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Sample records for arabidopsis adp-ribosylation factor

  1. Dissection of Arabidopsis ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 Function in Epidermal Cell PolarityW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Scheres, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Vesicle trafficking is essential for the generation of asymmetries, which are central to multicellular development. Core components of the vesicle transport machinery, such as ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, have been studied primarily at the single-cell level. Here, we analyze developmental functions of the ARF1 subclass of the Arabidopsis thaliana multigene ARF family. Six virtually identical ARF1 genes are ubiquitously expressed, and single loss-of-function mutants in these genes reveal no obvious developmental phenotypes. Fluorescence colocalization studies reveal that ARF1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus and endocytic organelles in both onion (Allium cepa) and Arabidopsis cells. Apical-basal polarity of epidermal cells, reflected by the position of root hair outgrowth, is affected when ARF1 mutants are expressed at early stages of cell differentiation but after they exit mitosis. Genetic interactions during root hair tip growth and localization suggest that the ROP2 protein is a target of ARF1 action, but its localization is slowly affected upon ARF1 manipulation when compared with that of Golgi and endocytic markers. Localization of a second potential target of ARF1 action, PIN2, is also affected with slow kinetics. Although extreme redundancy precludes conventional genetic dissection of ARF1 functions, our approach separates different ARF1 downstream networks involved in local and specific aspects of cell polarity. PMID:15659621

  2. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 Å resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s. PMID:21045287

  3. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  4. A maize ADP-ribosylation factor ZmArf2 increases organ and seed size by promoting cell expansion in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilei; Xue, Xiaojing; Li, Yuling; Dong, Yongbin; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qiang; Deng, Fei; Ma, Zhiyan; Qiao, Dahe; Hu, Chunhui; Ren, Yangliu

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small GTP-binding proteins that regulate a wide variety of cell functions. Previously, we isolated a new ARF, ZmArf2, from maize (Zea mays). Sequence and expression characteristics indicated that ZmArf2 might play a critical role in the early stages of endosperm development. In this study, we investigated ZmArf2 function by analysis of its GTP-binding activity and subcellular localization. We also over-expressed ZmArf2 in Arabidopsis and measured organ and cell size and counted cell numbers. The expression levels of five organ size-associated genes were also determined in 35S::ZmArf2 transgenic and wild-type plants. Results showed that the recombinant ZmArf2 protein purified from Escherichia coli exhibited GTP-binding activity. Subcellular localization revealed that ZmArf2 was localized in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. ZmArf2 over-expression in Arabidopsis showed that 35S::ZmArf2 transgenic plants were taller and had larger leaves and seeds compared to wild-type plants, which resulted from cell expansions, not an increase in cell numbers. In addition, three cell expansion-related genes, AtEXP3, AtEXP5 and AtEXP10, were upregulated in 35S::ZmArf2 transgenic lines, while the expression levels of AtGIF1 and AtGRF5, were unchanged. Collectively, our studies suggest that ZmArf2 has an active GTP-binding function, and plays a crucial role in growth and development in Arabidopsis through cell expansion mediated by cell expansion genes. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Arabidopsis PARG1 is the key factor promoting cell survival among the enzymes regulating post-translational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailei; Gu, Zongying; Wu, Qiao; Yang, Lifeng; Liu, Caifeng; Ma, Hong; Xia, Yiji; Ge, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a reversible post-translational modification of proteins, characterized by the addition of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to proteins by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and removal of PAR by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Three PARPs and two PARGs have been found in Arabidopsis, but their respective roles are not fully understood. In this study, the functions of each PARP and PARG in DNA repair were analyzed based on their mutant phenotypes under genotoxic stresses. Double or triple mutant analysis revealed that PARP1 and PARP2, but not PARP3, play a similar but not critical role in DNA repair in Arabidopsis seedlings. PARG1 and PARG2 play an essential and a minor role, respectively under the same conditions. Mutation of PARG1 results in increased DNA damage level and enhanced cell death in plants after bleomycin treatment. PARG1 expression is induced primarily in root and shoot meristems by bleomycin and induction of PARG1 is dependent on ATM and ATR kinases. PARG1 also antagonistically modulates the DNA repair process by preventing the over-induction of DNA repair genes. Our study determined the contribution of each PARP and PARG member in DNA repair and indicated that PARG1 plays a critical role in this process. PMID:26516022

  6. Production of an antiserum specific to the ADP-ribosylated form of elongation factor 2 from archaebacteria and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, K D; Klink, F

    1992-11-09

    An antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (ADPR-EF-2) from S. acidocaldarius was raised in rabbits using stained, homogenized, ADPR-EF-2-containing slices from SDS-gels as a source of antigen. Elongation factor 2 (EF-2) from S. acidocaldarius was cloned in E. coli and the expressed gene product was used in order to adsorb all anti-EF-2 antibodies which do not contain the ADP-ribosyl group within their epitopes, as E. coli is unable to synthesize the ADP-ribosyl acceptor diphthamide. The remaining antibodies were specific to ADP-ribosylated EF-2 from Thermoplasma acidophilum, S. acidocaldarius and Desulfurococcus mucosus. ADP-ribosylated EF-2 from eukaryotic sources also reacted with the adsorbed antiserum as shown for EF-2 isolated from the killi-fish Cynolebias whitei, the mouse species BALB/c and Han/Wistar rats. The adsorbed antiserum did not cross-react with ADP-ribosylated actin or rho protein or with FAD-containing D-amino acid oxidase.

  7. Protein Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Regulates Arabidopsis Immune Gene Expression and Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Baomin; Liu, Chenglong; de Oliveira, Marcos V. V.; Intorne, Aline C.; Li, Bo; Babilonia, Kevin; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo A.; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) elicits transcriptional reprogramming in hosts and activates defense to pathogen attacks. The molecular mechanisms underlying plant pattern-triggered immunity remain elusive. A genetic screen identified Arabidopsis poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase 1 (atparg1) mutant with elevated immune gene expression upon multiple MAMP and pathogen treatments. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is predicted to remove poly(ADP-ribose) polymers on acceptor proteins modified by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) with three PARPs and two PARGs in Arabidopsis genome. AtPARP1 and AtPARP2 possess poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, and the activity of AtPARP2 was enhanced by MAMP treatment. AtPARG1, but not AtPARG2, carries glycohydrolase activity in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, mutation (G450R) in atparg1 blocks its activity and the corresponding residue is highly conserved and essential for human HsPARG activity. Consistently, mutant atparp1atparp2 plants exhibited compromised immune gene activation and enhanced susceptibility to pathogen infections. Our study indicates that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays critical roles in plant immune gene expression and defense to pathogen attacks. PMID:25569773

  8. Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates arabidopsis immune gene expression and defense responses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Baomin; Liu, Chenglong; de Oliveira, Marcos V V; Intorne, Aline C; Li, Bo; Babilonia, Kevin; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo A; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) elicits transcriptional reprogramming in hosts and activates defense to pathogen attacks. The molecular mechanisms underlying plant pattern-triggered immunity remain elusive. A genetic screen identified Arabidopsis poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase 1 (atparg1) mutant with elevated immune gene expression upon multiple MAMP and pathogen treatments. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is predicted to remove poly(ADP-ribose) polymers on acceptor proteins modified by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) with three PARPs and two PARGs in Arabidopsis genome. AtPARP1 and AtPARP2 possess poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, and the activity of AtPARP2 was enhanced by MAMP treatment. AtPARG1, but not AtPARG2, carries glycohydrolase activity in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, mutation (G450R) in atparg1 blocks its activity and the corresponding residue is highly conserved and essential for human HsPARG activity. Consistently, mutant atparp1atparp2 plants exhibited compromised immune gene activation and enhanced susceptibility to pathogen infections. Our study indicates that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays critical roles in plant immune gene expression and defense to pathogen attacks.

  9. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 in polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fendrick, J.L.; Iglewski, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney (pyBHK) cells were cultured in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and 105 (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum. A {sup 32}P-labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (EF-2). The {sup 32}P labeling of the protein was enhanced by culturing cells in medium containing 2% serum instead of 10% serum. The {sup 32}P label was completely removed from the protein by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and the digestion product was identified as ({sup 32}P)AMP, indicating the protein was mono-ADP-ribosylated. HPLC analysis of tryptic peptides of the {sup 32}P-labeled 97-kDa protein and purified EF-2, which was ADP-ribosylated in vitro with diphtheria toxin fragment A and ({sup 32}P)NAD, demonstrated an identical labeled peptide in the two proteins. The data strongly suggest that EF-2 was endogenously ADP-ribosylated in pyBHK cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactivity in EF-2 occurred by 12 hr and remained constant over the subsequent 12 hr. It was estimated that 30-35% of the EF-2 was ADP-ribosylated in cells cultured in medium containing 2% serum. When {sup 32}P-labeled cultures were incubated in medium containing unlabeled phosphate, the {sup 32}P label was lost from the EF-2 within 30 min.

  10. Effect of growth factors on nuclear and mitochondrial ADP-ribosylation processes during astroglial cell development and aging in culture.

    PubMed

    Spina Purrello, Vittoria; Cormaci, Gianfrancesco; Denaro, Luca; Reale, Salvatore; Costa, Antonino; Lalicata, Calogera; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Marchetti, Bianca; Avola, Roberto

    2002-03-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin (INS) are powerful mitogens and may regulate gene expression in cultured astrocytes by ADP-ribosylation process. Nuclear poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and mitochondrial monoADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) are the key enzymes involved in poly-ADP-ribosylation and mono ADP-ribosylation, respectively. In this investigation the effect of EGF, bFGF, IGF-I or INS on nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities were assessed in nuclei and mitochondria purified from developing (30 DIV) or aging (90 and 190 DIV) primary rat astrocyte cultures. A marked increase of PARP activity in bFGF or IGF-I treated astroglial cell cultures at 30 DIV was found. Nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities were greatly stimulated by treatment with EGF or INS alone or together in astrocyte cultures at 30 DIV. Nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities showed a more remarkable increase in control untreated astrocyte cultures at 190 DIV than at 90 DIV. These findings suggest that ADP-ribosylation process is involved in DNA damage and repair during cell differentiation and aging in culture. Twelve hours treatment with EGF, INS or bFGF significantly stimulated nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities in 190 DIV aging astrocyte cultures. The above results indicate that EGF, INS and bFGF may play a crucial role in the post-translational modification of chromosomal proteins including ADP-ribosylation process in in vitro models. This suggests that growth factors regulate genomic stability in glial cells during development and maturation, stimulating nuclear and mitochondrial ADP-ribosylation processes in developing or aging astrocyte cultures.

  11. ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4C (ARL4C) interacts with galectin-3 during oocyte development and embryogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4 (ARL4) is a GTP-binding protein which belongs to the ADP-ribosylation factor protein (ARF) superfamily of small GTPases. ARL4 has been shown to be mainly related to the development of male germ cells and embryogenesis in mouse. To investigate the role of ARL4 i...

  12. Synaptic functions of the IQSEC family of ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji Won

    2017-03-01

    Postsynaptic scaffolding proteins interact with numerous synaptic proteins to ensure the organization and specialization of functional excitatory and inhibitory synapses. IQSECs (IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing proteins) are a class of ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), whose functions are beginning to be understood as both scaffolding and signaling proteins. Specifically, IQSEC1 binds to PSD-95, and IQSEC2 functions as a regulator of AMPA receptor trafficking at excitatory synapses, whereas IQSEC3 interacts with gephyrin to promote inhibitory synapse development. Here, I review the currently known findings on IQSECs and discuss the possible relations between dysfunctions of IQSECs and the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulation of growth factor receptor degradation by ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein (ARD) 1.

    PubMed

    Meza-Carmen, Victor; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Kang, Gi Soo; Kato, Jiro; Donati, Chiara; Zhang, Chun-Yi; Vichi, Alessandro; Payne, D Michael; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Stylianou, Mario; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2011-06-28

    ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein 1 (ARD1) is a 64-kDa protein containing a functional ADP-ribosylation factor (GTP hydrolase, GTPase), GTPase-activating protein, and E3 ubiquitin ligase domains. ARD1 activation by the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor cytohesin-1 was known. GTPase and E3 ligase activities of ARD1 suggest roles in protein transport and turnover. To explore this hypothesis, we used mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from ARD1-/- mice stably transfected with plasmids for inducible expression of wild-type ARD1 protein (KO-WT), or ARD1 protein with inactivating mutations in E3 ligase domain (KO-E3), or containing persistently active GTP-bound (KO-GTP), or inactive GDP-bound (KO-GDP) GTPase domains. Inhibition of proteasomal proteases in mifepristone-induced KO-WT, KO-GDP, or KO-GTP MEFs resulted in accumulation of these ARD1 proteins, whereas KO-E3 accumulated without inhibitors. All data were consistent with the conclusion that ARD1 regulates its own steady-state levels in cells by autoubiquitination. Based on reported growth factor receptor-cytohesin interactions, EGF receptor (EGFR) was investigated in induced MEFs. Amounts of cell-surface and total EGFR were higher in KO-GDP and lower in KO-GTP than in KO-WT MEFs, with levels in both mutants greater (p = 0.001) after proteasomal inhibition. Significant differences among MEF lines in content of TGF-β receptor III were similar to those in EGFR, albeit not as large. Differences in amounts of insulin receptor mirrored those in EGFR, but did not reach statistical significance. Overall, the capacity of ARD1 GTPase to cycle between active and inactive forms and its autoubiquitination both appear to be necessary for the appropriate turnover of EGFR and perhaps additional growth factor receptors.

  14. Localization and characterization of the human ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) gene

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.E. |; Daiger, S.P.; Green, E.D.

    1997-05-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) is a member of the ARF gene family. The ARF proteins stimulate the in vitro ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and appear to play a role in vesicular trafficking in vivo. We have mapped ARF5, one of the six known mammalian ARF genes, to a well-defined yeast artificial chromosome contig on human chromosome 7q31.3. In addition, we have isolated and sequenced an {approximately}3.2-kb genomic segment that contains the entire ARF5 coding region, revealing the complete intron-exon structure of the gene. With six coding exons and five introns, the genomic structure of ARF5 is unique among the mammalian ARF genes and provides insight about the evolutionary history of this ancient gene family. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Diversity and distribution of cholix toxin, a novel ADP-ribosylating factor from Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Alexandra E; Balch, Deborah; Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2010-02-01

    Non-toxigenic non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from both environmental and clinical settings carry a suite of virulence factors aside from cholera toxin. Among V. cholerae strains isolated from coastal waters of southern California, this includes cholix toxin, an ADP-ribosylating factor that is capable of halting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. The prevalence of the gene encoding cholix toxin, chxA, was assessed among a collection of 155 diverse V. cholerae strains originating from both clinical and environmental settings in Bangladesh and Mexico and other countries around the globe. The chxA gene was present in 47% of 83 non-O1, non-O139 strains and 16% of 72 O1/O139 strains screened as part of this study. A total of 86 chxA gene sequences were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they fall into two distinct clades. These two clades were also observed in the phylogenies of several housekeeping genes, suggesting that the divergence observed in chxA extends to other regions of the V. cholerae genome, and most likely has arisen from vertical descent rather than horizontal transfer. Our results clearly indicate that ChxA is a major toxin of V. cholerae with a worldwide distribution that is preferentially associated with non-pandemic strains.

  16. Suppression of breast cancer metastasis through the inactivation of ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiayang; Tang, Shou-Ching; Cai, Yafei; Pi, Wenhu; Deng, Libin; Wu, Guangyu; Chavanieu, Alain; Teng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death in breast cancer patients, which is controlled by specific sets of genes. Targeting these genes may provide a means to delay cancer progression and allow local treatment to be more effective. We report for the first time that ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is the most amplified gene in ARF gene family in breast cancer, and high-level amplification of ARF1 is associated with increased mRNA expression and poor outcomes of patients with breast cancer. Knockdown of ARF1 leads to significant suppression of migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. Using the orthotopic xenograft model in NSG mice, we demonstrate that loss of ARF1 expression in breast cancer cells inhibits pulmonary metastasis. The zebrafish-metastasis model confirms that the ARF1 gene depletion suppresses breast cancer cells to metastatic disseminate throughout fish body, indicating that ARF1 is a very compelling target to limit metastasis. ARF1 function largely dependents on its activation and LM11, a cell-active inhibitor that specifically inhibits ARF1 activation through targeting the ARF1-GDP/ARNO complex at the Golgi, significantly impairs metastatic capability of breast cancer cell in zebrafish. These findings underline the importance of ARF1 in promoting metastasis and suggest that LM11 that inhibits ARF1 activation may represent a potential therapeutic approach to prevent or treat breast cancer metastasis. PMID:27517156

  17. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 modulates adrenergic stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingqiu; Zhou, Dequan; Abumrad, Nada A.

    2010-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small GTPase that influences membrane receptor trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton. In adipocytes, Arf6 regulates the trafficking of the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and consequently insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Previous studies also indicated a role of Arf6 in adrenergic receptor trafficking, but whether this contributes to the control of lipolysis in adipocytes remains unknown. This was examined in the present study by using RNA interference (RNAi) and pharmaceutical inhibition in murine cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Downregulation of Arf6 by RNAi impairs isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis specifically but does not alter triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis or the insulin signaling pathway. Neither total TAG amounts nor TAG fatty acid compositions are altered. The inhibitory effect on lipolysis is mimicked by dynasore, a specific inhibitor for dynamin, which is required for endocytosis. In contrast, lipolysis triggered by reagents that bypass events at the plasma membrane (e.g., forskolin, isobutylmethylxanthine or 8-bromo-cAMP) is not affected. Moreover, Arf6 protein levels in white adipose tissues are markedly increased in ob/ob mice, whereas they are decreased in obesity-resistant CD36 null mice. These changes reflect at least in part alterations in Arf6 mRNA levels. Collectively, these results suggest a role of the endocytic pathway and its regulation by Arf6 in adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis in adipocytes and potentially in the development of obesity. PMID:20107045

  18. ADP-ribosylation factor-dependent phospholipase D activation by the M3 muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rory; Robertson, Derek N; Holland, Pamela J; Collins, Daniel; Lutz, Eve M; Johnson, Melanie S

    2003-09-05

    G protein-coupled receptors can potentially activate phospholipase D (PLD) by a number of routes. We show here that the native M3 muscarinic receptor in 1321N1 cells and an epitope-tagged M3 receptor expressed in COS7 cells substantially utilize an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-dependent route of PLD activation. This pathway is activated at the plasma membrane but appears to be largely independent of G, phospholipase C, Ca2+ q/11, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinases, and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase. We report instead that it involves physical association of ARF with the M3 receptor as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and by in vitro interaction with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the receptor's third intracellular loop domain. Experiments with mutant constructs of ARF1/6 and PLD1/2 indicate that the M3 receptor displays a major ARF1-dependent route of PLD1 activation with an additional ARF6-dependent pathway to PLD1 or PLD2. Examples of other G protein-coupled receptors assessed in comparison display alternative pathways of protein kinase C- or ARF6-dependent activation of PLD2.

  19. Evidence that phospholipase D mediates ADP ribosylation factor- dependent formation of Golgi coated vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Formation of coatomer-coated vesicles from Golgi-enriched membranes requires the activation of a small GTP-binding protein, ADP ribosylation factor (ARF). ARF is also an efficacious activator of phospholipase D (PLD), an activity that is relatively abundant on Golgi- enriched membranes. It has been proposed that ARF, which is recruited onto membranes from cytosolic pools, acts directly to promote coatomer binding and is in a 3:1 stoichiometry with coatomer on coated vesicles. We present evidence that cytosolic ARF is not necessary for initiating coat assembly on Golgi membranes from cell lines with high constitutive PLD activity. Conditions are also described under which ARF is at most a minor component relative to coatomer in coated vesicles from all cell lines tested, including Chinese hamster ovary cells. Formation of coated vesicles was sensitive to ethanol at concentrations that inhibit the production of phosphatidic acid (PA) by PLD. When PA was produced in Golgi membranes by an exogenous bacterial PLD, rather than with ARF and endogenous PLD, coatomer bound to Golgi membranes. Purified coatomer also bound selectively to artificial lipid vesicles that contained PA and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2). We propose that activation of PLD and the subsequent production of PA are key early events for the formation of coatomer-coated vesicles. PMID:8707816

  20. Active ADP-ribosylation Factor-1 (ARF1) Is Required for Mitotic Golgi Fragmentation*S

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yi; Seemann, Joachim; Bisel, Blaine; Punthambaker, Sukanya; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian cells the Golgi apparatus undergoes an extensive disassembly process at the onset of mitosis that is believed to facilitate equal partitioning of this organelle into the two daughter cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for this fragmentation process are so far unclear. Here we have investigated the role of the ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1) in this process to determine whether Golgi fragmentation in mitosis is mediated by vesicle budding. ARF1 is a small GTPase that is required for COPI vesicle formation from the Golgi membranes. Treatment of Golgi membranes with mitotic cytosol or with purified coatomer together with wild type ARF1 or its constitutive active form, but not the inactive mutant, converted the Golgi membranes into COPI vesicles. ARF1-depleted mitotic cytosol failed to fragment Golgi membranes. ARF1 is associated with Golgi vesicles generated in vitro and with vesicles in mitotic cells. In addition, microinjection of constitutive active ARF1 did not affect mitotic Golgi fragmentation or cell progression through mitosis. Our results show that ARF1 is active during mitosis and that this activity is required for mitotic Golgi fragmentation. PMID:17562717

  1. Active ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1) is required for mitotic Golgi fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yi; Seemann, Joachim; Bisel, Blaine; Punthambaker, Sukanya; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2007-07-27

    In mammalian cells the Golgi apparatus undergoes an extensive disassembly process at the onset of mitosis that is believed to facilitate equal partitioning of this organelle into the two daughter cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for this fragmentation process are so far unclear. Here we have investigated the role of the ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1) in this process to determine whether Golgi fragmentation in mitosis is mediated by vesicle budding. ARF1 is a small GTPase that is required for COPI vesicle formation from the Golgi membranes. Treatment of Golgi membranes with mitotic cytosol or with purified coatomer together with wild type ARF1 or its constitutive active form, but not the inactive mutant, converted the Golgi membranes into COPI vesicles. ARF1-depleted mitotic cytosol failed to fragment Golgi membranes. ARF1 is associated with Golgi vesicles generated in vitro and with vesicles in mitotic cells. In addition, microinjection of constitutive active ARF1 did not affect mitotic Golgi fragmentation or cell progression through mitosis. Our results show that ARF1 is active during mitosis and that this activity is required for mitotic Golgi fragmentation.

  2. ARF-GEP100, a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor 6

    PubMed Central

    Someya, Akimasa; Sata, Makoto; Takeda, Kazuyo; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Ferrans, Victor J.; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2001-01-01

    A human cDNA encoding an 841-aa guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) for ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), named ARF-GEP100, which contains a Sec7 domain, a pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain, and an incomplete IQ-motif, was identified. On Northern blot analysis of human tissues, a ≈8-kb mRNA that hybridized with an ARF-GEP100 cDNA was abundant in peripheral blood leukocytes, brain, and spleen. ARF-GEP100 accelerated [35S]GTPγS binding to ARF1 (class I) and ARF5 (class II) 2- to 3-fold, and to ARF6 (class III) ca. 12-fold. The ARF-GEP100 Sec7 domain contains Asp543 and Met555, corresponding to residues associated with sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the fungal metabolite brefeldin A (BFA) in yeast Sec7, but also Phe535 and Ala536, associated with BFA-insensitivity. The PH-like domain differs greatly from those of other ARF GEPs in regions involved in phospholipid binding. Consistent with its structure, ARF-GEP100 activity was not affected by BFA or phospholipids. After subcellular fractionation of cultured T98G human glioblastoma cells, ARF6 was almost entirely in the crude membrane fraction, whereas ARF-GEP100, a 100-kDa protein detected with antipeptide antibodies, was cytosolic. On immunofluorescence microscopy, both proteins had a punctate pattern of distribution throughout the cells, with apparent colocalization only in peripheral areas. The coarse punctate distribution of EEA-1 in regions nearer the nucleus appeared to coincide with that of ARF-GEP100 in those areas. No similar coincidence of ARF-GEP100 with AP-1, AP-2, catenin, LAMP-1, or 58K was observed. The new human BFA-insensitive GEP may function with ARF6 in specific endocytic processes. PMID:11226253

  3. ADP ribosylation factor 1 is required for synaptic vesicle budding in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Faúndez, V; Horng, J T; Kelly, R B

    1997-08-11

    Carrier vesicle generation from donor membranes typically progresses through a GTP-dependent recruitment of coats to membranes. Here we explore the role of ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) 1, one of the GTP-binding proteins that recruit coats, in the production of neuroendocrine synaptic vesicles (SVs) from PC12 cell membranes. Brefeldin A (BFA) strongly and reversibly inhibited SV formation in vivo in three different PC12 cell lines expressing vesicle-associated membrane protein-T Antigen derivatives. Other membrane traffic events remained unaffected by the drug, and the BFA effects were not mimicked by drugs known to interfere with formation of other classes of vesicles. The involvement of ARF proteins in the budding of SVs was addressed in a cell-free reconstitution system (Desnos, C., L. Clift-O'Grady, and R.B. Kelly. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 130:1041-1049). A peptide spanning the effector domain of human ARF1 (2-17) and recombinant ARF1 mutated in its GTPase activity, both inhibited the formation of SVs of the correct size. During in vitro incubation in the presence of the mutant ARFs, the labeled precursor membranes acquired different densities, suggesting that the two ARF mutations block at different biosynthetic steps. Cell-free SV formation in the presence of a high molecular weight, ARF-depleted fraction from brain cytosol was significantly enhanced by the addition of recombinant myristoylated native ARF1. Thus, the generation of SVs from PC12 cell membranes requires ARF and uses its GTPase activity, probably to regulate coating phenomena.

  4. ADP Ribosylation Factor 1 Is Required for Synaptic Vesicle Budding in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Faúndez, Victor; Horng, Jim-Tong; Kelly, Regis B.

    1997-01-01

    Carrier vesicle generation from donor membranes typically progresses through a GTP-dependent recruitment of coats to membranes. Here we explore the role of ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) 1, one of the GTP-binding proteins that recruit coats, in the production of neuroendocrine synaptic vesicles (SVs) from PC12 cell membranes. Brefeldin A (BFA) strongly and reversibly inhibited SV formation in vivo in three different PC12 cell lines expressing vesicle-associated membrane protein–T Antigen derivatives. Other membrane traffic events remained unaffected by the drug, and the BFA effects were not mimicked by drugs known to interfere with formation of other classes of vesicles. The involvement of ARF proteins in the budding of SVs was addressed in a cell-free reconstitution system (Desnos, C., L. Clift-O'Grady, and R.B. Kelly. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 130:1041–1049). A peptide spanning the effector domain of human ARF1 (2–17) and recombinant ARF1 mutated in its GTPase activity, both inhibited the formation of SVs of the correct size. During in vitro incubation in the presence of the mutant ARFs, the labeled precursor membranes acquired different densities, suggesting that the two ARF mutations block at different biosynthetic steps. Cell-free SV formation in the presence of a high molecular weight, ARF-depleted fraction from brain cytosol was significantly enhanced by the addition of recombinant myristoylated native ARF1. Thus, the generation of SVs from PC12 cell membranes requires ARF and uses its GTPase activity, probably to regulate coating phenomena. PMID:9245782

  5. Effects of Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin on ADP-Ribosyltransferase Activity and Interaction with ADP-Ribosylation Factors

    PubMed Central

    A. Stevens, Linda; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), an oligomeric protein with one A subunit (LTA) and five B subunits, exerts its effects via the ADP-ribosylation of Gsα, a guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein that activates adenylyl cyclase. LTA also ADP-ribosylates simple guanidino compounds (e.g., arginine) and catalyzes its own auto-ADP-ribosylation. All LTA-catalyzed reactions are enhanced by ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Replacement of arginine-7 (R7K), valine-53 (V53D), serine-63 (S63K), valine 97 (V97K), or tyrosine-104 (Y104K) in LTA resulted in fully assembled but nontoxic proteins. S63K, V53D, and R7K are catalytic-site mutations, whereas V97K and Y104K are amino acid replacements adjacent to and outside of the catalytic site, respectively. The effects of mutagenesis were quantified by measuring ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (i.e., auto-ADP-ribosylation and ADP-ribosylagmatine synthesis) and interaction with ARF (i.e., inhibition of ARF-stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and effects of ARF on mutant auto-ADP-ribosylation). All mutants were inactive in the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay; however, auto-ADP-ribosylation in the presence of recombinant human ARF6 was detected, albeit much less than that of native LT (Y104K > V53D > V97K > R7K, S63K). Based on the lack of inhibition by free ADP-ribose, the observed auto-ADP-ribosylation activity was enzymatic and not due to the nonenzymatic addition of free ADP-ribose. V53D, S63K, and R7K were more effective than Y104K or V97K in blocking ARF stimulation of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase. Based on these data, it appears that ARF-binding and catalytic sites are not identical and that a region outside the NAD cleft may participate in the LTA-ARF interaction. PMID:9864224

  6. Structure of an ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1, from Entamoeba histolytica bound to Mg(2+)-GDP.

    PubMed

    Serbzhinskiy, Dmitry A; Clifton, Matthew C; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart L; Edwards, Thomas E; Myler, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amebiasis, a diarrheal disease which causes amoebic liver abscesses and amoebic colitis. Approximately 50 million people are infected worldwide with E. histolytica. With only 10% of infected people developing symptomatic amebiasis, there are still an estimated 100,000 deaths each year. Because of the emergence of resistant strains of the parasite, it is necessary to find a treatment which would be a proper response to this challenge. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is a member of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells; they generally associate with cell membranes and regulate vesicular traffic and intracellular signalling. The crystal structure of ARF1 from E. histolytica has been determined bound to magnesium and GDP at 1.8 Å resolution. Comparison with other structures of eukaryotic ARF proteins shows a highly conserved structure and supports the interswitch toggle mechanism of communicating the conformational state to partner proteins.

  7. ADP-ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) Bidirectionally Regulates Dendritic Spine Formation Depending on Neuronal Maturation and Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonju; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Joohyun; Kim, Minhyung; Lee, Boyoon; Hwang, Daehee; Chang, Sunghoe

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported conflicting results regarding the role of ARF6 in dendritic spine development, but no clear answer for the controversy has been suggested. We found that ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) either positively or negatively regulates dendritic spine formation depending on neuronal maturation and activity. ARF6 activation increased the spine formation in developing neurons, whereas it decreased spine density in mature neurons. Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that ARF6 activation in each stage leads to opposite patterns of expression of a subset of genes that are involved in neuronal morphology. ARF6-mediated Rac1 activation via the phospholipase D pathway is the coincident factor in both stages, but the antagonistic RhoA pathway becomes involved in the mature stage. Furthermore, blocking neuronal activity in developing neurons using tetrodotoxin or enhancing the activity in mature neurons using picrotoxin or chemical long term potentiation reversed the effect of ARF6 on each stage. Thus, activity-dependent dynamic changes in ARF6-mediated spine structures may play a role in structural plasticity of mature neurons. PMID:25605715

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: Two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Bobak, D.A.; Nightingale, M.S.; Murtagh, J.J.; Price, S.R.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M. )

    1989-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A){sup +} RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A){sup +} RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two, and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFS also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs.

  9. ADP-ribosylation of translation elongation factor 2 by diphtheria toxin in yeast inhibits translation and cell separation.

    PubMed

    Mateyak, Maria K; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2013-08-23

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) facilitates the movement of the peptidyl tRNA-mRNA complex from the A site of the ribosome to the P site during protein synthesis. ADP-ribosylation (ADP(R)) of eEF2 by bacterial toxins on a unique diphthamide residue inhibits its translocation activity, but the mechanism is unclear. We have employed a hormone-inducible diphtheria toxin (DT) expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which allows for the rapid induction of ADP(R)-eEF2 to examine the effects of DT in vivo. ADP(R) of eEF2 resulted in a decrease in total protein synthesis consistent with a defect in translation elongation. Association of eEF2 with polyribosomes, however, was unchanged upon expression of DT. Upon prolonged exposure to DT, cells with an abnormal morphology and increased DNA content accumulated. This observation was specific to DT expression and was not observed when translation elongation was inhibited by other methods. Examination of these cells by electron microscopy indicated a defect in cell separation following mitosis. These results suggest that expression of proteins late in the cell cycle is particularly sensitive to inhibition by ADP(R)-eEF2.

  10. Structure of an ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1, from Entamoeba histolytica bound to Mg2+–GDP

    PubMed Central

    Serbzhinskiy, Dmitry A.; Clifton, Matthew C.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart L.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Myler, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amebiasis, a diarrheal disease which causes amoebic liver abscesses and amoebic colitis. Approximately 50 million people are infected worldwide with E. histolytica. With only 10% of infected people developing symptomatic amebiasis, there are still an estimated 100 000 deaths each year. Because of the emergence of resistant strains of the parasite, it is necessary to find a treatment which would be a proper response to this challenge. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is a member of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells; they generally associate with cell membranes and regulate vesicular traffic and intracellular signalling. The crystal structure of ARF1 from E. histolytica has been determined bound to magnesium and GDP at 1.8 Å resolution. Comparison with other structures of eukaryotic ARF proteins shows a highly conserved structure and supports the interswitch toggle mechanism of communicating the conformational state to partner proteins. PMID:25945714

  11. The ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein Glo3p is involved in ER retrieval.

    PubMed

    Dogic, D; de Chassey, B; Pick, E; Cassel, D; Lefkir, Y; Hennecke, S; Cosson, P; Letourneur, F

    1999-05-01

    Retrograde transport of proteins from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been the subject of some interest in the recent past. Here a new thermosensitive yeast mutant defective in retrieval of dilysine-tagged proteins from the Golgi back to the endoplasmic reticulum was characterized. The ret4-1 mutant also exhibited a selective defect in forward ER-to-Golgi transport of some secreted proteins at the non-permissive temperature. The corresponding RET4 gene was found to encode Glo3p, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) specific for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF). In vitro, the Glo3 thermosensitive mutant showed a reduced ARF1-GAP activity. The Glo3 protein belongs to a family of zinc finger proteins that may include additional ARF-GAPs. Gene deletion experiments of other family members showed that only GLO3 deletion resulted in impaired retrieval of dilysine-tagged proteins back to the ER. These results demonstrate that Glo3p is the main ARF-GAP specifically involved in ER retrieval.

  12. Role of ARHGAP24 in ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6)-dependent Pseudopod Formation in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shota; Saito, Koji; Asami, Hisayo; Ohta, Yasutaka

    2017-09-01

    The small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) promotes carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton and formation of pseudopod that is regulated by RAC. RHO GTPase activating protein 24 (ARHGAP24), a RAC-specific GTPase activating protein, binds to activated ARF6 and is recruited to the plasma membrane. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate if ARHGAP24 is involved in the ARF6-mediated formation of pseudopods in breast carcinoma cells. The formation of pseudopods induced by activated ARF6 was monitored using MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. The effect of knockdown of endogenous ARHGAP24 by siRNA was examined. Knockdown of ARHGAP24 in MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cells increased the lifespan of pseudopods to retract, which resulted in increased length of pseudopods induced by activated ARF6. ARHGAP24 required a binding site of ARF6 to achieve ARF6-dependent actin remodeling. ARHGAP24 may regulate pseudopod formation downstream of activated ARF6 in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. [The structural characteristics, alternative splicing and genetic experession analysis of ADP-ribosylation-factor 1 (arf1) in cotton].

    PubMed

    Ren, Mao-Zhi; Chen, Quan-Jia; Zhang, Rui; Guo, San-Dui

    2004-08-01

    The full-length cDNA,DNA and promoter of ADP-ribosylation-factor 1 (arf1) was isolated from Gossypium hirsutum Y18 by means of isocaudarner inverse PCR (II-PCR) and rapid isolating cDNA 5' unknown sequence and promoter (RICUP) established in our lab. Results indicated that the gene is 4 360 bp in size, including seven exons and six introns. Interestingly, alterative splicing occurs at intron I. Differential processing of intron 1 yields three different transcripts with 1 026 bp, 1103 bp and 1 544 bp in sizes, respectively. Arf1 encodes 181 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that sequence upstream transcription initiation site of arf1 includes typical initiator, TATA box, CCAAT box, GC box and several forward and reverse repeat sequences. And typical promoter structures, such as AT-rich sequence and palindrome structure have been detected in the sequence downstream transcription initiation site. Southern blot analysis indicated that the gene has two copies in the genome of cotton. Northern blot confirmed the predominate expression of arf1 in reproductive organs of cotton, including bud, flower, fiber and boll. Also, the feature and character of arf1 and its promoter have been studied. This study will lay foundation for the other research on function of arf1 in the development of reproductive organs in cotton.

  14. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) Promotes Acrosomal Exocytosis by Modulating Lipid Turnover and Rab3A Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Pelletán, Leonardo E.; Suhaiman, Laila; Vaquer, Cintia C.; Bustos, Matías A.; De Blas, Gerardo A.; Vitale, Nicolas; Mayorga, Luis S.; Belmonte, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated secretion is a central issue for the specific function of many cells; for instance, mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis is essential for egg fertilization. ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) is a small GTPase implicated in exocytosis, but its downstream effectors remain elusive in this process. We combined biochemical, functional, and microscopy-based methods to show that ARF6 is present in human sperm, localizes to the acrosomal region, and is required for calcium and diacylglycerol-induced exocytosis. Results from pulldown assays show that ARF6 exchanges GDP for GTP in sperm challenged with different exocytic stimuli. Myristoylated and guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPγS)-loaded ARF6 (active form) added to permeabilized sperm induces acrosome exocytosis even in the absence of extracellular calcium. We explore the ARF6 signaling cascade that promotes secretion. We demonstrate that ARF6 stimulates a sperm phospholipase D activity to produce phosphatidic acid and boosts the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. We present direct evidence showing that active ARF6 increases phospholipase C activity, causing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent intra-acrosomal calcium release. We show that active ARF6 increases the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab3A, a prerequisite for secretion. We propose that exocytic stimuli activate ARF6, which is required for acrosomal calcium efflux and the assembly of the membrane fusion machinery. This report highlights the physiological importance of ARF6 as a key factor for human sperm exocytosis and fertilization. PMID:25713146

  15. Early life stage trimethyltin exposure induces ADP-ribosylation factor expression and perturbs the vascular system in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Truong, Lisa; La Du, Jane; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lin, Kuanfei; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is an organotin contaminant, widely detected in aqueous environments, posing potential human and environmental risks. In this study, we utilized the zebrafish model to investigate the impact of transient TMT exposure on developmental progression, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular development. Embryos were waterborne exposed to a wide TMT concentration range from 8 to 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). The TMT concentration that led to mortality in 50% of the embryos (LC50) at 96 hpf was 8.2 μM; malformations in 50% of the embryos (EC50) was 2.8 μM. The predominant response observed in surviving embryos was pericardial edema. Additionally, using the Tg (fli1a: EGFP) y1 transgenic zebrafish line to non-invasively monitor vascular development, TMT exposure led to distinct disarrangements in the vascular system. The most susceptible developmental stage to TMT exposure was between 48–72 hpf. High density whole genome microarrays were used to identify the early transcriptional changes following TMT exposure from 48 to 60 hpf or 72 hpf. In total, 459 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold (P < 0.05) by TMT compared to control. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, it was revealed that the transcripts misregulated by TMT exposure were clustered in numerous categories including metabolic and cardiovascular disease, cellular function, cell death, molecular transport, and physiological development. In situ localization of highly elevated transcripts revealed intense staining of ADP-ribosylation factors arf3 and arf5 in the head, trunk, and tail regions. When arf5 expression was blocked by morpholinos, the zebrafish did not display the prototypical TMT-induced vascular deficits, indicating that the induction of arf5 was necessary for TMT-induced vascular toxicity. PMID:23000284

  16. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The myristoylated amino terminus of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 is a phospholipid- and GTP-sensitive switch.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, P A; Terui, T; Sturch, S; Fales, H M; Ferrige, A G; Kahn, R A

    1995-06-16

    ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) is an essential N-myristoylated 21-kDa GTP-binding protein with activities that include the regulation of membrane traffic and phospholipase D activity. Both the N terminus of the protein and the N-myristate bound to glycine 2 have previously been shown to be essential to the function of Arf in cells. We show that the bound nucleotide affects the conformation of either the N terminus or residues of Arf1 that are in direct contact with the N terminus. This was demonstrated by examining the effects of mutations in this N-terminal domain on guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) and GDP binding and dissociation kinetics. Arf1 mutants, lacking 13 or 17 residues from the N terminus or mutated at residues 3-7, had a greater affinity for GTP gamma S and a lower affinity for GDP than did the wild-type protein. As the N terminus is required for interactions with target proteins, we conclude that the N terminus of Arf1 is a GTP-sensitive effector domain. When Arf1 was acylated, the GTP-dependent conformational changes were codependent on added phospholipids. In the absence of phospholipids, myristoylated Arf1 has a lower affinity for GTP gamma S than for GDP, and in the presence of phospholipids, the myristoylated protein has a greater affinity for GTP gamma S than for GDP. Thus, N-myristoylation is a critical component in the construction of this phospholipid- and GTP-dependent switch.

  18. Structural basis for the inhibitory effect of brefeldin A on guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins for ADP-ribosylation factors

    PubMed Central

    Sata, Makoto; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    1999-01-01

    Protein secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicular trafficking system is initiated by the binding of ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) to donor membranes, leading to recruitment of coatomer, bud formation, and eventual vesicle release. ARFs are ≈20-kDa GTPases that are active with bound GTP and inactive with GDP bound. Conversion of ARF-GDP to ARF-GTP is regulated by guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins. All known ARF guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins contain a Sec7 domain of ≈200 amino acids that includes the active site and fall into two classes that differ in molecular size and susceptibility to inhibition by the fungal metabolite brefeldin A (BFA). To determine the structural basis of BFA sensitivity, chimeric molecules were constructed by using sequences from the Sec7 domains of BFA-sensitive yeast Sec7 protein (ySec7d) and the insensitive human cytohesin-1 (C-1Sec7). Based on BFA inhibition of the activities of these molecules with recombinant yeast ARF2 as substrate, the Asp965–Met975 sequence in ySec7d was shown to be responsible for BFA sensitivity. A C-1Sec7 mutant in which Ser199, Asn204, and Pro209 were replaced with the corresponding ySec7d amino acids, Asp965, Gln970, and Met975, exhibited BFA sensitivity similar to that of recombinant ySec7d (rySec7d). Single replacement in C-1Sec7 of Ser199 or Pro209 resulted in partial inhibition by BFA, whereas replacement of Gln970 in ySec7d with Asn (as found in C-1Sec7) had no effect. As predicted, the double C-1Sec7 mutant with S199D and P209M was BFA-sensitive, demonstrating that Asp965 and Met975 in ySec7d are major molecular determinants of BFA sensitivity. PMID:10077583

  19. Cholix Toxin, a Novel ADP-ribosylating Factor from Vibrio cholerae

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Rene; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Kimber, Matthew S.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2008-07-15

    The ADP-ribosyltransferases are a class of enzymes that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing diseases in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report the characterization of a novel toxin from Vibrio cholerae, which we call cholix toxin. The toxin is active against mammalian cells (IC50 = 4.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml) and crustaceans (Artemia nauplii LD50 = 10 {+-} 2 {mu}g/ml). Here we show that this toxin is the third member of the diphthamide-specific class of ADP-ribose transferases and that it possesses specific ADP-ribose transferase activity against ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 2. We also describe the high resolution crystal structures of the multidomain toxin and its catalytic domain at 2.1- and 1.25-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The new structural data show that cholix toxin possesses the necessary molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm, and inhibition of protein synthesis by specific modification of elongation factor 2. The crystal structures also provide important insight into the structural basis for activation of toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. These results indicate that cholix toxin may be an important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae that likely plays a significant role in the survival of the organism in an aquatic environment.

  20. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yukihide; Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis; Maturi, Varun; Tsubakihara, Yutaro; Hottiger, Michael O.; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    We previously established a mechanism of negative regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling mediated by the nuclear ADP-ribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the deribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), which dynamically regulate ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 and Smad4, two central signaling proteins of the pathway. Here we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway can also be regulated by the opposing actions of PARP1 and PARG. PARG positively contributes to BMP signaling and forms physical complexes with Smad5 and Smad4. The positive role PARG plays during BMP signaling can be neutralized by PARP1, as demonstrated by experiments where PARG and PARP1 are simultaneously silenced. In contrast to PARG, ectopic expression of PARP1 suppresses BMP signaling, whereas silencing of endogenous PARP1 enhances signaling and BMP-induced differentiation. The two major Smad proteins of the BMP pathway, Smad1 and Smad5, interact with PARP1 and can be ADP-ribosylated in vitro, whereas PARG causes deribosylation. The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. PMID:27129221

  1. Nuclear ADP-Ribosylation Reactions in Mammalian Cells: Where Are We Today and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed Central

    Hassa, Paul O.; Haenni, Sandra S.; Elser, Michael; Hottiger, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    Since poly-ADP ribose was discovered over 40 years ago, there has been significant progress in research into the biology of mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions. During the last decade, it became clear that ADP-ribosylation reactions play important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inter- and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair pathways and maintenance of genomic stability, telomere dynamics, cell differentiation and proliferation, and necrosis and apoptosis. ADP-ribosylation reactions are phylogenetically ancient and can be classified into four major groups: mono-ADP-ribosylation, poly-ADP-ribosylation, ADP-ribose cyclization, and formation of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. In the human genome, more than 30 different genes coding for enzymes associated with distinct ADP-ribosylation activities have been identified. This review highlights the recent advances in the rapidly growing field of nuclear mono-ADP-ribosylation and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions and the distinct ADP-ribosylating enzyme families involved in these processes, including the proposed family of novel poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-like mono-ADP-ribose transferases and the potential mono-ADP-ribosylation activities of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases. A special focus is placed on the known roles of distinct mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions in physiological processes, such as mitosis, cellular differentiation and proliferation, telomere dynamics, and aging, as well as “programmed necrosis” (i.e., high-mobility-group protein B1 release) and apoptosis (i.e., apoptosis-inducing factor shuttling). The proposed molecular mechanisms involved in these processes, such as signaling, chromatin modification (i.e., “histone code”), and remodeling of chromatin structure (i.e., DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation, and insulator function), are described. A potential cross talk between nuclear

  2. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Acts as an Allosteric Activator for the Folded but not Disordered Cholera Toxin A1 Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Taylor, Michael; Jobling, Michael G.; Burress, Helen; Yang, ZhiJie; Serrano, Albert; Holmes, Randall K.; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Summary The catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1) has a disordered structure at 37°C. An interaction with host factors must therefore place CTA1 in a folded conformation for the modification of its Gsα target which resides in a lipid raft environment. Host ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) act as in vitro allosteric activators of CTA1, but the molecular events of this process are not fully characterized. Isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy monitored ARF6-induced structural changes to CTA1, which were correlated to changes in CTA1 activity. We found ARF6 prevents the thermal disordering of structured CTA1 and stimulates the activity of stabilized CTA1 over a range of temperatures. Yet ARF6 alone did not promote the refolding of disordered CTA1 to an active state. Instead, lipid rafts shifted disordered CTA1 to a folded conformation with a basal level of activity that could be further stimulated by ARF6. Thus, ARF alone is unable to activate disordered CTA1 at physiological temperature: additional host factors such as lipid rafts place CTA1 in the folded conformation required for its ARF-mediated activation. Interaction with ARF is required for in vivo toxin activity, as enzymatically active CTA1 mutants that cannot be further stimulated by ARF6 fail to intoxicate cultured cells. PMID:25257027

  3. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Mammalian Myoblast Fusion through Phospholipase D1 and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Anne-Sophie; Enjalbert, Sandrine; Comunale, Franck; Bodin, Stéphane; Vitale, Nicolas; Charrasse, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Myoblast fusion is an essential step during myoblast differentiation that remains poorly understood. M-cadherin–dependent pathways that signal through Rac1 GTPase activation via the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Trio are important for myoblast fusion. The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)6 GTPase has been shown to bind to Trio and to regulate Rac1 activity. Moreover, Loner/GEP100/BRAG2, a GEF of ARF6, has been involved in mammalian and Drosophila myoblast fusion, but the specific role of ARF6 has been not fully analyzed. Here, we show that ARF6 activity is increased at the time of myoblast fusion and is required for its implementation in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Specifically, at the onset of myoblast fusion, ARF6 is associated with the multiproteic complex that contains M-cadherin, Trio, and Rac1 and accumulates at sites of myoblast fusion. ARF6 silencing inhibits the association of Trio and Rac1 with M-cadherin. Moreover, we demonstrate that ARF6 regulates myoblast fusion through phospholipase D (PLD) activation and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate production. Together, these data indicate that ARF6 is a critical regulator of C2C12 myoblast fusion and participates in the regulation of PLD activities that trigger both phospholipids production and actin cytoskeleton reorganization at fusion sites. PMID:20505075

  4. ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p, for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.

  5. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking. PMID:27622210

  6. Inhibition of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 suppresses proliferation and reduces tumor cell invasion in CaSki human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengjie; Liu, Yan; Li, Yalin; Li, Guancheng

    2010-12-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 (ARL6IP1) is an apoptotic regulator. To investigate the role of ARL6IP1 in human cervical cancer progression, we designed and used short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to inhibit ARL6IP1 expression in CaSki cells and validated its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. Changes in gene expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or western blot. Down-regulation of ARL6IP1 expression by infection with ARL6IP1-specific RNAi-expressing vector inhibited CaSki cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, down-regulation of ARL6IP1 expression arrested CaSki cell cycling at the G0/G1 phase and mitigated CaSki cell migration, determined by wound healing assays. ARL6IP1 was involved in cervical cancer cell growth, cell cycle progression, and invasion through regulation of gene expression, such as Caspase-3, Caspase-9, p53, TAp63, NF-κB, MAPK, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL, suggesting that ARL6IP1 could have important implications in cervical cancer biology. Our findings illustrate the biological significance of ARL6IP1 in cervical cancer progression, and provide novel evidence that ARL6IP1 may serve as a therapeutic target in the prevention of human cervical cancer.

  7. Recruitment of coat-protein-complex proteins on to phagosomal membranes is regulated by a brefeldin A-sensitive ADP-ribosylation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Berón, W; Mayorga, L S; Colombo, M I; Stahl, P D

    2001-01-01

    Particle internalization in macrophages is followed by a complex maturation process. We have previously observed that proteins bound to phagocytosed particles are sorted from phagosomes into a heterogeneous population of vesicles that fuse with endosomes. However, the mechanism and the protein machinery involved in the formation of these phagosome-derived vesicles are largely unknown. It has been shown that vesicles coated with coat protein complex type I (COPI) have a role in both secretion and endocytosis. To address the possibility that COPI proteins might participate in the formation of phagosome-derived vesicles we studied the recruitment of beta-COP to highly purified phagosomes. The binding of beta-COP to phagosomal membranes was regulated by nucleotides and inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA). An ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) mutant defective in GTP hydrolysis supported the binding of beta-COP to phagosomes independently of added nucleotide. AlF(4) and Gbetagamma subunits, agents known to modulate heterotrimeric G-protein activity, were tested in the beta-COP binding assay. AlF(4) increased beta-COP association, whereas binding was inhibited by the addition of Gbetagamma subunits. Our results suggest that COP proteins are recruited to phagosomal membranes by a mechanism that involves heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins and a BFA-sensitive ARF. In addition, our findings indicate that COPI proteins are involved in the recycling of components from phagosomes to the cell surface. PMID:11284728

  8. Discolored1 (DSC1) is an ADP-Ribosylation Factor-GTPase Activating Protein Required to Maintain Differentiation of Maize Kernel Structures

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Suzuki, Masaharu; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The embryo and endosperm are the products of double fertilization and comprise the clonally distinct products of angiosperm seed development. Recessive mutations in the maize gene discolored1 (dsc1) condition inviable seed that are defective in both embryo and endosperm development. Here, detailed phenotypic analyses illustrate that discolored mutant kernels are able to establish, but fail to maintain, differentiated embryo, and endosperm structures. Development of the discolored mutant embryo and endosperm is normal albeit delayed, prior to the abortion and subsequent degeneration of all differentiated kernel structures. Using a genomic fragment that was previously isolated by transposon tagging, the full length dsc1 transcript is identified and shown to encode an ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein (ARF-GAP) that co-localizes with the trans-Golgi network/early endosomes and the plasma membrane during transient expression assays in N. benthamiana leaves. DSC1 function during endomembrane trafficking and the maintenance of maize kernel differentiation is discussed. PMID:22666226

  9. ADP-ribosylation factor6 regulates both [3H]-noradrenaline and [14C]-glutamate exocytosis through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Bobich, Joseph A

    2004-10-01

    GTP phosphohydrolase (cell regulating) (EC 3.6.1.47, ADP-ribosylation factor6, ARF6) has been shown to play an important role in different steps of membrane trafficking. It also regulates chromaffin granule exocytosis through phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase (EC 3.1.4.14, PLD) activation. In this study, the role of ARF6 in neurotransmitter release from both dense-core granules (DCGs) and synaptic vesicles (SVs) in rat brain cortex nerve endings was investigated. We observed that synaptosomal ARF6 is largely particulate but moves to a less easily pelleted compartment upon nerve ending stimulation. We also found that direct inhibition of ARF6 by a specific antibody or interference with ARF6 downstream effects by a myristoylated N-terminal ARF6 peptide both significantly decreased both [3H]-noradrenaline and [14C]-glutamate exocytosis. Addition of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) partially or completely restored exocytosis. These findings suggest that ARF6 plays important regulatory roles for both DCG and SV exocytosis by activating PLD and ATP:1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate 5-phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.68, PI4P-5K) to enhance PIP2 synthesis and nerve ending membrane trafficking.

  10. ADP ribosylation factor 6 binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-containing vesicles creates defects in the bilayer structure: an electron spin resonance study.

    PubMed Central

    Ge, M; Cohen, J S; Brown, H A; Freed, J H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of binding of myristoylated ADP ribosylation factor 6 (myr-ARF6), an activator of phospholipase D (PLD), to a model membrane were investigated using an electron spin resonance (ESR) labeling technique. Initial studies were conducted in vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP(2)), and cholesterol. Recombinant ARF6 binding significantly enhances defects in both the headgroup and acyl-chain regions of the membrane, which are revealed by the emergence of sharp components in the spectra from a headgroup label, 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy-choline (DPPTC), and a chain label, 10PC, after myr-ARF6 binding. Binding of non-myristoylated ARF6 (non-ARF6) shows markedly reduced effects. Interestingly, no change in spectra from DPPTC was observed upon myr-ARF6 binding when PIP(2) in the vesicles was replaced by other negatively charged lipids, including phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol, even when normalized for charge. The production of the sharp peak appears to be a specific event, because another GTP binding protein, CDC42, which binds PIP(2) and activates PLD, fails to induce changes in vesicle structure. These results suggest a previously unappreciated role for ARF in mediating a protein/lipid interaction that produces defects in lipid bilayers. This function may serve as an initial event in destabilizing membrane structure for subsequent membrane fusion or biogenesis of vesicles. PMID:11463641

  11. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 expression regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schlienger, Sabrina; Campbell, Shirley; Pasquin, Sarah; Gaboury, Louis; Claing, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic capacities are fundamental features of tumor malignancy. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 1 has emerged as a key regulator of invasion in breast cancer cells. However, the importance of this GTPase, in vivo, remains to be demonstrated. We report that ARF1 is highly expressed in breast tumors of the most aggressive and advanced subtypes. Furthermore, we show that lowered expression of ARF1 impairs growth of primary tumors and inhibits lung metastasis in a murine xenograft model. To understand how ARF1 contributes to invasiveness, we used a poorly invasive breast cancer cell line, MCF7 (ER+), and examined the effects of overexpressing ARF1 to levels similar to that found in invasive cell lines. We demonstrate that ARF1 overexpression leads to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, ARF1 controls cell–cell adhesion through ß-catenin and E-cadherin, oncogenic Ras activation and expression of EMT inducers. We further show that ARF1 overexpression enhances invasion, proliferation and resistance to a chemotherapeutic agent. In vivo, ARF1 overexpressing MCF7 cells are able to form more metastases to the lung. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ARF1 is a molecular switch for cancer progression and thus suggest that limiting the expression/activation of this GTPase could help improve outcome for breast cancer patients. PMID:26908458

  12. ADP-ribosylation factor, a small GTP-binding protein, is required for binding of the coatomer protein beta-COP to Golgi membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, J G; Cassel, D; Kahn, R A; Klausner, R D

    1992-01-01

    The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that reversibly associates with Golgi membranes and is implicated in modulating Golgi membrane transport. The association of beta-COP, a component of coatomer, with Golgi membranes is enhanced by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]), a nonhydrolyzable analogue of GTP, and by a mixture of aluminum and fluoride ions (Al/F). Here we show that the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is required for the binding of beta-COP. Thus, beta-COP contained in a coatomer fraction that has been resolved from ARF does not bind to Golgi membranes, whereas binding can be reconstituted by the addition of recombinant ARF. Furthermore, an N-terminal peptide of ARF, which blocks ARF binding to Golgi membranes, inhibits GTP[gamma S]- as well as the Al/F-enhanced binding of beta-COP. We show that Golgi coat protein binding involves a sequential reaction where an initial interaction of ARF and GTP[gamma S] with the membrane allows subsequent binding of beta-COP to take place in the absence of free ARF and GTP[gamma S]. The fungal metabolite brefeldin A, which is known to prevent the association of coat proteins with Golgi membrane, is shown to exert this effect by interfering with the initial ARF-membrane interaction step. Images PMID:1631136

  13. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Mitsuko; Fujimori, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    Cancer develops through diverse genetic, epigenetic and other changes, so-called 'multi-step carcinogenesis', and each cancer harbors different alterations and properties. Here in this article we review how poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in multi-step and diverse pathways of carcinogenesis. Involvement of poly- and mono-ADP-ribosylation in carcinogenesis has been studied at molecular and cellular levels, and further by animal models and human genetic approaches. PolyADP-ribosylation acts in DNA damage repair response and maintenance mechanisms of genomic stability. Several DNA repair pathways, including base-excision repair and double strand break repair pathways, involve PARP and PARG functions. These care-taker functions of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation suggest that polyADP-ribosyation may mainly act in a tumor suppressive manner because genomic instability caused by defective DNA repair response could serve as a driving force for tumor progression, leading to invasion, metastasis and relapse of cancer. On the other hand, the new concept of 'synthetic lethality by PARP inhibition' suggests the significance of PARP activities for survival of cancer cells that harbor defects in DNA repair. Accumulating evidence has revealed that some PARP family molecules are involved in various signaling cascades other than DNA repair, including epigenetic and transcriptional regulations, inflammation/immune response and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation both promotes and suppresses carcinogenic processes depending on the conditions. Expanding understanding of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation suggests that strategies to achieve cancer prevention targeting poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation for genome protection against life-long exposure to environmental carcinogens and endogenous carcinogenic stimuli.

  14. Selective amplification of an mRNA and related pseudogene for a human ADP-ribosylation factor, a guanine nucleotide-dependent protein activator of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, L.; Murtagh, J.J.; Newman, K.B.; Tsai, Su-Chen; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M. )

    1990-03-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are {approx}20-kDa proteins that act as GTP-dependent allosteric activators of cholera toxin. With deoxyinosine-containing degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved GTP-binding domains in ARFs, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify simultaneously from human DNA portions of three ARF genes that include codons for 102 amino acids, with intervening sequences. Amplification products that differed in size because of differences in intron sizes were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. One amplified DNA contained no introns and had a sequence different from those of known AFRs. Based on this sequence, selective oligonucleotide probes were prepared and used to isolate clone {Psi}ARF 4, a putative ARF pseudogene, from a human genomic library in {lambda} phage EMBL3. Reverse transcription-PCR was then used to clone from human poly(A){sup +} RNA the cDNA corresponding to the expressed homolog of {Psi}ARF 4, referred to as human ARF 4. It appears that {Psi}ARF 4 arose during human evolution by integration of processed ARF 4 mRNA into the genome. Human ARF 4 differs from previously identified mammalian ARFs 1, 2, and 3. Hybridization of ARF 4-specific oligonucleotide probes with human, bovine, and rat RNA revealed a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA, which was clearly distinguished from the 1.9-kilobase mRNA for ARF 1 in these tissues. The PCR provides a powerful tool for investigating diversity in this and other multigene families, especially with primers targeted at domains believed to have functional significance.

  15. The family of bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K M; Barbieri, J T

    1995-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria utilize a variety of virulence factors that contribute to the clinical manifestation of their pathogenesis. Bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins (bAREs) represent one family of virulence factors that exert their toxic effects by transferring the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD onto specific eucaryotic target proteins. The observations that some bAREs ADP-ribosylate eucaryotic proteins that regulate signal transduction, like the heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins and the low-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins, has extended interest in bAREs beyond the bacteriology laboratory. Molecular studies have shown that bAREs possess little primary amino acid homology and have diverse quaternary structure-function organization. Underlying this apparent diversity, biochemical and crystallographic studies have shown that several bAREs have conserved active-site structures and possess a conserved glutamic acid within their active sites. PMID:7704894

  16. Association between epidermal growth factor receptor amplification and ADP-ribosylation factor 1 methylation in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    López-Ginés, Concha; Navarro, Lara; Muñoz-Hidalgo, Lisandra; Buso, Enrique; Morales, José Manuel; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Gregori-Romero, Mariela; Megías, Javier; Roldán, Pedro; Segura-Sabater, Remedios; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Monleón, Daniel; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent and most malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Previously, it has been found that both genetic and epigenetic factors may play critical roles in its etiology and prognosis. In addition, it has been found that the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) is frequently over-expressed and amplified in primary GBs. Here, we assessed the promoter methylation status of 10 genes relevant to GB and explored associations between these findings and the EGFR gene amplification status. Tumor samples were obtained from 36 patients with primary GBs. In addition, 6 control specimens were included from patients who were operated for diseases other than brain tumors. The amplification status of the EGFR gene, and its deletion mutant EGFRvIII, were evaluated using FISH and MLPA, respectively. The IDH1/2 gene mutation status was verified using Sanger sequencing. A commercial DNA methylation kit was used to assess the promoter methylation status of 10 pre-selected genes. Metabolic profiles were measured using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The EGFR and ARF1 mRNA expression levels were quantified using qRT-PCR. Of the 10 genes analyzed, we found that only ARF1 promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with EGFR gene amplification. ARF1 is a GTPase that is involved in vesicle trafficking and the Golgi apparatus. Subsequent tumor metabolism measurements revealed a positive association between EGFR amplification and different membrane precursors and methyl-donor metabolites. Finally, we found that EGFR gene amplifications were associated with distinct tumor infiltration patterns, thus representing a putative novel functional association between EGFR gene amplification and ARF1 gene promoter methylation in GB. The results reported here provide a basis for a new hypotheses connecting EGFR gene amplification in GB cells with ARF1 gene promoter methylation, vesicle trafficking, membrane turnover and tumor metabolism. The mechanism

  17. Characterization of ADP ribosylation factor 1 gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda and its immune response to pathogens challenge and ammonia-N stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping

    2016-08-01

    ADP ribosylation factors (Arf), as highly conserved small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, participates in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Arf1 (designated EcArf1) was cloned from Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcArf1 was 1428 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 549 bp, encoding a 182 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 20.69 kDa and estimated isoelectric point was 7.24. Sequence analysis revealed that the conserved Arf protein family signatures were identified in EcArf1. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcArf1 shared high identity (95%-98%) with that of other species and clustered together with Arf1 of other shrimp in the NJ phylogenetic tree, indicating that EcArf1 should be a member of the Arf1 family. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcArf1 was expressed in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscle, ovary, intestine, stomach and heart, and the most abundant level was in hemocytes and gills, which were also the two main target tissues of pathogen infection and environmental stress. After Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge, EcArf1 transcripts level significantly increased in hemocytes and hepatopancreas at 3 h and 6 h, respectively. The expression of EcArf1 in hemocytes and hepatopancreas significantly up-regulated at 12 h and 6 h respectively, and down-regulated at 72 h and 48 h, respectively. EcArf1 expression in hepatopancreas and gills both significantly increased at 6 h and decreased at 24 h under ammonia-N stress. The results suggested that EcArf1 might be involved in immune responses to pathogens (V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV) challenge and ammonia-N stress in E. carinicauda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of the GTP-binding and GTPase-activating domains of ARD1 involves the effector region of the ADP-ribosylation factor domain.

