously hot and possibly thin lithospheric mantle (i.e. mantle lid). A

  5. Gravity Field Changes due to Long-Term Sea Level Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarynskyy, O.; Kuhn, M.; Featherstone, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Long-term sea level changes caused by climatic changes (e.g. global warming) will alter the system Earth. This includes the redistribution of ocean water masses due to the migration of cold fresh water from formerly ice-covered regions to the open oceans mainly caused by the deglaciation of polar ice caps. Consequently also a change in global ocean circulation patterns will occur. Over a longer timescale, such mass redistributions will be followed by isostatic rebound/depression due to the changed surface un/loading, resulting in variable sea level change around the world. These, in turn, will affect the gravity field, location of the geocentre, and the Earth's rotation vector. This presentation focuses mainly on gravity field changes induced by long-term (hundredths to many thousand years) sea level changes using an Earth System Climate Model (ESCM) of intermediate complexity. In this study, the coupled University of Victoria (Victoria, Canada) Earth System Climate Model (Uvic ESCM) was used, which embraces the primary thermodynamic and hydrological components of the climate system including sea and land-ice information. The model was implemented to estimate changes in global precipitation, ocean mass redistribution, seawater temperature and salinity on timescales from hundreds to thousands years under different greenhouse warming scenarios. The sea level change output of the model has been converted into real mass changes by removing the steric effect, computed from seawater temperature and salinity information at different layers also provided by Uvic ESCM. Finally the obtained mass changes have been converted into changes of the gravitational potential and subsequently of the geoid height using a spherical harmonic representation of the different data. Preliminary numerical results are provided for sea level change as well as change in geoid height.

  6. Plate kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottenberg, Helen Carrie

    This work utilizes the Four-Dimensional Plates (4DPlates) software, and Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) to examine plate-scale, regional-scale and local-scale kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression in Ethiopia. First, the 4DPlates is used to restore the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Afar Depression and the Main Ethiopian Rift to development of a new model that adopts two poles of rotation for Arabia. Second, the 4DPlates is used to model regional-scale and local-scale kinematics within the Afar Depression. Most plate reconstruction models of the Afro-Arabian Rift System relies on considering the Afar Depression as a typical rift-rift-rift triple junction where the Arabian, Somali and Nubian (African) plates are separating by the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian Rift suggesting the presence of "sharp and rigid" plate boundaries. However, at the regional-scale the Afar kinematics are more complex due to stepping of the Red Sea propagator and the Gulf of Aden propagator onto Afar as well as the presence of the Danakil, Ali Sabieh and East Central Block "micro-plates". This study incorporates the motion of these micro-plates into the regional-scale model and defined the plate boundary between the Arabian and the African plates within Afar as likely a diffused zone of extensional strain within the East Central Block. Third, DInSAR technology is used to create ascending and descending differential interferograms from the Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-Band data for the East Central Block to image active crustal deformation related to extensional tectonics and volcanism. Results of the DInSAR study indicate no strong strain localization but rather a diffused pattern of deformation across the entire East Central Block.

  7. Mid-troposphere transport of Middle-East dust over the Arabian Sea and its effect on rainwater composition and sensitive ecosystems over India.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, V; Muraleedharan, P M; Babu, C Prakash

    2017-10-20

    The importance of mineral dust and aerosols in the transfer of bio-essential elements to terrestrial and marine ecosystems far removed from the source region is well known. Aerosol concentrations measured at the surface over the west coast of India during the SW monsoon period (June to September) are usually very low as pristine maritime air from the Southern Indian Ocean blows over this region. However, we find very high levels of mineral dust and dust derived nutrients in rainwater collected during the SW monsoon period. We show that the dry, warm and dusty Red Sea Wind and Shamal Wind from the Middle-East override the moist oceanic Low-Level Jet (Findlater Jet) of the SW monsoon and transport large quantities of dust at heights between 2 km and 5 km over the Indian Peninsula. A substantial portion is the desert dust is scavenged and wet-deposited over the Western Ghats of India where it neutralizes the acidity of rainwater and provides substantial amounts of nutrients that have the potential to impact sensitive ecosystems in this region. After the Red Sea and Shamal Winds subside in September, the alkaline rainwater reverts to the acidic range due to soluble ions derived from local carbonaceous aerosols.

  8. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in the ˜52-50 Ma Vastan lignite sequence, western India: Implication for Early Eocene MORB volcanism offshore Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensarma, Sarajit; Singh, Hukam; Rana, R. S.; Paul, Debajyoti; Sahni, Ashok

    2017-03-01

    The recognition of pyroclasts preserved in sedimentary environments far from its source is uncommon. We here describe occurrences of several centimetres-thick discontinuous basaltic pumice lenses occurring within the Early Eocene Vastan lignite mine sedimentary sequence, western India at two different levels - one at ˜5 m and the other at 10 m above a biostratigraphically constrained 52 Ma old marker level postdating the Deccan Volcanism. These sections have received global attention as they record mammalian and plant radiations. We infer the repetitive occurrence of pumice have been sourced from a ˜52-50 Ma MORB related to sea-floor spreading in the western Arabian Sea, most plausibly along the Carlsberg Ridge. Pyroclasts have skeletal plagioclase with horsetail morphologies ± pyroxene ± Fe-Ti oxide euhedral crystals, and typically comprise of circular polymodal (radii ≤10 to ≥30 μm), non-coalescing microvesicles (>40-60%). The pumice have undergone considerable syngenetic alteration during oceanic transport and post-burial digenesis, and are a composite mixture of Fe-Mn-rich clay and hydrated altered basaltic glass (palagonite). The Fe-Mn-rich clay is extremely low in SiO 2, Al 2 O 3, TiO 2, MgO, alkalies and REE, but very high in Fe 2 O 3, MnO, P, Ba, Sr contents, and palagonitization involved significant loss of SiO 2, Al 2 O 3, MgO and variable gain in Fe 2 O 3, TiO 2, Ni, V, Zr, Zn and REE. Bubble initiation to growth in the ascending basaltic magma (liquidus ˜1200-1250 ∘C) may have occured in ˜3 hr. Short-distance transport, non-connected vesicles, deposition in inner shelf to more confined lagoonal condition in the Early Eocene and quick burial helped preservation of the pumice in Vastan. Early Eocene Arabian Sea volcanism thus might have been an additional source to marginal sediments along the passive margin of western India.

  9. Assessment of Hammocks (Petenes) Resilience to Sea Level Rise Due to Climate Change in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Posada Vanegas, Gregorio; de Jong, Bernardus H. J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against sea level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future climate disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to sea level rise linked to climate change; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the sea through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically important because of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to climate change at “Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve”, in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed that multi-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to sea level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide. PMID:27611802

  10. Assessment of Hammocks (Petenes) Resilience to Sea Level Rise Due to Climate Change in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montilla, Mariana C; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel; Posada Vanegas, Gregorio; de Jong, Bernardus H J

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against sea level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future climate disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to sea level rise linked to climate change; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the sea through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically important because of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to climate change at "Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve", in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed that multi-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to sea level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide.

  11. Investigating sea level rise due to global warming in the teaching laboratory using Archimedes’ principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Stephen; Pearce, Darren

    2015-11-01

    A teaching laboratory experiment is described that uses Archimedes’ principle to precisely investigate the effect of global warming on the oceans. A large component of sea level rise is due to the increase in the volume of water due to the decrease in water density with increasing temperature. Water close to 0 °C is placed in a beaker and a glass marble hung from an electronic balance immersed in the water. As the water warms, the weight of the marble increases as the water is less buoyant due to the decrease in density. In the experiment performed in this paper a balance with a precision of 0.1 mg was used with a marble 40.0 cm3 and mass of 99.3 g, yielding water density measurements with an average error of -0.008 ± 0.011%.

  12. An increase in aerosol burden due to the land-sea warming contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, T.; Allen, R.; Randles, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Climate models simulate an increase in most aerosol species in response to warming, particularly over the tropics and Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. This increase in aerosol burden is related to a decrease in wet removal, primarily due to reduced large-scale precipitation. Here, we show that the increase in aerosol burden, and the decrease in large-scale precipitation, is related to a robust climate change phenomenon—the land/sea warming contrast. Idealized simulations with two state of the art climate models, the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (NCAR CAM5) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Atmospheric Model 3 (GFDL AM3), show that muting the land-sea warming contrast negates the increase in aerosol burden under warming. This is related to smaller decreases in near-surface relative humidity over land, and in turn, smaller decreases in large-scale precipitation over land—especially in the NH midlatitudes. Furthermore, additional idealized simulations with an enhanced land/sea warming contrast lead to the opposite result—larger decreases in relative humidity over land, larger decreases in large-scale precipitation, and larger increases in aerosol burden. Our results, which relate the increase in aerosol burden to the robust climate projection of enhanced land warming, adds confidence that a warmer world will be associated with a larger aerosol burden.

  13. Numerical 3D modelling of oil dispersion in the sea due to different accident scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guandalini, Roberto; Agate, Giordano; Moia, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    different environmental conditions, have been collected from RSE proprietary and public databases directly connected to the model. Finally, the possible pollution source has been chosen in correspondence with the offshore drilling wells for the exploitation of the "Ombrina Mare" oil field, located at a distance of 6 km from the coast, and the project includes a FPSO unit. A number of different scenarios have been simulated using the 3D model created by HyperSuite, in different environmental conditions and considering emission events of low intensity and long period or of high intensity and short period, located near the sea surface or near the sea bottom. For each scenario, a preliminary initialization in the fluid dynamic unperturbed conditions at the starting date has been carried out, from which the emission period followed by a properly duration of diffusion period of the pollutant has been simulated. The results allowed to evaluate the relevance of the effects due to the environmental parameters as the wind, sea current and tide, putting in evidence the capability of the methodology to support the safety requirements in the frame of off shore oil exploitation provided that a dynamic characterization of the environment parameters is accounted for a sufficient detail.

  14. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  15. Coastal Vertebrate Exposure to Predicted Habitat Changes Due to Sea Level Rise.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Alexander, Clark R; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F; Guy, Rachel K; Moore, Clinton T; Cooper, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species' fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species' foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  16. Coastal Vertebrate Exposure to Predicted Habitat Changes Due to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel K.; Moore, Clinton T.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species' fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species ( n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species' foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  17. Assessing the potential of Landsat 8 OLI for retrieving salinity in the hypersaline Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf, located in an arid region in the Middle East, has high salinity that can exceed 43 practical salinity units (psu) due to its special conditions, such as high evaporation, low precipitation, and desalination discharge. In this study, a regional algorithm was developed to retrieve salinity using in situ measurements conducted between June 2013 and November 2014 along the western coast of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multivariate linear regression model using the visible bands of Operational Land Imager (OLI) was proposed and indicated good performance with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.7. The algorithm was then applied to an OLI scene, which revealed the spatial distribution of salinity over the study area. The findings are favorable for better interpretation of the complex water mass exchange between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman through the Strait of Hormuz, validating salinity from numerical models, studying the effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change on ecosystem in the hypersaline Arabian Gulf, etc.

  18. Meteorological Conditions Affecting Electromagnetic Propagation on the Arabian Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Arabian Sea * - EMEN*~ PEOPLE S DEM. ARAB REPt~ REP OF YEMEN " Aden ID,naut,"DJIBOUTI Socotra I ~ETHIOPIA -. I Addis Ababa SOMALIA , igure 11: "Aratian... vel were do minart. Fi~ure 62 shcws the presencc of an elevated duct. A low altituide (2000 feet) radar hcle is -resent below th-e duct f row 50 tc 200

  19. SEA-LEVEL RISE. Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods.

    PubMed

    Dutton, A; Carlson, A E; Long, A J; Milne, G A; Clark, P U; DeConto, R; Horton, B P; Rahmstorf, S; Raymo, M E

    2015-07-10

    Interdisciplinary studies of geologic archives have ushered in a new era of deciphering magnitudes, rates, and sources of sea-level rise from polar ice-sheet loss during past warm periods. Accounting for glacial isostatic processes helps to reconcile spatial variability in peak sea level during marine isotope stages 5e and 11, when the global mean reached 6 to 9 meters and 6 to 13 meters higher than present, respectively. Dynamic topography introduces large uncertainties on longer time scales, precluding robust sea-level estimates for intervals such as the Pliocene. Present climate is warming to a level associated with significant polar ice-sheet loss in the past. Here, we outline advances and challenges involved in constraining ice-sheet sensitivity to climate change with use of paleo-sea level records. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end

  1. Sea level rise along Malaysian coasts due to the climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Quang-Hung; Tkalich, Pavel; Tay, Tzewei

    2015-04-01

    Malaysia consists of two major parts, a mainland on the Peninsular Malaysia and the East Malaysia on the Borneo Island. Their surrounding waters connect the Andaman Sea located northeast of the Indian Ocean to the Celebes Sea in the western tropical Pacific Ocean through the southern East Sea of Vietnam/South China Sea. As a result, inter-annual sea level in the Malaysian waters is governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. We estimated sea level rise (SLR) rate in the domain using tide gauge records often being gappy. To reconstruct the missing data, two methods are used: (i) correlating sea level with climate indices El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and (ii) filling the gap using records of neighboring tide gauges. Latest vertical land movements have been acquired to derive geocentric SLR rates. Around the Peninsular Malaysia, geocentric SLR rates in waters of Malacca Strait and eastern Peninsular Malaysia during 1986-2011 are found to be 3.9±3.3 mm/year and 4.2 ± 2.5 mm/year, respectively; while in the East Malaysia waters the rate during 1988-2011 is 6.3 ± 4.0 mm/year. These rates are arguably higher than global tendency for the same periods. For the overlapping period 1993-2011, the rates are consistent with those obtained using satellite altimetry.

  2. Improved simulation of Antarctic sea ice due to the radiative effects of falling snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-L. F.; Richardson, Mark; Hong, Yulan; Lee, Wei-Liang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Yu, Jia-Yuh; Fetzer, Eric; Stephens, Graeme; Liu, Yinghui

    2017-08-01

    Southern Ocean sea-ice cover exerts critical control on local albedo and Antarctic precipitation, but simulated Antarctic sea-ice concentration commonly disagrees with observations. Here we show that the radiative effects of precipitating ice (falling snow) contribute substantially to this discrepancy. Many models exclude these radiative effects, so they underestimate both shortwave albedo and downward longwave radiation. Using two simulations with the climate model CESM1, we show that including falling-snow radiative effects improves the simulations relative to cloud properties from CloudSat-CALIPSO, radiation from CERES-EBAF and sea-ice concentration from passive microwave sensors. From 50-70°S, the simulated sea-ice-area bias is reduced by 2.12 × 106 km2 (55%) in winter and by 1.17 × 106 km2 (39%) in summer, mainly because increased wintertime longwave heating restricts sea-ice growth and so reduces summer albedo. Improved Antarctic sea-ice simulations will increase confidence in projected Antarctic sea level contributions and changes in global warming driven by long-term changes in Southern Ocean feedbacks.

  3. Vasculitis and Thrombosis due to the Sea Lion Lungworm, Parafilaroides decorus, in a Guadalupe Fur Seal ( Arctocephalus philippii townsendi).

    PubMed

    Seguel, Mauricio; Nadler, Steven; Field, Cara; Duignan, Padraig

    2018-05-01

    A free-ranging, male, yearling Guadalupe fur seal ( Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) died due to multifocal verminous vasculitis with thrombosis and several embolic infarcts in liver, kidney, and brain. Nematodes extracted from lung blood vessels were identified as Parafilaroides decorus, a parasite normally found in alveoli of California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus).

  4. Reduction in sea lamprey hatching success due to release of sterilized males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Twohey, Michael B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Young, Robert J.; Heinrich, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), sterilized by injection with bisazir, were released in Lake Superior tributaries from 1991 to 1996 and exclusively in the St. Marys River (the outflow from Lake Superior to Lake Huron) since 1997 as an alternative to chemical control. To determine effectiveness in reducing reproductive potential through the time of hatch, males were observed on nests and egg viability was determined in nests in selected Lake Superior tributaries and the St. Marys River. The proportions of sterilized males observed on nests were not significantly different than their estimated proportion in the population for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. It was concluded that sterilized males survive, appear on the spawning grounds, and nest at near their estimated proportion in the population. There was a significant reduction in egg viability corresponding with release of sterilized males for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. In the St. Marys River from 1993 to 2000, the percent reduction in egg viability was significantly correlated with the observed proportion of sterile males on nests. It was further concluded that sterilized males remain sterile through nesting and attract and mate with females. Reduction in reproductive potential in the St. Marys River due to both removal of females by traps and sterile-male-release ranged from 34 to 92% from 1993 to 2001 and averaged 64%. From 1999 to 2001, when the program stabilized, reductions ranged from 71 to 92% and averaged 81%. The current release of sterile males in the St. Marys River effectively reduced reproductive potential through the time of hatch and did so near theoretical levels based on numbers released, estimates of population size, and the assumptions of full sterility and competitiveness.

  5. Using time lapse cameras to monitor shoreline changes due to sea level rise.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-01-01

    Shoreline habitats and infrastructure are currently being affected by sea level rise (SLR) and as : global temperatures continue to rise, will continue to get worse for millennia. Governments : and individuals decisions to adapt to SLR could ha...

  6. Optical Properties of the Red Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    monsoon seasons . The effect of monsoons was shown to increase signifi- cantly the optical properties in the Arabian Sea (Arnone and Oriol, 1990a). Within...the Red Sea, the monsoon influence is not as strong as in the Arabian Sea; therefore, these seasonal trends were not expected to impact significantly...objective of this report is to characterize the surface optical properties within the Red Sea and determine the seasonal significance of the monsoons

  7. An interhemispheric tropical sea level seesaw due to El Niño Taimasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widlansky, M. J.; Timmermann, A.; McGregor, S.; Stuecker, M. F.; Cai, W.

    2013-12-01

    During strong El Niño events, sea level drops around some tropical western Pacific islands by up to 20-30 cm. Such extreme events (referred to as ';taimasa' in Samoa) expose shallow reefs, thereby damaging associated coastal ecosystems and contributing to the formation of ';flat topped coral heads' often referred to as microatolls. We show that during the termination of strong El Niño events, a southward movement of weak trade winds and development of an anomalous anticyclone in the Philippine Sea force an interhemispheric sea level seesaw in the tropical Pacific which enhances and prolongs extreme low sea levels in the southwestern Pacific. Spectral features, in addition to wind forced linear shallow water ocean model experiments, identify an interaction between El Niño and the annual cycle as the main cause of these sea level anomalies. Given the well established seasonal prediction skill for El Niño events and their seasonally paced termination, our analysis suggests that long-duration extreme sea level drops may also be highly predictable.

  8. Coastal Vulnerability Due to Sea-level Rise Hazard in the Bangladesh Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Ck; Ballu, Valérie; Calmant, Stéphane; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Hossain, Fasial; Jenkins, Craig; Haque Khan, Zahirul; Kim, Jinwoo; Kuhn, Michael; Kusche, Jürgen; Papa, Fabrice; Tseng, Kuohsin; Wan, Junkun

    2014-05-01

    Approximately half of the world's population or 3.2 billion people lives within 200 km of coastlines and many of them in the world's deltaic plains. Sea-level rise, widely recognized as one of consequences resulting from anthropogenic climate change, has induced substantial coastal vulnerability globally and in particular, in the deltaic regions, such as coastal Bangladesh, and Yangtze Delta. Bangladesh, a low-lying, one of the most densely populated countries in the world located at the Bay of Bengal, is prone to transboundary monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Sea-level rise, along with tectonic, sediment load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have exacerbated Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability. Here we describe the physical science component of the integrated approach based on both physical and social sciences to address the adaption and potential mitigation of coastal Bangladesh vulnerability. The objective is to quantify the estimates of spatial varying sea-level trend separating the vertical motion of the coastal regions using geodetic and remote-sensing measurements (tide gauges, 1950-current; satellite altimetry, 1992-present, GRACE, 2003-present, Landsat/MODIS), reconstructed sea-level trends (1950-current), and GPS and InSAR observed land subsidence. Our goal is to conduct physically based robust projection of relative sea-level change at the end of the 21st century for the Bangladesh Delta to enable quantitative measures of social science based adaption and possible mitigation.

  9. Late Quaternary variations in relative sea level due to glacial cycle polar wander

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, B.G.; James, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and decay of continental ice sheets can excite significant motion of the Earth's rotation pole and cause a complex spatio-temporal pattern of changes in relative sea level. These two effects have generally been considered separately, but may interact in important ways. In particular, a simple model of the melting of the Laurentide ice sheet causes a uniform eustatic sea level rise of 55 m, and also induces a motion of the rotation pole by 0.1 to 1 degree, depending on viscosity structure in the mantle. This motion produces a secular pole tide, which is a spherical harmonic degree 2, order 1 component of the relative sea level pattern, with peak-to-peak amplitude of 20 to 40 m. The maximum effect is along the great circle passing through the path of the pole and at latitudes of ??45??. This secular pole tide has been ignored in most previous attempts to estimate ice sheet loading history and mantle viscosity from global patterns of relative sea level change. It has a large influence along the East coast of North America and the West coast of South America, and significantly contributes to present day rates of relative sea level change.

