Science.gov

Sample records for arabidopsis cell cultures1w

  1. Binding of Arabinogalactan Proteins by Yariv Phenylglycoside Triggers Wound-Like Responses in Arabidopsis Cell Cultures1[w

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yu; Nothnagel, Eugene A.

    2004-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are cell wall proteoglycans and are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Classical AGPs and some nonclassical AGPs are predicted to have a glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor and have been suggested to be involved in cell-cell signaling. Yariv phenylglycoside is a synthetic probe that specifically binds to plant AGPs and has been used to study AGP functions. We treated Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures with Yariv phenylglycoside and observed decreased cell viability, increased cell wall apposition and cytoplasmic vesiculation, and induction of callose deposition. The induction of cell wall apposition and callose synthesis led us to hypothesize that Yariv binding of plant surface AGPs triggers wound-like responses. To study the effect of Yariv binding to plant surface AGPs and to further understand AGP functions, an Arabidopsis whole genome array was used to monitor the transcriptional modifications after Yariv treatment. By comparing the genes that are induced by Yariv treatment with genes whose expressions have been previously shown to be induced by other conditions, we conclude that the gene expression profile induced by Yariv phenylglycoside treatment is most similar to that of wound induction. It remains uncertain whether the Yariv phenylglycoside cross-linking of cell surface AGPs induces these genes through a specific AGP-based signaling mechanism or through a general mechanical perturbation of the cell surface. PMID:15235117

  2. Cinnamate:CoA Ligase Initiates the Biosynthesis of a Benzoate-Derived Xanthone Phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum Cell Cultures1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Gaid, Mariam M.; Sircar, Debabrata; Müller, Andreas; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Ernst, Ludger; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of plant natural products are derived from benzoic acid, the biosynthesis of this structurally simple precursor is poorly understood. Hypericum calycinum cell cultures accumulate a benzoic acid-derived xanthone phytoalexin, hyperxanthone E, in response to elicitor treatment. Using a subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) library and sequence information about conserved coenzyme A (CoA) ligase motifs, a cDNA encoding cinnamate:CoA ligase (CNL) was isolated. This enzyme channels metabolic flux from the general phenylpropanoid pathway into benzenoid metabolism. HcCNL preferred cinnamic acid as a substrate but failed to activate benzoic acid. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the presence of Mg2+ and K+ at optimum concentrations of 2.5 and 100 mm, respectively. Coordinated increases in the Phe ammonia-lyase and HcCNL transcript levels preceded the accumulation of hyperxanthone E in cell cultures of H. calycinum after the addition of the elicitor. HcCNL contained a carboxyl-terminal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal made up by the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Leu, which directed an amino-terminal reporter fusion to the peroxisomes. Masking the targeting signal by carboxyl-terminal reporter fusion led to cytoplasmic localization. A phylogenetic tree consisted of two evolutionarily distinct clusters. One cluster was formed by CoA ligases related to benzenoid metabolism, including HcCNL. The other cluster comprised 4-coumarate:CoA ligases from spermatophytes, ferns, and mosses, indicating divergence of the two clades prior to the divergence of the higher plant lineages. PMID:22992510

  3. Cell Polarity Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenbiao

    2009-01-01

    Cell polarization is intimately linked to plant development, growth, and responses to the environment. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the signaling pathways and networks that regulate cell polarity in plants owing to recent studies on several model systems, e.g., tip growth in pollen tubes, cell morphogenesis in the leaf epidermis, and polar localization of PINs. From these studies we have learned that plant cells use conserved mechanisms such as Rho family GTPases to integrate both plant-specific and conserved polarity cues and to coordinate the cytoskeketon dynamics/reorganization and vesicular trafficking required for polarity establishment and maintenance. This review focuses upon signaling mechanisms for cell polarity formation in Arabidopsis, with an emphasis on Rho GTPase signaling in polarized cell growth and how these mechanisms compare with those for cell polarity signaling in yeast and animal systems. PMID:18837672

  4. Differentiation of programmed Arabidopsis cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, De-Yu; Shi, Ming-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Plants express genes that encode enzymes that catalyse reactions to form plant secondary metabolites in specific cell types. However, the mechanisms of how plants decide their cellular metabolic fate and how cells diversify and specialise their specific secondary metabolites remains largely unknown. Additionally, whether and how an established metabolic program impacts genome-wide reprogramming of plant gene expression is unclear. We recently isolated PAP1-programmed anthocyanin-producing (red) and -free (white) cells from Arabidopsis thaliana; our previous studies have indicated that the PAP1 expression level is similar between these two different cell types. Transcriptional analysis showed that the red cells contain the TTG1-GL3/TT8-PAP1 regulatory complex, which controls anthocyanin biosynthesis; in contrast, the white cells and the wild-type cells lack this entire complex. These data indicate that different regulatory programming underlies the different metabolic states of these cells. In addition, our previous transcriptomic comparison indicated that there is a clear difference in the gene expression profiles of the red and wild-type cells, which is probably a consequence of cell-specific reprogramming. Based on these observations, in this report we discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie the programming and reprogramming of gene expression involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:22126737

  5. Comparative transcriptomics of Arabidopsis sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Borges, Filipe; Gomes, Gabriela; Gardner, Rui; Moreno, Nuno; McCormick, Sheila; Feijó, José A; Becker, Jörg D

    2008-10-01

    In flowering plants, the two sperm cells are embedded within the cytoplasm of the growing pollen tube and as such are passively transported to the embryo sac, wherein double fertilization occurs upon their release. Understanding the mechanisms and conditions by which male gametes mature and take part in fertilization are crucial goals in the study of plant reproduction. Studies of gene expression in male gametes of maize (Zea mays) and Plumbago and in lily (Lilium longiflorum) generative cells already showed that the previously held view of transcriptionally inert male gametes was not true, but genome-wide studies were lacking. Analyses in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were hindered, because no method to isolate sperm cells was available. Here, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate sperm cells from Arabidopsis, allowing GeneChip analysis of their transcriptome at a genome-wide level. Comparative analysis of the sperm cell transcriptome with those of representative sporophytic tissues and of pollen showed that sperm has a distinct and diverse transcriptional profile. Functional classifications of genes with enriched expression in sperm cells showed that DNA repair, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and cell cycle progression are overrepresented Gene Ontology categories. Moreover, analysis of the small RNA and DNA methylation pathways suggests that distinct mechanisms might be involved in regulating the epigenetic state of the paternal genome. We identified numerous candidate genes whose involvement in sperm cell development and fertilization can now be directly tested in Arabidopsis. These results provide a roadmap to decipher the role of sperm-expressed proteins.

  6. The peri-cell-cycle in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, T; Burssens, S; Inzé, D

    2001-03-01

    The root systems of plants proliferate via de novo formed meristems originating from differentiated pericycle cells. The identity of putative signals responsible for triggering some of the pericycle cells to re-enter the cell cycle remains unknown. Here, the cell cycle regulation in the pericycle of seedling roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) HEYNH: is studied shortly after germination using various strategies. Based on the detailed analysis of the promoter-beta-glucuronidase activity of four key cell cycle regulatory genes, combined with cell length measurements, microdensitometry of DNA content, and experiments with a cell cycle-blocking agent, a model is proposed for cell cycle regulation in the pericycle at the onset of lateral root initiation. The results clearly show that before the first lateral root is initiated, the pericycle consists of dissimilar cell files in respect of their cell division history. Depending on the distance behind the root tip and on position in relation to the vascular tissue, particular pericycle cells remain in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle and are apparently more susceptible to lateral root initiation than others.

  7. A novel system for xylem cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuki; Fujita, Takashi; Sugiyama, Munetaka; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2015-04-01

    During vascular development, procambial and cambial cells give rise to xylem and phloem cells. Because the vascular tissue is deeply embedded, it has been difficult to analyze the processes of vascular development in detail. Here, we establish a novel in vitro experimental system in which vascular development is induced in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf-disk cultures using bikinin, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 proteins. Transcriptome analysis reveals that mesophyll cells in leaf disks synchronously turn into procambial cells and then differentiate into tracheary elements. Leaf-disk cultures from plants expressing the procambial cell markers TDR(pro):GUS and TDR(pro):YFP can be used for spatiotemporal visualization of procambial cell formation. Further analysis with the tdr mutant and TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor) indicates that the key signaling TDIF-TDR-GSK3s regulates xylem differentiation in leaf-disk cultures. This new culture system can be combined with analysis using the rich material resources for Arabidopsis including cell-marker lines and mutants, thus offering a powerful tool for analyzing xylem cell differentiation.

  8. Light regulation of cadmium-induced cell death in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sarah J; Wang, Yun; Slabas, Antoni R; Chivasa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant with deleterious effects on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In plants, the effects of cadmium toxicity are concentration dependent; lower doses destabilize many physiological processes and inhibit cell growth and multiplication, while higher doses evoke a more severe response that triggers activation of cell death. We recently investigated the effects of light on cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis using a cell suspension culture system. Although not affecting the inhibitory effects on cell multiplication, we found that light is a powerful regulator of Cd-induced cell death. A very specific proteomic response, which was clearly controlled by light, preceded cell death. Here we discuss the implications of these findings and highlight similarities between the regulation of cell death triggered by Cd and fumonisin B1. We consider how both compounds could be useful tools in dissecting plant cell death signaling. PMID:24398567

  9. Arabidopsis cell-free extract, ACE, a new in vitro translation system derived from Arabidopsis callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Murota, Katsunori; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Komoda, Keisuke; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Naito, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The analysis of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in plants has benefited greatly from the use of cell-free extract systems. Arabidopsis as a model system provides extensive genetic resources; however, to date a suitable cell-free translation system from Arabidopsis has not been available. In this study, we devised an Arabidopsis cell-free extract (ACE) to be used for in vitro translation studies. Protoplasts were prepared from callus cultures derived from Arabidopsis seedlings, and cell-free extracts were prepared after evacuolation of the protoplasts by Percoll gradient centrifugation. The new ACE system exhibits translation activity comparable with that of the wheat germ extract system. We demonstrated that ACE prepared from the 5'-3' exoribonuclease-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis, xrn4-5, exhibited increased stability of an uncapped mRNA as compared with that from wild-type Arabidopsis. We applied the ACE system to study post-transcriptional regulation of AtCGS1. AtCGS1 codes for cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS) that catalyzes the first committed step of methionine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) biosynthesis in plants, and is feedback regulated by mRNA degradation coupled with translation elongation arrest. The ACE system was capable of reproducing translation elongation arrest and subsequent AtCGS1 mRNA degradation that are induced by AdoMet. The ACE system described here can be prepared in a month after seed sowing and will make it possible to study post-transcriptional regulation of plant genes while taking advantage of the genetics of Arabidopsis.

  10. Ethylene Inhibits Cell Proliferation of the Arabidopsis Root Meristem.

    PubMed

    Street, Ian H; Aman, Sitwat; Zubo, Yan; Ramzan, Aleena; Wang, Xiaomin; Shakeel, Samina N; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2015-09-01

    The root system of plants plays a critical role in plant growth and survival, with root growth being dependent on both cell proliferation and cell elongation. Multiple phytohormones interact to control root growth, including ethylene, which is primarily known for its role in controlling root cell elongation. We find that ethylene also negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root meristem of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic analysis indicates that the inhibition of cell proliferation involves two pathways operating downstream of the ethylene receptors. The major pathway is the canonical ethylene signal transduction pathway that incorporates CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2, and the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 family of transcription factors. The secondary pathway is a phosphorelay based on genetic analysis of receptor histidine kinase activity and mutants involving the type B response regulators. Analysis of ethylene-dependent gene expression and genetic analysis supports SHORT HYPOCOTYL2, a repressor of auxin signaling, as one mediator of the ethylene response and furthermore, indicates that SHORT HYPOCOTYL2 is a point of convergence for both ethylene and cytokinin in negatively regulating cell proliferation. Additional analysis indicates that ethylene signaling contributes but is not required for cytokinin to inhibit activity of the root meristem. These results identify key elements, along with points of cross talk with cytokinin and auxin, by which ethylene negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root apical meristem.

  11. An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Teeples, M.; Lin, L.; de Lucas, M.; Turco, G.; Toal, T. W.; Gaudinier, A.; Young, N. F.; Trabucco, G. M.; Veling, M. T.; Lamothe, R.; Handakumbura, P. P.; Xiong, G.; Wang, C.; Corwin, J.; Tsoukalas, A.; Zhang, L.; Ware, D.; Pauly, M.; Kliebenstein, D. J.; Dehesh, K.; Tagkopoulos, I.; Breton, G.; Pruneda-Paz, J. L.; Ahnert, S. E.; Kay, S. A.; Hazen, S. P.; Brady, S. M.

    2014-12-24

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. In this paper, we present a protein–DNA network between Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated by a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. Finally, these interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component.

  12. Plant cell wall proteomics: the leadership of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs) progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cell walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last 10 years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i) a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii) the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv) the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v) the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions. PMID:23641247

  13. Plant cell wall proteomics: the leadership of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs) progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cell walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last 10 years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i) a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii) the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv) the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v) the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions.

  14. Diclofenac in Arabidopsis cells: Rapid formation of conjugates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuguo; Ye, Qingfu; Zhang, Jianbo; Richards, Jaben; Borchardt, Dan; Gan, Jay

    2017-03-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are continuously introduced into the soil-plant system, through practices such as agronomic use of reclaimed water and biosolids containing these trace contaminants. Plants may accumulate PPCPs from soil, serving as a conduit for human exposure. Metabolism likely controls the final accumulation of PPCPs in plants, but is in general poorly understood for emerging contaminants. In this study, we used diclofenac as a model compound, and employed (14)C tracing, and time-of-flight (TOF) and triple quadruple (QqQ) mass spectrometers to unravel its metabolism pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana cells. We further validated the primary metabolites in Arabidopsis seedlings. Diclofenac was quickly taken up into A. thaliana cells. Phase I metabolism involved hydroxylation and successive oxidation and cyclization reactions. However, Phase I metabolites did not accumulate appreciably; they were instead rapidly conjugated with sulfate, glucose, and glutamic acid through Phase II metabolism. In particular, diclofenac parent was directly conjugated with glutamic acid, with acyl-glutamatyl-diclofenac accounting for >70% of the extractable metabolites after 120-h incubation. In addition, at the end of incubation, >40% of the spiked diclofenac was in the non-extractable form, suggesting extensive sequestration into cell matter. The rapid formation of non-extractable residue and dominance of diclofenac-glutamate conjugate uncover previously unknown metabolism pathways for diclofenac. In particular, the rapid conjugation of parent highlights the need to consider conjugates of emerging contaminants in higher plants, and their biological activity and human health implications.