    PubMed

    Vitale, N; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1997-02-14

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and members of the Ras superfamily, originally identified and purified by their ability to enhance the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and more recently recognized as critical participants in vesicular trafficking pathways and phospholipase D activation. ARD1 is a 64-kDa protein with an 18-kDa carboxyl-terminal ARF domain (p3) and a 46-kDa amino-terminal extension (p5) that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. Using recombinant proteins, we showed that p5, the amino-terminal domain of ARD1, stimulates the GTPase activity of p3, the ARF domain, and appears to be the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) component of this bifunctional protein, whereas in other members of the Ras superfamily a separate GAP molecule interacts with the effector region of the GTP-binding protein. p5 stimulated the GTPase activity of p3 but not of ARF1, which differs from p3 in several amino acids in the effector domain. After substitution of 7 amino acids from p3 in the appropriate position in ARF1, the chimeric protein ARF1(39-45p3) bound to p5, which increased its GTPase activity. Specifically, after Gly40 and Thr45 in the putative effector domain of ARF1 were replaced with the equivalent Asp and Pro, respectively, from p3, functional interaction of the chimeric ARF1 with p5 was increased. Thus, Asp25 and Pro30 of the ARF domain (p3) of ARD1 are involved in its functional and physical interaction with the GTPase-activating (p5) domain of ARD1. After deletion of the amino-terminal 15 amino acids from ARF1(39-45p3), its interaction with p5 was essentially equivalent to that of p3, suggesting that the amino terminus of ARF1(39-45p3) may interfere with binding to p5. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the GAP domain of ARD1 interacts with the effector region of the ARF domain and thereby stimulates GTP hydrolysis.

  19. The role of ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Alasdair R.; Banos-Pinero, Benito; Paschke, Peggy; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ariza, Antonio; Day, Joseph; Emrich, Mehera; Leys, David; Ponting, Chris P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) has a well-established role in DNA strand break repair by promoting enrichment of repair factors at damage sites through ADP-ribose interaction domains. Here, we exploit the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium to uncover a role for ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair and redundancy of this pathway with non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In silico searches were used to identify a protein that contains a permutated macrodomain (which we call aprataxin/APLF-and-PNKP-like protein; APL). Structural analysis reveals that this permutated macrodomain retains features associated with ADP-ribose interactions and that APL is capable of binding poly(ADP-ribose) through this macrodomain. APL is enriched in chromatin in response to cisplatin treatment, an agent that induces DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). This is dependent on the macrodomain of APL and the ART Adprt2, indicating a role for ADP-ribosylation in the cellular response to cisplatin. Although adprt2− cells are sensitive to cisplatin, ADP-ribosylation is evident in these cells owing to redundant signalling by the double-strand break (DSB)-responsive ART Adprt1a, promoting NHEJ-mediated repair. These data implicate ADP-ribosylation in DNA ICL repair and identify that NHEJ can function to resolve this form of DNA damage in the absence of Adprt2. PMID:27587838

  20. Ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins are high affinity targets for ADP-ribosylation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS.

    PubMed

    Maresso, Anthony W; Baldwin, Michael R; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2004-09-10

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS is a bifunctional type III-secreted cytotoxin. The N terminus (amino acids 96-233) encodes a GTPase-activating protein activity, whereas the C terminus (amino acids 234-453) encodes a factor-activating ExoS-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The GTPase-activating protein activity inactivates the Rho GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 in cultured cells and in vitro, whereas the ADP-ribosylation by ExoS is poly-substrate-specific and includes Ras as an early target for ADP-ribosylation. Infection of HeLa cells with P. aeruginosa producing a GTPase-activating protein-deficient form of ExoS rounded cells, indicating the ADP-ribosyltransferase domain alone is sufficient to elicit cytoskeletal changes. Examination of substrates modified by type III-delivered ExoS identified a 70-kDa protein as an early and predominant target for ADP-ribosylation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy identified this protein as moesin, a member of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family of proteins. ExoS ADP-ribosylated recombinant moesin at a linear velocity that was 5-fold faster and with a K(m) that was 2 orders of magnitude lower than Ras. Moesin homologs ezrin and radixin were also ADP-ribosylated, indicating the ERMs collectively represent high affinity targets of ExoS. Type III delivered ExoS ADP-ribosylated moesin and ezrin (and/or radixin) in cultured HeLa cells. The ERM proteins contribute to cytoskeleton dynamics, and the ability of ExoS to ADP-ribosylate the ERM proteins links ADP-ribosylation with the cytoskeletal changes associated with ExoS intoxication.

  1. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 protein regulates trypsinogen activation via organellar trafficking of procathepsin B protein and autophagic maturation in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Orlichenko, Lidiya; Stolz, Donna B; Noel, Pawan; Behari, Jaideep; Liu, Shiguang; Singh, Vijay P

    2012-07-13

    Several studies have suggested that autophagy might play a deleterious role in acute pancreatitis via intra-acinar activation of digestive enzymes. The prototype for this phenomenon is cathepsin B-mediated trypsin generation. To determine the organellar basis of this process, we investigated the subcellular distribution of the cathepsin B precursor, procathepsin B. We found that procathepsin B is enriched in Golgi-containing microsomes, suggesting a role for the ADP-ribosylation (ARF)-dependent trafficking of cathepsin B. Indeed, caerulein treatment increased processing of procathepsin B, whereas a known ARF inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) prevented this. Similar treatment did not affect processing of procathepsin L. BFA-mediated ARF1 inhibition resulted in reduced cathepsin B activity and consequently reduced trypsinogen activation. However, formation of light chain 3 (LC3-II) was not affected, suggesting that BFA did not prevent autophagy induction. Instead, sucrose density gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy showed that BFA arrested caerulein-induced autophagosomal maturation. Therefore, ARF1-dependent trafficking of procathepsin B and the maturation of autophagosomes results in cathepsin B-mediated trypsinogen activation induced by caerulein.

  2. Progress in the function and regulation of ADP-Ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Hottiger, Michael O; Boothby, Mark; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Lüscher, Bernhard; Martin, Niall M B; Plummer, Ruth; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Ziegler, Mathias

    2011-05-24

    Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a protein posttranslational modification that is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs), using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as a substrate. Mono-ribosylation can be extended into polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR). Poly(ADP-ribosyl)polymerase (PARP) 1, the best-characterized cellular enzyme catalyzing this process, is the prototypical member of a family of mono- and poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. The physiological consequences of ADP-ribosylation are inadequately understood. PARP2010, the 18th International Conference on ADP-Ribosylation, attracted scientists from all over the world to Zurich, Switzerland. Highlights from this meeting include promising clinical trials with PARP inhibitors and new insights into cell, structural, and developmental biology of ARTs and the (glyco)hydrolase proteins that catalyze de-ADP-ribosylation of mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylated proteins. Moreover, potential links to the NAD-dependent sirtuin family were explored on the basis of a shared dependence on cellular NAD(+) concentrations and the relationship of ADP-ribosylation with intermediary metabolism and cellular energetics.

  3. Quantitative site-specific ADP-ribosylation profiling of DNA-dependent PARPs.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Ethier, Chantal; Defoy, Daniel; Bourassa, Sylvie; Langelier, Marie-France; Riccio, Amanda A; Pascal, John M; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Droit, Arnaud; Poirier, Guy G

    2015-06-01

    An important feature of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) is their ability to readily undergo automodification upon activation. Although a growing number of substrates were found to be poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated, including histones and several DNA damage response factors, PARPs themselves are still considered as the main acceptors of poly(ADP-ribose). By monitoring spectral counts of specific hydroxamic acid signatures generated after the conversion of the ADP-ribose modification onto peptides by hydroxylamine hydrolysis, we undertook a thorough mass spectrometry mapping of the glutamate and aspartate ADP-ribosylation sites onto automodified PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARP-3. Thousands of hydroxamic acid-conjugated peptides were identified with high confidence and ranked based on their spectral count. This semi-quantitative approach allowed us to locate the preferentially targeted residues in DNA-dependent PARPs. In contrast to what has been reported in the literature, automodification of PARP-1 is not predominantly targeted towards its BRCT domain. Our results show that interdomain linker regions that connect the BRCT to the WGR module and the WGR to the PRD domain undergo prominent ADP-ribosylation during PARP-1 automodification. We also found that PARP-1 efficiently automodifies the D-loop structure within its own catalytic fold. Interestingly, additional major ADP-ribosylation sites were identified in functional domains of PARP-1, including all three zinc fingers. Similar to PARP-1, specific residues located within the catalytic sites of PARP-2 and PARP-3 are major targets of automodification following their DNA-dependent activation. Together our results suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation hot spots make a dominant contribution to the overall automodification process.

  4. Molecular mechanism and functional role of brefeldin A-mediated ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS.

    PubMed

    Colanzi, Antonino; Grimaldi, Giovanna; Catara, Giuliana; Valente, Carmen; Cericola, Claudia; Liberali, Prisca; Ronci, Maurizio; Lalioti, Vasiliki S; Bruno, Agostino; Beccari, Andrea R; Urbani, Andrea; De Flora, Antonio; Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2013-06-11

    ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification that modulates the functions of many target proteins. We previously showed that the fungal toxin brefeldin A (BFA) induces the ADP-ribosylation of C-terminal-binding protein-1 short-form/BFA-ADP-ribosylation substrate (CtBP1-S/BARS), a bifunctional protein with roles in the nucleus as a transcription factor and in the cytosol as a regulator of membrane fission during intracellular trafficking and mitotic partitioning of the Golgi complex. Here, we report that ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1-S/BARS by BFA occurs via a nonconventional mechanism that comprises two steps: (i) synthesis of a BFA-ADP-ribose conjugate by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 and (ii) covalent binding of the BFA-ADP-ribose conjugate into the CtBP1-S/BARS NAD(+)-binding pocket. This results in the locking of CtBP1-S/BARS in a dimeric conformation, which prevents its binding to interactors known to be involved in membrane fission and, hence, in the inhibition of the fission machinery involved in mitotic Golgi partitioning. As this inhibition may lead to arrest of the cell cycle in G2, these findings provide a strategy for the design of pharmacological blockers of cell cycle in tumor cells that express high levels of CD38.

  5. HPF1/C4orf27 Is a PARP-1-Interacting Protein that Regulates PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Fontana, Pietro; Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report the identification of histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1; also known as C4orf27) as a regulator of ADP-ribosylation signaling in the DNA damage response. HPF1/C4orf27 forms a robust protein complex with PARP-1 in cells and is recruited to DNA lesions in a PARP-1-dependent manner, but independently of PARP-1 catalytic ADP-ribosylation activity. Functionally, HPF1 promotes PARP-1-dependent in trans ADP-ribosylation of histones and limits DNA damage-induced hyper-automodification of PARP-1. Human cells lacking HPF1 exhibit sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and PARP inhibition, thereby suggesting an important role for HPF1 in genome maintenance and regulating the efficacy of PARP inhibitors. Collectively, our results demonstrate how a fundamental step in PARP-1-dependent ADP-ribosylation signaling is regulated and suggest that HPF1 functions at the crossroads of histone ADP-ribosylation and PARP-1 automodification. PMID:27067600

  6. Phospholipase D in rat myometrium: occurrence of a membrane-bound ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6)-regulated activity controlled by betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Le Stunff, H; Dokhac, L; Bourgoin, S; Bader, M F; Harbon, S

    2000-01-01

    Both protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinases have been shown to be involved in phospholipase D (PLD) activation in intact rat myometrium [Le Stunff, Dokhac and Harbon (2000) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 292, 629-637]. In this study we assessed the involvement of monomeric G-proteins in PLD activation in a cell-free system derived from myometrial tissue. Both the PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms were detected. Two forms of PLD activity, essentially membrane-bound, were found in myometrial preparations. One form was stimulated by oleate and insensitive to guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio] triphosphate (GTP[S]). The second required ammonium sulphate to be detected and was stimulated by GTP[S]. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF1 and ARF6) and RhoA were immunodetected in myometrial preparations. ARF1 and RhoA were present in the membrane and cytosolic fractions whereas ARF6 was detected exclusively in the membrane fraction. A synthetic myristoylated peptide corresponding to the N-terminal domain of ARF6 [myrARF6((2-13))] totally abolished PLD activation in the presence of ammonium sulphate and GTP[S], whereas myrARF1((2-17)) and the inhibitory GDP/GTP-exchange factor, Rho GDI, did not. These data are consistent with a membrane-bound ARF6-regulated PLD activity. Finally, the stimulation of PLD by ARF6 was inhibited by AlF(-)(4) and this inhibition was counteracted by the fusion protein glutathione S-transferase-beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (495-689) and by the QEHA peptide (from adenylate cyclase ACII), which act as G-protein betagamma-subunit scavengers. It is concluded that G-protein subunits betagamma are involved in a pathway modulating PLD activation by ARF6, illustrating cross-talk between heterotrimeric and monomeric G-proteins. PMID:11085943

  7. Chromosomal protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in pancreatic nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Aubin, R J; Dam, V T; Miclette, J; Brousseau, Y; Poirier, G G

    1982-03-01

    When pancreatic chromatin fragments were prepared and resolved in the presence of 80 mM NaCl, endogenous poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity was found to be maximal in nucleosome periodicities of four to five units and did not respond to any further increases in nucleosomal architecture. Furthermore, in nucleosome complexities spanning 1 through 14 and over unit lengths, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on acid-urea and acid-urea-Triton gels has shown pancreatic histone H1 to be the only actively ADP-ribosylated histone species. The extent of ADP-ribosylation of histone H1 was also demonstrated to retard the protein's mobility in acid-urea, acid-urea-Triton, and lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels and to consist of at least 12 distinct ADP-ribosylated species extractable in all nucleosome complexities studied. Finally, extraction and subsequent electrophoresis of total chromosomal proteins in the presence of lithium dodecyl sulfate also evidenced heavy ADP-ribosylation at the level of nonhistone chromosomal proteins of the high mobility group comigrating in the core histone region, as well as in the topmost region of the gels where poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was found to form a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated aggregate.

  8. Structure-based Mechanism of ADP-ribosylation by Sirtuins

    SciTech Connect

    Hawse, William F.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    Sirtuins comprise a family of enzymes found in all organisms, where they play a role in diverse processes including transcriptional silencing, aging, regulation of transcription, and metabolism. The predominant reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is NAD{sup +}-dependent lysine deacetylation, although some sirtuins exhibit a weaker ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Although the Sir2 deacetylation mechanism is well established, much less is known about the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction. We have studied the ADP-ribosylation activity of a bacterial sirtuin, Sir2Tm, and show that acetylated peptides containing arginine or lysine 2 residues C-terminal to the acetyl lysine, the +2 position, are preferentially ADP-ribosylated at the +2 residue. A structure of Sir2Tm bound to the acetylated +2 arginine peptide shows how this arginine could enter the active site and react with a deacetylation reaction intermediate to yield an ADP-ribosylated peptide. The new biochemical and structural studies presented here provide mechanistic insights into the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction and will aid in identifying substrates of this reaction.

  9. Cell-permeable ceramides preferentially inhibit coated vesicle formation and exocytosis in Chinese hamster ovary compared with Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by preventing the membrane association of ADP-ribosylation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Hobman, Tom C; Dewald, Jay; Garbutt, Michael; Brindley, David N

    2002-01-01

    Differential effects of acetyl(C2-) ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine) were studied on coated vesicle formation from Golgi-enriched membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C2-ceramide blocked the translocation of ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF-1) and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) to the membranes from CHO cells, but not those of MDCK cells. Consequently, C2-ceramide blocked the stimulation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) by the cytosol and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in membranes from CHO cells. Basal specific activity of PLD1 and the concentration of ARF-1 were 3-4 times higher in Golgi-enriched membranes from MDCK cells compared with CHO cells. Moreover, PLD1 activity in MDCK cells was stimulated less by cytosol and GTP[S]. PLD2 was not detectable in the Golgi-enriched membranes. Incubation of intact CHO cells or their Golgi-enriched membranes with C2-ceramide also inhibited COP1 vesicle formation by membranes from CHO, but not MDCK, cells. Specificity was demonstrated, since dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect on ARF-1 translocation, PLD1 activation or vesicle formation in membranes from both cell types. C2-ceramide also decreased the secretion of virus-like particles to a greater extent in CHO compared with MDCK cells, whereas dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect. The results demonstrate a biological effect of C2-ceramide in CHO cells by decreasing ARF-1 and PKC-alpha binding to Golgi-enriched membranes, thereby preventing COP1 vesicle formation. PMID:11802796

  10. Arginine-Specific Mono ADP-Ribosylation In Vitro of Antimicrobial Peptides by ADP-Ribosylating Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Castagnini, Marta; Picchianti, Monica; Talluri, Eleonora; Biagini, Massimiliano; Del Vecchio, Mariangela; Di Procolo, Paolo; Norais, Nathalie; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Balducci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Among the several toxins used by pathogenic bacteria to target eukaryotic host cells, proteins that exert ADP-ribosylation activity represent a large and studied family of dangerous and potentially lethal toxins. These proteins alter cell physiology catalyzing the transfer of the ADP-ribose unit from NAD to cellular proteins involved in key metabolic pathways. In the present study, we tested the capability of four of these toxins, to ADP-ribosylate α- and β- defensins. Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae and heat labile enterotoxin (LT) from Escherichia coli both modified the human α-defensin (HNP-1) and β- defensin-1 (HBD1), as efficiently as the mammalian mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase-1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S was inactive on both HNP-1 and HBD1. Neisseria meningitidis NarE poorly recognized HNP-1 as a substrate but it was completely inactive on HBD1. On the other hand, HNP-1 strongly influenced NarE inhibiting its transferase activity while enhancing auto-ADP-ribosylation. We conclude that only some arginine-specific ADP-ribosylating toxins recognize defensins as substrates in vitro. Modifications that alter the biological activities of antimicrobial peptides may be relevant for the innate immune response. In particular, ADP-ribosylation of antimicrobial peptides may represent a novel escape mechanism adopted by pathogens to facilitate colonization of host tissues. PMID:22879887

  11. Arginine-specific mono ADP-ribosylation in vitro of antimicrobial peptides by ADP-ribosylating toxins.

    PubMed

    Castagnini, Marta; Picchianti, Monica; Talluri, Eleonora; Biagini, Massimiliano; Del Vecchio, Mariangela; Di Procolo, Paolo; Norais, Nathalie; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Balducci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Among the several toxins used by pathogenic bacteria to target eukaryotic host cells, proteins that exert ADP-ribosylation activity represent a large and studied family of dangerous and potentially lethal toxins. These proteins alter cell physiology catalyzing the transfer of the ADP-ribose unit from NAD to cellular proteins involved in key metabolic pathways. In the present study, we tested the capability of four of these toxins, to ADP-ribosylate α- and β- defensins. Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae and heat labile enterotoxin (LT) from Escherichia coli both modified the human α-defensin (HNP-1) and β- defensin-1 (HBD1), as efficiently as the mammalian mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase-1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S was inactive on both HNP-1 and HBD1. Neisseria meningitidis NarE poorly recognized HNP-1 as a substrate but it was completely inactive on HBD1. On the other hand, HNP-1 strongly influenced NarE inhibiting its transferase activity while enhancing auto-ADP-ribosylation. We conclude that only some arginine-specific ADP-ribosylating toxins recognize defensins as substrates in vitro. Modifications that alter the biological activities of antimicrobial peptides may be relevant for the innate immune response. In particular, ADP-ribosylation of antimicrobial peptides may represent a novel escape mechanism adopted by pathogens to facilitate colonization of host tissues.

  12. ADP-ribosylation of proteins: Enzymology and biological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, F.R.; Richter, C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the molecular and biological consequences of the posttranslational modification of proteins with ADP-ribose monomers and polymers. Part one focuses on chromatin-associated poly ADP-ribosylation reactions which have evolved in higher eukaryotes as modulators of chromatin functions. The significance of poly ADP-ribosylation in DNA repair, carcinogenesis, and gene expression during terminal differentiation is discussed. Part two reviews mono ADP-ribosylation reactions which are catalyzed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes. Consideration is given to the action of bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin. These toxins have emerged as tools for the molecular probing of proteins involved in signal transduction and protein biosynthesis.

  13. ADP-Ribosylation of NLRP3 by Mycoplasma pneumoniae CARDS Toxin Regulates Inflammasome Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Jesus A.; Somarajan, Sudha R.; Chang, Te-Hung; Baseman, Joel B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of procaspase-1, which cleaves prointerleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) into its mature form. IL-1β is a critical proinflammatory cytokine that dictates the severity of inflammation associated with a wide spectrum of inflammatory diseases. NLRP3 is a key component of the inflammasome complex, and multiple signals and stimuli trigger formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex. In the current study, we uncovered a yet unknown mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by a pathogen-derived factor. We show that the unique bacterial ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin produced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and designated community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by colocalizing with the NLRP3 inflammasome and catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of NLRP3. Mutant full-length CARDS toxin lacking ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity and truncated CARDS toxins unable to bind to macrophages and be internalized failed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. These studies demonstrate that CARDS toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation constitutes an important posttranslational modification of NLRP3, that ADPRT activity of CARDS toxin is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and that posttranslational ADPRT-mediated modification of the inflammasome is a newly discovered mechanism for inflammasome activation with subsequent release of IL-1β and associated pathologies. PMID:25538194

  14. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  15. Serine ADP-Ribosylation Depends on HPF1.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Juan José; Fontana, Pietro; Zhang, Qi; Colby, Thomas; Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Atanassov, Ilian; Bartlett, Edward; Zaja, Roko; Ahel, Ivan; Matic, Ivan

    2017-03-02

    ADP-ribosylation (ADPr) regulates important patho-physiological processes through its attachment to different amino acids in proteins. Recently, by precision mapping on all possible amino acid residues, we identified histone serine ADPr marks in the DNA damage response. However, the biochemical basis underlying this serine modification remained unknown. Here we report that serine ADPr is strictly dependent on histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1), a recently identified regulator of PARP-1. Quantitative proteomics revealed that serine ADPr does not occur in cells lacking HPF1. Moreover, adding HPF1 to in vitro PARP-1/PARP-2 reactions is necessary and sufficient for serine-specific ADPr of histones and PARP-1 itself. Three endogenous serine ADPr sites are located on the PARP-1 automodification domain. Further identification of serine ADPr on HMG proteins and hundreds of other targets indicates that serine ADPr is a widespread modification. We propose that O-linked protein ADPr is the key signal in PARP-1/PARP-2-dependent processes that govern genome stability.

  16. Viral Macro Domains Reverse Protein ADP-Ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changqing; Debing, Yannick; Jankevicius, Gytis; Neyts, Johan; Ahel, Ivan; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification in which ADP-ribose is transferred from NAD(+) to specific acceptors to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. The macro domain is an ancient and highly evolutionarily conserved protein domain widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, including viruses. The human TARG1/C6orf130, MacroD1, and MacroD2 proteins can reverse ADP-ribosylation by acting on ADP-ribosylated substrates through the hydrolytic activity of their macro domains. Here, we report that the macro domain from hepatitis E virus (HEV) serves as an ADP-ribose-protein hydrolase for mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chain removal (de-MARylation and de-PARylation, respectively) from mono- and poly(ADP)-ribosylated proteins, respectively. The presence of the HEV helicase in cis dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to poly(ADP-ribose) and stimulates the de-PARylation activity. Abrogation of the latter dramatically decreases replication of an HEV subgenomic replicon. The de-MARylation activity is present in all three pathogenic positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus families which carry a macro domain: Coronaviridae (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E), Togaviridae (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), and Hepeviridae (HEV), indicating that it might be a significant tropism and/or pathogenic determinant. Protein ADP-ribosylation is a covalent posttranslational modification regulating cellular protein activities in a dynamic fashion to modulate and coordinate a variety of cellular processes. Three viral families, Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, possess macro domains embedded in their polyproteins. Here, we show that viral macro domains reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation, potentially cutting the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Various poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases which are notorious guardians of cellular integrity are demodified

  17. Viral Macro Domains Reverse Protein ADP-Ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changqing; Debing, Yannick; Jankevicius, Gytis; Neyts, Johan; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification in which ADP-ribose is transferred from NAD+ to specific acceptors to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. The macro domain is an ancient and highly evolutionarily conserved protein domain widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, including viruses. The human TARG1/C6orf130, MacroD1, and MacroD2 proteins can reverse ADP-ribosylation by acting on ADP-ribosylated substrates through the hydrolytic activity of their macro domains. Here, we report that the macro domain from hepatitis E virus (HEV) serves as an ADP-ribose-protein hydrolase for mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chain removal (de-MARylation and de-PARylation, respectively) from mono- and poly(ADP)-ribosylated proteins, respectively. The presence of the HEV helicase in cis dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to poly(ADP-ribose) and stimulates the de-PARylation activity. Abrogation of the latter dramatically decreases replication of an HEV subgenomic replicon. The de-MARylation activity is present in all three pathogenic positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus families which carry a macro domain: Coronaviridae (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E), Togaviridae (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), and Hepeviridae (HEV), indicating that it might be a significant tropism and/or pathogenic determinant. IMPORTANCE Protein ADP-ribosylation is a covalent posttranslational modification regulating cellular protein activities in a dynamic fashion to modulate and coordinate a variety of cellular processes. Three viral families, Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, possess macro domains embedded in their polyproteins. Here, we show that viral macro domains reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation, potentially cutting the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Various poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases which are notorious guardians of cellular

  18. Characterization of botulinum C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of rho proteins and identification of mammalian C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Maehama, T; Sekine, N; Nishina, H; Takahashi, K; Katada, T

    1994-09-01

    The exoenzyme C3 produced by Clostridium botulinum catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of rho gene products which belong to a family of small molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins. The C3 enzyme-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of rho proteins partially purified from bovine brain was markedly activated by certain types of detergents or phospholipids and by endogenous factors present in the brain cytosol. Rho A protein that had been expressed in E. coli and subsequential purified was readily ADP-ribosylated by the C3 enzyme even in the absence of the activating factors. These results suggest that partially purified rho proteins contain an inhibitor, probably rho GDI (GDP-dissociation inhibitor for rho p21), of C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. The activity of an endogenous enzyme, having the same substrate as botulinum C3 enzyme, was also found in brain cytosol. The enzyme activity was partially purified and characterized. The enzyme appeared to have a molecular mass of approximately 20,000 on a gel filtration and displayed unique properties similar to those observed with the botulinum C3 enzyme. The alpha-subunits of alpha beta gamma-trimeric G proteins which served as the substrates of cholera or pertussis toxin were not ADP-ribosylated by the brain enzyme.

  19. Chemical reporters for exploring ADP-ribosylation and AMPylation at the host-pathogen interface.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Nathan P; Hang, Howard C

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens secrete protein toxins and effectors that hijack metabolites to covalently modify host proteins and interfere with their function during infection. Adenosine metabolites, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have in particular been coopted by these secreted virulence factors to reprogram host pathways. While some host targets for secreted virulence factors have been identified, other toxin and effector substrates have been elusive, which require new methods for their characterization. In this review, we focus on chemical reporters based on NAD and ATP that should facilitate the discovery and characterization of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation and adenylylation/AMPylation in bacterial pathogenesis and cell biology.

  20. Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease and ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, K; Tanaka, Y; Kamiya, T

    1983-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of the inhibition of Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease by ADP-ribosylation was studied by using purified bull seminal plasma Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease, endonuclease-stimulating proteins, and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The activity of an essentially homogeneous preparation of the endonuclease was markedly suppressed by its preincubation with NAD+, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase, DNA, and Mg2+. These four components of the incubation mixture were all essential for the suppression of the activity. Analyses of the initial and the chased reaction product by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease was ADP-ribosylated during the incubation and its activity was markedly inhibited by the elongation of the ADP-ribose polymer covalently attached to the endonuclease. When the suppressed enzymes were mildly treated with an alkaline pH of 10.0, the activity was restored almost to the level of the unmodified control sample. These facts indicate that the linkage between the enzyme and poly(ADP-ribose) is hydrolyzed at this pH, and that the liberated polymer itself does not appreciably affect the endonuclease activity. These results also suggest that an electric repulsion between negative charges on DNA and poly(ADP-ribose) attached to Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease is the basis for the observed suppression of the enzyme by ADP-ribosylation. Though histone H2B and H1 are shown to be as good endonuclease-stimulators (1) as they are good acceptors of ADP-ribose in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase reaction (2), ADP-ribosylation of these two proteins did not affect their endonuclease-stimulating ability appreciably, at least under the conditions used.

  1. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  2. ADP-ribosylation of NLRP3 by Mycoplasma pneumoniae CARDS toxin regulates inflammasome activity.

    PubMed

    Bose, Santanu; Segovia, Jesus A; Somarajan, Sudha R; Chang, Te-Hung; Kannan, T R; Baseman, Joel B

    2014-12-23

    The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of procaspase-1, which cleaves prointerleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) into its mature form. IL-1β is a critical proinflammatory cytokine that dictates the severity of inflammation associated with a wide spectrum of inflammatory diseases. NLRP3 is a key component of the inflammasome complex, and multiple signals and stimuli trigger formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex. In the current study, we uncovered a yet unknown mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by a pathogen-derived factor. We show that the unique bacterial ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin produced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and designated community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by colocalizing with the NLRP3 inflammasome and catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of NLRP3. Mutant full-length CARDS toxin lacking ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity and truncated CARDS toxins unable to bind to macrophages and be internalized failed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. These studies demonstrate that CARDS toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation constitutes an important posttranslational modification of NLRP3, that ADPRT activity of CARDS toxin is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and that posttranslational ADPRT-mediated modification of the inflammasome is a newly discovered mechanism for inflammasome activation with subsequent release of IL-1β and associated pathologies. Inflammation is a fundamental innate immune response to environmental factors, including infections. The inflammasome represents a multiprotein complex that regulates inflammation via its ability to activate specific proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in an effective host protective response. However, excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines can occur following infection that skews the host response to "hyperinflammation" with exaggerated tissue damage. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common

  3. ADP-ribosylation of transducin by pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, P.A.; Burns, D.L.; Kanaho, Y.; Liu, T.Y.; Hewlett, E.L.; Moss, J.

    1985-11-05

    Transducin, the guanyl nucleotide-binding regulatory protein of retinal rod outer segments that couples the photon receptor, rhodopsin, with the light-activated cGMP phosphodiesterase, can be resolved into two functional components, T alpha and T beta gamma. T alpha (39 kDa), which is (TSP)ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin and (TSP)NAD in rod outer segments and in purified transducin, was also labeled by the toxin after separation from T beta gamma (36 kDa and approximately 10 kDa); neither component of T beta gamma was a pertussis toxin substrate. Labeling of T alpha was enhanced by T beta gamma and was maximal at approximately 1:1 molar ratio of T alpha : T beta gamma. Limited proteolysis by trypsin of T alpha in the presence of guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) resulted in the sequential appearance of proteins of 38 and TS kDa. The amino terminus of both 38- and TS-kDa proteins was leucine, whereas that of T alpha could not be identified and was assumed to be blocked. The TS-kDa peptide was not a pertussis toxin substrate. Labeling of the 38-kDa protein was poor and was not enhanced by T beta gamma. Trypsin treatment of (TSP)ADP-ribosyl-T alpha produced a labeled 37-38-kDa doublet followed by appearance of radioactivity at the dye front. It appears, therefore, that, although the 38-kDa protein was poor toxin substrate, it contained the ADP-ribosylation site. Without rhodopsin, labeling of T alpha (in the presence of T beta gamma) was unaffected by Gpp(NH)p, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S), GTP, GDP, and guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) but was increased by ATP. When photolyzed rhodopsin and T beta gamma were present, Gpp(NH)p and GTP gamma S decreased (TSP)ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. Thus, pertussis toxin-catalyzed (TSP)ADP-ribosylation of T alpha was affected by nucleotides, rhodopsin and light in addition to T beta gamma.

  4. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed.

  5. The actin-ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin.

    PubMed

    Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2004-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin is the prototype of actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins. The toxin consists of the enzyme component C2I and the separated binding/translocation component C2II. C2II is proteolytically activated to form heptamers, which bind the enzyme component. After endocytosis of the receptor-toxin complex, the enzyme component enters the cytosol from an acidic endosomal compartment to modify G-actin at arginine177. Recent data indicate that chaperons are involved in the translocation process of the toxin.

  6. Rapid Evolution of PARP Genes Suggests a Broad Role for ADP-Ribosylation in Host-Virus Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Matthew D.; Young, Janet M.; Kerns, Julie A.; Malik, Harmit S.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation are common molecular targets of conflict between viruses and their hosts. However, the role of other post-translational modifications, such as ADP-ribosylation, in host-virus interactions is less well characterized. ADP-ribosylation is carried out by proteins encoded by the PARP (also called ARTD) gene family. The majority of the 17 human PARP genes are poorly characterized. However, one PARP protein, PARP13/ZAP, has broad antiviral activity and has evolved under positive (diversifying) selection in primates. Such evolution is typical of domains that are locked in antagonistic ‘arms races’ with viral factors. To identify additional PARP genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions, we performed evolutionary analyses on all primate PARP genes to search for signatures of rapid evolution. Contrary to expectations that most PARP genes are involved in ‘housekeeping’ functions, we found that nearly one-third of PARP genes are evolving under strong recurrent positive selection. We identified a >300 amino acid disordered region of PARP4, a component of cytoplasmic vault structures, to be rapidly evolving in several mammalian lineages, suggesting this region serves as an important host-pathogen specificity interface. We also found positive selection of PARP9, 14 and 15, the only three human genes that contain both PARP domains and macrodomains. Macrodomains uniquely recognize, and in some cases can reverse, protein mono-ADP-ribosylation, and we observed strong signatures of recurrent positive selection throughout the macro-PARP macrodomains. Furthermore, PARP14 and PARP15 have undergone repeated rounds of gene birth and loss during vertebrate evolution, consistent with recurrent gene innovation. Together with previous studies that implicated several PARPs in immunity, as well as those that demonstrated a role for virally encoded macrodomains in host immune evasion, our

  7. Chemical proteomics reveals ADP-ribosylation of small GTPases during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Nathan P; Fernandez, Joseph P; Molina, Henrik; Hang, Howard C

    2017-03-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that is known to be involved in cellular homeostasis and stress but has been challenging to analyze biochemically. To facilitate the detection of ADP-ribosylated proteins, we show that an alkyne-adenosine analog, N(6)-propargyl adenosine (N(6)pA), is metabolically incorporated in mammalian cells and enables fluorescence detection and proteomic analysis of ADP-ribosylated proteins. Notably, our analysis of N(6)pA-labeled proteins that are upregulated by oxidative stress revealed differential ADP-ribosylation of small GTPases. We discovered that oxidative stress induced ADP-ribosylation of Hras on Cys181 and Cys184 in the C-terminal hypervariable region, which are normally S-fatty-acylated. Downstream Hras signaling is impaired by ADP-ribosylation during oxidative stress, but is rescued by ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibitors. Our study demonstrates that ADP-ribosylation of small GTPases not only is mediated by bacterial toxins but is endogenously regulated in mammalian cells. N(6)pA provides a useful tool to characterize ADP-ribosylated proteins and their regulatory mechanisms in cells.

  8. Arsenite induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of tumor suppressor P53 in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Komissarova, Elena V.; Rossman, Toby G.

    2010-03-15

    Arsenite is an environmental pollutant. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water is associated with elevated cancer risk, especially in skin. Arsenite alone does not cause skin cancer in animals, but arsenite can enhance the carcinogenicity of solar UV. Arsenite is not a significant mutagen at non-toxic concentrations, but it enhances the mutagenicity of other carcinogens. The tumor suppressor protein P53 and nuclear enzyme PARP-1 are both key players in DNA damage response. This laboratory demonstrated earlier that in cells treated with arsenite, the P53-dependent increase in p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression, normally a block to cell cycle progression after DNA damage, is deficient. Here we show that although long-term exposure of human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to a nontoxic concentration (0.1 muM) of arsenite decreases the level of global protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, it increases poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of P53 protein and PARP-1 protein abundance. We also demonstrate that exposure to 0.1 muM arsenite depresses the constitutive expression of p21 mRNA and P21 protein in HaCaT cells. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of P53 is reported to block its activation, DNA binding and its functioning as a transcription factor. Our results suggest that arsenite's interference with activation of P53 via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may play a role in the comutagenic and cocarcinogenic effects of arsenite.

  9. Exploring the role of host cell chaperones/PPIases during cellular up-take of bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins as basis for novel pharmacological strategies to protect mammalian cells against these virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Barth, Holger

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial exotoxins exploit protein transport pathways of their mammalian target cells to deliver their enzymatic active moieties into the cytosol. There, they modify their specific substrate molecules resulting in cell damage and the clinical symptoms characteristic for each individual toxin. We have investigated the cellular uptake of the binary actin ADP-ribosylating C2 toxin from Clostridium botulinum and the binary lethal toxin from Bacillus anthracis, a metalloprotease. Both toxins are composed of a binding/translocation component and a separate enzyme component. During cellular uptake, the binding/translocation components form pores in membranes of acidified endosomes, and the enzyme components translocate as unfolded proteins through the pores into the cytosol. We found by using specific pharmacological inhibitors that the host cell chaperone Hsp90 and the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase cyclophilin A are crucial for membrane translocation of the enzyme component of the C2 toxin but not of the lethal toxin, although the structures of the binding/translocation components and the overall uptake mechanisms of both toxins are widely comparable. In conclusion, the new findings imply that Hsp90 and cyclophilin function selectively in promoting translocation of certain bacterial toxins depending on the enzyme domains of the individual toxins. The targeted pharmacological inhibition of individual host cell chaperones/PPIases prevents uptake of certain bacterial exotoxins into the cytosol of mammalian cells and thus protects cells from intoxication. Such substances could represent attractive lead substances for development of novel therapeutics to prevent toxic effects during infection with toxin-producing bacteria.

  10. Identification of ADP-ribosylation sites of CD38 mutants by precursor ion scanning mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Sherwood, Robert; Zhang, Sheng; Zhu, Xuling; Liu, Qun; Graeff, Richard; Kriksunov, Irina A.; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Lin, Hening

    2012-01-01

    Protein ADP-ribosylation, including mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation, is increasingly recognized to play important roles in various biological pathways. Molecular understanding of the functions of ADP-ribosylation requires the identification of the sites of modification. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is widely recognized as an effective means for determining protein modifications, identification of ADP-ribosylation sites has been challenging due to the labile and hydrophilic nature of the modification. Here we applied precursor ion scanning-triggered MS/MS analysis on a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer for selectively detecting ADP-ribosylated peptides and determining the auto- ADP-ribosylation sites of CD38 (cluster of differentiation 38) E226D and E226Q mutants. CD38 is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to ADP-ribose. Here we show that NAD can covalently label CD38 E226D and E226Q mutants but not wild-type CD38. In this study, we have successfully identified the D226/Q226 and K129 residues of the two CD38 mutants being the ADP-ribosylation sites using precursor ion scanning hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The results offer insights about the CD38 enzymatic reaction mechanism. The precursor ion scanning method should be useful for identifying the modification sites of other ADP-ribosyltransferases such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. PMID:23123429

  11. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  12. Immunoaffinity fractionation of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated domains of chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, N; Miwa, M; Sugimura, T; Thraves, P; Smulson, M

    1983-01-01

    Antibody to poly(ADP-ribose) has been covalently coupled to Sepharose and utilized to isolate selectively oligonucleosomes undergoing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction from the bulk of chromatin. Approximately 12% of the unfractionated oligonucleosomes were bound to the immunoaffinity column and these represented essentially 100% of the original poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated nucleosomal species in the unfractionated chromatin. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated chromatin was not bound by preimmune IgG columns. KSCN eluted the modified nucleosomes in the form of nucleoprotein complexes. The eluted chromatin components were shown to contain poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated histones as well as automodified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. By using [3H]lysine- and [3H]arginine-labeled chromatin, it was shown that the poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ated histones, attached to stretches of oligonucleosomes bound to the column, had a 6-fold enrichment of the modification compared to histones of the unfractionated chromatin. This indicated that non-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated nucleosomes, connected and proximal to the modified regions, were copurified by this procedure. This allowed characterization of the oligonucleosomal DNA around poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated chromatin domains to be compared with the unbound bulk chromatin. The data indicated that immunofractionated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated oligonucleosomal DNA contained significant amounts of internal single-strand breaks compared with bulk chromatin. The bound nucleo-protein complexes were found to be enzymatically active for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase after elution from the antibody column. In contrast, the unbound nucleosomes, representing 90% of the unfractionated chromatin, were totally inactive in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. Images PMID:6573670

  13. Dicumarol, an inhibitor of ADP-ribosylation of CtBP3/BARS, fragments golgi non-compact tubular zones and inhibits intra-golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Alexander A; Colanzi, Antonino; Polishchuk, Roman S; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Mironov, Alexander A; Fusella, Aurora; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Corda, Daniela; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Luini, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    Dicumarol (3,3'-methylenebis[4-hydroxycoumarin]) is an inhibitor of brefeldin-A-dependent ADP-ribosylation that antagonises brefeldin-A-dependent Golgi tubulation and redistribution to the endoplasmic reticulum. We have investigated whether dicumarol can directly affect the morphology of the Golgi apparatus. Here we show that dicumarol induces the breakdown of the tubular reticular networks that interconnect adjacent Golgi stacks and that contain either soluble or membrane-associated cargo proteins. This results in the formation of 65-120-nm vesicles that are sometimes invaginated. In contrast, smaller vesicles (45-65 nm in diameter, a size consistent with that of coat-protein-I-dependent vesicles) that excluded cargo proteins from their lumen are not affected by dicumarol. All other endomembranes are largely unaffected by dicumarol, including Golgi stacks, the ER, multivesicular bodies and the trans-Golgi network. In permeabilized cells, dicumarol activity depends on the function of CtBP3/BARS protein and pre-ADP-ribosylation of cytosol inhibits the breakdown of Golgi tubules by dicumarol. In functional experiments, dicumarol markedly slows down intra-Golgi traffic of VSV-G transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the medial Golgi, and inhibits the diffusional mobility of both galactosyl transferase and VSV-G tagged with green fluorescent protein. However, it does not affect: transport from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface; Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum traffic of ERGIC58; coat-protein-I-dependent Golgi vesiculation by AlF4 or ADP-ribosylation factor; or ADP-ribosylation factor and beta-coat protein binding to Golgi membranes. Thus the ADP-ribosylation inhibitor dicumarol induces the selective breakdown of the tubular components of the Golgi complex and inhibition of intra-Golgi transport. This suggests that lateral diffusion between adjacent stacks has a role in protein transport through the Golgi complex.

  14. CTCF participates in DNA damage response via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Deqiang; Chen, Qian; Shi, Jiazhong; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) plays an essential role in regulating the structure of chromatin by binding DNA strands for defining the boundary between active and heterochromatic DNA. However, the role of CTCF in DNA damage response remains elusive. Here, we show that CTCF is quickly recruited to the sites of DNA damage. The fast recruitment is mediated by the zinc finger domain and poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR). Further analyses show that only three zinc finger motifs are essential for PAR recognition. Moreover, CTCF-deficient cells are hypersensitive to genotoxic stress such as ionizing radiation (IR). Taken together, these results suggest that CTCF participate in DNA damage response via poly(ADP-ribosylation). PMID:28262757

  15. ADP-ribosylation of histones by ARTD1: an additional module of the histone code?

    PubMed

    Hottiger, Michael O

    2011-06-06

    ADP-ribosylation is a covalent post-translational protein modification catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases and is involved in important processes such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, replication or transcription. Histones are ADP-ribosylated by ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 at specific amino acid residues, in particular lysines, of the histones tails. Specific ADP-ribosyl hydrolases and poly-ADP-ribose glucohydrolases degrade the ADP-ribose polymers. The ADP-ribose modification is read by zinc finger motifs or macrodomains, which then regulate chromatin structure and transcription. Thus, histone ADP-ribosylation may be considered an additional component of the histone code. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) and neoplastic transformation: effect of PARP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Donà, Francesca; Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Raineri, Tatiana; Ricotti, Roberta; Mondello, Chiara; Scovassi, Anna Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and poly(ADP-ribosylation) play essential roles in several biological processes, among which neoplastic transformation and telomere maintenance. In this paper, we review the poly(ADP-ribosylation) process together with the highly appealing use of PARP inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. In addition, we report our results concerning poly(ADP-ribosylation) in a cellular model system for neoplastic transformation developed in our laboratory. Here we show that PARP-1 and PARP-2 expression increases during neoplastic transformation, together with the basal levels of poly(ADP-ribosylation). Furthermore, we demonstrate a greater effect of the PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) on cellular viability in neoplastically transformed cells compared to normal fibroblasts and we show that prolonged 3AB administration to tumorigenic cells causes a decrease in telomere length. Taken together, our data support an active involvement of poly(ADP-ribosylation) in neoplastic transformation and telomere length maintenance and confirm the relevant role of poly(ADP-ribosylation) inhibition for the treatment of cancer.

  17. The Promise of Proteomics for the Study of ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Ong, Shao-En; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification where single units (mono-ADP-ribosylation) or polymeric chains (poly-ADP-ribosylation) of ADP-ribose are conjugated to proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases. This post-translational modification and the ADP-ribosyltransferases (also known as PARPs) responsible for its synthesis have been found to play a role in nearly all major cellular processes, including DNA repair, transcription, translation, cell signaling and cell death. Furthermore, dysregulation of ADP-ribosylation has been linked to diseases including cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders and heart failure, leading to the development of therapeutic PARP inhibitors, many of which are currently in clinical trials. The study of this therapeutically important modification has recently been bolstered by the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, arguably the most powerful tool for the unbiased analysis of protein modifications. Unfortunately, progress has been hampered by the inherent challenges that stem from the physicochemical properties of ADP-ribose which as a post-translational modification is highly charged, heterogeneous (linear or branched polymers, as well as monomers), labile, and found on a wide range of amino acid acceptors. In this perspective, we discuss the progress that has been made in addressing these challenges, including the recent breakthroughs in proteomics techniques to identify ADP-ribosylation sites, and future developments to provide a proteome-wide view of the many cellular processes regulated by ADP-ribosylation. PMID:26091340

  18. Characterization of the active site of ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Munshi, C; Thiel, D J; Mathews, I I; Aarhus, R; Walseth, T F; Lee, H C

    1999-10-22

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase synthesizes two Ca(2+) messengers by cyclizing NAD to produce cyclic ADP-ribose and exchanging nicotinic acid with the nicotinamide group of NADP to produce nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recombinant Aplysia cyclase was expressed in yeast and co-crystallized with a substrate, nicotinamide. x-ray crystallography showed that the nicotinamide was bound in a pocket formed in part by a conserved segment and was near the central cleft of the cyclase. Glu(98), Asn(107) and Trp(140) were within 3.5 A of the bound nicotinamide and appeared to coordinate it. Substituting Glu(98) with either Gln, Gly, Leu, or Asn reduced the cyclase activity by 16-222-fold, depending on the substitution. The mutant N107G exhibited only a 2-fold decrease in activity, while the activity of W140G was essentially eliminated. The base exchange activity of all mutants followed a similar pattern of reduction, suggesting that both reactions occur at the same active site. In addition to NAD, the wild-type cyclase also cyclizes nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide to cyclic GDP-ribose. All mutant enzymes had at least half of the GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity of the wild type, some even 2-3-fold higher, indicating that the three coordinating amino acids are responsible for positioning of the substrate but not absolutely critical for catalysis. To search for the catalytic residues, other amino acids in the binding pocket were mutagenized. E179G was totally devoid of GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity, and both its ADP-ribosyl cyclase and the base exchange activities were reduced by 10,000- and 18,000-fold, respectively. Substituting Glu(179) with either Asn, Leu, Asp, or Gln produced similar inactive enzymes, and so was the conversion of Trp(77) to Gly. However, both E179G and the double mutant E179G/W77G retained NAD-binding ability as shown by photoaffinity labeling with [(32)P]8-azido-NAD. These results indicate that both Glu(179) and Trp(77) are crucial for catalysis and

  19. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jouanneau, Y.; Roby, C.; Meyer, C.M.; Vignais, P.M. )

    1989-07-25

    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, nitrogenase is regulated by a reversible covalent modification of Fe protein or dinitrogenase reductase (Rc2). The linkage of the modifying group to inactive Rc2 was found to be sensitive to alkali and to neutral hydroxylamine. Complete release of the modifying group was achieved by incubation of inactive Rc2 in 0.4 or 1 M hydroxylamine. After hydroxylamine treatment of the Rc2 preparation, the modifying group could be isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The modifying group comigrated with ADP-ribose on both ion-exchange HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. Analyses by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provided further evidence that the modifying group was ADP-ribose. The NMR spectrum of inactive Rc2 exhibited signals characteristic of ADP-ribose; integration of these signals allowed calculation of a molar ration ADP-ribose/Rc2 of 0.63. A hexapeptide carrying the ADP-ribose moiety was purified from a subtilisin digest of inactive Rc2. The structure of this peptide, determined by amino acid analysis and sequencing, is Gly-Arg(ADP-ribose)-Gly-Val-Ile-Thr. This structure allows identification of the binding site for ADP-ribose as Arg 101 of the polypeptide chain of Rc2. It is concluded that nitrogenase activity in R. capsulatus is regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginyl residue of dinitrogenase reductase.

  20. Role of NAD+ and ADP-Ribosylation in the Maintenance of the Golgi Structure

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, Alexander; Colanzi, Antonino; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Fiucci, Giusy; Flati, Silvio; Fusella, Aurora; Polishchuk, Roman; Mironov, Alexander; Tullio, Giuseppe Di; Weigert, Roberto; Malhotra, Vivek; Corda, Daniela; Matteis, Maria Antonietta De; Luini, Alberto

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the ADP- ribosylation induced by brefeldin A (BFA) in the mechanisms controlling the architecture of the Golgi complex. BFA causes the rapid disassembly of this organelle into a network of tubules, prevents the association of coatomer and other proteins to Golgi membranes, and stimulates the ADP-ribosylation of two cytosolic proteins of 38 and 50 kD (GAPDH and BARS-50; De Matteis, M.A., M. DiGirolamo, A. Colanzi, M. Pallas, G. Di Tullio, L.J. McDonald, J. Moss, G. Santini, S. Bannykh, D. Corda, and A. Luini. 1994. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91:1114–1118; Di Girolamo, M., M.G. Silletta, M.A. De Matteis, A. Braca, A. Colanzi, D. Pawlak, M.M. Rasenick, A. Luini, and D. Corda. 1995. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92:7065–7069). To study the role of ADP-ribosylation, this reaction was inhibited by depletion of NAD+ (the ADP-ribose donor) or by using selective pharmacological blockers in permeabilized cells. In NAD+-depleted cells and in the presence of dialized cytosol, BFA detached coat proteins from Golgi membranes with normal potency but failed to alter the organelle's structure. Readdition of NAD+ triggered Golgi disassembly by BFA. This effect of NAD+ was mimicked by the use of pre–ADP- ribosylated cytosol. The further addition of extracts enriched in native BARS-50 abolished the ability of ADP-ribosylated cytosol to support the effect of BFA. Pharmacological blockers of the BFA-dependent ADP-ribosylation (Weigert, R., A. Colanzi, A. Mironov, R. Buccione, C. Cericola, M.G. Sciulli, G. Santini, S. Flati, A. Fusella, J. Donaldson, M. DiGirolamo, D. Corda, M.A. De Matteis, and A. Luini. 1997. J. Biol. Chem. 272:14200–14207) prevented Golgi disassembly by BFA in permeabilized cells. These inhibitors became inactive in the presence of pre–ADP-ribosylated cytosol, and their activity was rescued by supplementing the cytosol with a native BARS-50–enriched fraction. These results indicate that ADP-ribosylation plays a role in the

  1. Oscillation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity during the cell cycle and function of cyclic ADP-ribose in a unicellular organism, Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, W; Takenaka, S; Inageda, K; Nishina, H; Takahashi, K; Katada, T; Tsuyama, S; Inui, H; Miyatake, K; Nakano, Y

    1997-03-17

    In Euglena gracilis, the activity of ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which produces cyclic ADP-ribose, oscillated during the cell cycle in a synchronous culture induced by a light-dark cycle, and a marked increase in the activity was observed in the G2 phase. Similarly, the ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity rose extremely immediately before cell division started, when synchronous cell division was induced by adding cobalamin (which is an essential growth factor and participates in DNA synthesis in this organism) to its deficient culture. Further, cADPR in these cells showed a maximum level immediately before cell division started. A dose-dependent Ca2+ release was observed when microsomes were incubated with cADPR.

  2. The uptake machinery of clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins--a cell delivery system for fusion proteins and polypeptide drugs.

    PubMed

    Barth, Holger; Blöcker, Dagmar; Aktories, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Several bacterial protein toxins, including Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, Clostridum perfringens iota toxin, Clostridium difficile ADP-ribosyltransferase, and the Bacillus-produced vegetative insecticidal proteins, target the cytoskeleton by ADP-ribosylation of actin. All these toxins are binary in structure and consist of an enzyme component, possessing ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and a separated binding and translocation component, which is involved in the delivery of the enzyme component into the cell. The toxins are not only important virulence factors but also cell biological tools to study the function of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the binary toxins turned out to be effective transporter systems for the delivery of specific fusion toxins (e.g., Rho-ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme) into cells. The present review describes the biological functions of the toxins, focuses on recent studies on the uptake and delivery mechanism and discusses the usage as a drug delivery system.

  3. [ADP-ribosylation of proteins in nuclei and mitochondria from tissues rats of various age exposed gamma-radiation].

    PubMed

    Ushakova, T E; Ploskonosova, I I; Guliaeva, N A; Rasskazova, E A; Gaziev, A I

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive and gamma-induced ADP-ribosylation of nuclei and mitochondrial proteins in 2- and 29-month-old rats was studied. ADP-ribosylation was determined by binding of [3H]-adenin with the proteins after incubation of cellular organells in reaction mixture supplemented with [adenin-2,8-3H]-NAD. It was detected that the level of total protein ADP-ribosylation in the nuclei is 4.5-6.2 times higher than in the mitochondria. By inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with 3-aminobenzamidine and treatment of ADP-ribosylated proteins with phosphodiesterase I, it was demonstrated that about 90% of [3H]-adenin bound by proteins in the nuclei and 70% in the mitochondria was the result of PARP activity. The level of total ADP-ribosylation of nuclear and mitochondrial proteins in the tissues of old rats was reliably lower than in young animals. This reduction of ADP-ribosylation in old animals is the result of the lower activity of PARP, not of mono(ADP-ribosyl) transferase (MART). The level of ADP-ribosylation of proteins in the nuclei of brain and spleen cells of 2-month-old rats irradiated with of 5 and 10 Gy was by 49-109% higher than in the control. At the same doses of radiation, the level of ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins in brain and spleen of old rats increased only by 29-65% compared to the control. Unlike cell nuclei, the radiation-induced activation of ADP-ribosylation in mitochondria was less expressed: the level of ADP-ribosylation increased by 34-37% in young rats and by 11-27% in old animals. This increased binding of ADP-ribose residues by the proteins of nuclei and mitochondria from tissues of gamma-irradiated rats is exceptionally conditioned by activation of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation because the level of mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation remains constant. The results of this study enable the suggestion that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation also occurs in the mitochondria of brain and spleen cells of the gamma-irradiated rats, though less pronounced than in cell

  4. Hsp70 facilitates trans-membrane transport of bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins into the cytosol of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Katharina; Schmid, Johannes; Beck, Matthias; Hägele, Marlen; Hohwieler, Meike; Hauff, Patricia; Ückert, Anna Katharina; Anastasia, Anna; Fauler, Michael; Jank, Thomas; Aktories, Klaus; Popoff, Michel R; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia; Kleger, Alexander; Müller, Martin; Frick, Manfred; Barth, Holger

    2017-06-02

    Binary enterotoxins Clostridium (C.) botulinum C2 toxin, C. perfringens iota toxin and C. difficile toxin CDT are composed of a transport (B) and a separate non-linked enzyme (A) component. Their B-components mediate endocytic uptake into mammalian cells and subsequently transport of the A-components from acidic endosomes into the cytosol, where the latter ADP-ribosylate G-actin resulting in cell rounding and cell death causing clinical symptoms. Protein folding enzymes, including Hsp90 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases facilitate transport of the A-components across endosomal membranes. Here, we identified Hsp70 as a novel host cell factor specifically interacting with A-components of C2, iota and CDT toxins to facilitate their transport into the cell cytosol. Pharmacological Hsp70-inhibition specifically prevented pH-dependent trans-membrane transport of A-components into the cytosol thereby protecting living cells and stem cell-derived human miniguts from intoxication. Thus, Hsp70-inhibition might lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat diseases associated with bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins.

  5. S100B impairs glycolysis via enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in rodent muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kaori; Hamada, Yoji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Murase, Masatoshi; Maekawa, Ryuya; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Izumoto, Takako; Seino, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shin; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-02-07

    S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a multifunctional macromolecule mainly expressed in nerve tissues and adipocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. To clarify the role of S100B in insulin action and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues, we investigated the effect of S100B on glycolysis in myoblast and myotube cells. Rat myoblast L6 cells were treated with recombinant mouse S100B to examine glucose consumption, lactate production, glycogen accumulation, glycolytic metabolites and enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Glycolytic metabolites were investigated by enzyme assays or metabolome analysis, and insulin signaling was assessed by western blot analysis. Enzyme activity and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of GAPDH was evaluated by an enzyme assay and immunoprecipitation followed by dot blot with an anti-poly(ADP-ribose) antibody, respectively. S100B significantly decreased glucose consumption, glucose analog uptake, and lactate production in L6 cells, in either the presence or absence of insulin. In contrast, S100B had no effect on glycogen accumulation and insulin signaling. Metabolome analysis revealed that S100B increased the concentration of glycolytic intermediates upstream of GAPDH. S100B impaired GAPDH activity and increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated GAPDH proteins. The effects of S100B on glucose metabolism were mostly canceled by a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. Similar results were obtained in C2C12 myotube cells. We conclude that S100B as a humoral factor may impair glycolysis in muscle cells independently of insulin action, and the effect may be attributed to the inhibition of GAPDH activity from enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the enzyme.

  6. ADP-ribosylation of membrane components by pertussis and cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Neto, F.A.P.; Mattera, F.; Hildebrandt, J.D.; Codina, J.; Field, J.B.; Birnbaumer, L.; Sekura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis and cholera toxins are important tools to investigate functional and structural aspects of the stimulatory (N/sub s/) and inhibitory (N/sub i/) regulatory components of adenylyl cyclase. Cholera toxin acts on N/sub s/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha../sub s/ subunit; pertussis toxin acts on N/sub i/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha..; subunit. By using (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and determining the transfer of its (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribose moiety to membrane components, it is possible to obtain information on N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A set of protocols is presented that can be used to study simultaneously and comparatively the susceptibility of N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ to be ADP-ribosylated by cholera and pertussis toxin.

  7. Identification of a Class of Protein ADP-Ribosylating Sirtuins in Microbial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Morra, Rosa; Barkauskaite, Eva; Kraehenbuehl, Rolf; Ariza, Antonio; Qu, Yue; Ortmayer, Mary; Leidecker, Orsolya; Cameron, David R.; Matic, Ivan; Peleg, Anton Y.; Leys, David; Traven, Ana; Ahel, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sirtuins are an ancient family of NAD+-dependent deacylases connected with the regulation of fundamental cellular processes including metabolic homeostasis and genome integrity. We show the existence of a hitherto unrecognized class of sirtuins, found predominantly in microbial pathogens. In contrast to earlier described classes, these sirtuins exhibit robust protein ADP-ribosylation activity. In our model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the activity is dependent on prior lipoylation of the target protein and can be reversed by a sirtuin-associated macrodomain protein. Together, our data describe a sirtuin-dependent reversible protein ADP-ribosylation system and establish a crosstalk between lipoylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. We propose that these posttranslational modifications modulate microbial virulence by regulating the response to host-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26166706

  8. Kinetics of Interaction between ADP-ribosylation Factor-1 (Arf1) and the Sec7 Domain of Arno Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Modulation by Allosteric Factors, and the Uncompetitive Inhibitor Brefeldin A

    PubMed Central

    Rouhana, Jad; Padilla, André; Estaran, Sébastien; Bakari, Sana; Delbecq, Stephan; Boublik, Yvan; Chopineau, Joel; Pugnière, Martine; Chavanieu, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange of Arf1 is catalyzed by nucleotide exchange factors (GEF), such as Arno, which act through their catalytic Sec7 domain. This exchange is a complex mechanism that undergoes conformational changes and intermediate complex species involving several allosteric partners such as nucleotides, Mg2+, and Sec7 domains. Using a surface plasmon resonance approach, we characterized the kinetic binding parameters for various intermediate complexes. We first confirmed that both GDP and GTP counteract equivalently to the free-nucleotide binary Arf1-Arno complex stability and revealed that Mg2+ potentiates by a factor of 2 the allosteric effect of GDP. Then we explored the uncompetitive inhibitory mechanism of brefeldin A (BFA) that conducts to an abortive pentameric Arf1-Mg2+-GDP-BFA-Sec7 complex. With BFA, the association rate of the abortive complex is drastically reduced by a factor of 42, and by contrast, the 15-fold decrease of the dissociation rate concurs to stabilize the pentameric complex. These specific kinetic signatures have allowed distinguishing the level and nature as well as the fate in real time of formed complexes according to experimental conditions. Thus, we showed that in the presence of GDP, the BFA-resistant Sec7 domain of Arno can also associate to form a pentameric complex, which suggests that the uncompetitive inhibition by BFA and the nucleotide allosteric effect combine to stabilize such abortive complex. PMID:23255605

  9. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in the regulation of nuclear functions.

    PubMed Central

    D'Amours, D; Desnoyers, S; D'Silva, I; Poirier, G G

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins. During this process, molecules of ADP-ribose are added successively on to acceptor proteins to form branched polymers. This modification is transient but very extensive in vivo, as polymer chains can reach more than 200 units on protein acceptors. The existence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer was first reported nearly 40 years ago. Since then, the importance of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been established in many cellular processes. However, a clear and unified picture of the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation still remains to be established. The total dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis on DNA strand breaks strongly suggests that this post-translational modification is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids. This view is also supported by the identification of direct protein-protein interactions involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (113 kDa PARP), an enzyme catalysing the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), and key effectors of DNA repair, replication and transcription reactions. The presence of PARP in these multiprotein complexes, in addition to the actual poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of some components of these complexes, clearly supports an important role for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in DNA transactions. Accordingly, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by any of several approaches and the analysis of PARP-deficient cells has revealed that the absence of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly affects DNA metabolism, most notably DNA repair. The recent identification of new poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzymes with distinct (non-standard) structures in eukaryotes and archaea has revealed a novel level of complexity in the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. PMID:10455009

  10. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN–PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the β subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Δ membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Δ mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  11. Detection of ADP ribosylation in PARP-1 and bacterial toxins using a capillary-based western system.

    PubMed

    Rustandi, Richard R; Hamm, Melissa; Loughney, John W; Ha, Sha

    2015-11-01

    Both poly and mono ADP-ribosylation are common posttranslational protein modifications. For example, poly ADP-ribosylation is involved in DNA repair mechanisms through the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes. While mono ADP-ribosylation has been known to trigger cell death exhibited by many bacterial toxins. Because of the wide role of ADP-ribosylation, the detection and analysis are very important for further understanding of the PARP family of enzymes and the molecular mechanisms leading to cell toxicity in the presence of bacterial enzymes. Here, we describe a novel technique utilizing a CE-based Western technology to detect and analyze ADP-ribosylated proteins. The method is based on a nanovolume size separation that is automated, quantitative, offers great sensitivity, and is high-throughput for potential use in PARP drug screening inhibitor assays. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Structure of CARDS toxin, a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    DOE PAGES

    Becker, Argentina; Kannan, T. R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; ...

    2015-04-06

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and “walking” pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin (CARDS TX). CARDS TX binds to human surfactant protein A and annexin A2 on airway epithelial cells and is internalized, leading to a range of pathogenetic events. In this paper, we present the structure of CARDS TX, a triangular molecule in which N-terminal mART and C-terminal tandem β-trefoil domains associate to form anmore » overall architecture distinct from other well-recognized ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. We demonstrate that CARDS TX binds phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin specifically over other membrane lipids, and that cell surface binding and internalization activities are housed within the C-terminal β-trefoil domain. Finally, the results enhance our understanding of Mp pathogenicity and suggest a novel avenue for the development of therapies to treat Mp-associated asthma and other acute and chronic airway diseases.« less

  13. Structure of CARDS toxin, a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Becker, Argentina; Kannan, T R; Taylor, Alexander B; Pakhomova, Olga N; Zhang, Yanfeng; Somarajan, Sudha R; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Holloway, Stephen P; Baseman, Joel B; Hart, P John

    2015-04-21

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and "walking" pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin (CARDS TX). CARDS TX binds to human surfactant protein A and annexin A2 on airway epithelial cells and is internalized, leading to a range of pathogenetic events. Here we present the structure of CARDS TX, a triangular molecule in which N-terminal mART and C-terminal tandem β-trefoil domains associate to form an overall architecture distinct from other well-recognized ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. We demonstrate that CARDS TX binds phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin specifically over other membrane lipids, and that cell surface binding and internalization activities are housed within the C-terminal β-trefoil domain. The results enhance our understanding of Mp pathogenicity and suggest a novel avenue for the development of therapies to treat Mp-associated asthma and other acute and chronic airway diseases.