  10. X-ray fluorescence results from IODP Expedition 355 sediments in Laxmi Basin, eastern Arabian Sea: Insights into late Miocene and Pleistocene carbonate production and burial and possible variations in monsoon intensit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, M. G.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Lyle, M. W.; Hahn, A.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in CaCO3 accumulation on the seafloor depend on a number of factors, including productivity of carbonate-producing organisms in the overlying water column, input of siliciclastic material from nearby continents, and changes in ocean chemistry. These factors are affected by variations in tectonics and climate. Here we use X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning data to develop high-resolution chemical profiles calibrated with discrete samples to examine changes in carbonate production and burial in the eastern Arabian Sea. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 cored two sites in the Indus Fan in Laxmi Basin. We scanned the Pleistocene composite sections from both sites at 2 cm resolution ( 150-300 year sampling resolution) using the Avaatech XRF core scanner at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository. In addition, we scanned a hemipelagic interval dated to the late Miocene ( 8 to 6 Ma) that spans the late Miocene climate transition to drier conditions globally, as documented by an expansion in C4 plants. The 2 cm scanning resolution represents 500 years between samples for the upper Miocene section. We used carbonate measurements on discrete samples to calibrate the XRF data, supplemented by analysis using a quantitative benchtop XRF at the University of Bremen. We find large variability in carbonate content in the Pleistocene and upper Miocene, varying from 15-80 wt%, with higher carbonate content correlating with lighter colored sediment. The aluminosilicate composition varies in part because of carbonate dilution but also because of changes in the source of clays and turbidites through the section. We also explore the use of chemical ratios to better understand the variations through the section. Changes in Ca/Fe (biogenic/terrestrial component) and Rb/Zr (fine/coarse grained) match well with visual observation of sediment composition in the cores. We can combine these with the oxygen isotope-derived age model for the Pleistocene section to

  11. Morphological response of the saltmarsh habitats of the Guadiana estuary due to flow regulation and sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, D. M. R.; Boski, T.

    2016-12-01

    In the context of rapid sea-level rise in the 21st century, the reduction of fluvial sediment supply due to the regulation of river discharge represents a major challenge for the management of estuarine ecosystems. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the cumulative impacts of the reduction of river discharge and projected sea-level rise on the morphological evolution of the Guadiana estuary during the 21st century. The assessment was based on a set of analytical solutions to simplified equations of tidal wave propagation in shallow waters and empirical knowledge of the system. As methods applied to estimate environmental flows do not take into consideration the fluvial discharge required to maintain saltmarsh habitats and the impact of sea-level rise, simulations were carried out for ten cases in terms of base river flow and sea-level rise so as to understand their sensitivity on the deepening of saltmarsh platforms. Results suggest saltmarsh habitats may not be affected severely in response to lower limit scenarios of sea-level rise and sedimentation. A similar behaviour can be expected even due to the upper limit scenarios until 2050, but with a significant submergence afterwards. In the case of the upper limit scenarios under scrutiny, there was a net erosion of sediment from the estuary. Multiplications of amplitudes of the base flow function by factors 1.5, 2, and 5 result in reduction of the estimated net eroded sediment volume by 25, 40, and 80%, respectively, with respect to the net eroded volume for observed river discharge. The results also indicate that defining the minimum environmental flow as a percentage of dry season flow (as done presently) should be updated to include the full spectrum of natural flows, incorporating temporal variability to better anticipate scenarios of sea-level rise during this century. As permanent submergence of intertidal habitats can be significant after 2050, due to the projected 79 cm rise of sea-level by the year

  12. Lakes or wetlands? A comment on 'The middle Holocene climatic records from Arabia: Reassessing lacustrine environments, shift of ITCZ in Arabian Sea, and impacts of the southwest Indian and African monsoons' by Enzel et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Max; Matter, Albert; Parker, Adrian G.; Parton, Ash; Petraglia, Michael D.; Preston, Gareth W.; Preusser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Enzel et al. (2015) reassess sedimentary records of Early to Mid-Holocene lake sites in Arabia based on a reinterpretation of published multiproxy data and a qualitative analysis of satellite imagery. The authors conclude that these sites represent palaeo-wetland environments rather than palaeolakes and that the majority of the Arabian Peninsula experienced no or, if at all, only a very minor increase of rainfall at that time mainly due to eastward expansion of the East African Summer Monsoon. We disagree with their reassessment and identify several cases where unequivocal evidence for early Late Pleistocene and Early to Mid-Holocene perennial lake environments in Arabia, lasting for centuries to millennia, was neglected by Enzel et al. (2015). Here we summarize findings which indicate the presence of lakes from the sites of Jubbah, Tayma, Mundafan (all Saudi Arabia), Wahalah, Awafi (both UAE), and the Wahiba Sands (Oman), supported by evidence including occurrence of barnacle colonies in living position, remnant bioclastic shoreline deposits, undisturbed varve formation, shallowing-up lacustrine sequences, various aquatic freshwater, brackish and saline micro- and macrofossils, such as ichnofaunal remains, which are the result of prolonged field-based research. While the precise depth, hydrology and ecology of these water bodies is still not entirely resolved, their perennial nature is indicative of a markedly increased precipitation regime, which, in combination with more abundant groundwater and increased spring outflow in terminal basins fed by charged aquifers, was sufficient to overcome evaporative losses. The palaeolakes' influence on sustaining prehistoric populations is corroborated by the presence of rich archaeological evidence.

  13. Assessment of the impact of sea-level rise due to climate change on coastal groundwater discharge.

    PubMed

    Masciopinto, Costantino; Liso, Isabella Serena

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of sea intrusion into coastal aquifers as a consequence of local sea-level rise (LSLR) due to climate change was carried out at Murgia and Salento in southern Italy. The interpolation of sea-level measurements at three tide-gauge stations was performed during the period of 2000 to 2014. The best fit of measurements shows an increasing rate of LSLR ranging from 4.4mm/y to 8.8mm/y, which will result in a maximum LSLR of approximately 2m during the 22nd century. The local rate of sea-level rise matches recent 21st and 22nd century projections of mean global sea-level rise determined by other researchers, which include increased melting rates of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, the effect of ocean thermal expansion, the melting of glaciers and ice caps, and changes in the quantity of stored land water. Subsequently, Ghyben-Herzberg's equation for the freshwater/saltwater interface was rewritten in order to determine the decrease in groundwater discharge due to the maximum LSLR. Groundwater flow simulations and ArcGIS elaborations of digital elevation models of the coast provided input data for the Ghyben-Herzberg calculation under the assumption of head-controlled systems. The progression of seawater intrusion due to LSLR suggests an impressive depletion of available groundwater discharge during the 22nd century, perhaps as much as 16.1% of current groundwater pumping for potable water in Salento. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential Inundation due to Rising Sea Levels in the San Francisco Bay Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Noah

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the rate of sea level rise is one of the primary impacts of projected global climate change. To assess potential inundation associated with a continued acceleration of sea level rise, the highest resolution elevation data available were assembled from various sources and mosaicked to cover the land surfaces of the San Francisco Bay region. Next, to quantify high water levels throughout the bay, a hydrodynamic model of the San Francisco Estuary was driven by a projection of hourly water levels at the Presidio. This projection was based on a combination of climate model outputs and empirical models and incorporates astronomical, storm surge, El Niño, and long-term sea level rise influences. Based on the resulting data, maps of areas vulnerable to inundation were produced, corresponding to specific amounts of sea level rise and recurrence intervals. These maps portray areas where inundation will likely be an increasing concern. In the North Bay, wetland survival and developed fill areas are at risk. In Central and South bays, a key feature is the bay-ward periphery of developed areas that would be newly vulnerable to inundation. Nearly all municipalities adjacent to South Bay face this risk to some degree. For the Bay as a whole, as early as 2050 under this scenario, the one-year peak event nearly equals the 100-year peak event in 2000. Maps of vulnerable areas are presented and some implications discussed.

  15. Future nutrient load scenarios for the Baltic Sea due to climate and lifestyle changes.

    PubMed

    Hägg, Hanna Eriksson; Lyon, Steve W; Wällstedt, Teresia; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Claremar, Björn; Humborg, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Dynamic model simulations of the future climate and projections of future lifestyles within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) were considered in this study to estimate potential trends in future nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads were estimated using a simple proxy based only on human population (to account for nutrient sources) and stream discharges (to account for nutrient transport). This population-discharge proxy provided a good estimate for nutrient loads across the seven sub-basins of the BSDB considered. All climate scenarios considered here produced increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea over the next 100 years. There was variation between the climate scenarios such that sub-basin and regional differences were seen in future nutrient runoff depending on the climate model and scenario considered. Regardless, the results of this study indicate that changes in lifestyle brought about through shifts in consumption and population potentially overshadow the climate effects on future nutrient runoff for the entire BSDB. Regionally, however, lifestyle changes appear relatively more important in the southern regions of the BSDB while climatic changes appear more important in the northern regions with regards to future increases in nutrient loads. From a whole-ecosystem management perspective of the BSDB, this implies that implementation of improved and targeted management practices can still bring about improved conditions in the Baltic Sea in the face of a warmer and wetter future climate.

  16. Deposition Rates and Characterization of Arabian Mineral Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne mineral dust directly and indirectly impacts on global climate, continental and marine biochemistry, human and animal health, agriculture, equipment, and visibility. Annual global dust emissions are poorly known with estimates differing by a factor of at least two. Local dust emission and deposition rates are even less quantified. Dust deposition rate is a key parameter, which helps to constrain the modeled dust budget of the atmosphere. However, dust deposition remains poorly known, due to the limited number of reliable measurements. Simulations and satellite observations suggest that coastal dusts contribute substantially to the total deposition flux into the Red Sea. Starting December 2014, deposition samplers, both the "frisbee" type, and passive samplers for individual particle scanning electron microscopy were deployed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), along the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. Sampling periods of one month were adopted. The deposition rates range from 3 g m-2 month-1 for fair weather conditions to 23 g m-2 month-1 for high dust events. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of deposited dust samples show mineralogical compositions different from any of the parent soils, the former consisting mainly of gypsum, calcite, and smaller amounts of albite, montmorillonite, chlorite, quartz and biotite. The deposited dust samples on the other hand contain more gypsum and less quartz than the previously collected soil samples. This presentation discusses the results from XRD, chemical analysis and SEM-based individual particle analysis of the soils and the deposited dust samples. The monthly dust accumulation rates and their seasonal and spatial variability are compared with the regional model predictions. Data from this study provide an observational basis for validating the regional dust mass balance along the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain.

  17. Fishery stock assessment of Kiddi shrimp ( Parapenaeopsis stylifera) in the Northern Arabian Sea Coast of Pakistan by using surplus production models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsin, Muhammad; Mu, Yongtong; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Kalhoro, Muhammad Talib; Shah, Syed Baber Hussain

    2017-07-01

    Pakistani marine waters are under an open access regime. Due to poor management and policy implications, blind fishing is continued which may result in ecological as well as economic losses. Thus, it is of utmost importance to estimate fishery resources before harvesting. In this study, catch and effort data, 1996-2009, of Kiddi shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera fishery from Pakistani marine waters was analyzed by using specialized fishery software in order to know fishery stock status of this commercially important shrimp. Maximum, minimum and average capture production of P. stylifera was observed as 15 912 metric tons (mt) (1997), 9 438 mt (2009) and 11 667 mt/a. Two stock assessment tools viz. CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were used to compute MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of this organism. In CEDA, three surplus production models, Fox, Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson, along with three error assumptions, log, log normal and gamma, were used. For initial proportion (IP) 0.8, the Fox model computed MSY as 6 858 mt (CV=0.204, R 2 =0.709) and 7 384 mt (CV=0.149, R 2 =0.72) for log and log normal error assumption respectively. Here, gamma error produced minimization failure. Estimated MSY by using Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson models remained the same for log, log normal and gamma error assumptions i.e. 7 083 mt, 8 209 mt and 7 242 mt correspondingly. The Schafer results showed highest goodness of fit R 2 (0.712) values. ASPIC computed MSY, CV, R 2, F MSY and B MSY parameters for the Fox model as 7 219 mt, 0.142, 0.872, 0.111 and 65 280, while for the Logistic model the computed values remained 7 720 mt, 0.148, 0.868, 0.107 and 72 110 correspondingly. Results obtained have shown that P. stylifera has been overexploited. Immediate steps are needed to conserve this fishery resource for the future and research on other species of commercial importance is urgently needed.

  18. Bottom melting of Arctic Sea Ice in the Nansen Basin due to Atlantic Water influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muilwijk, Morven; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Meyer, Amelie

    2016-04-01

    Our global climate is warming, and a shrinking Arctic sea ice cover remains one of the most visible signs of this warming. Sea Ice loss is now visible for all months in all regions of the Arctic. Hydrographic and current observations from a region north of Svalbard collected during the Norwegian Young Sea Ice Cruise (N-ICE2015) are presented here. Comparison with historical data shows that the new observations from January through June fill major gaps in available observations, and help describing important processes linking changes in regional Atlantic Water (AW) heat transport and sea ice. Warm and salty AW originating in the North Atlantic enters the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait and is present below the Arctic Sea Ice cover throughout the Arctic. However, the depth of AW varies by region and over time. In the region north of Svalbard, we assume that depth could be governed primarily by local processes, by upstream conditions of the ice cover (Northwards), or by upstream conditions of the AW (Southwards). AW carries heat corresponding to the volume transport of approximately 9 SV through Fram Strait, varying seasonally from 28 TW in winter to 46 TW in summer. Some heat is recirculated, but the net annual heat flux into the Arctic Ocean from AW is estimated to be around 40 TW. The Atlantic Water layer temperature at intermediate depths (150-900m) has increased in recent years. Until recently, maximum temperatures have been found to be 2-3 C in the Nansen Basin. Studies have shown that for example, in the West Spitsbergen Current the upper 50-200m shows an overall AW warming of 1.1 C since 1979. In general we expect efficient melting when AW is close to the surface. Previously the AW entering through Fram Strait has been considered as less important because changes in the sea ice cover have been connected to greater inflow of Pacific Water through Bering Strait and atmospheric forcing. Conversely it is now suggested that AW has direct impact on melting of

  19. The prevalence of ocular diseases in polish Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Paschalis-Trela, Katarzyna; Cywińska, Anna; Trela, Jan; Czopowicz, Michał; Kita, Jerzy; Witkowski, Lucjan

    2017-11-07

    Equine ocular diseases pose a medical challenge due to long-lasting and cost-consuming therapies as well as economic issues associated with potential decrease in value of affected horses. The scale of the problem is significant but difficult to precisely define because epidemiological data is limited and lacks consistency in presentation. To date, no retrospective studies specifically investigating Arabian horses have been published. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of ocular lesions and define the ocular diseases present in Arabian horses from breeding farms in Poland. Clinical and ophthalmic examination of 615 Arabian horses at Polish breeding farms (15% of Arabian population in Poland) were performed and medical history from the previous 5 years was analyzed. Data was obtained from review of veterinary archives and epidemiological interview of the resident veterinarian at each farm. The prevalence of ocular diseases was 9.75%. The following pathologies were diagnosed (with their respective prevalence): equine recurrent uveitis (ERU; 5.5%); cataract not related to ERU (3.3%); non-visual eyes (1.13%); posttraumatic lesions (0.8%); glaucoma (0.16%). In this study, ERU was the most common ocular disease identified in Arabian horses in Poland. Its prevalence was lower than usually reported in Europe and the United States. There was no sex or farm predisposition but ocular disease prevalence increased with age. Other severe ocular pathologies were also observed, confirming that ocular diseases remain an important clinical problem.

  20. Structure of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Across the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amri, A; Rodgers, A

    2007-01-05

    Analysis of modern broadband (BB) waveform data allows for the inference of seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle using a variety of techniques. This presentation will report inferences of seismic structure of the Arabian Plate using BB data from various networks. Most data were recorded by the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) which consists of 38 (26 BB, 11 SP) stations, mostly located on the Arabian Shield. Additional data were taken from the 1995-7 Saudi Arabian IRIS-PASSCAL Deployment (9 BB stations) and other stations across the Peninsula. Crustal structure, inferred from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions,more » reveals thicker crust in the Arabian Platform (40-45 km) and the interior of the Arabian Shield (35-40 km) and thinner crust along the Red Sea coast. Lithospheric thickness inferred from teleseismic S-wave receiver functions reveals very thin lithosphere (40-80 km) along the Red Sea coast which thickens rapidly toward the interior of the Arabian Shield (100-120 km). We also observe a step of 20-40 km in lithospheric thickness across the Shield-Platform boundary. Seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle inferred from teleseismic P- and S-wave travel time tomography reveals large differences between the Shield and Platform, with the Shield being underlain by slower velocities, {+-}3% for P-waves and {+-}6% for S-waves. Seismic anisotropy was inferred from shear-wave splitting, using teleseismic SKS waveforms. Results reveal a splitting time of approximately 1.4 seconds, with the fast axis slightly east of north. The shear-wave splitting results are consistent across the Peninsula, with a slight clockwise rotation parallel for stations near the Gulf of Aqaba. In summary, these results allow us to make several conclusions about the tectonic evolution and current state of the Arabian Plate. Lithospheric thickness implies that thinning near the Red Sea has accompanied the rupturing of the Arabian

  1. Ellsworth mountains: Position in West Antarctica due to sea-floor spreading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1969-01-01

    Similarities of middle and upper Paleozoic deposits of the Ellsworth Mountains with those of the Pensacola, Horlick, and other Transantarctic mountains indicate that all these ranges may have had a related geologic history. A tentative explanation is now suggested which involves sea-floor spreading and translocation of the Ellsworth crustal block from its original location adjacent to the East Antarctic Shield. Accordingly, the islands of West Antarctica may differ in origin and the Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica may represent one margin of an ancient rift.

  2. Sea otter dental enamel is highly resistant to chipping due to its microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Ziscovici, Charles; Lucas, Peter W.; Constantino, Paul J.; Bromage, Timothy G.; van Casteren, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Dental enamel is prone to damage by chipping with large hard objects at forces that depend on chip size and enamel toughness. Experiments on modern human teeth have suggested that some ante-mortem chips on fossil hominin enamel were produced by bite forces near physiological maxima. Here, we show that equivalent chips in sea otter enamel require even higher forces than human enamel. Increased fracture resistance correlates with more intense enamel prism decussation, often seen also in some fossil hominins. It is possible therefore that enamel chips in such hominins may have formed at even greater forces than currently envisaged. PMID:25319817

  3. Variation of Marine Geoid Due to Ocean Circulation and Sea Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level (S) change and ocean circulation largely affect the gravity field and in turns the marine geoid (N). Difference between the two, D = S - N, is the dynamic ocean topography (DOT), whose gradient represents the large-scale surface geostrophic circulations. Thus, temporal variability of marine geoid (δN) is caused by the sea level change (δS) and the DOT variation (δD), δN = δS - δD. Here, δS is identified from temporally varying satellite altimeter measures; δD is calculated from the change of DOT. For large-scale processes with conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic flows take minimum energy state. Based on that, a new elliptic equation is derived in this study to determine D. Here, H is the water depth; and (X, Y) are forcing functions calculated from the in-situ density. The well-posed elliptic equation is integrated numerically on 1o grids for the world oceans with the boundary values taken from the mean DOT (1993-2006) field at the NASA/JPL website: https://grace.jpl.nasa.gov/data/get-data/dynamic-ocean-typography/, the forcing function F calculated from the three-dimensional temperature and salinity of the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) World Ocean Atlas 2013 version 2, and sea-floor topography (H) from the NOAA ETOPO5. The numerical solution compares reasonably well (relative root mean square difference of 0.09) with the NASA/JPL satellite observation of the difference between the time-averaged sea surface height and the geoid. In-situ ocean measurements of temperature, salinity, and velocity have also rapidly advanced such that the global ocean is now continuously monitored by near 4,000 free-drifting profiling floats (called Argo) from the surface to 2000 m depth with all data being relayed and made publicly available within hours after collection (http://www.argo.ucsd.edu/). This provides a huge database of temperature and salinity and in turns the forcing function F for the governing elliptic

  4. Arabian Sea as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The photo depicts many of the types of ocean features seen when illuminated by sunglint. These features include a shear line, bilge dump, currents, and ship wakes. Winds, currents and oils effect the smoothness of the surface of the water. The oils smooth the water which reflect the sun more than the rougher surrounding water. This is seen in the bright curved line which is a bilge dump of oily water from a ship. The oils then start to take the form of the currents and in this case are also being blown by the surface winds. The shear line is approximately 240 miles west of Bombay, India. This shear line appears to be a result of two water masses, moving at slightly different speeds, having converged. Ship wakes, such as those in the photo, which cross a shear line, often give us an indication of the relative strength of a shear.

  5. Arabian Sea as seen from STS-62

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-05

    STS062-86-196 (4-18 March 1994) --- This photo depicts many of the types of ocean features seen when illuminated by sunglint. These features include a shear line, bilge dump, currents and ship wakes. Winds, currents and oils effect the smoothness of the surface of the water. The oils smooth the water which reflect the sun more than the rougher surround water. This is seen in the bright curved line which is a bilge dump of oily water from a ship. The oils then start to take the form of the currents and in this case are also being blown by the surface winds. The shear line is approximately 240 miles west of Bombay, India. This shear line appears to be a result of two water masses, moving at slightly different speeds, having converged. Ship wakes, such as those in the photo, which cross a shear line, often give us an indication of the relative strenght of a a shear.