  15. Comparative Transcriptomics of Arabidopsis thaliana Sperm Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In flowering plants the two sperm cells are embedded within the cytoplasm of the growing pollen tube and as such are passively transported to the embryo sac, wherein double fertilization occurs upon their release. Understanding the mechanisms and conditions by which male gametes mature and take part...

  16. Bicarbonate Induced Redox Proteome Changes in Arabidopsis Suspension Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zepeng; Balmant, Kelly; Geng, Sisi; Zhu, Ning; Zhang, Tong; Dufresne, Craig; Dai, Shaojun; Chen, Sixue

    2017-01-01

    Climate change as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 affects plant growth and productivity. CO2 is not only a carbon donor for photosynthesis but also an environmental signal that can perturb cellular redox homeostasis and lead to modifications of redox-sensitive proteins. Although redox regulation of protein functions has emerged as an important mechanism in several biological processes, protein redox modifications and how they function in plant CO2 response remain unclear. Here a new iodoTMTRAQ proteomics technology was employed to analyze changes in protein redox modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells in response to bicarbonate (mimic of elevated CO2) in a time-course study. A total of 47 potential redox-regulated proteins were identified with functions in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transport, ROS scavenging, cell structure modulation and protein turnover. This inventory of previously unknown redox responsive proteins in Arabidopsis bicarbonate responses lays a foundation for future research toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying plant CO2 responses. PMID:28184230

  17. An enlarged cell wall proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Vincent; Duruflé, Harold; San Clemente, Hélène; Albenne, Cécile; Balliau, Thierry; Zivy, Michel; Dunand, Christophe; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2016-12-01

    Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls playing many roles during development and in response to environmental constraints. Cell walls are mainly composed of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins), but they also contain proteins which are critical players in cell wall remodeling processes. Today, the cell wall proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana, a major dicot model plant, comprises more than 700 proteins predicted to be secreted (cell wall proteins-CWPs) identified in different organs or in cell suspension cultures. However, the cell wall proteome of rosettes is poorly represented with only 148 CWPs identified after extraction by vacuum infiltration. This new study allows enlarging its coverage. A destructive method starting with the purification of cell walls has been performed and two experiments have been compared. They differ by the presence/absence of protein separation by a short 1D-electrophoresis run prior to tryptic digestion and different gradient programs for peptide separation before mass spectrometry analysis. Altogether, the rosette cell wall proteome has been significantly enlarged to 361 CWPs, among which 213 newly identified in rosettes and 57 newly described. The identified CWPs fall in four major functional classes: 26.1% proteins acting on polysaccharides, 11.1% oxido-reductases, 14.7% proteases and 11.7% proteins possibly related to lipid metabolism.

  18. Pericycle cell proliferation and lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, J G; Doerner, P W; Colón-Carmona, A; Rost, T L

    2000-12-01

    In contrast with other cells generated by the root apical meristem in Arabidopsis, pericycle cells adjacent to the protoxylem poles of the vascular cylinder continue to cycle without interruption during passage through the elongation and differentiation zones. However, only some of the dividing pericycle cells are committed to the asymmetric, formative divisions that give rise to lateral root primordia (LRPs). This was demonstrated by direct observation and mapping of mitotic figures, cell-length measurements, and the histochemical analysis of a cyclin-GUS fusion protein in pericycle cells. The estimated duration of a pericycle cell cycle in the root apical meristem was similar to the interval between cell displacement from the meristem and the initiation of LRP formation. Developmentally controlled LRP initiation occurs early, 3 to 8 mm from the root tip. Thus the first growth control point in lateral root formation is defined by the initiation of primordia in stochastic patterns by cells passing through the elongation and young differentiation zones, up to where lateral roots begin to emerge from the primary root. Therefore, the first growth control point is not restricted to a narrow developmental window. We propose that late LRP initiation is developmentally unrelated to the root apical meristem and is operated by a second growth control point that can be activated by environmental cues. The observation that pericycle cells divide and lateral root primordia form without intervening mitotic quiescence suggests that lateral organ formation in roots and shoots might not be as fundamentally different as previously thought.

  19. Molecule mechanism of stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjin; Yu, Rongming

    2014-07-01

    Plants possess the ability to continually produce new tissues and organs throughout their life. Unlike animals, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. The vitality of plants is so powerful that they can survive several hundreds of years or even more making it an amazing miracle that comes from plant stem cells. The stem cells continue to divide to renew themselves and provide cells for the formation of leaves, stems, and flowers. Stem cells are not only quiescent but also immortal, pluripotent and homeostatic. Stem cells are the magic cells that repair tissues and regenerate organs. During the past decade, scholars around the world have paid more and more attention toward plant stem cells. At present, the major challenge is in relating molecule action mechanism to root apical meristem, shoot apical meristem and vascular system. The coordination between stem cells maintenance and differentiation is critical for normal plant growth and development. Elements such as phytohormones, transcription factors and some other known or unknown genes cooperate to balance this process. In this review, Arabidopsis thaliana as a pioneer system, we highlight recent developments in molecule modulating, illustrating how plant stem cells generate new mechanistic insights into the regulation of plants growth and development.

  20. Arabidopsis cell expansion is controlled by a photothermal switch

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Henrik; Jones, Harriet J.; Foreman, Julia; Hemsted, Joseph R.; Stewart, Kelly; Grima, Ramon; Halliday, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the seedling hypocotyl has emerged as an exemplar model system to study light and temperature control of cell expansion. Light sensitivity of this organ is epitomized in the fluence rate response where suppression of hypocotyl elongation increases incrementally with light intensity. This finely calibrated response is controlled by the photoreceptor, phytochrome B, through the deactivation and proteolytic destruction of phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs). Here we show that this classical light response is strictly temperature dependent: a shift in temperature induces a dramatic reversal of response from inhibition to promotion of hypocotyl elongation by light. Applying an integrated experimental and mathematical modelling approach, we show how light and temperature coaction in the circuitry drives a molecular switch in PIF activity and control of cell expansion. This work provides a paradigm to understand the importance of signal convergence in evoking different or non-intuitive alterations in molecular signalling. PMID:25258215

  1. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Asako; Shimada-Beltran, Harumi; Levy, Amit; Zheng, Judy Y.; Javia, Parth A.; Lazarowitz, Sondra G.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010). To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV), which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP), Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein) and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO) to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread. PMID:25414709

  2. Cell wall proteome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mature stems.

    PubMed

    Duruflé, Harold; Clemente, Hélène San; Balliau, Thierry; Zivy, Michel; Dunand, Christophe; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-02-02

    Plant stems carry flowers necessary for species propagation and need to be adapted to mechanical disturbance and environmental factors. The stem cell walls are different from other organs and can modify their rigidity or viscoelastic properties for the integrity and the robustness required to withstand mechanical impacts and environmental stresses. Plant cell wall is composed of complex polysaccharide networks also containing cell wall proteins (CWPs) crucial to perceive and limit the environmental effects. The CWPs are fundamental players in cell wall remodeling processes, and today, only 86 have been identified from the mature stems of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. With a destructive method, this study has enlarged its coverage to 302 CWPs. This new proteome is mainly composed of 27.5% proteins acting on polysaccharides, 16% proteases, 11.6% oxido-reductases, 11% possibly related to lipid metabolism and 11% of proteins with interacting domains with proteins or polysaccharides. Compared to stem cell wall proteomes already available (Brachypodium distachyon, Sacharum officinarum, Linum usitatissimum, Medicago sativa), that of A. thaliana stems has a higher proportion of proteins acting on polysaccharides and of proteases, but a lower proportion of oxido-reductases.

  3. Allyl isothiocyanate affects the cell cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Åsberg, Signe E.; Bones, Atle M.; Øverby, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are degradation products of glucosinolates present in members of the Brassicaceae family acting as herbivore repellents and antimicrobial compounds. Recent results indicate that allyl ITC (AITC) has a role in defense responses such as glutathione depletion, ROS generation and stomatal closure. In this study we show that exposure to non-lethal concentrations of AITC causes a shift in the cell cycle distribution of Arabidopsis thaliana leading to accumulation of cells in S-phases and a reduced number of cells in non-replicating phases. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed an AITC-induced up-regulation of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase A while several genes encoding mitotic proteins were down-regulated, suggesting an inhibition of mitotic processes. Interestingly, visualization of DNA synthesis indicated that exposure to AITC reduced the rate of DNA replication. Taken together, these results indicate that non-lethal concentrations of AITC induce cells of A. thaliana to enter the cell cycle and accumulate in S-phases, presumably as a part of a defensive response. Thus, this study suggests that AITC has several roles in plant defense and add evidence to the growing data supporting a multifunctional role of glucosinolates and their degradation products in plants. PMID:26042144

  4. An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor-Teeples, M.; Lin, L.; de Lucas, M.; ...

    2014-12-24

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. In this paper, we present a protein–DNA network between Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated bymore » a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. Finally, these interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component.« less

  5. QUASIMODO 3 (QUA3) is a putative homogalacturonan methyltransferase regulating cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yansong; Li, Hong-Ye; Shen, Jinbo; Wang, Junqi; Jiang, Liwen

    2011-01-01

    Pectins are complex polysaccharides that are essential components of the plant cell wall. In this study, a novel putative Arabidopsis S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase, termed QUASIMODO 3 (QUA3, At4g00740), has been characterized and it was demonstrated that it is a Golgi-localized, type II integral membrane protein that functions in methylesterification of the pectin homogalacturonan (HG). Although transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings with overexpression, or knock-down, of QUA3 do not show altered phenotypes or changes in pectin methylation, this enzyme is highly expressed and abundant in Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells. In contrast, in cells subjected to QUA3 RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down there is less pectin methylation as well as altered composition and assembly of cell wall polysaccharides. Taken together, these observations point to a Golgi-localized QUA3 playing an essential role in controlling pectin methylation and cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures. PMID:21725030

  6. Exploring Arabidopsis thaliana Root Endophytes via Single-Cell Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, Derek; Woyke, Tanja; Tringe, Susannah; Dangl, Jeff

    2014-03-19

    Land plants grow in association with microbial communities both on their surfaces and inside the plant (endophytes). The relationships between microbes and their host can vary from pathogenic to mutualistic. Colonization of the endophyte compartment occurs in the presence of a sophisticated plant immune system, implying finely tuned discrimination of pathogens from mutualists and commensals. Despite the importance of the microbiome to the plant, relatively little is known about the specific interactions between plants and microbes, especially in the case of endophytes. The vast majority of microbes have not been grown in the lab, and thus one of the few ways of studying them is by examining their DNA. Although metagenomics is a powerful tool for examining microbial communities, its application to endophyte samples is technically difficult due to the presence of large amounts of host plant DNA in the sample. One method to address these difficulties is single-cell genomics where a single microbial cell is isolated from a sample, lysed, and its genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to produce enough DNA for genome sequencing. This produces a single-cell amplified genome (SAG). We have applied this technology to study the endophytic microbes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Extensive 16S gene profiling of the microbial communities in the roots of multiple inbred A. thaliana strains has identified 164 OTUs as being significantly enriched in all the root endophyte samples compared to their presence in bulk soil.

  7. Starting to Gel: How Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Produce Specialized Secondary Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Yang, Bo; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Usadel, Björn

    2015-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Arabidopsis seed coat epidermis (SCE) has been used as a model system to study the synthesis, secretion and modification of cell wall polysaccharides, particularly pectin. Our detailed re-evaluation of available biochemical data highlights that Arabidopsis seed mucilage is more than just pectin. Typical secondary wall polymers such as xylans and heteromannans are also present in mucilage. Despite their low abundance, these components appear to play essential roles in controlling mucilage properties, and should be further investigated. We also provide a comprehensive community resource by re-assessing the mucilage phenotypes of almost 20 mutants using the same conditions. We conduct an in-depth functional evaluation of all the SCE genes described in the literature and propose a revised model for mucilage production. Further investigation of SCE cells will improve our understanding of plant cell walls. PMID:25658798

  8. Intercalating Arabidopsis leaf cells: a jigsaw puzzle of lobes, necks, ROPs, and RICs.

    PubMed

    Settleman, Jeffrey

    2005-03-11

    Intercalation of cells is an evolutionarily conserved strategy used for a variety of developmental processes in animals. In this issue of Cell, Fu et al. have uncovered an elaborate Rho GTPase-mediated mechanism by which cytoskeletal-dependent intercalation of Arabidopsis leaf cells is achieved, suggesting that conserved Rho GTPase signaling pathways may similarly regulate tissue morphogenesis in animals and plants.

  9. Early Gravitropic Events in Roots of Arabidopsis: Ca(2+)H(+) Fluxes in the Columella Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information derived from physiological approaches, molecular mechanisms for sensing and responding to gravity in plants remain largely uncharacterized. Roots of higher plants offer many advantages for studying the sensing and responding phases. In roots, gravisensing occurs in specialized cells, the columella cells in which earlier studies have indicated an involvement of the cytoskeleton, Ca(2+), H(+) and auxin in processing the gravity signal. The overall goal of this project was to characterize gravity-stimulated Ca(2+) and H(+) fluxes in the columella cells of a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and to define their regulation. For this work we used intact Arabidopsis roots.

  10. Rapid kinetic labeling of Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures: Implications for models of lipid export from plastids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T-87 suspension cell cultures are increasingly used in Arabidopsis research, but there are no reports describing their lipid composition or biosynthesis. To evaluate if T-87 cell cultures as a model system for analysis of lipid metabolism, including tests of gene candidate functions, we have deter...