  14. Structure of CARDS toxin, a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Argentina; Kannan, T. R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Zhang, Yanfeng; Somarajan, Sudha R.; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Holloway, Stephen P.; Baseman, Joel B.; Hart, P. John

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and “walking” pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin (CARDS TX). CARDS TX binds to human surfactant protein A and annexin A2 on airway epithelial cells and is internalized, leading to a range of pathogenetic events. Here we present the structure of CARDS TX, a triangular molecule in which N-terminal mART and C-terminal tandem β-trefoil domains associate to form an overall architecture distinct from other well-recognized ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. We demonstrate that CARDS TX binds phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin specifically over other membrane lipids, and that cell surface binding and internalization activities are housed within the C-terminal β-trefoil domain. The results enhance our understanding of Mp pathogenicity and suggest a novel avenue for the development of therapies to treat Mp-associated asthma and other acute and chronic airway diseases. PMID:25848012

  15. Evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS regulates lipid storage.

    PubMed

    Bartz, René; Seemann, Joachim; Zehmer, John K; Serrero, Ginette; Chapman, Kent D; Anderson, Richard G W; Liu, Pingsheng

    2007-08-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is emerging as an important posttranslational modification that modulates a variety of cell signaling pathways. Here, we present evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of the transcriptional corepressor C terminal binding protein, brefeldin A (BFA)-induced ADP-ribosylated substrate (CtBP1/BARS) regulates neutral lipid storage in droplets that are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipid and associated proteins. CtBP1/BARS is an NAD-binding protein that becomes ribosylated when cells are exposed to BFA. Both endogenous lipid droplets and droplets enlarged by oleate treatment are lost after 12-h exposure to BFA. Lipid loss requires new protein synthesis, and it is blocked by multiple ribosylation inhibitors, but it is not stimulated by disruption of the Golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. Small interfering RNA knockdown of CtBP1/BARS mimics the effect of BFA, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from embryos that are deficient in CtBP1/BARS seem to be defective in lipid accumulation. We conclude that mono-ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS inactivates its repressor function, which leads to the activation of genes that regulate neutral lipid storage.

  16. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates insulator function and intrachromosomal interactions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chin-Tong; Van Bortle, Kevin; Ramos, Edward; Corces, Victor G

    2013-09-26

    Insulators mediate inter- and intrachromosomal contacts to regulate enhancer-promoter interactions and establish chromosome domains. The mechanisms by which insulator activity can be regulated to orchestrate changes in the function and three-dimensional arrangement of the genome remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila insulator proteins are poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated and that mutation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) gene impairs their function. This modification is not essential for DNA occupancy of insulator DNA-binding proteins dCTCF and Su(Hw). However, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of K566 in CP190 promotes protein-protein interactions with other insulator proteins, association with the nuclear lamina, and insulator activity in vivo. Consistent with these findings, the nuclear clustering of CP190 complexes is disrupted in Parp mutant cells. Importantly, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation facilitates intrachromosomal interactions between insulator sites measured by 4C. These data suggest that the role of insulators in organizing the three-dimensional architecture of the genome may be modulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates insulator function and intra-chromosomal interactions in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chin-Tong; Van Bortle, Kevin; Ramos, Edward; Corces, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Insulators mediate inter- and intra-chromosomal contacts to regulate enhancer-promoter interactions and establish chromosome domains. The mechanisms by which insulator activity can be regulated to orchestrate changes in the function and three-dimensional arrangement of the genome remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila insulator proteins are poly(ADP-ribosyl) ated and mutation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) gene impairs their function. This modification is not essential for DNA occupancy of insulator DNA-binding proteins dCTCF and Su(Hw). However, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of K566 in CP190 promotes protein-protein interactions with other insulator proteins, association with the nuclear lamina and insulator activity in vivo. Consistent with these findings, the nuclear clustering of CP190 complexes is disrupted in Parp mutant cells. Importantly, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation facilitates intra-chromosomal interactions between insulator sites measured by 4C. These data suggest that the role of insulators in organizing the three-dimensional architecture of the genome may be modulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. PMID:24055367

  18. Histone ADP-Ribosylation Facilitates Gene Transcription by Directly Remodeling Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Zamudio, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes imposes obstacles on gene transcription, and histone-modifying and nucleosome-remodeling complexes work in concert to alleviate these obstacles so as to facilitate transcription. Emerging evidence shows that chromatin-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and its enzymatic activity facilitate inflammatory gene transcription and modulate the inflammatory response in animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PARP-1 enzymatic activity facilitates transcription are not well understood. Here we show that through an intracellular signaling pathway, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induces PARP-1 enzymatic activity and the ADP-ribosylation of histones at transcriptionally active and accessible chromatin regions in macrophages. In vitro DNase I footprinting and restriction endonuclease accessibility assays reveal that histone ADP-ribosylation directly destabilizes histone-DNA interactions in the nucleosome and increases the site accessibility of the nucleosomal DNA to nucleases. Consistent with this, LPS stimulation-induced ADP-ribosylation at the nucleosome-occupied promoters of il-1β, mip-2, and csf2 facilitates NF-κB recruitment and the transcription of these genes in macrophages. Therefore, our data suggest that PARP-1 enzymatic activity facilitates gene transcription through increasing promoter accessibility by histone ADP-ribosylation. PMID:22547677

  19. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  20. Site-specific ADP-ribosylation of histone H2B in response to DNA double strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Rakhimova, Alina; Ura, Seiji; Hsu, Duen-Wei; Wang, Hong-Yu; Pears, Catherine J.; Lakin, Nicholas D.

    2017-01-01

    ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) modify proteins with single units or polymers of ADP-ribose to regulate DNA repair. However, the substrates for these enzymes are ill-defined. For example, although histones are modified by ARTs, the sites on these proteins ADP-ribosylated following DNA damage and the ARTs that catalyse these events are unknown. This, in part, is due to the lack of a eukaryotic model that contains ARTs, in addition to histone genes that can be manipulated to assess ADP-ribosylation events in vivo. Here we exploit the model Dictyostelium to identify site-specific histone ADP-ribosylation events in vivo and define the ARTs that mediate these modifications. Dictyostelium histones are modified in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in vivo by the ARTs Adprt1a and Adprt2. Adprt1a is a mono-ART that modifies H2BE18 in vitro, although disruption of this site allows ADP-ribosylation at H2BE19. Although redundancy between H2BE18 and H2BE19 ADP-ribosylation is also apparent following DSBs in vivo, by generating a strain with mutations at E18/E19 in the h2b locus we demonstrate these are the principal sites modified by Adprt1a/Adprt2. This identifies DNA damage induced histone mono-ADP-ribosylation sites by specific ARTs in vivo, providing a unique platform to assess how histone ADP-ribosylation regulates DNA repair. PMID:28252050

  1. NADP/sup +/ enhances cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Y.; Whitsel, C.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-05-01

    Cholera or pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation is frequently used to estimate the concentration of the stimulatory (Ns) or inhibitory (Ni) guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase. With this assay, however, the degradation of the substrate, NAD/sup +/, by endogenous enzymes such as NAD/sup +/-glycohydrolase (NADase) present in the test membranes can influence the results. In this study the authors show that both cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation of liver membrane proteins is markedly enhanced by NADP/sup +/. The effect is concentration dependent; with 20 ..mu..M (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ as substrate maximal enhancement is obtained at 0.5-1.0 mM NADP/sup +/. The enhancement of (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation by NADP/sup +/ was much greater than that by other known effectors such as Mg/sup 2 +/, phosphate or isoniazid. The effect of NADP/sup +/ on ADP-ribosylation may occur by inhibition of the degradation of NAD/sup +/ probably by acting as an alternate substrate for NADase. Among inhibitors tested (NADP/sup +/, isoniazid, imidazole, nicotinamide, L-Arg-methyl-ester and HgCl/sub 2/) to suppress NADase activity, NADP/sup +/ was the most effective and, 10 mM, inhibited activity of the enzyme by about 90%. In membranes which contain substantial activities of NADase the inclusion of NADP/sup +/ in the assay is necessary to obtain maximal ADP-ribosylation.

  2. Arginine-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, L E; Rendell, N B; Murray, S; Allport, J R; Lo, G; Kefalas, P; Taylor, G W; MacDermot, J

    1996-01-01

    An Arg-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes (PMNs) was confirmed by the use of diethylamino-(benzylidineamino)guanidine (DEA-BAG) as an ADP-ribose acceptor. Two separate HPLC systems were used to separate ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG from reaction mixtures, and its presence was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG was produced in the presence of PMNs, but not in their absence. Incubation of DEA-BAG with ADP-ribose (0.1-10 mM) did not yield ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG, which indicates that ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG formed in the presence of PMNs was not simply a product of a reaction between DEA-BAG and free ADP-ribose, due possibly to the hydrolysis of NAD+ by an NAD+ glycohydrolase. The assay of mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase with agmatine as a substrate was modified for intact PMNs, and the activity was found to be approx. 50-fold lower than that in rabbit cardiac membranes. The Km of the enzyme for NAD+ was 100.1 30.4 microM and the Vmax 1.4 0.2 pmol of ADP-ribosylagmatine/h per 10(6) cells. The enzyme is likely to be linked to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, since incubation of intact PMNs with phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) led to a 98% decrease in mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity in the cells. Cell surface proteins were labelled after exposure of intact PMNs to [32P]NAD+. Their molecular masses were 79, 67, 46, 36 and 26 kDa. The time course for labelling was non-linear under these conditions over a period of 4 h. The labelled products were identified as mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins by hydrolysis with snake venom phosphodiesterase to yield 5'-AMP. PMID:8615841

  3. Design and synthesis of potent inhibitors of the mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, PARP14.

    PubMed

    Upton, Kristen; Meyers, Matthew; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Karlberg, Tobias; Holechek, Jacob; Lease, Robert; Schey, Garrett; Wolf, Emily; Lucente, Adrianna; Schüler, Herwig; Ferraris, Dana

    2017-07-01

    A series of (Z)-4-(3-carbamoylphenylamino)-4-oxobut-2-enyl amides were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the mono-(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, PARP14 (a.k.a. BAL-2; ARTD-8). Two synthetic routes were established for this series and several compounds were identified as sub-micromolar inhibitors of PARP14, the most potent of which was compound 4t, IC50=160nM. Furthermore, profiling other members of this series identified compounds with >20-fold selectivity over PARP5a/TNKS1, and modest selectivity over PARP10, a closely related mono-(ADP-ribosyl)transferase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation as a new posttranslational modification of YB-1.

    PubMed

    Alemasova, Elizaveta E; Pestryakov, Pavel E; Sukhanova, Maria V; Kretov, Dmitry A; Moor, Nina A; Curmi, Patrick A; Ovchinnikov, Lev P; Lavrik, Olga I

    2015-12-01

    Multifunctional Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is actively studied as one of the components of cellular response to genotoxic stress. However, the precise role of YB-1 in the process of DNA repair is still obscure. In the present work we report for the first time new posttranslational modification of YB-1 - poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, catalyzed by one of the main regulatory enzymes of DNA repair - poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) in the presence of model DNA substrate carrying multiple DNA lesions. Therefore, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of YB-1 catalyzed with PARP1, can be stimulated by damaged DNA. The observed property of YB-1 underlines its ability to participate in the DNA repair by its involvement in the regulatory cascades of DNA repair.

  5. Serine is a new target residue for endogenous ADP-ribosylation on histones.

    PubMed

    Leidecker, Orsolya; Bonfiglio, Juan José; Colby, Thomas; Zhang, Qi; Atanassov, Ilian; Zaja, Roko; Palazzo, Luca; Stockum, Anna; Ahel, Ivan; Matic, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    ADP-ribosylation (ADPr) is a biologically and clinically important post-translational modification, but little is known about the amino acids it targets on cellular proteins. Here we present a proteomic approach for direct in vivo identification and quantification of ADPr sites on histones. We have identified 12 unique ADPr sites in human osteosarcoma cells and report serine ADPr as a new type of histone mark that responds to DNA damage.

  6. Serine is a new target residue for endogenous ADP-ribosylation on histones

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Thomas; Zhang, Qi; Atanassov, Ilian; Zaja, Roko; Palazzo, Luca; Stockum, Anna; Ahel, Ivan; Matic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation (ADPr) is a biologically and clinically important post-translational modification, but little is known about the amino acids it targets on cellular proteins. Here we present a proteomic approach for direct in vivo identification and quantification of ADPr sites on histones. We have identified 12 unique ADPr sites in human osteosarcoma cells and report serine ADPr as a new type of histone mark that responds to DNA damage. PMID:27723750

  7. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry.

  8. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  9. PARPs and ADP-ribosylation: recent advances linking molecular functions to biological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Rebecca; Liu, Ziying; Kraus, W. Lee

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) >50 years ago opened a new field, leading the way for the discovery of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes and the ADP-ribosylation reactions that they catalyze. Although the field was initially focused primarily on the biochemistry and molecular biology of PARP-1 in DNA damage detection and repair, the mechanistic and functional understanding of the role of PARPs in different biological processes has grown considerably of late. This has been accompanied by a shift of focus from enzymology to a search for substrates as well as the first attempts to determine the functional consequences of site-specific ADP-ribosylation on those substrates. Supporting these advances is a host of methodological approaches from chemical biology, proteomics, genomics, cell biology, and genetics that have propelled new discoveries in the field. New findings on the diverse roles of PARPs in chromatin regulation, transcription, RNA biology, and DNA repair have been complemented by recent advances that link ADP-ribosylation to stress responses, metabolism, viral infections, and cancer. These studies have begun to reveal the promising ways in which PARPs may be targeted therapeutically for the treatment of disease. In this review, we discuss these topics and relate them to the future directions of the field. PMID:28202539

  10. PARPs and ADP-ribosylation: recent advances linking molecular functions to biological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Rebecca; Liu, Ziying; Kraus, W Lee

    2017-01-15

    The discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) >50 years ago opened a new field, leading the way for the discovery of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes and the ADP-ribosylation reactions that they catalyze. Although the field was initially focused primarily on the biochemistry and molecular biology of PARP-1 in DNA damage detection and repair, the mechanistic and functional understanding of the role of PARPs in different biological processes has grown considerably of late. This has been accompanied by a shift of focus from enzymology to a search for substrates as well as the first attempts to determine the functional consequences of site-specific ADP-ribosylation on those substrates. Supporting these advances is a host of methodological approaches from chemical biology, proteomics, genomics, cell biology, and genetics that have propelled new discoveries in the field. New findings on the diverse roles of PARPs in chromatin regulation, transcription, RNA biology, and DNA repair have been complemented by recent advances that link ADP-ribosylation to stress responses, metabolism, viral infections, and cancer. These studies have begun to reveal the promising ways in which PARPs may be targeted therapeutically for the treatment of disease. In this review, we discuss these topics and relate them to the future directions of the field. © 2017 Gupte et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a herpes simplex virus immediate early polypeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, C.M.; Notarianni, E.L.

    1983-12-01

    In vitro poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate early polypeptide Vmw175 is reported. The phenomenon was most clearly observed by use of the temperature-sensitive mutant tsK, which overproduces Vmw175 at the nonpermissive temperature (NPT) and has a mutation in the coding sequences for this polypeptide. Nuclei prepared from cells which were infected with tsK at NPT and subsequently downshifted to the permissive temperature incorporated (/sup 32/P)NAD into Vmw175. This reaction did not occur when nuclei were prepared from cells constantly maintained at NPT, showing that only functional Vmw175 can be radiolabeled with (/sup 32/P)NAD. The identity of the acceptor protein was confirmed by demonstrating the expected electrophoretic mobility differences between the HSV-1 and HSV-2 counterparts of Vmw175. The use of suitable inhibitors demonstrated that the reaction represented mono- or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and further analysis showed the presence of long poly(ADP-ribose) chains attached to Vmw175. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may be important as a cause or result of the regulation of viral transcription by Vmw175. Radiolabeling of another virus-specified polypeptide (approximate molecular weight 38,000), thought to be a structural component of the input virus, is also reported.

  12. ADP-ribosylating bacterial enzymes for the targeted control of mucosal tolerance and immunity.

    PubMed

    Lycke, Nils

    2004-12-01

    The questions of whether mucosal tolerance and IgA immunity are mutually exclusive or can coexist and whether they represent priming of the local immune system through the same or different activation pathways are addressed. Two strategies were attempted: the first using cholera toxin (CT) or the enzymatically inactive receptor-binding B subunit of CT (CTB), and the second using CTA1-DD or an enzymatically inactive mutant thereof, CTA1R7K-DD. The CTA1-DD adjuvant is a fusion protein composed of the ADP-ribosylating part of CT, CTA1, and DD, which is derived from Staphylococcus areus protein A and targets the molecule to B cells. Here, we provide compelling evidence that delivery of antigen in the absence of ADP ribosylation can promote tolerance, whereas ADP-ribosyltransferase activity induces IgA immunity and prevents tolerance. By linking antigen to the ADP-ribosylating enzymes we could show that CT, although potentially binding to all nucleated cells, in fact, bound preferentially to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo. On the other hand, DD-bound antigen was distinctly targeted to B cells and probably also to follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in vivo. Interestingly, the CT and CTA1-DD adjuvants gave equally enhancing effects on mucosal and systemic responses, but appeared to target different APCs in vivo. CT- or CTB-conjugated antigen accumulated in mucosal and systemic DCs. Whereas only CT promoted an active IgA response, CTB induced tolerance to the conjugated antigen. Following intravenous injection of CT-conjugated antigen, DCs in the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen were selectively targeted. Interestingly, CTB delivered antigen to the same MZ DCs, but failed to induce maturation and upregulation of costimulatory molecules in these cells. Thus, ADP-ribosylation was necessary for a strong enhancing effect of immune responses following CT/CTB-dependent delivery of antigen to the MZ DCs. Moreover, using CTA1-DD, antigen was targeted to the B cell follicle and FDC

  13. Distribution of cytotoxic and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in crude extracts from butterflies among the family Pieridae

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasuko; Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Odagiri, Ken-Ichi; Yata, Osamu; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae, contain strong cytotoxic proteins, designated as pierisin-1 and -2, against cancer cell lines. These proteins exhibit DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. To determine the distribution of substances with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity among other species, crude extracts from 20 species of the family Pieridae were examined for cytotoxicity in HeLa cells and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. Both activities were detected in extracts from 13 species: subtribes Pierina (Pieris rapae, Pieris canidia, Pieris napi, Pieris melete, Pieris brassicae, Pontia daplidice, and Talbotia naganum), Aporiina (Aporia gigantea, Aporia crataegi, Aporia hippia, and Delias pasithoe), and Appiadina (Appias nero and Appias paulina). All of these extracts contained substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies, with a molecular mass of ≈100 kDa established earlier for pierisin-1. Moreover, sequences containing NAD-binding sites, conserved in ADP-ribosyltransferases, were amplified from genomic DNA from 13 species of butterflies with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity by PCR. Extracts from seven species, Appias lyncida, Leptosia nina, Anthocharis scolymus, Eurema hecabe, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia scylla, and Colias erate, showed neither cytotoxicity nor DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, and did not contain substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies. Sequences containing NAD-binding sites were not amplified from genomic DNA from these seven species. Thus, pierisin-like proteins, showing cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, are suggested to be present in the extracts from butterflies not only among the subtribe Pierina, but also among the subtribes Aporiina and Appiadina. These findings offer insight to understanding the nature of DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in the butterfly. PMID:18256183

  14. Roles of Asp179 and Glu270 in ADP-Ribosylation of Actin by Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Belyy, Alexander; Tabakova, Irina; Lang, Alexander E.; Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin composed of the enzymatically active component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ia is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies Arg177 of actin. The previously determined crystal structure of the actin-Ia complex suggested involvement of Asp179 of actin in the ADP-ribosylation reaction. To gain more insights into the structural requirements of actin to serve as a substrate for toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation, we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, in which wild type actin was replaced by actin variants with substitutions in residues located on the Ia-actin interface. Expression of the actin mutant Arg177Lys resulted in complete resistance towards Ia. Actin mutation of Asp179 did not change Ia-induced ADP-ribosylation and growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae. By contrast, substitution of Glu270 of actin inhibited the toxic action of Ia and the ADP-ribosylation of actin. In vitro transcribed/translated human β-actin confirmed the crucial role of Glu270 in ADP-ribosylation of actin by Ia. PMID:26713879

  15. In vivo vizualisation of mono-ADP-ribosylation by dPARP16 upon amino-acid starvation

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Gomez, Angelica; van Oorschot, Marinke M; Veenendaal, Tineke; Rabouille, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    PARP catalysed ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification involved in several physiological and pathological processes, including cellular stress. In order to visualise both Poly-, and Mono-, ADP-ribosylation in vivo, we engineered specific fluorescent probes. Using them, we show that amino-acid starvation triggers an unprecedented display of mono-ADP-ribosylation that governs the formation of Sec body, a recently identified stress assembly that forms in Drosophila cells. We show that dPARP16 catalytic activity is necessary and sufficient for both amino-acid starvation induced mono-ADP-ribosylation and subsequent Sec body formation and cell survival. Importantly, dPARP16 catalyses the modification of Sec16, a key Sec body component, and we show that it is a critical event for the formation of this stress assembly. Taken together our findings establish a novel example for the role of mono-ADP-ribosylation in the formation of stress assemblies, and link this modification to a metabolic stress. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21475.001 PMID:27874829

  16. New C25 carbamate rifamycin derivatives are resistant to inactivation by ADP-ribosyl transferases.

    PubMed

    Combrink, Keith D; Denton, Daniel A; Harran, Susan; Ma, Zhenkun; Chapo, Katrina; Yan, Dalai; Bonventre, Eric; Roche, Eric D; Doyle, Timothy B; Robertson, Gregory T; Lynch, Anthony S

    2007-01-15

    A novel series of 3-morpholino rifamycins in which the C25 acetate group was replaced by a carbamate group were prepared and found to exhibit significantly improved antimicrobial activity than rifampin against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Further characterization of such compounds suggests that relatively large groups attached to the rifamycin core via a C25 carbamate linkage prevent inactivation via ribosylation of the C23 alcohol as catalyzed by the endogenous rifampin ADP-ribosyl transferase of M. smegmatis. SAR studies of the C25 carbamate rifamycin series against M. smegmatis and other bacteria are reported.

  17. Distribution of protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation systems across all domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Perina, Dragutin; Mikoč, Andreja; Ahel, Josip; Ćetković, Helena; Žaja, Roko; Ahel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is widely utilized in eukaryotes and PARPs are present in representatives from all six major eukaryotic supergroups, with only a small number of eukaryotic species that do not possess PARP genes. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed at least five types of PARP proteins that include both mono and poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases. Distribution of PARGs strictly follows the distribution of PARP proteins in eukaryotic species. At least one of the macrodomain proteins that hydrolyse terminal ADP-ribose is also always present. Therefore, we can presume that the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed a fully functional and reversible PAR metabolism and that PAR signalling provided the conditions essential for survival of the ancestral eukaryote in its ancient environment. PARP proteins are far less prevalent in bacteria and were probably gained through horizontal gene transfer. Only eleven bacterial species possess all proteins essential for a functional PAR metabolism, although it is not known whether PAR metabolism is truly functional in bacteria. Several dsDNA viruses also possess PARP homologues, while no PARP proteins have been identified in any archaeal genome. Our analysis of the distribution of enzymes involved in PAR metabolism provides insight into the evolution of these important signalling systems, as well as

  18. Glycine 100 in the dinitrogenase reductase of Rhodospirillum rubrum is required for nitrogen fixation but not for ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, L J; Roberts, G P

    1991-01-01

    Dinitrogenase reductase (Rr2) is required for reduction of the molybdenum dinitrogenase in the nitrogen fixation reaction and is the target of posttranslational regulation in Rhodospirillum rubrum. This posttranslational regulation involves the ADP-ribosylation of Rr2. To study the structural requirements for these two functions of Rr2, i.e., activity and regulation, two site-directed mutations in nifH, the gene encoding Rr2, were constructed and analyzed. The mutations both affected a region of the protein known to be highly conserved in evolution and to be relevant to both of the above properties. These mutants were both Nif-, but one of the altered Rr2s was a substrate for ADP-ribosylation. This demonstrates that the ability of Rr2 to participate in nitrogen fixation can be separated from its ability to act as a substrate for ADP-ribosylation. Images PMID:1917849

  19. Further evidence for poly-ADP-ribosylated histones as DNA suppressors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, F.L.; Geronimo, I.H.; Bender, W.; Meginniss, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    For many years histones have been considered to be the gene suppressors in eukaryotic cells. Recently, the authors have found strong evidence indicating that poly-ADP-ribosylated histones, rather than histones, are the potent inhibitors of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. They now report additional evidence for this concept: 1) using histone inhibitor isolated directly from nuclei, the authors are able to confirm their earlier findings that the inhibitor substances are sensitive to pronase, snake venom phosphodiesterase digestion and 0.1N KOH hydrolysis, and are resistant to DNase I and RNase A digestion, 2) the O.D. 260/O.D.280 ratio of the histone inhibitor is between pure protein and nuclei acid, suggesting the inhibitor substance is a nucleoprotein hybrid. This result directly supports the fact that the isolated histone inhibitor is radioactive poly (ADP-ribose) labeled, 3) commercial histones show big differences in inhibitor activity. The authors believe this reflects the variation in poly-ADP-ribosylation among commercial histones, and 4) 0.1N KOH hydrolysis eliminates the poly (ADP-ribose) radioactivity from the acceptor proteins as well as histone inhibitor activity. Yet, on gel, the inhibitor shows identical histone bands and stain intensity before and after hydrolysis, indicating the histones per se are qualitatively and quantitatively unaffected by alkaline treatment. This result strongly suggests that histones themselves are not capable of inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA synthesis.

  20. PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation via STAT1 ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Goettsch, Claudia; Sharma, Amitabh; Ricchiuto, Piero; Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Halu, Arda; Yamada, Iwao; Yoshida, Hideo; Hara, Takuya; Wei, Mei; Inoue, Noriyuki; Fukuda, Daiju; Mojcher, Alexander; Mattson, Peter C.; Barabási, Albert-László; Boothby, Mark; Aikawa, Elena; Singh, Sasha A.; Aikawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Despite the global impact of macrophage activation in vascular disease, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show, with global proteomic analysis of macrophage cell lines treated with either IFNγ or IL-4, that PARP9 and PARP14 regulate macrophage activation. In primary macrophages, PARP9 and PARP14 have opposing roles in macrophage activation. PARP14 silencing induces pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells, whereas it suppresses anti-inflammatory gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in M(IL-4) cells. PARP9 silencing suppresses pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells. PARP14 induces ADP-ribosylation of STAT1, which is suppressed by PARP9. Mutations at these ADP-ribosylation sites lead to increased phosphorylation. Network analysis links PARP9–PARP14 with human coronary artery disease. PARP14 deficiency in haematopoietic cells accelerates the development and inflammatory burden of acute and chronic arterial lesions in mice. These findings suggest that PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation. PMID:27796300

  1. ADP ribosylation adapts an ER chaperone response to short-term fluctuations in unfolded protein load

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Kseniya; Tomba, Giulia; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression programs that regulate the abundance of the chaperone BiP adapt the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to unfolded protein load. However, such programs are slow compared with physiological fluctuations in secreted protein synthesis. While searching for mechanisms that fill this temporal gap in coping with ER stress, we found elevated levels of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)–ribosylated BiP in the inactive pancreas of fasted mice and a rapid decline in this modification in the active fed state. ADP ribosylation mapped to Arg470 and Arg492 in the substrate-binding domain of hamster BiP. Mutations that mimic the negative charge of ADP-ribose destabilized substrate binding and interfered with interdomain allosteric coupling, marking ADP ribosylation as a rapid posttranslational mechanism for reversible inactivation of BiP. A kinetic model showed that buffering fluctuations in unfolded protein load with a recruitable pool of inactive chaperone is an efficient strategy to minimize both aggregation and costly degradation of unfolded proteins. PMID:22869598

  2. Crystal structure of the ADP-ribosylating component of BEC, the binary enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Yonogi, Shinya; Munetomo, Ryota; Oki, Hiroya; Yoshida, Takuya; Kumeda, Yuko; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Kodama, Toshio; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Iida, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shota

    2016-11-11

    Binary enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens (BEC), consisting of the components BECa and BECb, was recently identified as a novel enterotoxin produced by C. perfringens that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. Although the detailed mechanism of cell intoxication by BEC remains to be defined, BECa shows both NAD(+)-glycohydrolase and actin ADP-ribosyltransferase activities in the presence of NAD(+). In this study, we determined the first crystal structure of BECa in its apo-state and in complex with NADH. The structure of BECa shows striking resemblance with other binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins (ADPRTs), especially in terms of its overall protein fold and mechanisms of substrate recognition. We present a detailed picture of interactions between BECa and NADH, including bound water molecules located near the C1'-N glycosidic bond of NADH and the catalytically important ADP-ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT) loop. We observed that the conformational rearrangement of the ARTT loop, possibly triggered by a conformational change involving a conserved tyrosine residue coupled with substrate binding, plays a crucial role in catalysis by properly positioning a catalytic glutamate residue in the E-X-E motif of the ARTT loop in contact with the nucleophile. Our results for BECa provide insight into the common catalytic mechanism of the family of binary actin ADPRTs.

  3. PARP-2 regulates cell cycle-related genes through histone deacetylation and methylation independently of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chiao-Yu; Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► PARP-2 acts as a transcription co-repressor independently of PARylation activity. ► PARP-2 recruits HDAC5, 7, and G9a and generates repressive chromatin. ► PARP-2 is recruited to the c-MYC promoter by DNA-binding factor YY1. ► PARP-2 represses cell cycle-related genes and alters cell cycle progression. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and regulates numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. Depletion of PARP-2 alters the activity of transcription factors and global gene expression. However, the molecular action of how PARP-2 controls the transcription of target promoters remains unclear. Here we report that PARP-2 possesses transcriptional repression activity independently of its enzymatic activity. PARP-2 interacts and recruits histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoters of cell cycle-related genes, generating repressive chromatin signatures. Our findings propose a novel mechanism of PARP-2 in transcriptional regulation involving specific protein–protein interactions and highlight the importance of PARP-2 in the regulation of cell cycle progression.

  4. Structure of CARDS toxin, a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Argentina; Kannan, T. R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Zhang, Yanfeng; Somarajan, Sudha R.; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Holloway, Stephen P.; Baseman, Joel B.; Hart, P. John

    2015-04-06

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and “walking” pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin (CARDS TX). CARDS TX binds to human surfactant protein A and annexin A2 on airway epithelial cells and is internalized, leading to a range of pathogenetic events. In this paper, we present the structure of CARDS TX, a triangular molecule in which N-terminal mART and C-terminal tandem β-trefoil domains associate to form an overall architecture distinct from other well-recognized ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. We demonstrate that CARDS TX binds phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin specifically over other membrane lipids, and that cell surface binding and internalization activities are housed within the C-terminal β-trefoil domain. Finally, the results enhance our understanding of Mp pathogenicity and suggest a novel avenue for the development of therapies to treat Mp-associated asthma and other acute and chronic airway diseases.

  5. Role of CTCF poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation in the regulation of apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Bhooma; Klenova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: CTCF is a candidate tumor suppressor gene encoding a multifunctional transcription factor. CTCF function is controlled by posttranslational modification and interaction with other proteins. Research findings suggested that CTCF function can be regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARlation) and has specific anti-apoptotic function in breast cancer cells. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of CTCF-wild type (WT) and CTCF complete mutant, which is deficient of PARlation in regulating apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The effect of CTCF-WT and CTCF complete mutant was expressed in breast cancer cell-lines by DNA-mediated transfection technique monitored by enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence. Evaluation of apoptotic cell death was carried out with immunohistochemical staining using 4’-6’-diamino-2 phenylindole and scoring by fluorescent microscopy. Results: CTCF-WT supports survival of breast cancer cells and was observed that CTCF complete mutant interferes with the functions of the CTCF-WT and there was a considerable apoptotic cell death in the breast cancer cell lines such as MDA-MB-435, CAMA-1 and MCF-7. Conclusion: The study enlighten CTCF as a Biological Marker for breast cancer and the role of CTCF PARlation may be involved in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:25810575

  6. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) regulates chromatin organization through histone H3 modification and DNA methylation of the first cell cycle of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, Tomoharu; Rydén, Anna-Margareta; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Histone modification of the mouse pronuclei is regulated by poly(ADP-ribosylation). •Hypermethylation of the mouse female pronuclei is maintained by poly(ADP-ribosylation). •Parp1 is physically interacted with Suz12, which may function in the pronuclei. •Poly(ADP-ribosylation) affects ultrastructure of chromatin of the mouse pronucleus. -- Abstract: We examined the roles of poly(ADP-ribosylation) in chromatin remodeling during the first cell cycle of mouse embryos. Drug-based inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosylation) by a PARP inhibitor, PJ-34, revealed up-regulation of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 in male pronuclei and down-regulation of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) and lysine 27 (H3K27). Association of poly(ADP-ribosylation) with histone modification was suggested to be supported by the interaction of Suz12, a histone methyltransferase in the polycomb complex, with Parp1. PARP activity was suggested to be required for a proper localization and maintenance of Suz12 on chromosomes. Notably, DNA methylation level of female pronuclei in one-cell embryos was robustly decreased by PJ-34. Electron microscopic analysis showed a frequent appearance of unusual electron-dense areas within the female pronuclei, implying the disorganized and hypercondensed chromatin ultrastructure. These results show that poly(ADP-ribosylation) is important for the integrity of non-equivalent epigenetic dynamics of pronuclei during the first cell cycle of mouse embryos.

  7. Characterization and role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in the Mediterranean species Cistus incanus L. under different temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Arena, Carmen; Mistretta, Carmela; Di Natale, Emiliana; Mennella, Maria Rosaria Faraone; De Santo, Amalia Virzo; De Maio, Anna

    2011-04-01

    In plants, the decline of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity is involved in energy homeostasis and stress tolerance. By reducing stress-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity, NAD(+) breakdown is inhibited preventing high energy consumption. Under these conditions, plants preserve their energy homeostasis without an overactivation of mitochondrial respiration, thus avoiding the production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, plants with lowered poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity appear tolerant to multiple stresses. In this study, the evergreen species Cistus incanus L. was used as a model because of its capacity to overcome successfully the environmental constraints of the Mediterranean climate. The aim of the present work was to characterize and assess the role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in C. incanus plants kept under different temperature in greenhouse (GH), outdoor during winter (WO) and outdoor during spring (SO). Data showed that in C. incanus polyADPribose metabolism occurs. The enzyme responsible for poly(ADP-ribose) chains synthesis is a poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase of about 80 kDa, lacking "zinc finger" N-terminal domain and able to automodify. The lowest PARP activity, as well as the lowest quantum yield of PSII linear electron transport (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching (q(P)), was found in WO plants. Instead, in SO plants the recovery of photochemical activity associated to a poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity increase of about 50%, as compared to GH plants, was observed. Taking into account both biochemical and eco-physiological responses, a possible explanation for the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation deficiency in WO plants has been hypothesized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural basis for DNA-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by human PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Langelier, Marie-France; Planck, Jamie L.; Roy, Swati; Pascal, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has a modular domain architecture that couples DNA damage detection to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity through a poorly understood mechanism. Here we report the crystal structure of a DNA double-strand break in complex with human PARP-1 domains essential for activation (Zn1, Zn3, WGR-CAT). PARP-1 engages DNA as a monomer, and the interaction with DNA damage organizes PARP-1 domains into a collapsed conformation that can explain the strong preference for automodification. The Zn1, Zn3, and WGR domains collectively bind to DNA, forming a network of interdomain contacts that links the DNA damage interface to the catalytic domain (CAT). The DNA damage-induced conformation of PARP-1 results in structural distortions that destabilize the CAT. Our results suggest that an increase in CAT protein dynamics underlies the DNA-dependent activation mechanism of PARP-1. PMID:22582261

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of brefeldin A-ADP ribosylated substrate (BARS).

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marco; Spanò, Stefania; Cericola, Claudia; Pesce, Alessandra; Damonte, Gianluca; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela; Bolognesi, Martino

    2002-06-01

    Brefeldin A-ADP ribosylated substrate (BARS) is a newly discovered enzyme involved in membrane fission, catalyzing the formation of phosphatidic acid by transfer of an acyl group from acyl-CoA to lysophosphatidic acid. A truncated form of BARS, lacking the C-terminal segment expected to interact with the Golgi membrane, has been expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. BARS crystals diffract up to 2.5 A resolution using synchrotron radiation and belong to space group P6(2)22/P6(4)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 89.2, c = 162.6 A, alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees and one molecule (39.5 kDa) per asymmetric unit. SeMet-substituted BARS has been crystallized under growth conditions very similar to those of the native protein.

  10. ADP-ribosylation of glutamine synthetase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed Central

    Silman, N J; Carr, N G; Mann, N H

    1995-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) inactivation was observed in crude cell extracts and in the high-speed supernatant fraction from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 following the addition of ammonium ions, glutamine, or glutamate. Dialysis of the high-speed supernatant resulted in loss of inactivation activity, but this could be restored by the addition of NADH, NADPH, or NADP+ and, to a lesser extent, NAD+, suggesting that inactivation of GS involved ADP-ribosylation. This form of modification was confirmed both by labelling experiments using [32P]NAD+ and by chemical analysis of the hydrolyzed enzyme. Three different forms of GS, exhibiting no activity, biosynthetic activity only, or transferase activity only, could be resolved by chromatography, and the differences in activity were correlated with the extent of the modification. Both biosynthetic and transferase activities were restored to the completely inactive form of GS by treatment with phosphodiesterase. PMID:7768863

  11. ADP-ribosylation of glutamine synthetase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Silman, N J; Carr, N G; Mann, N H

    1995-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) inactivation was observed in crude cell extracts and in the high-speed supernatant fraction from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 following the addition of ammonium ions, glutamine, or glutamate. Dialysis of the high-speed supernatant resulted in loss of inactivation activity, but this could be restored by the addition of NADH, NADPH, or NADP+ and, to a lesser extent, NAD+, suggesting that inactivation of GS involved ADP-ribosylation. This form of modification was confirmed both by labelling experiments using [32P]NAD+ and by chemical analysis of the hydrolyzed enzyme. Three different forms of GS, exhibiting no activity, biosynthetic activity only, or transferase activity only, could be resolved by chromatography, and the differences in activity were correlated with the extent of the modification. Both biosynthetic and transferase activities were restored to the completely inactive form of GS by treatment with phosphodiesterase.

  12. Poly ADP ribosylation as a possible mechanism of microwave--biointeraction.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Rudra, N; Bansal, P; Mathur, R; Behari, J; Nayar, U

    1994-07-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) affect the metabolism of the body including the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, hematological as well as the reproductive system. EMFs are environmental pollutants, thus posing a health hazard which can cause steric changes in the molecule located at the cell surface. Microwaves are known to cause chromosomal abberations and act as tumor promoters. The process involves a stream of signals from cell membrane to nucleus and other organelles. The present investigations aim to understand the mechanism of biological effects of microwaves (2.45 GHz). The effect was studied on poly ADP-ribosylation, which is a post translational modification of chromatin protein catalysed by the enzyme poly ADPR polymerase using NAD+ as the substrate. Poly ADP-ribosylation has been shown to be involved in several aspects of chromatin structure and function. Twenty-three days old rats weighing 42-48 gms were exposed at a microwave dose level of 1.0 mW/cm2. After exposure for sixty days the animals were sacrificed and an estimation of poly ADPR polymerase activity was undertaken in different organs of these animals. There was an increase of 20% in its activity in liver, 35% in testis, whereas brain showed a 53% decrease in diencephalon and 20% decrease in the cortex in the exposed animals as compared to their respective controls. There was no change in enzyme activity in spleen and kidney. This was accompanied by concomitant changes in NAD+ levels. The above results may be cited as important events in carcinogenesis and tumor promotion related to microwave exposure and the signal transduction mechanism involved. The goal is to shed light on complex ecogenetic interactions leading to cancer modulation of gene expression by epigenetic mechanism.

  13. Synthesis of adenosine-imprinted microspheres for the recognition of ADP-ribosylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xia; Tang, Biao; Liu, Jing Jing; You, Xiang Yu; Gu, Jing; Deng, Jiao Yu; Xie, Wei-Hong

    2017-01-15

    Core-shell structural adenosine-imprinted microspheres were prepared via a two-step procedure. Polystyrene core particles (CP) were firstly prepared via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization leaving the iniferter on the surface of the cores, then a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) shell was synthesized on the surface of the cores by using acrylamide (AAm) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker. The formation and growth of the MIP layer were seen dependent on the initiator (AIBN), AAm and the polymerization time used within the polymerization. SEM/TEM images showed that the dimensions of the cores and shells were 2μM and 44nm, respectively. The MIP microspheres exhibited a fast rebinding rate within 2h and a maximum adsorption capacity of 177μg per gram for adenosine. The adsorption fitted a Langmuir-Freundlich (LF) isotherm model with a KLF value of 41mL/μg and a qm value of 177μg/g for the MIP microspheres. The values were larger than those for a non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) particles (5mL/μg and 88μg/g) indicating a better adsorption ability towards adenosine. The MIP microspheres showed a good selectivity for adenosine with a higher adsorption (683nmol/g) for adenosine than that (91nmol/g, 24nmol/g and 54nmol/g) for guanosine, cytidine and uridine respectively. Further experiment proved that the adenosine-imprinted polymer microspheres also had a good selectivity for ADP-ribosylated proteins that the MIP could extract the ADP-ribosylated proteins from the cell extract samples.

  14. Sulforaphane inhibits damage-induced poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation via direct interaction of its cellular metabolites with PARP-1.

    PubMed

    Piberger, Ann Liza; Keil, Claudia; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Hartwig, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, a major breakdown product of the broccoli glucosinolate glucoraphanin, has frequently been proposed to exert anticarcinogenic properties. Potential underlying mechanisms include a zinc release from Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 followed by the induction of detoxifying enzymes. This suggests that sulforaphane may also interfere with other zinc-binding proteins, e.g. those essential for DNA repair. Therefore, we explored the impact of sulforaphane on poly (ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), and DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) in cell culture. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that sulforaphane diminished H2 O2 -induced PARylation in HeLa S3 cells starting from 15 μM despite increased lesion induction under these conditions. Subcellular experiments quantifying the damage-induced incorporation of (32) P-ADP-ribose by PARP-1 displayed no direct impact of sulforaphane itself, but cellular metabolites, namely the glutathione conjugates of sulforaphane and its interconversion product erucin, reduced PARP-1 activity concentration dependently. Interestingly, this sulforaphane metabolite-induced PARP-1 inhibition was prevented by thiol compounds. PARP-1 is a stimulating factor for DNA SSBR-rate and we further demonstrated that 25 μM sulforaphane also delayed the rejoining of H2 O2 -induced DNA strand breaks, although this might be partly due to increased lesion frequencies. Sulforaphane interferes with damage-induced PARylation and SSBR, which implies a sulforaphane-dependent impairment of genomic stability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Changes in patterns of ADP-ribosylated proteins during differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and its development mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Shima, J; Penyige, A; Ochi, K

    1996-01-01

    Mutants resistant to 3-aminobenzamide, a known inhibitor of ADP-ribosyltransferase, were obtained from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). One (strain 27) was analyzed in detail. Mutant 27 had a reduced ADP-ribosyl-transferase activity, exhibited substantial changes from the wild type in ADP-ribosylated protein profile during cell aging, and was defective in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics. A 92-kDa ADP-ribosylated protein disappeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but was present in mutant 27. Four ADP-ribosylated proteins (39, 41, 43, and 46 kDa) appeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but were missing in mutant 27. Failure to ADP-ribosylate these four proteins was detected when the parent strain was grown in the presence of subinhibitory amounts of 3-aminobenzamide. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation, named brgA, conferring resistance to 3-aminobenzamide, cosegregated with the altered phenotypes (i.e., defects in ADP-ribosylation and aerial mycelium formation) and was mapped to a new locus near uraA. The brgA mutants were nonconditionally deficient in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics, as determined by using various media, and had a morphological and physiological phenotype quite different from that of a bldG mutant carrying a mutation which was previously mapped near uraA. Among the known bld mutants, bldA, bldD, and bldG mutants exhibited a ADP-ribosylated protein profile similar to that of the wild type, while like mutant 27, bldB, bldC, and bldH mutants failed to ADP-ribosylate certain proteins. PMID:8682781

  16. Changes in patterns of ADP-ribosylated proteins during differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and its development mutants.

    PubMed

    Shima, J; Penyige, A; Ochi, K

    1996-07-01

    Mutants resistant to 3-aminobenzamide, a known inhibitor of ADP-ribosyltransferase, were obtained from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). One (strain 27) was analyzed in detail. Mutant 27 had a reduced ADP-ribosyl-transferase activity, exhibited substantial changes from the wild type in ADP-ribosylated protein profile during cell aging, and was defective in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics. A 92-kDa ADP-ribosylated protein disappeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but was present in mutant 27. Four ADP-ribosylated proteins (39, 41, 43, and 46 kDa) appeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but were missing in mutant 27. Failure to ADP-ribosylate these four proteins was detected when the parent strain was grown in the presence of subinhibitory amounts of 3-aminobenzamide. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation, named brgA, conferring resistance to 3-aminobenzamide, cosegregated with the altered phenotypes (i.e., defects in ADP-ribosylation and aerial mycelium formation) and was mapped to a new locus near uraA. The brgA mutants were nonconditionally deficient in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics, as determined by using various media, and had a morphological and physiological phenotype quite different from that of a bldG mutant carrying a mutation which was previously mapped near uraA. Among the known bld mutants, bldA, bldD, and bldG mutants exhibited a ADP-ribosylated protein profile similar to that of the wild type, while like mutant 27, bldB, bldC, and bldH mutants failed to ADP-ribosylate certain proteins.

  17. The Histone Methyltransferase SMYD2 Methylates PARP1 and Promotes Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Activity in Cancer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Lianhua; Kang, Daechun; Suzuki, Takehiro; Masuda, Akiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of protein acceptors using NAD+ as the substrate is now considered as an important target for development of anticancer therapy. PARP1 is known to be post-translationally modified in various ways including phosphorylation and ubiquitination, but the physiological role of PARP1 methylation is not well understood. Herein we demonstrated that the histone methyltransferase SMYD2, which plays critical roles in human carcinogenesis, mono-methylated PARP1. We confirmed lysine 528 to be a target of SMYD2-dependent PARP1 methylation by LC-MS/MS and Edman Degradation analyses. Importantly, methylated PARP1 revealed enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) formation after oxidative stress, and positively regulated the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP1. Hence, our study unveils a novel mechanism of PARP1 in human cancer through its methylation by SMYD2. PMID:24726141

  18. Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R.

    1997-02-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  19. The CD38-independent ADP-ribosyl cyclase from mouse brain synaptosomes: a comparative study of neonate and adult brain.

    PubMed

    Ceni, Claire; Pochon, Nathalie; Villaz, Michel; Muller-Steffner, Hélène; Schuber, Francis; Baratier, Julie; De Waard, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Moutin, Marie-Jo

    2006-04-15

    cADPR (cADP-ribose), a metabolite of NAD+, is known to modulate intracellular calcium levels and to be involved in calcium-dependent processes, including synaptic transmission, plasticity and neuronal excitability. However, the enzyme that is responsible for producing cADPR in the cytoplasm of neural cells, and particularly at the synaptic terminals of neurons, remains unknown. In the present study, we show that endogenous concentrations of cADPR are much higher in embryonic and neonate mouse brain compared with the adult tissue. We also demonstrate, by comparing wild-type and Cd38-/- tissues, that brain cADPR content is independent of the presence of CD38 (the best characterized mammalian ADP-ribosyl cyclase) not only in adult but also in developing tissues. We show that Cd38-/- synaptosome preparations contain high ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities, which are more important in neonates than in adults, in line with the levels of endogenous cyclic nucleotide. By using an HPLC method and adapting the cycling assay developed initially to study endogenous cADPR, we accurately examined the properties of the synaptosomal ADP-ribosyl cyclase. This intracellular enzyme has an estimated K(m) for NAD+ of 21 microM, a broad optimal pH at 6.0-7.0, and the concentration of free calcium has no major effect on its cADPR production. It binds NGD+ (nicotinamide-guanine dinucleotide), which inhibits its NAD+-metabolizing activities (K(i)=24 microM), despite its incapacity to cyclize this analogue. Interestingly, it is fully inhibited by low (micromolar) concentrations of zinc. We propose that this novel mammalian ADP-ribosyl cyclase regulates the production of cADPR and therefore calcium levels within brain synaptic terminals. In addition, this enzyme might be a potential target of neurotoxic Zn2+.

  20. Molecular recognition of an ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme by RalA GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Holbourn, Kenneth P.; Sutton, J. Mark; Evans, Hazel R.; Shone, Clifford C.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2005-01-01

    C3 exoenzymes (members of the ADP-ribosyltranferase family) are produced by Clostridium botulinum (C3bot1 and -2), Clostridium limosum (C3lim), Bacillus cereus (C3cer), and Staphylococcus aureus (C3stau1–3). These exoenzymes lack a translocation domain but are known to specifically inactivate Rho GTPases in host target cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of C3bot1 in complex with RalA (a GTPase of the Ras subfamily) and GDP at a resolution of 2.66 Å. RalA is not ADP-ribosylated by C3 exoenzymes but inhibits ADP-ribosylation of RhoA by C3bot1, C3lim, and C3cer to different extents. The structure provides an insight into the molecular interactions between C3bot1 and RalA involving the catalytic ADP-ribosylating turn–turn (ARTT) loop from C3bot1 and helix α4 and strand β6 (which are not part of the GDP-binding pocket) from RalA. The structure also suggests a molecular explanation for the different levels of C3-exoenzyme inhibition by RalA and why RhoA does not bind C3bot1 in this manner. PMID:15809419

  1. Molecular recognition of an ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme by RalA GTPase.

    PubMed

    Holbourn, Kenneth P; Sutton, J Mark; Evans, Hazel R; Shone, Clifford C; Acharya, K Ravi

    2005-04-12

    C3 exoenzymes (members of the ADP-ribosyltranferase family) are produced by Clostridium botulinum (C3bot1 and -2), Clostridium limosum (C3lim), Bacillus cereus (C3cer), and Staphylococcus aureus (C3stau1-3). These exoenzymes lack a translocation domain but are known to specifically inactivate Rho GTPases in host target cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of C3bot1 in complex with RalA (a GTPase of the Ras subfamily) and GDP at a resolution of 2.66 A. RalA is not ADP-ribosylated by C3 exoenzymes but inhibits ADP-ribosylation of RhoA by C3bot1, C3lim, and C3cer to different extents. The structure provides an insight into the molecular interactions between C3bot1 and RalA involving the catalytic ADP-ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT) loop from C3bot1 and helix alpha4 and strand beta6 (which are not part of the GDP-binding pocket) from RalA. The structure also suggests a molecular explanation for the different levels of C3-exoenzyme inhibition by RalA and why RhoA does not bind C3bot1 in this manner.

  2. The Escherichia coli effector EspJ blocks Src kinase activity via amidation and ADP ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna C; Clements, Abigail; Lang, Alexander E; Garnett, James A; Munera, Diana; Arbeloa, Ana; Pearson, Jaclyn; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Matthews, Stephen J; Mousnier, Aurelie; Barry, David J; Way, Michael; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus; Frankel, Gad

    2014-12-19

    The hallmark of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is the formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures, which are generated following phosphorylation of the bacterial effector Tir by cellular Src and Abl family tyrosine kinases. This leads to recruitment of the Nck-WIP-N-WASP complex that triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in the host cell. The same phosphorylation-mediated signalling network is also assembled downstream of the Vaccinia virus protein A36 and the phagocytic Fc-gamma receptor FcγRIIa. Here we report that the EPEC type-III secretion system effector EspJ inhibits autophosphorylation of Src and phosphorylation of the Src substrates Tir and FcγRIIa. Consistent with this, EspJ inhibits actin polymerization downstream of EPEC, Vaccinia virus and opsonized red blood cells. We identify EspJ as a unique adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosyltransferase that directly inhibits Src kinase by simultaneous amidation and ADP ribosylation of the conserved kinase-domain residue, Src E310, resulting in glutamine-ADP ribose.

  3. Autophagy requires poly(adp-ribosyl)ation-dependent AMPK nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José M; Rodríguez, María I; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; García-Diaz, Ángel; González-Flores, Ariannys; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Virág, László; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Schreiber, Valerie; Dantzer, Françoise; Oliver, F Javier

    2016-12-01

    AMPK is a central energy sensor linking extracellular milieu fluctuations with the autophagic machinery. In the current study we uncover that Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, accounts for the spatial and temporal regulation of autophagy by modulating AMPK subcellular localisation and activation. More particularly, we show that the minority AMPK pool needs to be exported to the cytosol in a PARylation-dependent manner for optimal induction of autophagy, including ULK1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 inactivation. PARP-1 forms a molecular complex with AMPK in the nucleus in non-starved cells. In response to nutrient deprivation, PARP-1 catalysed PARylation, induced the dissociation of the PARP-1/AMPK complex and the export of free PARylated nuclear AMPK to the cytoplasm to activate autophagy. PARP inhibition, its silencing or the expression of PARylation-deficient AMPK mutants prevented not only the AMPK nuclear-cytosolic export but also affected the activation of the cytosolic AMPK pool and autophagosome formation. These results demonstrate that PARylation of AMPK is a key early signal to efficiently convey extracellular nutrient perturbations with downstream events needed for the cell to optimize autophagic commitment before autophagosome formation.

  4. Rifamycin Antibiotic Resistance by ADP-Ribosylation: Structure and Diversity of Arr

    SciTech Connect

    Baysarowich, J.; Koteva, K; Hughes, D; Ejim, L; Griffiths, E; Zhang, K; Junop, M; Wright, G

    2008-01-01

    The rifamycin antibiotic rifampin is important for the treatment of tuberculosis and infections caused by multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recent iterations of the rifampin core structure have resulted in new drugs and drug candidates for the treatment of a much broader range of infectious diseases. This expanded use of rifamycin antibiotics has the potential to select for increased resistance. One poorly characterized mechanism of resistance is through Arr enzymes that catalyze ADP-ribosylation of rifamycins. We find that genes encoding predicted Arr enzymes are widely distributed in the genomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Biochemical analysis of three representative Arr enzymes from environmental and pathogenic bacterial sources shows that these have equally efficient drug resistance capacity in vitro and in vivo. The 3D structure of one of these orthologues from Mycobacterium smegmatis was determined and reveals structural homology with ADP-ribosyltransferases important in eukaryotic biology, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and bacterial toxins, despite no significant amino acid sequence homology with these proteins. This work highlights the extent of the rifamycin resistome in microbial genera with the potential to negatively impact the expanded use of this class of antibiotic.

  5. Poly-ADP ribosylation of PTEN by tankyrases promotes PTEN degradation and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Yajie; Han, Xin; Liang, Ke; Wang, Jiadong; Feng, Lin; Wang, Wenqi; Songyang, Zhou; Lin, Chunru; Yang, Liuqing; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-01-01

    PTEN [phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10], a phosphatase and critical tumor suppressor, is regulated by numerous post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, and SUMOylation, which affect PTEN localization and protein stability. Here we report ADP-ribosylation as a new post-translational modification of PTEN. We identified PTEN as a novel substrate of tankyrases, which are members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). We showed that tankyrases interact with and ribosylate PTEN, which promotes the recognition of PTEN by a PAR-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF146, leading to PTEN ubiquitination and degradation. Double knockdown of tankyrase1/2 stabilized PTEN, resulting in the subsequent down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation and thus suppressed cell proliferation and glycolysis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, tankyrases were up-regulated and negatively correlated with PTEN expression in human colon carcinomas. Together, our study revealed a new regulation of PTEN and highlighted a role for tankyrases in the PTEN–AKT pathway that can be explored further for cancer treatment. PMID:25547115

  6. Autophagy requires poly(adp-ribosyl)ation-dependent AMPK nuclear export

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José M; Rodríguez, María I; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; García-Diaz, Ángel; González-Flores, Ariannys; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Virág, László; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Schreiber, Valerie; Dantzer, Françoise; Oliver, F Javier

    2016-01-01

    AMPK is a central energy sensor linking extracellular milieu fluctuations with the autophagic machinery. In the current study we uncover that Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, accounts for the spatial and temporal regulation of autophagy by modulating AMPK subcellular localisation and activation. More particularly, we show that the minority AMPK pool needs to be exported to the cytosol in a PARylation-dependent manner for optimal induction of autophagy, including ULK1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 inactivation. PARP-1 forms a molecular complex with AMPK in the nucleus in non-starved cells. In response to nutrient deprivation, PARP-1 catalysed PARylation, induced the dissociation of the PARP-1/AMPK complex and the export of free PARylated nuclear AMPK to the cytoplasm to activate autophagy. PARP inhibition, its silencing or the expression of PARylation-deficient AMPK mutants prevented not only the AMPK nuclear-cytosolic export but also affected the activation of the cytosolic AMPK pool and autophagosome formation. These results demonstrate that PARylation of AMPK is a key early signal to efficiently convey extracellular nutrient perturbations with downstream events needed for the cell to optimize autophagic commitment before autophagosome formation. PMID:27689873

  7. Structural studies of intermediates along the cyclization pathway of Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Kotaka, Masayo; Graeff, Richard; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Li He; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan

    2012-01-20

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a calcium messenger that can mobilize intracellular Ca²⁺ stores and activate Ca²⁺ influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. Aplysia cyclase is the first member of the ADP-ribosyl cyclases identified to catalyze the cyclization of NAD⁺ into cADPR. The catalysis involves a two-step reaction, the elimination of the nicotinamide ring and the cyclization of the intermediate resulting in the covalent attachment of the purine ring to the terminal ribose. Aplysia cyclase exhibits a high degree of leniency towards the purine base of its substrate, and the cyclization reaction takes place at either the N1- or the N7-position of the purine ring. To decipher the mechanism of cyclization in Aplysia cyclase, we used a crystallization setup with multiple Aplysia cyclase molecules present in the asymmetric unit. With the use of natural substrates and analogs, not only were we able to capture multiple snapshots during enzyme catalysis resulting in either N1 or N7 linkage of the purine ring to the terminal ribose, we were also able to observe, for the first time, the cyclized products of both N1 and N7 cyclization bound in the active site of Aplysia cyclase.

  8. The FHA and BRCT domains recognize ADP-ribosylation during DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mo; Lu, Lin-Yu; Yang, Chao-Yie; Wang, Shaomeng; Yu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribosylation is a unique post-translational modification participating in many biological processes, such as DNA damage response. Here, we demonstrate that a set of Forkhead-associated (FHA) and BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) both in vitro and in vivo. Among these FHA and BRCT domains, the FHA domains of APTX and PNKP interact with iso-ADP-ribose, the linkage of PAR, whereas the BRCT domains of Ligase4, XRCC1, and NBS1 recognize ADP-ribose, the basic unit of PAR. The interactions between PAR and the FHA or BRCT domains mediate the relocation of these domain-containing proteins to DNA damage sites and facilitate the DNA damage response. Moreover, the interaction between PAR and the NBS1 BRCT domain is important for the early activation of ATM during DNA damage response and ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoint activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate two novel PAR-binding modules that play important roles in DNA damage response. PMID:23964092

  9. Allosteric Activation of the RNF146 Ubiquitin Ligase by a Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Signal

    PubMed Central

    DaRosa, Paul A.; Wang, Zhizhi; Jiang, Xiaomo; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Cong, Feng; Klevit, Rachel E.; Xu, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays a role in diverse cellular processes such as DNA repair, transcription, Wnt signaling, and cell death1–6. Recent studies have shown that PARylation can serve as a signal for the polyubiquitination and degradation of several critical regulatory proteins, including Axin and 3BP2 (refs 7–9). The RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (a.k.a. Iduna) is responsible for PARylation-dependent ubiquitination (PARdU)10–12. Here we provide a structural basis for RNF146 catalyzed PARdU and how PARdU specificity is achieved. First, we show that iso-ADPr, the smallest internal poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) structural unit, binds between the WWE and RING domains of RNF146 and functions as an allosteric signal that switches the RING domain from a catalytically inactive state to an active one. In the absence of PAR, the RING domain is unable to efficiently bind and activate an E2. Binding of PAR/iso-ADPr induces a major conformational change that creates a functional RING structure. Thus RNF146 represents a new mechanistic class of RING E3 ligases whose activities are regulated by non-covalent ligand binding, which may provide a template for designing inducible protein-degradation systems. Second, we found that RNF146 directly interacts with the PAR polymerase tankyrase (TNKS). Disruption of the RNF146/TNKS interaction inhibits turnover of the substrate Axin in cells. Thus, both substrate PARylation and PARdU are catalyzed by enzymes within the same protein complex, and PARdU substrate specificity may be primarily determined by the substrate-TNKS interaction. We propose that maintenance of unliganded RNF146 in an inactive state may serve to maintain the stability of the RNF146-TNKS complex, which in turn regulates the homeostasis of PARdU activity in the cell. PMID:25327252

  10. Catalytic properties of the retinal rod outer segment disk ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Andrea; Panfoli, Isabella; Calzia, Daniela; Bruschi, Maurizio; Ravera, Silvia; Bachi, Angela; Cattaneo, Angela; Morelli, Alessandro; Candiano, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a second messenger modulating intracellular calcium levels. We have previously described a cADPR-dependent calcium signaling pathway in bovine rod outer segments (ROS), where calcium ions play a pivotal role. ROS ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ADPR-cyclase) was localized in the membrane fraction. In the present work, we examined the properties of the disk ADPR-cyclase through the production of cyclic GDP-ribose from the NAD(+) analogue NGD(+). The enzyme displayed an estimated K(m) for NGD(+) of 12.5 ± 0.3 μM, a V(max) of 26.50 ± 0.70 pmol cyclic GDP-ribose synthesized/min/mg, and optimal pH of 6.5. The effect of divalent cations (Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+)) was also tested. Micromolar Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) inhibited the disk ADPR-cyclase activity (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50=1.1 and 3.6 μM, respectively). By contrast, Ca(2+) ions had no effect. Interestingly, the properties of the intracellular membrane-associated ROS disk ADPR-cyclase are more similar to those of the ADPR-cyclase found in CD38-deficient mouse brain, than to those of CD38 or CD157. The novel intracellular mammalian ADPR-cyclase would elicit Ca(2+) release from the disks at various rates in response to change in free Ca(2+) concentrations, caused by light versus dark adaptation, in fact there was no difference in disk ADPR-cyclase activity in light or dark conditions. Data suggest that disk ADPR-cyclase may be a potential target of retinal toxicity of Zn(2+) and may shed light to the role of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) deficiency in retina. Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  11. CD38-dependent ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in developing and adult mouse brain.