  6. Arabian Sea Fronts and Barrier Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    enable accurate prediction of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system that governs the climate of the Northern Indian Ocean. RELATED PROJECTS NASA ...relationship with the Indian Ocean monsoons and regional climate in general. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this project is to

  7. Enhanced vertical mixing within mesoscale eddies due to high frequency winds in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Yuley; Bracco, Annalisa

    The South China Sea is a marginal basin with a complex circulation influenced by the East Asian Monsoon, river discharge and intricate bathymetry. As a result, both the mesoscale eddy field and the near-inertial energy distribution display large spatial variability and they strongly influence the oceanic transport and mixing. With an ensemble of numerical integrations using a regional ocean model, this work investigates how the temporal resolution of the atmospheric forcing fields modifies the horizontal and vertical velocity patterns and impacts the transport properties in the basin. The response of the mesoscale circulation in the South China Sea is investigated under three different forcing conditions: monthly, daily and 6-hourly momentum and heat fluxes. While the horizontal circulation does not display significant differences, the representation of the vertical velocity field displays high sensitivity to the frequency of the wind forcing. If the wind field contains energy at the inertial frequency or higher (daily and 6-hourly cases), then submesoscale fronts, vortex Rossby waves and near inertial waves are excited as ageostrophic expression of the vigorous eddy field. Those quasi- and near-inertial waves dominate the vertical velocity field in the mixed layer (vortex Rossby waves) and below the first hundred meters (near inertial waves) and they are responsible for the differences in the vertical transport properties under the various forcing fields as quantified by frequency spectra, vertical velocity profiles and vertical dispersion of Lagrangian tracers.

  8. Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases

    PubMed Central

    Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that short-lived greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the “world avoided” by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to short-lived substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in short-lived gases or net radiative forcing. PMID:28069937

  9. Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M

    2017-01-24

    Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that short-lived greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to short-lived substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in short-lived gases or net radiative forcing.

  10. Active NE-SW Compressional Strain Within the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, M. A.; ArRajehi, A.; King, R. W.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R. E.; Douad, M.; Sholan, J.; Bou-Rabee, F.

    2012-12-01

    Motion of the Arabian plate with respect to Eurasia has been remarkably steady over more than 25 Myr as revealed by comparison of geodetic and plate tectonic reconstructions (e.g., McQuarrie et al., 2003, GRL; ArRajehi et al., 2010, Tectonics). While internal plate deformation is small in comparison to the rate of Arabia-Eurasia convergence, the improved resolution of GPS observations indicate ~ NE-SW compressional strain that appears to affect much of the plate south of latitude ~ 30°N. Seven ~ NE-SW oriented inter-station baselines all indicated shortening at rates in the range of 0.5-2 mm/yr, for the most part with 1-sigma velocity uncertainties < 0.4 mm/yr. Plate-scale strain rates exceed 2×10-9/yr. The spatial distribution of strain can not be resolved from the sparse available data, but strain appears to extend at least to Riyadh, KSA, ~ 600 km west of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt that forms the eastern, collisional boundary of the Arabian plate with Eurasia (Iran). Geodetic velocities in the plate tectonic reference frame for Arabia, derived from magnetic anomalies in the Red Sea (Chu and Gordon, 1998, GJI), show no significant E-W motion for GPS stations located along the Red Sea coast (i.e., geodetic and plate tectonic spreading rates across the Red Sea agree within their resolution), in contrast to sites in the plate interior and along the east side of the plate that indicate east-directed motions. In addition, NE-SW contraction is roughly normal to ~ N-S striking major structural folds in the sedimentary rocks within the Arabian Platform. These relationships suggest that geodetically observed contraction has characterized the plate for at least the past ~ 3 Myr. Broad-scale contraction of the Arabian plate seems intuitively reasonable given that the east and north sides of the plate are dominated by active continental collision (Zagros, E Turkey/Caucasus) while the west and south sides are bordered by mid-ocean ridge spreading (Red Sea and Gulf of

  11. Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Mordechai; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    1992-12-01

    Phanerozoic alkali basalts from Israel, which have erupted over the past 200 Ma, have isotopic compositions similar to PREMA ("prevalent mantle") with narrow ranges of initial ɛ Nd(T) = +3.9-+5.9; 87Sr/ 86Sr(T)= 0.70292-0.70334; 206Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 18.88-19.99; 207Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 15.58-15.70; and 208Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 38.42-39.57. Their Nb/U(43 ± 9) and Ce/Pb(26 ± 6) ratios are identical to those of normal oceanic basalts, demonstrating that the basalts are essentially free of crustal contamination. Overall, the basalts are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from many ordinary plume basalts, but no plume track can be identified. We propose that these and other, similar, magmas from the Arabian plate originated from a "fossilized" head of a mantle plume, which was unable to penetrate the continental lithosphere and was therefore trapped and stored beneath it. The plume head was emplaced some time between the late Proterozoic crust formation and the initiation of the Phanerozoic magmatic cycles. Basalts from rift environments in other continental localities show similar geochemistry to that of the Arabian basalts and their sources may also represent fossil plume heads trapped below the continents. We suggest that plume heads are, in general, characterized by the PREMA isotopic mantle signature, because the original plume sources (which may have HIMU or EM-type composition) have been diluted by overlying mantle material, which has been entrained by the plume heads during ascent. On the Arabian plate, rifting and thinning of the lithosphere caused partial melting of the stored plume, which led to periodic volcanism. In the late Cenozoic, the lithosphere broke up and the Red Sea opened. N-MORB tholeiites are now erupting in the central trough of the Red Sea, where the lithosphere has moved apart and the fossil plume has been exhausted, whereas E-MORBs are erupting in the northern and southern troughs, still tapping the plume reservoir. Fossil plumes, which are

  12. Sea otter dental enamel is highly resistant to chipping due to its microstructure.

    PubMed

    Ziscovici, Charles; Lucas, Peter W; Constantino, Paul J; Bromage, Timothy G; van Casteren, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Dental enamel is prone to damage by chipping with large hard objects at forces that depend on chip size and enamel toughness. Experiments on modern human teeth have suggested that some ante-mortem chips on fossil hominin enamel were produced by bite forces near physiological maxima. Here, we show that equivalent chips in sea otter enamel require even higher forces than human enamel. Increased fracture resistance correlates with more intense enamel prism decussation, often seen also in some fossil hominins. It is possible therefore that enamel chips in such hominins may have formed at even greater forces than currently envisaged. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Extreme wave formation in unidirectional sea due to stochastic wave phase dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Balachandran, Balakumar

    2018-07-01

    The authors consider a stochastic model based on the interaction and phase coupling amongst wave components that are modified envelope soliton solutions to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. A probabilistic study is carried out and the resulting findings are compared with ocean wave field observations and laboratory experimental results. The wave height probability distribution obtained from the model is found to match well with prior data in the large wave height region. From the eigenvalue spectrum obtained through the Inverse Scattering Transform, it is revealed that the deep-water wave groups move at a speed different from the linear group speed, which justifies the inclusion of phase correction to the envelope solitary wave components. It is determined that phase synchronization amongst elementary solitary wave components can be critical for the formation of extreme waves in unidirectional sea states.

  14. Millennial-scale record of overwash deposits preserved within lagoon sediments from the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, A. M.; Jessica, P.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Kovacs, S. E.; Hoffmann, G.

    2017-12-01

    Coastlines along the Arabian Sea are susceptible to tsunami-related inundation due to their proximity to the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ). This subduction zone has seen decades of low intensity events, but has historically produced large tsunamigenic-earthquakes that have impacted the 100 million people living along the Arabian Sea. One major problem in assessing the seismic risk of the MSZ is that the historical record of events are spatially and temporally limited and rely heavily on eye witness accounts. This hinders our ability to forecast the potential magnitude and recurrence intervals of earthquakes and tsunamis that can be expected in the future. Sediments deposited by paleotsunamis are useful as they expand the decadal record of events to include millennial timescales that more accurately capture the full range of magnitudes and recurrence intervals. On November 28, 1945 a 8.1 Mw earthquake originating from the MSZ generated a tsunami inundating coastlines along the Arabian Sea with wave heights up to 13m. At Sur, a small village on the northeastern coastline of Oman, the tsunami deposited a laterally continuous shell-rich layer within a 12 km2 lagoon. This layer contained distinctive taphonomic assemblages of foraminifera and bivalves. Below the 1945 shelly deposit at Sur Lagoon, seven anomalous sand layers were found preserved within fine-grained lagoonal sediment. These layers of medium-coarse sands range in thickness from 5 to 35 cm and are separated by sandy-mud sediment. Grain size analysis shows that these anomalously coarse layers are followed by an abrupt return to lagoonal mud. The sand layers have features consistent with the 1945 tsunami deposit such as fining upward trends, sharp basal contact, and marine foraminifera (e.g., Amphistegina sp., planktics). In contrast, the surrounding lagoon deposits are generally massive, finer in grain size, and contain foraminiferal species typically found in shallow quiescent coastal environments (e

  15. Increased nuisance flooding along the coasts of the United States due to sea level rise: Past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moftakhari, Hamed R.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sanders, Brett F.; Feldman, David L.; Sweet, William; Matthew, Richard A.; Luke, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Mean sea level has risen tenfold in recent decades compared to the most recent millennia, posing a serious threat for population and assets in flood-prone coastal zones over the next century. An increase in the frequency of nuisance (minor) flooding has also been reported due to the reduced gap between high tidal datums and flood stage, and the rate of sea level rise (SLR) is expected to increase based on current trajectories of anthropogenic activities and greenhouse gases emissions. Nuisance flooding (NF), however nondestructive, causes public inconvenience, business interruption, and substantial economic losses due to impacts such as road closures and degradation of infrastructure. It also portends an increased risk in severe floods. Here we report substantial increases in NF along the coasts of United States due to SLR over the past decades. We then take projected near-term (2030) and midterm (2050) SLR under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs), 2.6 and 8.5, to estimate the increase in NF. The results suggest that on average, - 80 ± 10% local SLR causes the median of the NF distribution to increase by 55 ± 35% in 2050 under RCP8.5. The projected increase in NF will have significant socio-economic impacts and pose public health risks in coastal regions.

  16. Black Carbon Measurement and Modeling in the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawad, Faisal Al; Khoder, Mamdouh; Almazroui, Mansour; Alghamdi, Mansour; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvarinen, Antti; Henriksson, Svante

    2017-04-01

    Black carbon is an important atmospheric aerosol as an effective factor in public health, changing the global and regional climate, and reducing visibility. Black carbon absorbs light, warms the atmosphere, and modifies cloud droplets and the amount of precipitation. In spite of this significance, knowledge of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula is hard to find in literature until recently. The total mass of black carbon and wind direction and speeds were measured continuously at Hada Al-Sham, Saudi Arabia for the year 2013. In addition, a state of the art global aerosol - climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) was used to determine black carbon climatology over the Arabian Peninsula. Simulation of the model was carried out for the years eight years (2004 - 2011). The daily mean values of the concentrations of black carbon had a minimum of 15.0 ng/m3 and a maximum of 6372 ng/m3 with a mean of at 1899 ng/m3. The diurnal pattern of black carbon showed higher values overnight, and steady low values during daytimes caused by sea and land breezes. Seasons of black carbon vary over the Arabian Peninsula, and the longest is in the Northern Region where it lasts from July to October. High concentrations of black carbon at Hada Al-Sham was observed with a mean of 1.9 µm/m3, and seasons of black carbon vary widely across the Arabian Peninsula. Assessment of the effects of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula on the global radiation balance. Initiating a black carbon monitoring network is highly recommended to assess its impacts on health, environment, and climate.

  17. Limits to benthic feeding by eiders in a vital Arctic migration corridor due to localized prey and changing sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovvorn, James R.; Rocha, Aariel R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Dasher, Douglas; Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Four species of threatened or declining eider ducks that nest in the Arctic migrate through the northeast Chukchi Sea, where anticipated industrial development may require prioritizing areas for conservation. In this nearshore corridor (10–40 m depth), the eiders’ access to benthic prey during the spring is restricted to variable areas of open water within sea ice. For the most abundant species, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis), stable isotopes in blood cells, muscle, and potential prey indicate that these eiders ate mainly bivalves when traversing this corridor. Bivalves there were much smaller than the same taxa in deeper areas of the northern Bering Sea, possibly due to higher mortality rates caused by ice scour in shallow water; future decrease in seasonal duration of fast ice may increase this effect. Computer simulations suggested that if these eiders forage for >15 h/day, they can feed profitably at bivalve densities >200 m−2 regardless of water depth or availability of ice for resting. Sampling in 2010–2012 showed that large areas of profitable prey densities occurred only in certain locations throughout the migration corridor. Satellite data in April–May over 13 years (2001–2013) indicated that access to major feeding areas through sea ice in different segments of the corridor can vary from 0% to 100% between months and years. In a warming and increasingly variable climate, unpredictability of access may be enhanced by greater effects of shifting winds on unconsolidated ice. Our results indicate the importance of having a range of potential feeding areas throughout the migration corridor to ensure prey availability in all years. Spatial planning of nearshore industrial development in the Arctic, including commercial shipping, pipeline construction, and the risk of released oil, should consider these effects of high environmental variability on the adequacy of habitats targeted for conservation.

  18. Limits to benthic feeding by eiders in a vital Arctic migration corridor due to localized prey and changing sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovvorn, James R.; Rocha, Aariel R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Dasher, Douglas; Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-08-01

    Four species of threatened or declining eider ducks that nest in the Arctic migrate through the northeast Chukchi Sea, where anticipated industrial development may require prioritizing areas for conservation. In this nearshore corridor (10-40 m depth), the eiders' access to benthic prey during the spring is restricted to variable areas of open water within sea ice. For the most abundant species, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis), stable isotopes in blood cells, muscle, and potential prey indicate that these eiders ate mainly bivalves when traversing this corridor. Bivalves there were much smaller than the same taxa in deeper areas of the northern Bering Sea, possibly due to higher mortality rates caused by ice scour in shallow water; future decrease in seasonal duration of fast ice may increase this effect. Computer simulations suggested that if these eiders forage for >15 h/day, they can feed profitably at bivalve densities >200 m-2 regardless of water depth or availability of ice for resting. Sampling in 2010-2012 showed that large areas of profitable prey densities occurred only in certain locations throughout the migration corridor. Satellite data in April-May over 13 years (2001-2013) indicated that access to major feeding areas through sea ice in different segments of the corridor can vary from 0% to 100% between months and years. In a warming and increasingly variable climate, unpredictability of access may be enhanced by greater effects of shifting winds on unconsolidated ice. Our results indicate the importance of having a range of potential feeding areas throughout the migration corridor to ensure prey availability in all years. Spatial planning of nearshore industrial development in the Arctic, including commercial shipping, pipeline construction, and the risk of released oil, should consider these effects of high environmental variability on the adequacy of habitats targeted for conservation.

  19. Uncertainty of the 20th century sea-level rise due to vertical land motion errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Gravelle, Médéric; Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Spada, Giorgio; Wöppelmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    Assessing the vertical land motion (VLM) at tide gauges (TG) is crucial to understanding global and regional mean sea-level changes (SLC) over the last century. However, estimating VLM with accuracy better than a few tenths of a millimeter per year is not a trivial undertaking and many factors, including the reference frame uncertainty, must be considered. Using a novel reconstruction approach and updated geodetic VLM corrections, we found the terrestrial reference frame and the estimated VLM uncertainty may contribute to the global SLC rate error by ± 0.2 mmyr-1. In addition, a spurious global SLC acceleration may be introduced up to ± 4.8 ×10-3 mmyr-2. Regional SLC rate and acceleration errors may be inflated by a factor 3 compared to the global. The difference of VLM from two independent Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment models introduces global SLC rate and acceleration biases at the level of ± 0.1 mmyr-1 and 2.8 ×10-3 mmyr-2, increasing up to 0.5 mm yr-1 and 9 ×10-3 mmyr-2 for the regional SLC. Errors in VLM corrections need to be budgeted when considering past and future SLC scenarios.

  20. Morbidity in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) due to ocean-borne plastic.

    PubMed

    Stamper, M Andrew; Spicer, Chad W; Neiffer, Donald L; Mathews, Kristin S; Fleming, Gregory J

    2009-03-01

    An emaciated 2.36-kg juvenile green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, was found floating off of Melbourne Beach, Florida, USA (28 degrees 2'4"N, 80 degrees 32'32"W). The turtle exhibited signs of cachexia, positive buoyancy, lethargy, and obstipation; was covered with barnacles; and was anorexic at the time of presentation. Dorsal-ventral radiographs with positive contrast confirmed obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. Serum chemistry abnormalities reflected metabolic/nutritional deficiencies. Gastrointestinal prokinetics and oral/enema mineral oil applications were effective in relieving gastrointestinal obstruction with the turtle defecating a total of 74 foreign objects over a period of a month. After the removal of the foreign material, the turtle quickly regained normal behavior and health. The lack of blood parameters demonstrating infection or inflammation; the failure to respond to antibiotic and antifungal treatment as well as the parallel improvement in behavior and health after incremental evacuation of the plastic is highly suggestive of a cause and effect association.

  1. Modeling extreme sea levels due to tropical and extra-tropical cyclones at the global-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, S.; Lin, N.; Verlaan, M.; Winsemius, H.; Ward, P.; Aerts, J.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme sea levels, a combination of storm surges and astronomical tides, can cause catastrophic floods. Due to their intense wind speeds and low pressure, tropical cyclones (TCs) typically cause higher storm surges than extra-tropical cyclones (ETCs), but ETCs may still contribute significantly to the overall flood risk. In this contribution, we show a novel approach to model extreme sea levels due to both tropical and extra-tropical cyclones at the global-scale. Using a global hydrodynamic model we have developed the Global Tide and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset (Muis et al., 2016), which provides daily maximum timeseries of storm tide from 1979 to 2014. GTSR is based on wind and pressure fields from the ERA-Interim climate reanalysis (Dee at al., 2011). A severe limitation of the GTSR dataset is the underrepresentation of TCs. This is due to the relatively coarse grid resolution of ERA-Interim, which means that the strong intensities of TCs are not fully included. Furthermore, the length of ERA-Interim is too short to estimate the probabilities of extreme TCs in a reliable way. We will discuss potential ways to address this limitation, and demonstrate how to improve the global GTSR framework. We will apply the improved framework to the east coast of the United States. First, we improve our meteorological forcing by applying a parametric hurricane model (Holland 1980), and we improve the tide and surge reanalysis dataset (Muis et al., 2016) by explicitly modeling the historical TCs in the Extended Best Track dataset (Demuth et al., 2006). Second, we improve our sampling by statistically extending the observed TC record to many thousands of years (Emanuel et al., 2006). The improved framework allows for the mapping of probabilities of extreme sea levels, including extremes TC events, for the east coast of the United States. ReferencesDee et al (2011). The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q. J. R. Meteorol

  2. Predicting change in eelgrass distribution due to sea level rise in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted...

  3. Outbreak of Staphylococcal food poisoning due to SEA-producing Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Johler, Sophia; Tichaczek-Dischinger, Petra S; Rau, Jörg; Sihto, Henna-Maria; Lehner, Angelika; Adam, Maja; Stephan, Roger

    2013-09-01

    In 2008, 150 people gathered for a wedding celebration in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Three hours after ingestion of a variety of foods including pancakes filled with minced chicken, several guests exhibited symptoms of acute gastroenteritis such as vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and ague. Twelve guests were reported to have fallen ill, with nine of these seeking medical care in hospitals. At least four patients were admitted to the hospital and received inpatient treatment, among them a 2-year-old child and a woman in the 4th month of pregnancy. Within 24 h of the event, an investigative team collected a variety of samples including refrigerated leftovers, food in the storage unit of the caterer, nasal swabs of the caterer, as well as 21 environmental swabs. Five stool samples from patients were provided by the hospitals. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were gathered from eight samples, among them nasal swabs of the caterer, food samples, and one stool sample. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy was used for species identification and for primary clustering of the isolates in a similarity tree. The isolates were further characterized by spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and a DNA microarray was used to determine the presence/absence of genes involved in virulence and antimicrobial resistance. We were able to match an enterotoxigenic strain from the stool sample of a patient to isolates of the same strain obtained from food and the nasal cavity of a food handler. The strain produced the enterotoxin SEA and the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, and was also found to exhibit the genes encoding enterotoxins SEG and SEI, as well as the enterotoxin gene cluster egc. This is one of only a few studies that were able to link a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak to its source.

  4. Regional biases in absolute sea-level estimates from tide gauge data due to residual unmodeled vertical land movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Matt A.; Keshin, Maxim; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Thomas, Ian D.; Milne, Glenn; Riva, Riccardo E. M.

    2012-07-01

    The only vertical land movement signal routinely corrected for when estimating absolute sea-level change from tide gauge data is that due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We compare modeled GIA uplift (ICE-5G + VM2) with vertical land movement at ˜300 GPS stations located near to a global set of tide gauges, and find regionally coherent differences of commonly ±0.5-2 mm/yr. Reference frame differences and signal due to present-day mass trends cannot reconcile these differences. We examine sensitivity to the GIA Earth model by fitting to a subset of the GPS velocities and find substantial regional sensitivity, but no single Earth model is able to reduce the disagreement in all regions. We suggest errors in ice history and neglected lateral Earth structure dominate model-data differences, and urge caution in the use of modeled GIA uplift alone when interpreting regional- and global- scale absolute (geocentric) sea level from tide gauge data.