  11. Automatic Quantification of the Number of Intracellular Compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana Root Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bayle, Vincent; Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Jaillais, Yvon

    2017-01-01

    In the era of quantitative biology, it is increasingly required to quantify confocal microscopy images. If possible, quantification should be performed in an automatic way, in order to avoid bias from the experimenter, to allow the quantification of a large number of samples, and to increase reproducibility between laboratories. In this protocol, we describe procedures for automatic counting of the number of intracellular compartments in Arabidopsis root cells, which can be used for example to study endocytosis or secretory trafficking pathways and to compare membrane organization between different genotypes or treatments. While developed for Arabidopsis roots, this method can be used on other tissues, cell types and plant species. PMID:28255574

  12. Optimized Methods for the Isolation of Arabidopsis Female Central Cells and Their Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyunghyuk; Frost, Jennifer M; Adair, Adam James; Kim, Dong Min; Yun, Hyein; Brooks, Janie S; Fischer, Robert L; Choi, Yeonhee

    2016-10-01

    The Arabidopsis female gametophyte contains seven cells with eight haploid nuclei buried within layers of sporophytic tissue. Following double fertilization, the egg and central cells of the gametophyte develop into the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. The epigenetic status of the central cell has long presented an enigma due both to its inaccessibility, and the fascinating epigenome of the endosperm, thought to have been inherited from the central cell following activity of the DEMETER demethylase enzyme, prior to fertilization. Here, we present for the first time, a method to isolate pure populations of Arabidopsis central cell nuclei. Utilizing a protocol designed to isolate leaf mesophyll protoplasts, we systematically optimized each step in order to efficiently separate central cells from the female gametophyte. We use initial manual pistil dissection followed by the derivation of central cell protoplasts, during which process the central cell emerges from the micropylar pole of the embryo sac. Then, we use a modified version of the Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types (INTACT) protocol to purify central cell nuclei, resulting in a purity of 75-90% and a yield sufficient to undertake downstream molecular analyses. We find that the process is highly dependent on the health of the original plant tissue used, and the efficiency of protoplasting solution infiltration into the gametophyte. By isolating pure central cell populations, we have enabled elucidation of the physiology of this rare cell type, which in the future will provide novel insights into Arabidopsis reproduction.

  13. Optimized Methods for the Isolation of Arabidopsis Female Central Cells and Their Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyunghyuk; Frost, Jennifer M.; Adair, Adam James; Kim, Dong Min; Yun, Hyein; Brooks, Janie S.; Fischer, Robert L.; Choi, Yeonhee

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis female gametophyte contains seven cells with eight haploid nuclei buried within layers of sporophytic tissue. Following double fertilization, the egg and central cells of the gametophyte develop into the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. The epigenetic status of the central cell has long presented an enigma due both to its inaccessibility, and the fascinating epigenome of the endosperm, thought to have been inherited from the central cell following activity of the DEMETER demethylase enzyme, prior to fertilization. Here, we present for the first time, a method to isolate pure populations of Arabidopsis central cell nuclei. Utilizing a protocol designed to isolate leaf mesophyll protoplasts, we systematically optimized each step in order to efficiently separate central cells from the female gametophyte. We use initial manual pistil dissection followed by the derivation of central cell protoplasts, during which process the central cell emerges from the micropylar pole of the embryo sac. Then, we use a modified version of the Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types (INTACT) protocol to purify central cell nuclei, resulting in a purity of 75–90% and a yield sufficient to undertake downstream molecular analyses. We find that the process is highly dependent on the health of the original plant tissue used, and the efficiency of protoplasting solution infiltration into the gametophyte. By isolating pure central cell populations, we have enabled elucidation of the physiology of this rare cell type, which in the future will provide novel insights into Arabidopsis reproduction. PMID:27788573

  14. Arabidopsis MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 functions in directional cell growth by destabilizing cortical microtubules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Baoquan; Wang, Che; Jin, Lifeng; Zhao, Qian; Yuan, Ming

    2007-03-01

    Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) play important roles in the regulation of microtubule function in cells. We describe Arabidopsis thaliana MAP18, which binds to microtubules and inhibits tubulin polymerization in vitro and colocalizes along cortical microtubules as patches of dot-like structures. MAP18 is expressed mostly in the expanding cells. Cells overexpressing MAP18 in Arabidopsis exhibit various growth phenotypes with loss of polarity. Cortical microtubule arrays were significantly altered in cells either overexpressing MAP18 or where it had been downregulated by RNA interference (RNAi). The cortical microtubules were more sensitive to treatment with microtubule-disrupting drugs when MAP18 was overexpressed, but more resistant when MAP18 was eliminated in cells expressing MAP18 RNAi. Our study demonstrated that MAP18 may play a role in regulating directional cell growth and cortical microtubule organization by destabilizing microtubules.

  15. Plastid distribution in columella cells of a starchless Arabidopsis mutant grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Wild-type and starchless Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seedlings (TC7) were grown and fixed in the microgravity environment of a U.S. Space Shuttle spaceflight. Computer image analysis of longitudinal sections from columella cells suggest a different plastid positioning mechanism for mutant and wild-type in the absence of gravity.

  16. DNA demethylation is initiated in the central cells of Arabidopsis and rice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyunghyuk; Kim, M. Yvonne; Vickers, Martin; Park, Jin-Sup; Hyun, Youbong; Okamoto, Takashi; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.; Feng, Xiaoqi; Choi, Yeonhee; Scholten, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is a DNA modification with important regulatory functions in eukaryotes. In flowering plants, sexual reproduction is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation, which is required for proper gene expression in the endosperm, a nutritive extraembryonic seed tissue. Endosperm arises from a fusion of a sperm cell carried in the pollen and a female central cell. Endosperm DNA demethylation is observed specifically on the chromosomes inherited from the central cell in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, and requires the DEMETER DNA demethylase in Arabidopsis. DEMETER is expressed in the central cell before fertilization, suggesting that endosperm demethylation patterns are inherited from the central cell. Down-regulation of the MET1 DNA methyltransferase has also been proposed to contribute to central cell demethylation. However, with the exception of three maize genes, central cell DNA methylation has not been directly measured, leaving the origin and mechanism of endosperm demethylation uncertain. Here, we report genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in the central cells of Arabidopsis and rice—species that diverged 150 million years ago—as well as in rice egg cells. We find that DNA demethylation in both species is initiated in central cells, which requires DEMETER in Arabidopsis. However, we do not observe a global reduction of CG methylation that would be indicative of lowered MET1 activity; on the contrary, CG methylation efficiency is elevated in female gametes compared with nonsexual tissues. Our results demonstrate that locus-specific, active DNA demethylation in the central cell is the origin of maternal chromosome hypomethylation in the endosperm. PMID:27956642

  17. Transcriptomic Effects of the Cell Cycle Regulator LGO in Arabidopsis Sepals

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Erich M.; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.

    2016-01-01

    Endoreduplication is a specialized cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs, but mitosis is skipped creating enlarged polyploid cells. Endoreduplication is associated with the differentiation of many specialized cell types. In the Arabidopsis thaliana sepal epidermis endoreduplicated giant cells form interspersed between smaller cells. Both the transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana MERISTEM LAYER1 (ATML1) and the plant-specific cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor LOSS OF GIANT CELLS FROM ORGANS (LGO)/SIAMESE RELATED1 (SMR1) are required for the formation of giant cells. Overexpression of LGO is sufficient to produce sepals covered in highly endoreduplicated giant cells. Here we ask whether overexpression of LGO changes the transcriptome of these mature sepals. We show that overexpression of LGO in the epidermis (LGOoe) drives giant cell formation even in atml1 mutant sepals. Using RNA-seq we show that LGOoe has significant effects on the mature sepal transcriptome that are primarily ATML1-independent changes of gene activity. Genes activated by LGOoe, directly or indirectly, predominantly encode proteins involved in defense responses, including responses to wounding, insects (a predator of Arabidopsis), and fungus. They also encode components of the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway, a key biochemical pathway in defense against herbivores. LGOoe-activated genes include previously known marker genes of systemic acquired resistance such as PR1 through PR5. The defensive functions promoted by LGOoe in sepals overlap with functions recently shown to be transcriptionally activated by hyperimmune cpr5 mutants in a LGO-dependent manner. Our findings show that the cell cycle regulator LGO can directly or indirectly drive specific states of gene expression; in particular, they are consistent with recent findings showing LGO to be necessary for transcriptional activation of many defense genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:27920789

  18. Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 μg/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 μg/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 μg/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis. PMID:27502666

  19. The quiescent center and the stem cell niche in the adventitious roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rovere, Federica Della; Fattorini, Laura; Ronzan, Marilena; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2016-05-03

    Adventitious rooting is essential for the survival of numerous species from vascular cryptogams to monocots, and is required for successful micropropagation. The tissues involved in AR initiation may differ in planta and in in vitro systems. For example, in Arabidopsis thaliana, ARs originate from the hypocotyl pericycle in planta and the stem endodermis in in vitro cultured thin cell layers. The formation of adventitious roots (ARs) depends on numerous factors, among which the hormones, auxin, in particular. In both primary and lateral roots, growth depends on a functional stem cell niche in the apex, maintained by an active quiescent center (QC), and involving the expression of genes controlled by auxin and cytokinin. This review summarizes current knowledge about auxin and cytokinin control on genes involved in the definition and maintenance of QC, and stem cell niche, in the apex of Arabidopsis ARs in planta and in longitudinal thin cell layers.

  20. Intercellular communication in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen discovered via AHG3 transcript movement from the vegetative cell to sperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Arabidopsis pollen grain (male gametophyte) consists of three cells: the vegetative cell, which forms the pollen tube, and two sperm cells enclosed within the vegetative cell. It is still unclear if there is intercellular communication between the vegetative cell and the sperm cells. Here we show...

  1. Cell size and growth regulation in the Arabidopsis thaliana apical stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Lisa; Refahi, Yassin; Wightman, Raymond; Landrein, Benoit; Teles, José; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3–4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems. We found that a cell size checkpoint is not the trigger for G2/M or cytokinesis, refuting the unexamined assumption that meristematic cells trigger cell cycle phases upon reaching a critical size. Our data also rule out models in which cells undergo G2/M at a fixed time after birth, or by adding a critical size increment between G2/M transitions. Rather, cell size regulation was intermediate between the critical size and critical increment paradigms, meaning that cell size fluctuations decay by ∼75% in one generation compared with 100% (critical size) and 50% (critical increment). Notably, this behavior was independent of local cell–cell contact topologies and of position within the tissue. Cells grew exponentially throughout the first >80% of the cell cycle, but following an asymmetrical division, the small daughter grew at a faster exponential rate than the large daughter, an observation that potentially challenges present models of growth regulation. These growth and division behaviors place strong constraints on quantitative mechanistic descriptions of the cell cycle and growth control. PMID:27930326

  2. Cytokinin-mediated cell cycling arrest of pericycle founder cells in lateral root initiation of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Mo, Xiaorong; Shou, Huixia; Wu, Ping

    2006-08-01

    In Arabidopsis, lateral root formation is a post-embryonic developmental event, which is regulated by hormones and environmental signals. In this study, via analyzing the expression of cyclin genes during lateral root (LR) formation, we report that cytokinins (CTKs) inhibit the initiation of LR through blocking the pericycle founder cells cycling at the G(2) to M transition phase, while the promotion by CTK of LR elongation is due to the stimulation of the G(1) to S transition. No significant difference was detected in the inhibitory effect of CTK on LR formation between wild-type plants and mutants defective in auxin response or transport. In addition, exogenously applied auxin at different concentrations could not rescue the CTK-mediated inhibition of LR initiation. Our data suggest that CTK and auxin might control LR initiation through two separate signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. The CTK-mediated repression of LR initiation is transmitted through the two-component signal system and mediated by the receptor CRE1.

  3. MYB75 functions in regulation of secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Apurva; Mansfield, Shawn D; Hall, Hardy C; Douglas, Carl J; Ellis, Brian E

    2010-11-01

    Deposition of lignified secondary cell walls in plants involves a major commitment of carbon skeletons in both the form of polysaccharides and phenylpropanoid constituents. This process is spatially and temporally regulated by transcription factors, including a number of MYB family transcription factors. MYB75, also called PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, is a known regulator of the anthocyanin branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but how this regulation might impact other aspects of carbon metabolism is unclear. We established that a loss-of-function mutation in MYB75 (myb75-1) results in increased cell wall thickness in xylary and interfascicular fibers within the inflorescence stem. The total lignin content and S/G ratio of the lignin monomers were also affected. Transcript profiles from the myb75-1 inflorescence stem revealed marked up-regulation in the expression of a suite of genes associated with lignin biosynthesis and cellulose deposition, as well as cell wall modifying proteins and genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon assimilation. These patterns suggest that MYB75 acts as a repressor of the lignin branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Since MYB75 physically interacts with another secondary cell wall regulator, the KNOX transcription factor KNAT7, these regulatory proteins may form functional complexes that contribute to the regulation of secondary cell wall deposition in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and that integrate the metabolic flux through the lignin, flavonoid, and polysaccharide pathways.

  4. Chloroplast dysfunction causes multiple defects in cell cycle progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf mutant.

    PubMed

    Hudik, Elodie; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Domenichini, Séverine; Bourge, Mickaël; Soubigout-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Yi, Dalong; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; De Veylder, Lieven; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2014-09-01

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants.

  5. Reconstitution of a Secondary Cell Wall in a Secondary Cell Wall-Deficient Arabidopsis Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. PMID:25535195

  6. The importance of Arabidopsis glutathione peroxidase 8 for protecting Arabidopsis plant and E. coli cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are major family of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes. Recently, database analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed a new open-reading frame, thus increasing the total number of AtGPX gene family to eight (AtGPX1-8). The effect of plant hormones like; i. e. salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), and mannitol on the expression of the genes confirm that the AtGPX genes family is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The survival rate of AtGPX8 knockout plants (KO8) was significantly decreased under heat stress compared with the wild type. Moreover, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein oxidation was significantly increased in the KO8 plant cells under heat stress. Results indicating that the deficiency of AtGPX8 accelerates the progression of oxidative stress in KO8 plants. On the other hand, the overexpression of AtGPX8 in E. coli cells enhance the growth of the recombinant enzyme on media supplemented with 0.2 mM cumene hydroperoxide, 0.3 mM H 2O 2 or 600 mM NaCl.