    PubMed Central

    Ceni, Claire; Pochon, Nathalie; Brun, Virginie; Muller-Steffner, Hélène; Andrieux, Annie; Grunwald, Didier; Schuber, Francis; De Waard, Michel; Lund, Frances; Villaz, Michel; Moutin, Marie-Jo

    2003-01-01

    CD38 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in many tissues throughout the body. In addition to its major NAD+-glycohydrolase activity, CD38 is also able to synthesize cyclic ADP-ribose, an endogenous calcium-regulating molecule, from NAD+. In the present study, we have compared ADP-ribosyl cyclase and NAD+-glycohydrolase activities in protein extracts of brains from developing and adult wild-type and Cd38 -/- mice. In extracts from wild-type brain, cyclase activity was detected spectrofluorimetrically, using nicotinamide-guanine dinucleotide as a substrate (GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity), as early as embryonic day 15. The level of cyclase activity was similar in the neonate brain (postnatal day 1) and then increased greatly in the adult brain. Using [14C]NAD+ as a substrate and HPLC analysis, we found that ADP-ribose is the major product formed in the brain at all developmental stages. Under the same experimental conditions, neither NAD+-glycohydrolase nor GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity could be detected in extracts of brains from developing or adult Cd38 -/- mice, demonstrating that CD38 is the predominant constitutive enzyme endowed with these activities in brain at all developmental stages. The activity measurements correlated with the level of CD38 transcripts present in the brains of developing and adult wild-type mice. Using confocal microscopy we showed, in primary cultures of hippocampal cells, that CD38 is expressed by both neurons and glial cells, and is enriched in neuronal perikarya. Intracellular NAD+-glycohydrolase activity was measured in hippocampal cell cultures, and CD38-dependent cyclase activity was higher in brain fractions enriched in intracellular membranes. Taken together, these results lead us to speculate that CD38 might have an intracellular location in neural cells in addition to its plasma membrane location, and may play an important role in intracellular cyclic ADP-ribose-mediated calcium signalling in brain tissue. PMID

  12. Mutations in the draT and draG genes of Rhodospirillum rubrum result in loss of regulation of nitrogenase by reversible ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, J H; Nielsen, G M; Lies, D P; Burris, R H; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1991-01-01

    Reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase forms the basis of posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report describes the physiological effects of mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes that add and remove the ADP-ribosyl moiety. Mutants lacking a functional draT gene had no dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT, the draT gene product) activity in vitro and were incapable of modifying dinitrogenase reductase with ADP-ribose in vivo. Mutants lacking a functional draG gene had no dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DRAG, the draG gene product) activity in vitro and were unable to remove ADP-ribose from the modified dinitrogenase reductase in vivo. Strains containing polar mutations in draT had no detectable DRAG activity in vitro, suggesting likely cotranscription of draT and draG. In strains containing draT and lacking a functional draG, dinitrogenase reductase accumulated in the active form under derepressing conditions but was rapidly ADP-ribosylated in response to conditions that cause inactivation. Detection of DRAT in these cells in vitro demonstrated that DRAT is itself subject to posttranslational regulation in vivo. Mutants affected in an open reading frame immediately downstream of draTG showed regulation of dinitrogenase reductase by ADP-ribosylation, although differences in the rates of ADP-ribosylation were apparent. Images FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1938894

  13. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Methyl CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 Regulates Chromatin Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Annette; Zhang, Peng; Allmann, Lena; Meilinger, Daniela; Bertulat, Bianca; Eck, Daniel; Hofstaetter, Maria; Bartolomei, Giody; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schreiber, Valérie; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic information encoded in the genomic DNA methylation pattern is translated by methylcytosine binding proteins like MeCP2 into chromatin topology and structure and gene activity states. We have shown previously that the MeCP2 level increases during differentiation and that it causes large-scale chromatin reorganization, which is disturbed by MeCP2 Rett syndrome mutations. Phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications of MeCP2 have been described recently to modulate its function. Here we show poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of endogenous MeCP2 in mouse brain tissue. Consequently, we found that MeCP2 induced aggregation of pericentric heterochromatin and that its chromatin accumulation was enhanced in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1−/− compared with wild-type cells. We mapped the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation domains and engineered MeCP2 mutation constructs to further analyze potential effects on DNA binding affinity and large-scale chromatin remodeling. Single or double deletion of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated regions and PARP inhibition increased the heterochromatin clustering ability of MeCP2. Increased chromatin clustering may reflect increased binding affinity. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that PARP-1 deficiency significantly increased the chromatin binding affinity of MeCP2 in vivo. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of MeCP2-mediated, higher-order chromatin architecture and suggest therapeutic opportunities to manipulate MeCP2 function. PMID:26772194

  14. The ARTT motif and a unified structural understanding of substraterecognition in ADP ribosylating bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADPribosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.; Tainer, J.A.

    2001-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a widely occurring and biologically critical covalent chemical modification process in pathogenic mechanisms, intracellular signaling systems, DNA repair, and cell division. The reaction is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a target protein with nicotinamide release. A family of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic enzymes has been termed the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, in distinction to the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which catalyze the addition of multiple ADP-ribose groups to the carboxyl terminus of eukaryotic nucleoproteins. Despite the limited primary sequence homology among the different ADP-ribosyltransferases, a central cleft bearing NAD-binding pocket formed by the two perpendicular b-sheet core has been remarkably conserved between bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono- and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. The majority of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved His and catalytic Glu residues. In contrast, Diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and eukaryotic poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. The NAD-binding core of a binary toxin and a C3-like toxin family identified an ARTT motif (ADP-ribosylating turn-turn motif) that is implicated in substrate specificity and recognition by structural and mutagenic studies. Here we apply structure-based sequence alignment and comparative structural analyses of all known structures of ADP-ribosyltransfeases to suggest that this ARTT motif is functionally important in many ADP-ribosylating enzymes that bear a NAD binding cleft as characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Overall, structure-based sequence analysis reveals common core structures and conserved active sites of ADP-ribosyltransferases to support similar NAD binding mechanisms but differing mechanisms of target protein binding via sequence variations within the ARTT

  15. Influence of DPH1 and DPH5 Protein Variants on the Synthesis of Diphthamide, the Target of ADP-Ribosylating Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Klaus; Schröder, Anna; Schnitger, Jerome; Stahl, Sebastian; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The diphthamide on eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is the target of ADP-ribosylating toxins and -derivatives that serve as payloads in targeted tumor therapy. Diphthamide is generated by seven DPH proteins; cells deficient in these (DPHko) lack diphthamide and are toxin-resistant. We have established assays to address the functionality of DPH1 (OVCA1) and DPH5 variants listed in dbSNP and cosmic databases: plasmids encoding wildtype and mutant DPHs were transfected into DPHko cells. Supplementation of DPH1 and DPH5 restores diphthamide synthesis and toxin sensitivity in DPH1ko and DPH5ko cells, respectively. Consequently, the determination of the diphthamide status of cells expressing DPH variants differentiates active and compromised proteins. The DPH1 frameshift variant L96fs* (with N-terminal 96 amino acids, truncated thereafter) and two splice isoforms lacking 80 or 140 amino acids at their N-termini failed to restore DPH1ko deficiency. The DPH1 frameshift variant R312fs* retained some residual activity even though it lacks a large C-terminal portion. DPH1 missense variants R27W and S56F retained activity while S221P had reduced activity, indicated by a decreased capability to restore diphthamide synthesis. The DPH5 nonsense or frameshift variants E60*, W136fs* and R207* (containing intact N-termini with truncations after 60, 136 or 207 amino acids, respectively) were inactive: none compensated the deficiency of DPH5ko cells. In contrast, missense variants D57G, G87R, S123C and Q170H as well as the frequently occurring DPH5 isoform delA212 retained activity. Sensitivity to ADP-ribosylating toxins and tumor-targeted immunotoxins depends on diphthamide which, in turn, requires DPH functionality. Because of that, DPH variants (in particular those that are functionally compromised) may serve as a biomarker and correlate with the efficacy of immunotoxin-based therapies. PMID:28245596

  16. The mammalian G protein rhoC is ADP-ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and affects actin microfilaments in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Chardin, P; Boquet, P; Madaule, P; Popoff, M R; Rubin, E J; Gill, D M

    1989-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum C3 is a recently discovered exoenzyme that ADP-ribosylates a eukaryotic GTP-binding protein of the ras superfamily. We show now that the bacterially-expressed product of the human rhoC gene is ADP-ribosylated by C3 and corresponds in size, charge and behavior to the dominant C3 substrate of eukaryotic cells. C3 treatment of Vero cells results in the disappearance of microfilaments and in actinomorphic shape changes without any apparent direct effect upon actin. Thus the ADP-ribosylation of a rho protein seems to be responsible for microfilament disassembly and we infer that the unmodified form of a rho protein may be involved in cytoskeletal control.

  17. Mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of 2′-deoxyguanosine residue in DNA by an apoptosis-inducing protein, pierisin-1, from cabbage butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Totsuka, Yukari; Kanazawa, Takashi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2001-01-01

    Pierisin-1 is a potent apoptosis-inducing protein derived from the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. It has been shown that pierisin-1 has an A⋅B structure–function organization like cholera or diphtheria toxin, where the “A” domain (N-terminal) exhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The present studies were designed to identify the target molecule for ADP-ribosylation by pierisin-1 in the presence of β-[adenylate-32P]NAD, and we found DNA as the acceptor, but not protein as is the case with other bacteria-derived ADP-ribosylating toxins. ADP-ribosylation of tRNAs from yeast was also catalyzed by pierisin-1, but the efficiency was around \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\frac{1}{10}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} of that for calf thymus DNA. Pierisin-1 efficiently catalyzed the ADP-ribosylation of double-stranded DNA containing dG⋅dC, but not dA⋅dT pairs. The ADP-ribose moiety of NAD was transferred to the amino group at N2 of 2′-deoxyguanosine to yield N2-(α-ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine and its β form, which were determined by several spectral analyses including 1H- and 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. The chemical structures were also ascertained by the independent synthesis of N2-(D-ribos-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine, which is the characteristic moiety of ADP-ribosylated dG. Using the 32P-postlabeling method, ADP-ribosylated dG could be detected in DNA from pierisin-1-treated HeLa cells, in which apoptosis was easily induced. Thus, the targets for ADP-ribosylation by pierisin-1 were concluded to be 2′-deoxyguanosine residues in DNA. This finding may open a new field regarding the biological significance of ADP-ribosylation. PMID:11592983

  18. Iron starvation causes release from the group A streptococcus of the ADP-ribosylating protein called plasmin receptor or surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Z; Green, B D; Scott, J R

    1996-01-01

    In many pathogenic bacteria, iron starvation serves as an environmental signal that triggers the expression of virulence factors, many of which are found on the cell surface or secreted into the culture supernatant. Using the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid, we have established conditions for iron starvation of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus) and determined that iron limitation results in the specific appearance of several new proteins in the culture supernatant. One of these supernatant proteins is the ADP-ribosylating protein known as streptococcal plasmin receptor (Plr) or as the streptococcal surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase because of its other activities. Upon iron starvation, Plr is specifically released into the culture supernatant in a time-dependent manner, and its appearance in the supernatant is not accompanied by induction of plr mRNA synthesis. Release of Plr from the bacteria may be important for the virulence of group A streptococci and the manifestation of diseases. PMID:8675293

  19. ADP-Ribosyl cyclase in rat vascular smooth muscle cells: properties and regulation.

    PubMed

    de Toledo, F G; Cheng, J; Liang, M; Chini, E N; Dousa, T P

    2000-06-09

    We investigated whether ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ADPR-cyclase) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has enzymatic properties that differ from the well-characterized CD38-antigen ADPR-cyclase, expressed in HL-60 cells. ADPR-cyclase from VSMCs, but not CD38 ADPR-cyclase from HL-60 cells, was inhibited by gangliosides (10 micromol/L) GT(1B), GD(1), and GM(3). Preincubation of membranes from CD38 HL-60 cells, but not from VSMCs, with anti-CD38 antibodies increased ADPR-cyclase activity; CD38 antigen was detected both in VSMCs and in HL-60 cells. ADPR-cyclase in VSMC membranes was more sensitive than CD38 HL-60 ADPR-cyclase to inactivation by N-endoglycosidase F and to thermal inactivation at 45 degrees C. The specific activity of ADPR-cyclase in membranes from VSMCs was >20-fold higher than in membranes from CD38 HL-60 cells. Most importantly, VSMC ADPR-cyclase was inhibited by Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions; the inhibition by Zn(2+) was dose dependent, noncompetitive, and reversible by EDTA. In contrast, Zn(2+) stimulated the activity of CD38 HL-60 ADPR-cyclase and other known types of ADPR-cyclases. Retinoids act either via the nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor or retinoid X receptor, including all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), and panagonist 9-cis-retinoic acid-upregulated VSMC ADPR-cyclase; the stimulatory effect of atRA was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. 1,25(OH)(2)-Vitamin D(3) (calciferol) stimulated VSMC ADPR-cyclase dose dependently at subnanomolar concentrations (ED(50) congruent with 56 pmol/L). Oral administration of atRA to rats resulted in an increase of ADPR-cyclase activity in aorta ( congruent with+60%) and, to a lesser degree, in myocardium of left ventricle (+18%), but atRA had no effect on ADPR-cyclases in lungs, spleen, intestinal smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, liver, or testis. Administration of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) to rats resulted in an increase of ADPR-cyclase activity in aorta ( congruent with+89%), but not in liver or

  20. In silico characterization of the family of PARP-like poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Helge; Reche, Pedro A; Bazan, Fernando; Dittmar, Katharina; Haag, Friedrich; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    Background ADP-ribosylation is an enzyme-catalyzed posttranslational protein modification in which mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (mARTs) and poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs) transfer the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD onto specific amino acid side chains and/or ADP-ribose units on target proteins. Results Using a combination of database search tools we identified the genes encoding recognizable pART domains in the public genome databases. In humans, the pART family encompasses 17 members. For 16 of these genes, an orthologue exists also in the mouse, rat, and pufferfish. Based on the degree of amino acid sequence similarity in the catalytic domain, conserved intron positions, and fused protein domains, pARTs can be divided into five major subgroups. All six members of groups 1 and 2 contain the H-Y-E trias of amino acid residues found also in the active sites of Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, while the eleven members of groups 3 – 5 carry variations of this motif. The pART catalytic domain is found associated in Lego-like fashion with a variety of domains, including nucleic acid-binding, protein-protein interaction, and ubiquitylation domains. Some of these domain associations appear to be very ancient since they are observed also in insects, fungi, amoebae, and plants. The recently completed genome of the pufferfish T. nigroviridis contains recognizable orthologues for all pARTs except for pART7. The nearly completed albeit still fragmentary chicken genome contains recognizable orthologues for twelve pARTs. Simpler eucaryotes generally contain fewer pARTs: two in the fly D. melanogaster, three each in the mosquito A. gambiae, the nematode C. elegans, and the ascomycete microfungus G. zeae, six in the amoeba E. histolytica, nine in the slime mold D. discoideum, and ten in the cress plant A. thaliana. GenBank contains two pART homologues from the large double stranded DNA viruses Chilo iridescent virus and Bacteriophage Aeh1 and only a single entry

  1. Characterization of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments: mechanism and effects of cholera toxin-catalyzed adp-ribosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Navon, S.E.; Fung, B.K.K.

    1984-05-25

    Transducin, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein consisting of two subunits (T/sub ..cap alpha../ and T/sub ..beta gamma../), mediates the signal coupling between rhodopsin and a membrane-bound cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in retinal rod outer segments. The T/sub ..cap alpha../ subunit is an activator of the phosphodiesterase, and the function of the T/sub ..beta gamma../ subunit is to physically link T/sub ..cap alpha../ with photolyzed rhodopsin. In this study, the mechanism of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of T/sub ..cap alpha../ has been examined in a reconstituted system consisting of purified transducin and stripped rod outer segment membranes. Limited proteolysis of the labeled T/sub ..cap alpha../ with trypsin indicated that the inserted ADP-ribose is located exclusively on a single proteolytic fragment with an apparent molecular weight of 23,000. Maximal incorporation of ADP-ribose was achieved when guanosine 5'-(..beta..,..gamma..-im ido)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) and T/sub ..beta gamma../ were present at concentrations equal to that of T/sub ..cap alpha../ and when rhodopsin was continuously irradiated with visible light in the 400-500 nm region. The stimulating effect of illumination was related to the direct interaction of the retinal chromophore with opsin. These findings strongly suggest that a transient protein complex consisting of T/sub ..cap alpha../xGpp(NH)p, T/sub ..beta gamma../, and a photointermediate of rhodopsin is the required substrate for cholera toxin. Single turnover kinetic measurements demonstrated that the ADP-ribosylation of T/sub ..cap alpha../ coincided with the appearance of a population of transducin molecules having a very slow rate of GTP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis rate of the bound GTP for this population was 1.1 x 10/sup -3//s, which was 22-fold slower than the rate for the unmodified transducin. 30 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  2. Pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of a G protein in mouse oocytes, eggs, and preimplantation embryos: Developmental changes and possible functional roles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Schultz, R.M. )

    1990-06-01

    G proteins, which in many somatic cells serve as mediators of signal transduction, were identified in preimplantation mouse embryos by their capacity to undergo pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Two pertussis toxin (PT) substrates with Mr = 38,000 and 39,000 (alpha 38 and alpha 39) are present in approximately equal amounts. Relative to the amount in freshly isolated germinal vesicle (GV)-intact oocytes, the amount of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 falls during oocyte maturation, rises between the one- and two-cell stages, falls by the eight-cell and morula stages, and increases again by the blastocyst stage. The decrease in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs during oocyte maturation, however, does not require germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), since inhibiting GVBD with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) does not prevent the decrease in the extent of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. A biologically active phorbol diester (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate), but not an inactive one (4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, 4 alpha-PDD), totally inhibits the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs between the one- and two-cell stage; TPA inhibits cleavage, but not transcriptional activation, which occurs in the two-cell embryo. In contrast, cytochalasin D, genistein, or aphidicolin, each of which inhibits cleavage of one-cell embryos, or alpha-amanitin or H8, each of which inhibits transcriptional activation but not cleavage of one-cell embryos, have little or inhibitory effects on the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39. Results of immunoblotting experiments using an antibody that is highly specific for alpha il-3 reveal the presence of a cross-reactive species of Mr = 38,000 (alpha 38) in the GV-intact oocyte, metaphase II-arrested egg, and one-, two-cell embryos.

  3. Crystal structure and novel recognition motif of rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum: structural insights for recognition specificity and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Arvai, A S; Clancy, S B; Tainer, J A

    2001-01-05

    Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme inactivates the small GTP-binding protein family Rho by ADP-ribosylating asparagine 41, which depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton. C3 thus represents a major family of the bacterial toxins that transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to specific amino acids in acceptor proteins to modify key biological activities in eukaryotic cells, including protein synthesis, differentiation, transformation, and intracellular signaling. The 1.7 A resolution C3 exoenzyme structure establishes the conserved features of the core NAD-binding beta-sandwich fold with other ADP-ribosylating toxins despite little sequence conservation. Importantly, the central core of the C3 exoenzyme structure is distinguished by the absence of an active site loop observed in many other ADP-ribosylating toxins. Unlike the ADP-ribosylating toxins that possess the active site loop near the central core, the C3 exoenzyme replaces the active site loop with an alpha-helix, alpha3. Moreover, structural and sequence similarities with the catalytic domain of vegetative insecticidal protein 2 (VIP2), an actin ADP-ribosyltransferase, unexpectedly implicates two adjacent, protruding turns, which join beta5 and beta6 of the toxin core fold, as a novel recognition specificity motif for this newly defined toxin family. Turn 1 evidently positions the solvent-exposed, aromatic side-chain of Phe209 to interact with the hydrophobic region of Rho adjacent to its GTP-binding site. Turn 2 evidently both places the Gln212 side-chain for hydrogen bonding to recognize Rho Asn41 for nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon of NAD ribose and holds the key Glu214 catalytic side-chain in the adjacent catalytic pocket. This proposed bipartite ADP-ribosylating toxin turn-turn (ARTT) motif places the VIP2 and C3 toxin classes into a single ARTT family characterized by analogous target protein recognition via turn 1 aromatic and turn 2 hydrogen-bonding side-chain moieties. Turn 2 centrally anchors

  4. Detection and quantification of poly-ADP-ribosylated cellular proteins of spleen and liver tissues of mice in vivo by slot and Western blot immunoprobing using polyclonal antibody against mouse ADP-ribose polymer.

    PubMed

    Sharan, R N; Devi, B Jaylata; Humtsoe, J O; Saikia, Jyoti R; Kma, L

    2005-10-01

    Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of cellular proteins has been shown to have decisive roles in diverse cellular functions including carcinogenesis. There are indications that metabolic level of poly-ADP-ribosylated cellular proteins might indicate carcinogenesis and, therefore, could be potentially used in cancer screening program. Keeping in mind the limitations of currently available assays of cellular PAR, a new assay is being reported that measures the metabolic level of poly-ADP-ribosylated cellular proteins. The ELISA based slot and Western blot immunoassay used polyclonal antibody against natural, heterogeneous ADP-ribose polymers. It could be successfully employed to qualitatively and quantitatively assay metabolic levels of poly-ADP-ribosylated proteins of spleen and liver tissues of normal mice or mice exposed to dimethylnitrosamine for up to 8 weeks; potentially PAR of cellular proteins could be assayed in any tissue or biopsy. Implications of the results in cancer screening program have been discussed.

  5. Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin--new insights into the cellular up-take of the actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin.

    PubMed

    Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2004-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin is a member of the family of binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins. It consists of the enzyme component C2I, and the separated binding/translocation component C2II. Proteolytically activated C2II forms heptamers and binds to a carbohydrate cell surface receptor. After attachment of C2I, the toxin complex is endocytosed to reach early endosomes. At low pH of endosomes, C2II-heptamers insert into the membrane, form pores and deliver C2I into the cytosol. Here, C2I ADP-ribosylates actin at Arg177 to block actin polymerization and to induce depolymerization of actin filaments. The mini-review describes main properties of C2 toxin and discusses new findings on the involvement of chaperones in the up-take process of the toxin.

  6. Bradykinin activates ADP-ribosyl cyclase in neuroblastoma cells: intracellular concentration decrease in NAD and increase in cyclic ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Salmina, Alla; Hashii, Minako; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Zhang, Jia-Sheng; Noda, Mami; Zhong, Zen-Guo; Jin, Duo

    2006-09-04

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the crude membrane fraction of neuroblastomaxglioma NGPM1-27 hybrid cells was measured by monitoring [(3)H] cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) formation from [(3)H] NAD(+). Bradykinin (BK) at 100nM increased ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity by about 2.5-fold. Application of 300nM BK to living NGPM1-27 cells decreased NAD(+) to 78% of the prestimulation level at 30s. In contrast, intracellular cADPR concentrations were increased by 2-3-fold during the period from 30 to 120s after the same treatment. Our results suggest that cADPR is one of the second messengers downstream of B(2) BK receptors.

  7. Molecular cloning of an apoptosis-inducing protein, pierisin, from cabbage butterfly: Possible involvement of ADP-ribosylation in its activity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masahiko; Kono, Takuo; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Kanazawa, Takashi; Nishisaka, Nobuyasu; Kishimoto, Taketoshi; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported that the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, contains a 98-kDa protein, named pierisin, that induces apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cell lines. In the present study, sequencing and cloning of a cDNA encoding pierisin was accomplished. PCR-direct sequencing showed that the gene encodes an 850-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 98,081. An intact clone at the amino acid level encompassing the entire coding region was obtained by recombination of two independent clones, and the molecular mass of its in vitro expressed protein was about 100 kDa on SDS/PAGE, the same as that of purified native pierisin. The expressed protein induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma TMK-1 and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, like the native protein, indicating functional activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of pierisin showed 32% homology with a 100-kDa mosquitocidal toxin from Bacillus sphaericus SSII-1. In addition, pierisin showed regional sequence similarities with ADP-ribosylating toxins, such as the A subunit of cholera toxin. A glutamic acid residue at the putative NAD-binding site, conserved in all ADP-ribosylating toxins, was also found in pierisin. Substitution of another amino acid for glutamic acid 165 resulted in a great decrease in cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, inhibitors of ADP-ribosylating enzymes reduced pierisin-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the apoptosis-inducing protein pierisin might possess ADP-ribosylation activity that leads to apoptosis of the cells. PMID:10485873

  8. NAD-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the human antimicrobial and immune-modulatory peptide LL-37 by ADP-ribosyltransferase-1.

    PubMed

    Picchianti, Monica; Russo, Carla; Castagnini, Marta; Biagini, Massimiliano; Soldaini, Elisabetta; Balducci, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    LL-37 is a cationic peptide belonging to the cathelicidin family that has antimicrobial and immune-modulatory properties. Here we show that the mammalian mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase-1 (ART1), which selectively transfers the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD to arginine residues, ADP-ribosylates LL-37 in vitro. The incorporation of ADP-ribose was first observed by Western blot analysis and then confirmed by MALDI-TOF. Mass-spectrometry showed that up to four of the five arginine residues present in LL-37 could be ADP-ribosylated on the same peptide when incubated at a high NAD concentration in the presence of ART1. The attachment of negatively charged ADP-ribose moieties considerably alters the positive charge of the arginine residues thus reducing the cationicity of LL-37. The cationic nature of LL-37 is key for its ability to interact with cell membranes or negatively charged biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, F-actin and glycosaminoglycans. Thus, the ADP-ribosylation of LL-37 is expected to have the potential to modulate LL-37 biological activities in several physiological and pathological settings.

  9. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes.

  10. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 regulates endothelin-1-induced lipolysis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jonathon C B; Bain, Stephen C; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu

    2014-08-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces lipolysis in adipocytes, where ET-1 chronic exposure results in insulin resistance (IR) through suppression of glucose transporter (GLUT)4 translocation to the plasma membrane and consequently glucose uptake. ARF6 small GTPase, which plays a vital role in cell surface receptors trafficking, has previously been shown to regulate GLUT4 recycling and thereby insulin signalling. ARF6 also plays a role in ET-1 promoted endothelial cell migration. However, ARF6 involvement in ET-1-induced lipolysis in adipocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of ARF6 in ET-1-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This was achieved by studying the effect of inhibitors for the activation of ARF6 and other signalling proteins on ET-1 induced lipolysis and ARF6 activation in the adipocytes. Our results indicate that ET-1 induces, through endothelin type A receptor (ETAR), lipolysis, the ARF6 activation and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in adipocytes, further ET-1 stimulated lipolysis is inhibited by the inhibitors of ARF6 activation, ERK phosphorylation and dynamin, which is essential for endocytosis. Our studies also revealed that ARF6 acts upstream of ERK in ET-1-indcued lipolysis. In summary, we determined that ET-1 activation of ETAR signalled through ARF6, which is crucial for lipolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coatomer and dimeric ADP ribosylation factor 1 promote distinct steps in membrane scission

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Rainer; Prinz, Simone; Diestelkötter-Bachert, Petra; Röhling, Simone; Adolf, Frank; Hoehner, Kathrin; Welsch, Sonja; Ronchi, Paolo; Brügger, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Formation of coated vesicles requires two striking manipulations of the lipid bilayer. First, membrane curvature is induced to drive bud formation. Second, a scission reaction at the bud neck releases the vesicle. Using a reconstituted system for COPI vesicle formation from purified components, we find that a dimerization-deficient Arf1 mutant, which does not display the ability to modulate membrane curvature in vitro or to drive formation of coated vesicles, is able to recruit coatomer to allow formation of COPI-coated buds but does not support scission. Chemical cross-linking of this Arf1 mutant restores vesicle release. These experiments show that initial curvature of the bud is defined primarily by coatomer, whereas the membrane curvature modulating activity of dimeric Arf1 is required for membrane scission. PMID:21893600

  12. Inhibition of Poly-ADP-Ribosylation Fails to Increase Axonal Regeneration or Improve Functional Recovery after Adult Mammalian CNS Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxing; Byrne, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After traumatic damage of the brain or spinal cord, many surviving neurons are disconnected, and recovery of function is limited by poor axon regeneration. Recent data have suggested that poly ADP-ribosylation plays a role in limiting axonal regrowth such that inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) may have therapeutic efficacy for neurological recovery after trauma. Here, we tested systemic administration of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib, and showed effective suppression of PARylation in the mouse CNS. After optic nerve crush injury or dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mice, treatment with veliparib at doses with pharmacodynamic action had no benefit for axonal regeneration or functional recovery. We considered whether PARP gene family specificity might play a role. In vitro mouse cerebral cortex axon regeneration experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated suppression of PARP1 promoted axonal regeneration, whereas suppression of other PARP isoforms either had no effect or decreased regeneration. Therefore, we examined recovery from neurological trauma in mice lacking PARP1. No increase of axonal regeneration was observed in Parp1–/– mice after optic nerve crush injury or dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord, and there was no improvement in motor function recovery. Thus, comprehensive in vivo analysis reveals no indication that clinical PARP inhibitors will on their own provide benefit for recovery from CNS trauma. PMID:28032120

  13. NuMA is a major acceptor of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by tankyrase 1 in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Tankyrase 1 is a PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] that localizes to multiple subcellular sites, including telomeres and mitotic centrosomes. Previous studies demonstrated that cells deficient in tankyrase 1 suffered a block in resolution of sister telomeres and arrested in early anaphase [Dynek and Smith (2004) Science 304, 97–100]. This phenotype was dependent on the catalytic PARP activity of tankyrase 1. To identify critical acceptors of PARsylation [poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation] by tankyrase 1 in mitosis, tankyrase 1 immunoprecipitates were analysed for associated PARsylated proteins. We identified NuMA (nuclear mitotic apparatus protein) as a major acceptor of poly(ADP-ribose) from tankyrase 1 in mitosis. We showed by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation that association between tankyrase 1 and NuMA increases dramatically at the onset of mitosis, concomitant with PARsylation of NuMA. Knockdown of tankyrase 1 by siRNA (small interfering RNA) eliminates PARsylation of NuMA in mitosis, confirming tankyrase 1 as the PARP responsible for this modification. However, even in the absence of tankyrase 1 and PARsylation, NuMA localizes to spindle poles. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of NuMA results in complete loss of tankyrase 1 from spindle poles. We discuss our result in terms of a model where PARsylation of NuMA by tankyrase 1 in mitosis could play a role in sister telomere separation and/or mitotic progression. PMID:16076287

  14. Hierarchical and helical self-assembly of ADP-ribosyl cyclase into large-scale protein microtubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qun; Kriksunov, Irina A; Wang, Zhongwu; Graeff, Richard; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan

    2008-11-27

    Proteins are macromolecules with characteristic structures and biological functions. It is extremely challenging to obtain protein microtube structures through self-assembly as proteins are very complex and flexible. Here we present a strategy showing how a specific protein, ADP-ribosyl cyclase, helically self-assembles from monomers into hexagonal nanochains and further to highly ordered crystalline microtubes. The structures of protein nanochains and consequently self-assembled superlattice were determined by X-ray crystallography at 4.5 A resolution and imaged by scanning electron microscopy. The protein initially forms into dimers that have a fixed size of 5.6 nm, and then, helically self-assembles into 35.6 nm long hexagonal nanochains. One such nanochain consists of six dimers (12 monomers) that stack in order by a pseudo P6(1) screw axis. Seven nanochains produce a series of large-scale assemblies, nanorods, forming the building blocks for microrods. A proposed aging process of microrods results in the formation of hollow microstructures. Synthesis and characterization of large scale self-assembled protein microtubes may pave a new pathway, capable of not only understanding the self-assembly dynamics of biological materials, but also directing design and fabrication of multifunctional nanobuilding blocks with particular applications in biomedical engineering.

  15. Manganese inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in human cells: a possible mechanism behind manganese-induced toxicity?

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Julia; Ebert, Franziska; Hartwig, Andrea; Michalke, Bernhard; Schwerdtle, Tanja

    2010-11-01

    For humans manganese is both an essential trace element and, at higher doses, a toxic metal. Due to the ubiquitous occurrence of manganese in foodstuff, in industrial countries daily dietary uptake is higher as compared to the estimated daily requirement. Therefore manganese deficiency is extremely rare. In contrast chronic manganese toxicity, affecting primarily the central nervous system, is more prevalent. Thus manganese occupational and dietary overexposure has been shown to cause progressive, permanent, neurodegenerative damage, resulting in syndromes similar to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. To date modes of manganese neurotoxic action are poorly understood and in most studies oxidative stress is postulated as the underlying mechanism. The present study searched on the cellular level for a molecular mechanism behind manganese-induced neurotoxicity and investigated bioavailability, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of MnCl(2), as well as its impact on the DNA damage response in human cells (HeLa S3) in culture. Whereas up to 10 µM MnCl(2) showed no induction of DNA strand breaks after 24 h incubation, manganese strongly inhibited H(2)O(2)-stimulated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation at low, completely non-cytotoxic, for certain human exposure, relevant concentrations starting at 1 µM. Thereby inhibition of this essential DNA damage response signalling reaction was not due to a reduced gene expression or protein level of the responsible polymerase PARP-1. Taken together, the results indicate that manganese, under conditions of either overload due to high exposure or disturbed homeostasis, can disturb the cellular response to DNA strand breaks, which has been shown before (S. Katyal and P. J. McKinnon, Mech. Ageing Dev., 2008, 129, 483-491) to result in neurological diseases.

  16. The Rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme binds cells via an Arg-Gly-Asp motif.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Höltje, Markus; Adolf, Andrej; Oms, Elisabeth; Hagemann, Sandra; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Just, Ingo

    2017-09-07

    The Rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme (C3bot) is a bacterial protein toxin devoid of a cell-binding or -translocation domain. Nevertheless, C3 can efficiently enter intact cells, including neurons, but the mechanism of C3 binding and uptake is not yet understood. Previously, we identified the intermediate filament vimentin as an extracellular membranous interaction partner of C3. However, uptake of C3 into cells still occurs (although reduced) in the absence of vimentin, indicating involvement of an additional host cell receptor. C3 harbors an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is the major integrin-binding site, present in a variety of integrin ligands. To check whether the RGD motif of C3 is involved in binding to cells, we performed a competition assay with C3 and RGD peptide or with a monoclonal antibody binding to beta1-integrin subunit and binding assays in different cell lines, primary neurons and synaptosomes with C3-RGD mutants. Here, we report that pre-incubation of cells with GRGDNP peptide strongly reduced C3 binding to cells. Moreover, mutation of the RGD motif reduced C3 binding to intact cells and also to recombinant vimentin. Anti-integrin antibodies also lowered the C3 binding to cells. Our results indicate that the RGD motif of C3 is at least one essential C3 motif for binding to host cells and that integrin is an additional receptor for C3 besides vimentin. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Thromboxane-induced renal vasoconstriction is mediated by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 and superoxide anion.

    PubMed

    Moss, Nicholas G; Vogel, Paul A; Kopple, Tayler E; Arendshorst, William J

    2013-09-15

    The present renal hemodynamic study tested the hypothesis that CD38 and superoxide anion (O2(·-)) participate in the vasoconstriction produced by activation of thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors in the mouse kidney. CD38 is the major mammalian ADP-ribosyl cyclase contributing to vasomotor tone through the generation of cADP-ribose, a second messenger that activates ryanodine receptors to release Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle cells. We evaluated whether the stable thromboxane mimetic U-46619 causes less pronounced renal vasoconstriction in CD38-deficient mice and the involvement of O2(·-) in U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction. Our results indicate that U-46619 activation of TP receptors causes renal vasoconstriction in part by activating cADP-ribose signaling in renal resistance arterioles. Based on maximal renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance responses to bolus injections of U-46619, CD38 contributes 30-40% of the TP receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We also found that the antioxidant SOD mimetic tempol attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction by U-46619 in both groups of mice, suggesting mediation by O2(·-). The degree of tempol blockage of U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction was greater in wild-type mice, attenuating renal vasoconstriction by 40% compared with 30% in CD38-null mice. In other experiments, U-46619 rapidly stimulated O2(·-) production (dihydroethidium fluorescence) in isolated mouse afferent arterioles, an effect abolished by tempol. These observations provide the first in vivo demonstration of CD38 and O2(·-) involvement in the vasoconstrictor effects of TP receptor activation in the kidney and in vitro evidence for TP receptor stimulation of O2(·-) production by the afferent arteriole.

  18. Thromboxane-induced renal vasoconstriction is mediated by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 and superoxide anion

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Paul A.; Kopple, Tayler E.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The present renal hemodynamic study tested the hypothesis that CD38 and superoxide anion (O2·−) participate in the vasoconstriction produced by activation of thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors in the mouse kidney. CD38 is the major mammalian ADP-ribosyl cyclase contributing to vasomotor tone through the generation of cADP-ribose, a second messenger that activates ryanodine receptors to release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle cells. We evaluated whether the stable thromboxane mimetic U-46619 causes less pronounced renal vasoconstriction in CD38-deficient mice and the involvement of O2·− in U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction. Our results indicate that U-46619 activation of TP receptors causes renal vasoconstriction in part by activating cADP-ribose signaling in renal resistance arterioles. Based on maximal renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance responses to bolus injections of U-46619, CD38 contributes 30–40% of the TP receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We also found that the antioxidant SOD mimetic tempol attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction by U-46619 in both groups of mice, suggesting mediation by O2·−. The degree of tempol blockage of U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction was greater in wild-type mice, attenuating renal vasoconstriction by 40% compared with 30% in CD38-null mice. In other experiments, U-46619 rapidly stimulated O2·− production (dihydroethidium fluorescence) in isolated mouse afferent arterioles, an effect abolished by tempol. These observations provide the first in vivo demonstration of CD38 and O2·− involvement in the vasoconstrictor effects of TP receptor activation in the kidney and in vitro evidence for TP receptor stimulation of O2·− production by the afferent arteriole. PMID:23884143

  19. Crystal structure and structure-based mutagenesis of actin-specific ADP-ribosylating toxin CPILE-a as novel enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Toniti, Waraphan; Yoshida, Toru; Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Irikura, Daisuke; Monma, Chie; Kamata, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a. Though CPILE-a structure has high similarity with known iota toxin-a (Ia) with NAD+, it possesses two extra-long protruding loops from G262-S269 and E402-K408 that are distinct from Ia. Based on the Ia–actin complex structure, we focused on actin-binding interface regions (I-V) including two protruding loops (PT) and examined how mutations in these regions affect the ADP-ribosylation activity of CPILE-a. Though some site-directed mutagenesis studies have already been conducted on the actin binding site of Ia, in the present study, mutagenesis studies were conducted against both α- and β/γ-actin in CPILE-a and Ia. Interestingly, CPILE-a ADP-ribosylates both α- and β/γ-actin, but its sensitivity towards β/γ-actin is 36% compared with α-actin. Our results contrast to that only C2-I ADP-ribosylates β/γ-actin. We also showed that PT-I and two convex-concave interactions in CPILE-a are important for actin binding. The current study is the first detailed analysis of site-directed mutagenesis in the actin binding region of Ia and CPILE-a against both α- and β/γ-actin. PMID:28199340

  20. Cyclophilin-facilitated membrane translocation as pharmacological target to prevent intoxication of mammalian cells by binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylated toxins.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Katharina; Langer, Simon; Kaiser, Eva; Osseforth, Christian; Michaelis, Jens; Popoff, Michel R; Schwan, Carsten; Aktories, Klaus; Kahlert, Viktoria; Malesevic, Miroslav; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia; Barth, Holger

    2015-03-27

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, Clostridium perfringens iota toxin and Clostridium difficile CDT belong to the family of binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins and are composed of a binding/translocation component and a separate enzyme component. The enzyme components ADP-ribosylate G-actin in the cytosol of target cells resulting in depolymerization of F-actin, cell rounding and cell death. The binding/translocation components bind to their cell receptors and form complexes with the respective enzyme components. After receptor-mediated endocytosis, the binding/translocation components form pores in membranes of acidified endosomes and the enzyme components translocate through these pores into the cytosol. This step is facilitated by the host cell chaperone heat shock protein 90 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases including cyclophilin A. Here, we demonstrate that a large isoform of cyclophilin A, the multi-domain enzyme cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40), binds to the enzyme components C2I, Ia and CDTa in vitro. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed a direct binding to C2I with a calculated affinity of 101 nM and to Ia with an affinity of 1.01 μM. Closer investigation for the prototypic C2I revealed that binding to Cyp40 did not depend on its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity but was stronger for unfolded C2I. The interaction of C2I with Cyp40 was also demonstrated in lysates from C2-treated cells by pull-down. Treatment of cells with a non-immunosuppressive cyclosporine A derivative, which still binds to and inhibits the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity of cyclophilins, protected cells from intoxication with C2, iota and CDT toxins, offering an attractive approach for development of novel therapeutic strategies against binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The ARTT motif and a unified structural understanding of substrate recognition in ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADP-ribosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungil; Tainer, John A

    2002-02-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a widely occurring and biologically critical covalent chemical modification process in pathogenic mechanisms, intracellular signaling systems, DNA repair, and cell division. The reaction is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a target protein with nicotinamide release. A family of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic enzymes has been termed the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, in distinction to the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which catalyze the addition of multiple ADP-ribose groups to the carboxyl terminus of eukaryotic nucleoproteins. Despite the limited primary sequence homology among the different ADP-ribosyltransferases, a central cleft bearing the NAD-binding pocket formed by the two perpendicular beta-sheet cores has been remarkably conserved between bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono- and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. The majority of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved His and catalytic Glu residues. In contrast, diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and eukaryotic poly-ADP-ribosytransferases are characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Structural and mutagenic studies of the NAD-binding core of a binary toxin and a C3-like toxin identified an ARTT motif (ADP-ribosylating turn-turn motif) that is implicated in substrate specificity and recognition. Here we apply structure-based sequence alignment and comparative structural analyses of all known structures of ADP-ribosyltransfeases to suggest that this ARTT motif is functionally important in many ADP-ribosylating enzymes that bear a NAD-binding cleft as characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Overall, structure-based sequence analysis reveals common core structures and conserved active sites of ADP-ribosyltransferases to support similar NAD-binding mechanisms but differing mechanisms of target protein binding via sequence variations within the ARTT

  2. Diadenosine Homodinucleotide Products of ADP-ribosyl Cyclases Behave as Modulators of the Purinergic Receptor P2X7*

    PubMed Central

    Bruzzone, Santina; Basile, Giovanna; Chothi, Madhu Parakkottil; Nobbio, Lucilla; Usai, Cesare; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Schenone, Angelo; Guse, Andreas H.; Di Virgilio, Francesco; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2010-01-01

    ADP-ribosyl cyclases from both vertebrates and invertebrates were previously shown to produce two isomers of P1,P2 diadenosine 5′,5′"-P1, P2-diphosphate, P18 and P24, from cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and adenine. P18 and P24 are characterized by an unusual N-glycosidic linkage in one of the adenylic mononucleotides (Basile, G., Taglialatela-Scafati, O., Damonte, G., Armirotti, A., Bruzzone, S., Guida, L., Franco, L., Usai, C., Fattorusso, E., De Flora, A., and Zocchi, E. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14509–14514). P24, but not P18, proved to increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in HeLa cells and to negatively affect mitochondrial function. Here we show that micromolar P24, but not P18, triggers a slow and sustained influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the opening of the purinergic receptor/channel P2X7. On the other hand, P18 inhibits the Ca2+ influx induced by 0.6 mm ATP in HEK293 cells stably transfected with P2X7, with an IC50 of ∼1 μm. Thus, P18 is devoid of intrinsic P2X7 stimulatory activity and behaves as an ATP antagonist. A P2X7-mediated increase of the basal [Ca2+]i has been demonstrated to negatively affect Schwann cell (SC) function in rats with the inherited, peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) (Nobbio, L., Sturla, L., Fiorese, F., Usai, C., Basile, G., Moreschi, I., Benvenuto, F., Zocchi, E., De Flora, A., Schenone, A., and Bruzzone S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 23146–23158). Preincubation of CMT1A SC with 200 nm P18 restored the basal [Ca2+]i to values similar to those recorded in wild-type SC. These results identify P18 as a new P2X7 antagonist, potentially useful in the treatment of CMT1A. PMID:20439466

  3. Targeted delivery of an ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxin into cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zahaf , N.-I.; Lang, A. E.; Kaiser, L.; Fichter, C. D.; Lassmann, S.; McCluskey, A.; Augspach, A.; Aktories, K.; Schmidt, G.

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an attractive target for bacterial toxins. The ADP-ribosyltransferase TccC3 from the insect bacterial pathogen Photorhabdus luminescence modifies actin to force its aggregation. We intended to transport the catalytic part of this toxin preferentially into cancer cells using a toxin transporter (Protective antigen, PA) which was redirected to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) or to human EGF receptors 2 (HER2), which are overexpressed in several cancer cells. Protective antigen of anthrax toxin forms a pore through which the two catalytic parts (lethal factor and edema factor) or other proteins can be transported into mammalian cells. Here, we used PA as a double mutant (N682A, D683A; mPA) which cannot bind to the two natural anthrax receptors. Each mutated monomer is fused either to EGF or to an affibody directed against the human EGF receptor 2 (HER2). We established a cellular model system composed of two cell lines representing HER2 overexpressing esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) and EGFR overexpressing esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). We studied the specificity and efficiency of the re-directed anthrax pore for transport of TccC3 toxin and established Photorhabdus luminescence TccC3 as a toxin suitable for the development of a targeted toxin selectively killing cancer cells. PMID:28128281

  4. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated /sup 32/P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. /sup 32/P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice.

  5. WRN is recruited to damaged telomeres via its RQC domain and tankyrase1-mediated poly-ADP-ribosylation of TRF1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Luxi; Nakajima, Satoshi; Teng, Yaqun; Chen, Hao; Yang, Lu; Chen, Xiukai; Gao, Boya; Levine, Arthur S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Werner syndrome (WS) is a progeroid-like syndrome caused by WRN gene mutations. WS cells exhibit shorter telomere length compared to normal cells, but it is not fully understood how WRN deficiency leads directly to telomere dysfunction. By generating localized telomere-specific DNA damage in a real-time fashion and a dose-dependent manner, we found that the damage response of WRN at telomeres relies on its RQC domain, which is different from the canonical damage response at genomic sites via its HRDC domain. We showed that in addition to steady state telomere erosion, WRN depleted cells are also sensitive to telomeric damage. WRN responds to site-specific telomeric damage via its RQC domain, interacting at Lysine 1016 and Phenylalanine1037 with the N-terminal acidic domain of the telomere shelterin protein TRF1 and demonstrating a novel mechanism for WRN's role in telomere protection. We also found that tankyrase1-mediated poly-ADP-ribosylation of TRF1 is important for both the interaction between WRN and TRF1 and the damage recruitment of WRN to telomeres. Mutations of potential tankyrase1 ADP-ribosylation sites within the RGCADG motif of TRF1 strongly diminish the interaction with WRN and the damage response of WRN only at telomeres. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism as to how WRN protects telomere integrity from damage and telomere erosion. PMID:28158503

  6. Mechanism of ADP-ribosylation removal revealed by the structure and ligand complexes of the dimanganese mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase DraG

    PubMed Central

    Berthold, Catrine L.; Wang, He; Nordlund, Stefan; Högbom, Martin

    2009-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous regulatory posttranslational modification involved in numerous key processes such as DNA repair, transcription, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and the pathogenic mechanism of certain bacterial toxins. Despite the importance of this reversible process, very little is known about the structure and mechanism of the hydrolases that catalyze removal of the ADP-ribose moiety. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DraG), a dimanganese enzyme that reversibly associates with the cell membrane, is a key player in the regulation of nitrogenase activity. DraG has long served as a model protein for ADP-ribosylhydrolases. Here, we present the crystal structure of DraG in the holo and ADP-ribose bound forms. We also present the structure of a reaction intermediate analogue and propose a detailed catalytic mechanism for protein de-ADP-ribosylation involving ring opening of the substrate ribose. In addition, the particular manganese coordination in DraG suggests a rationale for the enzyme's preference for manganese over magnesium, although not requiring a redox active metal for the reaction. PMID:19706507

  7. Cell cycle-dependent intervention by benzamide of carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation and in vitro poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Kun, E; Kirsten, E; Milo, G E; Kurian, P; Kumari, H L

    1983-01-01

    Human fibroblasts were subjected to nutritionally induced G1 block, followed by release and subsequent entry into S phase, and exposed to nontoxic concentrations of carcinogens in early S phase. Cell transformation occurred as determined by early morphologic cell alterations, anchorage-independent colony formation, cell invasiveness, and augmentation of Ab 376 human malignancy-specific cell-surface antigenic determinant. Methylazoxymethanol acetate was the most potent transforming agent at doses that were negative in toxicity tests. Benzamide (10 microM intracellular concentration), a specific inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, prevented transformation in a cell cycle-specific manner, maximal prevention coinciding with early S phase, also characteristic of maximal susceptibility to transformation. Neither an interference of carcinogen deoxyguanosine nucleoside adduct formation nor a chemical reaction between benzamide and carcinogens was detected. Methylazoxymethanol acetate at transforming but nontoxic dose partially inhibited poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation to about the same extent as benzamide. However, simultaneous exposure of cells to both agents in early S phase, resulting in the prevention of transformation, augmented poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation above the controls. Enzymatic activities ran parallel with the formation of DNA-associating polymer-nonhistone protein adducts that are assumed to regulate the physiological function of chromatin at the structural level. Images PMID:6196785

  8. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the. alpha. subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G. )

    1988-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the {alpha} subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost, a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5{prime}-({alpha}-{sup 32}P)triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an {alpha} subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera.

  9. ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin: functional analysis of a cellular system that stimulates the enzymic activity of cholera toxin fragment A/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.M.; Coburn, J.

    1987-10-06

    The authors have clarified relationships between cholera toxin, cholera toxin substrates, a membrane protein S that is required for toxin activity, and a soluble protein CF that is needed for the function of S. The toxin has little intrinsic ability to catalyze ADP-ribosylations unless it encounters the active form of the S protein, which is S liganded to GTP or to a GTP analogue. In the presence of CF, S x GTP forms readily, though reversibly, but a more permanent active species, S-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (S x GTP..gamma..S), forms over a period of 10-15 min at 37/sup 0/C. Both guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and GTP block this quasi-permanent activation. Some S x GTP..gamma..S forms in membranes that are exposed to CF alone and then to GTP..gamma..S, with a wash in between, and it is possible that CF facilitates a G nucleotide exchange. S x GTP..gamma..S dissolved by nonionic detergents persists in solution and can be used to support the ADP-ribosylation of nucleotide-free substrates. In this circumstance, added guanyl nucleotides have no further effect. This active form of S is unstable, especially when heated, but the thermal inactivation above 45/sup 0/C is decreased by GTP..gamma..S. Active S is required equally for the ADP-ribosylation of all of cholera toxin's protein substrates, regardless of whether they bind GTP or not. They suggest that active S interacts directly with the enzymic A/sub 1/ fragments of cholera toxin and not with any toxin substrate. The activation and activity of S are independent of the state, or even the presence, of adenylate cyclase and seem to be involved with the cyclase system only via cholera toxin. S is apparently not related by function to certain other GTP binding proteins, including p21/sup ras/, and appears to be a new GTP binding protein whose physiologic role remains to be identified.

  10. Purification and properties of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase from Crithidia fasciculata. Automodification and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Podestá, Dolores; García-Herreros, María I; Cannata, Joaquín J B; Stoppani, Andrés O M; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2004-06-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase has been purified more than 160000-fold from Crithidia fasciculata. This is the first PARP isolated to apparent homogeneity from trypanosomatids. The purified enzyme absolutely required DNA for catalytic activity and histones enhanced it 2.5-fold, when the DNA:histone ratio was 1:1.3. The enzyme required no magnesium or any other metal ion cofactor. The apparent molecular mass of 111 kDa, determined by gel filtration would correspond to a dimer of two identical 55-kDa subunits. Activity was inhibited by nicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide, theophylline, thymidine, xanthine and hypoxanthine but not by adenosine. The enzyme was localized to the cell nucleus. Our findings suggest that covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP itself or DNA topoisomerase I resulted in the inhibition of their activities and provide an initial biochemical characterization of this covalent post-translational modification in trypanosomatids.

  11. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation enhances H-RAS protein stability and causes abnormal cell cycle progression in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells treated with hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linhua; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Tang, Huanwen; Chen, Jialong; Wen, Qiaosheng; Zou, Fei

    2015-08-05

    Hydroquinone (HQ), one of the most important benzene-derived metabolites, can induce aberrant cell cycle progression; however, the mechanism of this induction remains unclear. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which is catalysed primarily by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), participates in various biological processes, including cell cycle control. The results of the present study show an accumulation in G1 phase versus S phase of TK6 human lymphoblast cells treated with HQ for 48h compared with PBS-treated cells; after 72h of HQ treatment, the cells transitioned from G1 arrest to S phase arrest. We examined the expression of six genes related to the cell cycle or leukaemia to further explore the reason for this phenomenon. Among these genes, H-RAS was found to be associated with this phenomenon because its mRNA and protein expression decreased at 48h and increased at 72h. Experiments for PARP activity induction and inhibition revealed that the observed PARylation was positively associated with H-RAS expression. Moreover, in cells treated with HQ in conjunction with PARP-1 knockdown, expression of the H-RAS protein decreased and the number of cells in G1 phase increased. The degree of poly(ADP-ribosyl) modification of the H-RAS protein increased in cells treated with HQ for 72h, further supporting that changes in PARylation contributed to the rapid alteration of H-RAS protein expression, followed by abnormal progression of the cell cycle. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were employed to determine whether protein complexes were formed by PARP-1 and H-RAS proteins, and the direct interaction between these proteins indicated that PARylation regulated H-RAS expression. As detected by confocal microscopy, the H-RAS protein was found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal that H-RAS protein can be modified by PARylation.

  12. The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and S. enterica subsp. arizonae ADP-Ribosylates Src and Inhibits Opsonophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Dominic J; Young, Joanna C; Covarelli, Valentina; Herrera-León, Silvia; Connor, Thomas R; Fookes, Maria; Walker, Danielle; Echeita, Aurora; Thomson, Nicholas R; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella species utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared a draft genome assembly of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and Salmonella bongori strain 12419. S. enterica subsp. salamae encodes the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), SPI-2, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs. Though several key S Typhimurium effector genes are missing (e.g., avrA, sopB, and sseL), S. enterica subsp. salamae invades HeLa cells and contains homologues of S. bongori sboK and sboC, which we named seoC SboC and SeoC are homologues of EspJ from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), which inhibit Src kinase-dependent phagocytosis by ADP-ribosylation. By screening 73 clinical and environmental Salmonella isolates, we identified EspJ homologues in S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae The β-lactamase TEM-1 reporter system showed that SeoC is translocated by the SPI-1 T3SS. All the Salmonella SeoC/SboC homologues ADP-ribosylate Src E310 in vitro Ectopic expression of SeoC/SboC inhibited phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized beads into Cos-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FcγRIIa. Concurrently, S. enterica subsp. salamae infection of J774.A1 macrophages inhibited phagocytosis of beads, in a seoC-dependent manner. These results show that S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and S. enterica subsp. arizonae share features of the infection strategy of extracellular pathogens EPEC and EHEC and shed light on the complexities of the T3SS effector repertoires of Enterobacteriaceae.

  13. A quantitative analysis for the ADP-ribosylation activity of pertussis toxin: an enzymatic-HPLC coupled assay applicable to formulated whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine products.

    PubMed

    Cyr, T; Menzies, A J; Calver, J; Whitehouse, L W

    2001-06-01

    The majority of the biological effects of pertussis toxin (PT) are the result of a toxin-catalyzed transfer of an adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADP-ribose) moiety from NAD(+)to the alpha-subunits of a subset of signal-transducing guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). This generally leads to an uncoupling of the modified G-protein from the corresponding receptor and the loss of effector regulation. This assay is based on the PT S1 subunit enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to the cysteine moiety of a fluorescent tagged synthetic peptide homologous to the 20 amino acid residue carboxyl-terminal sequence of the alpha-subunit of the G(i3)protein. The tagged peptide and the ADP-ribosylated product were characterized by HPLC/MS and MS/MS for structure confirmation. Quantitation of this characterized ADP-ribosylated fluorescently tagged peptide was by HPLC fluorescence using Standard Addition methodology. The assay was linear over a five hr incubation period at 20 degrees C at PT concentrations between 0.0625 and 4.0 microg/ml and the sensitivity of the assay could be increased several fold by increasing the incubation time to 24 h. Purified S1 subunit of PT exhibited 68.1+/-10.1% of the activity of the intact toxin on a molar basis, whereas the pertussis toxin B oligomer, the genetically engineered toxoid, (PT-9K/129G), and several of the other components of the Bordetella pertussis organism possessed little (<0.6%) or no detectable ribosylation activity. Commonly used pertussis vaccine reference materials, US PV Lot #11, BRP PV 66/303, and BRP PV 88/522, were assayed by this method against Bordetella pertussis Toxin Standard 90/518 and demonstrated to contain, respectively, 0.323+/-0.007, 0.682+/-0.045, and 0.757+/-0.006 microg PT/ml (Mean+/-SEM) or in terms of microg/vial: 3.63, 4.09 and 4.54, respectively. A survey of several multivalent pertussis vaccine products formulated with both whole cell as well as acellular components indicated that

  14. Enzyme characteristics of recombinant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 of rat and human origin mirror the correlation between cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity and species-specific life span.

    PubMed

    Beneke, Sascha; Scherr, Anna-Lena; Ponath, Viviane; Popp, Oliver; Bürkle, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification, which is involved in many cellular functions, including DNA repair and maintenance of genomic stability, and has also been implicated in cellular and organismal ageing. We have previously reported that maximum poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity in mononuclear blood cells is correlated with mammalian life span. Here we show that the difference between a long-lived and a short-lived species tested (i.e. man and rat) is directly mirrored by the enzymatic parameters of recombinant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), i.e. substrate affinity and reaction velocity. In addition, we have characterized two human PARP-1 alleles and assign their activity difference to their respective initial velocity and not substrate affinity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and S. enterica subsp. arizonae ADP-Ribosylates Src and Inhibits Opsonophagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Dominic J.; Young, Joanna C.; Covarelli, Valentina; Herrera-León, Silvia; Connor, Thomas R.; Fookes, Maria; Walker, Danielle; Echeita, Aurora; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Berger, Cedric N.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella species utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared a draft genome assembly of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and Salmonella bongori strain 12419. S. enterica subsp. salamae encodes the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), SPI-2, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs. Though several key S. Typhimurium effector genes are missing (e.g., avrA, sopB, and sseL), S. enterica subsp. salamae invades HeLa cells and contains homologues of S. bongori sboK and sboC, which we named seoC. SboC and SeoC are homologues of EspJ from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), which inhibit Src kinase-dependent phagocytosis by ADP-ribosylation. By screening 73 clinical and environmental Salmonella isolates, we identified EspJ homologues in S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae. The β-lactamase TEM-1 reporter system showed that SeoC is translocated by the SPI-1 T3SS. All the Salmonella SeoC/SboC homologues ADP-ribosylate Src E310 in vitro. Ectopic expression of SeoC/SboC inhibited phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized beads into Cos-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FcγRIIa. Concurrently, S. enterica subsp. salamae infection of J774.A1 macrophages inhibited phagocytosis of beads, in a seoC-dependent manner. These results show that S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and S. enterica subsp. arizonae share features of the infection strategy of extracellular pathogens EPEC and EHEC and shed light on the complexities of the T3SS effector repertoires of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27736780

  16. Assignment of functional domains involved in ADP-ribosylation and B-oligomer binding within the carboxyl terminus of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K M; Barbieri, J T

    1994-01-01

    The roles of the carboxyl terminus of the S1 subunit (composed of 235 amino acids) of pertussis toxin in the ADP-ribosylation of transducin (Gt) and in B-oligomer binding were defined by analysis of two carboxyl-terminal deletion mutants of the recombinant S1 (rS1) subunit: C204, which is composed of amino acids 1 through 204 of S1, and C219, which is composed of amino acids 1 through 219 of S1. C204 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a stable, soluble peptide that had an apparent molecular mass of 23.4 kDa. In a linear velocity assay, the specific activity of C180 was 2% and that of C204 was 80% of the activity displayed by rS1 in catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of Gt. In addition, C204 possessed catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) that were 110% at variable Gt concentrations and 40% at variable NAD concentrations of those reported for rS1. These data showed that the catalytic activity of C204 approached the activity of S1. C204 and C219 were unable to associate with the B oligomer under conditions which promoted association of rS1 with the B oligomer. Consistent with these results, mixtures of C204 or C219 with the B oligomer did not elicit a clustering phenotype in CHO cells, whereas rS1 which had associated with the B oligomer was as cytotoxic as native pertussis toxin. These data indicate that residues between 219 and 235 are important in the association of the S1 subunit with the B oligomer. These data allow the assignment of functional regions to the carboxyl terminus of S1. Residues 195 to 204 are required for optimal ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, residues 205 to 219 link the catalytic region of S1 and a B-oligomer-binding region of S1, and residues 220 to 235 are required for association of S1 with the B oligomer. Images PMID:8168972

  17. Allele-Specific Interactions between CAST AWAY and NEVERSHED Control Abscission in Arabidopsis Flowers.

    PubMed

    Groner, William D; Christy, Megan E; Kreiner, Catherine M; Liljegren, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    An advantage of analyzing abscission in genetically tractable model plants is the ability to make use of classic genetic tools such as suppression analysis. We have investigated the regulation of organ abscission by carrying out suppression analysis in Arabidopsis flowers. Plants carrying mutations in the NEVERSHED (NEV) gene, which encodes an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein, retain their outer floral organs after fertilization. Mutant alleles of CAST AWAY (CST), which encodes a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, were found to restore organ abscission in nev flowers in an allele-specific manner. To further explore the basis of the interactions between CST and NEV, we tested whether the site of a nev mutation is predictive of its ability to be suppressed. Our results suggest instead that the strength of a nev allele influences whether organ abscission can be rescued by a specific allele of CST.

  18. Identification of a GTP-binding protein. cap alpha. subunit that lacks an apparent ADP-ribosylation site for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, H.K.W.; Yoshimoto, K.K.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Simon, M.I.

    1988-05-01

    Recent molecular cloning of cDNA for the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine transducin (a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein, or G protein) has revealed the presence of two retinal-specific transducins, called T/sub r/ and T/sub c/, which are expressed in rod or cone photoreceptor cells. In a further study of G-protein diversity and signal transduction in the retina, the authors have identified a G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunit, which they refer to as G/sub z/..cap alpha.., by isolating a human retinal cDNA clone that cross-hybridizes at reduced stringency with bovine T/sub r/ ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of G/sub z/..cap alpha.. is 41-67% identical with those of other known G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. However, the 355-residue G/sub z/..cap alpha.. lacks a consensus site for ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin, and its amino acid sequence varies within a number of regions that are strongly conserved among all of the other G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. They suggest that G/sub z/..cap alpha.., which appears to be highly expressed in neural tissues, represents a member of a subfamily of G proteins that mediate signal transduction in pertussis toxin-insensitive systems.

  19. In vivo exposure of swiss albino mice to chronic low dose of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) lowers poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of bone marrow cell and blood lymphocyte proteins.

    PubMed

    Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2006-08-01

    Efforts to identify an easy and convenient biomarker of carcinogenesis with potentials of application in mass screening program continue. In a series of investigations on mice exposed to different carcinogens, poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of cellular proteins of different tissues has been shown to be a potential biomarker of carcinogenesis. Because blood based biomarker of carcinogenesis offers significant advantage in its use in a cancer screening program, this investigation was undertaken to find correlations between initiation of carcinogenesis and PAR of bone marrow cell (BMC) and blood lymphocyte (BL) proteins in mice chronically exposed to low dose of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) for up to four weeks in vivo. The exposure was either alone or in combination with 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), an inhibitor of PAR. Total PAR of cellular proteins and of histone H1 protein were monitored by slot and Western blot immunoprobe assays, respectively. The PAR of total cellular proteins as well as of histone H1 was down-regulated in duration of exposure dependent manners. The results suggest that BMC and BL mirrored status of PAR in other tissues. This finding opens up the possibility of using PAR as a biomarker of carcinogenesis in a blood based test utilizing immunoprobe assay of cellular PAR.

  20. Mutations in ARL2BP, Encoding ADP-Ribosylation-Factor-Like 2 Binding Protein, Cause Autosomal-Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alice E.; Schwarz, Nele; Zelinger, Lina; Stern-Schneider, Gabriele; Shoemark, Amelia; Spitzbarth, Benjamin; Gross, Menachem; Laxer, Uri; Sosna, Jacob; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Waseem, Naushin H.; Wilson, Robert; Kahn, Richard A.; Plagnol, Vincent; Wolfrum, Uwe; Banin, Eyal; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Sharon, Dror; Webster, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous retinal degeneration characterized by photoreceptor death, which results in visual failure. Here, we used a combination of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing to identify mutations in ARL2BP, which encodes an effector protein of the small GTPases ARL2 and ARL3, as causative for autosomal-recessive RP (RP66). In a family affected by RP and situs inversus, a homozygous, splice-acceptor mutation, c.101−1G>C, which alters pre-mRNA splicing of ARLBP2 in blood RNA, was identified. In another family, a homozygous c.134T>G (p.Met45Arg) mutation was identified. In the mouse retina, ARL2BP localized to the basal body and cilium-associated centriole of photoreceptors and the periciliary extension of the inner segment. Depletion of ARL2BP caused cilia shortening. Moreover, depletion of ARL2, but not ARL3, caused displacement of ARL2BP from the basal body, suggesting that ARL2 is vital for recruiting or anchoring ARL2BP at the base of the cilium. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the p.Met45Arg amino acid substitution reduced binding to ARL2 and caused the loss of ARL2BP localization at the basal body in ciliated nasal epithelial cells. These data demonstrate a role for ARL2BP and ARL2 in primary cilia function and that this role is essential for normal photoreceptor maintenance and function. PMID:23849777

  1. The effect of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation inhibition on the porcine cumulus-oocyte complex during in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Hyoun; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Min Gyeong; Lee, Jun Sung; Jin, Su Jin; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2017-01-29

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays important roles in DNA repair, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, and cell death, and occurs via the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Previous studies have shown that PARylation affects mouse and porcine pre-implantation development and participates in mechanisms of autophagy. However, there have not yet been reported the role of PARylation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Thus, we investigated the effect of PARylation inhibition on this process; cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured with 3-aminobenzamide (3-ABA, PARP inhibitor) during porcine IVM. Full cumulus expansion was significantly reduced (10.34 ± 1.23 [3-ABA] vs. 48.17 ± 2.03% [control]), but nuclear maturation rates were not changed in the 3-ABA treatment group. Especially, we observed that cumulus cells were little expanded after 22 h in 3-ABA treated COCs. The mRNA expression levels of oocyte maturation- and cumulus expansion-related genes were evaluated at 22 and 44 h. GDF9, BMP15, COX-2, and PTX3 expression were upregulated at 44 h, whereas the levels of HAS2 and TNFAIP6 were downregulated in the 3-ABA treated group. Furthermore, 3-ABA treatment significantly decreased the developmental rate (28.24 ± 1.06 vs. 40.24 ± 3.03%) and total cell number (41.12 ± 2.10 vs. 50.38 ± 2.27), but increased the total apoptotic index (6.44 ± 0.81 vs. 3.08 ± 0.51) in parthenogenetically activated embryos. In conclusion, these results showed that PARylation regulates cumulus expansion through the regulation of gene expression and affects developmental competence and quality in parthenogenetic embryos.