  5. Investigating Transition Zone Thickness Variation under the Arabian Plate: Evidence Lacking for Deep Mantle Upwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliá, J.; Tang, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Zahran, H.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic outcrops in Arabia - locally known as harrats - span more than 2000 km along the western half of the Arabian plate, from eastern Yemen to southern Syria. The magmatism is bimodal in character, with older volcanics (30 to 20 My) being tholeiitic-to-transitional and paralleling the Red Sea margin, and younger volcanics (12 Ma to Recent) being transitional-to-strongly-alkalic and aligning in a more north-south direction. The bimodal character has been attributed to a two-stage rifting process along the Red Sea, where the old volcanics would have produced from shallow sources related to an initial passive rifting stage, and young volcanics would have originated from one or more deep-seated mantle plumes driving present active rifting. Early models suggested the harrats would have resulted from either lateral flow from the Afar plume in Ethiopia, or more locally from a separate mantle plume directly located under the shield. Most recently, tomographic images of the Arabian mantle have suggested the northern harrats could be resulting from flow originating at a deep plume under Jordan. In this work, we investigate the location of deep mantle plumes under the Arabian plate by mapping transition zone thickness with teleseismic receiver functions. The transition zone is bounded by seismic discontinuities, nominally at 410 and 660 km depth, originating from phase transitions in the olivine-normative component of the mantle. The precise depth of the discontinuities is strongly dependent on temperature and, due to the opposing signs of the corresponding Clapeyron slopes, positive temperature anomalies are expected to result in thinning of the transition zone. Our dataset consists of ~5000 low-frequency (fc < 0.25 Hz) receiver function waveforms obtained at ~110 broadband stations belonging to a number of permanent and temporary seismic networks in the region. The receiver functions were migrated to depth and stacked along a ~2000 km long record section

  6. Possible sea sediments due to glaciofluvial activity in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, J.

    Observations of fluvial morphologies in southern Elysium Planitia strongly supports the hypothesis that water substantially affected this region during the relatively recent geologic past. As of yet, however, the extent of a standing body of water has been speculative. The observation of zig-zag features potentially analogous to those observed near the Wadden Sea on Earth [see 1] may help show in more detail the origin, activity, and fate of water in this region of Mars. These terrestrial analogs could constrain environmental scenarios concerning the formation of these features. We present a geomorphologic map of central Elysium Planitia, that aids in our interpretation of potentially site-specific depositional/erosional morphologies. Positive relief zig-zag features within the Medusae Fossae Formation (Themis Image V05875001) resemble similar structures on Earth observed at shorelines of flat regions. Glaciofluvial activity is indicated by linear features resembling straight glacial flutings, which could form aeolian yardangs subsequently. The flutings are associated with branches of inverted fluvial channels (Images Themis V05588002, MOC e1800307). Their excavated positive relief (height ~40 m) indicates, that the adjacent material was eroded by sublimation or aeolian activity. The channels possibly resemble ice marginal channels. A high resolution Digital Terrain Model of one of the channels suggests, that one channel is possibly running upslope. Fluvial processes could have operated at one location at one time, and glacial processes at another location at another time [2]. A glacial drainage system [see 3] is a possible terrestrial analog for one inverted fluvial channel on Mars (Themis Image V05875001). Flutings occur on the foreland of many glaciers and their length may provide important evidence for rapid advance over substantial distances. Flutings are the product of subglacial erosion and transport processes [4]. By assigning the different environmental

  7. Interannual variability and predictability over the Arabian Penuinsula Winter monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan Abid, Muhammad; Kucharski, Fred; Almazroui, Mansour; Kang, In-Sik

    2016-04-01

    Interannual winter rainfall variability and its predictability are analysed over the Arabian Peninsula region by using observed and hindcast datasets from the state-of-the-art European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal prediction System 4 for the period 1981-2010. An Arabian winter monsoon index (AWMI) is defined to highlight the Arabian Peninsula as the most representative region for the Northern Hemispheric winter dominating the summer rainfall. The observations show that the rainfall variability is relatively large over the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. The correlation coefficient between the Nino3.4 index and rainfall in this region is 0.33, suggesting potentially some modest predictability, and indicating that El Nino increases and La Nina decreases the rainfall. Regression analysis shows that upper-level cyclonic circulation anomalies that are forced by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are responsible for the winter rainfall anomalies over the Arabian region. The stronger (weaker) mean transient-eddy activity related to the upper-level trough induced by the warm (cold) sea-surface temperatures during El Nino (La Nina) tends to increase (decrease) the rainfall in the region. The model hindcast dataset reproduces the ENSO-rainfall connection. The seasonal mean predictability of the northeast Arabian rainfall index is 0.35. It is shown that the noise variance is larger than the signal over the Arabian Peninsula region, which tends to limit the prediction skill. The potential predictability is generally increased in ENSO years and is, in particular, larger during La Nina compared to El Nino years in the region. Furthermore, central Pacific ENSO events and ENSO events with weak signals in the Indian Ocean tend to increase predictability over the Arabian region.

  8. Assessing extreme sea levels due to tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, Sanne; Lin, Ning; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Vatvani, Deepak; Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    provide reliable probabilities of surge levels for the entire Atlantic basin. References Demuth, J., DeMaria, M., and Knaff, J.A. (2006). Improvement of advanced microwave sounder unit tropical cyclone intensity and size estimation algorithms. Journal of Applied Meteorology., 45, pp. 1573-1581. Emanuel, K., Ravela, S., Vivant, E. and Risi, C. (2006). A statistical deterministic approach to hurricane risk assessment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 87(3), pp.299-314. Holland, G.J. (1980). An analytic model of the wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes. Monthly Weather Review, 108(8), pp.1212-1218. Lin, N. and D. Chavas (2012). On hurricane parametric wind and applications in storm surge modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. 117. doi:10.1029/2011jd017126. Muis, S., Verlaan, M., Winsemius, H. C., Aerts, J. C. J. H., & Ward, P. J. (2016). A global reanalysis of storm surge and extreme sea levels. Nature Communications, 7(7:11969), 1-11.

  9. Analyzing Flood Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise Using K-Means Clustering: Implications for Regional Flood Mitigation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, M.; Wood, N. J.; Stacey, M. T.; Schweikert, A.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    The threat of tidal flooding in coastal regions is exacerbated by sea level rise (SLR), which can lead to more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding and permanent inundation of low-lying areas. When coupled with extreme storm events, SLR also increases the extent and depth of flooding due to storm surges. To mitigate these impacts, bayfront communities are considering a variety of options for shoreline protection, including restoration of natural features such as wetlands and hardening of the shoreline using levees and sea walls. These shoreline modifications can produce changes in the tidal dynamics in a basin, either by increasing dissipation of tidal energy or enhancing tidal amplification [1]. As a result, actions taken by individual communities not only impact local inundation, but can also have implications for flooding on a regional scale. However, regional collaboration is lacking in flood mitigation planning, which is often done on a community-by-community basis. This can lead to redundancy in planning efforts and can also have adverse effects on communities that are not included in discussions about shoreline infrastructure improvements. Using flooding extent outputs from a hydrodynamic model of San Francisco Bay, we performed a K-means clustering analysis to identify similarities between 65 bayfront communities in terms of the spatial, demographic, and economic characteristics of their vulnerable assets for a suite of SLR and storm scenarios. Our clustering analysis identifies communities with similar vulnerabilities and allows for more effective collaboration and decision-making at a regional level by encouraging comparable communities to work together and pool resources to find effective adaptation strategies as flooding becomes more frequent and severe. [1] Holleman RC, Stacey MT (2014) Coupling of sea level rise, tidal amplification, and inundation. Journal of Physical Oceanography 44:1439-1455.

  10. Integrated ecosystem services assessment: Valuation of changes due to sea level rise in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Yoskowitz, David; Carollo, Cristina; Pollack, Jennifer Beseres; Santos, Carlota; Welder, Kathleen

    2017-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the potential changes in ecosystem service values provided by wetlands in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA, under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B max (0.69 m) sea level rise scenario. Built exclusively upon the output produced during the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model 6 (SLAMM 6) exercise for the Galveston Bay region, this study showed that fresh marsh and salt marsh present a steady decline from 2009 (initial condition) to 2100. Fresh marsh was projected to undergo the biggest changes, with the loss of approximately 21% of its extent between 2009 and 2100 under the A1B max scenario. The percentages of change for salt marsh were less prominent at approximately 12%. This trend was also shown in the values of selected ecosystem services (disturbance regulation, waste regulation, recreation, and aesthetics) provided by these habitats. An ordinary least squares regression was used to calculate the monetary value of the selected ecosystem services provided by salt marsh and fresh marsh in 2009, and in 2050 and 2100 under the A1B max scenario. The value of the selected services showed potential monetary losses in excess of US$40 million annually in 2100, compared to 2009 for fresh marsh and more than $11 million for salt marsh. The estimates provided here are only small portions of what can be lost due to the decrease in habitat extent, and they highlight the need for protecting not only built infrastructure but also natural resources from sea level rise. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:431-443. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Observed strengthening of interbasin exchange via the Indonesian seas due to rainfall intensification

    PubMed Central

    Sprintall, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A proxy of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) transport, developed using in situ hydrographic measurements along with assimilations, shows a significant strengthening trend during the past decade. This trend is due to a freshening and subsequent increase in the halosteric component of the ITF transport associated with enhanced rainfall over the Maritime Continent over the same period. The strengthening of the ITF transport leads to a significant change in heat and freshwater exchange between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and contributes to the warming and freshening of the eastern Indian Ocean. The combined effect of the ITF transport of mass and freshwater along with tropical rainfall plays a very important role in the climate system. PMID:28405053

  12. Multidecadal Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon Circulation Induces an Increasing Northern Indian Ocean Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swapna, P.; Jyoti, J.; Krishnan, R.; Sandeep, N.; Griffies, S. M.

    2017-10-01

    North Indian Ocean sea level has shown significant increase during last three to four decades. Analyses of long-term climate data sets and ocean model sensitivity experiments identify a mechanism for multidecadal sea level variability relative to global mean. Our results indicate that North Indian Ocean sea level rise is accompanied by a weakening summer monsoon circulation. Given that Indian Ocean meridional heat transport is primarily regulated by the annual cycle of monsoon winds, weakening of summer monsoon circulation has resulted in reduced upwelling off Arabia and Somalia and decreased southward heat transport, and corresponding increase of heat storage in the North Indian Ocean. These changes in turn lead to increased retention of heat and increased thermosteric sea level rise in the North Indian Ocean, especially in the Arabian Sea. These findings imply that rising North Indian Ocean sea level due to weakening of monsoon circulation demands adaptive strategies to enable a resilient South Asian population.

  13. Change Detection Analysis of Costal Habitat Using Remote Sensing Technologies in the Western Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabian Coast) over a Thirty-Year Period.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Idris, N.; Johnson, S. H.; Qurban, M. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Many factors can severely affect the growth and abundance of the marine ecosystems. For example, due to anthropogenic and natural forces, benthic habitats including but not limited to mangroves, sea grass, salt marshes, macro algae, and coral reefs have been experiencing high levels of declination. Furthermore, aerosols and their propellants are suspected contributors to marine habitat degradation. Although several studies reveal that the Arabian Gulf habitats have suffered deleterious impacts after the Gulf War and the following six month off-shore oil spill, limited research exists to track the changes in benthic habitats over the past three decades using remote sensing. Document changes in costal habitats over the past thirty years were better observed with the use of multispectral remote sensors such as Landsat-5, Landsat-7, and Landsat8 (OLI). Change detection analysis was performed on the three Landsat images (Landsat-5 for the 1987 image, Landsat-7 for the 2000, and Landsat-8 for the 2013 image). The images were then modified, masked off from open water and land. An unsupervised classification was performed which cluster similar classes together. The supervised classification displayed the seven following classes: coral reefs, macro algae, sea grass, salt marshes, mangroves, water, and land. Compared to 1987 image to 2000 scene, there was a noticeable increase in the extensiveness of salt marsh and macro algae habitats. However, a significant decrease in salt marsh habitats were apparent in the 2013 scene.

  14. Impacts of tides on tsunami propagation due to potential Nankai Trough earthquakes in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han Soo; Shimoyama, Tomohisa; Popinet, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The impacts of tides on extreme tsunami propagation due to potential Nankai Trough earthquakes in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), Japan, are investigated through numerical experiments. Tsunami experiments are conducted based on five scenarios that consider tides at four different phases, such as flood, high, ebb, and low tides. The probes that were selected arbitrarily in the Bungo and Kii Channels show less significant effects of tides on tsunami heights and the arrival times of the first waves than those that experience large tidal ranges in inner basins and bays of the SIS. For instance, the maximum tsunami height and the arrival time at Toyomaesi differ by more than 0.5 m and nearly 1 h, respectively, depending on the tidal phase. The uncertainties defined in terms of calculated maximum tsunami heights due to tides illustrate that the calculated maximum tsunami heights in the inner SIS with standing tides have much larger uncertainties than those of two channels with propagating tides. Particularly in Harima Nada, the uncertainties due to the impacts of tides are greater than 50% of the tsunami heights without tidal interaction. The results recommend simulate tsunamis together with tides in shallow water environments to reduce the uncertainties involved with tsunami modeling and predictions for tsunami hazards preparedness. This article was corrected on 26 OCT 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  15. Super-deep low-velocity layer beneath the Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, L.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Kind, R.; Farra, V.

    2003-04-01

    S and P receiver functions reveal indications of a low S velocity layer at 350-410 km depths beneath the Arabian plate. A similar layer was previously found beneath the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa and Tunguska basin of the Siberian platform. We hypothesize, that the boundary at 350 km depth may separate dry mantle root of the Arabian plate from the underlying wet mantle layer. This boundary is not found beneath the Gulf of Aden, where the root is destroyed by sea-floor spreading.

  16. Assessment of island beach erosion due to sea level rise: the case of the Aegean archipelago (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monioudi, Isavela N.; Velegrakis, Adonis F.; Chatzipavlis, Antonis E.; Rigos, Anastasios; Karambas, Theophanis; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Hasiotis, Thomas; Koukourouvli, Nikoletta; Peduzzi, Pascal; Manoutsoglou, Eva; Poulos, Serafim E.; Collins, Michael B.

    2017-03-01

    The present contribution constitutes the first comprehensive attempt to (a) record the spatial characteristics of the beaches of the Aegean archipelago (Greece), a critical resource for both the local and national economy, and (b) provide a rapid assessment of the impacts of the long-term and episodic sea level rise (SLR) under different scenarios. Spatial information and other attributes (e.g., presence of coastal protection works and backshore development) of the beaches of the 58 largest islands of the archipelago were obtained on the basis of remote-sensed images available on the web. Ranges of SLR-induced beach retreats under different morphological, sedimentological and hydrodynamic forcing, and SLR scenarios were estimated using suitable ensembles of cross-shore (1-D) morphodynamic models. These ranges, combined with empirically derived estimations of wave run-up induced flooding, were then compared with the recorded maximum beach widths to provide ranges of retreat/erosion and flooding at the archipelago scale. The spatial information shows that the Aegean pocket beaches may be particularly vulnerable to mean sea level rise (MSLR) and episodic SLRs due to (i) their narrow widths (about 59 % of the beaches have maximum widths < 20 m), (ii) their limited terrestrial sediment supply, (iii) the substantial coastal development and (iv) the limited existing coastal protection. Modeling results indeed project severe impacts under mean and episodic SLRs, which by 2100 could be devastating. For example, under MSLR of 0.5 m - representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) - a storm-induced sea level rise of 0.6 m is projected to result in a complete erosion of between 31 and 88 % of all beaches (29-87 % of beaches are currently fronting coastal infrastructure and assets), at least temporarily. Our results suggest a very considerable risk which will require significant

  17. First Observation of Coseismic Seafloor Crustal Deformation due to M7 Class Earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Ando, M.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Besana, G. M.; Kuno, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Mw7.3 and 7.5 earthquakes (Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes) occurred close to the source region of the anticipated Tonankai Trough in September 5, 2004. The focal mechanisms of the two earthquakes have no low angle nodal planes, which shows that the earthquakes are intraplate earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate. We observed coseismic horizontal displacement due to the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes by means of a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation, which is the first observation of coseismic seafloor displacement in the world. We have developed a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation. The observation system is composed of 1) acoustic measurement between a ship transducer and sea-bottom transponders, and 2) kinematic GPS positioning of the observation vessel. We have installed a seafloor benchmark close to the epicenters of the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes. The benchmark is composed of three sea-bottom transponders. The location of benchmark is defined as the weight center of the three transponders. We can determine the location of benchmark with an accuracy of about 5 cm at each observation. We have repeatedly measured the seafloor benchmark six times up to now: 1) July 12-16 and 21-22, 2004, 2) November 9-10, 3) January 19, 2005, 4) May 18-20, 5) July 19-20, and 6) August 18-19 and 29-30. The Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes occurred during the above monitoring period. The coseismic horizontal displacement of about 21 cm toward SSE was observed at our seafloor benchmark. The displacement is 3.5 times as large as the maximum displacement observed by on land GPS network in Japan, GEONET. The monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation is effective to detect the deformations associated with earthquakes occurring in ocean areas. This study is promoted by "Research Revolution 2002" of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We are grateful to the captain and crews of Research Vessel, Asama, of Mie Prefectural

  18. New heat flow measurements in Oman and the thermal state of the Arabian Shield and Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frédérique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-03-01

    The present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate is affected by the dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The Arabian plate is a Precambrian Shield and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian Shields with a thick lithosphere. This is consistent with low heat-flow values measured in Saudi Arabia (35-44 mWm- 2), but not with recent measurements in Jordan that show higher heat flow (56-66 mWm- 2). We have conducted measurements in the eastern Arabian plate to obtain 10 new heat-flux values. We also derived 20 heat-flux values from oil exploration wells. Our measurements show that surface heat flux is uniformly low (45 mWm- 2) in the eastern Arabian Shield and is consistent with low crustal heat production (0.7 μWm- 3). A steady-state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of 150 km is consistent with the seismic observations. Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mWm- 2) and the western (45 mWm- 2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia show this east-west contrast. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea is caused by the thermal erosion of the plume. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along the Red Sea and the western part of the Gulf of Aden by channeling magmas from the asthenosphere through the rift. The continental domain is not affected by rifting in the Gulf of Aden. The main thermal effect of the Arabian plate is probably the channeling of the Afar plume to the North.

  19. Marine record of late quaternary glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the Ross Sea and evidence for rapid, episodic sea level change due to marine ice sheet collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the questions to be addressed by SeaRISE include: (1) what was the configuration of the West Antarctic ice sheet during the last glacial maximum; (2) What is its configuration during a glacial minimum; and (3) has it, or any marine ice sheet, undergone episodic rapid mass wasting. These questions are addressed in terms of what is known about the history of the marine ice sheet, specifically in Ross Sea, and what further studies are required to resolve these problems. A second question concerns the extent to which disintegration of marine ice sheets may result in rises in sea level that are episodic in nature and extremely rapid, as suggested by several glaciologists. Evidence that rapid, episodic sea level changes have occurred during the Holocene is also reviewed.

  20. Crustal and upper mantle structure of the north-east of Egypt and the Afro-Arabian plate boundary region from Rayleigh-wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchete, V.; Chourak, M.; Hussein, H. M.; Atiya, K.; Timoulali, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The crustal and mantle structure of the north-eastern part of Egypt and the surrounding area is shown by means of S-velocity maps for depths ranging from zero to 45 km, determined by the regionalization and inversion of Rayleigh-wave dispersion. This analysis shows several types of crust with an average S-velocity ranging from 2.5 to 3.9 km/s. The values of S-velocity range from 2.5 km/s at the surface to 3.4 km/s at 10 km depth for the Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Dead Sea, western part of Dead sea and Arabian Plate. In the lower crust, the values of the S-velocity reach 4.0 km/s. In the uppermost mantle, the S-velocities range from 4.4 to 4.7 km/s. The crustal thickness ranges from the oceanic thin crust (around 15-20 km of thickness), for Red Sea and the extended continental margins, to 35-45 km of thickness for the Arabian plate. A gradual increasing crustal thickness is observed from north-east to south-west. While the Moho is located at 30-35 km of depth under the Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Fault (DSF) and Dead Sea, a thinner crust (20-25 km of thickness) is found at the east of DSF and under the northern and the southern part of the Gulf of Suez. The crustal thickness varies within Sinai from the southern edge to the north, which provided an evidence for the presence of an Early Mesozoic passive margin with thinned continental crust in the north of Sinai. The change of crustal structure between the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez is due to the different tectonic and geodynamic processes affecting Sinai. In general, our results are consistent with surface geology and the Moho depth inferred from reflection and refraction data, receiver function, surface-wave analysis and P-S tomography. The strong variations in the base of the Moho reflect the complex evolution of the African and Arabian plate boundary region.

  1. Regional Crustal Velocity Models for Northern Arabian Platform and Turkish-Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleqabi, G.; Wysession, M.; Ghalib, H.

    2008-12-01

    The geological structure of the Northern Arabian platform and surrounding mountains is dominated by the collision and suturing of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian plate and the formation of the Turkish-Iranian plateau. The structure of the Northern Arabian platform and surrounding region is poorly constrained. A recent deployment of 10 broadband seismometers in northern and central Iraq provides an opportunity to refine velocity models of the region. We have applied the Niching Genetic Algorithm waveform inversion technique to Rayleigh and Love waves traversing the Northern Arabian platform, the Zagros fold belt, the southern Turkish Plateau, the Iranian Plateau. Results show variations in crustal thickness and shear wave velocity between the Northern Arabian platform and the Turkish-Iranian plateau. In general the shear wave velocities are higher in the Northern Arabian platform than in the Plateaus. Variation of shear velocities within each of the provinces reflects the diversity in tectonic environment across the Zagros fold belt and the complex tectonic history of the region. Crustal thickness results show little crustal thickening has occurred due to collision.