  7. The importance of Arabidopsis glutathione peroxidase 8 for protecting Arabidopsis plant and E. coli cells against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are major family of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes. Recently, database analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed a new open-reading frame, thus increasing the total number of AtGPX gene family to eight (AtGPX1–8). The effect of plant hormones like; i. e. salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), and mannitol on the expression of the genes confirm that the AtGPX genes family is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The survival rate of AtGPX8 knockout plants (KO8) was significantly decreased under heat stress compared with the wild type. Moreover, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein oxidation was significantly increased in the KO8 plant cells under heat stress. Results indicating that the deficiency of AtGPX8 accelerates the progression of oxidative stress in KO8 plants. On the other hand, the overexpression of AtGPX8 in E. coli cells enhance the growth of the recombinant enzyme on media supplemented with 0.2 mM cumene hydroperoxide, 0.3 mM H2O2 or 600 mM NaCl. PMID:24217216

  8. High affinity RGD-binding sites at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana links the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Canut, H; Carrasco, A; Galaud, J P; Cassan, C; Bouyssou, H; Vita, N; Ferrara, P; Pont-Lezica, R

    1998-10-01

    The heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD--the essential structure recognised by animal cells in substrate adhesion molecules) was tested on epidermal cells of onion and cultured cells of Arabidopsis upon plasmolysis. Dramatic changes were observed on both types of cells following treatment: on onion cells, Hechtian strands linking the cell wall to the membrane were lost, while Arabidopsis cells changed from concave to convex plasmolysis. A control heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Asp-Gly-Arg-Ser-Pro had no effect on the shape of plasmolysed cells. Protoplasts isolated from Arabidopsis cells agglutinate in the presence of ProNectinF, a genetically engineered protein of 72 kDa containing 13 RGD sequences: several protoplasts may adhere to a single molecule of ProNectinF. The addition of the RGD-heptapeptide disrupted the adhesion between the protoplasts. Purified plasma membrane from Arabidopsis cells exhibits specific binding sites for the iodinated RGD-heptapeptide. The binding is saturable, reversible, and two types of high affinity sites (Kd1 approximately 1 nM, and Kd2 approximately 40 nM) can be discerned. Competitive inhibition by several structurally related peptides and proteins noted the specific requirement for the RGD sequence. Thus, the RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis fulfils the adhesion features of integrins, i.e. peptide specificity, subcellular location, and involvement in plasma membrane-cell wall attachments.

  9. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Analysis of Cell Type-Specific Responses to Salinity Stress in Arabidopsis and Rice

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Aurelie; Bargmann, Bastiaan O.R.; Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Tester, Mark; Baumann, Ute; Johnson, Alexander A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) provides a rapid means of isolating large numbers of fluorescently tagged cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. Collections of transgenic plants with cell type-specific expression of fluorescent marker genes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) are ideally suited for FACS-assisted studies of individual cell types. Here we describe the use of Arabidopsis and rice enhancer trap lines with tissue-specific GFP expression patterns in the root to isolate specific cell types of root tissues using FACS. Additionally, protocols are provided to impose a ramped salinity stress for 48 h prior to cell sorting. PMID:22895766

  10. Overexpression of INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION activates cell separation in vestigial abscission zones in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stenvik, Grethe-Elisabeth; Butenko, Melinka A; Urbanowicz, Breeanna Rae; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Aalen, Reidunn B

    2006-06-01

    Plants may shed organs when they have been injured or served their purpose. The differential pattern of organ abscission in different species is most likely the result of evolutionary adaptation to a variety of life styles and environments. The final step of abscission-related cell separation in floral organs of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana, which only abscises sepals, petals, and stamens, is controlled by INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA). Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis 35S:IDA lines constitutively overexpressing IDA exhibit earlier abscission of floral organs, showing that the abscission zones are responsive to IDA soon after the opening of the flowers. In addition, ectopic abscission was observed at the bases of the pedicel, branches of the inflorescence, and cauline leaves. The silique valves also dehisced prematurely. Scanning electron microscopy indicated a spread of middle lamella degradation from preformed abscission zone cells to neighboring cells. A transcript encoding an arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was upregulated in the 35S:IDA lines, and large amounts of AGP were secreted at the sites of abscission. AGP was shown to be a constituent of wild-type floral abscission zones during and soon after cell separation had been completed. We suggest that the restricted expression pattern of IDA precludes abscission of nonfloral organs in Arabidopsis.

  11. Functional Analysis of Cellulose and Xyloglucan in the Walls of Stomatal Guard Cells of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-03-01

    Stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measured the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3(je5) mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface.

  12. The PLETHORA Gene Regulatory Network Guides Growth and Cell Differentiation in Arabidopsis Roots[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Perez, Gabino F.; Rutjens, Bas; Gorte, Maartje; Prasad, Kalika; Bao, Dongping; Timmermans-Hereijgers, Johanna L.P.M.; Maeo, Kenichiro; Nakamura, Kenzo; Shimotohno, Akie; Pencik, Ales; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; de Bruijn, Ewart; Cuppen, Edwin; Willemsen, Viola

    2016-01-01

    Organ formation in animals and plants relies on precise control of cell state transitions to turn stem cell daughters into fully differentiated cells. In plants, cells cannot rearrange due to shared cell walls. Thus, differentiation progression and the accompanying cell expansion must be tightly coordinated across tissues. PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factor gradients are unique in their ability to guide the progression of cell differentiation at different positions in the growing Arabidopsis thaliana root, which contrasts with well-described transcription factor gradients in animals specifying distinct cell fates within an essentially static context. To understand the output of the PLT gradient, we studied the gene set transcriptionally controlled by PLTs. Our work reveals how the PLT gradient can regulate cell state by region-specific induction of cell proliferation genes and repression of differentiation. Moreover, PLT targets include major patterning genes and autoregulatory feedback components, enforcing their role as master regulators of organ development. PMID:27920338

  13. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. Results We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Conclusion Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth. PMID:17572910

  14. Spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl J.; Wang, Shucai

    2016-02-02

    Among the R2R3 MYB transcription factors that involve in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis, MYB46 alone is sufficient to induce the entire secondary cell wall biosynthesis program. PtrMYB021, the poplar homolog of MYB46, has been reported to regulate secondary cell wall formation when expressed in Arabidopsis. We report here that spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 is critical for its function in regulating secondary cell wall formation. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that PtrMYB021 was expressed primarily in xylem tissues. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of PtrCesA8, but not the 35S promoter, PtrMYB021 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification as well as changes in cell wall carbohydrate composition. Consistent with this, elevated expression of lignin and cellulose biosynthetic genes were observed in the transgenic plants. Finally, when expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts as fusion proteins to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, PtrMYB021 activated the reporter gene Gal4-GUS. In summary, our results suggest that PtrMYB021 is a transcriptional activator, and spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 in Arabidopsis regulates secondary cell wall formation by activating a subset of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  15. Spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wei; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; ...

    2016-02-02

    Among the R2R3 MYB transcription factors that involve in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis, MYB46 alone is sufficient to induce the entire secondary cell wall biosynthesis program. PtrMYB021, the poplar homolog of MYB46, has been reported to regulate secondary cell wall formation when expressed in Arabidopsis. We report here that spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 is critical for its function in regulating secondary cell wall formation. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that PtrMYB021 was expressed primarily in xylem tissues. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of PtrCesA8, but not the 35S promoter,more » PtrMYB021 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification as well as changes in cell wall carbohydrate composition. Consistent with this, elevated expression of lignin and cellulose biosynthetic genes were observed in the transgenic plants. Finally, when expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts as fusion proteins to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, PtrMYB021 activated the reporter gene Gal4-GUS. In summary, our results suggest that PtrMYB021 is a transcriptional activator, and spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 in Arabidopsis regulates secondary cell wall formation by activating a subset of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.« less

  16. Identification of transcription factors linked to cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle is an essential process in growth and development of living organisms consists of the replication and mitotic phases separated by 2 gap phases; G1 and G2. It is tightly controlled at the molecular level and especially at the level of transcription. Precise regulation of the cell cycle is of central significance for plant growth and development and transcription factors are global regulators of gene expression playing essential roles in cell cycle regulation. This study has uncovered TFs that are involved in the control of cell cycle progression. With the aid of multi-parallel quantitative RT-PCR, the expression changes of 1880 TFs represented in the Arabidopsis TF platform was monitored in Arabidopsis synchronous MM2d cells during a 19 h period representing different time points corresponding to the 4 cell cycle phases after treatment of MM2d cells with Aphidicolin. Comparative TF expression analyses performed on synchronous cells resulted in the identification of 239 TFs differentially expressed during the cell cycle, while about one third of TFs were constitutively expressed through all time points. Phase-specific TFs were also identified. PMID:25482767

  17. Cell Wall Heterogeneity in Root Development of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Somssich, Marc; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signaling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modeling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes. PMID:27582757

  18. Profilin-Dependent Nucleation and Assembly of Actin Filaments Controls Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingyan; Blanchoin, Laurent; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Actin filaments in plant cells are incredibly dynamic; they undergo incessant remodeling and assembly or disassembly within seconds. These dynamic events are choreographed by a plethora of actin-binding proteins, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we dissect the contribution of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PROFILIN1 (PRF1), a conserved actin monomer-binding protein, to actin organization and single filament dynamics during axial cell expansion of living epidermal cells. We found that reduced PRF1 levels enhanced cell and organ growth. Surprisingly, we observed that the overall frequency of nucleation events in prf1 mutants was dramatically decreased and that a subpopulation of actin filaments that assemble at high rates was reduced. To test whether profilin cooperates with plant formin proteins to execute actin nucleation and rapid filament elongation in cells, we used a pharmacological approach. Here, we used Small Molecule Inhibitor of Formin FH2 (SMIFH2), after validating its mode of action on a plant formin in vitro, and observed a reduced nucleation frequency of actin filaments in live cells. Treatment of wild-type epidermal cells with SMIFH2 mimicked the phenotype of prf1 mutants, and the nucleation frequency in prf1-2 mutant was completely insensitive to these treatments. Our data provide compelling evidence that PRF1 coordinates the stochastic dynamic properties of actin filaments by modulating formin-mediated actin nucleation and assembly during plant cell expansion. PMID:26574597

  19. The Arabidopsis ARGOS-LIKE gene regulates cell expansion during organ growth.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuxin; Poh, Huay Mei; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2006-07-01

    Cell expansion, and its coordination with cell division, plays a critical role in the growth and development of plant organs. However, the genes controlling cell expansion during organogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that a novel Arabidopsis gene, ARGOS-LIKE (ARL), which has some sequence homology to the ARGOS gene, is involved in this process. Reduced expression or overexpression of ARL in Arabidopsis results in smaller or larger cotyledons and leaves as well as other lateral organs, respectively. Anatomical examination of cotyledons and leaves in ARL transgenic plants demonstrates that the alteration in size can be attributed to changes in cell size rather than cell number, indicating that ARL plays a role in cell expansion-dependent organ growth. ARL is upregulated by brassinosteroid (BR) and this induction is impaired in the BR-insensitive mutant bri1, but not in the BR-deficient mutant det2. Ectopic expression of ARL in bri1-119 partially restores cell growth in cotyledons and leaves. Our results suggest that ARL acts downstream of BRI1 and partially mediates BR-related cell expansion signals during organ growth.

  20. Conserved Arabidopsis ECHIDNA protein mediates trans-Golgi-network trafficking and cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Delphine; Oh, Jaesung; Boutté, Yohann; Best, Jacob G; Samuels, Lacey; Nilsson, Robert; Uemura, Tomohiro; Marchant, Alan; Bennett, Malcolm J; Grebe, Markus; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2011-05-10

    Multiple steps of plant growth and development rely on rapid cell elongation during which secretory and endocytic trafficking via the trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role. Here, we identify the ECHIDNA (ECH) protein from Arabidopsis thaliana as a TGN-localized component crucial for TGN function. ECH partially complements loss of budding yeast TVP23 function and a Populus ECH complements the Arabidopsis ech mutant, suggesting functional conservation of the genes. Compared with wild-type, the Arabidopsis ech mutant exhibits severely perturbed cell elongation as well as defects in TGN structure and function, manifested by the reduced association between Golgi bodies and TGN as well as mislocalization of several TGN-localized proteins including vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit a1 (VHA-a1). Strikingly, ech is defective in secretory trafficking, whereas endocytosis appears unaffected in the mutant. Some aspects of the ech mutant phenotype can be phenocopied by treatment with a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases, concanamycin A, indicating that mislocalization of VHA-a1 may account for part of the defects in ech. Hence, ECH is an evolutionarily conserved component of the TGN with a central role in TGN structure and function.

  1. Regulation of Cell Fate Determination by Single-Repeat R3 MYB Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Chen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    MYB transcription factors regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. Among the large family of MYB transcription factors, single-repeat R3 MYB are characterized by their short sequence (<120 amino acids) consisting largely of the single MYB DNA-binding repeat. In the model plant Arabidopsis, R3 MYBs mediate lateral inhibition during epidermal patterning and are best characterized for their regulatory roles in trichome and root hair development. R3 MYBs act as negative regulators for trichome formation but as positive regulators for root hair development. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of R3 MYBs in the regulation of cell type specification in the model plant Arabidopsis.

  2. Using Arabidopsis cell extracts to monitor repair of DNA base damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Cañero, Dolores; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R

    2012-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is a major pathway for the removal of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. This repair mechanism is initiated by DNA glycosylases that excise the altered base, and continues through alternative routes that culminate in DNA resynthesis and ligation. In contrast to the information available for microbes and animals, our knowledge about this important DNA repair pathway in plants is very limited, partially due to a lack of biochemical approaches. Here we describe an in vitro assay to monitor BER in cell-free extracts from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The assay uses labeled DNA substrates containing a single damaged base within a restriction site, and allows detection of fully repaired molecules as well as DNA repair intermediates. The method is easily applied to measure the repair activity of purified proteins and can be successfully used in combination with the extensive array of biological resources available for Arabidopsis.