  2. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  3. 2-Azido-( sup 32 P)NAD+, a photoactivatable probe for G-protein structure: Evidence for holotransducin oligomers in which the ADP-ribosylated carboxyl terminus of alpha interacts with both alpha and gamma subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, R.R.; Dhanasekaran, N.; Johnson, G.L.; Ruoho, A.E. )

    1990-05-01

    A radioactive and photoactivatable derivative of NAD+, 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)NAD+, has been synthesized and used with pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate Cys347 of the alpha subunit (alpha T) of GT, the retinal guanine nucleotide-binding protein. ADP-ribosylation of alpha T followed by light activation of the azide moiety of 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)ADP-ribose produced four crosslinked species involving the alpha and gamma subunits of the GT heterotrimer: an alpha trimer (alpha-alpha-alpha), and alpha-alpha-gamma crosslink, an alpha dimer (alpha-alpha), and an alpha-gamma crosslink. The alpha trimer, alpha-alpha-gamma complex, alpha dimer, and alpha-gamma complexes were immunoreactive with alpha T antibodies. The alpha-alpha-gamma and the alpha-gamma complexes were immunoreactive with antisera recognizing gamma subunits. No evidence was found for crosslinking of alpha T to beta T subunits. Hydrolysis of the thioglycosidic bond between Cys347 and 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)ADP-ribose using mercuric acetate resulted in the transfer of radiolabel from Cys347 of alpha T in the crosslinked oligomers to alpha monomers, indicative of intermolecular photocrosslinking, and to gamma monomers, indicative of either intermolecular crosslinked complexes (between heterotrimers) or intramolecular crosslinked complexes (within the heterotrimer). These results demonstrate that GT exists as an oligomer and that ADP-ribosylated Cys347, which is four residues from the alpha T-carboxyl terminus, is oriented toward and in close proximity to the gamma subunit.

  4. Oxytocin-induced elevation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, cyclic ADP-ribose or Ca(2+) concentrations is involved in autoregulation of oxytocin secretion in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice.

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Olga; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Amina, Sarwat; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2010-01-01

    Locally released oxytocin (OT) activates OT receptors (2.1:OXY:1:OT:) in neighboring neurons in the hypothalamus and their terminals in the posterior pituitary, resulting in further OT release, best known in autoregulation occurring during labor or milk ejection in reproductive females. OT also plays a critical role in social behavior of non-reproductive females and even in males in mammals from rodents to humans. Social behavior is disrupted when elevation of free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and OT secretion are reduced in male and female CD38 knockout mice. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate whether ADP-ribosyl cyclase-dependent signaling is involved in OT-induced OT release for social recognition in males, independent from female reproduction, and to determine its molecular mechanism. Here, we report that ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was increased by OT in crude membrane preparations of the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice, and that OT elicited an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the isolated terminals over a period of 5 min. The increases in cyclase and [Ca(2+)](i) were partially inhibited by nonspecific protein kinase inhibitors and a protein kinase C specific inhibitor, calphostin C. Subsequently, OT-induced OT release was also inhibited by calphostin C to levels inhibited by vasotocin, an OT receptor antagonist, and 8-bromo-cADP-ribose. These results demonstrate that OT receptors are functionally coupled to membrane-bound ADP-ribosyl cyclase and/or CD38 and suggest that cADPR-mediated intracellular calcium signaling is involved in autoregulation of OT release, which is sensitive to protein kinase C, in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis in male mice.

  5. Activation of Reg gene, a gene for insulin-producing β-cell regeneration: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase binds Reg promoter and regulates the transcription by autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Takako; Takasawa, Shin; Nata, Koji; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Abe, Michiaki; Shervani, Nausheen J.; Ikeda, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Kei; Unno, Michiaki; Matsuno, Seiki; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    The regeneration of pancreatic islet β cells is important for the prevention and cure of diabetes mellitus. We have demonstrated that the administration of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase/polymerase (PARP) inhibitors such as nicotinamide to 90% depancreatized rats induces islet regeneration. From the regenerating islet-derived cDNA library, we have isolated Reg (regenerating gene) and demonstrated that Reg protein induces β-cell replication via the Reg receptor and ameliorates experimental diabetes. However, the mechanism by which Reg gene is activated in β cells has been elusive. In this study, we found that the combined addition of IL-6 and dexamethasone induced the expression of Reg gene in β cells and that PARP inhibitors enhanced the expression. Reporter gene assays revealed that the −81 ≈ −70 region (TGCCCCTCCCAT) of the Reg gene promoter is a cis-element for the expression of Reg gene. Gel mobility shift assays showed that the active transcriptional DNA/protein complex was formed by the stimulation with IL-6 and dexamethasone. Surprisingly, PARP bound to the cis-element and was involved in the active transcriptional DNA/protein complex. The DNA/protein complex formation was inhibited depending on the autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP in the complex. Thus, PARP inhibitors enhance the DNA/protein complex formation for Reg gene transcription and stabilize the complex by inhibiting the autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP. PMID:11134536

  6. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards induce characteristic poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation responses in HaCaT keratinocytes with distinctive cellular consequences.

    PubMed

    Mangerich, Aswin; Debiak, Malgorzata; Birtel, Matthias; Ponath, Viviane; Balszuweit, Frank; Lex, Kirsten; Martello, Rita; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Strobelt, Romano; Siegert, Markus; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Mustard agents are potent DNA alkylating agents with mutagenic, cytotoxic and vesicant properties. They include bi-functional agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM) or nitrogen mustard (mustine, HN2), as well as mono-functional agents, such as "half mustard" (CEES). Whereas SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent, several nitrogen mustard derivatives, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, are being used as established chemotherapeutics. Upon induction of specific forms of genotoxic stimuli, several poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by using NAD(+) as a substrate. Previously, it was shown that SM triggers cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation), but so far this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In view of the protective effects of PARP inhibitors, the latter have been proposed as a treatment option of SM-exposed victims. In an accompanying article (Debiak et al., 2016), we have provided an optimized protocol for the analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to further analyze mustard-induced PARylation and its functional consequences, in general. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the PARylation response in HaCaT cells after treatment with four different mustard agents, i.e., SM, CEES, HN2, and chlorambucil, on a qualitative, quantitative and functional level. In particular, we recorded substance-specific as well as dose- and time-dependent PARylation responses using independent bioanalytical methods based on single-cell immuno-fluorescence microscopy and quantitative isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed if and how PARylation contributes to mustard-induced toxicity by treating HaCaT cells with CEES, SM, and HN2 in combination with the clinically relevant PARP inhibitor ABT888. As evaluated by a novel immunofluorescence-based protocol for the detection of

  7. Negative correlation between poly-ADP-ribosylation of spleen cell histone proteins and initial duration of dimethylnitrosamine exposure to mice in vivo measured by Western blot immunoprobe assay: a possible biomarker for cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Devi, Brahmacharimayum J; Schneeweiss, Frank H A; Sharan, Rajeshwar N

    2005-01-01

    Improved cancer detection involving suitable biomarkers with easy applicability is a challenge to our fight against cancer. Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of proteins is a likely candidate biomarker for this purpose because it meets the criterion well. This report is a step towards testing suitability of PAR as a biomarker for cancer detection. Swiss albino mice were exposed to hepatocarcinogen, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), at a chronic dose, which is known to induce carcinogenesis in liver. PAR was monitored by a Western blot immunoprobe assay in spleen, a lymphoid organ, to find a correlation between PAR of spleen histone proteins and duration of DMN exposure. A negative, non-linear correlation was found for most histone proteins. The inhibition of PAR of histones was significant from 4 weeks onwards until the end of the observation. The inhibition was potentiated when 3-aminobenzamide was simultaneously administered. The results open up the possibility of PAR of cellular proteins being used as biomarker for cancer detection.

  8. α2-COP is involved in early secretory traffic in Arabidopsis and is required for plant growth.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-Ferrer, Fátima; Pastor-Cantizano, Noelia; Bernat-Silvestre, César; Selvi-Martínez, Pilar; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Gao, Caiji; Perez-Amador, Miguel Angel; Jiang, Liwen; Aniento, Fernando; Marcote, María Jesús

    2016-12-26

    COP (coat protein) I-coated vesicles mediate intra-Golgi transport and retrograde transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum. These vesicles form through the action of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and the COPI heptameric protein complex (coatomer), which consists of seven subunits (α-, β-, β'-, γ-, δ-, ε- and ζ-COP). In contrast to mammals and yeast, several isoforms for coatomer subunits, with the exception of γ and δ, have been identified in Arabidopsis. To understand the role of COPI proteins in plant biology, we have identified and characterized a loss-of-function mutant of α2-COP, an Arabidopsis α-COP isoform. The α2-cop mutant displayed defects in plant growth, including small rosettes, stems and roots and mislocalization of p24δ5, a protein of the p24 family containing a C-terminal dilysine motif involved in COPI binding. The α2-cop mutant also exhibited abnormal morphology of the Golgi apparatus. Global expression analysis of the α2-cop mutant revealed altered expression of plant cell wall-associated genes. In addition, a strong upregulation of SEC31A, which encodes a subunit of the COPII coat, was observed in the α2-cop mutant; this also occurs in a mutant of a gene upstream of COPI assembly, GNL1, which encodes an ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). These findings suggest that loss of α2-COP affects the expression of secretory pathway genes.

  9. An Exo2 derivative affects ER and Golgi morphology and vacuolar sorting in a tissue-specific manner in arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sorieul, Mathias; Langhans, Markus; Guetzoyan, Lucie; Hillmer, Stefan; Clarkson, Guy; Lord, John Michael; Roberts, Lynne M; Robinson, David G; Spooner, Robert A; Frigerio, Lorenzo

    2011-11-01

    We screened a panel of compounds derived from Exo2 - a drug that perturbs post-Golgi compartments and trafficking in mammalian cells - for their effect on the secretory pathway in Arabidopsis root epidermal cells. While Exo2 and most related compounds had no significant effect, one Exo2 derivative, named LG8, induced severe morphological alterations in both the Golgi (at high concentrations) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). LG8 causes the ER to form foci of interconnecting tubules, which at the ultrastructural level appear similar to those previously reported in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with the herbicide oryzalin. In cotyledonary leaves, LG8 causes redistribution of a trans Golgi network (TGN) marker to the vacuole. LG8 affects the anterograde secretory pathway by inducing secretion of vacuolar cargo and preventing the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 from reaching the plasma membrane. Uptake and arrival at the TGN of the endocytic marker FM4-64 is not affected. Unlike the ADP ribosylation factor-GTP exchange factor (ARF-GEF) inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA), LG8 affects these post-Golgi events without causing the formation of BFA bodies. Up to concentrations of 50 µm, the effects of LG8 are reversible. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. HLB1 Is a Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain-Containing Protein That Operates at the Intersection of the Exocytic and Endocytic Pathways at the TGN/EE in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sparks, J Alan; Kwon, Taegun; Renna, Luciana; Liao, Fuqi; Brandizzi, Federica; Blancaflor, Elison B

    2016-03-01

    The endomembrane system plays essential roles in plant development, but the proteome responsible for its function and organization remains largely uncharacterized in plants. Here, we identified and characterized the HYPERSENSITIVE TO LATRUNCULIN B1 (HLB1) protein isolated through a forward-genetic screen in Arabidopsis thaliana for mutants with heightened sensitivity to actin-disrupting drugs. HLB1 is a plant-specific tetratricopeptide repeat domain-containing protein of unknown function encoded by a single Arabidopsis gene. HLB1 associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN)/early endosome (EE) and tracked along filamentous actin, indicating that it could link post-Golgi traffic with the actin cytoskeleton in plants. HLB1 was found to interact with the ADP-ribosylation-factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor, MIN7/BEN1 (HOPM INTERACTOR7/BREFELDIN A-VISUALIZED ENDOCYTIC TRAFFICKING DEFECTIVE1) by coimmunoprecipitation. The min7/ben1 mutant phenocopied the mild root developmental defects and latrunculin B hypersensitivity of hlb1, and analyses of ahlb1/ min7/ben1 double mutant showed that hlb1 and min7/ben1 operate in common genetic pathways. Based on these data, we propose that HLB1 together with MIN7/BEN1 form a complex with actin to modulate the function of the TGN/EE at the intersection of the exocytic and endocytic pathways in plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular evidence of the involvement of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system in the repair of the mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated DNA adduct produced by pierisin-1, an apoptosis-inducing protein from the cabbage butterfly.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Masanobu; Matsukawa, Kazuki; Kuraoka, Isao; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Totsuka, Yukari; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Watanabe, Masahiko; Zou, Yue; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Yagi, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    Pierisin-1 is a potent apoptosis-inducing protein found in the pupal extract of the cabbage white butterfly. Pierisin-1 catalyzes the mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the 2'-deoxyguanosine residue and produces a bulky adduct, N2-(ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N2-ADPR-dG) in DNA. Here, we examined the involvement of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system in the removal of N2-ADPR-dG in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and human cells. The results of mobility shift gel electrophoresis assays using a 50-mer oligodeoxynucleotide containing a single N2-ADPR-dG showed that E. coli UvrAB proteins bound to the N2-ADPR-dG in vitro. Incubation of the adducted oligodeoxynucleotides with UvrABC resulted in the incision of the oligonucleotides in vitro. The results of filter binding and gel mobility shift assays using human XPA protein showed that XPA bound to DNA containing N2-ADPR-dGs in vitro. Finally, we introduced plasmids containing N2-ADPR-dGs into E. coli and human cells. N2-ADPR-adducted plasmids replicated l0 times and 20 times less efficiently in NER-deficient E. coli and human cells than in their wild-type counterparts, respectively. More mutations were induced in the plasmid propagated in NER-deficient cells than that in wild-type human cells. These results indicate the involvement of the NER system in the repair of N2-ADPR-dG in both E. coli and human cells.

  12. Activation of Telomerase by Ionizing Radiation: Differential Response to the Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Abrogation of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, by LY294002, or by Wortmannin

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhof, Dirk Zwicker, Felix; Kuepper, Jan-Heiner; Debus, Juergen; Weber, Klaus-Josef

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Telomerase activity represents a radiation-inducible function, which may be targeted by a double-strand break (DSB)-activated signal transduction pathway. Therefore, the effects of DNA-PK inhibitors (Wortmannin and LY294002) on telomerase upregulation after irradiation were studied. In addition, the role of trans-dominant inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which strongly reduces DSB rejoining, was assessed in comparison with 3-aminobenzamide. Methods and Materials: COM3 rodent cells carry a construct for the dexamethasone-inducible overexpression of the DNA-binding domain of PARP1 and exhibit greatly impaired DSB rejoining after irradiation. Telomerase activity was measured using polymerase chain reaction ELISA 1 h after irradiation with doses up to 10 Gy. Phosphorylation status of PKB/Akt and of PKC{alpha}/{beta}{sub II} was assessed by western blotting. Results: No telomerase upregulation was detectable for irradiated cells with undisturbed DSB rejoining. In contrast, incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone yielded pronounced radiation induction of telomerase activity that could be suppressed by Wortmannin. 3-Aminobenzamide not only was unable to induce telomerase activity but also suppressed telomerase upregulation upon incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone. Phospho-PKB was detectable independent of irradiation or dexamethasone pretreatment, but was undetectable upon incubations with LY294002 or Wortmannin, whereas phospho-PKC rested detectable. Conclusions: Telomerase activation postirradiation was triggered by different treatments that interfere with DNA DSB processing. This telomerase upregulation, however, was not reflected by the phosporylation status of the putative mediators of TERT activation, PKB and PKC. Although an involvement of PKB in TERT activation is not supported by the present findings, a respective role of PKC isoforms other than {alpha}/{beta}{sub II} cannot be ruled out.

  13. Dimethylnitrosamine-induced reduction in the level of poly-ADP-ribosylation of histone proteins of blood lymphocytes--a sensitive and reliable biomarker for early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan; Sharan, Rajeshwar Nath

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) is a post-translational modification of mainly chromosomal proteins. It is known to be strongly involved in several molecular events, including nucleosome-remodelling and carcinogenesis. In this investigation, it was attempted to evaluate PAR level as a reliable biomarker for early detection of cancer in blood lymphocyte histones. PAR of isolated histone proteins was monitored in normal and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-exposed mice tissues using a novel ELISA-based immuno-probe assay developed in our laboratory. An inverse relationship was found between the level of PAR and period of DMN exposure in various histone proteins of blood lymphocytes and spleen cells. With the increase in the DMN exposure period, there was reduction in the PAR level of individual histones in both cases. It was also observed that the decrease in the level of PAR of histones resulted in progressive relaxation of genomic DNA, perhaps triggering activation of genes that are involved in initiation of transformation. The observed effect of carcinogen on the PAR of blood lymphocyte histones provided us with a handy tool for monitoring biochemical or physiological status of individuals exposed to carcinogens without obtaining biopsies of cancerous tissues, which involves several medical and ethical issues. Obtaining blood from any patient and separating blood lymphocytes are routine medical practices involving virtually no medical intervention, post-procedure medical care or trauma to a patient. Moreover, the immuno-probe assay is very simple, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective. Therefore, combined with the ease of preparation of blood lymphocytes and the simplicity of the technique, immuno-probe assay of PAR has the potential to be applied for mass screening of cancer. It appears to be a promising step in the ultimate goal of making cancer detection simple, sensitive and reliable in the near future.

  14. The SERK1 receptor-like kinase regulates organ separation in Arabidopsis flowers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael W.; Leslie, Michelle E.; Fulcher, Emilee H.; Darnielle, Lalitree; Healy, Patrick; Youn, Ji-Young; Liljegren, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Through a sensitized screen for novel components of pathways regulating organ separation in Arabidopsis flowers, we have found that the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 (SERK1) acts as a negative regulator of abscission. Mutations in SERK1 dominantly rescue abscission in flowers without functional NEVERSHED (NEV), an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein required for floral organ shedding. We previously reported that the organization of the Golgi apparatus and location of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) are altered in nev mutant flowers. Disruption of SERK1 restores Golgi structure and the close association of the TGN in nev flowers, suggesting that defects in these organelles may be responsible for the block in abscission. We have also found that the abscission zones of nev serk1 flowers are enlarged compared to wild-type. A similar phenotype was previously observed in plants constitutively expressing a putative ligand required for organ separation, INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA), suggesting that signaling through IDA and its proposed receptors, HAESA and HAESA-LIKE2, may be deregulated in nev serk1 abscission zone cells. Our studies indicate that in addition to its previously characterized roles in stamen development and brassinosteroid perception, SERK1 plays a unique role in modulating the loss of cell adhesion that occurs during organ abscission. PMID:20230490

  15. EHB1 and AGD12, two calcium-dependent proteins affect gravitropism antagonistically in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Dümmer, Michaela; Michalski, Christian; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Rath, Magnus; Galland, Paul; Forreiter, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    The ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR GTPase-ACTIVATING PROTEIN (AGD) 12, a member of the ARF-GAP protein family, affects gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. A loss-of-function mutant lacking AGD12 displayed diminished gravitropism in roots and hypocotyls indicating that both organs are affected by this regulator. AGD12 is structurally related to ENHANCED BENDING (EHB) 1, previously described as a negative effector of gravitropism. In contrast to agd12 mutants, ehb1 loss-of function seedlings displayed enhanced gravitropic bending. While EHB1 and AGD12 both possess a C-terminal C2/CaLB-domain, EHB1 lacks the N-terminal ARF-GAP domain present in AGD12. Subcellular localization analysis using Brefeldin A indicated that both proteins are elements of the trans Golgi network. Physiological analyses provided evidence that gravitropic signaling might operate via an antagonistic interaction of ARF-GAP (AGD12) and EHB1 in their Ca(2+)-activated states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. HLB1 Is a Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain-Containing Protein That Operates at the Intersection of the Exocytic and Endocytic Pathways at the TGN/EE in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, J. Alan; Renna, Luciana; Liao, Fuqi; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-01-01

    The endomembrane system plays essential roles in plant development, but the proteome responsible for its function and organization remains largely uncharacterized in plants. Here, we identified and characterized the HYPERSENSITIVE TO LATRUNCULIN B1 (HLB1) protein isolated through a forward-genetic screen in Arabidopsis thaliana for mutants with heightened sensitivity to actin-disrupting drugs. HLB1 is a plant-specific tetratricopeptide repeat domain-containing protein of unknown function encoded by a single Arabidopsis gene. HLB1 associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN)/early endosome (EE) and tracked along filamentous actin, indicating that it could link post-Golgi traffic with the actin cytoskeleton in plants. HLB1 was found to interact with the ADP-ribosylation-factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor, MIN7/BEN1 (HOPM INTERACTOR7/BREFELDIN A-VISUALIZED ENDOCYTIC TRAFFICKING DEFECTIVE1) by coimmunoprecipitation. The min7/ben1 mutant phenocopied the mild root developmental defects and latrunculin B hypersensitivity of hlb1, and analyses of a hlb1/ min7/ben1 double mutant showed that hlb1 and min7/ben1 operate in common genetic pathways. Based on these data, we propose that HLB1 together with MIN7/BEN1 form a complex with actin to modulate the function of the TGN/EE at the intersection of the exocytic and endocytic pathways in plants. PMID:26941089

  17. Novel Cholix Toxin Variants, ADP-Ribosylating Toxins in Vibrio cholerae Non-O1/Non-O139 Strains, and Their Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Golbar, Hossain M.; Yamate, Jyoji; Arakawa, Eiji; Tada, Toshiji; Ramamurthy, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cholix toxin (ChxA) is a recently discovered exotoxin in Vibrio cholerae which has been characterized as a third member of the eukaryotic elongation factor 2-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins, in addition to exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. These toxins consist of three characteristic domains for receptor binding, translocation, and catalysis. However, there is little information about the prevalence of chxA and its genetic variations and pathogenic mechanisms. In this study, we screened the chxA gene in a large number (n = 765) of V. cholerae strains and observed its presence exclusively in non-O1/non-O139 strains (27.0%; 53 of 196) and not in O1 (n = 485) or O139 (n = 84). Sequencing of these 53 chxA genes generated 29 subtypes which were grouped into three clusters designated chxA I, chxA II, and chxA III. chxA I belongs to the prototype, while chxA II and chxA III are newly discovered variants. ChxA II and ChxA III had unique receptor binding and catalytic domains, respectively, in comparison to ChxA I. Recombinant ChxA I (rChxA I) and rChxA II but not rChxA III showed variable cytotoxic effects on different eukaryotic cells. Although rChxA II was more lethal to mice than rChxA I when injected intravenously, no enterotoxicity of any rChxA was observed in a rabbit ileal loop test. Hepatocytes showed coagulation necrosis in rChxA I- or rChxA II-treated mice, seemingly the major target for ChxA. The present study illustrates the potential of ChxA as an important virulence factor in non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, which may be associated with extraintestinal infections rather than enterotoxicity. PMID:23230295

  18. Insights into the localization and function of the membrane trafficking regulator GNOM ARF-GEF at the Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Naramoto, Satoshi; Otegui, Marisa S; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; de Rycke, Riet; Dainobu, Tomoko; Karampelias, Michael; Fujimoto, Masaru; Feraru, Elena; Miki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Hiroo; Nakano, Akihiko; Friml, Jiří

    2014-07-01

    GNOM is one of the most characterized membrane trafficking regulators in plants, with crucial roles in development. GNOM encodes an ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) that activates small GTPases of the ARF (ADP ribosylation factor) class to mediate vesicle budding at endomembranes. The crucial role of GNOM in recycling of PIN auxin transporters and other proteins to the plasma membrane was identified in studies using the ARF-GEF inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). GNOM, the most prominent regulator of recycling in plants, has been proposed to act and localize at so far elusive recycling endosomes. Here, we report the GNOM localization in context of its cellular function in Arabidopsis thaliana. State-of-the-art imaging, pharmacological interference, and ultrastructure analysis show that GNOM predominantly localizes to Golgi apparatus. Super-resolution confocal live imaging microscopy identified GNOM and its closest homolog GNOM-like 1 at distinct subdomains on Golgi cisternae. Short-term BFA treatment stabilizes GNOM at the Golgi apparatus, whereas prolonged exposures results in GNOM translocation to trans-Golgi network (TGN)/early endosomes (EEs). Malformed TGN/EE in gnom mutants suggests a role for GNOM in maintaining TGN/EE function. Our results redefine the subcellular action of GNOM and reevaluate the identity and function of recycling endosomes in plants.

  19. Insights into the Localization and Function of the Membrane Trafficking Regulator GNOM ARF-GEF at the Golgi Apparatus in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Naramoto, Satoshi; Otegui, Marisa S.; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; de Rycke, Riet; Dainobu, Tomoko; Karampelias, Michael; Fujimoto, Masaru; Feraru, Elena; Miki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Hiroo; Nakano, Akihiko; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    GNOM is one of the most characterized membrane trafficking regulators in plants, with crucial roles in development. GNOM encodes an ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) that activates small GTPases of the ARF (ADP ribosylation factor) class to mediate vesicle budding at endomembranes. The crucial role of GNOM in recycling of PIN auxin transporters and other proteins to the plasma membrane was identified in studies using the ARF-GEF inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). GNOM, the most prominent regulator of recycling in plants, has been proposed to act and localize at so far elusive recycling endosomes. Here, we report the GNOM localization in context of its cellular function in Arabidopsis thaliana. State-of-the-art imaging, pharmacological interference, and ultrastructure analysis show that GNOM predominantly localizes to Golgi apparatus. Super-resolution confocal live imaging microscopy identified GNOM and its closest homolog GNOM-like 1 at distinct subdomains on Golgi cisternae. Short-term BFA treatment stabilizes GNOM at the Golgi apparatus, whereas prolonged exposures results in GNOM translocation to trans-Golgi network (TGN)/early endosomes (EEs). Malformed TGN/EE in gnom mutants suggests a role for GNOM in maintaining TGN/EE function. Our results redefine the subcellular action of GNOM and reevaluate the identity and function of recycling endosomes in plants. PMID:25012191

  20. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Siamsa M.; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; Rigal, Adeline; Viotti, Corrado; Łangowska, Małgorzata; Ma, Qian; Friml, Jiří; Raikhel, Natasha V.; Hicks, Glenn R.; Robert, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering the polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF–defective mutants gnom-like 1 (gnl1-1) and gnom (van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. Our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development. PMID:25646449

  1. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Siamsa M.; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; Rigal, Adeline; Viotti, Corrado; Łangowska, Małgorzata; Ma, Qian; Friml, Jiří; Raikhel, Natasha V.; Hicks, Glenn R.; Robert, Stéphanie

    2015-02-02

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering the polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF–defective mutants gnom-like 1 (gnl1-1) and gnom (van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. In conclusion, our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development.

  2. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Doyle, Siamsa M.; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; ...

    2015-02-02

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering themore » polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF–defective mutants gnom-like 1 (gnl1-1) and gnom (van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. In conclusion, our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development.« less

  3. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Siamsa M; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; Rigal, Adeline; Viotti, Corrado; Łangowska, Małgorzata; Ma, Qian; Friml, Jiří; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R; Robert, Stéphanie

    2015-02-17

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering the polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF-defective mutants gnom-like 1 (gnl1-1) and gnom (van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. Our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development.

  4. PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Song, Junqi; Keppler, Brian D.; Wise, Robert R.; Bent, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose) units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family) accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390), rather than PARP1 (At2g31320), makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose) removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation. PMID:25950582

  5. Mutations in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor gene IQSEC2 cause nonsyndromic intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Shoubridge, Cheryl; Tarpey, Patrick S; Abidi, Fatima; Ramsden, Sarah L; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn; Murphy, Jessica A; Boyle, Jackie; Shaw, Marie; Gardner, Alison; Proos, Anne; Puusepp, Helen; Raymond, F Lucy; Schwartz, Charles E; Stevenson, Roger E; Turner, Gill; Field, Michael; Walikonis, Randall S; Harvey, Robert J; Hackett, Anna; Futreal, P Andrew; Stratton, Michael R; Gécz, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    The first family identified as having a nonsyndromic intellectual disability was mapped in 1988. Here we show that a mutation of IQSEC2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of small GTPases, caused this disorder. In addition to MRX1, IQSEC2 mutations were identified in three other families with X-linked intellectual disability. This discovery was made possible by systematic and unbiased X chromosome exome resequencing. PMID:20473311

  6. Activation of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins by native and recombinant adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factors, 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C M; Chang, P P; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Price, S R; Kunz, B C; Moss, J; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) are responsible in part for "traveler's diarrhea" and related diarrheal illnesses. The family of LTs comprises two serogroups termed LT-I and LT-II; each serogroup includes two or more antigenic variants. The effects of LTs result from ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, a stimulatory component of adenylyl cyclase; the mechanism of action is identical to that of cholera toxin (CT). The ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of CT is enhanced by 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. These proteins directly activate the CTA1 catalytic unit and stimulate its ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, other proteins, and simple guanidino compounds (e.g., agmatine). Because of the similarities between CT and LTs, we investigated the effects of purified bovine brain ARF and a recombinant form of bovine ARF synthesized in Escherichia coli on LT activity. ARF enhanced the LT-I-, LT-IIa-, and LT-IIb-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of agmatine, as well as the auto-ADP ribosylation of the toxin catalytic unit. Stimulation of ADP-ribosylagmatine formation by LTs and CT in the presence of ARF was GTP dependent and enhanced by sodium dodecyl sulfate. With agmatine as substrate, LT-IIa and LT-IIb exhibited less than 1% the activity of CT and LT-Ih. CT and LTs catalyzed ADP-ribosyl-Gs alpha formation in a reaction dependent on ARF, GTP, and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/cholate. With Gs alpha as substrate, the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of the toxins were similar, although CT and LT-Ih appeared to be slightly more active than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Thus, LT-IIa and LT-IIb appear to differ somewhat from CT and LT-Ih in substrate specificity. Responsiveness to stimulation by ARF, GTP, and phospholipid/detergent as well as the specificity of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity are functions of LTs from serogroups LT-I and LT-II that are shared with CT. Images PMID:1902492

  7. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato type III effector HopM1 suppresses Arabidopsis defenses independent of suppressing salicylic acid signaling and of targeting AtMIN7.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Anju; Sreerekha, Mysore-Venkatarau; Whitehill, Justin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Mackey, David

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto) delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph) lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1) protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA) signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action.

  8. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Type III Effector HopM1 Suppresses Arabidopsis Defenses Independent of Suppressing Salicylic Acid Signaling and of Targeting AtMIN7

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Anju; Sreerekha, Mysore-Venkatarau; Whitehill, Justin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Mackey, David

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto) delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph) lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1) protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA) signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action. PMID:24324742

  9. BEX1/ARF1A1C is required for BFA-sensitive recycling of PIN auxin transporters and auxin-mediated development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nodzyłski, Tomasz; Kitakura, Saeko; Feraru, Mugurel I; Sasabe, Michiko; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Friml, Jiři

    2014-04-01

    Correct positioning of membrane proteins is an essential process in eukaryotic organisms. The plant hormone auxin is distributed through intercellular transport and triggers various cellular responses. Auxin transporters of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane (PM) and mediate the directional transport of auxin between cells. A fungal toxin, brefeldin A (BFA), inhibits a subset of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPases (ARF GEFs) including GNOM, which plays a major role in localization of PIN1 predominantly to the basal side of the PM. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 19 ARF-related putative GTPases. However, ARF components involved in PIN1 localization have been genetically poorly defined. Using a fluorescence imaging-based forward genetic approach, we identified an Arabidopsis mutant, bfa-visualized exocytic trafficking defective1 (bex1), in which PM localization of PIN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) as well as development is hypersensitive to BFA. We found that in bex1 a member of the ARF1 gene family, ARF1A1C, was mutated. ARF1A1C localizes to the trans-Golgi network/early endosome and Golgi apparatus, acts synergistically to BEN1/MIN7 ARF GEF and is important for PIN recycling to the PM. Consistent with the developmental importance of PIN proteins, functional interference with ARF1 resulted in an impaired auxin response gradient and various developmental defects including embryonic patterning defects and growth arrest. Our results show that ARF1A1C is essential for recycling of PIN auxin transporters and for various auxin-dependent developmental processes.

  10. GNOM/FEWER ROOTS is required for the establishment of an auxin response maximum for arabidopsis lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Ken-ichi; Goh, Tatsuaki; Toyokura, Koichi; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Mimura, Tetsuro; Kamiya, Yuji; Fukaki, Hidehiro

    2013-03-01

    Lateral root (LR) formation in vascular plants is regulated by auxin. The mechanisms of LR formation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a novel recessive mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana, named fewer roots (fwr), that drastically reduces the number of LRs. Expression analyses of DR5::GUS, an auxin response reporter, and pLBD16::GUS, an LR initiation marker, suggested that FWR is necessary for the establishment of an auxin response maximum in LR initiation sites. We further identified that the fwr phenotypes are caused by a missense mutation in the GNOM gene, encoding an Arf-GEF (ADP ribosylation factor-GDP/GTP exchange factor), which regulates the recycling of PINs, the auxin efflux carriers. The fwr roots showed enhanced sensitivity to brefeldin A in a root growth inhibition assay, indicating that the fwr mutation reduces the Arf-GEF activity of GNOM. However, the other developmental processes except for LR formation appeared to be unaffected in the fwr mutant, indicating that fwr is a weaker allele of gnom compared with the other gnom alleles with pleiotropic phenotypes. The localization of PIN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) appeared to be unaffected in the fwr roots but the levels of endogenous IAA were actually higher in the fwr roots than in the wild type. These results indicate that LR initiation is one of the most sensitive processes among GNOM-dependent developmental processes, strongly suggesting that GNOM is required for the establishment of the auxin response maximum for LR initiation, probably through the regulation of local and global auxin distribution in the root.

  11. Analysis of knockout mutants reveals non-redundant functions of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase isoforms in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong Anh; Wahl, Vanessa; Tohge, Takayuki; de Souza, Laise Rosado; Zhang, Youjun; Do, Phuc Thi; Olas, Justyna J; Stitt, Mark; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) has a dual function being involved both in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and being a constituent of the NAD(+) salvage pathway. To date most studies, both in plant and non-plant systems, have focused on the signaling role of PARP in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation rather than any role that can be ascribed to its metabolic function. In order to address this question we here used a combination of expression, transcript and protein localization studies of all three PARP isoforms of Arabidopsis alongside physiological analysis of the corresponding mutants. Our analyses indicated that whilst all isoforms of PARP were localized to the nucleus they are also present in non-nuclear locations with parp1 and parp3 also localised in the cytosol, and parp2 also present in the mitochondria. We next isolated and characterized insertional knockout mutants of all three isoforms confirming a complete knockout in the full length transcript levels of the target genes as well as a reduced total leaf NAD hydrolase activity in the two isoforms (PARP1, PARP2) that are highly expressed in leaves. Physiological evaluation of the mutant lines revealed that they displayed distinctive metabolic and root growth characteristics albeit unaltered leaf morphology under optimal growth conditions. We therefore conclude that the PARP isoforms play non-redundant non-nuclear metabolic roles and that their function is highly important in rapidly growing tissues such as the shoot apical meristem, roots and seeds.

  12. ADP-ribosylation factor-like GTPase 15 enhances insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation in the IR/IRS1/AKT pathway by interacting with ASAP2 and regulating PDPK1 activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Min; Deng, Wuquan; Zhong, Daping; Jiang, Youzhao; Liao, Yong; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-05-13

    Decreased phosphorylation in the insulin signalling pathway is a hallmark of insulin resistance. The causes of this phenomenon are complicated and multifactorial. Recently, genomic analyses have identified ARL15 as a new candidate gene related to diabetes. However, the ARL15 protein function remains unclear. Here, we show that ARL15 is upregulated by insulin stimulation. This effect was impaired in insulin-resistant pathophysiology in TNF-α-treated C2C12 myotubes and in the skeletal muscles of leptin knockout mice. In addition, ARL15 localized to the cytoplasm in the resting state and accumulated in the Golgi apparatus around the nucleus upon insulin stimulation. ARL15 overexpression can enhance the phosphorylation of the key insulin signalling pathway molecules IR, IRS1 and AKT in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, ARL15 knockdown can also specifically inhibit the phosphorylation of PDPK1 Ser241, thereby reducing PDPK1 activity and its downstream phosphorylation of AKT Thr308. Co-immunoprecipitation assays identified ASAP2 as an ARL15-interacting protein. In conclusion, we have identified that ARL15 acts as an insulin-sensitizing effector molecule to upregulate the phosphorylation of members of the canonical IR/IRS1/PDPK1/AKT insulin pathway by interacting with its GAP ASAP2 and activating PDPK1. This research may provide new insights into GTPase-mediated insulin signalling regulation and facilitate the development of new pharmacotherapeutic targets for insulin sensitization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  14. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  15. The Arabidopsis thaliana Nuclear Factor Y Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Wu, Di; Kong, Fanying; Lin, Ke; Zhang, Haishen; Li, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved trimeric transcription factor complex present in nearly all eukaryotes. The heterotrimeric NF-Y complex consists of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC, and binds to the CCAAT box in the promoter regions of its target genes to regulate their expression. Yeast and mammal genomes generally have single genes with multiple splicing isoforms that encode each NF-Y subunit. By contrast, plant genomes generally have multi-gene families encoding each subunit and these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues or stages. Therefore, different subunit combinations can lead to a wide variety of NF-Y complexes in various tissues, stages, and growth conditions, indicating the potentially diverse functions of this complex in plants. Indeed, many recent studies have proved that the NF-Y complex plays multiple essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. In this review, we highlight recent progress on NF-Y in Arabidopsis thaliana, including NF-Y protein structure, heterotrimeric complex formation, and the molecular mechanism by which NF-Y regulates downstream target gene expression. We then focus on its biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms. Finally, possible directions for future research on NF-Y are also presented. PMID:28119722

  16. The Arabidopsis thaliana Nuclear Factor Y Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hang; Wu, Di; Kong, Fanying; Lin, Ke; Zhang, Haishen; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved trimeric transcription factor complex present in nearly all eukaryotes. The heterotrimeric NF-Y complex consists of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC, and binds to the CCAAT box in the promoter regions of its target genes to regulate their expression. Yeast and mammal genomes generally have single genes with multiple splicing isoforms that encode each NF-Y subunit. By contrast, plant genomes generally have multi-gene families encoding each subunit and these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues or stages. Therefore, different subunit combinations can lead to a wide variety of NF-Y complexes in various tissues, stages, and growth conditions, indicating the potentially diverse functions of this complex in plants. Indeed, many recent studies have proved that the NF-Y complex plays multiple essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. In this review, we highlight recent progress on NF-Y in Arabidopsis thaliana, including NF-Y protein structure, heterotrimeric complex formation, and the molecular mechanism by which NF-Y regulates downstream target gene expression. We then focus on its biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms. Finally, possible directions for future research on NF-Y are also presented.

  17. Novel Disease Susceptibility Factors for Fungal Necrotrophic Pathogens in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    García-Andrade, Javier; Angulo, Carlos; Neumetzler, Lutz; Persson, Staffan; Vera, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Host cells use an intricate signaling system to respond to invasions by pathogenic microorganisms. Although several signaling components of disease resistance against necrotrophic fungal pathogens have been identified, our understanding for how molecular components and host processes contribute to plant disease susceptibility is rather sparse. Here, we identified four transcription factors (TFs) from Arabidopsis that limit pathogen spread. Arabidopsis mutants defective in any of these TFs displayed increased disease susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, and a general activation of non-immune host processes that contribute to plant disease susceptibility. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the mutants share a common transcriptional signature of 77 up-regulated genes. We characterized several of the up-regulated genes that encode peptides with a secretion signal, which we named PROVIR (for provirulence) factors. Forward and reverse genetic analyses revealed that many of the PROVIRs are important for disease susceptibility of the host to fungal necrotrophs. The TFs and PROVIRs identified in our work thus represent novel genetic determinants for plant disease susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. PMID:25830627

  18. Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Garapati, Prashanth; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward; Van Dijck, Patrick; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Plants respond to low carbon supply by massive reprogramming of the transcriptome and metabolome. We show here that the carbon starvation-induced NAC (for NO APICAL MERISTEM/ARABIDOPSIS TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATION FACTOR/CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON) transcription factor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Transcription Activation Factor1 (ATAF1) plays an important role in this physiological process. We identified TREHALASE1, the only trehalase-encoding gene in Arabidopsis, as a direct downstream target of ATAF1. Overexpression of ATAF1 activates TREHALASE1 expression and leads to reduced trehalose-6-phosphate levels and a sugar starvation metabolome. In accordance with changes in expression of starch biosynthesis- and breakdown-related genes, starch levels are generally reduced in ATAF1 overexpressors but elevated in ataf1 knockout plants. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by ATAF1 are broadly associated with energy and carbon starvation responses. Furthermore, transcriptional responses triggered by ATAF1 largely overlap with expression patterns observed in plants starved for carbon or energy supply. Collectively, our data highlight the existence of a positively acting feedforward loop between ATAF1 expression, which is induced by carbon starvation, and the depletion of cellular carbon/energy pools that is triggered by the transcriptional regulation of downstream gene regulatory networks by ATAF1.

  19. Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Garapati, Prashanth; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward; Van Dijck, Patrick; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to low carbon supply by massive reprogramming of the transcriptome and metabolome. We show here that the carbon starvation-induced NAC (for NO APICAL MERISTEM/ARABIDOPSIS TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATION FACTOR/CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON) transcription factor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Transcription Activation Factor1 (ATAF1) plays an important role in this physiological process. We identified TREHALASE1, the only trehalase-encoding gene in Arabidopsis, as a direct downstream target of ATAF1. Overexpression of ATAF1 activates TREHALASE1 expression and leads to reduced trehalose-6-phosphate levels and a sugar starvation metabolome. In accordance with changes in expression of starch biosynthesis- and breakdown-related genes, starch levels are generally reduced in ATAF1 overexpressors but elevated in ataf1 knockout plants. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by ATAF1 are broadly associated with energy and carbon starvation responses. Furthermore, transcriptional responses triggered by ATAF1 largely overlap with expression patterns observed in plants starved for carbon or energy supply. Collectively, our data highlight the existence of a positively acting feedforward loop between ATAF1 expression, which is induced by carbon starvation, and the depletion of cellular carbon/energy pools that is triggered by the transcriptional regulation of downstream gene regulatory networks by ATAF1. PMID:26149570

  20. GBF3 transcription factor imparts drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Gill, Upinder Singh; Sivalingam, Palaiyur Nanjappan; Gupta, Aarti; Gupta, Chirag; Govind, Geetha; Nataraja, Karaba N; Pereira, Andy; Udayakumar, Makarla; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2017-08-22

    Drought transcriptome analysis of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) by cDNA subtraction identified drought responsive genes that have a potential role in drought tolerance. Through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in a related crop species, maize (Zea mays), several genes, including a G-BOX BINDING FACTOR 3 (GBF3) were identified as candidate drought stress response genes and the role of GBF3 in drought tolerance was studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of both EcGBF3 and AtGBF3 in A. thaliana resulted in improved tolerance to osmotic stress, salinity and drought stress in addition to conferring insensitivity to ABA. Conversely, loss of function of this gene increased the sensitivity of A. thaliana plants to drought stress. EcGBF3 transgenic A. thaliana results also suggest that drought tolerance of sensitive plants can be improved by transferring genes from far related crops like finger millet. Our results demonstrate the role of GBF3 in imparting drought tolerance in A. thaliana and indicate the conserved role of this gene in drought and other abiotic stress tolerance in several plant species.

  1. The NTT transcription factor promotes replum development in Arabidopsis fruits.

    PubMed

    Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Zúñiga-Mayo, Víctor M; Herrera-Ubaldo, Humberto; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Pablo-Villa, Jeanneth; Lozano-Sotomayor, Paulina; Greco, Raffaella; Ballester, Patricia; Balanzá, Vicente; Kuijt, Suzanne J H; Meijer, Annemarie H; Pereira, Andy; Ferrándiz, Cristina; de Folter, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Fruits are complex plant structures that nurture seeds and facilitate their dispersal. The Arabidopsis fruit is termed silique. It develops from the gynoecium, which has a stigma, a style, an ovary containing the ovules, and a gynophore. Externally, the ovary consists of two valves, and their margins lay adjacent to the replum, which is connected to the septum that internally divides the ovary. In this work we describe the role for the zinc-finger transcription factor NO TRANSMITTING TRACT (NTT) in replum development. NTT loss of function leads to reduced replum width and cell number, whereas increased expression promotes replum enlargement. NTT activates the homeobox gene BP, which, together with RPL, is important for replum development. In addition, the NTT protein is able to bind the BP promoter in yeast, and when this binding region is not present, NTT fails to activate BP in the replum. Furthermore, NTT interacts with itself and different proteins involved in fruit development: RPL, STM, FUL, SHP1 and SHP2 in yeast and in planta. Moreover, its genetic interactions provide further evidence about its biological relevance in replum development.

  2. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba; Moestrup, Søren K; Petersen, Torben E; Jensen, Erik Ø; Berglund, Lars

    2003-08-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission and contamination by other B12 binders. We tested the use of recombinant plants for large-scale production of pathogen-free human recombinant IF. Human IF was successfully expressed in the recombinant plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Extract from fresh plants possessed high B12-binding capacity corresponding to 70 mg IF per 1 kg wet weight. The dried plants still retained 60% of the IF activity. The purified IF preparation consisted of a 50-kDa glycosylated protein with the N-terminal sequence of mature IF. Approximately one-third of the protein was cleaved at the internal site em leader PSNP downward arrow GPGP. The key properties of the preparation obtained were identical to those of native IF: the binding curves of vitamin B12 to recombinant IF and gastric IF were the same, as were those for a B12 analogue cobinamide, which binds to IF with low affinity. The absorbance spectra of the vitamin bound to recombinant IF and gastric IF were alike, as was the interaction of recombinant and native IF with the specific receptor cubilin. The data presented show that recombinant plants have a great potential as a large-scale source of human IF for analytical and therapeutic purposes.

  3. Resting chondrocytes in culture survive without growth factors, but are sensitive to toxic oxygen metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tschan, T; Höerler, I; Houze, Y; Winterhalter, K H; Richter, C; Bruckner, P

    1990-07-01

    Chondrocytes in dense suspension culture in agarose survive in serum-free DME because they secrete low molecular mass compounds supporting their own viability. This activity can be replaced by pyruvate, or sulfhydryl compounds, e.g., cysteine or dithioerythritol. Catalase, an enzyme decomposing H2O2, also protects the cells, whereas superoxide dismutase has no effect. Therefore, chondrocytes in culture are sensitive to toxic compounds derived from molecular oxygen, i.e., hydroxyl radicals or hydrogen peroxide spontaneously generated in DME containing ascorbate and ferrous ions. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is an important step in the cascade of events triggered by these compounds. To survive, chondrocytes do not require stimulation by growth factors. They remain resting cells in fully defined, serum-free culture also at low density. Proliferation and hypertrophy can be induced by serum, but not by low cell density alone.

  4. Expression and Protein Interaction Analyses Reveal Combinatorial Interactions of LBD Transcription Factors During Arabidopsis Pollen Development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mirim; Kim, Min-Jung; Pandey, Shashank; Kim, Jungmook

    2016-11-01

    LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) transcription factor gene family members play key roles in diverse aspects of plant development. LBD10 and LBD27 have been shown to be essential for pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. From the previous RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data set of Arabidopsis pollen, we identified the mRNAs of LBD22, LBD25 and LBD36 in addition to LBD10 and LBD27 in Arabidopsis pollen. Here we conducted expression and cellular analysis using GFP:GUS (green fluorescent protein:β-glucuronidase) reporter gene and subcellular localization assays using LBD:GFP fusion proteins expressed under the control of their own promoters in Arabidopsis. We found that these LBD proteins display spatially and temporally distinct and overlapping expression patterns during pollen development. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down assays demonstrated that protein-protein interactions occur among the LBDs exhibiting overlapping expression during pollen development. We further showed that LBD10, LBD22, LBD25, LBD27 and LBD36 interact with each other to form heterodimers, which are localized to the nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Taken together, these results suggest that combinatorial interactions among LBD proteins may be important for their function in pollen development in Arabidopsis.

  5. Regulation of root hair cell differentiation by R3 MYB transcription factors in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Wada, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) encodes a small protein with an R3 MYB motif and regulates root hair and trichome cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Six additional CPC-like MYB proteins including TRIPTYCHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC2 (ETC2), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC3/CPC-LIKE MYB3 (ETC3/CPL3), TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), and TRICHOMELESS2/CPC-LIKE MYB4 (TCL2/CPL4) also have the ability to regulate root hair and/or trichome cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe our latest findings on how CPC-like MYB transcription factors regulate root hair cell differentiation. Recently, we identified the tomato SlTRY gene as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis TRY gene. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring SlTRY produced more root hairs, a phenotype similar to that of 35S::CPC transgenic plants. CPC is also known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Anthocyanin accumulation was repressed in the SlTRY transgenic plants, suggesting that SlTRY can also influence anthocyanin biosynthesis. We concluded that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for root hair cell differentiation, and that a CPC-like R3 MYB may be a key common regulator of plant root-hair development.

  6. GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors coordinate the tolerance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Xue-Ying; Li, Peng-Xu; Zou, Li-Juan; Tan, Wen-rong; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Da-Wei Lin, Hong-Hui

    2016-09-02

    Arabidopsis thaliana GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLKs) transcription factors play important roles in regulation of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes, as well as participate in chloroplast development. However, the involvement of GLKs in plants resistance to virus remains largely unknown. Here, the relationship between GLKs and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) stress response was investigated. Our results showed that the Arabidopsis glk1glk2 double-mutant was more susceptible to CMV infection and suffered more serious damages (such as higher oxidative damages, more compromised in PSII photochemistry and more reactive oxygen species accumulation) when compared with the wild-type plants. Interestingly, there was little difference between single mutant (glk1 or glk2) and wild-type plants in response to CMV infection, suggesting GLK1 and GLK2 might function redundant in virus resistance in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the induction of antioxidant system and defense-associated genes expression in the double mutant were inhibited when compared with single mutant or wild-type plants after CMV infection. Further evidences showed that salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) might be involved in GLKs-mediated virus resistance, as SA or JA level and synthesis-related genes transcription were impaired in glk1glk2 mutant. Taken together, our results indicated that GLKs played a positively role in virus resistance in Arabidopsis. - Highlights: • GLKs play a positive role in CMV resistance in Arabidopsis. • Defective of GLKs suffered more ROS accumulation. • Arabidopsis lacking GLKs have damaged photosynthesis. • Arabidopsis lacking GLKs show low SA and JA accumulation.

  7. Dynamic Distribution and Interaction of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 Subfamily Splicing Factors1

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Nancy; Schloesser, Marie; Joris, Marine; Sauvage, Eric; Hanikenne, Marc; Motte, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Ser/Arg-rich (SR) proteins are essential nucleus-localized splicing factors. Our prior studies showed that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RSZ22, a homolog of the human SRSF7 SR factor, exits the nucleus through two pathways, either dependent or independent on the XPO1 receptor. Here, we examined the expression profiles and shuttling dynamics of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 subfamily (SR30, SR34, SR34a, and SR34b) under control of their endogenous promoter in Arabidopsis and in transient expression assay. Due to its rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and high expression level in transient assay, we analyzed the multiple determinants that regulate the localization and shuttling dynamics of SR34. By site-directed mutagenesis of SR34 RNA-binding sequences and Arg/Ser-rich (RS) domain, we further show that functional RRM1 or RRM2 are dispensable for the exclusive protein nuclear localization and speckle-like distribution. However, mutations of both RRMs induced aggregation of the protein whereas mutation in the RS domain decreased the stability of the protein and suppressed its nuclear accumulation. Furthermore, the RNA-binding motif mutants are defective for their export through the XPO1 (CRM1/Exportin-1) receptor pathway, but retain nucleocytoplasmic mobility. We performed a yeast two hybrid screen with SR34 as bait and discovered SR45 as a new interactor. SR45 is an unusual SR splicing factor bearing two RS domains. These interactions were confirmed in planta by FLIM-FRET and BiFC and the roles of SR34 domains in protein-protein interactions were further studied. Altogether, our report extends our understanding of shuttling dynamics of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors. PMID:26697894

  8. Strategies to improve the antigenicity, ultrastructure preservation and visibility of trafficking compartments in Arabidopsis tissue.

    PubMed

    Stierhof, York-Dieter; El Kasmi, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Immunolabelling of (ultra)thin thawed cryosections according to Tokuyasu is one of the most reliable and efficient immunolocalisation techniques for cells and tissues. However, chemical fixation at ambient temperature, a prerequisite of this technique, can cause problems for samples, like plant tissue, because cell walls, hydrophobic surfaces and intercellular air slow down diffusion of fixative molecules into the sample. We show that a hybrid technique, based on a combination of cryofixation/freeze-substitution and Tokuyasu cryosection immunolabelling, circumvents the disadvantages associated with chemical fixation and results in an improved ultrastructure and antigenicity preservation of Tokuyasu cryosections used for light and electron microscopic immunolabelling (as shown for Myc- or mRFP-tagged proteins, KNOLLE and carbohydrate epitopes). In combination with the most sensitive particulate marker systems, like 1-nm gold or quantum dot markers, we were able to obtain a differentiated labelling pattern which allows a more detailed evaluation of plant Golgi, trans-Golgi network and multivesicular body/prevacuolar compartment markers (COPI-specific gammaCOP, the ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase ARF1, ARA7/RabF2b and the vacuolar sorting receptor VSR). We also discuss possibilities to improve membrane contrast, e.g., of transport vesicles like COPI, COPII and clathrin-coated vesicles, and of compartments of endosomal trafficking like the trans-Golgi network. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of aberrant forms of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 stimulates parthenocarpy in Arabidopsis and tomato.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Marc; Hooper, Lauren C; Johnson, Susan D; Rodrigues, Julio Carlyle Macedo; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Koltunow, Anna M

    2007-10-01

    Fruit initiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is generally repressed until fertilization occurs. However, mutations in AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 (ARF8) uncouple fruit initiation from fertilization, resulting in the formation of seedless, parthenocarpic fruit. Here we induced parthenocarpy in wild-type Arabidopsis by introducing either the mutant genomic (g) Atarf8-4 sequence or gAtARF8:beta-glucuronidase translational fusion constructs by plant transformation. Silencing of endogenous AtARF8 transcription was not observed, indicating that the introduced, aberrant ARF8 transcripts were compromising the function of endogenous ARF8 and/or associated factors involved in suppressing fruit initiation. To analyze the role of ARF8 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) we initially emasculated 23 tomato cultivars to test for background parthenocarpy. Surprisingly, all had a predisposition to initiate fertilization-independent fruit growth. Expression of gAtarf8-4 in transgenic tomato ('Monalbo') resulted in a significant increase in the number and size of parthenocarpic fruit. Isolation of tomato ARF8 cDNA indicated significant sequence conservation with AtARF8. SlARF8 may therefore control tomato fruit initiation in a similar manner as AtARF8 does in Arabidopsis. Two SlARF8 cDNAs differing in size by 5 bp were found, both arising from the same gene. The smaller cDNA is a splice variant and is also present in Arabidopsis. We propose that low endogenous levels of the splice variant products might interfere with efficient formation/function of a complex repressing fruit initiation, thereby providing an explanation for the observed ovary expansion in tomato and also Arabidopsis after emasculation. Increasing the levels of aberrant Atarf8-4 transcripts may further destabilize formation/function of the complex in a dosage-dependent manner enhancing tomato parthenocarpic fruit initiation frequency and size and mimicking the parthenocarpic dehiscent silique phenotype found in

  10. Genome-wide classification and expression analysis of MYB transcription factor families in rice and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The MYB gene family comprises one of the richest groups of transcription factors in plants. Plant MYB proteins are characterized by a highly conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. MYB proteins are classified into four major groups namely, 1R-MYB, 2R-MYB, 3R-MYB and 4R-MYB based on the number and position of MYB repeats. MYB transcription factors are involved in plant development, secondary metabolism, hormone signal transduction, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. A comparative analysis of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis will help reveal the evolution and function of MYB genes in plants. Results A genome-wide analysis identified at least 155 and 197 MYB genes in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Gene structure analysis revealed that MYB family genes possess relatively more number of introns in the middle as compared with C- and N-terminal regions of the predicted genes. Intronless MYB-genes are highly conserved both in rice and Arabidopsis. MYB genes encoding R2R3 repeat MYB proteins retained conserved gene structure with three exons and two introns, whereas genes encoding R1R2R3 repeat containing proteins consist of six exons and five introns. The splicing pattern is similar among R1R2R3 MYB genes in Arabidopsis. In contrast, variation in splicing pattern was observed among R1R2R3 MYB members of rice. Consensus motif analysis of 1kb upstream region (5′ to translation initiation codon) of MYB gene ORFs led to the identification of conserved and over-represented cis-motifs in both rice and Arabidopsis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that several members of MYBs are up-regulated by various abiotic stresses both in rice and Arabidopsis. Conclusion A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of chromosomal distribution, tandem repeats and phylogenetic relationship of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggested their evolution via duplication. Genome-wide comparative analysis of MYB genes and their expression analysis

  11. Regulation of Cell Fate Determination by Single-Repeat R3 MYB Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Chen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    MYB transcription factors regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. Among the large family of MYB transcription factors, single-repeat R3 MYB are characterized by their short sequence (<120 amino acids) consisting largely of the single MYB DNA-binding repeat. In the model plant Arabidopsis, R3 MYBs mediate lateral inhibition during epidermal patterning and are best characterized for their regulatory roles in trichome and root hair development. R3 MYBs act as negative regulators for trichome formation but as positive regulators for root hair development. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of R3 MYBs in the regulation of cell type specification in the model plant Arabidopsis.

  12. ADP-ribosylation is involved in the integration of foreign DNA into the mammalian cell genome.

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, F; Panayotou, G N; Bowler, L D; Hardas, B D; Broom, T; Walther, C; Shall, S

    1988-01-01

    The most commonly used DNA transfection method, which employs the calcium phosphate co-precipitation of the donor DNA, involves several discrete steps (1,2). These include the uptake of the donor DNA by the recipient cells, the transport of the DNA to the nucleus, transient expression prior to integration into the host cell genome, concatenation and integration of the transfected DNA into the host cell genome and finally the stable expression of the integrated genes (2,3). Both the concatenation and the integration of the donor DNA into the host genome involve the formation and ligation of DNA strand-breaks. In the present study we demonstrate that the nuclear enzyme, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT, E.C. 2.4.2.30), which is dependent on the presence of DNA strand breaks for its activity (4,5) and necessary for the efficient ligation of DNA strand-breaks in eukaryotic cells (4,6), is required for the integration of donor DNA into the host genome. However, ADPRT activity does not influence the uptake of DNA into the cell, its episomal maintenance or replication, nor its expression either before or after integration into the host genome. These observations strongly suggest the involvement of ADPRT activity in eukaryotic DNA recombination events. Images PMID:3144706

  13. Expanding functions of ADP-ribosylation in the maintenance of genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Martin-Hernandez, K; Rodriguez-Vargas, J-M; Schreiber, V; Dantzer, F

    2017-03-01

    Cell response to genotoxic stress requires a complex network of sensors and effectors from numerous signaling and repair pathways, among them the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) plays a central role. PARP1 is catalytically activated in the setting of DNA breaks. It uses NAD(+) as a donor and catalyses the synthesis and subsequent covalent attachment of branched ADP-ribose polymers onto itself and various acceptor proteins to promote repair. Its inhibition is now considered as an efficient therapeutic strategy to potentiate the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy and radiation or to exploit synthetic lethality in tumours with defective homologous recombination mediated repair. Still, efforts made on understanding the role of PARylation in DNA repair continues to yield novel discoveries. Over the last years, our knowledge in this field has been particularly advanced by the discovery of novel biochemical and functional properties featuring PARP1, by the characterization of the other PARP family members and by the identification of a panel of enzymes capable of erasing poly(ADP-ribose). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of these newest findings and their relevance in genome surveillance.

  14. Phylogenetic approach for inferring the origin and functional evolution of bacterial ADP-ribosylation superfamily.

    PubMed

    Chellapandi, P; Sakthishree, S; Bharathi, M

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases (BADPRTs) are extensively contributed to determine the strain-specific virulence state and pathogenesis in human hosts. Understanding molecular evolution and functional diversity of the BADPRTs is an important standpoint to describe the fundamental behind in the vaccine designing for bacterial infections. In the present study, we have evaluated the origin and functional evolution of conserved domains within the BADPRTs by analyzing their sequence-function relationship. To represent the evolution history of BADPRTs, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on their protein sequence, structure and conserved domains using different evolutionary programs. Sequence divergence and genetic diversity were studied herein to deduce the functional evolution of conserved domains across the family and superfamily. The results of sequence similarity search have shown that three hypothetical proteins (above 90%) were identical to the members of BADPRTs and their functions were annotated by phylogenetic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of this study has revealed the family members of BADPRTs were phylogenetically related to one another, functionally diverged within the same family, and dispersed into closely related bacteria. The presence of core substitution pattern in the conserved domains would determine the family-specific function of BADPRTs. Functional diversity of the BADPRTs was exclusively distinguished by Darwinian positive selection (diphtheria toxin C and pertussis toxin S) and neutral selection (arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase, enterotoxin A and binary toxin A) acting on the existing domains. Many of the family members were sharing their sequence-specific features from members in the arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase family. Conservative functions of members in the BADPRTs have shown to be expanded only within closely related families, and retained as such in pathogenic bacteria by evolutionary process (domain duplication or recombination events). Hence, we conclude that evolutionary significance of the members in the BADPRTs would provide an insight for experimental set-up on site-directed mutagenesis and vaccine engineering.