  2. The contribution to future flood risk in the Severn Estuary from extreme sea level rise due to ice sheet mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, N.; Bates, P. D.; Siddall, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rate at which sea levels will rise in the coming century is of great interest to decision makers tasked with developing mitigation policies to cope with the risk of coastal inundation. Accurate estimates of future sea levels are vital in the provision of effective policy. Recent reports from UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) suggest that mean sea levels in the UK may rise by as much as 80 cm by 2100; however, a great deal of uncertainty surrounds model predictions, particularly the contribution from ice sheets responding to climatic warming. For this reason, the application of semi-empirical modelling approaches for sea level rise predictions has increased of late, the results from which suggest that the rate of sea level rise may be greater than previously thought, exceeding 1 m by 2100. Furthermore, studies in the Red Sea indicate that rapid sea level rise beyond 1m per century has occurred in the past. In light of such research, the latest UKCIP assessment has included a H++ scenario for sea level rise in the UK of up to 1.9 m which is defined as improbable but, crucially, physically plausible. The significance of such low-probability sea level rise scenarios upon the estimation of future flood risk is assessed using the Somerset levels (UK) as a case study. A simple asymmetric probability distribution is constructed to include sea level rise scenarios of up to 1.9 m by 2100 which are added to a current 1:200 year event water level to force a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal inundation. From the resulting ensemble predictions an estimation of risk by 2100 is established. The results indicate that although the likelihood of extreme sea level rise due to rapid ice sheet mass loss is low, the resulting hazard can be large, resulting in a significant (27%) increase to the projected annual risk. Furthermore, current defence construction guidelines for the coming century in the UK are expected to account for 95% of the sea level rise distribution

  3. Precipitation Dynamics and Feedback mechanisms of the Arabian Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Roelof; Kucera, Paul; Piketh, Stuart; Axisa, Duncan; Chapman, Michael; Krauss, Terry; Ghulam, Ayman

    2010-05-01

    The subtropical Arabian desert extends across the entire Peninsula. The Arabian desert finds itself in the downward branch of the Hadley cell with persistent subsidence. This stabilizes the atmosphere and lowers the relative humidity. The result is a strongly capped convective boundary layer and an extremely dry mid troposphere. Most of the area experience very little rainfall, generally below 100 mm per year, resulting in the largest uninterrupted sand desert in the world. However, local factors such as an unbroken 1000 km escarpment along the Red Sea, rocky mountains between 2000 and 3000 m, and gravel plains cut by wadis, causes micro climates with significant altered precipitation characteristics. Altitude oases with annual rainfall between 200 mm and 500 mm are found on the Asir mountains in the south west and over the Jebel Akdhar mountains on the Gulf coast of Oman. This region receives most of its rainfall in the Northern Hemisphere summer driven by a monsoon trough and the ITCZ. During summer, moist surface winds from the Red Sea converges with dry easterlies triggering convection along the Asir escarpment on a daily basis. Clear mornings grow into a layer of Altocumulus stratiformis cumulogenites by noon, which usually last until sunset. This cloud deck interacts with large severe convective cells which grow to the top of the troposphere by mid afternoon. The north experience a mediterranean climate with eastward propagating midlatitude cyclones causing wintertime rainfall. Characteristic cloud bands form over the northern interior. Vertically layered embedded convective cells that are not coupled with the surface propagate on north easterly tracks. This result in another oasis with annual rainfall exceeding 200 mm. Surface based convection causes isolated thunderstorms during spring and early summer, but cloud bases increase as the season progress until the evaporating downdraft causes dust storms. In-situ measurements, WRF model runs, radiosonde ascends

  4. Spontaneous abrupt climate change due to an atmospheric blocking–sea-ice–ocean feedback in an unforced climate model simulation

    PubMed Central

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Gleeson, Emily; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Livina, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Abrupt climate change is abundant in geological records, but climate models rarely have been able to simulate such events in response to realistic forcing. Here we report on a spontaneous abrupt cooling event, lasting for more than a century, with a temperature anomaly similar to that of the Little Ice Age. The event was simulated in the preindustrial control run of a high-resolution climate model, without imposing external perturbations. Initial cooling started with a period of enhanced atmospheric blocking over the eastern subpolar gyre. In response, a southward progression of the sea-ice margin occurred, and the sea-level pressure anomaly was locked to the sea-ice margin through thermal forcing. The cold-core high steered more cold air to the area, reinforcing the sea-ice concentration anomaly east of Greenland. The sea-ice surplus was carried southward by ocean currents around the tip of Greenland. South of 70°N, sea ice already started melting and the associated freshwater anomaly was carried to the Labrador Sea, shutting off deep convection. There, surface waters were exposed longer to atmospheric cooling and sea surface temperature dropped, causing an even larger thermally forced high above the Labrador Sea. In consequence, east of Greenland, anomalous winds changed from north to south, terminating the event with similar abruptness to its onset. Our results imply that only climate models that possess sufficient resolution to correctly represent atmospheric blocking, in combination with a sensitive sea-ice model, are able to simulate this kind of abrupt climate change. PMID:24248352

  5. Spontaneous abrupt climate change due to an atmospheric blocking-sea-ice-ocean feedback in an unforced climate model simulation.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Gleeson, Emily; Dijkstra, Henk A; Livina, Valerie

    2013-12-03

    Abrupt climate change is abundant in geological records, but climate models rarely have been able to simulate such events in response to realistic forcing. Here we report on a spontaneous abrupt cooling event, lasting for more than a century, with a temperature anomaly similar to that of the Little Ice Age. The event was simulated in the preindustrial control run of a high-resolution climate model, without imposing external perturbations. Initial cooling started with a period of enhanced atmospheric blocking over the eastern subpolar gyre. In response, a southward progression of the sea-ice margin occurred, and the sea-level pressure anomaly was locked to the sea-ice margin through thermal forcing. The cold-core high steered more cold air to the area, reinforcing the sea-ice concentration anomaly east of Greenland. The sea-ice surplus was carried southward by ocean currents around the tip of Greenland. South of 70 °N, sea ice already started melting and the associated freshwater anomaly was carried to the Labrador Sea, shutting off deep convection. There, surface waters were exposed longer to atmospheric cooling and sea surface temperature dropped, causing an even larger thermally forced high above the Labrador Sea. In consequence, east of Greenland, anomalous winds changed from north to south, terminating the event with similar abruptness to its onset. Our results imply that only climate models that possess sufficient resolution to correctly represent atmospheric blocking, in combination with a sensitive sea-ice model, are able to simulate this kind of abrupt climate change.

  6. Desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes by oxidation-extraction method.

    PubMed

    Al Otaibi, Raja L; Liu, Dong; Hou, Xulian; Song, Linhua; Li, Qingyin; Li, Mengfei; Almigrin, Hamid O; Yan, Zifeng

    The oxidation-extraction desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes was conducted with hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid oxidation system. The selection of extractant, the optimization of oxidation-extraction conditions, and the exploration of desulfurization mechanism were studied. As DMF was used as the extractant, the optimal desulfurization rate of 35.11 % and oil recovery of 95 % were obtained at 70 °C with the molar ratio of peracetic acid to sulfur of 8:1, the molar ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide of 2:1 and the volume ratio of extractant to oil of 1:1. The desulfurization effect of different fractions in the treated Saudi Arabian crudes was found to obey the following order: gasoline-diesel fraction >VGO fraction >VR fraction, due to different types and structures of sulfur compounds. The oil quality was less affected and most sulfides were mainly extracted via DMF.

  7. Geological evolution of the Afro-Arabian dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almond, D. C.

    1986-12-01

    The Afro-Arabian dome includes the elevated continental regions enclosing the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the Ethiopian rift system, and extends northwards as far as Jordan. It is more than an order of magnitude larger than other African uplifts. Both the structures and the igneous rocks of the dome appear to be products of the superimposition of two, perhaps three, semi-independent generating systems, initiated at different times but all still active. A strain pattern dominated by NW-trending basins and rifts first became established early in the Cretaceous. By the end of the Oligocene, much of the extensional strain had been taken up along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden axes, which subsequently developed into an ocean. Palaeogene "trap" volcanism of mildly alkaline to transitional character was related to this horizontal extension rather than to doming. Further west, the East Sahara swell has a history of intermittent alkaline volcanicity which began in the Mesozoic and was independent of magmatism in the Afro-Arabian dome. Volcanicity specifically related to doming began in the Miocene along a N-S zone of uplift extending from Ethiopia to Syria. This elongated swell forms the northern termination of the East African system of domes and rifts, characterized by episodic vertical uplift but very little extension. Superimposition of epeirogenic uplift upon structures formed by horizontal extension took place in the Neogene. Volcanicity related to vertical tectonics is mildly alkaline in character, whereas transitional and tholeiitic magmas are found along the spreading axes.

  8. Zoonoses in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. PMID:25491209

  9. Metabolic rates of benthic deep-sea decapod crustaceans decline with increasing depth primarily due to the decline in temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, J. J.; Cowles, D. L.; Favuzzi, J. A.; Mickel, T. J.

    1990-06-01

    The oxygen consumption rates of 11 species of benthic deep-sea decapod crustaceans were measured at a variety of temperatures to test the hypothesis that the metabolic rates of benthic crustaceans decline with increasing depth of occurrence only to the extent explained by the decline in temperature with depth. The species were captured at depths between 150 and 2000m off Southern California using an epibenthic beam trawl equipped with a thermally protecting cod-end to bring the animals to the surface uncontaminated by sediment and at the depth temperature. The data, combined with those for six species of shallower-living crustaceans from California waters, showed a significant decline in oxygen consumption rate with increased species' depths of occurrence, when the measurements were made at temperatures appropriate to each species' depth range. There was no significant relation between wet weight and depth of occurrence in these species. When the data were adjusted to 10°C using a moderate temperature effect factor (corresponding to Q10 values of 2-2.3 depending on the species and temperature range), the significant relationship between oxygen consumption rate and depth was lost, indicating that the observed decline with depth was due to the decline in temperature with depth. When the relationship between metabolic rate and depth of occurrence for the most active (carideans and penaeid) species were compared (ANCOVA) with that for the rest of the species, the active species had significantly higher rates. By combining this data set with data from the literature for a wide variety of shallow-living benthic decapod crustaceans, it was possible to create a data set of 35 species in which the effects of temperature, minimum depth of occurrence and body mass could be separated by multiple linear regression. This demonstrated highly significant effects of size and temperature, but no significant effect of depth for the entire data set and for the data set excluding

  10. Erosion of continental margins in the Western Mediterranean due to sea-level stagnancy during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Janna; Hübscher, Christian; Betzler, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas; Reicherter, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    High-resolution multi-channel seismic data from continental slopes with minor sediment input off southwest Mallorca Island, the Bay of Oran (Algeria) and the Alboran Ridge reveal evidence that the Messinian erosional surface is terraced at an almost constant depth interval between 320 and 380 m below present-day sea level. It is proposed that these several hundred- to 2,000-m-wide terraces were eroded contemporaneously and essentially at the same depth. Present-day differences in these depths result from subsidence or uplift in the individual realms. The terraces are thought to have evolved during one or multiple periods of sea-level stagnancy in the Western Mediterranean Basin. According to several published scenarios, a single or multiple periods of relative sea-level stillstand occurred during the Messinian desiccation event, generally known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Some authors suggest that the stagnancy started during the refilling phase of the Mediterranean basins. When the rising sea level reached the height of the Sicily Sill, the water spilled over this swell into the eastern basin. The stagnancy persisted until sea level in the eastern basin caught up with the western Mediterranean water level. Other authors assigned periods of sea-level stagnancy to drawdown phases, when inflowing waters from the Atlantic kept the western sea level constant at the depth of the Sicily Sill. Our findings corroborate all those Messinian sea-level reconstructions, forwarding that a single or multiple sea-level stagnancies at the depth of the Sicily Sill lasted long enough to significantly erode the upper slope. Our data also have implications for the ongoing debate of the palaeo-depth of the Sicily Sill. Since the Mallorcan plateau experienced the least vertical movement, the observed terrace depth of 380 m there is inferred to be close to the Messinian depth of this swell.

  11. Relationship between Curie isotherm surface and Moho discontinuity in the Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman M.; Saud, Ramzi

    2016-10-01

    The Arabian shield is a Precambrian complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks located approximately one-third of the way across the western Arabian Peninsula, with uncommon exposures along the Red Sea coast. We used aeromagnetic data acquired by others over the past several decades to estimate the depth to the Curie temperature isotherm throughout this region. Our goal was to further understand the lithospheric structure, thermal activity, and seismicity to assist in geothermal exploration. We also compared the Curie temperature isotherm with the crustal thickness to investigate the possibility that mantle rocks are magnetic in some parts of the Arabian shield. Depths to the Curie isotherm were estimated by dividing the regional aeromagnetic grid into 26 overlapping windows. Each window was then used to estimate the shape of the power spectrum. The windows had dimensions of 250 × 250 km to allow investigation of depths as deep as 50 km. The results show the presence of a Curie isotherm at a depth of 10-20 km near the Red Sea, increasing to 35-45 km in the interior of the Arabian shield. The Curie isotherm generally lies above the Moho in this region but deepens into the mantle in some locations, notably beneath the Asir Terrane.

  12. Optimal error analysis of the intraseasonal convection due to uncertainties of the sea surface temperature in a coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojing; Tang, Youmin; Yao, Zhixiong

    2017-04-01

    The predictability of the convection related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is studied using a coupled model CESM (Community Earth System Model) and the climatically relevant singular vector (CSV) approach. The CSV approach is an ensemble-based strategy to calculate the optimal initial error on climate scale. In this study, we focus on the optimal initial error of the sea surface temperature in Indian Ocean, where is the location of the MJO onset. Six MJO events are chosen from the 10 years model simulation output. The results show that the large values of the SVs are mainly located in the bay of Bengal and the south central IO (around (25°S, 90°E)), which is a meridional dipole-like pattern. The fast error growth of the CSVs have important impacts on the prediction of the convection related to the MJO. The initial perturbations with the SV pattern result in the deep convection damping more quickly in the east Pacific Ocean. Moreover, the sensitivity studies of the CSVs show that different initial fields do not affect the CSVs obviously, while the perturbation domain is a more responsive factor to the CSVs. The rapid growth of the CSVs is found to be related to the west bay of Bengal, where the wind stress starts to be perturbed due to the CSV initial error. These results contribute to the establishment of an ensemble prediction system, as well as the optimal observation network. In addition, the analysis of the error growth can provide us some enlightment about the relationship between SST and the intraseasonal convection related to the MJO.

  13. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan).

    PubMed

    Hassona, Rifaat K; Sam, A K; Osman, O I; Sirelkhatim, D A; LaRosa, J

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing (210)Po and (137)Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of (210)Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of (210)Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for (137)Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For (210)Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of (137)Cs is negligible compared to (210)Po.

  14. Managing for No Net Loss of Ecological Services: An Approach for Quantifying Loss of Coastal Wetlands due to Sea Level Rise.

    PubMed

    Kassakian, Jennifer; Jones, Ann; Martinich, Jeremy; Hudgens, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Sea level rise has the potential to substantially alter the extent and nature of coastal wetlands and the critical ecological services they provide. In making choices about how to respond to rising sea level, planners are challenged with weighing easily quantified risks (e.g., loss of property value due to inundation) against those that are more difficult to quantify (e.g., loss of primary production or carbon sequestration services provided by wetlands due to inundation). Our goal was to develop a cost-effective, appropriately-scaled, model-based approach that allows planners to predict, under various sea level rise and response scenarios, the economic cost of wetland loss-with the estimates proxied by the costs of future restoration required to maintain the existing level of wetland habitat services. Our approach applies the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model to predict changes in wetland habitats over the next century, and then applies Habitat Equivalency Analysis to predict the cost of restoration projects required to maintain ecological services at their present, pre-sea level rise level. We demonstrate the application of this approach in the Delaware Bay estuary and in the Indian River Lagoon (Florida), and discuss how this approach can support future coastal decision-making.

  15. Managing for No Net Loss of Ecological Services: An Approach for Quantifying Loss of Coastal Wetlands due to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassakian, Jennifer; Jones, Ann; Martinich, Jeremy; Hudgens, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Sea level rise has the potential to substantially alter the extent and nature of coastal wetlands and the critical ecological services they provide. In making choices about how to respond to rising sea level, planners are challenged with weighing easily quantified risks (e.g., loss of property value due to inundation) against those that are more difficult to quantify (e.g., loss of primary production or carbon sequestration services provided by wetlands due to inundation). Our goal was to develop a cost-effective, appropriately-scaled, model-based approach that allows planners to predict, under various sea level rise and response scenarios, the economic cost of wetland loss—with the estimates proxied by the costs of future restoration required to maintain the existing level of wetland habitat services. Our approach applies the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model to predict changes in wetland habitats over the next century, and then applies Habitat Equivalency Analysis to predict the cost of restoration projects required to maintain ecological services at their present, pre-sea level rise level. We demonstrate the application of this approach in the Delaware Bay estuary and in the Indian River Lagoon (Florida), and discuss how this approach can support future coastal decision-making.

  16. Low-frequency western Pacific Ocean sea level and circulation changes due to the connectivity of the Philippine Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Wei; Qiu, Bo; Du, Yan

    2013-12-01

    Interannual-to-decadal sea level and circulation changes associated with the oceanic connectivity around the Philippine Archipelago are studied using satellite altimeter sea surface height (SSH) data and a reduced gravity ocean model. SSHs in the tropical North Pacific, the Sulu Sea and the eastern South China Sea (ESCS) display very similar low-frequency oscillations that are highly correlated with El Niño and Southern Oscillation. Model experiments reveal that these variations are mainly forced by the low-frequency winds over the North Pacific tropical gyre and affected little by the winds over the marginal seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The wind-driven baroclinic Rossby waves impinge on the eastern Philippine coast and excite coastal Kelvin waves, conveying the SSH signals through the Sibutu Passage-Mindoro Strait pathway into the Sulu Sea and the ESCS. Closures of the Luzon Strait, Karimata Strait, and ITF passages have little impacts on the low-frequency sea level changes in the Sulu Sea and the ESCS. The oceanic pathway west of the Philippine Archipelago modulates the western boundary current system in the tropical North Pacific. Opening of this pathway weakens the time-varying amplitudes of the North Equatorial Current bifurcation latitude and Kuroshio transport. Changes of the amplitudes can be explained by the conceptual framework of island rule that allows for baroclinic adjustment. Although it fails to capture the interannual changes in the strongly nonlinear Mindanao Current, the time-dependent island rule is nevertheless helpful in clarifying the role of the archipelago in regulating its multidecadal variations.

  17. Apparent Sea Level Rise due to Loading of the Atlantic City Pier by Spectators Viewing (1929-1978) Diving Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2012-12-01

    Cyril Galvin, Coastal Engineer Springfield, Virginia 22150 USA Since 1911, the Steel Pier at Atlantic City, New Jersey, has been the site of the Atlantic City tide gauge, except for two intervals: 1911-1921 when the gauge was at the Million Dollar Pier in Atlantic City, and 1985-1991 when the gauge was at the Ventnor Fishing Pier (see Table 2, Zervos, 2009). By design, the Steel Pier was an amusement pier, and its most famous amusement was the Diving Horses: they dove bareback with a woman rider from a platform about 40 feet above sea level. They did that between 1929 and 1978, except for seven years - a post-war period, 1945 to 1953, when diving was suspended. The popularity of the diving horses is recorded on photos of crowds which occupied the bleachers at the seaward end of the pier to view the diving horses. By my count, the crowd pictured in the end papers of the book by Steve Liebowitz (2009) was about 4000 people. Typically, there were multiple shows daily. The weight of the crowd, estimated from the count of the crowd, was about 150 tons. This weight was loaded down on the piles by the crowd of spectators, and unloaded between shows of the diving horses. Most of the piles supporting the pier deck were imbedded in sand newly deposited since 1850. Using Atlantic City sea levels from the PSMSL data base and historical facts from Liebowitz (2009), and beginning with a 1912 start of the tide gauge, the apparent sea level rose at a rate of 3.1mm/yr until 1929 when the horses began diving. With the 1929 start of diving, the apparent sea level rise tripled, averaging 9.4 mm/yr until the act was suspended in 1945. In the 1945-1953 interval, when the horses did not dive (no crowds on the pier), apparent sea level fell (sea level FELL) at a rate of -1.6 mm/yr. The horses resumed diving in 1953, when the apparent sea level resumed at a rate of 4.0mm/yr. This 4.0 mm/yr is identical to the longtime sea level trend (1911-2006) from Zervos (2009) of 3.99mm/yr The history

  18. Identification of Transportation Infrastructure at Risk Due To Sea-Level Rise and Subsidence of Land In Coastal Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, S.; Palmer, W.; Manning, F.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can affect coastal areas in a variety of ways. Coasts are sensitive to sea level rise, changes in the frequency/intensity of storms, increase in precipitation and storm surges. The resilience of transportation infrastructure located in Louisiana's coastal zone, against storm surges and climatic sea-level rise is critical. The net change in sea-level is affected by the increase in global sea level as well as land movement up or down. There are many places in coastal Louisiana that have a high subsidence rate. The subsidence could be related to excess extraction activities of oil and water, natural and/or human induced compaction, and tectonic movement. Where the land is sinking, the rate of relative sea level rise is larger than the global rate. Some of the fastest rates of relative sea level rise in the United States are occurring in areas where the land is sinking, including parts of the Gulf Coast. For example, coastal Louisiana has seen its relative sea level rise by eight inches or more in the last 50 years, which is about twice the global rate. Subsiding land in the Gulf area worsens the effects of relative sea level rise, increasing the risk of flooding in cities, inhabited islands, and tidal wetlands. The research team is investigating the trends for sea-level rise and land subsidence in coastal region of Louisiana. The variability in storm surges and its potential implication on the transportation infrastructure in the region is the focus of the study. The spatial maps will be created for spatial trends. This is extremely useful in being prepared for long-term natural hazards. The results of this study will be helpful to LADOTD and infrastructure managers and officials who are tasked with resiliency planning and management. Research results will also directly benefit university researchers in the state, Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority and LADOTD/LTRC through collaborative activity which will educate both professionals and the

  19. Assessing the impact of sea level rise due to climate change on seawater intrusion in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, D T; Yamada, T; Ishidaira, H

    2018-03-01

    In the context of climate change, salinity intrusion into rivers has been, and will be, one of the most important issues for coastal water resources management. A combination of changes, including increased temperature, change in regional rainfall, especially sea level rise (SLR) related to climate change, will have significant impacts on this phenomenon. This paper presents the outcomes of a study conducted in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (MKD) for evaluating the effect of sea water intrusion under a new SLR scenario. Salinity intrusion was simulated by one-dimensional (1D) modeling. The relative sea level projection was constructed corresponding to the RCP 6.0 emission scenario for MKD based on the statistical downscaling method. The sea level in 2050 is projected to increase from 25 cm to 30 cm compared to the baseline period (in 2000). Furthermore, the simulated results suggested that salinity greater than 4 g/l, which affects rice yield, will intrude up to 50-60 km into the river. Approximately 30,000 ha of agricultural area will be affected if the sea level rise is 30 cm.