  3. Cell wall biogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana elongating cells: transcriptomics complements proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Roujol, David; San-Clemente, Hélène; Irshad, Muhammad; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant growth is a complex process involving cell division and elongation. Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls undergo a 100-fold length increase mainly by cell elongation. Cell enlargement implicates significant changes in the composition and structure of the cell wall. In order to understand cell wall biogenesis during cell elongation, mRNA profiling was made on half- (active elongation) and fully-grown (after growth arrest) etiolated hypocotyls. Results Transcriptomic analysis was focused on two sets of genes. The first set of 856 genes named cell wall genes (CWGs) included genes known to be involved in cell wall biogenesis. A significant proportion of them has detectable levels of transcripts (55.5%), suggesting that these processes are important throughout hypocotyl elongation and after growth arrest. Genes encoding proteins involved in substrate generation or in synthesis of polysaccharides, and extracellular proteins were found to have high transcript levels. A second set of 2927 genes labeled secretory pathway genes (SPGs) was studied to search for new genes encoding secreted proteins possibly involved in wall expansion. Based on transcript level, 433 genes were selected. Genes not known to be involved in cell elongation were found to have high levels of transcripts. Encoded proteins were proteases, protease inhibitors, proteins with interacting domains, and proteins involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, 125 of them encoded proteins with yet unknown function. Finally, comparison with results of a cell wall proteomic study on the same material revealed that 48 out of the 137 identified proteins were products of the genes having high or moderate level of transcripts. About 15% of the genes encoding proteins identified by proteomics showed levels of transcripts below background. Conclusion Members of known multigenic families involved in cell wall biogenesis, and new genes that might participate in cell elongation were identified. Significant

  4. TOO MANY MOUTHS promotes cell fate progression in stomatal development of Arabidopsis stems.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Neela S; Veley, Kira M; Nadeau, Jeanette A; Lucas, Jessica R; Bhave, Sanjay L; Sack, Fred D

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM), which encodes a receptor-like protein, cause stomatal patterning defects in Arabidopsis leaves but eliminate stomatal formation in stems. Stomatal development in wild-type and tmm stems was analyzed to define TMM function. Epidermal cells in young tmm stems underwent many asymmetric divisions characteristic of entry into the stomatal pathway. The resulting precursor cells, meristemoids, appropriately expressed cell fate markers such as pTMM:GFP. However, instead of progressing developmentally by forming a guard mother cell, the meristemoids arrested, dedifferentiated, and enlarged. Thus asymmetric divisions are necessary but not sufficient for stomatal formation in stems, and TMM promotes the fate and developmental progression of early precursor cells. Comparable developmental and mature stomatal phenotypes were also found in tmm hypocotyls and in the proximal flower stalk. TMM is also a positive regulator of meristemoid division in leaves suggesting that TMM generally promotes meristemoid activity. Our results are consistent with a model in which TMM interacts with other proteins to modulate precursor cell fate and progression in an organ and domain-specific manner. Finally, the consistent presence of a small number of dedifferentiated meristemoids in mature wild-type stems suggests that precursor cell arrest is a normal feature of Arabidopsis stem development.

  5. Developmental patterning of the sub-epidermal integument cell layer in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Coen, Olivier; Fiume, Elisa; Xu, Wenjia; De Vos, Delphine; Lu, Jing; Pechoux, Christine; Lepiniec, Loïc; Magnani, Enrico

    2017-04-15

    Angiosperm seed development is a paradigm of tissue cross-talk. Proper seed formation requires spatial and temporal coordination of the fertilization products - embryo and endosperm - and the surrounding seed coat maternal tissue. In early Arabidopsis seed development, all seed integuments were thought to respond homogenously to endosperm growth. Here, we show that the sub-epidermal integument cell layer has a unique developmental program. We characterized the cell patterning of the sub-epidermal integument cell layer, which initiates a previously uncharacterized extra cell layer, and identified TRANSPARENT TESTA 16 and SEEDSTICK MADS box transcription factors as master regulators of its polar development and cell architecture. Our data indicate that the differentiation of the sub-epidermal integument cell layer is insensitive to endosperm growth alone and to the repressive mechanism established by FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM and MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 Polycomb group proteins. This work demonstrates the different responses of epidermal and sub-epidermal integument cell layers to fertilization.

  6. Epidermal identity is maintained by cell-cell communication via a universally active feedback loop in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    San-Bento, Rita; Farcot, Etienne; Galletti, Roberta; Creff, Audrey; Ingram, Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factors ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MERISTEM L1 (ATML1) and PROTODERMAL FACTOR2 (PDF2) are indispensable for epidermal cell-fate specification in Arabidopsis embryos. However, the mechanisms of regulation of these genes, particularly their relationship with cell-cell signalling pathways, although the subject of considerable speculation, remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 (ACR4) positively affects the expression of ATML1 and PDF2 in seedlings. In contrast, ATML1- and PDF2-containing complexes directly and negatively affect both their own expression and that of ACR4. By modelling the resulting feedback loop, we demonstrate a network structure that is capable of maintaining robust epidermal cell identity post-germination. We show that a second seed-specific signalling pathway involving the subtilase ABNORMAL LEAFSHAPE1 (ALE1) and the receptor kinases GASSHO1 (GSO1) and GASSHO2 (GSO2) acts in parallel to the epidermal loop to control embryonic surface formation via an ATML1/PDF2-independent pathway. Genetic interactions between components of this linear pathway and the epidermal loop suggest that an intact embryo surface is necessary for initiation and/or stabilization of the epidermal loop, specifically during early embryogenesis.

  7. Myosin inhibitors block accumulation movement of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells.

    PubMed

    Paves, H; Truve, E

    2007-01-01

    Chloroplasts alter their distribution within plant cells depending on the external light conditions. Myosin inhibitors 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine hydrochloride (ML-7) were used to study the possible role of myosins in chloroplast photorelocation in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll cells. None of these agents had an effect on the chloroplast high-fluence-rate avoidance movement but all of the three myosin inhibitors blocked the accumulation movement of chloroplasts after a high-fluence-rate irradiation of the leaves. The results suggest that myosins have a role in A. thaliana chloroplast photorelocation.

  8. Stimulation of Cell Elongation by Tetraploidy in Hypocotyls of Dark-Grown Arabidopsis Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Hideki; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Komaki, Shinichiro; Sugimoto, Keiko; Nishitani, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Plant size is largely determined by the size of individual cells. A number of studies showed a link between ploidy and cell size in land plants, but this link remains controversial. In this study, post-germination growth, which occurs entirely by cell elongation, was examined in diploid and autotetraploid hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Final hypocotyl length was longer in tetraploid plants than in diploid plants, particularly when seedlings were grown in the dark. The longer hypocotyl in the tetraploid seedlings developed as a result of enhanced cell elongation rather than by an increase in cell number. DNA microarray analysis showed that genes involved in the transport of cuticle precursors were downregulated in a defined region of the tetraploid hypocotyl when compared to the diploid hypocotyl. Cuticle permeability, as assessed by toluidine-blue staining, and cuticular structure, as visualized by electron microscopy, were altered in tetraploid plants. Taken together, these data indicate that promotion of cell elongation is responsible for ploidy-dependent size determination in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl, and that this process is directly or indirectly related to cuticular function.

  9. Arabidopsis and Tobacco SUPERMAN regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Nibau, Candida; Di Stilio, Verónica S.; Wu, Hen-ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN (SUP) plays an important role during flower development by maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels in the inner two whorls. It was proposed that SUP maintains this boundary by regulating cell proliferation in both whorls, as loss-of-function superman mutants produce more stamens at the expense of carpels. However, the cellular mechanism that underlies SUP function remains unknown. Here Arabidopsis or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SUP was overexpressed in tobacco plants to substantiate SUP's role as a regulator of cell proliferation and boundary definition and provide evidence that its biological role may be mediated via hormonal changes. It was found that moderate levels of SUP stimulated cell growth and proliferation, whereas high levels were inhibitory. SUP stimulated auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes, and cells overexpressing SUP displayed reduced hormone dependency for proliferation and regeneration into plants. SUP also induced proliferation of female traits in the second and third flower whorls and promoted differentiation of petaloid properties in sepals, further supporting a role for SUP as a boundary regulator. Moreover, cytokinin suppressed stamen development and promoted differentiation of carpeloid tissues, suggesting that SUP may regulate male and female development via its effect on cytokinin signalling. Taken together, these observations suggest a model whereby the effect of SUP on cell growth and proliferation involves the modulation of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes. Furthermore, differential SUP expression or different sensitivities of different cell types to SUP may determine whether SUP stimulates or suppresses their proliferation. PMID:20980362

  10. RIMA-dependent nuclear accumulation of IYO triggers auxin-irreversible cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Alfonso; Mangano, Silvina; González-García, Mary Paz; Contreras, Ramón; Sauer, Michael B; De Rybel, Bert; Weijers, Dolf; Sánchez-Serrano, José J; Sanmartín, Maite; Rojo, Enrique

    2017-02-21

    The transcriptional regulator MINIYO (IYO) is essential and rate-limiting for initiating cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, IYO moves from the cytosol into the nucleus in cells at the meristem periphery, possibly triggering their differentiation. However, the genetic mechanisms controlling IYO nuclear accumulation were unknown and the evidence that increased nuclear IYO levels trigger differentiation remained correlative. Searching for IYO interactors, we have identified RPAP2 IYO Mate (RIMA), a homologue of yeast and human proteins linked to nuclear import of selective cargo. Knockdown of RIMA causes delayed onset of cell differentiation, phenocopying the effects of IYO knock down at the transcriptomic and developmental levels. Moreover, differentiation is completely blocked when IYO and RIMA activities are simultaneously reduced and is synergistically accelerated when IYO and RIMA are concurrently overexpressed, confirming their functional interaction. Indeed, RIMA knockdown reduces the nuclear levels of IYO and prevents its pro-differentiation activity, supporting the conclusion that RIMA-dependent nuclear IYO accumulation triggers cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. Importantly, by analysing the effect of the IYO/RIMA pathway on xylem pole pericycle cells, we provide compelling evidence reinforcing the view that the capacity for de novo organogenesis and regeneration from mature plant tissues can reside in stem cell reservoirs.

  11. A quantitative analysis of stem cell homeostasis in the Arabidopsis columella root cap.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing Han; Chu, Huangwei; Zhang, Chen; Ghosh, Dipanjana; Gong, Ximing; Xu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The Lugol's staining method has been widely used to detect changes in the maintenance of stem cell fate in the columella root cap of Arabidopsis roots since the late 1990s. However, various limitations of this method demand for additional or complementary new approaches. For instance, it is unable to reveal the division rate of columella root cap stem cells. Here we report that, by labeling dividing stem cells with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), the number and distribution of their labeled progeny can be studied so that the division rate of stem cells can be measured quantitatively and in addition, that the progression of stem cell progeny differentiation can be assessed in combination with Lugol's staining. EdU staining takes few hours and visualization of the stain characteristics of columella root cap can be performed easily under confocal microscopes. This simple technology, when used together with Lugol's staining, provides a novel quantitative method to study the dynamics of stem cell behavior that govern homeostasis in the Arabidopsis columella root cap.

  12. Cameleon calcium indicator reports cytoplasmic calcium dynamics in Arabidopsis guard cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. J.; Kwak, J. M.; Chu, S. P.; Llopis, J.; Tsien, R. Y.; Harper, J. F.; Schroeder, J. I.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) acts as a stimulus-induced second messenger in plant cells and multiple signal transduction pathways regulate [Ca2+]cyt in stomatal guard cells. Measuring [Ca2+]cyt in guard cells has previously required loading of calcium-sensitive dyes using invasive and technically difficult micro-injection techniques. To circumvent these problems, we have constitutively expressed the pH-independent, green fluorescent protein-based calcium indicator yellow cameleon 2.1 in Arabidopsis thaliana (Miyawaki et al. 1999; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 2135-2140). This yellow cameleon calcium indicator was expressed in guard cells and accumulated predominantly in the cytoplasm. Fluorescence ratio imaging of yellow cameleon 2.1 allowed time-dependent measurements of [Ca2+]cyt in Arabidopsis guard cells. Application of extracellular calcium or the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induced repetitive [Ca2+]cyt transients in guard cells. [Ca2+]cyt changes could be semi-quantitatively determined following correction of the calibration procedure for chloroplast autofluorescence. Extracellular calcium induced repetitive [Ca2+]cyt transients with peak values of up to approximately 1.5 microM, whereas ABA-induced [Ca2+]cyt transients had peak values up to approximately 0.6 microM. These values are similar to stimulus-induced [Ca2+]cyt changes previously reported in plant cells using ratiometric dyes or aequorin. In some guard cells perfused with low extracellular KCl concentrations, spontaneous calcium transients were observed. As yellow cameleon 2.1 was expressed in all guard cells, [Ca2+]cyt was measured independently in the two guard cells of single stomates for the first time. ABA-induced, calcium-induced or spontaneous [Ca2+]cyt increases were not necessarily synchronized in the two guard cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that that GFP-based cameleon calcium indicators are suitable to measure [Ca2+]cyt changes in guard cells and enable the pattern of [Ca

  13. An arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptiona...

  14. Cell wall glucomannan in Arabidopsis is synthesised by CSLA glycosyltransferases, and influences the progression of embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goubet, Florence; Barton, Christopher J; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhinong; Miles, Godfrey P; Richens, Jenny; Liepman, Aaron H; Seffen, Keith; Dupree, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that have previously been implicated as structural constituents of cell walls and as storage reserves but which may serve other functions during plant growth and development. Several members of the Arabidopsis cellulose synthase-like A (CSLA) family have previously been shown to synthesise mannan polysaccharides in vitro when heterologously expressed. It has also been found that CSLA7 is essential for embryogenesis, suggesting a role for the CSLA7 product in development. To determine whether the CSLA proteins are responsible for glucomannan synthesis in vivo, we characterised insertion mutants in each of the nine Arabidopsis CSLA genes and several double and triple mutant combinations. csla9 mutants showed substantially reduced glucomannan, and triple csla2csla3csla9 mutants lacked detectable glucomannan in stems. Nevertheless, these mutants showed no alteration in stem development or strength. Overexpression of CSLA2, CSLA7 and CSLA9 increased the glucomannan content in stems. Increased glucomannan synthesis also caused defective embryogenesis, leading to delayed development and occasional embryo death. The embryo lethality of csla7 was complemented by overexpression of CSLA9, suggesting that the glucomannan products are similar. We conclude that CSLA2, CSLA3 and CSLA9 are responsible for the synthesis of all detectable glucomannan in Arabidopsis stems, and that CSLA7 synthesises glucomannan in embryos. These results are inconsistent with a substantial role for glucomannan in wall strength in Arabidopsis stems, but indicate that glucomannan levels affect embryogenesis. Together with earlier heterologous expression studies, the glucomannan deficiency observed in csla mutant plants demonstrates that the CSLA family encodes glucomannan synthases.