  15. Sam68 Is Required for DNA Damage Responses via Regulating Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Andrea; Wier, Eric M.; Wen, Matthew G.; Kamenyeva, Olena; Xia, Xue; Koo, Lily Y.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel signaling molecule in DNA damage responses (DDRs). In the absence of Sam68, DNA damage-triggered PAR production and PAR-dependent DNA repair signaling were dramatically diminished. With serial cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that Sam68 is recruited to and significantly overlaps with PARP1 at DNA lesions and that the interaction between Sam68 and PARP1 is crucial for DNA damage-initiated and PARP1-conferred PAR production. Utilizing cell lines and knockout mice, we illustrated that Sam68-deleted cells and animals are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA-damaging agents. Together, our findings suggest that Sam68 plays a crucial role in DDR via regulating DNA damage-initiated PAR production. PMID:27635653

  16. Excessive stimulation of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation contributes to endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Ian P; Kenny, Louise C; Thornton, Wayne A; Szabo, Csaba; Baker, Philip N

    2004-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious pregnancy disorder associated with widespread activation of the maternal vascular endothelium. Recent evidence implicates a role for oxidative stress in the aetiology of this condition. Reactive oxygen species, particularly superoxide anions, invokes endothelial cell activation through many pathways. Oxidant-induced cell injury triggers the activation of nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) leading to endothelial dysfunction in various pathophysiological conditions (reperfusion, shock, diabetes). We have studied whether the loss of endothelial function in pre-eclampsia is dependent on PARP activity. Endothelium-dependent responses of myometrial arteries were tested following exposure to either plasma from women with pre-eclampsia or normal pregnant women in the presence and absence of a novel potent inhibitor of PARP, PJ34. Additional effects of plasma and PJ34 inhibition were identified in microvascular endothelial cell cultures. In myometrial arteries, PARP inhibition blocked the attenuation of endothelium-dependent responses following exposure to plasma from women with pre-eclampsia. In endothelial cell cultures, plasma from pre-eclamptics induced measurable oxidative stress and a concomitant increase in PARP activity and reduction in cellular ATP. Again, these biochemical changes were reversed by PJ34. These results suggest that PARP activity plays a pathogenic role in the development of endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia and promotes PARP inhibition as a potential therapy in this condition. PMID:15778700

  17. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense Against Toxic Agents: Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-29

    Jacobson, M.K., Janzon, L., SeidegArd, J., Smulson, M.E., and Troll, W. The Malmt5 Diet and Cancer Study: The Biomarker Program. Submitted for publication in...ribosylate proteins which bind to the regulatory regions of glucocorticoid responsive genes. (2). TCDD, dioxin , a potent environmental contaminant...like glucocorticoid is mediated by an aromatic hydrocarbon rereptor which a!’c binds to specific DNA sequences (i.e. dioxin -responsive elements

  18. ADP ribosyl-cyclases (CD38/CD157), social skills and friendship.

    PubMed

    Chong, Anne; Malavasi, Fabio; Israel, Salomon; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Yap, Von Bing; Monakhov, Mikhail; Chew, Soo Hong; Lai, Poh San; Ebstein, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    Why some individuals seek social engagement while others shy away has profound implications for normal and pathological human behavior. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT), the paramount human social hormone, and CD38 that governs OT release, contribute to individual differences in social skills from intense social involvement to extreme avoidance that characterize autism. To explore the neurochemical underpinnings of sociality, CD38 expression of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was measured in Han Chinese undergraduates. First, CD38 mRNA levels were correlated with lower Autism Quotient (AQ), indicating enhanced social skills. AQ assesses the extent of autistic-like traits including the propensity and dexterity needed for successful social engagement in the general population. Second, three CD157 eQTL SNPs in the CD38/CD157 gene region were associated with CD38 expression. CD157 is a paralogue of CD38 and is contiguous with it on chromosome 4p15. Third, association was also observed between the CD157 eQTL SNPs, CD38 expression and AQ. In the full model, CD38 expression and CD157 eQTL SNPs altogether account for a substantial 14% of the variance in sociality. Fourth, functionality of CD157 eQTL SNPs was suggested by a significant association with plasma oxytocin immunoreactivity products. Fifth, the ecological validity of these findings was demonstrated with subjects with higher PBL CD38 expression having more friends, especially for males. Furthermore, CD157 sequence variation predicts scores on the Friendship questionnaire. To summarize, this study by uniquely leveraging various measures reveals salient elements contributing to nonkin sociality and friendship, revealing a likely pathway underpinning the transition from normality to psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overexpression of AtDOF4.7, an Arabidopsis DOF Family Transcription Factor, Induces Floral Organ Abscission Deficiency in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peng-Cheng; Tan, Feng; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Wang, Gao-Qi; Xu, Heng; Li, Li-Juan; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xue-Chen

    2010-01-01

    After flower pollination, a programmed process called abscission occurs in which unwanted floral organs are actively shed from the main plant body. We found that a member of the DOF (for DNA binding with one finger) transcription factor family, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DOF4.7, was expressed robustly in the abscission zone. The Arabidopsis 35S::AtDOF4.7 lines with constitutive expression of AtDOF4.7 exhibited an ethylene-independent floral organ abscission deficiency. In these lines, anatomical analyses showed that the formation of the abscission zone was normal. However, dissolution of the middle lamella failed to separate between the cell walls. AtDOF4.7 was identified as a nucleus-localized transcription factor. This protein had both in vitro and in vivo binding activity to typical DOF cis-elements in the promoter of an abscission-related polygalacturonase (PG) gene, PGAZAT. Overexpression of AtDOF4.7 resulted in down-regulation of PGAZAT. AtDOF4.7 interacted with another abscission-related transcription factor, Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN2. Taken together, our results suggest that AtDOF4.7 participates in the control of abscission as part of the transcription complex that directly regulates the expression of cell wall hydrolysis enzymes. PMID:20466844

  20. Temperature as a determinant factor for increased and reproducible in vitro pollen germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boavida, Leonor C; McCormick, Sheila

    2007-11-01

    Despite much effort, a robust protocol for in vitro germination of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen has been elusive. Here we show that controlled temperatures, a largely disregarded factor in previous studies, and a simple optimized medium, solidified or liquid, yielded pollen germination rates above 80% and pollen tube lengths of hundreds of microns, with both Columbia and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes. We found that pollen germination and tube growth were dependent on pollen density in both liquid and solid medium. Pollen germination rates were not substantially affected by flower or plant age. The quartet1 mutation negatively affected pollen germination, especially in the Ler ecotype. This protocol will facilitate functional analyses of insertional mutants affecting male gametophyte function, and should allow detailed gene expression analyses during pollen tube growth. Arabidopsis thaliana can now be included on the list of plant species that are suitable models for physiological studies of pollen tube elongation and tip growth.

  1. The ULT trxG factors play a role in arabidopsis fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Monfared, Mona M; Fletcher, Jennifer C

    2014-01-01

    Trithorax group (trxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic modifiers that play key roles in eukaryotic development by promoting active or repressive gene expression states, respectively. Although PcG proteins have well-defined roles in controlling developmental transitions, cell fate decisions and cellular differentiation in plants, relatively little is known about the functions of plant trxG factors. We recently determined the biological roles for the ULT1 and ULT2 trxG genes during Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive development. Our study revealed that ULT1 and ULT2 genes have overlapping activities in regulating Arabidopsis shoot and floral stem cell activity, and that they have a redundant function in establishing the apical-basal polarity axis of the gynoecium. Here we present data that ult1 and ult1 ult2 siliques contain a significant proportion of aborted ovules, supporting an additional role for ULT1 in Arabidopsis fertility. Our results add to the number of plant developmental processes that are regulated by trxG activity. PMID:25531183

  2. Identification of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulators by Yeast One-Hybrid Screens Using a Transcription Factor ORFeome.

    PubMed

    Breton, Ghislain; Kay, Steve A; Pruneda-Paz, José L

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and molecular approaches revealed that the circadian clock network structure is comprised of several interlocked positive and negative transcriptional feedback loops. The network evolved to sense and integrate inputs from environmental cues to adjust daily rhythms in physiological processes. Compiling evidence indicates that part of this regulation happens at the transcriptional level through subtle adjustments in the expression of core clock genes. Thus, to better understand the network and identify the molecular mechanisms of clock input pathways, it is imperative to determine how core clock genes are regulated. For this purpose we developed reagents for an unbiased approach to identify transcription factors (TFs) interacting with the promoters of core clock genes. At the center of this approach lies the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay in which a pool of proteins fused to the GAL4 transcriptional activation domain are tested for their ability to interact with a selected promoter fragment in yeast cells. Taking advantage of the fact that Arabidopsis TF genes are well annotated, we generated a comprehensive TF clone collection (TF ORFeome) and used it to replace the standard cDNA pool strategy traditionally used in Y1H screens. The use of this TF clone collection substantially accelerates the comprehensive discovery of promoter-specific DNA binding activities among all Arabidopsis TFs. Considering that this strategy can be extended to the study of the promoter interactome of any Arabidopsis gene, we developed a low throughput protocol that can be universally implemented to screen the ~2000 TF clone library.

  3. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 is essential for pollen wall pattern formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ming-Xi; Huang, Xue-Yong; Zhu, Jun; Guan, Yue-Feng; Jia, Qi-Shi; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2013-06-01

    In angiosperms, pollen wall pattern formation is determined by primexine deposition on the microspores. Here, we show that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 (ARF17) is essential for primexine formation and pollen development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The arf17 mutant exhibited a male-sterile phenotype with normal vegetative growth. ARF17 was expressed in microsporocytes and microgametophytes from meiosis to the bicellular microspore stage. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that primexine was absent in the arf17 mutant, which leads to pollen wall-patterning defects and pollen degradation. Callose deposition was also significantly reduced in the arf17 mutant, and the expression of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5), the major gene for callose biosynthesis, was approximately 10% that of the wild type. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ARF17 can directly bind to the CalS5 promoter. As indicated by the expression of DR5-driven green fluorescent protein, which is an synthetic auxin response reporter, auxin signaling appeared to be specifically impaired in arf17 anthers. Taken together, our results suggest that ARF17 is essential for pollen wall patterning in Arabidopsis by modulating primexine formation at least partially through direct regulation of CalS5 gene expression.

  4. Submergence Confers Immunity Mediated by the WRKY22 Transcription Factor in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fu-Chiun; Chou, Mei-Yi; Chou, Shu-Jen; Li, Ya-Ru; Peng, Hsiao-Ping; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional control plays an important role in regulating submergence responses in plants. Although numerous genes are highly induced during hypoxia, their individual roles in hypoxic responses are still poorly understood. Here, we found that expression of genes that encode members of the WRKY transcription factor family was rapidly and strongly induced upon submergence in Arabidopsis thaliana, and this induction correlated with induction of a large portion of innate immunity marker genes. Furthermore, prior submergence treatment conferred higher resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis. Among the WRKY genes tested, WRKY22 had the highest level of induction during the early stages of submergence. Compared with the wild type, WRKY22 T-DNA insertion mutants wrky22-1 and wrky22-2 had lower disease resistance and lower induction of innate immunity markers, such as FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 (FRK1) and WRKY53, after submergence. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses of wrky22-2 and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified several potential targets of WRKY22, which included genes encoding a TIR domain–containing protein, a plant peptide hormone, and many OLIGO PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER genes, all of which may lead to induction of innate immunity. In conclusion, we propose that submergence triggers innate immunity in Arabidopsis via WRKY22, a response that may protect against a higher probability of pathogen infection either during or after flooding. PMID:23897923

  5. The rice Mybleu transcription factor increases tolerance to oxygen deprivation in Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Mattana, Monica; Vannini, Candida; Espen, Luca; Bracale, Marcella; Genga, Annamaria; Marsoni, Milena; Iriti, Marcello; Bonazza, Veronica; Romagnoli, Francesco; Baldoni, Elena; Coraggio, Immacolata; Locatelli, Franca

    2007-09-01

    Mybleu is a natural incomplete transcription factor of rice (Oryza sativa), consisting of a partial Myb repeat followed by a short leucine zipper. We previously showed its localization to the apical region of rice roots and coleoptiles. Specifically, in coleoptiles, Mybleu is expressed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas in roots, it is expressed only under aerobic conditions. Mybleu is able to dimerize with canonical leucine zippers and to activate transcription selectively. To investigate Mybleu function in vivo, we transformed Arabidopsis thaliana and evaluated several morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters. In agreement with a hypothesized role of Mybleu in cell elongation in the differentiation zone, we found that the constitutive expression of this transcription factor in Arabidopsis induced elongation in the primary roots and in the internodal region of the floral stem; we also observed a modification of the root apex morphology in transformed lines. Based on the high expression of Mybleu in anaerobic rice coleoptiles, we studied the role of this transcription factor in transgenic plants grown under low-oxygen conditions. We found that overexpression of this transcription factor increased tolerance to oxygen deficit. In transgenic plants, this effect may depend both on the maintenance of a higher metabolism during stress and on the higher expression levels of certain genes involved in the anaerobic response.

  6. Analysis of functional redundancies within the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Danisman, Selahattin; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Bimbo, Andrea; van der Wal, Froukje; Hennig, Lars; de Folter, Stefan; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of the functions of TEOSINTE-LIKE1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors have been hampered by functional redundancy between its individual members. In general, putative functionally redundant genes are predicted based on sequence similarity and confirmed by genetic analysis. In the TCP family, however, identification is impeded by relatively low overall sequence similarity. In a search for functionally redundant TCP pairs that control Arabidopsis leaf development, this work performed an integrative bioinformatics analysis, combining protein sequence similarities, gene expression data, and results of pair-wise protein-protein interaction studies for the 24 members of the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family. For this, the work completed any lacking gene expression and protein-protein interaction data experimentally and then performed a comprehensive prediction of potential functional redundant TCP pairs. Subsequently, redundant functions could be confirmed for selected predicted TCP pairs by genetic and molecular analyses. It is demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized class I TCP19 gene plays a role in the control of leaf senescence in a redundant fashion with TCP20. Altogether, this work shows the power of combining classical genetic and molecular approaches with bioinformatics predictions to unravel functional redundancies in the TCP transcription factor family.

  7. Two GATA transcription factors are downstream effectors of floral homeotic gene action in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mara, Chloe D; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-06-01

    Floral organogenesis is dependent on the combinatorial action of MADS-box transcription factors, which in turn control the expression of suites of genes required for growth, patterning, and differentiation. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the specification of petal and stamen identity depends on the action of two MADS-box gene products, APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI). In a screen for genes whose expression was altered in response to the induction of AP3 activity, we identified GNC (GATA, nitrate-inducible, carbon-metabolism-involved) as being negatively regulated by AP3 and PI. The GNC gene encodes a member of the Arabidopsis GATA transcription factor family and has been implicated in the regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In addition, we found that the GNC paralog, GNL (GNC-like), is also negatively regulated by AP3 and PI. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we showed that promoter sequences of both GNC and GNL are bound by PI protein, suggesting a direct regulatory interaction. Analyses of single and double gnc and gnl mutants indicated that the two genes share redundant roles in promoting chlorophyll biosynthesis, suggesting that in repressing GNC and GNL, AP3/PI have roles in negatively regulating this biosynthetic pathway in flowers. In addition, coexpression analyses of genes regulated by AP3, PI, GNC, and GNL indicate a complex regulatory interplay between these transcription factors in regulating a variety of light and nutrient responsive genes. Together, these results provide new insights into the transcriptional cascades controlling the specification of floral organ identities.

  8. Transcriptional repression of BODENLOS by HD-ZIP transcription factor HB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Ive; Lau, Steffen; Ehrismann, Jasmin S.; Axiotis, Ioannis; Kolb, Martina; Kientz, Marika; Weijers, Dolf; Jürgens, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin is an important patterning agent during embryogenesis and post-embryonic development, exerting effects through transcriptional regulation. The main determinants of the transcriptional auxin response machinery are AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors and AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA) inhibitors. Although members of these two protein families are major developmental regulators, the transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding them has not been well explored. For example, apart from auxin-linked regulatory inputs, factors regulating the expression of the AUX/IAA BODENLOS (BDL)/IAA12 are not known. Here, it was shown that the HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIP) transcription factor HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 5 (HB5) negatively regulates BDL expression, which may contribute to the spatial control of BDL expression. As such, HB5 and probably other class I HD-ZIP proteins, appear to modulate BDL-dependent auxin response. PMID:23682118

  9. Arabidopsis orthologs of maize chloroplast splicing factors promote splicing of orthologous and species-specific group II introns.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2006-12-01

    Chloroplast genomes in plants and green algae contain numerous group II introns, large ribozymes that splice via the same chemical steps as spliceosome-mediated splicing in the nucleus. Most chloroplast group II introns are degenerate, requiring interaction with nucleus-encoded proteins to splice in vivo. Genetic approaches in maize (Zea mays) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have elucidated distinct sets of proteins that assemble with chloroplast group II introns and facilitate splicing. Little information is available, however, concerning these processes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To determine whether the paucity of data concerning chloroplast splicing factors in Arabidopsis reflects a fundamental difference between protein-facilitated group II splicing in monocot and dicot plants, we examined the mutant phenotypes associated with T-DNA insertions in Arabidopsis genes encoding orthologs of the maize chloroplast splicing factors CRS1, CAF1, and CAF2 (AtCRS1, AtCAF1, and AtCAF2). We show that the splicing functions and intron specificities of these proteins are largely conserved between maize and Arabidopsis, indicating that these proteins were recruited to promote the splicing of plastid group II introns prior to the divergence of monocot and dicot plants. We show further that AtCAF1 promotes the splicing of two group II introns, rpoC1 and clpP-intron 1, that are found in Arabidopsis but not in maize; AtCAF1 is the first splicing factor described for these introns. Finally, we show that a strong AtCAF2 allele conditions an embryo-lethal phenotype, adding to the body of data suggesting that cell viability is more sensitive to the loss of plastid translation in Arabidopsis than in maize.

  10. The multifaceted roles of NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y in Arabidopsis thaliana development and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Swain, Swadhin; Myers, Zachary A; Siriwardana, Chamindika L; Holt, Ben F

    2017-05-01

    NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor (TF) consisting of evolutionarily distinct NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits. The functional NF-Y heterotrimer binds to CCAAT elements in eukaryotic gene promoters and influences their expression. The genome of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 10 distinct NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC proteins, allowing for enormous combinatorial and functional diversity. Two decades of research have elucidated the importance of NF-Ys in plant growth, development and stress responses; however, the molecular mechanisms of action remain largely unexplored. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that NF-Ys are frequently associated with other groups of TFs, expanding the potential NF-Y combinatorial complexity. Further, information regarding the regulation of individual NF-Y subunits at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level is beginning to emerge. In this review, we will identify developing trends within the NF-Y field and discuss recent progress towards a better understanding of NF-Y function, molecular action, and regulation in the context of Arabidopsis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear Factor Y in Development and Disease, edited by Prof. Roberto Mantovani. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Tissue-specific expression and dynamic organization of SR splicing factors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuda; Hearn, Stephen; Spector, David L

    2004-06-01

    The organization of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery has been extensively studied in mammalian and yeast cells and far less is known in living plant cells and different cell types of an intact organism. Here, we report on the expression, organization, and dynamics of pre-mRNA splicing factors (SR33, SR1/atSRp34, and atSRp30) under control of their endogenous promoters in Arabidopsis. Distinct tissue-specific expression patterns were observed, and differences in the distribution of these proteins within nuclei of different cell types were identified. These factors localized in a cell type-dependent speckled pattern as well as being diffusely distributed throughout the nucleoplasm. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed that these speckles correspond to interchromatin granule clusters. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that speckles move within a constrained nuclear space, and their organization is altered during the cell cycle. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed a rapid exchange rate of splicing factors in nuclear speckles. The dynamic organization of plant speckles is closely related to the transcriptional activity of the cells. The organization and dynamic behavior of speckles in Arabidopsis cell nuclei provides significant insight into understanding the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus and its relationship to chromatin organization within various cell types of a single organism.

  12. A Nuclear Factor Regulates Abscisic Acid Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Shin, Ryoung; Schachtman, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that regulates plant growth as well as stress responses. In this study, we identified and characterized a new Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protein, Nuclear Protein X1 (NPX1), which was up-regulated by stress and treatment with exogenous ABA. Stomatal closure, seed germination, and primary root growth are well-known ABA responses that were less sensitive to ABA in NPX1-overexpressing plants. NPX1-overexpressing plants were more drought sensitive, and the changes in response to drought were due to the altered guard cell sensitivity to ABA in transgenic plants and not to a lack of ABA production. The nuclear localization of NPX1 correlated with changes in the expression of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis and ABA signal transduction. To understand the function of NPX1, we searched for interacting proteins and found that an ABA-inducible NAC transcription factor, TIP, interacted with NPX1. Based on the whole plant phenotypes, we hypothesized that NPX1 acts as a transcriptional repressor, and this was demonstrated in yeast, where we showed that TIP was repressed by NPX1. Our results indicate that the previously unknown protein NPX1 acts as a negative regulator in plant response to changes in environmental conditions through the control of ABA-regulated gene expression. The characterization of this factor enhances our understanding of guard cell function and the mechanisms that plants use to modulate water loss from leaves under drought conditions. PMID:19759343

  13. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of transcription factor expression in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Colinas, Juliette; Wang, Jean Y.; Mace, Daniel; Ohler, Uwe; Benfey, Philip N.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how the expression of transcription factor (TF) genes is modulated is essential for reconstructing gene regulatory networks. There is increasing evidence that sequences other than upstream noncoding can contribute to modulating gene expression, but how frequently they do so remains unclear. Here, we investigated the regulation of TFs expressed in a tissue-enriched manner in Arabidopsis roots. For 61 TFs, we created GFP reporter constructs driven by each TF’s upstream noncoding sequence (including the 5′UTR) fused to the GFP reporter gene alone or together with the TF’s coding sequence. We compared the visually detectable GFP patterns with endogenous mRNA expression patterns, as defined by a genome-wide microarray root expression map. An automated image analysis method for quantifying GFP signals in different tissues was developed and used to validate our visual comparison method. From these combined analyses, we found that (i) the upstream noncoding sequence was sufficient to recapitulate the mRNA expression pattern for 80% (35/44) of the TFs, and (ii) 25% of the TFs undergo posttranscriptional regulation via microRNA-mediated mRNA degradation (2/24) or via intercellular protein movement (6/24). The results suggest that, for Arabidopsis TFs, upstream noncoding sequences are major contributors to mRNA expression pattern establishment, but modulation of transcription factor protein expression pattern after transcription is relatively frequent. This study provides a systematic overview of regulation of TF expression at a cellular level. PMID:16581911

  14. WRKY22 Transcription Factor Mediates Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Jiang, Zhou; Yu, Diqiu

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis WRKY proteins are plant-specific transcrip-tion factors, encoded by a large gene family, which contain the highly conserved amino acid sequence WRKYGQK and the zinc-finger-like motifs, Cys2His2 or Cys2HisCys. They can recognize and bind the TTGAC(C/T) W-box cis-elements found in the promoters of target genes, and are involved in the regulation of gene expression during pathogen defense, wounding, trichome development, and senescence. Here we investigated the physiological function of the Arabidopsis WRKY22 transcription factor during dark-induced senescence. WRKY22 transcription was suppressed by light and promoted by darkness. In addi-tion, AtWRKY22 expression was markedly induced by H2O2. These results indicated that AtWRKY22 was involved in signal pathways in response to abiotic stress. Dark-treated AtWRKY22 over-expression and knockout lines showed accelerated and delayed senescence phenotypes, respectively, and senescence-associated genes exhibited increased and decreased expression levels. Mutual regulation existed between AtWRKY22 and AtWRKY6, AtWR-KY53, and AtWRKY70, respectively. Moreover, AtWRKY22 could influence their relative expression levels by feedback regulation or by other, as yet unknown mechanisms in response to dark. These results prove that AtWRKY22 participates in the dark-induced senescence signal transduction pathway. PMID:21359674

  15. GROWTH REGULATING FACTOR5 stimulates Arabidopsis chloroplast division, photosynthesis, and leaf longevity.

    PubMed

    Vercruyssen, Liesbeth; Tognetti, Vanesa B; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Van Dingenen, Judith; De Milde, Liesbeth; Bielach, Agnieszka; De Rycke, Riet; Van Breusegem, Frank; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf development relies on subsequent phases of cell proliferation and cell expansion. During the proliferation phase, chloroplasts need to divide extensively, and during the transition from cell proliferation to expansion, they differentiate into photosynthetically active chloroplasts, providing the plant with energy. The transcription factor GROWTH REGULATING FACTOR5 (GRF5) promotes the duration of the cell proliferation period during leaf development. Here, it is shown that GRF5 also stimulates chloroplast division, resulting in a higher chloroplast number per cell with a concomitant increase in chlorophyll levels in 35S:GRF5 leaves, which can sustain higher rates of photosynthesis. Moreover, 35S:GRF5 plants show delayed leaf senescence and are more tolerant for growth on nitrogen-depleted medium. Cytokinins also stimulate leaf growth in part by extending the cell proliferation phase, simultaneously delaying the onset of the cell expansion phase. In addition, cytokinins are known to be involved in chloroplast development, nitrogen signaling, and senescence. Evidence is provided that GRF5 and cytokinins synergistically enhance cell division and chlorophyll retention after dark-induced senescence, which suggests that they also cooperate to stimulate chloroplast division and nitrogen assimilation. Taken together with the increased leaf size, ectopic expression of GRF5 has great potential to improve plant productivity.

  16. GROWTH REGULATING FACTOR5 Stimulates Arabidopsis Chloroplast Division, Photosynthesis, and Leaf Longevity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vercruyssen, Liesbeth; Tognetti, Vanesa B.; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Van Dingenen, Judith; De Milde, Liesbeth; Bielach, Agnieszka; De Rycke, Riet; Van Breusegem, Frank; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf development relies on subsequent phases of cell proliferation and cell expansion. During the proliferation phase, chloroplasts need to divide extensively, and during the transition from cell proliferation to expansion, they differentiate into photosynthetically active chloroplasts, providing the plant with energy. The transcription factor GROWTH REGULATING FACTOR5 (GRF5) promotes the duration of the cell proliferation period during leaf development. Here, it is shown that GRF5 also stimulates chloroplast division, resulting in a higher chloroplast number per cell with a concomitant increase in chlorophyll levels in 35S:GRF5 leaves, which can sustain higher rates of photosynthesis. Moreover, 35S:GRF5 plants show delayed leaf senescence and are more tolerant for growth on nitrogen-depleted medium. Cytokinins also stimulate leaf growth in part by extending the cell proliferation phase, simultaneously delaying the onset of the cell expansion phase. In addition, cytokinins are known to be involved in chloroplast development, nitrogen signaling, and senescence. Evidence is provided that GRF5 and cytokinins synergistically enhance cell division and chlorophyll retention after dark-induced senescence, which suggests that they also cooperate to stimulate chloroplast division and nitrogen assimilation. Taken together with the increased leaf size, ectopic expression of GRF5 has great potential to improve plant productivity. PMID:25604530

  17. Peroxidation due to cryoprotectant treatment is a vital factor for cell survival in Arabidopsis cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Li; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Xiang-Ning; Gai, Ying; Wang, Wei-Ming; Reed, Barbara M; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2013-11-01

    Cryopreservation can be a safe and cost-effective tool for the long-term storage of plant germplasm. In Arabidopsis, the ability to recover from cryogenic treatment was lost as growth progressed. Growth could be restored in 48-h seedlings, whereas 72-h seedlings died after cryogenic treatment. Why seedling age and survival are negatively correlated is an interesting issue. A comparative transcriptomics was performed to screen differentially expressed genes between 48- and 72-h seedlings after exposure to cryoprotectant. Among differentially expressed genes, oxidative stress response genes played important roles in cryoprotectant treatment, and peroxidation was a key factor related to cell survival. Seedlings underwent more peroxidation at 72-h than at 48-h. A comprehensive analysis indicated that peroxidation injured membrane systems leading to photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation damage. Furthermore, the apoptosis-like events were found in cryogenic treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings. 48- and 72-h seedlings underwent different degrees of membrane lipid peroxidation during cryoprotectant treatment, and reducing the injury of oxidative stress was an important factor to successful cryopreservation. This study provided a novel insight of genetic regulatory mechanisms in cryopreservation, and established an excellent model to test and evaluate the effect of exogenous antioxidants and conventional cryoprotectants in plant cryopreservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing a Capsicum annuum multiprotein bridging factor 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pepper fruit is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide. However, low temperature affects the vegetative development and reproduction of the pepper, resulting in economic losses. To identify cold-related genes regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in pepper seedlings, cDNA representational difference analysis was previously performed using a suppression subtractive hybridization method. One of the genes cloned from the subtraction was homologous to Solanum tuberosum MBF1 (StMBF1) encoding the coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1. Here, we have characterized this StMBF1 homolog (named CaMBF1) from Capsicum annuum and investigated its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Results Tissue expression profile analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that CaMBF1 was expressed in all tested tissues, and high-level expression was detected in the flowers and seeds. The expression of CaMBF1 in pepper seedlings was dramatically suppressed by exogenously supplied salicylic acid, high salt, osmotic and heavy metal stresses. Constitutive overexpression of CaMBF1 in Arabidopsis aggravated the visible symptoms of leaf damage and the electrolyte leakage of cell damage caused by cold stress in seedlings. Furthermore, the expression of RD29A, ERD15, KIN1, and RD22 in the transgenic plants was lower than that in the wild-type plants. On the other hand, seed germination, cotyledon greening and lateral root formation were more severely influenced by salt stress in transgenic lines compared with wild-type plants, indicating that CaMBF1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants were hypersensitive to salt stress. Conclusions Overexpression of CaMBF1 in Arabidopsis displayed reduced tolerance to cold and high salt stress during seed germination and post-germination stages. CaMBF1 transgenic Arabidopsis may reduce stress tolerance by downregulating stress-responsive genes to aggravate the leaf damage caused by cold stress. CaMBF1 may be useful for genetic engineering of novel

  19. Gene expression analysis of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures during a parabolic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbick, Maren; Barjaktarović, Žarko; Hampp, Ruediger

    Plants sense gravity by specialized cells (statocytes) and adjust growth and development accordingly. It has, however, also been shown that plant cells which are not part of specialized tissues are also able to sense gravitational forces. Therefore we used undifferentiated, homogeneous cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) in order to identify early alterations in gene expression as a response to altered gravitational field strengths. In this contribution we report on cell cultures exposed to parabolic flights (approximately 20 sec of microgravity). For this short-term exposure study, we specifically checked for genes at the beginning of signal transduction chains, such as those coding for transcription factors (TFs). TFs are small proteins that regulate expression of their target genes by binding to specific promoter sequences. Our main focus were members of the so-called WRKY TF family. WRKY TFs are known to be involved in various physiological processes like senescence and pathogen defense. By quantifying transcriptional changes of these genes by real-time RT-PCR, we wanted to find out, how gene expression is affected by both hyperand microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight. For this purpose Arabidopsis thaliana callus cultures were metabolically quenched by the injection of RNAlater at the end of the microgravity-phase of each parabola. The data we present will show how fast changes in amounts of transcripts will occur, and to what degree the expression profiles are comparable with data obtained from exposures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity.

  20. Identification of transcription factors linked to cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle is an essential process in growth and development of living organisms consists of the replication and mitotic phases separated by 2 gap phases; G1 and G2. It is tightly controlled at the molecular level and especially at the level of transcription. Precise regulation of the cell cycle is of central significance for plant growth and development and transcription factors are global regulators of gene expression playing essential roles in cell cycle regulation. This study has uncovered TFs that are involved in the control of cell cycle progression. With the aid of multi-parallel quantitative RT-PCR, the expression changes of 1880 TFs represented in the Arabidopsis TF platform was monitored in Arabidopsis synchronous MM2d cells during a 19 h period representing different time points corresponding to the 4 cell cycle phases after treatment of MM2d cells with Aphidicolin. Comparative TF expression analyses performed on synchronous cells resulted in the identification of 239 TFs differentially expressed during the cell cycle, while about one third of TFs were constitutively expressed through all time points. Phase-specific TFs were also identified.

  1. Gene duplication of type-B ARR transcription factors systematically extends transcriptional regulatory structures in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Hee; Hyeon, Do Young; Lee, Ll Hwan; Park, Su Jin; Han, Seungmin; Lee, In Chul; Hwang, Daehee; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-11-26

    Many of duplicated genes are enriched in signaling pathways. Recently, gene duplication of kinases has been shown to provide genetic buffering and functional diversification in cellular signaling. Transcription factors (TFs) are also often duplicated. However, how duplication of TFs affects their regulatory structures and functions of target genes has not been explored at the systems level. Here, we examined regulatory and functional roles of duplication of three major ARR TFs (ARR1, 10, and 12) in Arabidopsis cytokinin signaling using wild-type and single, double, and triple deletion mutants of the TFs. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles obtained from Arabidopsis roots in wild-type and these mutants showed that duplication of ARR TFs systematically extended their transcriptional regulatory structures, leading to enhanced robustness and diversification in functions of target genes, as well as in regulation of cellular networks of target genes. Therefore, our results suggest that duplication of TFs contributes to robustness and diversification in functions of target genes by extending transcriptional regulatory structures.

  2. Identification of transcription factors linked to cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle is an essential process in growth and development of living organisms consists of the replication and mitotic phases separated by 2 gap phases; G1 and G2. It is tightly controlled at the molecular level and especially at the level of transcription. Precise regulation of the cell cycle is of central significance for plant growth and development and transcription factors are global regulators of gene expression playing essential roles in cell cycle regulation. This study has uncovered TFs that are involved in the control of cell cycle progression. With the aid of multi-parallel quantitative RT-PCR, the expression changes of 1880 TFs represented in the Arabidopsis TF platform was monitored in Arabidopsis synchronous MM2d cells during a 19 h period representing different time points corresponding to the 4 cell cycle phases after treatment of MM2d cells with Aphidicolin. Comparative TF expression analyses performed on synchronous cells resulted in the identification of 239 TFs differentially expressed during the cell cycle, while about one third of TFs were constitutively expressed through all time points. Phase-specific TFs were also identified. PMID:25482767

  3. Enhancement of Arabidopsis growth characteristics using genome interrogation with artificial transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Pinas, Johan E.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Augustijn, Dieuwertje; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; van der Zaal, Bert J.

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population has a greatly increasing demand for plant biomass, thus creating a great interest in the development of methods to enhance the growth and biomass accumulation of crop species. In this study, we used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATF)-mediated genome interrogation to manipulate the growth characteristics and biomass of Arabidopsis plants. We describe the construction of two collections of Arabidopsis lines expressing fusions of three zinc fingers (3F) to the transcriptional repressor motif EAR (3F-EAR) or the transcriptional activator VP16 (3F-VP16), and the characterization of their growth characteristics. In total, six different 3F-ATF lines with a consistent increase in rosette surface area (RSA) of up to 55% were isolated. For two lines we demonstrated that 3F-ATF constructs function as dominant in trans acting causative agents for an increase in RSA and biomass, and for five larger plant lines we have investigated 3F-ATF induced transcriptomic changes. Our results indicate that genome interrogation can be used as a powerful tool for the manipulation of plant growth and biomass and that it might supply novel cues for the discovery of genes and pathways involved in these properties. PMID:28358915

  4. Identification and characterization of transcription factor IIIA and ribosomal protein L5 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Olivier; Yukawa, Yasushi; Prieto, José-Luis; Vaillant, Isabelle; Sugiura, Masahiro; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2003-01-01

    Thus far, no transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) from higher plants has been cloned and characterized. We have cloned and characterized TFIIIA and ribosomal protein L5 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Primary sequence comparison revealed a high divergence of AtTFIIIA and a relatively high conservation of AtL5 when compared with other organisms. The AtTFIIIA cDNA encodes a protein with nine Cys2-His2-type zinc fingers, a 23 amino acid spacer between fingers 1 and 2, a 66 amino acid spacer between fingers 4 and 5, and a 50 amino acid non-finger C-terminal tail. Aside from the amino acids required for proper zinc finger folding, AtTFIIIA is highly divergent from other known TFIIIAs. AtTFIIIA can bind 5S rDNA, as well as 5S rRNA, and efficiently stimulates the transcription of an Arabidopsis 5S rRNA gene in vitro. AtL5 identity was confirmed by demonstrating that this protein binds to 5S rRNA but not to 5S rDNA. Protoplast transient expression assays with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins revealed that AtTFIIIA is absent from the cytoplasm and concentrated at several nuclear foci including the nucleolus. AtL5 protein accumulates in the nucleus, especially in the nucleolus, and is also present in the cytoplasm. PMID:12711688

  5. Gene duplication of type-B ARR transcription factors systematically extends transcriptional regulatory structures in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Hyeon, Do Young; Lee, ll Hwan; Park, Su Jin; Han, Seungmin; Lee, In Chul; Hwang, Daehee; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Many of duplicated genes are enriched in signaling pathways. Recently, gene duplication of kinases has been shown to provide genetic buffering and functional diversification in cellular signaling. Transcription factors (TFs) are also often duplicated. However, how duplication of TFs affects their regulatory structures and functions of target genes has not been explored at the systems level. Here, we examined regulatory and functional roles of duplication of three major ARR TFs (ARR1, 10, and 12) in Arabidopsis cytokinin signaling using wild-type and single, double, and triple deletion mutants of the TFs. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles obtained from Arabidopsis roots in wild-type and these mutants showed that duplication of ARR TFs systematically extended their transcriptional regulatory structures, leading to enhanced robustness and diversification in functions of target genes, as well as in regulation of cellular networks of target genes. Therefore, our results suggest that duplication of TFs contributes to robustness and diversification in functions of target genes by extending transcriptional regulatory structures. PMID:25425016

  6. NAC Transcription Factor SPEEDY HYPONASTIC GROWTH Regulates Flooding-Induced Leaf Movement in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Rauf, Mamoona; Arif, Muhammad; Fisahn, Joachim; Xue, Gang-Ping; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In rosette plants, root flooding (waterlogging) triggers rapid upward (hyponastic) leaf movement representing an important architectural stress response that critically determines plant performance in natural habitats. The directional growth is based on localized longitudinal cell expansion at the lower (abaxial) side of the leaf petiole and involves the volatile phytohormone ethylene (ET). We report the existence of a transcriptional core unit underlying directional petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, governed by the NAC transcription factor SPEEDY HYPONASTIC GROWTH (SHYG). Overexpression of SHYG in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances waterlogging-triggered hyponastic leaf movement and cell expansion in abaxial cells of the basal petiole region, while both responses are largely diminished in shyg knockout mutants. Expression of several EXPANSIN and XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLYCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE genes encoding cell wall–loosening proteins was enhanced in SHYG overexpressors but lowered in shyg. We identified ACC OXIDASE5 (ACO5), encoding a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis, as a direct transcriptional output gene of SHYG and found a significantly reduced leaf movement in response to root flooding in aco5 T-DNA insertion mutants. Expression of SHYG in shoot tissue is triggered by root flooding and treatment with ET, constituting an intrinsic ET-SHYG-ACO5 activator loop for rapid petiole cell expansion upon waterlogging. PMID:24363315

  7. Regulation of WRKY46 Transcription Factor Function by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Arsheed H.; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Pecher, Pascal; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Sinha, Alok K.; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are central signaling pathways activated in plants after sensing internal developmental and external stress cues. Knowledge about the downstream substrate proteins of MAPKs is still limited in plants. We screened Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factors as potential targets downstream of MAPKs, and concentrated on characterizing WRKY46 as a substrate of the MAPK, MPK3. Mass spectrometry revealed in vitro phosphorylation of WRKY46 at amino acid position S168 by MPK3. However, mutagenesis studies showed that a second phosphosite, S250, can also be phosphorylated. Elicitation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the bacterial flagellin-derived flg22 peptide led to in vivo destabilization of WRKY46 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Mutation of either phosphorylation site reduced the PAMP-induced degradation of WRKY46. Furthermore, the protein for the double phosphosite mutant is expressed at higher levels compared to wild-type proteins or single phosphosite mutants. In line with its nuclear localization and predicted function as a transcriptional activator, overexpression of WRKY46 in protoplasts raised basal plant defense as reflected by the increase in promoter activity of the PAMP-responsive gene, NHL10, in a MAPK-dependent manner. Thus, MAPK-mediated regulation of WRKY46 is a mechanism to control plant defense. PMID:26870073

  8. The transcription factor WIN1/SHN1 regulates Cutin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, Rubini; Branigan, Caroline; Liu, Yan; Penfield, Teresa; Rao, Vijaya; Mouille, Grégory; Höfte, Herman; Pauly, Markus; Riechmann, José Luis; Broun, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The composition and permeability of the cuticle has a large influence on its ability to protect the plant against various forms of biotic and abiotic stress. WAX INDUCER1 (WIN1) and related transcription factors have recently been shown to trigger wax production, enhance drought tolerance, and modulate cuticular permeability when overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that WIN1 influences the composition of cutin, a polyester that forms the backbone of the cuticle. WIN1 overexpression induces compositional changes and an overall increase in cutin production in vegetative and reproductive organs, while its downregulation has the opposite effect. Changes in cutin composition are preceded by the rapid and coordinated induction of several genes known or likely to be involved in cutin biosynthesis. This transcriptional response is followed after a delay by the induction of genes associated with wax biosynthesis, suggesting that the regulation of cutin and wax production by WIN1 is a two-step process. We demonstrate that at least one of the cutin pathway genes, which encodes long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase LACS2, is likely to be directly targeted by WIN1. Overall, our results suggest that WIN1 modulates cuticle permeability in Arabidopsis by regulating genes encoding cutin pathway enzymes.

  9. The ULTRAPETALA1 trxG factor contributes to patterning the Arabidopsis adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity axis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The SAND domain protein ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) functions as a trithorax group factor that regulates a variety of developmental processes in Arabidopsis. We have recently shown that ULT1 regulates developmental patterning in the gynoecia and leaves. ULT1 acts together with the KANADI1 (KAN1) transcripti...

  10. Direct transcriptional activation of BT genes by NLP transcription factors is a key component of the nitrate response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Konishi, Mineko; Yoshioka, Nozomi; Sasaki, Yuki; Maeda, Haruna; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kato, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Junji; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2017-01-29

    Nitrate modulates growth and development, functioning as a nutrient signal in plants. Although many changes in physiological processes in response to nitrate have been well characterized as nitrate responses, the molecular mechanisms underlying the nitrate response are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that NLP transcription factors, which are key regulators of the nitrate response, directly activate the nitrate-inducible expression of BT1 and BT2 encoding putative scaffold proteins with a plant-specific domain structure in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the 35S promoter-driven expression of BT2 partially rescued growth inhibition caused by reductions in NLP activity in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, simultaneous disruption of BT1 and BT2 affected nitrate-dependent lateral root development. These results suggest that direct activation of BT1 and BT2 by NLP transcriptional activators is a key component of the molecular mechanism underlying the nitrate response in Arabidopsis.

  11. Transcription factors that directly regulate the expression of CSLA9 encoding mannan synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Chan; Reca, Ida-Barbara; Kim, Yongsig; Park, Sunchung; Thomashow, Michael F; Keegstra, Kenneth; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that have a structural role and serve as storage reserves during plant growth and development. Previous studies led to the conclusion that mannan synthase enzymes in several plant species are encoded by members of the cellulose synthase-like A (CSLA) gene family. Arabidopsis has nine members of the CSLA gene family. Earlier work has shown that CSLA9 is responsible for the majority of glucomannan synthesis in both primary and secondary cell walls of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. Little is known about how expression of the CLSA9 gene is regulated. Sequence analysis of the CSLA9 promoter region revealed the presence of multiple copies of a cis-regulatory motif (M46RE) recognized by transcription factor MYB46, leading to the hypothesis that MYB46 (At5g12870) is a direct regulator of the mannan synthase CLSA9. We obtained several lines of experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis. First, the expression of CSLA9 was substantially upregulated by MYB46 overexpression. Second, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to demonstrate the direct binding of MYB46 to the promoter of CSLA9 in vitro. This interaction was further confirmed in vivo by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, over-expression of MYB46 resulted in a significant increase in mannan content. Considering the multifaceted nature of MYB46-mediated transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis, we reasoned that additional transcription factors are involved in the CSLA9 regulation. This hypothesis was tested by carrying out yeast-one hybrid screening, which identified ANAC041 and bZIP1 as direct regulators of CSLA9. Transcriptional activation assays and EMSA were used to confirm the yeast-one hybrid results. Taken together, we report that transcription factors ANAC041, bZIP1 and MYB46 directly regulate the expression of CSLA9.

  12. Structural basis for sequence-specific DNA recognition by an Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Kigawa, Takanori; Watanabe, Satoru; Inoue, Makoto; Yamasaki, Tomoko; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-03-02

    The WRKY family transcription factors regulate plant-specific reactions that are mostly related to biotic and abiotic stresses. They share the WRKY domain, which recognizes a DNA element (TTGAC(C/T)) termed the W-box, in target genes. Here, we determined the solution structure of the C-terminal WRKY domain of Arabidopsis WRKY4 in complex with the W-box DNA by NMR. A four-stranded β-sheet enters the major groove of DNA in an atypical mode termed the β-wedge, where the sheet is nearly perpendicular to the DNA helical axis. Residues in the conserved WRKYGQK motif contact DNA bases mainly through extensive apolar contacts with thymine methyl groups. The importance of these contacts was verified by substituting the relevant T bases with U and by surface plasmon resonance analyses of DNA binding.

  13. Chrysanthemum transcription factor CmLBD1 direct lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lu; Zheng, Chen; Liu, Ruixia; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Zhaohe; Xin, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Zhang, Fei; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) genes are important regulators of growth and development. Here, a chrysanthemum class I LBD transcription factor gene, designated CmLBD1, was isolated and its function verified. CmLBD1 was transcribed in both the root and stem, but not in the leaf. The gene responded to auxin and was shown to participate in the process of adventitious root primordium formation. Its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis thaliana increased the number of lateral roots formed. When provided with exogenous auxin, lateral root emergence was promoted. CmLBD1 expression also favored callus formation from A. thaliana root explants in the absence of exogenously supplied phytohormones. In planta, CmLBD1 probably acts as a positive regulator of the response to auxin fluctuations and connects auxin signaling with lateral root formation. PMID:26819087

  14. Arabidopsis AtPAP1 transcription factor induces anthocyanin production in transgenic Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian; Sun, Shuquan; Luo, Shiqiao; Zhang, Jichuan; Xiao, Xianzhou; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shizhong

    2014-04-01

    This study developed a new purple coloured Taraxacum brevicorniculatum plant through genetic transformation using the Arabidopsis AtPAP1 gene, which overproduced anthocyanins in its vegetative tissues. Rubber-producing Taraxacum plants synthesise high-quality natural rubber (NR) in their roots and so are a promising alternative global source of this raw material. A major factor in its commercialization is the need for multipurpose exploitation of the whole plant. To add value to the aerial tissues, red/purple plants of the rubber-producing Taraxacum brevicorniculatum species were developed through heterologous expression of the production of anthocyanin pigment 1 (AtPAP1) transcription factor from Arabidopsis thaliana. The vegetative tissue of the transgenic plants showed an average of a 48-fold increase in total anthocyanin content over control levels, but with the exception of pigmentation, the transgenic plants were phenotypically comparable to controls and displayed similar growth vigor. Southern blot analysis confirmed that the AtPAP1 gene had been integrated into the genome of the high anthocyanin Taraxacum plants. The AtPAP1 expression levels were estimated by quantitative real-time PCR and were highly correlated with the levels of total anthocyanins in five independent transgenic lines. High levels of three cyanidin glycosides found in the purple plants were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. The presence of NR was verified by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, and confirmed that NR biosynthesis had not been affected in the transgenic Taraxacum lines. In addition, other major phenylpropanoid products such as chlorogenic acid and quercetin glycosides were also enhanced in the transgenic Taraxacum. The red/purple transgenic Taraxacum lines described in this study would increase the future application of the species as a rubber-producing crop due to its additional health benefits.

  15. Connecting RNA Processing to Abiotic Environmental Response in Arabidopsis: the role of a polyadenylation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. Q.; Xu, R.; Hunt, A. G.; Falcone, D. L.

    Plants are constantly challenged by numerous environmental stresses both biotic and abiotic It is clear that plants have evolved to counter these stresses using all but limited means We recently discovered the potential role of a messenger RNA processing factor namely the Arabidopsis cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 kDa subunit AtCPSF30 when a mutant deficient in this factor displayed altered responses to an array of abiotic stresses This AtCPSF30 mutant named oxt6 exhibited an elevated tolerance to oxidative stress Microarray experiments of oxt6 and its complemented lines revealed an altered gene expression profile among which were antioxidative defense genes Interestingly the same gene encoding AtCPSF30 can also be transcribed into a large transcript that codes for a potential splicing factor Both protein products have a domain for RNA binding and a calmodulin binding domain activities of which have been confirmed by biochemical assays Surprisingly binding of AtCPSF30 to calmodulin inhibits the RNA-binding activity of the protein Mutational analysis shows that a small part of the protein is responsible for calmodulin binding and point mutations in this region abolished both RNA binding activity and the inhibition of this activity by calmodulin Analyses of the potential splicing factor are on going and the results will be presented The interesting possibilities for both the interplay between splicing and polyadenylation and the regulation of these processes by stimuli that act through

  16. Structural and functional analysis of VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis as interacting proteins of WRKY transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Chi, Ying-Jun; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Jian-Ye; Wang, Fei; Fan, Baofang; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2012-06-01

    WRKY transcription factors are encoded by a large gene superfamily with a broad range of roles in plants. Recently, several groups have reported that proteins containing a short VQ (FxxxVQxLTG) motif interact with WRKY proteins. We have recently discovered that two VQ proteins from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), SIGMA FACTOR-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 and SIGMA FACTOR-INTERACTING PROTEIN2, act as coactivators of WRKY33 in plant defense by specifically recognizing the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulating the DNA-binding activity of WRKY33. In this study, we have analyzed the entire family of 34 structurally divergent VQ proteins from Arabidopsis. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assays showed that Arabidopsis VQ proteins interacted specifically with the C-terminal WRKY domains of group I and the sole WRKY domains of group IIc WRKY proteins. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified structural features of these two closely related groups of WRKY domains that are critical for interaction with VQ proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression of a majority of Arabidopsis VQ genes was responsive to pathogen infection and salicylic acid treatment. Functional analysis using both knockout mutants and overexpression lines revealed strong phenotypes in growth, development, and susceptibility to pathogen infection. Altered phenotypes were substantially enhanced through cooverexpression of genes encoding interacting VQ and WRKY proteins. These findings indicate that VQ proteins play an important role in plant growth, development, and response to environmental conditions, most likely by acting as cofactors of group I and IIc WRKY transcription factors.

  17. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB77 Modulates Auxin Signal Transduction[W

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ryoung; Burch, Adrien Y.; Huppert, Kari A.; Tiwari, Shiv B.; Murphy, Angus S.; Guilfoyle, Tom J.; Schachtman, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Auxin is a key plant hormone that regulates plant development, apical dominance, and growth-related tropisms, such as phototropism and gravitropism. In this study, we report a new Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor, MYB77, that is involved in auxin response. In MYB77 knockout plants, we found that auxin-responsive gene expression was greatly attenuated. Lateral root density in the MYB77 knockout was lower than the wild type at low concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and also under low nutrient conditions. MYB77 interacts with auxin response factors (ARFs) in vitro through the C terminus (domains III and IV) of ARFs and the activation domain of MYB77. A synergistic genetic interaction was demonstrated between MYB77 and ARF7 that resulted in a strong reduction in lateral root numbers. Experiments with protoplasts confirmed that the coexpression of MYB77 and an ARF C terminus enhance reporter gene expression. R2R3 MYB transcription factors have not been previously implicated in regulating the expression of auxin-inducible genes. Also it was previously unknown that ARFs interact with proteins other than those in the Aux/IAA family via conserved domains. The interaction between MYB77 and ARFs defines a new type of combinatorial transcriptional control in plants. This newly defined transcription factor interaction is part of the plant cells' repertoire for modulating response to auxin, thereby controlling lateral root growth and development under changing environmental conditions. PMID:17675404

  18. Male gametophyte-specific WRKY34 transcription factor mediates cold sensitivity of mature pollen in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Changsong; Jiang, Wenbo; Yu, Diqiu

    2010-01-01

    Mature pollen is very sensitive to cold stress in chilling-sensitive plants. Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Previous studies have suggested that WRKY34 (At4g26440) gene might be involved in pollen viability, although the mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, it is shown that cold treatment increased WRKY34 expression in the wild type, and promoter-GUS analysis revealed that WRKY34 expression is pollen-specific. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged WRKY34 was localized in the nuclei. Pollen harbouring the wrky34 allele showed higher viability than pollen with the WRKY34 allele after cold treatment. Further functional analysis indicated that the WRKY34 transcription factor was involved in pollen development regulated by the pollen-specific MIKC* class of MADS-domain transcription factors under cold stress, and cold-insensitivity of mature wrky34 pollen might be partly attributable to the enhanced expression of transcriptional activator CBFs in the mutants. Thus, the WRKY34 transcription factor negatively mediated cold sensitivity of mature Arabidopsis pollen and might be involved in the CBF signal cascade in mature pollen. PMID:20643804

  19. Photosynthesis of root chloroplasts developed in Arabidopsis lines overexpressing GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Sasaki, Daichi; Noguchi, Ko; Fujinuma, Daiki; Komatsu, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Masami; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sugimoto, Keiko; Niyogi, Krishna K; Wada, Hajime; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2013-08-01

    In plants, genes involved in photosynthesis are encoded separately in nuclei and plastids, and tight cooperation between these two genomes is therefore required for the development of functional chloroplasts. Golden2-like (GLK) transcription factors are involved in chloroplast development, directly targeting photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes for up-regulation. Although overexpression of GLKs leads to chloroplast development in non-photosynthetic organs, the mechanisms of coordination between the nuclear gene expression influenced by GLKs and the photosynthetic processes inside chloroplasts are largely unknown. To elucidate the impact of GLK-induced expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes on the construction of photosynthetic systems, chloroplast morphology and photosynthetic characteristics in greenish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing GLKs were compared with those in wild-type roots and leaves. Overexpression of GLKs caused up-regulation of not only their direct targets but also non-target nuclear and plastid genes, leading to global induction of chloroplast biogenesis in the root. Large antennae relative to reaction centers were observed in wild-type roots and were further enhanced by GLK overexpression due to the increased expression of target genes associated with peripheral light-harvesting antennae. Photochemical efficiency was lower in the root chloroplasts than in leaf chloroplasts, suggesting that the imbalance in the photosynthetic machinery decreases the efficiency of light utilization in root chloroplasts. Despite the low photochemical efficiency, root photosynthesis contributed to carbon assimilation in Arabidopsis. Moreover, GLK overexpression increased CO₂ fixation and promoted phototrophic performance of the root, showing the potential of root photosynthesis to improve effective carbon utilization in plants.

  20. The Miscanthus NAC transcription factor MlNAC9 enhances abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Pei, Shengqiang; He, Guo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Qi; Jia, Chunlin; Lu, Ying; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors are known to play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses in plants. Currently, little information regarding the functional roles of NAC genes in stress tolerance is available in Miscanthus lutarioriparius, a promising bioenergy plant for cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we carried out the functional characterization of MlNAC9 in abiotic stresses. MlNAC9 was shown to act as a nuclear localized transcription activator with the activation domain in its C-terminus. The overexpression of MlNAC9 in Arabidopsis conferred hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) at seed germination and root elongation stages. In addition, the overexpression of MlNAC9 led to increased seed germination rate and root growth under salt (NaCl) treatment. Meanwhile, the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing MlNAC9 showed enhanced tolerance to drought and cold stresses. The expression of stress-responsive marker genes was significantly increased in MlNAC9 overexpression lines compared to that of WT under ABA, drought, salt, and cold stresses. Correspondingly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower accumulated in MlNAC9 overexpression lines under drought and salt treatments. These results indicated that the overexpression of MlNAC9 improved the tolerance to abiotic stresses via an ABA-dependent pathway, and the enhanced tolerance of transgenic plants was mainly attributed to the increased expression of stress-responsive genes and the enhanced scavenging capability of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  1. A role for auxin response factor 19 in auxin and ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jisheng; Dai, Xinhua; Zhao, Yunde

    2006-03-01

    Although auxin response factors (ARFs) are the first well-characterized proteins that bind to the auxin response elements, elucidation of the roles of each ARF gene in auxin responses and plant development has been challenging. Here we show that ARF19 and ARF7 not only participate in auxin signaling, but also play a critical role in ethylene responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots, indicating that the ARFs serve as a cross talk point between the two hormones. Both arf19 and arf7 mutants isolated from our forward genetic screens are auxin resistant and the arf19arf7 double mutant had stronger auxin resistance than the single mutants and displayed phenotypes not seen in the single mutants. Furthermore, we show that a genomic fragment of ARF19 not only complements arf19, but also rescues arf7. We conclude that ARF19 complements ARF7 at the protein level and that the ARF7 target sequences are also recognized by ARF19. Therefore, it is the differences in expression level/pattern and not the differences in protein sequences between the two ARFs that determines the relative contribution of the two ARFs in auxin signaling and plant development. In addition to being auxin resistant, arf19 has also ethylene-insensitive roots and ARF19 expression is induced by ethylene treatment. This work provides a sensitive genetic screen for uncovering auxin-resistant mutants including the described arf mutants. This study also provides a likely mechanism for coordination and integration of hormonal signals to regulate plant growth and development.

  2. Photosynthesis of Root Chloroplasts Developed in Arabidopsis Lines Overexpressing GOLDEN2-LIKE Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Sasaki, Daichi; Noguchi, Ko; Fujinuma, Daiki; Komatsu, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Masami; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sugimoto, Keiko; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Wada, Hajime; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2013-01-01

    In plants, genes involved in photosynthesis are encoded separately in nuclei and plastids, and tight cooperation between these two genomes is therefore required for the development of functional chloroplasts. Golden2-like (GLK) transcription factors are involved in chloroplast development, directly targeting photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes for up-regulation. Although overexpression of GLKs leads to chloroplast development in non-photosynthetic organs, the mechanisms of coordination between the nuclear gene expression influenced by GLKs and the photosynthetic processes inside chloroplasts are largely unknown. To elucidate the impact of GLK-induced expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes on the construction of photosynthetic systems, chloroplast morphology and photosynthetic characteristics in greenish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing GLKs were compared with those in wild-type roots and leaves. Overexpression of GLKs caused up-regulation of not only their direct targets but also non-target nuclear and plastid genes, leading to global induction of chloroplast biogenesis in the root. Large antennae relative to reaction centers were observed in wild-type roots and were further enhanced by GLK overexpression due to the increased expression of target genes associated with peripheral light-harvesting antennae. Photochemical efficiency was lower in the root chloroplasts than in leaf chloroplasts, suggesting that the imbalance in the photosynthetic machinery decreases the efficiency of light utilization in root chloroplasts. Despite the low photochemical efficiency, root photosynthesis contributed to carbon assimilation in Arabidopsis. Moreover, GLK overexpression increased CO2 fixation and promoted phototrophic performance of the root, showing the potential of root photosynthesis to improve effective carbon utilization in plants. PMID:23749810

  3. Structural basis for the oligomerization of the MADS domain transcription factor SEPALLATA3 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Sriharsha; Acajjaoui, Samira; Conn, Simon; Costa, Luca; Conn, Vanessa; Vial, Anthony; Marcellin, Romain; Melzer, Rainer; Brown, Elizabeth; Hart, Darren; Theißen, Günter; Silva, Catarina S; Parcy, François; Dumas, Renaud; Nanao, Max; Zubieta, Chloe

    2014-09-01

    In plants, MADS domain transcription factors act as central regulators of diverse developmental pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the most central members of this family is SEPALLATA3 (SEP3), which is involved in many aspects of plant reproduction, including floral meristem and floral organ development. SEP3 has been shown to form homo and heterooligomeric complexes with other MADS domain transcription factors through its intervening (I) and keratin-like (K) domains. SEP3 function depends on its ability to form specific protein-protein complexes; however, the atomic level determinants of oligomerization are poorly understood. Here, we report the 2.5-Å crystal structure of a small portion of the intervening and the complete keratin-like domain of SEP3. The domains form two amphipathic alpha helices separated by a rigid kink, which prevents intramolecular association and presents separate dimerization and tetramerization interfaces comprising predominantly hydrophobic patches. Mutations to the tetramerization interface demonstrate the importance of highly conserved hydrophobic residues for tetramer stability. Atomic force microscopy was used to show SEP3-DNA interactions and the role of oligomerization in DNA binding and conformation. Based on these data, the oligomerization patterns of the larger family of MADS domain transcription factors can be predicted and manipulated based on the primary sequence. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional integration of paternal and maternal factors in the Arabidopsis zygote.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Minako; Aichinger, Ernst; Gong, Wen; Groot, Edwin; Verstraeten, Inge; Vu, Lam Dai; De Smet, Ive; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Umeda, Masaaki; Laux, Thomas

    2017-03-15

    In many plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote sets up the apical-basal axis of the embryo. Unlike animals, plant zygotes are transcriptionally active, implying that plants have evolved specific mechanisms to control transcriptional activation of patterning genes in the zygote. In Arabidopsis, two pathways have been found to regulate zygote asymmetry: YODA (YDA) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is potentiated by sperm-delivered mRNA of the SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) membrane protein, and up-regulation of the patterning gene WOX8 by the WRKY2 transcription factor. How SSP/YDA signaling is transduced into the nucleus and how these pathways are integrated have remained elusive. Here we show that paternal SSP/YDA signaling directly phosphorylates WRKY2, which in turn leads to the up-regulation of WOX8 transcription in the zygote. We further discovered the transcription factors HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11/12 (HDG11/12) as maternal regulators of zygote asymmetry that also directly regulate WOX8 transcription. Our results reveal a framework of how maternal and paternal factors are integrated in the zygote to regulate embryo patterning. © 2017 Ueda et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Herbivory and abiotic factors affect population dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana in a sand dune area.

    PubMed

    Arany, A Mosleh; de Jong, T J; van der Meijden, E

    2005-09-01

    Population dynamics of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. were studied in a natural habitat of this species on the coastal dunes of the Netherlands. The main objective was to elucidate factors controlling population dynamics and the relative importance of factors affecting final population density. Permanent plots were established and plants were mapped to obtain data on survival and reproductive performance of each individual, with special attention to herbivore damage. In experimental plots we studied how watering, addition of nutrients, artificial disturbance, and natural herbivores affected survival and growth. Mortality was low during autumn and early winter and high at the time of stem elongation, between February and April. A key factor analysis showed a high correlation between mortality from February to April and total mortality. The specialist weevils Ceutorhyncus atomus and C. contractus (Curculionidae) were identified as the major insect herbivores on A. thaliana, reducing seed production by more than 40 %. These herbivores acted in a plant size-dependent manner, attacking a greater fraction of the fruits on large plants. While mortality rates were not affected by density, fecundity decreased with density, although the effect was small. Adding water reduced mortality in rosette and flowering plant stages. Soil disturbance did not increase seed germination, but did have a significant positive effect on survival of rosette and flowering plants. Seed production of A. thaliana populations varied greatly between years, leading to population fluctuations, with a small role for density-dependent fecundity and plant size-dependent herbivory.

  6. Transcriptional integration of paternal and maternal factors in the Arabidopsis zygote

    PubMed Central

    Aichinger, Ernst; Gong, Wen; Groot, Edwin; Verstraeten, Inge; Vu, Lam Dai; De Smet, Ive; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Umeda, Masaaki; Laux, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In many plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote sets up the apical–basal axis of the embryo. Unlike animals, plant zygotes are transcriptionally active, implying that plants have evolved specific mechanisms to control transcriptional activation of patterning genes in the zygote. In Arabidopsis, two pathways have been found to regulate zygote asymmetry: YODA (YDA) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is potentiated by sperm-delivered mRNA of the SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) membrane protein, and up-regulation of the patterning gene WOX8 by the WRKY2 transcription factor. How SSP/YDA signaling is transduced into the nucleus and how these pathways are integrated have remained elusive. Here we show that paternal SSP/YDA signaling directly phosphorylates WRKY2, which in turn leads to the up-regulation of WOX8 transcription in the zygote. We further discovered the transcription factors HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11/12 (HDG11/12) as maternal regulators of zygote asymmetry that also directly regulate WOX8 transcription. Our results reveal a framework of how maternal and paternal factors are integrated in the zygote to regulate embryo patterning. PMID:28404632

  7. NUCLEAR FACTOR Y, Subunit C (NF-YC) Transcription Factors Are Positive Regulators of Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardana, Chamindika L.; Holt III, Ben F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that NF-Y transcription factors are positive regulators of skotomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Three NF-YC genes (NF-YC3, NF-YC4, and NF-YC9) are known to have overlapping functions in photoperiod dependent flowering and previous studies demonstrated that they interact with basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. This included ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), which has well-demonstrated roles in photomorphogenesis. Similar to hy5 mutants, we report that nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 triple mutants failed to inhibit hypocotyl elongation in all tested light wavelengths. Surprisingly, nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 hy5 mutants had synergistic defects in light perception, suggesting that NF-Ys represent a parallel light signaling pathway. As with other photomorphogenic transcription factors, nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 triple mutants also partially suppressed the short hypocotyl and dwarf rosette phenotypes of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (cop1) mutants. Thus, our data strongly suggest that NF-Y transcription factors have important roles as positive regulators of photomorphogenesis, and in conjunction with other recent reports, implies that the NF-Y are multifaceted regulators of early seedling development. PMID:27685091

  8. Integration of Auxin and Salt Signals by the NAC Transcription Factor NTM2 during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungmin; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Je-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Seed germination is regulated through elaborately interacting signaling networks that integrate diverse environmental cues into hormonal signaling pathways. Roles of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid in germination have been studied extensively using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants having alterations in seed germination. Auxin has also been implicated in seed germination. However, how auxin influences germination is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that auxin is linked via the IAA30 gene with a salt signaling cascade mediated by the NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 transcription factor NTM2/Arabidopsis NAC domain-containing protein 69 (for NAC with Transmembrane Motif1) during seed germination. Germination of the NTM2-deficient ntm2-1 mutant seeds exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity. However, the salt resistance disappeared in the ntm2-1 mutant overexpressing the IAA30 gene, which was induced by salt in a NTM2-dependent manner. Auxin exhibited no discernible effects on germination under normal growth conditions. Under high salinity, however, whereas exogenous application of auxin further suppressed the germination of control seeds, the auxin effects were reduced in the ntm2-1 mutant. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of auxin on germination, germination of YUCCA 3-overexpressing plants containing elevated levels of active auxin was more severely influenced by salt. These observations indicate that auxin delays seed germination under high salinity through cross talk with the NTM2-mediated salt signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:21450938

  9. Do ethylene response factorS9 and -14 repress PR gene expression in the interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis?