  20. Distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of Dammam Al-Jubail area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Fahd; Al-Malky, Mazen

    2018-03-01

    Present work aims to document the distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of the Dammam Al-Jubail area, Saudi Arabian Gulf. Twenty-six samples were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Sr, As, Fe, Co and Ni analysis. Results of enrichment factor indicated that Sr, Cd, Cu, Hg, V, As, Ni, Cr and Zn gave enrichment factors higher than 2 (98.87, 40.28, 33.20, 27.87, 26.11, 14.10, 6.15, 3.72 and 2.62 respectively) implying anthropogenic sources, while Pb, Mn and Al have very low background level (1.37, 0.71, 0.124 respectively), probably originated from natural sources. Average concentrations of Sr, V, Hg, Cd and As were mostly higher than those from the background shale and the earth crust, the Caspian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the sediment quality guidelines, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Oman. The higher levels of the studied metals are mostly related samples with high Al and TOM content, as well as the visible anthropogenic pollutants along the studied coastline. The most recorded anthropogenic pollutants were sewage effluent, landfilling due to coastal infrastructure development, oil spills, petrochemical industries and desalination plants in Al-Jubail industrial city. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Lithospheric structure of the Arabian Shield and Platform from complete regional waveform modelling and surface wave group velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Arthur J.; Walter, William R.; Mellors, Robert J.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M. S.; Zhang, Yu-Shen

    1999-09-01

    Regional seismic waveforms reveal significant differences in the structure of the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform. We estimate lithospheric velocity structure by modelling regional waveforms recorded by the 1995-1997 Saudi Arabian Temporary Broadband Deployment using a grid search scheme. We employ a new method whereby we narrow the waveform modelling grid search by first fitting the fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The group velocities constrain the average crustal thickness and velocities as well as the crustal velocity gradients. Because the group velocity fitting is computationally much faster than the synthetic seismogram calculation this method allows us to determine good average starting models quickly. Waveform fits of the Pn and Sn body wave arrivals constrain the mantle velocities. The resulting lithospheric structures indicate that the Arabian Platform has an average crustal thickness of 40 km, with relatively low crustal velocities (average crustal P- and S-wave velocities of 6.07 and 3.50 km s^-1 , respectively) without a strong velocity gradient. The Moho is shallower (36 km) and crustal velocities are 6 per cent higher (with a velocity increase with depth) for the Arabian Shield. Fast crustal velocities of the Arabian Shield result from a predominantly mafic composition in the lower crust. Lower velocities in the Arabian Platform crust indicate a bulk felsic composition, consistent with orogenesis of this former active margin. P- and S-wave velocities immediately below the Moho are slower in the Arabian Shield than in the Arabian Platform (7.9 and 4.30 km s^-1 , and 8.10 and 4.55 km s^-1 , respectively). This indicates that the Poisson's ratios for the uppermost mantle of the Arabian Shield and Platform are 0.29 and 0.27, respectively. The lower mantle velocities and higher Poisson's ratio beneath the Arabian Shield probably arise from a partially molten mantle associated with Red Sea spreading and continental

  3. Hereditary pediatric cataract on the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif O.

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary pediatric cataract on the Arabian Peninsula does not follow the same epidemiological patterns as described for Western populations. This article describes selected genetic causes for inherited pediatric cataract in the region. PMID:23960971

  4. Historical biogeography resolves the origins of endemic Arabian toad lineages (Anura: Bufonidae): Evidence for ancient vicariance and dispersal events with the Horn of Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Portik, Daniel M; Papenfuss, Theodore J

    2015-08-06

    trans-continental dispersal. Our divergence dating estimates strongly suggest the formation of the Red Sea drove simultaneous divergences between two of the Arabian species (A. tihamicus comb. nov. and A. arabicus comb. nov.) and their xclosest mainland African relatives in the Early Miocene. We estimate the divergence of D. dhufarensis with its closest South Asian relatives occurred in the mid to Late Miocene, suggesting the temporary or permanent land connections between the Arabian plate and Eurasia facilitated dispersal of this lineage to the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian bufonid assemblage, despite being comparatively depauperate with respect to surrounding continents, exemplifies the faunal pattern of the Arabian Peninsula, namely being a complex admixture of African, Western Eurasian, and South Asian elements. The historical biogeographic patterns exhibited by Arabian toads and their allies are concordant with studies of other vertebrate taxa, building support for the role of major geological events in driving simultaneous vicariance and dispersal events around the Arabian Peninsula. Although many taxa or groups exhibiting disjunct Afro-Arabian distributions appear to have dispersed more recently from the Horn of Africa via a southern land bridge or overwater dispersal, both Amietophrynus tihamicus and A. arabicus likely represent true African relicts resulting from vicariance associated with the Red Sea formation, a pattern that so far is rare among the vertebrate species investigated.

  5. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  < 0.05). Hierarchical clustering showed a clear distinction between Arabian and Przewalski's horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-14

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm.

  7. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to Sea Level Rise using LiDAR Topobathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast G...

  8. Arabian Peninsula and northeast Africa as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of the earth, looking southeast. Saudia Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean.

  9. Common dolphins in the Alboran Sea: Facing a reduction in their suitable habitat due to an increase in Sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañadas, A.; Vázquez, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    The short-beaked common dolphin Mediterranean subpopulation appears to have suffered a steep decline over recent decades and was listed in 2003 as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Alboran Sea is the last region in the Mediterranean where it is still abundant. In this study, we relate features of this species' ecology to climate change, focusing on distribution and density. This work used a two decades-long dataset on the common dolphin in the Alboran Sea and a time series of environmental changes. Once established, these relationships were used in conjunction with some simulated scenarios of environmental change to predict the potential effects of further change on these species over the next 100 years. Two approaches were used: 1) projection from a regression line from local variation, and 2) a HadCM3 climate model with time-varying anthropogenic effects. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the relationship between density of the animals with SST and other environmental covariates. Results from both approaches were very similar. The predictions of density from the regression line fell within the ranges from the HadCM3 climate model, the first being based on local and locally, point to point, differentiated information, which lead us to consider the first approach as the best for this area. At the small spatial scale of the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Vera, an increase in SST will potentially yield a reduction in suitable habitat for common dolphins, with a progressive reduction in density from east to west.

  10. Sea ice protects the embryos of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri from oxidative damage due to naturally enhanced levels of UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2010-06-01

    The 'ozone hole' has caused an increase in ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) penetrating Antarctic coastal marine ecosystems, however the direct effect of this enhanced UV-B on pelagic organisms remains unclear. Oxidative stress, the in vivo production of reactive oxygen species to levels high enough to overcome anti-oxidant defences, is a key outcome of exposure to solar radiation, yet to date few studies have examined this physiological response in Antarctic marine species in situ or in direct relation to the ozone hole. To assess the biological effects of UV-B, in situ experiments were conducted at Cape Armitage in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (77.06 degrees S, 164.42 degrees E) on the common Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri Meissner (Echinoidea) over two consecutive 4-day periods in the spring of 2008 (26-30 October and 1-5 November). The presence of the ozone hole, and a corresponding increase in UV-B exposure, resulted in unequivocal increases in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and developmental abnormality in embryos of S. neumayeri growing in open waters. Results also indicate that embryos have only a limited capacity to increase the activities of protective antioxidant enzymes, but not to levels sufficient to prevent severe oxidative damage from occurring. Importantly, results show that the effect of the ozone hole is largely mitigated by sea ice coverage. The present findings suggest that the coincidence of reduced stratospheric ozone and a reduction in sea ice coverage may produce a situation in which significant damage to Antarctic marine ecosystems may occur.

  11. Community structure and biogeography of shore fishes in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Maroof A.; Kochzius, Marc

    2002-02-01

    Shore fish community structure off the Jordanian Red Sea coast was determined on fringing coral reefs and in a seagrass-dominated bay at 6 m and 12 m depths. A total of 198 fish species belonging to 121 genera and 43 families was recorded. Labridae and Pomacentridae dominated the ichthyofauna in terms of species richness and Pomacentridae were most abundant. Neither diversity nor species richness was correlated to depth. The abundance of fishes was higher at the deep reef slope, due to schooling planktivorous fishes. At 12 m depth abundance of fishes at the seagrass-dominated site was higher than on the coral reefs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a strong influence on the fish assemblages by depth and benthic habitat. Fish species richness was positively correlated with hard substrate cover and habitat diversity. Abundance of corallivores was positively linked with live hard coral cover. The assemblages of fishes were different on the shallow reef slope, deep reef slope and seagrass meadows. An analysis of the fish fauna showed that the Gulf of Aqaba harbours a higher species richness than previously reported. The comparison with fish communities on other reefs around the Arabian Peninsula and Indian Ocean supported the recognition of an Arabian subprovince within the Indian Ocean. The affinity of the Arabian Gulf ichthyofauna to the Red Sea is not clear.

  12. Sea Level Change due to Time-Dependent Long-Wavelength Dynamic Topography Inferred from Plate Tectonic Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Clinton P.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2017-04-01

    Earth's surface is deflected vertically by stresses associated with convective mantle flow. Although dynamic topography is important for both sea level change and continental uplift and subsidence, the time history of dynamic topography is difficult to constrain because the time-dependence of mantle flow is not known. However, the motions of the tectonic plates contain information about the mantle flow patterns that drive them. In particular, we show that the longest wavelengths of mantle flow are tightly linked to the dipole and quadrupole moments (harmonic degrees 1 and 2) of plate motions. This coupling allows us to infer patterns of long-wavelength mantle flow, and the associated dynamic topography, from tectonic plate motions. After calibrating this linkage using models of present-day mantle flow, we can use reconstructions of global plate motions to infer the basic patterns of long-wavelength dynamic topography back to 250 Ma. We find relatively stable dynamic uplift persists above large-scale mantle upwelling beneath Africa and the Central Pacific. Regions of major downwelling encircled the periphery of these stable upwellings, alternating between primarily east-west and north-south orientations. The amplitude of long-wavelength dynamic topography was likely largest in the Cretaceous, when global plate motions were fastest. Continental motions over this time-evolving dynamic topography predict patterns of continental uplift and subsidence that are confirmed by geological observations of continental surfaces relative to sea level. Net uplift or subsidence of the global seafloor can also induce eustatic sea level changes. We infer that dispersal of the Pangean supercontinent away from stable upwelling beneath Africa may have exposed the seafloor to an increasingly larger area of growing positive dynamic topography during the Mesozoic. This net uplift of the seafloor caused 60 m of sea level rise during the Triassic and Jurassic, ceasing in the Cenozoic once

  13. Interannual Variation of Surface Circulation in the Japan/East Sea due to External Forcings and Intrinsic Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Ju; Cho, Seong Hun; Jung, Hee Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Byun, Do-Seong; Kwon, Kyungman

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variation of surface ocean currents can be as large as seasonal variation in the Japan/East Sea (JES). To identify the major factors that cause such interannual variability of surface ocean circulation in the JES, surface circulation was simulated from 1998 to 2009 using a three-dimensional model. Contributions of atmospheric forcing (ATM), open boundary data (OBC), and intrinsic variability (ITV) of the surface flow in the JES on the interannual variability of surface ocean circulation were separately examined using numerical simulations. Variability in surface circulation was quantified in terms of variance in sea surface height, 100-m depth water temperature, and surface currents. ITV was found to be the dominant factor that induced interannual variabilities of surface circulation, the main path of the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC), and surface kinetic energy on a time scale of 2-4 years. OBC and ATM were secondary factors contributing to the interannual variation of surface circulation. Interannual variation of ATM changed the separation latitude of EKWC and increased the variability of surface circulation in the Ulleung Basin. Interannual variation of OBC enhanced low-frequency changes in surface circulation and eddies in the Yamato Basin. It also modulated basin-wide uniform oscillations of sea level. This study suggests that precise estimation of initial conditions using data assimilation is essential for long-term prediction of surface circulation in the JES.

  14. The sentinel behaviour of Arabian babbler floaters

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Aviad

    2017-01-01

    The sentinel behaviour of 38 Arabian babbler adult floaters, who lived alone within a territory belonging to a foreign group, was studied and compared with their own sentinel behaviour in the past, when they were group members. All floaters acted as sentinels and uttered ‘alarm calls’. This suggests that sentinel activity is due at least, in part, to selfish motives. Floaters sentinelled less than they did as group members, with the decrease in sentinel activity sharper for ex-dominants than for ex-subordinates. One possible explanation for these differences is that sentinel activity is aimed not only at detecting predators, but also at detecting foreign conspecifics. Within a group, the latter incentive is stronger for breeding dominants than for subordinates, whereas all floaters alike may be trying to detect the owners of the territory in which they were roaming but also to avoid being detected by them. Other possible explanations are that floaters have less time and energy for sentinel activity because they are weaker or because foraging is more difficult in a foreign territory. This may be especially so for dominants who used to enjoy privileged access to food in their group. No significant difference was found in the rate of sentinels' ‘alarm calls’ between floaters and group members, suggesting that their main purpose is predator–prey communication, of which warning groupmates may be a side benefit. PMID:28386429

  15. The sentinel behaviour of Arabian babbler floaters.

    PubMed

    Ostreiher, Roni; Heifetz, Aviad

    2017-02-01

    The sentinel behaviour of 38 Arabian babbler adult floaters, who lived alone within a territory belonging to a foreign group, was studied and compared with their own sentinel behaviour in the past, when they were group members. All floaters acted as sentinels and uttered 'alarm calls'. This suggests that sentinel activity is due at least, in part, to selfish motives. Floaters sentinelled less than they did as group members, with the decrease in sentinel activity sharper for ex-dominants than for ex-subordinates. One possible explanation for these differences is that sentinel activity is aimed not only at detecting predators, but also at detecting foreign conspecifics. Within a group, the latter incentive is stronger for breeding dominants than for subordinates, whereas all floaters alike may be trying to detect the owners of the territory in which they were roaming but also to avoid being detected by them. Other possible explanations are that floaters have less time and energy for sentinel activity because they are weaker or because foraging is more difficult in a foreign territory. This may be especially so for dominants who used to enjoy privileged access to food in their group. No significant difference was found in the rate of sentinels' 'alarm calls' between floaters and group members, suggesting that their main purpose is predator-prey communication, of which warning groupmates may be a side benefit.

  16. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2017-09-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  17. Coastal inundation risk assessment due to subsidence and sea level rise in a Mediterranean alluvial plain (Volturno coastal plain - southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciro Aucelli, Pietro Patrizio; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Incontri, Pietro; Rizzo, Angela; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Benassai, Guido; Buonocore, Berardino; Pappone, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    Interdisciplinary studies of the last years highlight that the Italian coasts are significantly subject to retreat and to inundation by sea ingression due to natural and anthropic causes. In this study, the effects of future relative sea level have been evaluated for the Volturno River Plain, one of the widest coastal plain in southern Italy. The plain is characterized by high economical and ecological value, for the presence of farm activities, tourist structures and wetland protected zones. The study area is potentially prone to coastal flooding due to its very low topography and because it is affected by a severe subsidence, which emphasize the local effect of sea level rise due to the ongoing climate changes. In accordance with the guidelines of the MEDFLOOD project, the areas prone to inundation in the years 2065 and 2100 have been evaluated by comparing the future topographical information and expected relative sea level scenarios. The local Vertical Ground Displacements have been derived by PS-InSAR processing data whilst the mean values of the scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 provided by the IPCC (2014) have been used as future sea level projections in 2065 and 2100. The PS-InSar data elaboration shows that the area affected by subsidence corresponds to 35% of the Volturno plain and that the annual rate of the phenomenon ranges between -1 and -25 mm/yr. The inundation analysis, based on the classification of the areas in four hazard classes, indicates that in 2065 the zones located below the sea level will increase approximately of 50% respect to the present conditions, while between 2065 and 2100 the increase can be at least of 60% (IPCC, RCP 8.5 scenarios). Considering the socio-economical and ecological exposure, evaluated following the EUROSION project guidelines, the coastal flooding risk maps have been produced. Almost 8.2 km2 and 14.4 km2 of the investigated area has to be considered subject to very high marine inundation risk in 2065 and 2100

  18. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  19. Hydrogeology of the Umm Er Radhuma Aquifer (Arabian peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirks, Heiko; Al Ajmi, Hussain; Kienast, Peter; Rausch, Randolf

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this article is to enhance the understanding of the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer's genesis, and its hydraulic and hydrochemical development over time. This is a prerequisite for wise use of the fossil groundwater resources contained within. The Umm Er Radhuma is a karstified limestone aquifer, extending over 1.6 Mio. km2 in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Both epigene and hypogene karstification contributed to the genesis of what is today the most prolific aquifer in the region. Besides man-made abstractions, even the natural outflows are higher than the small recharge (natural storage depletion). The Umm Er Radhuma shows that large aquifers in arid regions are never in "steady state" (where inflows equal outflows), considering Quaternary climate history. The aquifer's adaption to climate changes (precipitation, sea level) can be traced even after thousands of years, and is slower than the climate changes themselves.