  15. Receptor-like kinase ACR4 restricts formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Ive; Vassileva, Valya; De Rybel, Bert; Levesque, Mitchell P; Grunewald, Wim; Van Damme, Daniël; Van Noorden, Giel; Naudts, Mirande; Van Isterdael, Gert; De Clercq, Rebecca; Wang, Jean Y; Meuli, Nicholas; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jirí; Hilson, Pierre; Jürgens, Gerd; Ingram, Gwyneth C; Inzé, Dirk; Benfey, Philip N; Beeckman, Tom

    2008-10-24

    During the development of multicellular organisms, organogenesis and pattern formation depend on formative divisions to specify and maintain pools of stem cells. In higher plants, these activities are essential to shape the final root architecture because the functioning of root apical meristems and the de novo formation of lateral roots entirely rely on it. We used transcript profiling on sorted pericycle cells undergoing lateral root initiation to identify the receptor-like kinase ACR4 of Arabidopsis as a key factor both in promoting formative cell divisions in the pericycle and in constraining the number of these divisions once organogenesis has been started. In the root tip meristem, ACR4 shows a similar action by controlling cell proliferation activity in the columella cell lineage. Thus, ACR4 function reveals a common mechanism of formative cell division control in the main root tip meristem and during lateral root initiation.

  16. Catalase and NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 promote autophagy-dependent cell death in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Thomas; Juul, Trine; Auzina, Aija; Gwizdz, Sonia; Malolepszy, Anna; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Dam, Svend; Bressendorff, Simon; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Lehmann Nielsen, Kåre; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo; Hofius, Daniel; Van Breusegem, Frank; Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2013-11-01

    Programmed cell death often depends on generation of reactive oxygen species, which can be detoxified by antioxidative enzymes, including catalases. We previously isolated catalase-deficient mutants (cat2) in a screen for resistance to hydroxyurea-induced cell death. Here, we identify an Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxyurea-resistant autophagy mutant, atg2, which also shows reduced sensitivity to cell death triggered by the bacterial effector avrRpm1. To test if catalase deficiency likewise affected both hydroxyurea and avrRpm1 sensitivity, we selected mutants with extremely low catalase activities and showed that they carried mutations in a gene that we named NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 (NCA1). nca1 mutants showed severely reduced activities of all three catalase isoforms in Arabidopsis, and loss of NCA1 function led to strong suppression of RPM1-triggered cell death. Basal and starvation-induced autophagy appeared normal in the nca1 and cat2 mutants. By contrast, autophagic degradation induced by avrRpm1 challenge was compromised, indicating that catalase acted upstream of immunity-triggered autophagy. The direct interaction of catalase with reactive oxygen species could allow catalase to act as a molecular link between reactive oxygen species and the promotion of autophagy-dependent cell death.

  17. Gene Mining for Proline Based Signaling Proteins in Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z; Ahmad, Samina J N; Shah, Zahid Hussain; Rehman, Hafiz M; Aslam, Zubair; Ahuja, Ishita; Bones, Atle M; Ahmad, Jam N

    2017-01-01

    The cell wall (CW) as a first line of defense against biotic and abiotic stresses is of primary importance in plant biology. The proteins associated with cell walls play a significant role in determining a plant's sustainability to adverse environmental conditions. In this work, the genes encoding cell wall proteins (CWPs) in Arabidopsis were identified and functionally classified using geneMANIA and GENEVESTIGATOR with published microarrays data. This yielded 1605 genes, out of which 58 genes encoded proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and glycine-rich proteins (GRPs). Here, we have focused on the cellular compartmentalization, biological processes, and molecular functioning of proline-rich CWPs along with their expression at different plant developmental stages. The mined genes were categorized into five classes on the basis of the type of PRPs encoded in the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. We review the domain structure and function of each class of protein, many with respect to the developmental stages of the plant. We have then used networks, hierarchical clustering and correlations to analyze co-expression, co-localization, genetic, and physical interactions and shared protein domains of these PRPs. This has given us further insight into these functionally important CWPs and identified a number of potentially new cell-wall related proteins in A. thaliana.

  18. Gene Mining for Proline Based Signaling Proteins in Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; Ahmad, Samina J. N.; Shah, Zahid Hussain; Rehman, Hafiz M.; Aslam, Zubair; Ahuja, Ishita; Bones, Atle M.; Ahmad, Jam N.

    2017-01-01

    The cell wall (CW) as a first line of defense against biotic and abiotic stresses is of primary importance in plant biology. The proteins associated with cell walls play a significant role in determining a plant's sustainability to adverse environmental conditions. In this work, the genes encoding cell wall proteins (CWPs) in Arabidopsis were identified and functionally classified using geneMANIA and GENEVESTIGATOR with published microarrays data. This yielded 1605 genes, out of which 58 genes encoded proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and glycine-rich proteins (GRPs). Here, we have focused on the cellular compartmentalization, biological processes, and molecular functioning of proline-rich CWPs along with their expression at different plant developmental stages. The mined genes were categorized into five classes on the basis of the type of PRPs encoded in the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. We review the domain structure and function of each class of protein, many with respect to the developmental stages of the plant. We have then used networks, hierarchical clustering and correlations to analyze co-expression, co-localization, genetic, and physical interactions and shared protein domains of these PRPs. This has given us further insight into these functionally important CWPs and identified a number of potentially new cell-wall related proteins in A. thaliana. PMID:28289422

  19. A Role of the FUZZY ONIONS LIKE Gene in Regulating Cell Death and Defense in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Arianne; Seabolt, Savanna; Zeng, Hongyun; Zhang, Chong; Böckler, Stefan; Tate, Dominique N.; Duong, Vy Thuy; Yao, Nan; Lu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is critical for development and responses to environmental stimuli in many organisms. FUZZY ONIONS (FZO) proteins in yeast, flies, and mammals are known to affect mitochondrial fusion and function. Arabidopsis FZO-LIKE (FZL) was shown as a chloroplast protein that regulates chloroplast morphology and cell death. We cloned the FZL gene based on the lesion mimic phenotype conferred by an fzl mutation. Here we provide evidence to support that FZL has evolved new function different from its homologs from other organisms. We found that fzl mutants showed enhanced disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Besides altered chloroplast morphology and cell death, fzl showed the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy pathways. FZL and the defense signaling molecule salicylic acid form a negative feedback loop in defense and cell death control. FZL did not complement the yeast strain lacking the FZO1 gene. Together these data suggest that the Arabidopsis FZL gene is a negative regulator of cell death and disease resistance, possibly through regulating ROS and autophagy pathways in the chloroplast. PMID:27898102

  20. Dissection of Arabidopsis ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 Function in Epidermal Cell PolarityW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Scheres, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Vesicle trafficking is essential for the generation of asymmetries, which are central to multicellular development. Core components of the vesicle transport machinery, such as ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, have been studied primarily at the single-cell level. Here, we analyze developmental functions of the ARF1 subclass of the Arabidopsis thaliana multigene ARF family. Six virtually identical ARF1 genes are ubiquitously expressed, and single loss-of-function mutants in these genes reveal no obvious developmental phenotypes. Fluorescence colocalization studies reveal that ARF1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus and endocytic organelles in both onion (Allium cepa) and Arabidopsis cells. Apical-basal polarity of epidermal cells, reflected by the position of root hair outgrowth, is affected when ARF1 mutants are expressed at early stages of cell differentiation but after they exit mitosis. Genetic interactions during root hair tip growth and localization suggest that the ROP2 protein is a target of ARF1 action, but its localization is slowly affected upon ARF1 manipulation when compared with that of Golgi and endocytic markers. Localization of a second potential target of ARF1 action, PIN2, is also affected with slow kinetics. Although extreme redundancy precludes conventional genetic dissection of ARF1 functions, our approach separates different ARF1 downstream networks involved in local and specific aspects of cell polarity. PMID:15659621

  1. Deciphering the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to pathogen-derived elicitors.

    PubMed

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-12-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as "border-like cells." Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells.

  2. WVD2 and WDL1 modulate helical organ growth and anisotropic cell expansion in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Christen Y L.; Pearlman, Rebecca S.; Silo-Suh, Laura; Hilson, Pierre; Carroll, Kathleen L.; Masson, Patrick H.

    2003-01-01

    Wild-type Arabidopsis roots develop a wavy pattern of growth on tilted agar surfaces. For many Arabidopsis ecotypes, roots also grow askew on such surfaces, typically slanting to the right of the gravity vector. We identified a mutant, wvd2-1, that displays suppressed root waving and leftward root slanting under these conditions. These phenotypes arise from transcriptional activation of the novel WAVE-DAMPENED2 (WVD2) gene by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in mutant plants. Seedlings overexpressing WVD2 exhibit constitutive right-handed helical growth in both roots and etiolated hypocotyls, whereas the petioles of WVD2-overexpressing rosette leaves exhibit left-handed twisting. Moreover, the anisotropic expansion of cells is impaired, resulting in the formation of shorter and stockier organs. In roots, the phenotype is accompanied by a change in the arrangement of cortical microtubules within peripheral cap cells and cells at the basal end of the elongation zone. WVD2 transcripts are detectable by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in multiple organs of wild-type plants. Its predicted gene product contains a conserved region named "KLEEK," which is found only in plant proteins. The Arabidopsis genome possesses seven other genes predicted to encode KLEEK-containing products. Overexpression of one of these genes, WVD2-LIKE 1, which encodes a protein with regions of similarity to WVD2 extending beyond the KLEEK domain, results in phenotypes that are highly similar to wvd2-1. Silencing of WVD2 and its paralogs results in enhanced root skewing in the wild-type direction. Our observations suggest that at least two members of this gene family may modulate both rotational polarity and anisotropic cell expansion during organ growth.

  3. Live Cell Imaging Reveals Structural Associations between the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis [W] [OA

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Lindeboom, Jelmer J.; Debolt, Seth; Gutierrez, Ryan; Ehrhardt, David W.; Ketelaar, Tijs; Persson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletal networks are dynamic structures that organize intracellular processes and facilitate their rapid reorganization. In plant cells, actin filaments (AFs) and MTs are essential for cell growth and morphogenesis. However, dynamic interactions between these two essential components in live cells have not been explored. Here, we use spinning-disc confocal microscopy to dissect interaction and cooperation between cortical AFs and MTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, utilizing fluorescent reporter constructs for both components. Quantitative analyses revealed altered AF dynamics associated with the positions and orientations of cortical MTs. Reorganization and reassembly of the AF array was dependent on the MTs following drug-induced depolymerization, whereby short AFs initially appeared colocalized with MTs, and displayed motility along MTs. We also observed that light-induced reorganization of MTs occurred in concert with changes in AF behavior. Our results indicate dynamic interaction between the cortical actin and MT cytoskeletons in interphase plant cells. PMID:21693695

  4. Programmed cell death activated by Rose Bengal in Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures requires functional chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Jorge; González-Pérez, Sergio; García-García, Francisco; Daly, Cara T.; Lorenzo, Óscar; Revuelta, José L.; McCabe, Paul F.; Arellano, Juan B.

    2014-01-01

    Light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture (ACSC) were subjected to mild photooxidative damage with Rose Bengal (RB) with the aim of gaining a better understanding of singlet oxygen-mediated defence responses in plants. Additionally, ACSC were treated with H2O2 at concentrations that induced comparable levels of protein oxidation damage. Under low to medium light conditions, both RB and H2O2 treatments activated transcriptional defence responses and inhibited photosynthetic activity, but they differed in that programmed cell death (PCD) was only observed in cells treated with RB. When dark-grown ACSC were subjected to RB in the light, PCD was suppressed, indicating that the singlet oxygen-mediated signalling pathway in ACSC requires functional chloroplasts. Analysis of up-regulated transcripts in light-grown ACSC, treated with RB in the light, showed that both singlet oxygen-responsive transcripts and transcripts with a key role in hormone-activated PCD (i.e. ethylene and jasmonic acid) were present. A co-regulation analysis proved that ACSC treated with RB exhibited higher correlation with the conditional fluorescence (flu) mutant than with other singlet oxygen-producing mutants or wild-type plants subjected to high light. However, there was no evidence for the up-regulation of EDS1, suggesting that activation of PCD was not associated with the EXECUTER- and EDS1-dependent signalling pathway described in the flu mutant. Indigo Carmine and Methylene Violet, two photosensitizers unable to enter chloroplasts, did not activate transcriptional defence responses in ACSC; however, whether this was due to their location or to their inherently low singlet oxygen quantum efficiencies was not determined. PMID:24723397

  5. A mechanistic framework for noncell autonomous stem cell induction in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Daum, Gabor; Medzihradszky, Anna; Suzaki, Takuya; Lohmann, Jan U

    2014-10-07

    Cell-cell communication is essential for multicellular development and, consequently, evolution has brought about an array of distinct mechanisms serving this purpose. Consistently, induction and maintenance of stem cell fate by noncell autonomous signals is a feature shared by many organisms and may depend on secreted factors, direct cell-cell contact, matrix interactions, or a combination of these mechanisms. Although many basic cellular processes are well conserved between animals and plants, cell-to-cell signaling is one function where substantial diversity has arisen between the two kingdoms of life. One of the most striking differences is the presence of cytoplasmic bridges, called plasmodesmata, which facilitate the exchange of molecules between neighboring plant cells and provide a unique route for cell-cell communication in the plant lineage. Here, we provide evidence that the stem cell inducing transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS), expressed in the niche, moves to the stem cells via plasmodesmata in a highly regulated fashion and that this movement is required for WUS function and, thus, stem cell activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that cell context-independent mobility is encoded in the WUS protein sequence and mediated by multiple domains. Finally, we demonstrate that parts of the protein that restrict movement are required for WUS homodimerization, suggesting that formation of WUS dimers might contribute to the regulation of apical stem cell activity.