    PubMed

    Camehl, Iris; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2010-08-01

    The plant hormone ethylene (ET) plays a crucial role in the signalling network when plants have to respond to biotic stresses. We investigate the beneficial interaction between the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. Recently, we showed that ET signalling and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)1 are important to balance beneficial and nonbeneficial traits in this symbiosis. 147 ERF genes in Arabidopsis encode transcriptional regulators with a variety of functions involved in development, physiological processes as well as plant/microbe interactions. In the beneficial symbiosis between Arabidopsis and P. indica, overexpression of ERF1 activates defence responses, strongly reduces root colonization and thus abolishes the benefits for the plants. Here we show that additional transcription factors of the ERF family, the ERF DOMAIN PROTEIN9 (ERF9) and the ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR14 (ERF14) are involved in the interaction between the two symbionts and are required for growth promotion of the host plant. Expression of these genes is upregulated in colonized wild-type roots. Insertional inactivation of ERF9 and ERF14 diminishes the P. indica-induced growth promotion and activates the expression of the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR)-1 and PR-2 genes. We propose that ERF9 and ERF14 repress PR gene expression in colonized Arabidopsis roots and thus contribute to the establishment of a beneficial interaction.

  10. Jasmonate Regulates the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION–C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR/DRE BINDING FACTOR1 Cascade and Freezing Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanru; Jiang, Liqun; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-01-01

    The INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION (ICE)–C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR/DRE BINDING FACTOR1 (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional pathway plays a critical role in modulating cold stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dissecting crucial upstream regulatory signals or components of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 cascade will enhance our understanding of plant cold-tolerance mechanisms. Here, we show that jasmonate positively regulates plant responses to freezing stress in Arabidopsis. Exogenous application of jasmonate significantly enhanced plant freezing tolerance with or without cold acclimation. By contrast, blocking endogenous jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling rendered plants hypersensitive to freezing stress. Consistent with the positive role of jasmonate in freezing stress, production of endogenous jasmonate was triggered by cold treatment. In addition, cold induction of genes acting in the CBF/DREB1 signaling pathway was upregulated by jasmonate. Further investigation revealed that several JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, the repressors of jasmonate signaling, physically interact with ICE1 and ICE2 transcription factors. JAZ1 and JAZ4 repress the transcriptional function of ICE1, thereby attenuating the expression of its regulon. Consistent with this, overexpression of JAZ1 or JAZ4 represses freezing stress responses of Arabidopsis. Taken together, our study provides evidence that jasmonate functions as a critical upstream signal of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 pathway to positively regulate Arabidopsis freezing tolerance. PMID:23933884

  11. SeqEnrich: A tool to predict transcription factor networks from co-expressed Arabidopsis and Brassica napus gene sets.

    PubMed

    Becker, Michael G; Walker, Philip L; Pulgar-Vidal, Nadège C; Belmonte, Mark F

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors and their associated DNA binding sites are key regulatory elements of cellular differentiation, development, and environmental response. New tools that predict transcriptional regulation of biological processes are valuable to researchers studying both model and emerging-model plant systems. SeqEnrich predicts transcription factor networks from co-expressed Arabidopsis or Brassica napus gene sets. The networks produced by SeqEnrich are supported by existing literature and predicted transcription factor-DNA interactions that can be functionally validated at the laboratory bench. The program functions with gene sets of varying sizes and derived from diverse tissues and environmental treatments. SeqEnrich presents as a powerful predictive framework for the analysis of Arabidopsis and Brassica napus co-expression data, and is designed so that researchers at all levels can easily access and interpret predicted transcriptional circuits. The program outperformed its ancestral program ChipEnrich, and produced detailed transcription factor networks from Arabidopsis and Brassica napus gene expression data. The SeqEnrich program is ideal for generating new hypotheses and distilling biological information from large-scale expression data.

  12. β-amylase-like proteins function as transcription factors in Arabidopsis, controlling shoot growth and development.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Heike; Soyk, Sebastian; Simková, Klára; Hostettler, Carmen; Marafino, John; Mainiero, Samantha; Vaughan, Cara K; Monroe, Jonathan D; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2011-04-01

    Plants contain β-amylase-like proteins (BAMs; enzymes usually associated with starch breakdown) present in the nucleus rather than targeted to the chloroplast. They possess BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-type DNA binding domains--also found in transcription factors mediating brassinosteroid (BR) responses. The two Arabidopsis thaliana BZR1-BAM proteins (BAM7 and BAM8) bind a cis-regulatory element that both contains a G box and resembles a BR-responsive element. In protoplast transactivation assays, these BZR1-BAMs activate gene expression. Structural modeling suggests that the BAM domain's glucan binding cleft is intact, but the recombinant proteins are at least 1000 times less active than chloroplastic β-amylases. Deregulation of BZR1-BAMs (the bam7bam8 double mutant and BAM8-overexpressing plants) causes altered leaf growth and development. Of the genes upregulated in plants overexpressing BAM8 and downregulated in bam7bam8 plants, many carry the cis-regulatory element in their promoters. Many genes that respond to BRs are inversely regulated by BZR1-BAMs. We propose a role for BZR1-BAMs in controlling plant growth and development through crosstalk with BR signaling. Furthermore, we speculate that BZR1-BAMs may transmit metabolic signals by binding a ligand in their BAM domain, although diurnal changes in the concentration of maltose, a candidate ligand produced by chloroplastic β-amylases, do not influence their transcription factor function.

  13. The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Skirycz, Aleksandra; Radziejwoski, Amandine; Busch, Wolfgang; Hannah, Matthew A; Czeszejko, Joanna; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Zanor, Maria-Inès; Lohmann, Jan U; De Veylder, Lieven; Witt, Isabell; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to animal growth, plant growth is largely post-embryonic. Therefore plants have developed new mechanisms to precisely regulate cell proliferation by means of internal and external stimuli whilst the general core cell cycle machinery is conserved between eukaryotes. In this work we demonstrate a role for the Arabidopsis thaliana DNA-binding-with-one-finger (DOF) transcription factor OBP1 in the control of cell division upon developmental signalling. Inducible overexpression of OBP1 resulted in a significant overrepresentation of cell cycle genes among the upregulated transcripts. Direct targets of OBP1, as verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation, include at least the core cell cycle gene CYCD3;3 and the replication-specific transcription factor gene AtDOF2;3. Consistent with our molecular data, short-term activation of OBP1 in cell cultures affected cell cycle re-entry, shortening the duration of the G(1) phase and the overall length of the cell cycle, whilst constitutive overexpression of OBP1 in plants influenced cell size and cell number, leading to a dwarfish phenotype. Expression during embryogenesis, germination and lateral root initiation suggests an important role for OBP1 in cell cycle re-entry, operating as a transcriptional regulator of key cell cycle genes. Our findings provide significant input into our understanding of how cell cycle activity is incorporated into plant growth and development.

  14. Ethylene response factor 6 is a regulator of reactive oxygen species signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Kidd, Brendan N; Manners, John M; Schenk, Peer M

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plant cells in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during normal growth and development. Although a large number of transcription factor (TF) genes are up- or down-regulated by ROS, currently very little is known about the functions of these TFs during oxidative stress. In this work, we examined the role of ERF6 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6), an AP2/ERF domain-containing TF, during oxidative stress responses in Arabidopsis. Mutant analyses showed that NADPH oxidase (RbohD) and calcium signaling are required for ROS-responsive expression of ERF6. erf6 insertion mutant plants showed reduced growth and increased H2O2 and anthocyanin levels. Expression analyses of selected ROS-responsive genes during oxidative stress identified several differentially expressed genes in the erf6 mutant. In particular, a number of ROS responsive genes, such as ZAT12, HSFs, WRKYs, MAPKs, RBOHs, DHAR1, APX4, and CAT1 were more strongly induced by H2O2 in erf6 plants than in wild-type. In contrast, MDAR3, CAT3, VTC2 and EX1 showed reduced expression levels in the erf6 mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that ERF6 plays an important role as a positive antioxidant regulator during plant growth and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  15. The Myb-domain protein ULTRAPETALA1 INTERACTING FACTOR 1 controls floral meristem activities in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Fanny; Thévenon, Emmanuel; Blanvillain, Robert; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Dumas, Renaud; Parcy, François; Morel, Patrice; Trehin, Christophe; Carles, Cristel C

    2016-04-01

    Higher plants continuously and iteratively produce new above-ground organs in the form of leaves, stems and flowers. These organs arise from shoot apical meristems whose homeostasis depends on coordination between self-renewal of stem cells and their differentiation into organ founder cells. This coordination is stringently controlled by the central transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS), which is both necessary and sufficient for stem cell specification in Arabidopsis thaliana ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) was previously identified as a plant-specific, negative regulator of WUS expression. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation remain unknown. ULT1 protein contains a SAND putative DNA-binding domain and a B-box, previously proposed as a protein interaction domain in eukaryotes. Here, we characterise a novel partner of ULT1, named ULT1 INTERACTING FACTOR 1 (UIF1), which contains a Myb domain and an EAR motif. UIF1 and ULT1 function in the same pathway for regulation of organ number in the flower. Moreover, UIF1 displays DNA-binding activity and specifically binds to WUS regulatory elements. We thus provide genetic and molecular evidence that UIF1 and ULT1 work together in floral meristem homeostasis, probably by direct repression of WUS expression. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Identification of three LRR-RKs involved in perception of root meristem growth factor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Mori, Ayaka; Yasue, Naoko; Sumida, Kumiko; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2016-04-05

    A peptide hormone, root meristem growth factor (RGF), regulates root meristem development through the PLETHORA (PLT) stem cell transcription factor pathway, but it remains to be uncovered how extracellular RGF signals are transduced to the nucleus. Here we identified, using a combination of a custom-made receptor kinase (RK) expression library and exhaustive photoaffinity labeling, three leucine-rich repeat RKs (LRR-RKs) that directly interact with RGF peptides in Arabidopsis These three LRR-RKs, which we named RGFR1, RGFR2, and RGFR3, are expressed in root tissues including the proximal meristem, the elongation zone, and the differentiation zone. The triple rgfr mutant was insensitive to externally applied RGF peptide and displayed a short root phenotype accompanied by a considerable decrease in meristematic cell number. In addition, PLT1 and PLT2 protein gradients, observed as a gradual gradient decreasing toward the elongation zone from the stem cell area in wild type, steeply declined at the root tip in the triple mutant. Because RGF peptides have been shown to create a diffusion-based concentration gradient extending from the stem cell area, our results strongly suggest that RGFRs mediate the transformation of an RGF peptide gradient into a PLT protein gradient in the proximal meristem, thereby acting as key regulators of root meristem development.

  17. Identification of three LRR-RKs involved in perception of root meristem growth factor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Mori, Ayaka; Yasue, Naoko; Sumida, Kumiko; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    A peptide hormone, root meristem growth factor (RGF), regulates root meristem development through the PLETHORA (PLT) stem cell transcription factor pathway, but it remains to be uncovered how extracellular RGF signals are transduced to the nucleus. Here we identified, using a combination of a custom-made receptor kinase (RK) expression library and exhaustive photoaffinity labeling, three leucine-rich repeat RKs (LRR-RKs) that directly interact with RGF peptides in Arabidopsis. These three LRR-RKs, which we named RGFR1, RGFR2, and RGFR3, are expressed in root tissues including the proximal meristem, the elongation zone, and the differentiation zone. The triple rgfr mutant was insensitive to externally applied RGF peptide and displayed a short root phenotype accompanied by a considerable decrease in meristematic cell number. In addition, PLT1 and PLT2 protein gradients, observed as a gradual gradient decreasing toward the elongation zone from the stem cell area in wild type, steeply declined at the root tip in the triple mutant. Because RGF peptides have been shown to create a diffusion-based concentration gradient extending from the stem cell area, our results strongly suggest that RGFRs mediate the transformation of an RGF peptide gradient into a PLT protein gradient in the proximal meristem, thereby acting as key regulators of root meristem development. PMID:27001831

  18. PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs from Physcomitrella patens are active in Arabidopsis and complement the pif quadruple mutant.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tengfei; Hiltbrunner, Andreas

    2017-10-06

    Phytochromes are red/far-red light receptors in plants involved in the regulation of growth and development in response to changes in the ambient environment. An important mode of action of plant phytochromes depends on their light-regulated relocation from the cytosol into the nucleus and control of gene expression; in addition, there is also evidence for a cytosolic or plasma membrane associated function of phytochromes in different species. The PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) form a subgroup of the bHLH transcription factors and it is well established that PIFs are key components of phytochrome downstream signalling in the nucleus of seed plants. Recent studies identified members of the PIF family also in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the moss Physcomitrella patens. Here, we show that all four potential PIF homologs from Physcomitrella have PIF function when expressed in the Arabidopsis pifQ mutant, which is deficient in multiple PIFs. We propose that PIFs are ancient components of nuclear phytochrome signalling that have emerged in the last common ancestor of today's land plants.

  19. Ethylene Response Factor 6 Is a Regulator of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Kidd, Brendan N.; Manners, John M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plant cells in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during normal growth and development. Although a large number of transcription factor (TF) genes are up- or down-regulated by ROS, currently very little is known about the functions of these TFs during oxidative stress. In this work, we examined the role of ERF6 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6), an AP2/ERF domain-containing TF, during oxidative stress responses in Arabidopsis. Mutant analyses showed that NADPH oxidase (RbohD) and calcium signaling are required for ROS-responsive expression of ERF6. erf6 insertion mutant plants showed reduced growth and increased H2O2 and anthocyanin levels. Expression analyses of selected ROS-responsive genes during oxidative stress identified several differentially expressed genes in the erf6 mutant. In particular, a number of ROS responsive genes, such as ZAT12, HSFs, WRKYs, MAPKs, RBOHs, DHAR1, APX4, and CAT1 were more strongly induced by H2O2 in erf6 plants than in wild-type. In contrast, MDAR3, CAT3, VTC2 and EX1 showed reduced expression levels in the erf6 mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that ERF6 plays an important role as a positive antioxidant regulator during plant growth and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23940555

  20. Isolation of transcription factor complexes from Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures by tandem affinity purification.

    PubMed

    Van Leene, Jelle; Eeckhout, Dominique; Persiau, Geert; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Geerinck, Jan; Van Isterdael, Gert; Witters, Erwin; De Jaeger, Geert

    2011-01-01

    Defining protein complexes is critical to virtually all aspects of cell biology because most cellular processes are regulated by stable or more dynamic protein interactions. Elucidation of the protein-protein interaction network around transcription factors is essential to fully understand their function and regulation. In the last decade, new technologies have emerged to study protein-protein interactions under near-physiological conditions. We have developed a high-throughput tandem affinity purification (TAP)/mass spectrometry (MS) platform for cell suspension cultures to analyze protein complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana. This streamlined platform follows an integrated approach comprising generic Gateway-based vectors with high cloning flexibility, the fast generation of transgenic suspension cultures, TAP adapted for plant cells, and tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS for the identification of purified proteins. Recently, we evaluated the GS tag, originally developed to study mammalian protein complexes, that combines two IgG-binding domains of protein G with a streptavidin-binding peptide, separated by two tobacco etch virus cleavage sites. We found that this GS tag outperforms the traditional TAP tag in plant cells, regarding both specificity and complex yield. Here, we provide detailed protocols of the GS-based TAP platform that allowed us to characterize transcription factor complexes involved in signaling in response to the plant phytohormone jasmonate.

  1. Pineapple translation factor SUI1 and ribosomal protein L36 promoters drive constitutive transgene expression patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Koia, Jonni; Moyle, Richard; Hendry, Caroline; Lim, Lionel; Botella, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    The availability of a variety of promoter sequences is necessary for the genetic engineering of plants, in basic research studies and for the development of transgenic crops. In this study, the promoter and 5' untranslated regions of the evolutionally conserved protein translation factor SUI1 gene and ribosomal protein L36 gene were isolated from pineapple and sequenced. Each promoter was translationally fused to the GUS reporter gene and transformed into the heterologous plant system Arabidopsis thaliana. Both the pineapple SUI1 and L36 promoters drove GUS expression in all tissues of Arabidopsis at levels comparable to the CaMV35S promoter. Transient assays determined that the pineapple SUI1 promoter also drove GUS expression in a variety of climacteric and non-climacteric fruit species. Thus the pineapple SUI1 and L36 promoters demonstrate the potential for using translation factor and ribosomal protein genes as a source of promoter sequences that can drive constitutive transgene expression patterns.

  2. Characterization of NAC domain transcription factors implicated in control of vascular cell differentiation in Arabidopsis and Populus.

    PubMed

    Grant, Emily H; Fujino, Takeshi; Beers, Eric P; Brunner, Amy M

    2010-07-01

    Wood has a wide variety of uses and is arguably the most important renewable raw material. The composition of xylem cell types in wood determines the utility of different types of wood for distinct commercial applications. Using expression profiling and phylogenetic analysis, we identified many xylem-associated regulatory genes that may control the differentiation of cells involved in wood formation in Arabidopsis and poplar. Prominent among these are NAC domain transcription factors (NACs). We studied NACs with putative involvement as negative (XND1 from Arabidopsis and its poplar orthologs PopNAC118, PopNAC122, PopNAC128, PopNAC129), or positive (SND2 and SND3 from Arabidopsis and their poplar orthologs PopNAC105, PopNAC154, PopNAC156, PopNAC157) regulators of secondary cell wall synthesis. Using quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization, we evaluated expression of these Populus NACs in a developmental gradient and in association with reaction wood and found that representatives from both groups were associated with wood-forming tissue and phloem fibers. Additionally, XND1 orthologs were expressed in mesophyll cells of developing leaves. We prepared transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar plants for overexpression of selected NACs. XND1 overexpression in poplar resulted in severe stunting. Additionally, poplar XND1 overexpressors lacked phloem fibers and showed reductions in cell size and number, vessel number, and frequency of rays in the xylem. Overexpression of PopNAC122, an XND1 ortholog, yielded an analogous phenotype in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of PopNAC154 in poplar reduced height growth and increased the relative proportion of bark versus xylem.

  3. Arabidopsis WRKY45 transcription factor activates PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1;1 expression in response to phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Xu, Qian; Kong, You-Han; Chen, Yun; Duan, Jun-Ye; Wu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Fang

    2014-04-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family has more than 70 members in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, and some of them are involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study evaluated the role of WRKY45 in regulating phosphate (Pi) uptake in Arabidopsis. WRKY45 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots. During Pi starvation, WRKY45 expression was markedly induced, typically in roots. WRKY45 overexpression in Arabidopsis increased Pi content and uptake, while RNA interference suppression of WRKY45 decreased Pi content and uptake. Furthermore, the WRKY45-overexpressing lines were more sensitive to arsenate, the analog of Pi, compared with wild-type seedlings. These results indicate that WRKY45 positively regulates Arabidopsis Pi uptake. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and β-glucuronidase staining assays showed that PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1;1 (PHT1;1) expression was enhanced in the WRKY45-overexpressing lines and slightly repressed in the WRKY45 RNA interference line. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay results indicated that WRKY45 can bind to two W-boxes within the PHT1;1 promoter, confirming the role of WRKY45 in directly up-regulating PHT1;1 expression. The pht1;1 mutant showed decreased Pi content and uptake, and overexpression of PHT1;1 resulted in enhanced Pi content and uptake. Furthermore, the PHT1;1-overexpressing line was much more sensitive to arsenate than WRKY45-overexpressing and wild-type seedlings, indicating that PHT1;1 overexpression can enhance Arabidopsis Pi uptake. Moreover, the enhanced Pi uptake and the increased arsenate sensitivity of the WRKY45-overexpressing line was impaired by pht1;1 (35S:WRKY45-18::pht1;1), demonstrating an epistatic genetic regulation between WRKY45 and PHT1;1. Together, our results demonstrate that WRKY45 is involved in Arabidopsis response to Pi starvation by direct up-regulation of PHT1;1 expression.

  4. Distinctive interactions of the Arabidopsis homolog of the 30 kD subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (AtCPSF30) with other polyadenylation factor subunits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The Arabidopsis ortholog of the 30 kD subunit of the mammalian Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (AtCPSF30) is an RNA-binding endonuclease that is associated with other Arabidopsis CPSF subunits (orthologs of the 160, 100, and 73 kD subunits of CPSF). In order to better u...

  5. Phytochrome-interacting factors PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis under red light in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongjuan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Ping; Zhao, Chengzhou; Chen, Yadi; Bi, Yurong

    2015-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor inducing anthocyanin accumulation in plants. Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) have been shown to be a family of bHLH transcription factors involved in light signaling in Arabidopsis. Red light effectively increased anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type Col-0, whereas the effects were enhanced in pif4 and pif5 mutants but impaired in overexpression lines PIF4OX and PIF5OX, indicating that PIF4 and PIF5 are both negative regulators for red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Consistently, transcript levels of several genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulatory pathway, including CHS, F3'H, DFR, LDOX, PAP1 and TT8, were significantly enhanced in mutants pif4 and pif5 but decreased in PIF4OX and PIF5OX compared to in Col-0, indicating that PIF4 and PIF5 are transcriptional repressor of these gene. Transient expression assays revealed that PIF4 and PIF5 could repress red light-induced promoter activities of F3'H and DFR in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) test and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PIF5 could directly bind to G-box motifs present in the promoter of DFR. Taken together, these results suggest that PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation through transcriptional repression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis.

  6. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  7. Fructose sensitivity is suppressed in Arabidopsis by the transcription factor ANAC089 lacking the membrane-bound domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Wind, Julia J.; Shi, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Honglei; Hanson, Johannes; Smeekens, Sjef C.; Teng, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    In living organisms sugars not only provide energy and carbon skeletons but also act as evolutionarily conserved signaling molecules. The three major soluble sugars in plants are sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Information on plant glucose and sucrose signaling is available, but to date no fructose-specific signaling pathway has been reported. In this study, sugar repression of seedling development was used to study fructose sensitivity in the Landsberg erecta (Ler)/Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) recombinant inbred line population, and eight fructose-sensing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (FSQ1–8) were mapped. Among them, FSQ6 was confirmed to be a fructose-specific QTL by analyzing near-isogenic lines in which Cvi genomic fragments were introgressed in the Ler background. These results indicate the existence of a fructose-specific signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. Further analysis demonstrated that the FSQ6-associated fructose-signaling pathway functions independently of the hexokinase1 (HXK1) glucose sensor. Remarkably, fructose-specific FSQ6 downstream signaling interacts with abscisic acid (ABA)- and ethylene-signaling pathways, similar to HXK1-dependent glucose signaling. The Cvi allele of FSQ6 acts as a suppressor of fructose signaling. The FSQ6 gene was identified using map-based cloning approach, and FSQ6 was shown to encode the transcription factor gene Arabidopsis NAC (petunia No apical meristem and Arabidopsis transcription activation factor 1, 2 and Cup-shaped cotyledon 2) domain containing protein 89 (ANAC089). The Cvi allele of FSQ6/ANAC089 is a gain-of-function allele caused by a premature stop in the third exon of the gene. The truncated Cvi FSQ6/ANAC089 protein lacks a membrane association domain that is present in ANAC089 proteins from other Arabidopsis accessions. As a result, Cvi FSQ6/ANAC089 is constitutively active as a transcription factor in the nucleus. PMID:21300879

  8. The maternally expressed WRKY transcription factor TTG2 controls lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dilkes, Brian P; Spielman, Melissa; Weizbauer, Renate; Watson, Brian; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Scott, Rod J; Comai, Luca

    2008-12-09

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1), was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring.

  9. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H(+) velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H(+)-ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quiescent center initiation in the Arabidopsis lateral root primordia is dependent on the SCARECROW transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Goh, Tatsuaki; Toyokura, Koichi; Wells, Darren M; Swarup, Kamal; Yamamoto, Mayuko; Mimura, Tetsuro; Weijers, Dolf; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J; Guyomarc'h, Soazig

    2016-09-15

    Lateral root formation is an important determinant of root system architecture. In Arabidopsis, lateral roots originate from pericycle cells, which undergo a program of morphogenesis to generate a new lateral root meristem. Despite its importance for root meristem organization, the onset of quiescent center (QC) formation during lateral root morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we used live 3D confocal imaging to monitor cell organization and identity acquisition during lateral root development. Our dynamic observations revealed an early morphogenesis phase and a late meristem formation phase as proposed in the bi-phasic growth model. Establishment of lateral root QCs coincided with this developmental phase transition. QC precursor cells originated from the outer layer of stage II lateral root primordia, within which the SCARECROW (SCR) transcription factor was specifically expressed. Disrupting SCR function abolished periclinal divisions in this lateral root primordia cell layer and perturbed the formation of QC precursor cells. We conclude that de novo QC establishment in lateral root primordia operates via SCR-mediated formative cell division and coincides with the developmental phase transition.

  11. VND-INTERACTING2, a NAC domain transcription factor, negatively regulates xylem vessel formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Ohtani, Misato; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Kubo, Minoru; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo; Demura, Taku

    2010-04-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana NAC domain transcription factor VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7) acts as a master regulator of xylem vessel differentiation. To understand the mechanism by which VND7 regulates xylem vessel differentiation, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen for proteins that interact with VND7 and identified cDNAs encoding two NAC domain proteins, VND-INTERACTING1 (VNI1) and VNI2. Binding assays demonstrated that VNI2 effectively interacts with VND7 and the VND family proteins, VND1-5, as well as with other NAC domain proteins at lower affinity. VNI2 is expressed in both xylem and phloem cells in roots and inflorescence stems. The expression of VNI2 overlaps with that of VND7 in elongating vessel precursors in roots. VNI2 contains a predicted PEST motif and a C-terminally truncated VNI2 protein, which lacks part of the PEST motif, is more stable than full-length VNI2. Transient reporter assays showed that VNI2 is a transcriptional repressor and can repress the expression of vessel-specific genes regulated by VND7. Expression of C-terminally truncated VNI2 under the control of the VND7 promoter inhibited the normal development of xylem vessels in roots and aerial organs. These data suggest that VNI2 regulates xylem cell specification as a transcriptional repressor that interacts with VND proteins and possibly also with other NAC domain proteins.

  12. The MYB96 Transcription Factor Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis under Drought Conditions in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Pil Joon; Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung; Park, Mi-Jeong; Go, Young Sam; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress activates several defense responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root water uptake, and synthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulating evidence suggests that deposition of cuticular waxes is also associated with plant responses to cellular dehydration. Yet, how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought is unknown. We have recently reported that an Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, MYB96, promotes drought resistance. Here, we show that transcriptional activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by MYB96 contributes to drought resistance. Microarray assays showed that a group of wax biosynthetic genes is upregulated in the activation-tagged myb96-1D mutant but downregulated in the MYB96-deficient myb96-1 mutant. Cuticular wax accumulation was altered accordingly in the mutants. In addition, activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by drought and ABA requires MYB96. By contrast, biosynthesis of cutin monomers was only marginally affected in the mutants. Notably, the MYB96 protein acts as a transcriptional activator of genes encoding very-long-chain fatty acid–condensing enzymes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis by directly binding to conserved sequence motifs present in the gene promoters. These results demonstrate that ABA-mediated MYB96 activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis serves as a drought resistance mechanism. PMID:21398568

  13. Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenbo; Yu, Diqiu

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest, we isolated T-DNA insertion mutants. Two independent T-DNA insertion mutants for WRKY2 were hypersensitive to ABA responses only during seed germination and postgermination early growth. wrky2 mutants displayed delayed or decreased expression of ABI5 and ABI3, but increased or prolonged expression of Em1 and Em6. wrky2 mutants and wild type showed similar levels of expression for miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. Analysis of WRKY2 expression level in ABA-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants abi5-1, abi3-1, aba2-3 and aba3-1 further indicated that ABA-induced WRKY2 accumulation during germination and postgermination early growth requires ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3. Conclusion ABA hypersensitivity of the wrky2 mutants during seed germination and postgermination early seedling establishment is attributable to elevated mRNA levels of ABI5, ABI3 and ABI5-induced Em1 and Em6 in the mutants. WRKY2-mediated ABA responses are independent of miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3 are important regulators of the transcripts of WRKY2 by ABA treatment. Our results suggest that WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination developmental arrest by ABA. PMID:19622176

  14. Low-temperature-induced transcription factors in grapevine enhance cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Takuhara, Yuki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-06-15

    We report the characterization of low-temperature-induced transcription factors in grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Four transcription factors were identified in low-temperature-treated grapevine. The expression of V. vinifera C-repeat-binding factors, VvCBF2, VvCBF4, and VvCBFL, and V. vinifera B-box-type zinc finger protein, VvZFPL, was immediately induced and upregulated in leaves by the low-temperature treatment. Similar induction of the gene expression was observed in low-temperature-treated stems and flowers, although VvZFPL was constitutively expressed in flowers. Tendrils expressed all the four genes constitutively. In berry skin, VvCBF2 and VvCBFL were induced by the low-temperature treatment before the onset of véraison, while only VvCBF2 was induced under the low-temperature condition after the onset of véraison. The overexpression of VvCBF2 and VvZFPL in Arabidopsis plants led to longer hypocotyls than the control plants. The rosette leaves of these plants were smaller and had lower chlorophyll contents than those of the control plants, resulting in a pale green color. Finally, the VvCBF2- and VvZFPL-overexpressing plants revealed growth retardation. These results suggest that VvCBF2 and VvZFPL may affect photomorphogenesis and growth in grapevine. Meanwhile, no morphological changes were detected in the VvCBF4- and VvCBFL-overexpressing plants. The cold tolerance test demonstrated that all of the overexpressing plants remained viable and noticeably healthy compared with the control plants even after exposure to severe cold treatment, suggesting that VvCBF2, VvCBF4, VvCBFL, or VvZFPL may enhance cold tolerance in grapevine.

  15. SHINE transcription factors act redundantly to pattern the archetypal surface of Arabidopsis flower organs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian Xin; Malitsky, Sergey; De Oliveira, Sheron; Branigan, Caroline; Franke, Rochus B; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2011-05-01

    Floral organs display tremendous variation in their exterior that is essential for organogenesis and the interaction with the environment. This diversity in surface characteristics is largely dependent on the composition and structure of their coating cuticular layer. To date, mechanisms of flower organ initiation and identity have been studied extensively, while little is known regarding the regulation of flower organs surface formation, cuticle composition, and its developmental significance. Using a synthetic microRNA approach to simultaneously silence the three SHINE (SHN) clade members, we revealed that these transcription factors act redundantly to shape the surface and morphology of Arabidopsis flowers. It appears that SHNs regulate floral organs' epidermal cell elongation and decoration with nanoridges, particularly in petals. Reduced activity of SHN transcription factors results in floral organs' fusion and earlier abscission that is accompanied by a decrease in cutin load and modified cell wall properties. SHN transcription factors possess target genes within four cutin- and suberin-associated protein families including, CYP86A cytochrome P450s, fatty acyl-CoA reductases, GSDL-motif lipases, and BODYGUARD1-like proteins. The results suggest that alongside controlling cuticular lipids metabolism, SHNs act to modify the epidermis cell wall through altering pectin metabolism and structural proteins. We also provide evidence that surface formation in petals and other floral organs during their growth and elongation or in abscission and dehiscence through SHNs is partially mediated by gibberellin and the DELLA signaling cascade. This study therefore demonstrates the need for a defined composition and structure of the cuticle and cell wall in order to form the archetypal features of floral organs surfaces and control their cell-to-cell separation processes. Furthermore, it will promote future investigation into the relation between the regulation of organ

  16. SHINE Transcription Factors Act Redundantly to Pattern the Archetypal Surface of Arabidopsis Flower Organs

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jian Xin; Malitsky, Sergey; De Oliveira, Sheron; Branigan, Caroline; Franke, Rochus B.; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2011-01-01

    Floral organs display tremendous variation in their exterior that is essential for organogenesis and the interaction with the environment. This diversity in surface characteristics is largely dependent on the composition and structure of their coating cuticular layer. To date, mechanisms of flower organ initiation and identity have been studied extensively, while little is known regarding the regulation of flower organs surface formation, cuticle composition, and its developmental significance. Using a synthetic microRNA approach to simultaneously silence the three SHINE (SHN) clade members, we revealed that these transcription factors act redundantly to shape the surface and morphology of Arabidopsis flowers. It appears that SHNs regulate floral organs' epidermal cell elongation and decoration with nanoridges, particularly in petals. Reduced activity of SHN transcription factors results in floral organs' fusion and earlier abscission that is accompanied by a decrease in cutin load and modified cell wall properties. SHN transcription factors possess target genes within four cutin- and suberin-associated protein families including, CYP86A cytochrome P450s, fatty acyl-CoA reductases, GSDL-motif lipases, and BODYGUARD1-like proteins. The results suggest that alongside controlling cuticular lipids metabolism, SHNs act to modify the epidermis cell wall through altering pectin metabolism and structural proteins. We also provide evidence that surface formation in petals and other floral organs during their growth and elongation or in abscission and dehiscence through SHNs is partially mediated by gibberellin and the DELLA signaling cascade. This study therefore demonstrates the need for a defined composition and structure of the cuticle and cell wall in order to form the archetypal features of floral organs surfaces and control their cell-to-cell separation processes. Furthermore, it will promote future investigation into the relation between the regulation of organ

  17. Dominant repression by Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 causes oxidative damage and hypersensitivity to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Persak, Helene; Pitzschke, Andrea

    2014-02-13

    In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR) motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance--the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  18. PIF4 and PIF5 transcription factors link blue light and auxin to regulate the phototropic response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiaqiang; Qi, Linlin; Li, Yanan; Zhai, Qingzhe; Li, Chuanyou

    2013-06-01

    Both blue light (BL) and auxin are essential for phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the mechanisms by which light is molecularly linked to auxin during phototropism remain elusive. Here, we report that phytochrome interacting factoR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 act downstream of the BL sensor phototropin1 (PHOT1) to negatively modulate phototropism in Arabidopsis. We also reveal that PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate auxin signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PIF4 directly activates the expression of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) genes IAA19 and IAA29 by binding to the G-box (CACGTG) motifs in their promoters. Our genetic assays demonstrate that IAA19 and IAA29, which physically interact with auxin response factor7 (ARF7), are sufficient for PIF4 to negatively regulate auxin signaling and phototropism. This study identifies a key step of phototropic signaling in Arabidopsis by showing that PIF4 and PIF5 link light and auxin.

  19. Phosphorylation of an ERF transcription factor by Arabidopsis MPK3/MPK6 regulates plant defense gene induction and fungal resistance.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Juan; He, Yunxia; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Mordorski, Breanne; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun

    2013-03-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana MPK3 and MPK6, two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs or MPKs), play critical roles in plant disease resistance by regulating multiple defense responses. Previously, we characterized the regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis by Arabidopsis MPK3/MPK6 cascade and its downstream WRKY33 transcription factor. Here, we report another substrate of MPK3/MPK6, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6 (ERF6), in regulating Arabidopsis defense gene expression and resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Phosphorylation of ERF6 by MPK3/MPK6 in either the gain-of-function transgenic plants or in response to B. cinerea infection increases ERF6 protein stability in vivo. Phospho-mimicking ERF6 is able to constitutively activate defense-related genes, especially those related to fungal resistance, including PDF1.1 and PDF1.2, and confers enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. By contrast, expression of ERF6-EAR, in which ERF6 was fused to the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, strongly suppresses B. cinerea-induced defense gene expression, leading to hypersusceptibility of the ERF6-EAR transgenic plants to B. cinerea. Different from ERF1, the regulation and function of ERF6 in defensin gene activation is independent of ethylene. Based on these data, we conclude that ERF6, another substrate of MPK3 and MPK6, plays important roles downstream of the MPK3/MPK6 cascade in regulating plant defense against fungal pathogens.

  20. EIN3 interferes with the sulfur deficiency signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana through direct interaction with the SLIM1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Sulfur deficiency in plants leads to metabolic reprogramming through changes of gene expression. SLIM1 is so far the only characterized transcription factor associated strictly with sulfur deficiency stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. It belongs to the same protein family as EIN3, a major positive switch of ethylene signaling pathway. It binds to the specific cis sequence called UPE-box. Here we show that SLIM1 interacts with UPE-box as a homodimer. Interestingly, the same region of the protein is used for heterodimerization with EIN3; however, the heterodimer is not able to recognize UPE-box. Expression of several SLIM1-dependent genes is enhanced in sulfur deficiency grown Arabidopsis ein3-1 seedlings (with mutated EIN3 protein). This implies a possible regulatory mechanism of ethylene in sulfur metabolism through direct EIN3-SLIM1 interaction.

  1. Tomato Transcription Factors Pti4, Pti5, and Pti6 Activate Defense Responses When Expressed in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yong-Qiang; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Chakravarthy, Suma; Loh, Ying-Tsu; Yang, Caimei; He, Xiaohua; Han, Yu; Martin, Gregory B.

    2002-01-01

    The Pti4, Pti5, and Pti6 proteins from tomato were identified based on their interaction with the product of the Pto disease resistance gene, a Ser-Thr protein kinase. They belong to the ethylene-response factor (ERF) family of plant-unique transcription factors and bind specifically to the GCC-box cis element present in the promoters of many pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Here, we show that these tomato ERFs are localized to the nucleus and function in vivo as transcription activators that regulate the expression of GCC box–containing PR genes. Expression of Pti4, Pti5, or Pti6 in Arabidopsis activated the expression of the salicylic acid–regulated genes PR1 and PR2. Expression of jasmonic acid– and ethylene-regulated genes, such as PR3, PR4, PDF1.2, and Thi2.1, was affected differently by each of the three tomato ERFs, with Arabidopsis-Pti4 plants having very high levels of PDF1.2 transcripts. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to Arabidopsis-Pti4 plants suppressed the increased expression of PDF1.2 but further stimulated PR1 expression. Arabidopsis plants expressing Pti4 displayed increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Erysiphe orontii and increased tolerance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. These results indicate that Pti4, Pti5, and Pti6 activate the expression of a wide array of PR genes and play important and distinct roles in plant defense. PMID:11971137

  2. The E2F transcription factor family regulates CENH3 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, Stefan; Lermontova, Inna; Berckmans, Barbara; De Veylder, Lieven; Bäumlein, Helmut; Schubert, Ingo

    2011-11-01

    To elucidate the epigenetic maintenance mechanism for functional plant centromeres, we studied transcriptional regulation of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENH3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. We focused on the structure and activity of the CENH3 promoter (CENH3pro) and its regulation by E2F transcription factors. Use of CENH3pro::GUS reporter gene constructs showed that CENH3pro is active in dividing tissues, and that full expression in root meristems depends on intragenic regulatory elements within the second intron. Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified CENH3 as an E2F target gene. Transient co-expression of a CENH3pro::GUS reporter gene construct with various E2F transcription factors in A. thaliana protoplasts showed that E2Fa and E2Fb (preferentially with dimerization protein DPb) activate CENH3pro. Stable over-expression of E2Fa and E2Fb increased the CENH3 transcript level in planta, whereas over-expression of E2Fc decreased the CENH3 transcript level. Surprisingly, mutation of the two E2F binding sites of CENH3pro, in particular the more upstream one (E2F2), caused an increase in CENH3pro activity, indicating E2F-dependent transcriptional repression. CENH3pro repression may be triggered by the interplay of typical and atypical E2Fs in a cell cycle-dependent manner, and/or by interaction of typical E2Fs with retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. We speculate that E2Fs are involved in differential transcriptional regulation of CENH3 versus H3, as H3 promoters lack E2F binding motifs. E2F binding motifs are also present in human and Drosophila CENH3pro regions, thus cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulation of CENH3 may be highly conserved.

  3. ARTD1-induced poly-ADP-ribose formation enhances PPARγ ligand binding and co-factor exchange.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Mareike; Pirinen, Eija; Mirsaidi, Ali; Kunze, Friedrich A; Richards, Peter J; Auwerx, Johan; Hottiger, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    PPARγ-dependent gene expression during adipogenesis is facilitated by ADP-ribosyltransferase D-type 1 (ARTD1; PARP1)-catalyzed poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) formation. Adipogenesis is accompanied by a dynamic modulation of the chromatin landscape at PPARγ target genes by ligand-dependent co-factor exchange. However, how endogenous PPARγ ligands, which have a low affinity for the receptor and are present at low levels in the cell, can induce sufficient co-factor exchange is unknown. Moreover, the significance of PAR formation in PPARγ-regulated adipose tissue function is also unknown. Here, we show that inhibition of PAR formation in mice on a high-fat diet reduces weight gain and cell size of adipocytes, as well as PPARγ target gene expression in white adipose tissue. Mechanistically, topoisomerase II activity induces ARTD1 recruitment to PPARγ target genes, and ARTD1 automodification enhances ligand binding to PPARγ, thus promoting sufficient transcriptional co-factor exchange in adipocytes. Thus, ARTD1-mediated PAR formation during adipogenesis is necessary to adequately convey the low signal of endogenous PPARγ ligand to effective gene expression. These results uncover a new regulatory mechanism of ARTD1-induced ADP-ribosylation and highlight its importance for nuclear factor-regulated gene expression. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1, involved in pre-mRNA splicing, is essential for megagametogenesis and embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Yuan, Li; Liu, Nai-You; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2009-03-01

    RNA biogenesis is essential and vital for accurate expression of genes. It is obvious that cells cannot continue normal metabolism when RNA splicing is interfered with. sgt13018 is such a mutant, with partial loss of function of GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1 (GFA1); a gene likely involved in RNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis. The mutant is featured in the phenotype of diminished female gametophyte development at stage FG5 and is associated with the arrest of early embryo development in Arabidopsis. Bioinformatics data showed that homologs of gene GFA1 in yeast and human encode putative U5 snRNP-specific proteins required for pre-mRNA splicing. Furthermore, the result of yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that GFA1 physically interacted with AtBrr2 and AtPrp8, the putative U5 snRNP components, of Arabidopsis. This investigation suggests that GFA1 is involved in mRNA biogenesis through interaction with AtBrr2 and AtPrp8 and functions in megagametogenesis and embryogenesis in plant.

  5. The Arabidopsis eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A-2 regulates root protoxylem development by modulating cytokinin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bo; Chen, Qingguo; Hong, Sulei; Zhao, Wenming; Feng, Jian; Feng, Haizhong; Zuo, Jianru

    2013-10-01

    The phytohormone cytokinin regulates various aspects of plant growth and development, including root vascular development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations in the cytokinin signaling components cause misspecification of protoxylem cell files. Auxin antagonizes cytokinin-regulated root protoxylem differentiation by inducing expression of Arabidopsis phosphotransfer protein6 (AHP6), a negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. However, the molecular mechanism of cytokinin-regulated protoxylem differentiation is not fully understood. Here, we show that a mutation in Arabidopsis fumonisin B1-resistant12 (FBR12), which encodes a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A, causes defective protoxylem development and reduced sensitivity to cytokinin. FBR12 genetically interacts with the cytokinin receptor cytokinin response1 (CRE1) and downstream AHP genes, as double mutants show enhanced phenotypes. FBR12 forms a protein complex with CRE1 and AHP1, and cytokinin regulates formation of this protein complex. Intriguingly, ahp6 partially suppresses the fbr12 mutant phenotype, and the fbr12 mutation causes increased expression of AHP6, indicating that FBR12 negatively regulates AHP6. Consistent with this, ectopic expression of FBR12 in the CRE1-expressing domain partially rescues defective protoxylem development in fbr12, and overexpression of AHP6 causes an fbr12-like phenotype. These results define a regulatory role of the highly conserved FBR12 in cytokinin-mediated root protoxylem specification.

  6. The Arabidopsis transcription factor AtTCP15 regulates endoreduplication by modulating expression of key cell-cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Yu; Li, Bin; Dong, Ai-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells frequently undergo endoreduplication, a modified cell cycle in which genome is repeatedly replicated without cytokinesis. As the key step to achieve final size and function for cells, endoreduplication is prevalent during plant development. However, mechanisms to control the balance between endoreduplication and mitotic cell division are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis TCP (CINCINNATA-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF)-family transcription factor gene AtTCP15 is expressed in trichomes, as well as in rapidly dividing and vascular tissues. Expression of AtTCP15SRDX, AtTCP15 fused with a SRDX repressor domain, induces extra endoreduplication in trichomes and cotyledon cells in transgenic Arabidopsis. On the contrary, overexpression of AtTCP15 suppresses endoreduplication in trichomes and other examined cells. Misregulation of AtTCP15 affects the expression of several important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. AtTCP15 protein binds directly to the promoter regions of CYCA2;3 and RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) genes, which play key roles in endoreduplication. Taken together, AtTCP15 plays an important role in regulating endoreduplication during Arabidopsis development.

  7. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-12-12

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd(2+) uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  8. TRANSLUCENT GREEN, an ERF family transcription factor, controls water balance in Arabidopsis by activating the expression of aquaporin genes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Danling; Wu, Zhe; Cao, Guangyu; Li, Jigang; Wei, Jia; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Gu, Hongya; Aoyama, Takashi; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-04-01

    Water is the most abundant molecule in almost all living organisms. Aquaporins are channel proteins that play critical roles in controlling the water content of cells. Here, we report the identification of an AP2/EREBP family transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana, TRANSLUCENT GREEN (TG), whose overexpression in transgenic plants gave enhanced drought tolerance and vitrified leaves. TG protein is localized in the nucleus, binds DRE and GCC elements in vitro, and acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast cells. Microarray analysis revealed a total of 330 genes regulated by TG, among which five genes encode aquaporins. A transient expression assay showed that TG directly binds to the promoters of three aquaporin genes, such as AtTIP1;1, AtTIP2;3, and AtPIP2;2, indicating that TG directly regulates the expression of these genes. Moreover, overexpression of AtTIP1;1 resulted in vitrified phenotypes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, similar to those observed in TG overexpression lines. Water injection into wild-type leaves recapitulated the vitrified leaf phenotypes, which was reversed by cutting off the water supply from vascular bundles. Taken together, our data support that TG controls water balance in Arabidopsis through directly activating the expression of aquaporin genes.

  9. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 improves yield, biomass and tolerance to flooding in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A; Chan, Raquel L

    2016-03-20

    HaHB11 is a member of the sunflower homeodomain-leucine zipper I subfamily of transcription factors. The analysis of a sunflower microarray hybridized with RNA from HaHB11-transformed leaf-disks indicated the regulation of many genes encoding enzymes from glycolisis and fermentative pathways. A 1300bp promoter sequence, fused to the GUS reporter gene, was used to transform Arabidopsis plants showing an induction of expression after flooding treatments, concurrently with HaHB11 regulation by submergence in sunflower. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and its own promoter were obtained and these plants exhibited significant increases in rosette and stem biomass. All the lines produced more seeds than controls and particularly, those of high expression level doubled seeds yield. Transgenic plants also showed tolerance to flooding stress, both to submergence and waterlogging. Carbohydrates contents were higher in the transgenics compared to wild type and decreased less after submergence treatments. Finally, transcript levels of selected genes involved in glycolisis and fermentative pathways as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities were assessed both, in sunflower and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, before and after submergence. Altogether, the present work leads us to propose HaHB11 as a biotechnological tool to improve crops yield, biomass and flooding tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of transcription factor's targets using tissue-specific transcriptomic data in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transcription factors (TFs) regulate downstream genes in response to environmental stresses in plants. Identification of TF target genes can provide insight on molecular mechanisms of stress response systems, which can lead to practical applications such as engineering crops that thrive in challenging environments. Despite various computational techniques that have been developed for identifying TF targets, it remains a challenge to make best use of available experimental data, especially from time-series transcriptome profiling data, for improving TF target identification. Results In this study, we used a novel approach that combined kinetic modelling of gene expression with a statistical meta-analysis to predict targets of 757 TFs using expression data of 14,905 genes in Arabidopsis exposed to different durations and types of abiotic stresses. Using a kinetic model for the time delay between the expression of a TF gene and its potential targets, we shifted a TF's expression profile to make an interacting pair coherent. We found that partitioning the expression data by tissue and developmental stage improved correlation between TFs and their targets. We identified consensus pairs of correlated profiles between a TF and all other genes among partitioned datasets. We applied this approach to predict novel targets of known TFs. Some of these putative targets were validated from the literature, for E2F's targets in particular, while others provide explicit genes as hypotheses for future studies. Conclusion Our method provides a general framework for TF target prediction with consideration of the time lag between initiation of a TF and activation of its targets. The framework helps make significant inferences by reducing the effects of independent noises in different experiments and by identifying recurring regulatory relationships under various biological conditions. Our TF target predictions may shed some light on common regulatory networks in abiotic

  11. The precise regulation of different COR genes by individual CBF transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yihao; Huang, Jiaying; Sun, Tianshu; Wang, Xuefei; Zhu, Chenqi; Ai, Yuxi; Gu, Hongya

    2017-02-01

    The transcription factors CBF1/2/3 are reported to play a dominant role in the cold responsive network of Arabidopsis by directly regulating the expression levels of cold responsive (COR) genes. In this study, we obtained CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function mutants of cbf1∼3. Over 3,000 COR genes identified by RNA-seq analysis showed a slight but significant change in their expression levels in the mutants compared to the wild-type plants after being treated at 4 °C for 12 h. The C-repeat (CRT) motif (5'-CCGAC-3') was enriched in promoters of genes that were up-regulated by CBF2 and CBF3 but not in promoters of genes up-regulated by CBF1. These data suggest that CBF2 and CBF3 play a more important role in directing the cold response by regulating different sets of downstream COR genes. More than 2/3 of COR genes were co-regulated by two or three CBFs and were involved mainly in cellular signal transduction and metabolic processes; less than 1/3 of the genes were regulated by one CBF, and those genes up-regulated were enriched in cold-related abiotic stress responses. Our results indicate that CBFs play an important role in the trade-off between cold tolerance and plant growth through the precise regulation of COR genes in the complicated transcriptional network. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. ORS1, an H₂O₂-responsive NAC transcription factor, controls senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Balazadeh, Salma; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Caldana, Camila; Mehrnia, Mohammad; Zanor, María Inés; Xue, Gang-Ping; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    We report here that ORS1, a previously uncharacterized member of the NAC transcription factor family, controls leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of ORS1 accelerates senescence in transgenic plants, whereas its inhibition delays it. Genes acting downstream of ORS1 were identified by global expression analysis using transgenic plants producing dexamethasone-inducible ORS1-GR fusion protein. Of the 42 up-regulated genes, 30 (~70%) were previously shown to be up-regulated during age-dependent senescence. We also observed that 32 (~76%) of the ORS1-dependent genes were induced by long-term (4 d), but not short-term (6 h) salinity stress (150 mM NaCl). Furthermore, expression of 16 and 24 genes, respectively, was induced after 1 and 5 h of treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), a reactive oxygen species known to accumulate during salinity stress. ORS1 itself was found to be rapidly and strongly induced by H₂O₂ treatment in both leaves and roots. Using in vitro binding site selection, we determined the preferred binding motif of ORS1 and found it to be present in half of the ORS1-dependent genes. ORS1 is a paralog of ORE1/ANAC092/AtNAC2, a previously reported regulator of leaf senescence. Phylogenetic footprinting revealed evolutionary conservation of the ORS1 and ORE1 promoter sequences in different Brassicaceae species, indicating strong positive selection acting on both genes. We conclude that ORS1, similarly to ORE1, triggers expression of senescence-associated genes through a regulatory network that may involve cross-talk with salt- and H₂O₂-dependent signaling pathways.

  13. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation in Defense Against Toxic Agents: Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-19

    modern mt-genome carries a limited number of genes that always includes two rRNA genes and, in most cases, 20 or more tRNAs (Scheffler, 1999). In addition...have been named 5S .... P . heavy (outer circle in Figure 4) ND6 ND5 and light strands (inner circle in Figure 4). Both strands serve as templates for...a homoplasmic T-C transition at position 2433 of the mt-16S rRNA gene (Blanc, et al, 1981; Bunn, et al, 1974). We also have the CAMS cell line Y-1

  14. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  15. The Key Involvement of Poly (ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense against Toxic Agents in Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-15

    polymerase increased very early and remained high for up to 48 after which it decreased to pre-induced levels. Polymerase transcript levels did not change...the Ub- PADPRP junction. HUMAN POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASE IS FUNCTIONAL IN SCHr2OSACCHAROMYCES POMBE (MS IN PREP.) The full length cDNA for human...PADPRP has been introduced into the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the transcriptional control of the SV40 early promoter. A number of haploid

  16. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense Against Toxic Agents in Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-17

    for the polymerase increased very early and remained high for up to 48 after which it decreased to pre-induced levels. Polymerase transcript levels...cleave the Ub-PADPRP Junction. HUMAN POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASE IS FUNCTIONAL IN SC.=OSACCHAROMYCES POMBE (MS IN PREP.) The full length cDNA for human...PADPRP has been introduced into the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the transcriptional control of the SV40 early promoter. A number of haploid

  17. A cellular defense pathway regulating transcription through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Vispé, Stéphane; Yung, Tetsu M. C.; Ritchot, Janelle; Serizawa, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masahiko S.

    2000-01-01

    DNA damage is known to trigger key cellular defense pathways such as those involved in DNA repair. Here we provide evidence for a previously unrecognized pathway regulating transcription in response to DNA damage and show that this regulation is mediated by the abundant nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. We found that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase reduced the rate of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II, suggesting that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase negatively regulates transcription, possibly through the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase–RNA complexes. In damaged cells, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase binds to DNA breaks and automodifies itself in the presence of NAD+, resulting in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inactivation. We found that automodification of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in response to DNA damage resulted in the up-regulation of transcription, presumably because automodified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase molecules were released from transcripts, thereby relieving the block on transcription. Because agents that damage DNA damage RNA as well, up-regulation of RNA synthesis in response to DNA damage may provide cells with a mechanism to compensate for the loss of damaged transcripts and may be critical for cell survival after exposure to DNA-damaging agents. PMID:10944198

  18. A cellular defense pathway regulating transcription through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Vispe, S; Yung, T M; Ritchot, J; Serizawa, H; Satoh, M S

    2000-08-29

    DNA damage is known to trigger key cellular defense pathways such as those involved in DNA repair. Here we provide evidence for a previously unrecognized pathway regulating transcription in response to DNA damage and show that this regulation is mediated by the abundant nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. We found that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase reduced the rate of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II, suggesting that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase negatively regulates transcription, possibly through the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-RNA complexes. In damaged cells, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase binds to DNA breaks and automodifies itself in the presence of NAD(+), resulting in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inactivation. We found that automodification of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in response to DNA damage resulted in the up-regulation of transcription, presumably because automodified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase molecules were released from transcripts, thereby relieving the block on transcription. Because agents that damage DNA damage RNA as well, up-regulation of RNA synthesis in response to DNA damage may provide cells with a mechanism to compensate for the loss of damaged transcripts and may be critical for cell survival after exposure to DNA-damaging agents.

  19. Development of an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of an ADP-ribosylating toxin, exo A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enríquez, Y.; Negrón, Y.; Navarreto, M.; Guadalupe, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    A free radical copolymerization of Styrene (Sty) and acrylic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NAS) has been done in a range of 10:90 to 90:10 (Sty:NAS) molar ratios. The FT-IR spectra for all seven copolymers showed the absorption peaks for the carbonyl signals of the ester and the amide in NAS (1773 cm-1 and 1727 cm-1 respectively), the styrene aromatic signal (1494 cm-1) and the disappearance of the absorption peak for the vinyl group in both monomers (1629 cm-1). HPLC-UV results showed an increment in the average molecular weight with an increase in the molar ratio of the styrene monomer, from 1528.51 g/mol for 10:90 Sty:NAS to 7141.67 g/mol for 90:10 Sty:NAS. These copolymers will be used to generate films on carbon surfaces to anchor a β-NAD+ electroactive analog. Also, a Ferrocene-labeled NAAD (Fc-NAAD) was prepared by attaching Ferrocene Succinimide (Fc-NHS) to the primary amine in the adenine moiety of the cofactor. Osteryoung Squatre Wave Voltammetry (OSWV) of the new Fc-NAAD showed an anodic peak in 320 mV and the cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed chemical reversibility and electrochemical quasi-reversibility.

  20. The pioneering spirit of Takashi Sugimura: his studies of the biochemistry of poly(ADP-ribosylation) and of cancer.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Mitsuko

    2012-03-01

    Takashi Sugimura has accomplished many scientific achievements in the field of biochemistry and in cancer research. Sugimura's group identified the novel polymer poly(ADP-ribose) in parallel to P. Mandel's and O. Hayaishi's groups and demonstrated the presence of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). He also discovered the cognate catabolic enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and further elucidated the biology of poly(ADP-ribose). The astonishing discovery of pierisin, an apoptogenic peptide that ADP-ribosyaltes DNA, profoundly illuminates his scientific character and curiosity as well. Sugimura's work in cancer research shows an extraordinarily wide range, which includes the establishment of new methods in chemical carcinogenesis, the identification of various environmental mutagens/carcinogens and new tumour promoters. He also established the concept that cancer is a disease of DNA and contributed to the development of the concept of the multi-step model of carcinogenesis.

  1. Cloning and expression of translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Hong; Yao, Ji-Hua; Song, Huai-Dong; Wang, Lu; Xue, Jing-Lun

    2008-02-01

    We have identified a developmentally regulated gene translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in zebrafish (GenBank Accession No. AAQ91234). Analysis of DNA sequence of zebrafish EF-2 shows that the 2826 bp cDNA spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 55 to 2631 and encodes a protein of 858 amino acids. It shares an identity of 92, 93, 93, 92, 79 and 80% in amino acid sequence to human, mouse, Chinese hamster, Gallus gullus, C. elegans and Drosophila EF-2, respectively. Zebrafish EF-2 protein has 16 conserved domains, GTP-binding domain is found in the NH2 terminus, and the ADP-ribosylation domain locates at the COOH terminus. Whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos shows that the transcripts of EF-2 gene are detected during the early development of zebrafish embryo and constantly change from 5-somite stage to protruding-mouth stage. It expresses strongly throughout envelope at 5-somite stage. Then the stained cells concentrate strongly in the eyes, brain and muscle tissue. From prim-25 stage the stained cells only appear strongly in the lens and the anterior portion of the cerebellum.

  2. The sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY76 confers drought and flood tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana plants without yield penalty.

    PubMed

    Raineri, Jesica; Ribichich, Karina F; Chan, Raquel L

    2015-12-01

    Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing the sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY76 exhibit increased yield and tolerance to drought and flood stresses. The genetic construct containing HaWRKY76 is proposed as a potential biotechnological tool to improve crops. Water deficit and water excess are abiotic stress factors that seriously affect crops worldwide. To increase the tolerance to such stresses without causing yield penalty constitutes a major goal for biotechnologists. In this survey, we report that HaWRKY76, a divergent sunflower WRKY transcription factor, is able to confer both dehydration and submergence tolerance to Arabidopsis transgenic plants without yield penalty. The expression pattern of HaWRKY76 was analyzed in plants grown in standard conditions and under different watering regimes indicating a regulation by water availability. The corresponding cDNA was isolated and cloned under the control of a constitutive promoter and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with this construct. These transgenic plants presented higher biomass, seed production and sucrose content than controls in standard growth conditions. Moreover, they exhibited tolerance to mild drought or flood (complete submergence/waterlogging) stresses as well as the same or increased yield, depending on the stress severity and plant developmental stage, compared with controls. Drought tolerance occurred via an ABA-independent mechanism and induction of stomatal closure. Submergence tolerance can be explained by the carbohydrate (sucrose and starch) preservation achieved through the repression of fermentation pathways. Higher cell membrane stability and chlorenchyma maintenance could be the nexus between tolerance responses in front of both stresses. Altogether, the obtained results indicated that HaWRKY76 can be a potential biotechnological tool to improve crops yield as well as drought and flood tolerances.

  3. Genome-wide sequential, evolutionary, organizational and expression analyses of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis associated MYB domain transcription factors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sunil Kanti; Roy, Sujit

    2017-06-02

    The MYB gene family represents one of the largest groups of transcription factors in plants. Recent evidences have also demonstrated key role of MYB transcription factors in regulating the expression of major genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds which confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plant species. However, no comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the phenylpropanoid pathway-associated MYB transcription factors has been reported thus far. In this study, 11 Arabidopsis MYB proteins, such as MYB3, MYB4, MYB7, MYB11, MYB12, MYB32, MYB75, MYB90, MYB111, MYB113, and MYB114 were initially identified considering their reported regulatory function in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. Subsequent genome-wide analysis have identified the corresponding homologues from Glycine max, Vigna radiata, Oryza sativa, and Zea mays, while homologous of Arabidopsis MYB75, MYB90, MYB113, and MYB114 were not detected in rice and maize genomes. The identified MYB proteins were classified into three groups (I-III) based on phylogeny. Sequence and domain analysis revealed presence of two conserved DNA binding MYB domains in the selected MYB proteins. Promoter analysis indicated presence of cis-regulatory elements related to light signaling, development, and stress response. Expression analysis of selected Arabidopsis MYB genes revealed their function in plant development and abiotic stress response, consistent with gene ontology annotations. Together, these results provide a useful framework for further experimental studies for the functional characterization of the target MYB genes in the context of regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and plant stress response.

  4. Xanthomonas campestris overcomes Arabidopsis stomatal innate immunity through a DSF cell-to-cell signal-regulated virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Gudesblat, Gustavo E; Torres, Pablo S; Vojnov, Adrián A

    2009-02-01

    Pathogen-induced stomatal closure is part of the plant innate immune response. Phytopathogens using stomata as a way of entry into the leaf must avoid the stomatal response of the host. In this article, we describe a factor secreted by the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) capable of interfering with stomatal closure induced by bacteria or abscisic acid (ABA). We found that living Xcc, as well as ethyl acetate extracts from Xcc culture supernatants, are capable of reverting stomatal closure induced by bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, or ABA. Xcc ethyl acetate extracts also complemented the infectivity of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) mutants deficient in the production of the coronatine toxin, which is required to overcome stomatal defense. By contrast, the rpfF and rpfC mutant strains of Xcc, which are unable to respectively synthesize or perceive a diffusible molecule involved in bacterial cell-to-cell signaling, were incapable of reverting stomatal closure, indicating that suppression of stomatal response by Xcc requires an intact rpf/diffusible signal factor system. In addition, we found that guard cell-specific Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase3 (MPK3) antisense mutants were unresponsive to bacteria or lipopolysaccharide in promotion of stomatal closure, and also more sensitive to Pst coronatine-deficient mutants, showing that MPK3 is required for stomatal immune response. Additionally, we found that, unlike in wild-type Arabidopsis, ABA-induced stomatal closure in MPK3 antisense mutants is not affected by Xcc or by extracts from Xcc culture supernatants, suggesting that the Xcc factor might target some signaling component in the same pathway as MPK3.

  5. The Polyadenylation Factor Subunit CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30: A Key Factor of Programmed Cell Death and a Regulator of Immunity in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Garmier, Marie; de Bont, Linda; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Delarue, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. Indeed, incompatible plant-pathogen interactions are well known to induce the hypersensitive response, a localized cell death. Mutational analyses have identified several key PCD components, and we recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for the key enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myoinositol synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD, revealing roles for myoinositol or inositol derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Here, we identified a regulator of plant PCD by screening for mutants that display transcriptomic profiles opposing that of the mips1 mutant. Our screen identified the oxt6 mutant, which has been described previously as being tolerant to oxidative stress. In the oxt6 mutant, a transfer DNA is inserted in the CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30 (CPSF30) gene, which encodes a polyadenylation factor subunit homolog. We show that CPSF30 is required for lesion formation in mips1 via SA-dependent signaling, that the prodeath function of CPSF30 is not mediated by changes in the glutathione status, and that CPSF30 activity is required for Pseudomonas syringae resistance. We also show that the oxt6 mutation suppresses cell death in other lesion-mimic mutants, including lesion-simulating disease1, mitogen-activated protein kinase4, constitutive expressor of pathogenesis-related genes5, and catalase2, suggesting that CPSF30 and, thus, the control of messenger RNA 3′ end processing, through the regulation of SA production, is a key component of plant immune responses. PMID:24706550

  6. Multiple Genes Encoding the Conserved CCAAT-Box Transcription Factor Complex Are Expressed in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David; Murray, James A.H.; Smith, Alison G.

    1998-01-01

    The CCAAT motif is found in the promoters of many eukaryotic genes. In yeast a single complex of three proteins, termed HAP2, HAP3, and HAP5, binds to this sequence, and in mammals the three components of the equivalent complex (called variously NF-Y, CBF, or CP1) are also represented by single genes. Here we report the presence of multiple genes for each of the components of the CCAAT-binding complex, HAP2,3,5, from Arabidopsis. Three independent Arabidopsis HAP subunit 2 (AtHAP2) cDNAs were cloned by functional complementation of a yeast hap2 mutant, and two independent forms each of AtHAP3 and AtHAP5 cDNAs were detected in the expressed sequence tag database. Additional homologs (two of AtHAP3 and one of AtHAP5) have been identified from available Arabidopsis genomic sequences. Northern-blot analysis indicated ubiquitous expression for each AtHAP2 and AtHAP5 cDNA in a range of tissues, whereas expression of each AtHAP3 cDNA was under developmental and/or environmental regulation. The unexpected presence of multiple forms of each HAP homolog in Arabidopsis, compared with the single genes in yeast and vertebrates, suggests that the HAP2,3,5 complex may play diverse roles in gene transcription in higher plants. PMID:9662544

  7. Peroxidation due to cryoprotectant treatment is a vital factor for cell survival in Arabidopsis cryopreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective tool for the long-term storage of plant germplasm, but damage to plant tissues and death of plants sometimes occurs. Determining the causes of this damage is vital to improving plant recovery from cryopreservation. When Arabidopsis germinating seeds were...