  20. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential for shoreline changes due to sea-level rise along the U.S. mid-Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2007-01-01

    Sea-level rise over the next century is expected to contribute significantly to physical changes along open-ocean shorelines. Predicting the form and magnitude of coastal changes is important for understanding the impacts to humans and the environment. Presently, the ability to predict coastal changes is limited by the scientific understanding of the many variables and processes involved in coastal change, and the lack of consensus regarding the validity of existing conceptual, analytical, or numerical models. In order to assess potential future coastal changes in the mid-Atlantic U.S. for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a workshop was convened by the U.S. Geological Survey. Assessments of future coastal change were made by a committee of coastal scientists with extensive professional experience in the mid-Atlantic region. Thirteen scientists convened for a two-day meeting to exchange information and develop a consensus opinion on potential future coastal changes for the mid-Atlantic coast in response to sea-level rise. Using criteria defined in past work, the mid-Atlantic coast was divided into four geomorphic compartments: spits, headlands, wave-dominated barriers, and mixed-energy barriers. A range of potential coastal responses was identified for each compartment based on four sea-level rise scenarios. The four scenarios were based on the assumptions that: a) the long-term sea-level rise rate observed over the 20th century would persist over the 21st century, b) the 20th century rate would increase by 2 mm/yr, c) the 20th century rate would increase by 7 mm/yr, or d) sea-level would rise by 2 m over the next few hundred years. Potential responses to these sea-level rise scenarios depend on the landforms that occur within a region and include increased likelihood for erosion and shoreline retreat for all coastal types, increased likelihood for erosion, overwash and inlet breaching for barrier islands, as well as the possibility of a threshold

  2. Low post-glacial rebound rates in the Weddell Sea due to Late Holocene ice-sheet readvance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah L.; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Whitehouse, Pippa; Bentley, Michael J.; King, Matt

    2014-05-01

    The Holocene deglaciation of West Antarctica resulted in widespread ice surface lowering. While many ice-sheet reconstructions generally assume a monotone Holocene retreat for the West Antarctica Ice sheet (WAIS) [Ivins et al., 2013; Peltier, 2004; Whitehouse et al., 2012], an increasing number of glaciological observations infer it is readvancing, following retreat behind the present-day margin[Siegert et al., 2013]. We will show that a readvance in the Weddell Sea region can reconcile two outstanding problems: (i) the present-day widespread occurrence of seemingly stable ice-streams grounded on beds that deepen inland in apparent contradiction to theory [Schoof, 2007]; and (ii) the inability of models of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) to match present-day uplift rates [Whitehouse et al., 2012]. Combining a suite of ice loading histories that include a readvance with a model of GIA provides significant improvements to predictions of present-day uplift rates, and we are able to reproduce previously unexplained observations of subsidence in the southern sector of the Weddell Sea. We hypothesize that retreat behind present grounding lines occurred when the bed was lower, and isostatic recovery led to shallowing, ice sheet re-grounding and readvance. We will conclude that some sections of the current WAIS grounding line that are theoretically unstable, may be advancing and that the volume change of the WAIS may have been more complex in the Late Holocene than previously posited. This revised Holocene ice-loading history would have important implications for the GIA correction applied to Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, likely resulting in a reduction in the GIA correction and a smaller estimate of present-day ice mass loss within the Weddell Sea region of the WAIS. Ivins, E. R., T. S. James, J. Wahr, E. J. O. Schrama, F. W. Landerer, and K. M. Simon (2013), Antarctic contribution to sea level rise observed by GRACE with improved GIA correction

  3. Modulation of Winter Precipitation Dynamics Over the Arabian Gulf by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, S.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf (Gulf) and the surrounding regions are centers of intense economic activity. The precipitating weather systems that form over the Gulf are important for this predominantly arid region. It is suggested that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the Middle East precipitation variability through an equatorward shift of the subtropical jet. Here we present compelling evidence to illustrate the role of ENSO in modulating the local dynamics and moisture transport in initiating precipitation during different ENSO phases using satellite and reanalysis data. It is found that the moisture transport from the Red and Arabian Seas toward the Gulf is stronger during El Niño years. The pattern and strength of moisture transport toward the Gulf is weakened during La Niña and neutral years, with most of the transport directed toward the northern Gulf. Using a 120 h back trajectory analysis, it is found that while the air parcels coming toward the Gulf from the Arabian and Red Seas side originate at lower tropospheric levels, the air parcels from the Mediterranean originate at middle and upper tropospheric levels during El Niño years. In contrast, upper tropospheric air parcels originating over the southern Arabian Sea plays a dominant role on Gulf precipitation during La Niña and neutral years. The seasonal mean transients of zonal winds show a robust ENSO signature over the Gulf, indicating a favorable (less favorable) condition for the penetration of midlatitude eddies over the region during El Niño (La Niña) winters.

  4. Modeling land subsidence due to shallow-water hydrocarbon production: A case study in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambolati, G.; Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Janna, C.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    One major environmental concern of subsurface fluid withdrawal is land subsidence. The issue of a reliable estimate and prediction of the expected anthropogenic land subsidence is particularly important whenever the production of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) occurs from large reservoirs located close to deltaic zones (e.g., Mississippi, Po, Nile, Niger, Yellow rivers) or shallow-water with low-lying coastlands (e.g., Northern Caspian sea, Dutch Wadden Sea). In such cases even a small reduction of the ground elevation relative to the mean sea level may impact seriously on human settlements and natural environment. The monitoring of the ongoing land subsidence has been significantly improved over the last decade by SAR-based interferometry. These measurements can be quite effectively used to map the process and calibrate geomechanical models for predicting the future event. However, this powerful methodology cannot be implemented off-shore. Although permanent GPS stations can be established to monitor the movement of the production facilities usually installed above the gravity center of a reservoir, an accurate characterization of the settlement bowl affecting the sea bottom, with a possible migration toward the shore, is a challenge still today. In the present communication the case study of the Riccione gas reservoir is discussed. The field is located in the near-shore northern Adriatic Sea, approximately 15 km far from the coastline, where the seawater height is about 20 m. The gas-bearing strata are 1100 m deep and are hydraulically connected to a relatively weak aquifer. Production of 70% of the cumulative reserves as of 2006 yielded a pore pressure decrease of 60 bars. Reliable geometry and geomechanical properties of the depleted formations were detected with the aid of a 3D seismic survey and a borehole equipped with radioactive markers, respectively. The latter pointed out that the Riccione formations are characterized by an unusually high oedometer

  5. ENSO relationship to Summer Rainfall Variability and its Potential Predictability over Arabian Peninsula Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan Abid, Mohammad; Almazroui, Mansour; Kucharski, Fred

    2017-04-01

    Summer seasonal rainfall falls mainly over the south and southwestern parts of the Arabian Peninsula (AP). The relationship between this mean summer seasonal rainfall pattern and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is analyzed with the aid of a 15-member ensemble of simulations using the King Abdulaziz University (KAU) Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). Each simulation is forced with Hadley Sea Surface Temperature (SST) for the period 1980-2015. The southwestern peninsula rainfall is linked towith the SST anomalies in the central-eastern pacific region. This relation is established through an atmospheric teleconnection which shows an upper-level convergence (divergence) anomalies over the southern Arabian Peninsula compensating the central-eastern Pacific region upper-level divergence (convergence) anomalies for the warm (cold) El Niño Southern Oscillaton (ENSO) phase. The upper-level convergence (divergence) over the southern Arabian Peninsula leads to sinking (rising) motion, low-level divergence (convergence) and consequently to reduced (enhanced) rainfall. The correlation coefficient between the observed area-averged Niño3.4 index and athe South Arabian Rainfall Index (SARI) is -0.54. This indicates that AP receives less rainfall during the warm (El Niño) phase, while the opposite happens in the cold (La Niña) El Niño Southern Oscillaton (ENSO) phase. The lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation anomalies strongly modulate the ENSO-related rainfall in the region. Overall, the model shows a 43% potential predictability (PP) for the Southern Arabian Peninsula Rainfall Index (SARI). Further, the predictability during the warm ENSO (El Niño) events is higher than during cold ENSO (La Niña) events. This is not only because of a stronger signal, but also noise reduction contributes to the increase of the regional PP in El Niño compared to that of La Niña years.

  6. Microplastics in coastal environments of the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Oyebamiji Abib; Range, Pedro; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Almeer, Saeed Hashim; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouane

    2017-11-15

    Eight sandy beaches along the coastline of Qatar and four sea surface stations on the eastern coast, adjacent to Doha Bay, were surveyed between December 2014 and March 2015. Microplastics, mainly low density polyethylene and polypropylene, were found in all samples of sediments and seawater. Blue fibers, ranging between 1 and 5mm, were the dominant type of particle present. Abundances on the sea surface varied between 4.38×10 4 and 1.46×10 6 particles·km -2 , with the highest values being consistently found 10km offshore, suggesting the presence of a convergence zone. No significant temporal variability was detected for sea surface samples. The concentration of microplastics in intertidal sediments varied between 36 and 228particlesm -2 , with no significant differences among the 8 beaches examined. These results show the pervasiveness of microplastic pollution in coastal environments of the Arabian Gulf. Potential local sources and sinks for microplastics are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  8. Reconstruction of the Indian monsoon variability and its environmental impacts over the northwestern Arabian Sea and its surrounding continents since the Last Glacial Maximum: Multi-proxy study of a marine core in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiem, F.; Bassinot, F. C.; Lézine, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Core MD92-1002 retrieved from the Gulf of Aden provides a unique paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic record to study the evolution of continental and marine environments since 20 ka. Palynological analyses (pollen grains, spores, dinoflagellate cysts) were performed and data were combined with geochemical (δ18O, X-Ray Fluorescence) and sedimentological parameters (sedimentation rates, Total Organic Carbon (TOC)). Pollen grains reveal regional hyper-arid conditions during the glacial period, characterized by sparse vegetation cover of Saharo-Sindian origin. The abundance of steppic taxa associated with charcoal fragments suggests strong wind activity. Humidity tracers increased from 14.9 ka and reached their maximum between 9 and 7.5 ka. This maximum is characterized by the development of the tropical mangrove Rhizophora in the Gulf of Aden, reflecting tropical conditions with summer monsoon rains. The timing of events deduced from palynological records and continental data such as lacustrine and palustrine deposits and speleothems from Socotra and Oman, reveals a northward and westward shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) summer position at the onset of the Holocene Humid Period (HHP). Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest that the glacial period was characterized by weakened upwellings and well-ventilated bottom water. Primary productivity in the Gulf of Aden increased from 14.5 ka and reached its maximum during the glacial/interglacial transition between 12.6 and 10.8 ka. It took place about 3 ka earlier than the peak intensity of upwellings off the Oman margin, which is associated with the maximum of SW monsoonal winds. This singularity could be explained by the landlocked position of the gulf, at the junction between two orthogonal wind regimes during the boreal summer season (SW monsoon winds prevailing to the East of the Gulf, while NW winds blow along the main axis of the Red Sea to the West). TOC analysis reveals a Glacial

  9. Viral hemorrhagic fevers in the Tihamah region of the western Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Al-habal, Mohammed; Taher, Rola; Alaoui, Altaf; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) refers to a group of diseases characterized by an acute febrile syndrome with hemorrhagic manifestations and high mortality rates caused by several families of viruses that affect humans and animals. These diseases are typically endemic in certain geographical regions and sometimes cause major outbreaks. The history of hemorrhagic fever in the Arabian Peninsula refers to the 19th century and most outbreaks were reported in the Tihamah region—the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula in the west and southwest of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Herein, we describe the agents that cause VHFs and their epidemiology in Tihamah, the history of the diseases, transmission, species affected, and clinical signs. Finally, we address challenges in the diagnosis and control of VHFs in this region. PMID:28384205

  10. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Blank, H.R.; Healy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is

  11. Earth - Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula was taken from an altitude of about 500,000 kilometers 300,000 miles by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft on December 9, 1992, as it left Earth en route to Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00127

  12. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  13. Imaging Ruptured Lithosphere Beneath the Arabian Peninsula Using S-wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. E.; Rodgers, A. J.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Al-Amri, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    The lithospheric thickness beneath the Arabian Peninsula has important implications for understanding the tectonic processes associated with continental rifting along the Red Sea. However, estimates of the lithospheric thickness are limited by the lack of high-resolution seismic observations sampling the lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The S-wave receiver function technique allows point determinations of Moho and LAB depths by identifying S-to-P conversions from these discontinuities beneath individual seismic stations. This method is superior to P-wave receiver functions for identifying the LAB because P-to-S multiple reverberations from shallower discontinuities (such as the Moho) often mask the direct conversion from the LAB while S-to-P boundary conversions arrive earlier than the direct S phase and all multiples arrive later. We interpret crustal and lithospheric structure across the entire Arabian Peninsula from S-wave receiver functions computed at 29 stations from four different seismic networks. Generally, both the Moho and the LAB are shallowest near the Red Sea and become deeper towards the Arabian interior. Near the coast, the Moho increases from about 12 to 35 km, with a few exceptions showing a deeper Moho beneath stations that are situated on higher topography in the Asir Province. The crustal thickening continues until an average depth of about 40-45 km is reached over both the central Arabian Shield and Platform. The LAB near the coast is at a depth of about 50 km, increases rapidly, and reaches an average maximum depth of about 120 km beneath the Arabian Shield. At the Shield-Platform boundary, a distinct step is observed in the lithospheric thickness where the LAB depth increases to about 160 km. This step may reflect remnant lithospheric thickening associated with the Shield's accretion onto the Platform and has an important role in guiding asthenospheric flow beneath the eastern margin of the Red Sea. This work was performed in part

  14. Simulating the Regional Impact of Dust on the Middle East Climate and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2018-02-01

    The Red Sea is located between North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the largest sources of dust in the world. Satellite retrievals show very high aerosol optical depth in the region, which increases during the summer season, especially over the southern Red Sea. Previously estimated and validated radiative effect from dust is expected to have a profound thermal and dynamic impact on the Red Sea, but that impact has not yet been studied or evaluated. Due to the strong dust radiative effect at the sea surface, uncoupled ocean modeling approaches with prescribed atmospheric boundary conditions result in an unrealistic ocean response. Therefore, to study the impact of dust on the regional climate of the Middle East and the Red Sea, we employed the Regional Ocean Modeling System fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We modified the atmospheric model to account for the radiative effect of dust. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust cools the Red Sea, reduces the surface wind speed, and weakens both the exchange at the Bab-el-Mandeb strait and the overturning circulation. The salinity distribution, freshwater, and heat budgets are significantly altered. A validation of the simulations against satellite products indicates that accounting for radiative effect from dust almost completely removes the bias and reduces errors in the top of the atmosphere fluxes and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that dust plays an important role in the energy balance, thermal, and circulation regimes in the Red Sea.

  15. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seismotectonics and crustal stress across the northern Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yassminh, R.; Gomez, F. G.; Sandvol, E. A.; Ghalib, H. A.; Daoud, M.

    2013-12-01

    The region encompassing the collision of northern Arabia with Eurasia is a tectonically heterogeneous region of distributed deformation. The northern Arabia plate is bounded to the west by the subducting Sinai plate and the left-lateral Dead Sea transform. This complexity suggests that there are, multiple competing processes that may influence regional tectonics in northern Arabia and adjacent areas. Earthquake mechanisms provide insight into crustal kinematics and stress; however, reliable determination of earthquake source parameters can be challenging in a complex geological region, such as the continental collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The goal of this study is to investigate spatial patterns of the crustal stress in the northern Arabian plate and surrounding area. The focal mechanisms used in this study are based on (1) first-motion polarities for earthquakes recorded by Syrian earthquake center during 2000-2011, and (2) regional moment tensors from broadband seismic data, from Turkey and Iraq. First motion focal mechanisms were assigned quality classifications based on the variation of both nodal planes. Regional moment tensor analysis can be significantly influenced by seismic velocity structure; thus, we have divided the study area into regions based on tectonic units. For each region, a specific velocity model is defined using waveform-modeling technique prior to the regional moment tensor inversion. The resulting focal mechanisms, combined with other previously published focal mechanisms for the study area, provide a basis for stress inversion analysis. The resulting deviatoric stress tensors show the spatial distribution of the maximum horizontal stress varies from NW-SE along the Dead Sea Fault to the N-S toward the east. We interpret this to reflect the eastward change from the transform to collision processes in northern Arabia. Along the Dead Sea Fault, transposition of the sigma-1 and sigma-2 to vertical and horizontal

  17. Distributional pattern of planktonic foraminifers and pteropods in surface waters and top core sediments of the Red Sea, and adjacent areas controlled by the monsoonal regime and other ecological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auras-Schudnagies, Anabelle; Kroon, Dick; Ganssen, Gerald; Hemleben, Christoph; Van Hinte, Jan E.

    1989-10-01

    Living planktonic foraminiferal and pteropod distribution patterns in the western Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, collected during two summer cruises (1984, 1985), reflect the hydrographical system that is mainly controlled by a combination of monsoonal winds and evaporation rates. Spinose species constitute the majority of the planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in the Red Sea during both monsoonal seasons. The non-spinose species Globorotalia menardii, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, which are always abundant in the Arabian Sea, are present only during winter inflow. The intensity and duration of these inflowing surface currents control their distribution pattern. Stable oxygen isotope ratios show that G. menardii survives but ceases to grow north of Bab el Mandeb, while N. dutertrei continues to grow. Trends in the foraminiferal distribution in surface waters compare well with those of the sea floor, as far as larger specimens (>250 μm) are concerned, but differ for the small ones. Surface distribution patterns of small-sized specimens and juvenile/neanic stages of large-sized fully grown species do not correspond to those in the core top samples. The distribution pattern of living pteropods in the Red Sea is closely related to distinct water masses and corresponds to the distribution in top core sediments. Pteropods are absent in the sediments of the Gulf of Aden and the western Arabian Sea due to dissolution. Peak abundances of various pteropods and foraminifers indicate the presence of local upwelling processes in the Bab el Mandeb area. Determining these dynamics allows for the reconstruction of ancient oceanic environments and climatic interactions in the area.

  18. Climatic controls of the interannual to decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust activity: Towards the development of a seasonal prediction tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Notaro, M.; Liu, Z.; Alkolibi, F.; Fadda, E.; Bakhrjy, F.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric dust significantly influences the climate system, as well as human life in Saudi Arabia. Skillful seasonal prediction of dust activity with climatic variables will help prevent some negative social impacts of dust storms. Yet, the climatic regulators on Saudi Arabian dust activity remain largely unaddressed. Remote sensing and station observations show consistent seasonal cycles in Saudi Arabian dust activity, which peaks in spring and summer. The climatic controls on springtime and summertime Saudi Arabian dust activity during 1975-2010 are studied using observational and reanalysis data. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of the observed Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency shows a dominant homogeneous pattern across the country, which has distinct interannual and decadal variations, as revealed by the power spectrum. Regression and correlation analyses reveal that Saudi Arabian dust activity is largely tied to precipitation on the Arabian Peninsula in spring and northwesterly (Shamal) wind in summer. On the seasonal-interannual time scale, warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase (El Niño) in winter-to-spring inhibits spring dust activity by increasing the precipitation over the Rub'al Khali Desert, a major dust source region on the southern Arabian Peninsula; warm ENSO and warm Indian Ocean Basin Mode (IOBM) in winter-to-spring favor less summer dust activity by producing anomalously low sea-level pressure over eastern north Africa and Arabian Peninsula, which leads to the reduced Shamal wind speed. The decadal variation in dust activity is likely associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which impacts Sahel rainfall and North African dust, and likely dust transport to Saudi Arabia. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and tropical Indian Ocean SST also have influence on the decadal variation in Saudi Arabian dust activity, by altering precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula and summer Shamal wind speed. Using eastern

  19. Crustal Deformation at the Arabian Plate-Boundary observed by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, S.; Cavalié, O.; Akoglu, A. M.; Wang, T.; Xu, W.; Feng, G.; Dutta, R.; Abdullin, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabian plate is bounded by a variety of active plate boundaries, with extension in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden to the south, compression in Turkey and Iran to the north, and transform faults to the west and to the east. Internally, however, the Arabian plate has been shown to be tectonically rather stable, despite evidence of recent volcanism and earthquake faulting. We use InSAR observations to study recent tectonic and volcanic activity at several locations at the Arabian plate boundary as well within the plate itself. The region near the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian, and Anatolian plates has often been the focus of studies on continental deformation behavior and interseismic deformation. Here we use large-scale InSAR data processing to map the deformation near the triple junction and find the deformation to be focused on major faults with little intra-plate deformation. The eastern part of the East Anatolian Fault appears to have a very shallow locking depth with limited fault-normal deformation. Several major earthquakes that have occurred in recent years on the Arabian plate boundary, including the 2011 magnitude 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey. It occurred as a result of convergence of the Arabian plate towards Eurasia and caused significant surface deformation that we have analyzed with multiple coseismic InSAR, GPS, and coastal uplift observations. We use high-resolution Cosmo-Skymed and TerraSAR-X data to derive 3D coseismic displacements from offsets alone, as some of the interferograms are almost completely incoherent. By identifying point-like targets within the images, we were able to derive accurate pixel offsets between SAR sub-images containing such targets, which we used to estimate the 3D coseismic displacements. The derived 3D displacement field helped in constraining the causative northward dipping thrust-fault. The Qadimah fault is a recently discovered fault located on the Red Sea coast north of Jeddah and under the

  20. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region. PMID:26120422

  1. Middle Tertiary continental rift and evolution of the Red Sea in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Hadley, Donald G.; Brown, Glen F.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout early Tertiary time, the Arabian Shield erosion surface remained near sea level. First-stage uplift of the Red Sea Escarpment began during middle Miocene time, as evidenced by the coarse polymictic boulder conglomerate of the Bathan formation. Second-stage scarp uplift and second-stage sea-floor spreading followed during Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene time.

  2. Observations of Urban Heat Island Mitigation in California Coastal Cities due to a Sea Breeze Induced Coastal-Cooling ``REVERSE-REACTION'' to Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures at over 300 urban and rural sites in California (CA) during summer (June-August, JJA). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily min temperatures increased faster than daily max temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily max temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. That daytime summer coastal cooling was seen in coastal urban areas implies that urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction sea breeze cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would have been even stronger. Analysis of daytime summer max temperatures at four adjacent pairs of urban and rural sites near the inland cooling-warming boundary, however, showed that the rural sites experienced cooling, while the urban sites showed warming due to UHI development. The rate of heat island growth was estimated as the sum of each urban warming rate and the absolute magnitude of the concurrent adjacent rural cooling rate. Values ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 K decade-1, and were proportional to changes in urban population and urban extent. As Sacramento, Modesto, Stockton, and San José have grown in aerial extent (21 to 59%) and population (40 to 118%), part of the observed increased JJA max values could be due to increased daytime UHI-intensity. Without UHI effects, the currently observed JJA SFBA

  3. Monsoon-Driven Biogeochemical Processes in the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-03

    ffir Meereskunde, Universitat Kiel. Kumar, S. P., Madhupratap, M., Kumar, M. D., Muraleedharan , P. M., de Souza, S. N., Gauns, M., et al. (2001a). High...1638. Kumar, S. P., Ramaiah, N., Gauns, M., Sarma, V., Muraleedharan , P. M., Raghukumar, S., et al. (2001b). Physical forcing of biological

  4. Aragonite pteropod flux to the Somali Basin, NW Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. D.; Conan, S. M.-H.