  6. Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Hormone-Regulated Differential Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, Joseph R.

    2005-09-15

    We have utilized the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to the plant hormone ethylene to identify new genes involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and differential cell growth. In building a genetic framework for the action of these genes, we have developed a molecular model that has facilitated our understanding of the molecular requirements of ethylene for cell elongation processes. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis appears to be primarily linear and is defined by the genes: ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, EIN5, EIN6, and EIN. Downstream branches identified by the HLS1, EIR1, and AUX1 genes involve interactions with other hormonal (auxin) signals in the process of differential cell elongation in the hypocotyl hook. Cloning and characterization of HLS1 (and three HLL genes) and ETO1 (and ETOL genes) in my laboratory has been supported under this award. HLS1 is required for differential elongation of cells in the hypocotyl and may act in the establishment of hormone gradients. Also during the previous period, we have identified and characterized a gene that genetically acts upstream of the ethylene receptors. ETO1 encodes negative regulators of ethylene biosynthesis.

  7. Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Hormone-Regulated Differential Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, Joseph R.

    2002-12-03

    The authors have utilized the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to the plant hormone ethylene to identify new genes involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and differential cell growth. In building a genetic framework for the action of these genes, they developed a molecular model that has facilitated the understanding of the molecular requirements of ethylene for cell elongation processes. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis appears to be primarily linear and is defined by the genes: ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, EIN5 EIN6, and EIN. Downstream branches identified by the HLS1, EIR1, and AUX1 genes involve interactions with other hormonal (auxin) signals in the process of differential cell elongation in the hypocotyl hook. Cloning and characterization of HLS1 and three HLS1-LIKE genes in the laboratory has been supported under this award. HLS1 is required for differential elongation of cells in the hypocotyl and may act in the establishment of hormone gradients. Also during the award period, they have identified and begun preliminary characterization of two genes that genetically act upstream of the ethylene receptors. ETO1 and RAN1 encode negative regulators of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling respectively. Progress on the analysis of these genes along with HOOKLESS1 is described.

  8. Ectopic expression of a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor in guard cells confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Fen; Liang, Ke; Yin, Dong-Mei; Ni, Di-An; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-12-01

    There are several hypotheses that explain stomatal behavior. These include the concept of osmoregulation mediated by potassium and its counterions malate and chlorine and the more recent starch-sugar hypothesis. We have previously reported that the activity of the sucrose cleavage enzyme, vacuolar invertase (VIN), is significantly higher in guard cells than in other leaf epidermal cells and its activity is correlated with stomatal aperture. Here, we examined whether VIN indeed controls stomatal movement under normal and drought conditions by transforming Arabidopsis with a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor homolog (Nt-inhh) under the control of an abscisic acid-sensitive and guard cell-specific promoter (AtRab18). The data obtained showed that guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis plants had lower VIN activity, stomatal aperture and conductance than that of wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic plants also displayed higher drought tolerance than wild-type plants. The data indicate that VIN is a promising target for manipulating stomatal function to increase drought tolerance.

  9. The TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 S-acyl transferase regulates plant cell growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Kemp, Alison C; Grierson, Claire S

    2005-09-01

    TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 (TIP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana affects cell growth throughout the plant and has a particularly strong effect on root hair growth. We have identified TIP1 by map-based cloning and complementation of the mutant phenotype. TIP1 encodes an ankyrin repeat protein with a DHHC Cys-rich domain that is expressed in roots, leaves, inflorescence stems, and floral tissue. Two homologues of TIP1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human (Homo sapiens) have been shown to have S-acyl transferase (also known as palmitoyl transferase) activity. S-acylation is a reversible hydrophobic protein modification that offers swift, flexible control of protein hydrophobicity and affects protein association with membranes, signal transduction, and vesicle trafficking within cells. We show that TIP1 binds the acyl group palmitate, that it can rescue the morphological, temperature sensitivity, and yeast casein kinase2 localization defects of the yeast S-acyl transferase mutant akr1Delta, and that inhibition of acylation in wild-type Arabidopsis roots reproduces the Tip1- mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that S-acylation is essential for normal plant cell growth and identify a plant S-acyl transferase, an essential research tool if we are to understand how this important, reversible lipid modification operates in plant cells.

  10. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Pauly, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  11. Gene expression analysis of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures during a parabolic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbick, Maren; Barjaktarović, Žarko; Hampp, Ruediger

    Plants sense gravity by specialized cells (statocytes) and adjust growth and development accordingly. It has, however, also been shown that plant cells which are not part of specialized tissues are also able to sense gravitational forces. Therefore we used undifferentiated, homogeneous cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) in order to identify early alterations in gene expression as a response to altered gravitational field strengths. In this contribution we report on cell cultures exposed to parabolic flights (approximately 20 sec of microgravity). For this short-term exposure study, we specifically checked for genes at the beginning of signal transduction chains, such as those coding for transcription factors (TFs). TFs are small proteins that regulate expression of their target genes by binding to specific promoter sequences. Our main focus were members of the so-called WRKY TF family. WRKY TFs are known to be involved in various physiological processes like senescence and pathogen defense. By quantifying transcriptional changes of these genes by real-time RT-PCR, we wanted to find out, how gene expression is affected by both hyperand microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight. For this purpose Arabidopsis thaliana callus cultures were metabolically quenched by the injection of RNAlater at the end of the microgravity-phase of each parabola. The data we present will show how fast changes in amounts of transcripts will occur, and to what degree the expression profiles are comparable with data obtained from exposures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity.

  12. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  13. An Efficient Antipodal Cell Isolation Method for Screening of Cell Type-Specific Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng-xiang

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, the mature embryo sac consists of seven cells, namely two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, one central cell, and three antipodal cells at the chalazal end. Excluding the antipodal cell, as a model for the study of cell fate determination and cell type specification, the roles of these embryo sac component cells in fertilization and seed formation have been widely investigated. At this time, little is known regarding the function of antipodal cells and their cell type-specific gene expression patterns. One reason for this is difficulties related to the observation and isolation of cells for detailed functional analyses. Here, we report a method for antipodal cell isolation and transcriptome analysis. We identified antipodal cell-specific marker line K44-1, and based on this marker line, established a procedure allowing us to isolate antipodal cells with both high quality and quantity. PCR validation of antipodal-specific genes from antipodal cell cDNA showed that the isolated cells are qualified and can be used for transcriptome analysis and screening of cell type-specific marker genes. The isolated cells could keep viable for a week in culture condition. This method can be used to efficiently isolate antipodal cells of high quality and will promote the functional investigation of antipodal cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. This increases our understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism of antipodal cell specification. PMID:27875553

  14. Cell death patterns in Arabidopsis cells subjected to four physiological stressors indicate multiple signalling pathways and cell cycle phase specificity.

    PubMed

    Pathirana, Ranjith; West, Phillip; Hedderley, Duncan; Eason, Jocelyn

    2017-03-01

    Corpse morphology, nuclear DNA fragmentation, expression of senescence-associated genes (SAG) and cysteine protease profiles were investigated to understand cell death patterns in a cell cycle-synchronised Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture treated with four physiological stressors in the late G2 phase. Within 4 h of treatment, polyethylene glycol (PEG, 20 %), mannose (100 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (2 mM) caused DNA fragmentation coinciding with cell permeability to Evans Blue (EB) and produced corpse morphology corresponding to apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) with cytoplasmic retraction from the cell wall. Ethylene (8 mL per 250-mL flask) caused permeability of cells to EB without concomitant nuclear DNA fragmentation and cytoplasmic retraction, suggesting necrotic cell death. Mannose inducing glycolysis block and PEG causing dehydration resulted in relatively similar patterns of upregulation of SAG suggesting similar cell death signalling pathways for these two stress factors, whereas hydrogen peroxide caused unique patterns indicating an alternate pathway for cell death induced by oxidative stress. Ethylene did not cause appreciable changes in SAG expression, confirming necrotic cell death. Expression of AtDAD, BoMT1 and AtSAG2 genes, previously shown to be associated with plant senescence, also changed rapidly during AL-PCD in cultured cells. The profiles of nine distinct cysteine protease-active bands ranging in size from ca. 21.5 to 38.5 kDa found in the control cultures were also altered after treatment with the four stressors, with mannose and PEG again producing similar patterns. Results also suggest that cysteine proteases may have a role in necrotic cell death.

  15. The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Skirycz, Aleksandra; Radziejwoski, Amandine; Busch, Wolfgang; Hannah, Matthew A; Czeszejko, Joanna; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Zanor, Maria-Inès; Lohmann, Jan U; De Veylder, Lieven; Witt, Isabell; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to animal growth, plant growth is largely post-embryonic. Therefore plants have developed new mechanisms to precisely regulate cell proliferation by means of internal and external stimuli whilst the general core cell cycle machinery is conserved between eukaryotes. In this work we demonstrate a role for the Arabidopsis thaliana DNA-binding-with-one-finger (DOF) transcription factor OBP1 in the control of cell division upon developmental signalling. Inducible overexpression of OBP1 resulted in a significant overrepresentation of cell cycle genes among the upregulated transcripts. Direct targets of OBP1, as verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation, include at least the core cell cycle gene CYCD3;3 and the replication-specific transcription factor gene AtDOF2;3. Consistent with our molecular data, short-term activation of OBP1 in cell cultures affected cell cycle re-entry, shortening the duration of the G(1) phase and the overall length of the cell cycle, whilst constitutive overexpression of OBP1 in plants influenced cell size and cell number, leading to a dwarfish phenotype. Expression during embryogenesis, germination and lateral root initiation suggests an important role for OBP1 in cell cycle re-entry, operating as a transcriptional regulator of key cell cycle genes. Our findings provide significant input into our understanding of how cell cycle activity is incorporated into plant growth and development.

  16. Measuring Callose Deposition, an Indicator of Cell Wall Reinforcement, During Bacterial Infection in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lin; Mackey, David M

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall responds dynamically during interaction with various pathogens. Upon recognition of "nonself" components, plant cells deploy a variety of immune responses including cell wall fortification. Callose, a β-(1, 3)-D-glucan polymer, is a component of the material deposited at the site of infection between the plasma membrane and the preexisting cell wall that is hypothesized to serve as a physical barrier and platform for directed antimicrobial compound deposition. The defense-associated function of callose deposition is supported by its induction during pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and its inhibition by defense suppressing virulence effectors. Thus, callose deposition is a commonly monitored read-out in plant defense. This protocol describes the use of aniline blue staining and fluorescent microscopy to measure callose deposition in bacteria-infected or elicitor-challenged Arabidopsis leaf tissues.

  17. An Arabidopsis brassinosteroid-dependent mutant is blocked in cell elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Azpiroz, R; Wu, Y; LoCascio, J C; Feldmann, K A

    1998-01-01

    Cell elongation is a developmental process that is regulated by light and phytohormones and is of critical importance for plant growth. Mutants defective in their response to light and various hormones are often dwarfs. The dwarfed phenotype results because of a failure in normal cell elongation. Little is known, however, about the basis of dwarfism as a common element in these diverse signaling pathways and the nature of the cellular functions responsible for cell elongation. Here, we describe an Arabidopsis mutant, dwarf4 (dwf4), whose phenotype can be rescued with exogenously supplied brassinolide. dwf4 mutants display features of light-regulatory mutants, but the dwarfed phenotype is entirely and specifically brassinosteroid dependent; no other hormone can rescue dwf4 to a wild-type phenotype. Therefore, an intact brassinosteroid system is an absolute requirement for cell elongation. PMID:9490745

  18. UV radiation reduces epidermal cell expansion in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hectors, Kathleen; Jacques, Eveline; Prinsen, Els; Guisez, Yves; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Jansen, Marcel A K; Vissenberg, Kris

    2010-10-01

    Plants have evolved a broad spectrum of mechanisms to ensure survival under changing and suboptimal environmental conditions. Alterations of plant architecture are commonly observed following exposure to abiotic stressors. The mechanisms behind these environmentally controlled morphogenic traits are, however, poorly understood. In this report, the effects of a low dose of chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation on leaf development are detailed. Arabidopsis rosette leaves exposed for 7, 12, or 19 d to supplemental UV radiation expanded less compared with non-UV controls. The UV-mediated decrease in leaf expansion is associated with a decrease in adaxial pavement cell expansion. Elevated UV does not affect the number and shape of adaxial pavement cells, nor the stomatal index. Cell expansion in young Arabidopsis leaves is asynchronous along a top-to-base gradient whereas, later in development, cells localized at both the proximal and distal half expand synchronously. The prominent, UV-mediated inhibition of cell expansion in young leaves comprises effects on the early asynchronous growing stage. Subsequent cell expansion during the synchronous phase cannot nullify the UV impact established during the asynchronous phase. The developmental stage of the leaf at the onset of UV treatment determines whether UV alters cell expansion during the synchronous and/or asynchronous stage. The effect of UV radiation on adaxial epidermal cell size appears permanent, whereas leaf shape is transiently altered with a reduced length/width ratio in young leaves. The data show that UV-altered morphogenesis is a temporal- and spatial-dependent process, implying that common single time point or single leaf zone analyses are inadequate.

  19. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsugeki, R.; Fedoroff, N. V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.