  8. Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Prithiviraj, B.; Bais, H. P.; Weir, T.; Suresh, B.; Najarro, E. H.; Dayakar, B. V.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 showed reduced attachment and biofilm formation on the roots of the Arabidopsis mutants lox2 and cpr5-2, which produce elevated amounts of SA, as well as on wild-type Arabidopsis plants primed with exogenous SA, a treatment known to enhance endogenous SA concentration. Salicylic acid at a concentration that did not inhibit PA14 growth was sufficient to significantly affect the ability of the bacteria to attach and form biofilm communities on abiotic surfaces. Furthermore, SA down regulated three known virulence factors of PA14: pyocyanin, protease, and elastase. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa produced more pyocyanin when infiltrated into leaves of the Arabidopsis transgenic line NahG, which accumulates less SA than wild-type plants. This finding suggests that endogenous SA plays a role in down regulating the synthesis and secretion of pyocyanin in vivo. To further test if SA directly affects the virulence of P. aeruginosa, we used the Caenorhabiditis elegans-P. aeruginosa infection model. The addition of SA to P. aeruginosa lawns significantly diminished the bacterium's ability to kill the worms, without affecting the accumulation of bacteria inside the nematodes' guts, suggesting that SA negatively affects factors that influence the virulence of P. aeruginosa. We employed microarray technology to identify SA target genes. These analyses showed that SA treatment affected expression of 331 genes. It selectively repressed transcription of exoproteins and other virulence factors, while it had no effect on expression of housekeeping

  9. Expanding functions of GIT Arf GTPase-activating proteins, PIX Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GIT-PIX complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Li, Xiaobo; Premont, Richard T

    2016-05-15

    The GIT proteins, GIT1 and GIT2, are GTPase-activating proteins (inactivators) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins, and function to limit the activity of Arf proteins. The PIX proteins, α-PIX and β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF6 and ARHGEF7, respectively), are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (activators) for the Rho family small GTP-binding protein family members Rac1 and Cdc42. Through their multi-domain structures, GIT and PIX proteins can also function as signaling scaffolds by binding to numerous protein partners. Importantly, the constitutive association of GIT and PIX proteins into oligomeric GIT-PIX complexes allows these two proteins to function together as subunits of a larger structure that coordinates two distinct small GTP-binding protein pathways and serves as multivalent scaffold for the partners of both constituent subunits. Studies have revealed the involvement of GIT and PIX proteins, and of the GIT-PIX complex, in numerous fundamental cellular processes through a wide variety of mechanisms, pathways and signaling partners. In this Commentary, we discuss recent findings in key physiological systems that exemplify current understanding of the function of this important regulatory complex. Further, we draw attention to gaps in crucial information that remain to be filled to allow a better understanding of the many roles of the GIT-PIX complex in health and disease. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535

  11. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-04-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed.

  12. A maize stress-responsive NAC transcription factor, ZmSNAC1, confers enhanced tolerance to dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Ying, Sheng; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Shi, Yun-Su; Song, Yan-Chun; Wang, Tian-Yu; Li, Yu

    2012-09-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in stress responses. However, only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in maize. In this study, a maize NAC gene, ZmSNAC1, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression analysis revealed that ZmSNAC1 was strongly induced by low temperature, high-salinity, drought stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, but downregulated by salicylic acid treatment. Subcellular localization experiments in Arabidopsis protoplast cells indicated that ZmSNAC1 was localized in the nucleus. Transactivation assays demonstrated that ZmSNAC1 functioned as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of ZmSNAC1 in Arabidopsis led to hypersensitivity to ABA and osmotic stress at the germination stage, but enhanced tolerance to dehydration compared to wild-type seedlings. These results suggest that ZmSNAC1 functions as a stress-responsive transcription factor in positive modulation of abiotic stress tolerance, and may have applications in the engineering of drought-tolerant crops. ZmSNAC1 functioned as a stress-responsive transcription factor in response to abiotic stresses, and might be useful for crop tolerance improvement.

  13. LLM-Domain Containing B-GATA Factors Control Different Aspects of Cytokinin-Regulated Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ranftl, Quirin L; Bastakis, Emmanouil; Klermund, Carina; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Leu-Leu-Met (LLM)-domain B-GATAs are a subfamily of the 30-membered GATA transcription factor family from Arabidopsis. Only two of the six Arabidopsis LLM-domain B-GATAs, i.e. GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and its paralog GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (GNL), have already been analyzed with regard to their biological function. Together, GNC and GNL control germination, greening, flowering time, and senescence downstream from auxin, cytokinin (CK), gibberellin (GA), and light signaling. Whereas overexpression and complementation analyses suggest a redundant biochemical function between GNC and GNL, nothing is known about the biological role of the four other LLM-domain B-GATAs, GATA15, GATA16, GATA17, and GATA17L (GATA17-LIKE), based on loss-of-function mutant phenotypes. Here, we examine insertion mutants of the six Arabidopsis B-GATA genes and reveal the role of these genes in the control of greening, hypocotyl elongation, phyllotaxy, floral organ initiation, accessory meristem formation, flowering time, and senescence. Several of these phenotypes had previously not been described for the gnc and gnl mutants or were enhanced in the more complex mutants when compared to gnc gnl mutants. Some of the respective responses may be mediated by CK signaling, which activates the expression of all six GATA genes. CK-induced gene expression is partially compromised in LLM-domain B-GATA mutants, suggesting that B-GATA genes play a role in CK responses. We furthermore provide evidence for a transcriptional cross regulation between these GATAs that may, in at least some cases, be at the basis of their apparent functional redundancy.

  14. NAC transcription factor ORE1 and senescence-induced BIFUNCTIONAL NUCLEASE1 (BFN1) constitute a regulatory cascade in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Matallana-Ramirez, Lilian P; Rauf, Mamoona; Farage-Barhom, Sarit; Dortay, Hakan; Xue, Gang-Ping; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Lers, Amnon; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Senescence is a highly regulated process that involves the action of a large number of transcription factors. The NAC transcription factor ORE1 (ANAC092) has recently been shown to play a critical role in positively controlling senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, no direct target gene through which it exerts its molecular function has been identified previously. Here, we report that BIFUNCTIONAL NUCLEASE1 (BFN1), a well-known senescence-enhanced gene, is directly regulated by ORE1. We detected elevated expression of BFN1 already 2 h after induction of ORE1 in estradiol-inducible ORE1 overexpression lines and 6 h after transfection of Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts with a 35S:ORE1 construct. ORE1 and BFN1 expression patterns largely overlap, as shown by promoter-reporter gene (GUS) fusions, while BFN1 expression in senescent leaves and the abscission zones of maturing flower organs was virtually absent in ore1 mutant background. In vitro binding site assays revealed a bipartite ORE1 binding site, similar to that of ORS1, a paralog of ORE1. A bipartite ORE1 binding site was identified in the BFN1 promoter; mutating the cis-element within the context of the full-length BFN1 promoter drastically reduced ORE1-mediated transactivation capacity in transiently transfected Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrates in vivo binding of ORE1 to the BFN1 promoter. We also demonstrate binding of ORE1 in vivo to the promoters of two other senescence-associated genes, namely SAG29/SWEET15 and SINA1, supporting the central role of ORE1 during senescence.

  15. A subset of Arabidopsis RAV transcription factors modulates drought and salt stress responses independent of ABA.

    PubMed

    Fu, Minjie; Kang, Hyun Kyung; Son, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2014-11-01

    Arabidopsis RAV1, RAV1L and RAV2/TEM2 are Related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV) transcription factors that contain both plant-specific B3 and AP2 domains. RAV1 was known to be a negative regulator of growth and its transcript level was repressed by brassinolide (BL). In this study, we found that the expressions of RAV1, and its closest homologs RAV1L and RAV2 were also regulated by other plant hormones, and especially repressed significantly by BL and abscisic acid (ABA), which mediate various abiotic stress responses in plants. Therefore, to further investigate the physiological functions of RAV1, RAV1L and RAV2 in abiotic stress responses, we isolated T-DNA insertional knockout mutants of each gene and produced transgenic plants overexpressing the RAVs. Under normal conditions, each single mutant showed slightly promoted growth patterns only at an early stage of development. In comparison, the RAV1-overexpressing plants exhibited strong growth retardation with semi-dwarfed stature. In drought conditions, RAVs-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher transpirational water loss than the wild type. In salt conditions, seed germination of the RAVs-overexpressing transgenic plants was more inhibited than that of the wild type, while ravs mutants showed promoted seed germination. We also found that RAVs expressions were reduced by dryness and salt. RAV1-overexpressing plants showed the same patterns of increased expression as stress-inducible genes such as RD29A, RD29B and the genes encoding ABA biosynthetic enzymes, as did the wild type and rav1 mutant. However, the RAV1-overexpressing transgenic plants were insensitive to ABA, regardless of the higher accumulation of ABA even in normal conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that RAVs are versatile negative regulators for growth and abiotic stresses, drought and salt, and that negative regulatory effects of RAVs on abiotic stresses are likely to be operated independently of ABA. © The Author 2014. Published

  16. Arabidopsis DOF transcription factors act redundantly to reduce CONSTANS expression and are essential for a photoperiodic flowering response.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Fabio; Panigrahi, Kishore C S; Gissot, Lionel; Sauerbrunn, Nicolas; Rühl, Mark; Jarillo, José A; Coupland, George

    2009-07-01

    Flowering of Arabidopsis is induced by long summer days (LDs). The transcriptional regulator CONSTANS (CO) promotes flowering, and its transcription is increased under LDs. We systematically misexpressed transcription factors in companion cells and identified several DOF proteins that delay flowering by repressing CO transcription. Combining mutations in four of these, including CYCLING DOF FACTOR 2 (CDF2), caused photoperiod-insensitive early flowering by increasing CO mRNA levels. CO transcription is promoted to differing extents by GIGANTEA (GI) and the F-box protein FKF1. We show that GI stabilizes FKF1, thereby reducing CDF2 abundance and allowing transcription of CO. Despite the crucial function of GI in wild-type plants, introducing mutations in the four DOF-encoding genes into gi mutants restored the diurnal rhythm and light inducibility of CO. Thus, antagonism between GI and DOF transcription factors contributes to photoperiodic flowering by modulating an underlying diurnal rhythm in CO transcript levels.

  17. The FOUR LIPS and MYB88 transcription factor genes are widely expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana during development.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qin; Lee, EunKyoung; Keerthisinghe, Sandra; Lai, Lien; Li, Meng; Lucas, Jessica R; Wen, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaolin; Sack, Fred D

    2015-09-01

    The FOUR LIPS (FLP) and MYB88 transcription factors, which are closely related in structure and function, control the development of stomata, as well as entry into megasporogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, other locations where these transcription factors are expressed are poorly described. Documenting additional locations where these genes are expressed might define new functions for these genes. Expression patterns were examined throughout vegetative and reproductive development. The expression from two transcriptional-reporter fusions were visualized with either β-glucuronidase (GUS) or green fluorescence protein (GFP). Both flp and myb88 genes were expressed in many, previously unreported locations, consistent with the possibility of additional functions for FLP and MYB88. Moreover, expression domains especially of FLP display sharp cutoffs or boundaries. In addition to stomatal and reproductive development, FLP and MYB88, which are R2R3 MYB transcription factor genes, are expressed in many locations in cells, tissues, and organs. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levels of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.

  19. Non-homologous end joining: Common interaction sites and exchange of multiple factors in the DNA repair process.

    PubMed

    Rulten, Stuart L; Grundy, Gabrielle J

    2017-03-01

    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the dominant means of repairing chromosomal DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and is essential in human cells. Fifteen or more proteins can be involved in the detection, signalling, synapsis, end-processing and ligation events required to repair a DSB, and must be assembled in the confined space around the DNA ends. We review here a number of interaction points between the core NHEJ components (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and Ligase IV) and accessory factors such as kinases, phosphatases, polymerases and structural proteins. Conserved protein-protein interaction sites such as Ku-binding motifs (KBMs), XLF-like motifs (XLMs), FHA and BRCT domains illustrate that different proteins compete for the same binding sites on the core machinery, and must be spatially and temporally regulated. We discuss how post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, ADP-ribosylation and ubiquitinylation may regulate sequential steps in the NHEJ pathway or control repair at different types of DNA breaks.

  20. Phosphorylation of a WRKY transcription factor by two pathogen-responsive MAPKs drives phytoalexin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guohong; Meng, Xiangzong; Liu, Yidong; Zheng, Zuyu; Chen, Zhixiang; Zhang, Shuqun

    2011-04-01

    Plant sensing of invading pathogens triggers massive metabolic reprogramming, including the induction of secondary antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins. We recently reported that MPK3 and MPK6, two pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, play essential roles in the induction of camalexin, the major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis thaliana. In search of the transcription factors downstream of MPK3/MPK6, we found that WRKY33 is required for MPK3/MPK6-induced camalexin biosynthesis. In wrky33 mutants, both gain-of-function MPK3/MPK6- and pathogen-induced camalexin production are compromised, which is associated with the loss of camalexin biosynthetic gene activation. WRKY33 is a pathogen-inducible transcription factor, whose expression is regulated by the MPK3/MPK6 cascade. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that WRKY33 binds to its own promoter in vivo, suggesting a potential positive feedback regulatory loop. Furthermore, WRKY33 is a substrate of MPK3/MPK6. Mutation of MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylation sites in WRKY33 compromises its ability to complement the camalexin induction in the wrky33 mutant. Using a phospho-protein mobility shift assay, we demonstrate that WRKY33 is phosphorylated by MPK3/MPK6 in vivo in response to Botrytis cinerea infection. Based on these data, we conclude that WRKY33 functions downstream of MPK3/MPK6 in reprogramming the expression of camalexin biosynthetic genes, which drives the metabolic flow to camalexin production in Arabidopsis challenged by pathogens.

  1. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 {yields} S transition

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. {yields} TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition. {yields} Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 {yields} S arrest is discussed.

  2. Arabidopsis RAP2.2: An Ethylene Response Transcription Factor That Is Important for Hypoxia Survival1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Manuela; Wilson, Iain W.; Yang, Jun; Buerstenbinder, Katharina; Llewellyn, Danny; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Sauter, Margret; Dolferus, Rudy

    2010-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RAP2.2 (At3g14230) is an APETALA2/ethylene response factor-type transcription factor that belongs to the same subfamily as the rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance gene SUB1A. RAP2.2 is expressed at constitutively high levels in the roots and at lower levels in the shoots, where it is induced by darkness. Effector studies and analysis of ethylene signal transduction mutants indicate that RAP2.2 is induced in shoots by ethylene and functions in an ethylene-controlled signal transduction pathway. Overexpression of RAP2.2 resulted in improved plant survival under hypoxia (low-oxygen) stress, whereas lines containing T-DNA knockouts of the gene had poorer survival rates than the wild type. This indicates that RAP2.2 is important in a plant's ability to resist hypoxia stress. Observation of the expression pattern of 32 low-oxygen and ethylene-associated genes showed that RAP2.2 affects only part of the low-oxygen response, particularly the induction of genes encoding sugar metabolism and fermentation pathway enzymes, as well as ethylene biosynthesis genes. Our results provide a new insight on the regulation of gene expression under low-oxygen conditions. Lighting plays an important regulatory role and is intertwined with hypoxia conditions; both stimuli may act collaboratively to regulate the hypoxic response. PMID:20357136

  3. The MYB46 Transcription Factor Is a Direct Target of SND1 and Regulates Secondary Wall Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana MYB46 transcription factor is a direct target of SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1), which is a key transcriptional activator regulating the developmental program of secondary wall biosynthesis. The MYB46 gene is expressed predominantly in fibers and vessels in stems, and its encoded protein is targeted to the nucleus and can activate transcription. MYB46 gene expression was shown to be regulated by SND1, and transactivation analysis demonstrated that SND1 as well as its close homologs were able to activate the MYB46 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that SND1 binds to the MYB46 promoter. Dominant repression of MYB46 caused a drastic reduction in the secondary wall thickening of fibers and vessels. Overexpression of MYB46 resulted in an activation of the biosynthetic pathways of cellulose, xylan, and lignin and concomitantly led to ectopic deposition of secondary walls in cells that are normally nonsclerenchymatous. In addition, the expression of two secondary wall–associated transcription factors, MYB85 and KNAT7, was highly upregulated by MYB46 overexpression. These results demonstrate that MYB46 is a direct target of SND1 and is another key player in the transcriptional network involved in the regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:17890373

  4. Identification of Specific DNA Binding Residues in the TCP Family of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Das Gupta, Mainak; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Srinivasan, N.; Nath, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    The TCP transcription factors control multiple developmental traits in diverse plant species. Members of this family share an ∼60-residue-long TCP domain that binds to DNA. The TCP domain is predicted to form a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) structure but shares little sequence similarity with canonical bHLH domain. This classifies the TCP domain as a novel class of DNA binding domain specific to the plant kingdom. Little is known about how the TCP domain interacts with its target DNA. We report biochemical characterization and DNA binding properties of a TCP member in Arabidopsis thaliana, TCP4. We have shown that the 58-residue domain of TCP4 is essential and sufficient for binding to DNA and possesses DNA binding parameters comparable to canonical bHLH proteins. Using a yeast-based random mutagenesis screen and site-directed mutants, we identified the residues important for DNA binding and dimer formation. Mutants defective in binding and dimerization failed to rescue the phenotype of an Arabidopsis line lacking the endogenous TCP4 activity. By combining structure prediction, functional characterization of the mutants, and molecular modeling, we suggest a possible DNA binding mechanism for this class of transcription factors. PMID:20363772

  5. A Member of the Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor Family Is Required for Maturation of Chloroplast Transfer RNAIle(GAU)

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Isidora; Manavski, Nikolay; Morosetti, Arianna; Tadini, Luca; Maier, Swetlana; Kühn, Kristina; Ruwe, Hannes; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian; Wanner, Gerhard; Leister, Dario; Kleine, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Plastid gene expression is crucial for organelle function, but the factors that control it are still largely unclear. Members of the so-called mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family are found in metazoans and plants and regulate organellar gene expression at different levels. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mTERF6 is localized in chloroplasts and mitochondria, and its knockout perturbs plastid development and results in seedling lethality. In the leaky mterf6-1 mutant, a defect in photosynthesis is associated with reduced levels of photosystem subunits, although corresponding messenger RNA levels are unaffected, whereas translational capacity and maturation of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are perturbed in mterf6-1 mutants. Bacterial one-hybrid screening, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal a specific interaction between mTERF6 and an RNA sequence in the chloroplast isoleucine transfer RNA gene (trnI.2) located in the rRNA operon. In vitro, recombinant mTERF6 bound to its plastid DNA target site can terminate transcription. At present, it is unclear whether disturbed rRNA maturation is a primary or secondary defect. However, it is clear that mTERF6 is required for the maturation of trnI.2. This points to an additional function of mTERFs. PMID:26152711

  6. A Member of the Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor Family Is Required for Maturation of Chloroplast Transfer RNAIle(GAU).

    PubMed

    Romani, Isidora; Manavski, Nikolay; Morosetti, Arianna; Tadini, Luca; Maier, Swetlana; Kühn, Kristina; Ruwe, Hannes; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian; Wanner, Gerhard; Leister, Dario; Kleine, Tatjana

    2015-09-01

    Plastid gene expression is crucial for organelle function, but the factors that control it are still largely unclear. Members of the so-called mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family are found in metazoans and plants and regulate organellar gene expression at different levels. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mTERF6 is localized in chloroplasts and mitochondria, and its knockout perturbs plastid development and results in seedling lethality. In the leaky mterf6-1 mutant, a defect in photosynthesis is associated with reduced levels of photosystem subunits, although corresponding messenger RNA levels are unaffected, whereas translational capacity and maturation of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are perturbed in mterf6-1 mutants. Bacterial one-hybrid screening, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal a specific interaction between mTERF6 and an RNA sequence in the chloroplast isoleucine transfer RNA gene (trnI.2) located in the rRNA operon. In vitro, recombinant mTERF6 bound to its plastid DNA target site can terminate transcription. At present, it is unclear whether disturbed rRNA maturation is a primary or secondary defect. However, it is clear that mTERF6 is required for the maturation of trnI.2. This points to an additional function of mTERFs. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs ERF6 and ERF11 Antagonistically Regulate Mannitol-Induced Growth Inhibition in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Marieke; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Claeys, Hannes; Van Vlierberghe, Kaatje; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Leaf growth is a tightly regulated and complex process, which responds in a dynamic manner to changing environmental conditions, but the mechanisms that reduce growth under adverse conditions are rather poorly understood. We previously identified a growth inhibitory pathway regulating leaf growth upon exposure to a low concentration of mannitol and characterized the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 transcription factor ERF6 as a central activator of both leaf growth inhibition and induction of stress tolerance genes. Here, we describe the role of the transcriptional repressor ERF11 in relation to the ERF6-mediated stress response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using inducible overexpression lines, we show that ERF6 induces the expression of ERF11. ERF11 in turn molecularly counteracts the action of ERF6 and represses at least some of the ERF6-induced genes by directly competing for the target gene promoters. As a phenotypical consequence of the ERF6-ERF11 antagonism, the extreme dwarfism caused by ERF6 overexpression is suppressed by overexpression of ERF11. Together, our data demonstrate that dynamic mechanisms exist to fine-tune the stress response and that ERF11 counteracts ERF6 to maintain a balance between plant growth and stress defense. PMID:25995327

  8. MIXTA-like transcription factors and WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 coordinately regulate cuticle development in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshimi; Shikata, Masahito; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Ohtsubo, Norihiro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-05-01

    The waxy plant cuticle protects cells from dehydration, repels pathogen attack, and prevents organ fusion during development. The transcription factor WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 (WIN1/SHN1) regulates the biosynthesis of waxy substances in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that the MIXTA-like MYB transcription factors MYB106 and MYB16, which regulate epidermal cell morphology, also regulate cuticle development coordinately with WIN1/SHN1 in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri. Expression of a MYB106 chimeric repressor fusion (35S:MYB106-SRDX) and knockout/down of MYB106 and MYB16 induced cuticle deficiencies characterized by organ adhesion and reduction of epicuticular wax crystals and cutin nanoridges. A similar organ fusion phenotype was produced by expression of a WIN1/SHN1 chimeric repressor. Conversely, the dominant active form of MYB106 (35S:MYB106-VP16) induced ectopic production of cutin nanoridges and increased expression of WIN1/SHN1 and wax biosynthetic genes. Microarray experiments revealed that MYB106 and WIN1/SHN1 regulate similar sets of genes, predominantly those involved in wax and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, WIN1/SHN1 expression was induced by MYB106-VP16 and repressed by MYB106-SRDX. These results indicate that the regulatory cascade of MIXTA-like proteins and WIN1/SHN1 coordinately regulate cutin biosynthesis and wax accumulation. This study reveals an additional key aspect of MIXTA-like protein function and suggests a unique relationship between cuticle development and epidermal cell differentiation.

  9. The maize WRKY transcription factor ZmWRKY17 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ronghao; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Congsheng; Wang, Yan; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yang; Ma, Qing; Xiang, Yan; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-08-31

    We cloned and characterized the ZmWRKY17 gene from maize. Overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis led to increased sensitivity to salt stress and decreased ABA sensitivity through regulating the expression of some ABA- and stress-responsive genes. The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to function as positive or negative regulators in many different biological processes including plant development, defense regulation and stress response. This study isolated a maize WRKY gene, ZmWRKY17, and characterized its role in tolerance to salt stress by generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of the ZmWRKY17 was up-regulated by drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ZmWRKY17 was localized in the nucleus with no transcriptional activation in yeast. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that ZmWRKY17 can specifically bind to W-box, and it can activate W-box-dependent transcription in planta. Heterologous overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis remarkably reduced plant tolerance to salt stress, as determined through physiological analyses of the cotyledons greening rate, root growth, relative electrical leakage and malondialdehyde content. Additionally, ZmWRKY17 transgenic plants showed decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and early seedling growth. Transgenic plants accumulated higher content of ABA than wild-type (WT) plants under NaCl condition. Transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that some stress-related genes in transgenic seedlings showed lower expression level than that in the WT when treated with NaCl. Taken together, these results suggest that ZmWRKY17 may act as a negative regulator involved in the salt stress responses through ABA signalling.

  10. The Arabidopsis SR45 Splicing Factor, a Negative Regulator of Sugar Signaling, Modulates SNF1-Related Protein Kinase 1 Stability

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Inês C.R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to sugar signals allows plants to cope with environmental and metabolic changes by adjusting growth and development accordingly. We previously reported that the SR45 splicing factor negatively regulates glucose signaling during early seedling development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that under glucose-fed conditions, the Arabidopsis sr45-1 loss-of-function mutant contains higher amounts of the energy-sensing SNF1-Related Protein Kinase 1 (SnRK1) despite unaffected SnRK1 transcript levels. In agreement, marker genes for SnRK1 activity are upregulated in sr45-1 plants, and the glucose hypersensitivity of sr45-1 is attenuated by disruption of the SnRK1 gene. Using a high-resolution RT-PCR panel, we found that the sr45-1 mutation broadly targets alternative splicing in vivo, including that of the SR45 pre-mRNA itself. Importantly, the enhanced SnRK1 levels in sr45-1 are suppressed by a proteasome inhibitor, indicating that SR45 promotes targeting of the SnRK1 protein for proteasomal destruction. Finally, we demonstrate that SR45 regulates alternative splicing of the Arabidopsis 5PTase13 gene, which encodes an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase previously shown to interact with and regulate the stability of SnRK1 in vitro, thus providing a mechanistic link between SR45 function and the modulation of degradation of the SnRK1 energy sensor in response to sugars. PMID:27436712

  11. Arabidopsis Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 binding sites contain putative GAGA factor binding motifs within coding regions of genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is an essential regulator of gene expression that maintains genes in a repressed state by marking chromatin with trimethylated Histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). In Arabidopsis, loss of PRC2 function leads to pleiotropic effects on growth and development thought to be due to ectopic expression of seed and embryo-specific genes. While there is some understanding of the mechanisms by which specific genes are targeted by PRC2 in animal systems, it is still not clear how PRC2 is recruited to specific regions of plant genomes. Results We used ChIP-seq to determine the genome-wide distribution of hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged FERTLIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE-HA), the Extra Sex Combs homolog protein present in all Arabidopsis PRC2 complexes. We found that the FIE-HA binding sites co-locate with a subset of the H3K27me3 sites in the genome and that the associated genes were more likely to be de-repressed in mutants of PRC2 components. The FIE-HA binding sites are enriched for three sequence motifs including a putative GAGA factor binding site that is also found in Drosophila Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). Conclusions Our results suggest that PRC2 binding sites in plant genomes share some sequence features with Drosophila PREs. However, unlike Drosophila PREs which are located in promoters and devoid of H3K27me3, Arabidopsis FIE binding sites tend to be in gene coding regions and co-localize with H3K27me3. PMID:24001316

  12. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  13. The GIT/PIX complex: an oligomeric assembly of GIT family ARF GTPase-activating proteins and PIX family Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    PubMed

    Premont, Richard T; Perry, Stephen J; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Roseman, J Tyler; Xing, Yanghui; Claing, Audrey

    2004-09-01

    GIT proteins are GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) small GTP-binding proteins, and interact with the PIX family of Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors. GIT and PIX transiently localize p21-activated protein kinases (PAKs) to remodeling focal adhesions through binding to paxillin. To understand the role of these interactions, the association of GIT and PIX proteins was examined in detail. Two separable binding interactions link GIT and PIX proteins, GIT and PIX proteins each dimerize and a beta-PIX fragment containing the GIT-binding region failed to inhibit the association of the GIT and PIX proteins. Endogenous GIT and PIX co-fractionate at a very high molecular size. Purified 6xHis-tagged beta-PIX from Sf9 cells co-expressing untagged GIT1 yields recombinant GIT1/beta-PIX complexes that have equal amounts of beta-PIX and GIT1 and co-fractionate at the same large size as native GIT/PIX complexes. Thus, GIT and PIX proteins are tightly associated as a multimeric nexus capable of linking together important signaling molecules, including PAKs.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel potential virulence factor of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: characterization of the unusual cysteine desulfurase/desulfhydrase HapE.

    PubMed

    Großhennig, Stephanie; Ischebeck, Till; Gibhardt, Johannes; Busse, Julia; Feussner, Ivo; Stülke, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing atypical pneumonia with a minimalized and highly streamlined genome. So far, hydrogen peroxide production, cytadherence, and the ADP-ribosylating CARDS toxin have been identified as pathogenicity determinants. We have studied haemolysis caused by M. pneumoniae, and discovered that hydrogen peroxide is responsible for the oxidation of heme, but not for lysis of erythrocytes. This feature could be attributed to hydrogen sulfide, a compound that has previously not been identified as virulence factor in lung pathogens. Indeed, we observed hydrogen sulfide production by M. pneumoniae. The search for a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme identified HapE, a protein with similarity to cysteine desulfurases. In contrast to typical cysteine desulfurases, HapE is a bifunctional enzyme: it has both the cysteine desulfurase activity to produce alanine and the cysteine desulfhydrase activity to produce pyruvate and hydrogen sulfide. Experiments with purified HapE showed that the enzymatic activity of the protein is responsible for haemolysis, demonstrating that HapE is a novel potential virulence factor of M. pneumoniae.

  15. Arabidopsis clade I TGA factors regulate apoplastic defences against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae through endoplasmic reticulum-based processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lipu; Fobert, Pierre R

    2013-01-01

    During the plant immune response, large-scale transcriptional reprogramming is modulated by numerous transcription (co) factors. The Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper transcription factors TGA1 and TGA4, which comprise the clade I TGA factors, have been shown to positively contribute to disease resistance against virulent strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Despite physically interacting with the key immune regulator, NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1), following elicitation with salicylic acid (SA), clade I function was shown to be largely independent of NPR1. Unlike mutants in NPR1, tga1-1 tga4-1 plants do not display reductions in steady-state levels of SA-pathway marker genes following treatment with this phenolic signaling metabolite or after challenge with virulent or avirulent P. syringae. By exploiting bacterial strains that have limited capacity to suppress Arabidopsis defence responses, the present study demonstrates that tga1-1 tga4-1 plants are compromised in basal resistance and defective in several apoplastic defence responses, including the oxidative burst of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition, as well as total and apoplastic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 (PR-1) protein accumulation. Furthermore, analysis of npr1-1 and the tga1-1 tga4-1 npr1-1 triple mutant indicates that clade I TGA factors act substantially independent of NPR1 in mediating disease resistance against these strains of P. syringae. Increased sensitivity to the N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin and elevated levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker genes encoding ER-resident chaperones in mutant seedlings suggest that loss of apoplastic defence responses is associated with aberrant protein secretion and implicate clade I TGA factors as positive regulators of one or more ER-related secretion pathways.

  16. Arabidopsis Clade I TGA Factors Regulate Apoplastic Defences against the Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae through Endoplasmic Reticulum-Based Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lipu; Fobert, Pierre R.

    2013-01-01

    During the plant immune response, large-scale transcriptional reprogramming is modulated by numerous transcription (co) factors. The Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper transcription factors TGA1 and TGA4, which comprise the clade I TGA factors, have been shown to positively contribute to disease resistance against virulent strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Despite physically interacting with the key immune regulator, NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1), following elicitation with salicylic acid (SA), clade I function was shown to be largely independent of NPR1. Unlike mutants in NPR1, tga1-1 tga4-1 plants do not display reductions in steady-state levels of SA-pathway marker genes following treatment with this phenolic signaling metabolite or after challenge with virulent or avirulent P. syringae. By exploiting bacterial strains that have limited capacity to suppress Arabidopsis defence responses, the present study demonstrates that tga1-1 tga4-1 plants are compromised in basal resistance and defective in several apoplastic defence responses, including the oxidative burst of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition, as well as total and apoplastic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 (PR-1) protein accumulation. Furthermore, analysis of npr1-1 and the tga1-1 tga4-1 npr1-1 triple mutant indicates that clade I TGA factors act substantially independent of NPR1 in mediating disease resistance against these strains of P. syringae. Increased sensitivity to the N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin and elevated levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker genes encoding ER-resident chaperones in mutant seedlings suggest that loss of apoplastic defence responses is associated with aberrant protein secretion and implicate clade I TGA factors as positive regulators of one or more ER-related secretion pathways. PMID:24086773

  17. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB112 Promotes Anthocyanin Formation during Salinity and under High Light Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lotkowska, Magda E.; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Xue, Gang-Ping; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    MYB transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators of flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. Here, we report MYB112 as a formerly unknown regulator of anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Expression profiling after chemically induced overexpression of MYB112 identified 28 up- and 28 down-regulated genes 5 h after inducer treatment, including MYB7 and MYB32, which are both induced. In addition, upon extended induction, MYB112 also positively affects the expression of PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, a key TF of anthocyanin biosynthesis, but acts negatively toward MYB12 and MYB111, which both control flavonol biosynthesis. MYB112 binds to an 8-bp DNA fragment containing the core sequence (A/T/G)(A/C)CC(A/T)(A/G/T)(A/C)(T/C). By electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we show that MYB112 binds in vitro and in vivo to MYB7 and MYB32 promoters, revealing them as direct downstream target genes. We further show that MYB112 expression is up-regulated by salinity and high light stress, environmental parameters that both require the MYB112 TF for anthocyanin accumulation under these stresses. In contrast to several other MYB TFs affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis, MYB112 expression is not controlled by nitrogen limitation or an excess of carbon. Thus, MYB112 constitutes a regulator that promotes anthocyanin accumulation under abiotic stress conditions. PMID:26378103

  18. Arabidopsis WRKY Transcription Factors WRKY12 and WRKY13 Oppositely Regulate Flowering under Short-Day Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Houping; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-11-07

    In plants, photoperiod is an important cue for determining flowering. The floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana is earlier under long-day (LD) than under short-day (SD) conditions. Flowering of Arabidopsis plants under SD conditions is mainly regulated by the plant hormone gibberellin (GA). Here, we report two WRKY transcription factors function oppositely in controlling flowering time under SD conditions. Phenotypic analysis showed that disruption of WRKY12 caused a delay in flowering, while loss of WRKY13 function promoted flowering. WRKY12 and WRKY13 displayed negatively correlated expression profiles and function successively to regulate flowering. Molecular and genetic analyses demonstrated that FRUITFULL (FUL) is a direct downstream target gene of WRKY12 and WRKY13. Interestingly, we found that DELLA proteins GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE (GAI) and RGA-LIKE1 (RGL1) interacted with WRKY12 and WRKY13, and their interactions interfered with the transcriptional activity of the WRKY12 and WRKY13. Further studies suggested thatWRKY12 and WRKY13 partly mediated the effect of GA3 on controlling flowering time. Taken together, our results indicate that WRKY12 and WRKY13 oppositely modulate flowering time under SD conditions, which at least partially involves the action of GA. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome wide identification of Dof transcription factor gene family in sorghum and its comparative phylogenetic analysis with rice and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Hariom; Gupta, Shubhra; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Rastogi, Smita; Yadav, Dinesh

    2011-11-01

    The Dof (DNA binding with One Finger) family represents a classic zinc-finger transcription factors involved with multifarious roles exclusively in plants. There exists great diversity in terms of number of Dof genes observed in different crops. In current study, a total of 28 putative Dof genes have been predicted in silico from the recently available whole genome shotgun sequence of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (with assigned accession numbers TPA:BK006983-BK007006 and TPA:BK007079-BK007082). The predicted SbDof genes are distributed on nine out of ten chromosomes of sorghum and most of these genes lack introns based on canonical intron/exon structure. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 SbDof proteins resulted in four subgroups constituting six clusters. The comparative phylogenetic analysis of these Dof proteins along with 30 rice and 36 Arabidopsis Dof proteins revealed six major groups similar to what has been observed earlier for rice and Arabidopsis. Motif analysis revealed the presence of conserved 50-52 amino acids Dof domain uniformly distributed across all the 28 Dof proteins of sorghum. The in silico cis-regulatory elements analysis of these SbDof genes suggested its diverse functions associated with light responsiveness, endosperm specific gene expression, hormone responsiveness, meristem specific expression and stress responsiveness.

  20. Expression of biologically recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds via oleosin fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Guan, Lili; Guo, Yongxin; Du, Linna; Wang, Fawei; Wang, Yanfang; Zhen, Lu; Wang, Qingman; Zou, Deyi; Chen, Wei; Yu, Lei; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun

    2015-07-15

    The potential of oleosins to act as carriers for recombinant foreign proteins in plant cells has been established. Using the oleosin fusion technology, the protein can be targeted to oil bodies in oilseeds by fusing it to the N- or C-terminus of oleosin. In this study, aFGF was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds via oleosin fusion technology. A plant-preferred aFGF gene was synthesized by optimizing codon usage and was fused to the C-terminus of the A. thaliana 18.5kDa oleosin gene. The fusion gene was driven by the phaseolin promoter to confer seed-specific expression of the human acidic fibroblast growth factor in A. thaliana. The T-DNA region of the recombinant plasmid pKO-aFGF was introduced into the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. The aFGF protein expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The biological activity showed that oil bodies fused to aFGF stimulated NIH/3T3 cell proliferation activity.

  1. Altered expression of the bZIP transcription factor DRINK ME affects growth and reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Sotomayor, Paulina; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; Silvestre-Vañó, Marina; Herrera-Ubaldo, Humberto; Greco, Raffaella; Pablo-Villa, Jeanneth; Galliani, Bianca M; Diaz-Ramirez, David; Weemen, Mieke; Boutilier, Kim; Pereira, Andy; Colombo, Lucia; Madueño, Francisco; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; de Folter, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Here we describe an uncharacterized gene that negatively influences Arabidopsis growth and reproductive development. DRINK ME (DKM; bZIP30) is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family, and is expressed in meristematic tissues such as the inflorescence meristem (IM), floral meristem (FM), and carpel margin meristem (CMM). Altered DKM expression affects meristematic tissues and reproductive organ development, including the gynoecium, which is the female reproductive structure and is determinant for fertility and sexual reproduction. A microarray analysis indicates that DKM overexpression affects the expression of cell cycle, cell wall, organ initiation, cell elongation, hormone homeostasis, and meristem activity genes. Furthermore, DKM can interact in yeast and in planta with proteins involved in shoot apical meristem maintenance such as WUSCHEL, KNAT1/BP, KNAT2 and JAIBA, and with proteins involved in medial tissue development in the gynoecium such as HECATE, BELL1 and NGATHA1. Taken together, our results highlight the relevance of DKM as a negative modulator of Arabidopsis growth and reproductive development.

  2. EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS Is Related to Chromatin Remodeling Factors and Regulates Flowering in Arabidopsis by Repressing FT

    PubMed Central

    Piñeiro, Manuel; Gómez-Mena, Concepción; Schaffer, Robert; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel; Coupland, George

    2003-01-01

    The timing of flowering initiation depends on the balanced expression of a complex network of genes that are regulated by both endogenous and environmental factors. We showed previously that mutations at the EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS) locus of Arabidopsis result in an acceleration of flowering, especially in noninductive photoperiods (short days), and other phenotypic anomalies. We have identified the EBS gene and demonstrate that it encodes a nuclear protein that contains a bromoadjacent homology domain and a plant homeodomain Zn finger. Both types of motif are thought to mediate protein–protein interactions and occur in transcriptional regulators involved in chromatin remodeling, suggesting that EBS is part of a transcriptional repressor complex that modulates chromatin structure and is required to repress the initiation of flowering in short days. Overexpression of EBS has phenotypic effects similar to those of recessive ebs mutations, suggesting that both might disrupt the formation of protein complexes that contain EBS. Analysis of the expression of flowering-time genes in ebs mutants and in EBS-overexpressing plants indicates that EBS participates in the regulation of flowering time by specifically repressing the expression of FT, a key gene in the integration of floral promotion pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:12837946

  3. The Small Ethylene Response Factor ERF96 is Involved in the Regulation of the Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Shanda; Tian, Hainan; Wang, Shucai; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2015-11-26

    We report that ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening, and of plant responses to environmental stimuli including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are plant-specific transcription factors and are a subfamily of the AP2 (APETALA2)/ERF transcription factor family. The function of many members in this large gene family remains largely unknown. ERF96, a member of the Group IX ERF family transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional activator that is involved in plant defense response in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ERF96 is a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that there are a total four small ERFs in Arabidopsis including ERF95, ERF96, ERF97, and ERF98, and that ERF96 forms a cluster with ERF95 and ERF97. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERF96 is expressed in all tissues and organs examined except roots, with relatively high expression in flowers and seeds. Results from the protoplast transfection assay indicated that the EDLL motif-containing C-terminal domain is responsible for ERF96’s transcriptional activity. Although loss-of-function mutant of ERF96 was morphologically similar to wild type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing ERF96 had smaller rosette size and were delayed in flowering time. In ABA sensitivity assays, we found that ERF96 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA in terms of ABA inhibition of seed germination, early seedling development and root elongation. Consistent with these observations, elevated transcript levels of some ABA-responsive genes including RD29A, ABI5, ABF3, ABF4, P5CS, and COR15A were observed in the transgenic plants in the presence of ABA. However, in the absence of ABA treatment, the transcript levels of these ABA-responsive genes remained largely unchanged. Our experiments also showed that

  4. The Small Ethylene Response Factor ERF96 is Involved in the Regulation of the Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Shanda; Tian, Hainan; ...

    2015-11-26

    We report that ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening, and of plant responses to environmental stimuli including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are plant-specific transcription factors and are a subfamily of the AP2 (APETALA2)/ERF transcription factor family. The function of many members in this large gene family remains largely unknown. ERF96, a member of the Group IX ERF family transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional activator that is involved in plant defense response in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ERF96more » is a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that there are a total four small ERFs in Arabidopsis including ERF95, ERF96, ERF97, and ERF98, and that ERF96 forms a cluster with ERF95 and ERF97. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERF96 is expressed in all tissues and organs examined except roots, with relatively high expression in flowers and seeds. Results from the protoplast transfection assay indicated that the EDLL motif-containing C-terminal domain is responsible for ERF96’s transcriptional activity. Although loss-of-function mutant of ERF96 was morphologically similar to wild type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing ERF96 had smaller rosette size and were delayed in flowering time. In ABA sensitivity assays, we found that ERF96 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA in terms of ABA inhibition of seed germination, early seedling development and root elongation. Consistent with these observations, elevated transcript levels of some ABA-responsive genes including RD29A, ABI5, ABF3, ABF4, P5CS, and COR15A were observed in the transgenic plants in the presence of ABA. However, in the absence of ABA treatment, the transcript levels of these ABA-responsive genes remained largely unchanged. Our experiments also showed

  5. The Arabidopsis Phytochrome-Interacting Factor PIF7, Together with PIF3 and PIF4, Regulates Responses to Prolonged Red Light by Modulating phyB Levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We show that a previously uncharacterized Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) phytochrome interacting factor (PIF), designated PIF7, interacts specifically with the far-red light–absorbing Pfr form of phyB through a conserved domain called the active phyB binding motif. Similar to PIF...

  6. A Conserved Peptide Pattern from a Widespread Microbial Virulence Factor Triggers Pattern-Induced Immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Oome, Stan; Raaymakers, Tom M.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Microbe- or host damage-derived patterns mediate activation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants. Microbial virulence factor (effector)-triggered immunity (ETI) constitutes a second layer of plant protection against microbial attack. Various necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLPs) produced by bacterial, oomycete and fungal microbes are phytotoxic virulence factors that exert immunogenic activities through phytotoxin-induced host cell damage. We here show that multiple cytotoxic NLPs also carry a pattern of 20 amino acid residues (nlp20) that triggers immunity-associated plant defenses and immunity to microbial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana and related plant species with similar characteristics as the prototype pattern, bacterial flagellin. Characteristic differences in flagellin and nlp20 plant responses exist however, as nlp20s fail to trigger extracellular alkalinization in Arabidopsis cell suspensions and seedling growth inhibition. Immunogenic nlp20 peptide motifs are frequently found in bacterial, oomycete and fungal NLPs. Such an unusually broad taxonomic distribution within three phylogenetic kingdoms is unprecedented among microbe-derived triggers of immune responses in either metazoans or plants. Our findings suggest that cytotoxic NLPs carrying immunogenic nlp20 motifs trigger PTI in two ways as typical patterns and by inflicting host cell damage. We further propose that conserved structures within a microbial virulence factor might have driven the emergence of a plant pattern recognition system mediating PTI. As this is reminiscent of the evolution of immune receptors mediating ETI, our findings support the idea that there is a continuum between PTI and ETI. PMID:25375108

  7. SA-inducible Arabidopsis glutaredoxin interacts with TGA factors and suppresses JA-responsive PDF1.2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Ndamukong, Ivan; Abdallat, Ayed Al; Thurow, Corinna; Fode, Benjamin; Zander, Mark; Weigel, Ralf; Gatz, Christiane

    2007-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant signaling molecule that mediates the induction of defense responses upon attack by a variety of pathogens. Moreover, it antagonizes gene induction by the stress signaling molecule jasmonic acid (JA). Several SA-responsive genes are regulated by basic/leucine zipper-type transcription factors of the TGA family. TGA factors interact with NPR1, a central regulator of many SA-induced defense responses including SA/JA antagonism. In order to identify further regulatory proteins of SA-dependent signaling pathways, a yeast protein interaction screen with tobacco TGA2.2 as bait and an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA prey library was performed and led to the identification of a member of the glutaredoxin family (GRX480, encoded by At1g28480). Glutaredoxins are candidates for mediating redox regulation of proteins because of their capacity to catalyze disulfide transitions. This agrees with previous findings that the redox state of both TGA1 and NPR1 changes under inducing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing GRX480 show near wild-type expression of standard marker genes for SA- and xenobiotic-inducible responses. In contrast, transcription of the JA-dependent defensin gene PDF1.2 was antagonized by transgenic GRX480. This, together with the observation that GRX480 transcription is SA-inducible and requires NPR1, suggests a role of GRX480 in SA/JA cross-talk. Suppression of PDF1.2 by GRX480 depends on the presence of TGA factors, indicating that the GRX480/TGA interaction is effective in planta.

  8. Arabidopsis class I and class II TCP transcription factors regulate jasmonic acid metabolism and leaf development antagonistically.

    PubMed

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Muino, Jose M; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2012-08-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway.

  9. Nuclear Function of Subclass I Actin-Depolymerizing Factor Contributes to Susceptibility in Arabidopsis to an Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungus.

    PubMed

    Inada, Noriko; Higaki, Takumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2016-03-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are conserved proteins that function in regulating the structure and dynamics of actin microfilaments in eukaryotes. In this study, we present evidence that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) subclass I ADFs, particularly ADF4, functions as a susceptibility factor for an adapted powdery mildew fungus. The null mutant of ADF4 significantly increased resistance against the adapted powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces orontii. The degree of resistance was further enhanced in transgenic plants in which the expression of all subclass I ADFs (i.e. ADF1-ADF4) was suppressed. Microscopic observations revealed that the enhanced resistance of adf4 and ADF1-4 knockdown plants (ADF1-4Ri) was associated with the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and cell death specific to G. orontii-infected cells. The increased resistance and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in ADF1-4Ri were suppressed by the introduction of mutations in the salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signaling pathways but not by a mutation in the ethylene-signaling pathway. Quantification by microscopic images detected an increase in the level of actin microfilament bundling in ADF1-4Ri but not in adf4 at early G. orontii infection time points. Interestingly, complementation analysis revealed that nuclear localization of ADF4 was crucial for susceptibility to G. orontii. Based on its G. orontii-infected-cell-specific phenotype, we suggest that subclass I ADFs are susceptibility factors that function in a direct interaction between the host plant and the powdery mildew fungus.

  10. Antarctic Moss Multiprotein Bridging Factor 1c Overexpression in Arabidopsis Resulted in Enhanced Tolerance to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Alavilli, Hemasundar; Lee, Hyoungseok; Park, Mira; Lee, Byeong-ha

    2017-01-01

    Polytrichastrum alpinum is one of the moss species that survives extreme conditions in the Antarctic. In order to explore the functional benefits of moss genetic resources, P. alpinum multiprotein-bridging factor 1c gene (PaMBF1c) was isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaMBF1c comprises of a multiprotein-bridging factor (MBF1) domain and a helix-turn-helix (HTH) domain. PaMBF1c expression was induced by different abiotic stresses in P. alpinum, implying its roles in stress responses. We overexpressed PaMBF1c in Arabidopsis and analyzed the resulting phenotypes in comparison with wild type and/or Arabidopsis MBF1c (AtMBF1c) overexpressors. Overexpression of PaMBF1c in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, as well as to cold and heat stress. More specifically, enhanced salt tolerance was observed in PaMBF1c overexpressors in comparison to wild type but not clearly observable in AtMBF1c overexpressing lines. Thus, these results implicate the evolution of PaMBF1c under salt-enriched Antarctic soil. RNA-Seq profiling of NaCl-treated plants revealed that 10 salt-stress inducible genes were already up-regulated in PaMBF1c overexpressing plants even before NaCl treatment. Gene ontology enrichment analysis with salt up-regulated genes in each line uncovered that the terms lipid metabolic process, ion transport, and cellular amino acid biosynthetic process were significantly enriched in PaMBF1c overexpressors. Additionally, gene enrichment analysis with salt down-regulated genes in each line revealed that the enriched categories in wild type were not significantly overrepresented in PaMBF1c overexpressing lines. The up-regulation of several genes only in PaMBF1c overexpressing lines suggest that enhanced salt tolerance in PaMBF1c-OE might involve reactive oxygen species detoxification, maintenance of ATP homeostasis, and facilitation of Ca2+ signaling. Interestingly, many salt down-regulated ribosome- and

  11. Fluctuations of the transcription factor ATML1 generate the pattern of giant cells in the Arabidopsis sepal

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Heather M; Teles, José; Formosa-Jordan, Pau; Refahi, Yassin; San-Bento, Rita; Ingram, Gwyneth; Jönsson, Henrik; Locke, James C W; Roeder, Adrienne H K

    2017-01-01

    Multicellular development produces patterns of specialized cell types. Yet, it is often unclear how individual cells within a field of identical cells initiate the patterning process. Using live imaging, quantitative image analyses and modeling, we show that during Arabidopsis thaliana sepal development, fluctuations in the concentration of the transcription factor ATML1 pattern a field of identical epidermal cells to differentiate into giant cells interspersed between smaller cells. We find that ATML1 is expressed in all epidermal cells. However, its level fluctuates in each of these cells. If ATML1 levels surpass a threshold during the G2 phase of the cell cycle, the cell will likely enter a state of endoreduplication and become giant. Otherwise, the cell divides. Our results demonstrate a fluctuation-driven patterning mechanism for how cell fate decisions can be initiated through a random yet tightly regulated process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19131.001 PMID:28145865

  12. PICKLE is a CHD3 chromatin-remodeling factor that regulates the transition from embryonic to vegetative development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ogas, Joe; Kaufmann, Scott; Henderson, Jim; Somerville, Chris

    1999-01-01

    The life cycle of angiosperms is punctuated by a dormant phase that separates embryonic and postembryonic development of the sporophyte. In the pickle (pkl) mutant of Arabidopsis, embryonic traits are expressed after germination. The penetrance of the pkl phenotype is strongly enhanced by inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis. Map-based cloning of the PKL locus revealed that it encodes a CHD3 protein. CHD3 proteins have been implicated as chromatin-remodeling factors involved in repression of transcription. PKL is necessary for repression of LEC1, a gene implicated as a critical activator of embryo development. We propose that PKL is a component of a gibberellin-modulated developmental switch that functions during germination to prevent reexpression of the embryonic developmental state. PMID:10570159

  13. Pertussis toxin-insensitive effects of mastoparan, a wasp venom peptide, in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Murayama, T; Oda, H; Nomura, Y

    1996-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that mastoparan, an amphiphilic peptide derived from wasp venom, modifies the secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones from a variety of cell types. Mastoparan interacts with heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) such as Gi and G(o), which are ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin (PTX) and thereby uncoupled from receptors. Previously, some of the effects of mastoparan including secretion were reported to be modified selectively by PTX but not by cholera toxin (CTX). In the present study, we examined the influence of bacterial toxins on the effects of mastoparan in PC12 cells. Mastoparan stimulated [3H]noradrenaline (NA) release from prelabeled PC12 cells in the absence of CaCl2, although high K+ or ATP-stimulated the release in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Pretreatment with CTX, not PTX, for 24 h inhibited mastoparan-stimulated [3H]NA release. Mastoparan inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner, although mastoparan had no effect by itself. Pretreatment with PTX completely abolished the inhibitory effect of carbachol via Gi on cyclic AMP accumulation and partially reduced the effect of mastoparan. However, the inhibitory effect of 20 microM mastoparan was not modified by pretreatment with PTX. Thus, we investigated the effect of mastoparan on CTX-catalyzed [32P]ADP-ribosylation of proteins in PC12 cells. A subunit of CTX (CTX-A) catalyzed [32P]ADP-ribosylation of many proteins in the cytosolic fraction of PC12 cells. One of these was a 20 kDa protein, named ADP-ribosylating factor (ARF). The addition of mastoparan to assay mixtures inhibited ADP-ribosylation of many proteins including ARF and CTX-A in the presence of the cytosolic fraction. In the absence of the cytosolic fraction, however, mastoparan slightly enhanced ADP-ribosylation of bovine serum albumin and auto-ADP-ribosylation by CTX-A. Mastoparan did not inhibit ADP-ribosylation of the alpha subunit of Gs in the

  14. Arabidopsis NAC Transcription Factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 Exerts Conserved Control Over Gibberellin and Brassinosteroid Metabolism and Signaling Genes in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shahnejat-Bushehri, Sara; Allu, Annapurna D.; Mehterov, Nikolay; Thirumalaikumar, Venkatesh P.; Alseekh, Saleh; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (AtJUB1) regulates growth by directly repressing GA3ox1 and DWF4, two key genes involved in gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis, respectively, leading to GA and BR deficiency phenotypes. AtJUB1 also reduces the expression of PIF4, a bHLH transcription factor that positively controls cell elongation, while it stimulates the expression of DELLA genes, which are important repressors of growth. Here, we extend our previous findings by demonstrating that AtJUB1 induces similar GA and BR deficiency phenotypes and changes in gene expression when overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Importantly, and in accordance with the growth phenotypes observed, AtJUB1 inhibits the expression of growth-supporting genes, namely the tomato orthologs of GA3ox1, DWF4 and PIF4, but activates the expression of DELLA orthologs, by directly binding to their promoters. Overexpression of AtJUB1 in tomato delays fruit ripening, which is accompanied by reduced expression of several ripening-related genes, and leads to an increase in the levels of various amino acids (mostly proline, β-alanine, and phenylalanine), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and major organic acids including glutamic acid and aspartic acid. The fact that AtJUB1 exerts an inhibitory effect on the GA/BR biosynthesis and PIF4 genes but acts as a direct activator of DELLA genes in both, Arabidopsis and tomato, strongly supports the model that the molecular constituents of the JUNGBRUNNEN1 growth control module are considerably conserved across species. PMID:28326087

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana BTB/ POZ-MATH proteins interact with members of the ERF/AP2 transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Weber, Henriette; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2009-11-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the BTB/POZ-MATH (BPM) proteins comprise a small family of six members. They have been described previously to use their broad complex, tram track, bric-a-brac/POX virus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domain to assemble with CUL3a and CUL3b and potentially to serve as substrate adaptors to cullin-based E3-ligases in plants. In this article, we show that BPMs can also assemble with members of the ethylene response factor/Apetala2 transcription factor family, and that this is mediated by their meprin and TRAF (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor) homology (MATH) domain. In addition, we provide a detailed description of BPM gene expression patterns in different tissues and on abiotic stress treatments, as well as their subcellular localization. This work connects, for the first time, BPM proteins with ethylene response factor/Apetala2 family members, which is likely to represent a novel regulatory mechanism of transcriptional control.

  16. PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 5 (PIF5) positively regulates dark-induced senescence and chlorophyll degradation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhongjuan; Chen, Yadi; He, Jun-Xian; Bi, Yurong

    2015-08-01

    Darkness is a known environmental factor that induces plant senescence. Here, Phytochrome-Interacting Factors (PIFs), several bHLH transcription factors involved in plant skotomorphogenesis, were examined for their roles in the regulation of dark-induced senescence and chlorophyll breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana. After light-grown seedlings were transferred to darkness, green leaves turned yellow, and chlorophyll contents decreased, but membrane lipid peroxidation and cell death increased in wild-type Col-0. These responses were enhanced in overexpression line PIF5OX but decreased in mutant pif5-3. Darkness significantly induced expression of several genes involved in chlorophyll breakdown, including SGR, NYC1, NOL, and PAO, as well as genes encoding for transcription factors that have been shown to be required for dark-induced senescence, including WRKY22, NAP, EIN3, EIL1, and ORE1. These effects on gene expression were also enhanced in PIF5OX but decreased in pif5-3 relative to Col-0. Further analyses using ChIP-qPCR, EMSA, and protoplast transient assays indicated that PIF5 binds to the G-box motifs in the promoters of SGR, NYC1, and ORE1 genes and stimulate their expression. Collectively, our data indicate that PIF5 is a key factor that positively regulates dark-induced senescence upstream of ORE1 and regulates chlorophyll breakdown upstream of SGR and NYC1.

  17. Structural and Functional Analysis of VQ Motif-Containing Proteins in Arabidopsis as Interacting Proteins of WRKY Transcription Factors1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Chi, Ying-Jun; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Jian-Ye; Wang, Fei; Fan, Baofang; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are encoded by a large gene superfamily with a broad range of roles in plants. Recently, several groups have reported that proteins containing a short VQ (FxxxVQxLTG) motif interact with WRKY proteins. We have recently discovered that two VQ proteins from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), SIGMA FACTOR-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 and SIGMA FACTOR-INTERACTING PROTEIN2, act as coactivators of WRKY33 in plant defense by specifically recognizing the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulating the DNA-binding activity of WRKY33. In this study, we have analyzed the entire family of 34 structurally divergent VQ proteins from Arabidopsis. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assays showed that Arabidopsis VQ proteins interacted specifically with the C-terminal WRKY domains of group I and the sole WRKY domains of group IIc WRKY proteins. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified structural features of these two closely related groups of WRKY domains that are critical for interaction with VQ proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression of a majority of Arabidopsis VQ genes was responsive to pathogen infection and salicylic acid treatment. Functional analysis using both knockout mutants and overexpression lines revealed strong phenotypes in growth, development, and susceptibility to pathogen infection. Altered phenotypes were substantially enhanced through cooverexpression of genes encoding interacting VQ and WRKY proteins. These findings indicate that VQ proteins play an important role in plant growth, development, and response to environmental conditions, most likely by acting as cofactors of group I and IIc WRKY transcription factors. PMID:22535423

  18. Functional Phosphoproteomic Analysis Reveals That a Serine-62-Phosphorylated Isoform of Ethylene Response Factor110 Is Involved in Arabidopsis Bolting1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Liu, Dandan; Li, Yaojun; Li, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene is a major plant hormone that plays an important role in regulating bolting, although the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we report the novel finding that the serine-62 (Ser-62) phosphorylation of Ethylene Response Factor110 (ERF110) is involved in the regulation of bolting time. The gene expression and posttranslational modification (phosphorylation) of ERF110 were analyzed among ethylene-response mutants and ERF110 RNA-interfering knockout lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Physiological and biochemical studies revealed that the Ser-62 phosphorylation of ERF110 was closely related to bolting time, that is, the ethylene-enhanced gene expression of ERF110 and the decreased Ser-62 phosphorylation of the ERF110 protein in Arabidopsis. The expression of a flowering homeotic APETALA1 gene was up-regulated by the Ser-62-phosphorylated isoform of the ERF110 transcription factor, which was necessary but not sufficient for normal bolting. The gene expression and phosphorylation of ERF110 were regulated by ethylene via both Ethylene-Insensitive2-dependent and -independent pathways, which constitute a dual-and-opposing mechanism of action for ethylene in the regulation of Arabidopsis bolting. PMID:23188807

  19. Mutational Evidence for the Critical Role of CBF Transcription Factors in Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengjing; Li, Yuanya

    2016-01-01

    The three tandemly arranged CBF genes, CBF1, CBF2, and CBF3, are involved in cold acclimation. Due to the lack of stable loss-of-function Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants deficient in all three CBF genes, it is still unclear whether the CBF genes are essential for freezing tolerance and whether they may have other functions besides cold acclimation. In this study, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate cbf single, double, and triple mutants. Compared to the wild type, the cbf triple mutants are extremely sensitive to freezing after cold acclimation, demonstrating that the three CBF genes are essential for cold acclimation. Our results show that the three CBF genes also contribute to basal freezing tolerance. Unexpectedly, we found that the cbf triple mutants are defective in seedling development and salt stress tolerance. Transcript profiling revealed that the CBF genes regulate 414 cold-responsive (COR) genes, of which 346 are CBF-activated genes and 68 are CBF-repressed genes. The analysis suggested that CBF proteins are extensively involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell wall modification, and gene transcription. Interestingly, like the triple mutants, cbf2 cbf3 double mutants are more sensitive to freezing after cold acclimation compared to the wild type, but cbf1 cbf3 double mutants are more resistant, suggesting that CBF2 is more important than CBF1 and CBF3 in cold acclimation-dependent freezing tolerance. Our results not only demonstrate that the three CBF genes together are required for cold acclimation and freezing tolerance, but also reveal that they are important for salt tolerance and seedling development. PMID:27252305

  20. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, Nora; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved

  1. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Nora; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved

  2. Misregulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 Underlies the Developmental Abnormalities Caused by Three Distinct Viral Silencing Suppressors in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Florence; Wang, Yu; Yu, Agnès; Taconnat, Ludivine; Pelletier, Sandra; Colot, Vincent; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Voinnet, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, micro (mi)RNAs and trans-acting (ta-si)RNAs synthesized directly or indirectly through the DICER-LIKE-1 (DCL1) ribonuclease have roles in patterning and hormonal responses, while DCL2,3,4-dependent small-interfering (si)RNAs are mainly involved in silencing of transposable elements and antiviral defense. Viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) produced by phytoviruses to counter plant defense may perturb plant developmental programs because of the collision of their inhibitory effects with the regulatory action of endogenous miRNAs and ta-siRNAs. This could explain the similar developmental aberrations displayed by Arabidopsis miRNA/ta-siRNA pathway mutants, including dcl1, and by some VSR-expressing plants. Nonetheless, the molecular bases for these morphological aberrations have remained mysterious, and their contribution to viral disease symptoms/virulence unexplored. The extent of VSR inhibitory actions to other types of endogenous small RNAs remains also unclear. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing constitutively HcPro, P19 and P15, three unrelated VSRs. We show that VSR expression has comparable, yet modest effects on known miRNA and ta-siRNA target RNA levels, similar to those observed using an hypomorphic dcl1 mutation. However, by combining results of transcriptome studies with deep-sequencing data from immuno-precipitated small RNAs, additional, novel endogenous targets of miRNA and ta-siRNA were identified, unraveling an unsuspected complexity in the origin and scope-of-action of these molecules. Other stringent analyses pinpointed misregulation of the miR167 target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 (ARF8) as a major cause for the developmental aberrations exhibited by VSR transgenic plants, but also for the phenotypes induced during normal viral infection caused by the HcPro-encoding Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Neither RNA silencing, its suppression by VSRs, nor the virulence/accumulation of TuMV was

  3. Arabidopsis Ensemble Reverse-Engineered Gene Regulatory Network Discloses Interconnected Transcription Factors in Oxidative Stress[W

    PubMed Central

    Vermeirssen, Vanessa; De Clercq, Inge; Van Parys, Thomas; Van Breusegem, Frank; Van de Peer, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The abiotic stress response in plants is complex and tightly controlled by gene regulation. We present an abiotic stress gene regulatory network of 200,014 interactions for 11,938 target genes by integrating four complementary reverse-engineering solutions through average rank aggregation on an Arabidopsis thaliana microarray expression compendium. This ensemble performed the most robustly in benchmarking and greatly expands upon the availability of interactions currently reported. Besides recovering 1182 known regulatory interactions, cis-regulatory motifs and coherent functionalities of target genes corresponded with the predicted transcription factors. We provide a valuable resource of 572 abiotic stress modules of coregulated genes with functional and regulatory information, from which we deduced functional relationships for 1966 uncharacterized genes and many regulators. Using gain- and loss-of-function mutants of seven transcription factors grown under control and salt stress conditions, we experimentally validated 141 out of 271 predictions (52% precision) for 102 sel