    2008-05-01

    Aragonite export fluxes of pteropods (>250, 150-250 and 125-150 μm) in the Somali Basin were estimated using a 9-month time-series sediment trap (MST9-E) from June 1992 to February 1993. The trap with 23 time-series sediment collectors placed at 1032 m water depth collected settling particles over a total of 249 days. Pteropods showed large seasonal variations in both the numerical and mass fluxes (>125 μm) with their maxima at the end of the SW Monsoon during September and early October. It was also observed that records of pteropod fluxes varied in different size fractions. The average numerical flux and mass flux of pteropods (>125 μm) from the 9-month record of the sediment trap was estimated to be about 1830 shells m -2 d -1 and 18 mg m -2 d -1, respectively. We estimate that about 22.5% of the total CaCO 3 in the Somali Basin was contributed by aragonitic pteropods (>125 μm).

  5. Spatial distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of Al-Khafji area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Talal; Alfaifi, Hussain; Almadani, Sattam A; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2017-11-13

    To document the spatial distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of the Al-Khafji area in the northern part of the Saudi Arabian Gulf, 27 samples were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Sr, As, Fe, Co, and Ni analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results revealed the following descending order of the metal concentrations: Sr > Fe > Al > As > Mn > Ni > V > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Co > Hg > Cd. Average levels of enrichment factor of Sr, As, Hg, Cd, Ni, V, Cu, Co, and Pb were higher than 2 (218.10, 128.50, 80.94, 41.50, 12.31, 5.66, 2.95, 2.90, and 2.85, respectively) and that means the anthropogenic sources of these metals, while Al, Zn, Cr and Mn have enrichment factor less than 2, which implies natural sources. Average values of Sr, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, and As in the coastal sediments of Al-Khafji area were mostly higher than the values recorded from the background shale and earth crust and from those results along coasts of the Caspian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The highest levels of Cu in the northern part of the studied coastline might be due to Al-Khafji desalination plant, while levels of Al, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the central part may be a result of landfilling and industrial sewage. The highest levels of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, and V in the southern part seem to be due to oil pollutants from Khafji Joint Operations (KJO). The higher values of Sr in the studied sediments in general and particularly in locality 7 could relate to the hypersalinity and aragonitic composition of the scleractinian corals abundant in that area.

  6. Problems of the active tectonics of the Eastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Mikava, D.; Tvaliashvili, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea Basin is the part of the Arabian Eurasian Collision zone and important unit for understanding the tectonic process of the region. This complex basin comprises two deep basins, separated by the mid-Black Sea Ridge. The basement of the Black Sea includes areas with oceanic and continental crust. It was formed as a "back-arc" basin over the subduction zone during the closing of the Tethys Ocean. In the past decades the Black Sea has been the subject of intense geological and geophysical studies. Several papers were published about the geological history, tectonics, basement relief and crustal and upper mantle structure of the basin. New tectonic schemes were suggested (e. g. Nikishin et al 2014, Shillington et al. 2008, Starostenko et al. 2004 etc.). Nevertheless, seismicity of the Black Sea is poorly studied due to the lack of seismic network in the coastal area. It is considered, that the eastern basin currently lies in a compressional setting associated with the uplift of the Caucasus and structural development of the Caucasus was closely related to the evolution of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. Analyses of recent sequence of earthquakes in 2012 can provide useful information to understand complex tectonic structure of the Eastern Black Sea region. Right after the earthquake of 2012/12/23, National Seismic monitoring center of Georgia deployed additional 4 stations in the coastal area of the country, close to the epicenter area, to monitor aftershock sequence. Seismic activity in the epicentral area is continuing until now. We have relocated approximately 1200 aftershocks to delineate fault scarf using data from Georgian, Turkish and Russian datacenters. Waveforms of the major events and the aftershocks were inverted for the fault plane solutions of the events. For the inversion were used green's functions, computed using new 1D velocity model of the region. Strike-slip mechanism of the major events of the earthquake sequence indicates extensional

  7. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  8. Anxiety, Depression, Hostility and General Psychopathology: An Arabian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Abdel-Sattar; Ibrahim, Radwa M.

    In Arabian cultures, the psychosocial characteristics of psychopathological trends, including depression, anxiety, and hostility remain largely unknown. Scales measuring depression, anxiety, and hostility were administered to a voluntary sample of 989 Saudi Arabian men and 1,024 Saudi women coming from different social, economical, and educational…

  9. Study of Sea Surface Temperatures changes due to tropical cyclone fanoos in the southwest Bay of Bengal using satellite and argo observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    Sea surface temperature (SST) plays an important role in the studies of global climate system and as a boundary condition for operational numerical forecasts. Estimation of SST has tra-ditionally been performed with satellite based sensors operating in the infrared (IR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, where the ocean emissivity is close to unity. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite series, the GOES Imagers on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) on the European Remote Sensing satellites and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA EOS platform are successful examples of IR sen-sors currently used for operational SST retrievals. Significant progress in SST retrieval from remote sensing data came with the introduction of a new low-frequency channel (10.7 GHz) on microwave (MW) sensors. The anthropogenic effects over a period of time resulted in increase of infrared absorbers such as greenhouse gases and absorbing aerosol would produce increase of both daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures. In contrast, the increases of visible reflectors such as sulfate aerosols and low cloud amount would result in a decrease of the daytime maximum temperature. Solar radiation, wind stress and vertical mixing are known to be the three major factors impacting the SST seasonal variations. In the present study, impact of absorbing aerosols on the sea surface temperature (SST) over Bay of Bengal (BoB) region was investigated. Increased aerosol loading over BoB was observed due to advection of aerosols from continental region consisting of absorbing particles primarily from dust and biomass burning. This increased loading over BoB resulted in reduction of surface reaching solar radiation. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) de-rived SST over BoB showed negative correlation with OMI-Aerosol Index (AI) (R = 0.87) and

  10. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Arabian Plate originated ˜ 25 Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10 km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000 m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed. The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540 Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ˜ 850 and 550 Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the

  11. Upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath the Kenya Rift and the Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongcheol

    Upper mantle structure beneath the Kenya Rift and Arabian Shield has been investigated to advance our understanding of the origin of the Cenozoic hotspot tectonism found there. A new seismic tomographic model of the upper mantle beneath the Kenya Rift has been obtained by inverting teleseismic P-wave travel time residuals. The model shows a 0.5--1.5% low velocity anomaly below the Kenya Rift extending to about 150 km depth. Below ˜150 km depth, the anomaly broadens to the west toward the Tanzania Craton, suggesting a westward dip to the structure. The P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Shield has been investigated using travel-time tomography. Models for the seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle between 150 and 400 depths reveal a low velocity region (˜1.5% in the P model and ˜3% in the S model) trending NW-SE along the western side of the Arabian Shield and broadening to the northeast beneath the MMN volcanic line. The models have limited resolution above 150 km depth everywhere under the Shield, and in the middle part of the Shield the resolution is limited at all depths. Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements have been inverted to image regions of the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield not well resolved by the body wave tomography. The shear wave velocity model obtained shows upper mantle structure above 200 km depth. A broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle (depths of ≤ ˜100 km) across the Shield is observed, and below ˜150 km depth a region of low shear velocity is imaged along the Red Sea coast and MMN volcanic line. A westward dipping low velocity zone beneath the Kenya Rift is consistent with an interpretation by Nyblade et al. [2000] suggesting that a plume head is located under the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, or alternatively a superplume rising from the lower mantle from the west and reaching the surface under Kenya [e.g., Debayle et al., 2001; Grand et al., 1997; Ritsema et al., 1999]. For

  12. PAHs sensitivity of picophytoplankton populations in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Agusti, Susana

    2018-04-25

    In this study, we investigated the in situ responses of Red Sea picophytoplankton, the dominant phytoplankton group in the oligotrophic ocean, to two toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene and pyrene. The experiments were conducted across a latitudinal gradient of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, an area sensitive to oil pollution. We observed significant adverse effects on the growth and abundance of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes, at all stations sampled. Prochlorococcus, which was abundant only at one of the stations, also appeared to be affected. Pyrene was found to be more toxic to phytoplankton at all stations. In general, picoeukaryotes exhibited higher sensitivity to PAHs than Synechococcus. Populations in the highly oligotrophic Northern region of the Red Sea were more tolerant to PAHs, presumably influenced by the natural selection of more resistant strains of phytoplankton due to the prolonged exposure to PAHs. Toxicity threshold values estimated here are higher than those reported for picophytoplankton from other oligotrophic marine waters and exceed by far the natural levels of PAHs in many oceans. Our findings reveal a possible adaptation of picophytoplankton populations to oil-related contaminants, which may clearly influence their spatial distribution patterns in the Red Sea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    west of the Ga'ara Depression, represented by Early-Late Paleocene phosphatic facies, which is well developed east of Rutbah Uplift and extends eastwards in the Foredeep. Eocene rocks; west of Rutbah Uplift are represented by marine carbonates that has wide aerial coverage in south Iraq. Locally, east of Rutbah Uplift unconformable contacts are recorded between Early, Middle and Late Eocene rocks. During Oligocene, in the eastern margin of the Inner Platform, the Outer Platform was uplifted causing very narrow depositional Oligocene basin. Therefore, very restricted exposures are present in the northern part of the Inner Platform (north of Ga'ara Depression), represented by reef, forereef sediments of some Oligocene formations. The Miocene rocks have no exposures west of Rutbah Uplift, but north and northwestwards are widely exposed represented by Early Miocene of marine carbonates with marl intercalations. Very locally, Early Miocene deltaic clastics and carbonates, are interfingering with the marine carbonates. The last marine open sea sediments, locally with reef, represent the Middle Miocene rocks and fore reef facies that interfingers with evaporates along the northern part of Abu Jir Fault Zone, which is believed to be the reason for the restriction of the closed lagoons; in the area. During Late Miocene, the continental phase started in Iraq due to the closure of the Neo-Tethys and collision of the Sanandaj Zone with the Arabian Plate. The continental sediments consist of fine clastics. The Late Miocene - Middle Pliocene sediments were not deposited in the Inner Platform. The Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments are represented by cyclic sediments of conglomeratic sandstone overlain by fresh water limestone, and by pebbly sandstone. The Quaternary sediments are poorly developed in the Inner Platform. Terraces of Euphrates River and those of main valleys represent pleistocene sediments. Flood plain of the Euphrates River and those of large valleys represent Holocene

  14. Geological analysis of parts of the southern Arabian Shield based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qari, Mohammed Yousef Hedaytullah T.

    This thesis examines the capability and applicability of Landsat multispectral remote sensing data for geological analysis in the arid southern Arabian Shield, which is the eastern segment of the Nubian-Arabian Shield surrounding the Red Sea. The major lithologies in the study area are Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, gneisses and granites. Three test-sites within the study area, located within two tectonic assemblages, the Asir Terrane and the Nabitah Mobile Belt, were selected for detailed comparison of remote sensing methods and ground geological studies. Selected digital image processing techniques were applied to full-resolution Landsat TM imagery and the results are interpreted and discussed. Methods included: image contrast improvement, edge enhancement for detecting lineaments and spectral enhancement for geological mapping. The last method was based on two principles, statistical analysis of the data and the use of arithmetical operators. New and detailed lithological and structural maps were constructed and compared with previous maps of these sites. Examples of geological relations identified using TM imagery include: recognition and mapping of migmatites for the first time in the Arabian Shield; location of the contact between the Asir Terrane and the Nabitah Mobile Belt; and mapping of lithologies, some of which were not identified on previous geological maps. These and other geological features were confirmed by field checking. Methods of lineament enhancement implemented in this study revealed structural lineaments, mostly mapped for the first time, which can be related to regional tectonics. Structural analysis showed that the southern Arabian Shield has been affected by at least three successive phases of deformation. The third phase is the most dominant and widespread. A crustal evolutionary model in the vicinity of the study area is presented showing four stages, these are: arc stage, accretion stage, collision stage and post

  15. Seismic imaging of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the northern Red Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Elsheikh, A. A.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.; Fat-Helbary, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    The dramatic asymmetry in terms of surface elevation, Cenozoic volcanisms and earthquake activity across the Red Sea is an enigmatic issue in global tectonics, partially due to the unavailability of broad-band seismic data on the African Plate adjacent to the Red Sea. Here, we report the first comprehensive image of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities using data from the Egyptian National Seismic Network, and compare the resulting depths of the 410 and 660-km discontinuities with those observed on the Arabian side. Our results show that when a standard earth model is used for time-to-depth conversion, the resulting depth of the discontinuities increases systematically towards the axis of the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD) from both the west and east. Relative to the westernmost area, the maximum depression of the 410-km discontinuity is about 30 km, and that of the 660-km discontinuity is about 45 km. The observed systematic variations can best be explained by a model involving a hydrated MTZ and an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the AAD. Models invoking one or more mantle plumes originated from the MTZ or the lower-mantle beneath the study area are not consistent with the observations.

  16. Method to characterize directional changes in Arctic sea ice drift and associated deformation due to synoptic atmospheric variations using Lagrangian dispersion statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovich, Jennifer V.; Geiger, Cathleen A.; Barber, David G.

    2017-07-01

    A framework is developed to assess the directional changes in sea ice drift paths and associated deformation processes in response to atmospheric forcing. The framework is based on Lagrangian statistical analyses leveraging particle dispersion theory which tells us whether ice drift is in a subdiffusive, diffusive, ballistic, or superdiffusive dynamical regime using single-particle (absolute) dispersion statistics. In terms of sea ice deformation, the framework uses two- and three-particle dispersion to characterize along- and across-shear transport as well as differential kinematic parameters. The approach is tested with GPS beacons deployed in triplets on sea ice in the southern Beaufort Sea at varying distances from the coastline in fall of 2009 with eight individual events characterized. One transition in particular follows the sea level pressure (SLP) high on 8 October in 2009 while the sea ice drift was in a superdiffusive dynamic regime. In this case, the dispersion scaling exponent (which is a slope between single-particle absolute dispersion of sea ice drift and elapsed time) changed from superdiffusive (α ˜ 3) to ballistic (α ˜ 2) as the SLP was rounding its maximum pressure value. Following this shift between regimes, there was a loss in synchronicity between sea ice drift and atmospheric motion patterns. While this is only one case study, the outcomes suggest similar studies be conducted on more buoy arrays to test momentum transfer linkages between storms and sea ice responses as a function of dispersion regime states using scaling exponents. The tools and framework developed in this study provide a unique characterization technique to evaluate these states with respect to sea ice processes in general. Application of these techniques can aid ice hazard assessments and weather forecasting in support of marine transportation and indigenous use of near-shore Arctic areas.

  17. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  18. Miocene diagenetic and epigenetic strontium mineralization in calcareous series from Cyprus and the Arabian Gulf: Metallogenic perspective on sub- and suprasalt redox-controlled base metal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Harald G.; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Berner, Zsolt; Stüben, Doris

    2009-04-01

    During the Neogene, celestite deposits evolved in the Neo-Tethys basins, in what is today called the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Two evaporite deposits, in Cyprus and in Qatar have been investigated from the sedimentological and mineralogical point of view with emphasis placed on Sr, S and Ca isotopes of carbonate, gypsum and celestite. During the early Miocene shallow marine environments occurred in the Gulf region and in Cyprus both of which are abundant in syndiagenetic sulphate minerals. The calcareous environments had a strong impact on the fluid migration leading to the Sr mineralization. In the Gulf region algal biostromes favored the lateral migration of fluids but had a sealing effect so that any epigenetic mineralization based on vertical fluid flow was hampered. In contrast, the Cypriot depocentre overlying the Troodos ophiolite is dominated by patch and knoll reefs (bioherms) which provide enough porosity and permeability to be favorable for the circulation of fluids with a strong vertical component. Owing to these changes in the calcareous host series, epigenetic sulphate mineralization evolved in Cyprus during the late Miocene. This occurred as the Mediterranean Sea gradually became isolated from the open ocean and, as a precursor to the "Messinian salinity crisis" evaporitic brines circulated deep into the Meso-Cenozoic platform sediments and the underlying Troodos ophiolite where these fluids leached some base metals and sulphur for the celestite mineralization. The Red Sea Rifting was at full swing during the Late Miocene and its northern propagation into the Mediterranean Sea is assumed to have had a structural control on the positioning of the Sr deposits in Cyprus. In the Gulf area, the final closure of the Neo-Tethys and Zagros folding terminated deposition of marine calcareous rocks and alluvial-fluvial siliciclastic rocks were deposited across an unconformity. Missing circulation of highly saline brines was responsible for the

  19. Numerical study of summertime dynamical and physical changes in the southern South China Sea due to the monsoons and its impacts on primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Abu Samah, Azizan; Hai Ooi, See

    2016-04-01

    The ecosystem off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia is controlled by multiple physical processes during the monsoons (winter and summer) , including the air-sea interaction (such as net heat and surface freshwater fluxes), the small-scale eddies off the southern South China Sea (SSCS), and the monsoon wind induced coastal upwelling. Using high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), in-situ observations and remote sensing data, this paper attempts to study the hydrodynamics of the shelf and coastal processes as well as thermohaline circulation in response to changes in the hydrological seasonal cycle especially in the summer monsoon. In addition, we investigate its impacts on the spatial patterns of chlorophyll biomass which acts as a proxy for primary productivity in the SSCS. This study looks into not only the detailed small-scale-circulation such as localized eddies but also the link between the southern South China Sea and the Indian Ocean through the Straits of Malacca and the Java Sea. The flow through the Strait of Malacca and the Java Sea is not only important for navigational purpose but also has an influence on the seasonal spatial and temporal variations of primary productivity in the region. Keywords: southern South China Sea; summer monsoon; coastal upwelling; primary productivity

  20. Natural variability of bio-optical properties in an ultra-oligotrophic region: backscattering, attenuation and absorption coefficients as observed in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, M.; Jones, B. H.

    2016-02-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. The optical properties of the Red Sea have been empirically related to the chlorophyll concentration, [Chl], historically used as an index of the trophic state and of the abundance of the biological materials. The natural variability around the mean statistical relationships is here examined by comparing the optical properties as a function of [Chl] in different area of the Red Sea: the North Red Sea (NRS), the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) and the South Central Red Sea (SCRS) waters. The systematic deviations, with respect to the average laws provided for the global ocean, mainly result from the differing contents in non-algal particles, phytoplankton communities and dissolved colored substance for a given [Chl] level. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. Specifically, absorption's values of colored dissolved organic matter are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given [Chl] concentration. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan or Arabian origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  1. New Interpretations of the Rayn Anticlines in the Arabian Basin Inferred from Gravity Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryan Anticlines comprise of a regularly-spaced set of super-giant anticlines oriented NNW, developed due to E-W compression in the Arabian Basin. Most prominent of these being: the Ghawar Anticline, followed by the Summan, Khurais Anticlines and Qatar Arch. Gravity anomaly is largely characteristic for both Ryan Anticlines and its smaller size version the Jinadriah Anticline in the Riyadh Salt Basin. It displays a bipolar gravity field - a zone of gravity high running along the fold axis that is flanked by asymmetric gravity lows. Available structural models commonly infer structural uplift for the median gravity high but ignore the flanking lows. Here we interpret the bipolar gravity anomaly due primarily to such anticline structures, while, the flanking gravity lows are due to greater sediment thickness largely compacted and deformed over the basement depressions. Further complexities are created due to the salt layer and its migration at the lower horizons of sediment strata. Such diagnostic gravity anomaly pattern is taken here as an evidence for basement tectonics due to prevailing crustal dynamics in the Arabian Basin. Density inversion provides details on the subsurface density variation due to the folding and structural configuration for the sediment layers, including the salt layer, affected by basement deformation. This interpretation is largely supported by gravity forward and inversion models given in the present study what is partly constrained by the available seismic, MT and deep resistivity lines and surface geologic mapping. Most of the oil-gas fields in this part of the Arabian Basin are further known for salt diapirism. In this study the gravity interpretation help in identification of salt diapirism directly overlying the basement is firstly given here for Jinadriah Anticline; that is next extended to a regional geologic cross-section traversing the Ryan Anticlines to infer probable subsurface continuation of salt diapirs directly overlying

  2. Characterization of synoptic patterns causing dust outbreaks that affect the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, L.; Merino, A.; Sánchez, J. L.; Fernández-González, S.; García-Ortega, E.; López, L.

    2018-01-01

    Dust storms pose serious weather hazards in arid and semiarid regions of the earth. Understanding the main synoptic conditions that give rise to dust outbreaks is important for issuing forecasts and warnings to the public in cases of severe storms. The aim of the present study is to determine synoptic patterns that are associated with or even favor dust outbreaks over the Arabian Peninsula. In this respect, red-green-blue dust composite images from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite are used to detect dust outbreaks affecting the Arabian Peninsula, with possible influences in southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa, between 2005 and 2013. The Meteosat imagery yielded a sample of 95 dust storm days. Meteorological fields from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of wind fields at 10 m and 250 hPa, mean sea level pressure, and geopotential heights at 850 and 500 hPa were obtained for the dust storm days. Using principal component analysis in T-mode and non-hierarchical k-means clustering, we obtained four major atmospheric circulation patterns associated with dust outbreaks during the study days. Cluster 4 had the largest number of days with dust events, which were constrained to summer, and cluster 3 had the fewest. In clusters 1, 2 and 3, the jet stream favored the entry of a low-pressure area or trough that varied in location between the three clusters. Their most northerly location was found in cluster 4, along with an extensive low-pressure area supporting strong winds over the Arabian Peninsula. The spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for each cluster obtained was characterized using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data. Then, using METAR stations, clusters were also characterized in terms of frequency and visibility.

  3. Duane retraction syndrome on the Arabian Peninsula.