  20. Investigating the Molecular Mechanism of TSO1 Function in Arabidopsis cell division and meristem development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongchi Liu

    2004-10-01

    Unlike animals, plants are constantly exposed to environmental mutagens including ultraviolet light and reactive oxygen species. Further, plant cells are totipotent with highly plastic developmental programs. An understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of plants to monitor and repair its DNA and to eliminate damaged cells are of great importance. Previously we have identified two genes, TSO1 and TSO2, from a flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in these two genes cause callus-like flowers, fasciated shoot apical meristems, and abnormal cell division, indicating that TSO1 and TSO2 may encode important cell cycle regulators. Previous funding from DOE led to the molecular cloning of TSO1, which was shown to encode a novel nuclear protein with two CXC domains suspected to bind DNA. This DOE grant has allowed us to characterize and isolate TSO2 that encodes the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR comprises two large subunits (R1) an d two small subunits (R2), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the production of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair. Previous studies in yeast and mammals indicated that defective RNR often led to cell cycle arrest, growth retardation and p53-dependent apoptosis while abnormally elevated RNR activities led to higher mutation rates. Subsequently, we identified two additional R2 genes, R2A and R2B in the Arabidopsis genome. Using reverse genetics, mutations in R2A and R2B were isolated, and double and triple mutants among the three R2 genes (TSO2, R2A and R2B) were constructed and analyzed. We showed that Arabidopsis tso2 mutants, with reduced dNTP levels, were more sensitive to UV-C. While r2a or r2b single mutants did not exhibit any phenotypes, tso2 r2b double mutants were embryonic lethal and tso2 r2a double mutants were seedling lethal indicating redundant functions among the three R2 genes. Furthermore, tso2 r2a double mutants exhibited increased DNA dam age

  1. Tissue-wide Mechanical Forces Influence the Polarity of Stomatal Stem Cells in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bringmann, Martin; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2017-03-20

    Mechanical information is an important contributor to cell polarity in uni- and multicellular systems [1-3]. In planar tissues like the Drosophila wing, cell polarity reorients during growth as cells divide and reorganize [4]. In another planar tissue, the Arabidopsis leaf epidermis [5], polarized, asymmetric divisions of stomatal stem cells (meristemoid mother cells [MMCs]) are fundamental for the generation and patterning of multiple cell types, including stomata. The activity of key transcription factors, polarizing factors [6], and peptide signals [7] explains some local stomatal patterns emerging from the behavior of a few lineally related cells [6, 8-11]. Here we demonstrate that, in addition to locally acting signals, tissue-wide mechanical forces can act as organizing cues, and that they do so by influencing the polarity of individual MMCs. If the mechanical stress environment in the tissue is altered through stretching or cell ablations, cellular polarity changes in response. In turn, polarity predicts the orientation of cellular and tissue outgrowth, leading to increased mechanical conflicts between neighboring cells. This interplay among growth, oriented divisions, and cell specification could contribute to the characteristic patterning of stomatal guard cells in the context of a growing leaf.

  2. Cell Proliferation Analysis Using EdU Labeling in Whole Plant and Histological Samples of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kazda, Anita; Akimcheva, Svetlana; Watson, J Matthew; Riha, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to analyze cell division in both spatial and temporal dimensions within an organism is a key requirement in developmental biology. Specialized cell types within individual organs, such as those within shoot and root apical meristems, have often been identified by differences in their rates of proliferation prior to the characterization of distinguishing molecular markers. Replication-dependent labeling of DNA is a widely used method for assaying cell proliferation. The earliest approaches used radioactive labeling with tritiated thymidine, which were later followed by immunodetection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). A major advance in DNA labeling came with the use of 5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine (EdU) which has proven to have multiple advantages over BrdU. Here we describe the methodology for analyzing EdU labeling and retention in whole plants and histological sections of Arabidopsis.

  3. Cyclic programmed cell death stimulates hormone signaling and root development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Wei; Band, Leah R; Kumpf, Robert P; Van Damme, Daniël; Parizot, Boris; De Rop, Gieljan; Opdenacker, Davy; Möller, Barbara K; Skorzinski, Noemi; Njo, Maria F; De Rybel, Bert; Audenaert, Dominique; Nowack, Moritz K; Vanneste, Steffen; Beeckman, Tom

    2016-01-22

    The plant root cap, surrounding the very tip of the growing root, perceives and transmits environmental signals to the inner root tissues. In Arabidopsis thaliana, auxin released by the root cap contributes to the regular spacing of lateral organs along the primary root axis. Here, we show that the periodicity of lateral organ induction is driven by recurrent programmed cell death at the most distal edge of the root cap. We suggest that synchronous bursts of cell death in lateral root cap cells release pulses of auxin to surrounding root tissues, establishing the pattern for lateral root formation. The dynamics of root cap turnover may therefore coordinate primary root growth with root branching in order to optimize the uptake of water and nutrients from the soil.

  4. Cell identity regulators link development and stress responses in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Jackson, Terry; Cui, Hongchang; Petricka, Jalean J; Busch, Wolfgang; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Benfey, Philip N

    2011-10-18

    Stress responses in plants are tightly coordinated with developmental processes, but interaction of these pathways is poorly understood. We used genome-wide assays at high spatiotemporal resolution to understand the processes that link development and stress in the Arabidopsis root. Our meta-analysis finds little evidence for a universal stress response. However, common stress responses appear to exist with many showing cell type specificity. Common stress responses may be mediated by cell identity regulators because mutations in these genes resulted in altered responses to stress. Evidence for a direct role for cell identity regulators came from genome-wide binding profiling of the key regulator SCARECROW, which showed binding to regulatory regions of stress-responsive genes. Coexpression in response to stress was used to identify genes involved in specific developmental processes. These results reveal surprising linkages between stress and development at cellular resolution, and show the power of multiple genome-wide data sets to elucidate biological processes.

  5. Gravitational stress-induced changes in the phosphoproteom of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, Ruediger; Hausmann, Niklas; Neef, Maren; Schuetz, Wolfgang; Madlung, Johannes; Fladerer, Claudia; Nordheim, Alfred; Costa, Alex; Barjaktarovic, Zarko

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana respond to changes in gravitational field strengths by changes in protein expression. Using ESI-MS/MS for proteins with differential abundance after separation by 2D-PAGE, 28 spots which changed reproducibly and significantly (P¡0.05) in amount after 2h of hypergravity (18 up-, 10 down-regulated) could be identified. The corre-sponding proteins were largely involved in stress responses, including detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS; Barjaktaroviá et al., J. Exptl. Bot. 58:4357 (2007)). In the present study, c we extended these investigations to phosphorylated proteins. For this purpose, callus cell cul-tures of Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to hypergravity (8 g) and simulated weightlessness (random positioning; RP) for up to 30 min, a period of time which yielded most reliable data. First changes, however, were visible as early as 10 min after start of treatment. Out of the protein spots altered in phosphorylation, we were able to identify 24 from those responding to random positioning and 12 which responded to 8 g. The respective proteins are involved in scavenging and detoxification of ROS (32Most recent data obtained from parabolic flights indicate that exposure times to g of as little as 20 s are sufficient to alter the phosphorylation of proteins pattern. This is accompanied by changes in the cellular Ca2+ and H2O2 contents.

  6. Microtubules are essential for guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, William; Ehrhardt, David; Briggs, Winslow

    2012-05-01

    Radially arranged cortical microtubules are a prominent feature of guard cells. Guard cells expressing GFP-tubulin showed consistent changes in the appearance of microtubules when stomata opened or closed. Guard cells showed fewer microtubule structures as stomata closed, whether induced by transfer to darkness, ABA, hydrogen peroxide, or sodium hydrogen carbonate. Guard cells kept in the dark (closed stomata) showed increases in microtubule structures and stomatal aperture on light treatment. GFP-EB1, marking microtubule growing plus ends, showed no change in number of plus ends or velocity of assembly on stomatal closure. Since the number of growing plus ends and the rate of plus-end growth did not change when microtubule structure numbers declined, microtubule instability and/or rearrangement must be responsible for the apparent loss of microtubules. Guard cells with closed stomata showed more cytosolic GFP-fluorescence than those with open stomata as cortical microtubules became disassembled, although with a large net loss in total fluorescence. Microtubule-targeted drugs blocked guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis. Oryzalin disrupted guard-cell microtubules and prevented stomatal opening and taxol stabilized guard-cell microtubules and delayed stomatal closure. Gas exchange measurements indicated that the transgenes for fluorescent-labeled proteins did not disrupt normal stomatal function. These dynamic changes in guard-cell microtubules combined with our inhibitor studies provide evidence for an active role of microtubules in guard-cell function.

  7. Maternal control of integument cell elongation and zygotic control of endosperm growth are coordinated to determine seed size in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Damien; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan N; Berger, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    We use Arabidopsis thaliana as a model to investigate coordination of cell proliferation and cell elongation in the three components that develop side by side in the seed. Two of these, the embryo and its nurturing annex, the endosperm, are placed under zygotic control and develop within the seed integument placed under maternal control. We show that integument cell proliferation and endosperm growth are largely independent from each other. By contrast, prevention of cell elongation in the integument by the mutation transparent testa glabra2 (ttg2) restricts endosperm and seed growth. Conversely, endosperm growth controlled by the HAIKU (IKU) genetic pathway modulates integument cell elongation. Combinations of TTG2 defective seed integument with reduction of endosperm size by iku mutations identify integument cell elongation and endosperm growth as the primary regulators of seed size. Our results strongly suggest that a cross talk between maternal and zygotic controls represents the primary regulator of the coordinated control of seed size in Arabidopsis.

  8. MIRO1 influences the morphology and intracellular distribution of mitochondria during embryonic cell division in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Shohei; Nakajima, Masaki; Fujimoto, Masaru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2011-02-01

    Regulating the morphology and intracellular distribution of mitochondria is essential for embryo development in animals. However, the importance of such regulation is not clearly defined in plants. The evolutionarily conserved Miro proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology and motility. We previously demonstrated that MIRO1, an Arabidopsis thaliana orthologue of the Miro protein, is required for embryogenesis. An insertional mutation in the MIRO1 gene causes arrest of embryonic cell division, leading to abortion of the embryo at an early stage. Here we investigated the role of MIRO1 in the regulation of mitochondrial behaviour in egg cells and early-stage embryos using GFP-labeled mitochondria. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy revealed that, in miro1 mutant egg cells, mitochondria are abnormally enlarged, although egg cell formation is nearly unaffected. After fertilization and subsequent zygotic cell division, the homozygous miro1 mutant two-celled embryo contained a significantly reduced number of mitochondria in its apical cell compared with the wild type, suggesting that the miro1 mutation inhibits proper intracellular distribution of mitochondria, leading to an arrest of embryonic cell division. Our findings suggest that proper mitochondrial morphology and intracellular distribution are maintained by MIRO1 and are vital for embryonic cell division.

  9. Transcriptional characteristics and differences in Arabidopsis stigmatic papilla cells pre- and post-pollination.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tomoki; Matsushima, Mai; Nabemoto, Moe; Osaka, Masaaki; Sakazono, Satomi; Masuko-Suzuki, Hiromi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakazono, Mikio; Iwano, Megumi; Takayama, Seiji; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Suzuki, Go; Watanabe, Masao; Suwabe, Keita

    2015-04-01

    Pollination is an important early step in sexual plant reproduction. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sequential pollination events, from pollen adhesion onto the stigma surface to pollen tube germination and elongation, occur on the stigmatic papilla cells. Following successful completion of these events, the pollen tube penetrates the stigma and finally fertilizes a female gametophyte. The pollination events are thought to be initiated and regulated by interactions between papilla cells and pollen. Here, we report the characterization of gene expression profiles of unpollinated (UP), compatible pollinated (CP) and incompatible pollinated (IP) papilla cells in A. thaliana. Based on cell type-specific transcriptome analysis from a combination of laser microdissection and RNA sequencing, 15,475, 17,360 and 16,918 genes were identified as expressed in UP, CP and IP papilla cells, respectively, and, of these, 14,392 genes were present in all three data sets. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analyses identified 147 and 71 genes up-regulated in CP and IP papilla cells, respectively, and 115 and 46 genes down-regulated. Gene Ontology and metabolic pathway analyses revealed that papilla cells play an active role as the female reproductive component in pollination, particularly in information exchange, signal transduction, internal physiological changes and external morphological modification. This study provides fundamental information on the molecular mechanisms involved in pollination in papilla cells, furthering our understanding of the reproductive role of papilla cells.

  10. Relationship between Endopolyploidy and Cell Size in Epidermal Tissue of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Melaragno, JE; Mehrotra, B; Coleman, AW

    1993-01-01

    Relative quantities of DNA in individual nuclei of stem and leaf epidermal cells of Arabidopsis were measured microspectrofluorometrically using epidermal peels. The relative ploidy level in each nucleus was assessed by comparison to root tip mitotic nuclei. A clear pattern of regular endopolyploidy is evident in epidermal cells. Guard cell nuclei contain levels of DNA comparable to dividing root cells, the 2C level (i.e., one unreplicated copy of the nuclear DNA). Leaf trichome nuclei had elevated ploidy levels of 4C, 8C, 16C, 32C, and 64C, and their cytology suggested that the polyploidy represents a form of polyteny. The nuclei of epidermal pavement cells were 2C, 4C, and 8C in stem epidermis, and 2C, 4C, 8C, and 16C in leaf epidermis. Morphometry of epidermal pavement cells revealed a direct proportionality between nuclear DNA level and cell size. A consideration of the development process suggests that the cells of highest ploidy level are developmentally oldest; consequently, the developmental pattern of epidermal tissues can be read from the ploidy pattern of the cells. This observation is relevant to theories of stomate spacing and offers opportunities for genetic analysis of the endopolyploidy/polyteny phenomenon. PMID:12271050

  11. Substitution of L-fucose by L-galactose in cell walls of arabidopsis mur1

    SciTech Connect

    Zablackis, E.; York, W.S.; Pauly, M.

    1996-06-21

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (mur1) has less than 2 percent of the normal amounts of L-fucose in the primary cell walls of aerial portions of the plant. The survival of mur1 plants challenged the hypothesis that fucose is a required component of biologically active oligosaccharides derived from cell wall xyloglucan. However, the replacement of L-fucose (that is, 6-deoxyl-L-galactose) by L-galactose does not detectably alter the biological activity of the oligosaccharides derived from xyloglucan. Thus, essential structural and conformational features of xyloglucan and xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides are retained when L-galactose replaces L-fucose. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Model That Recovers the Cyclic Behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; García-Cruz, Karla; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Castillo, Aaron; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2015-09-01

    Cell cycle control is fundamental in eukaryotic development. Several modeling efforts have been used to integrate the complex network of interacting molecular components involved in cell cycle dynamics. In this paper, we aimed at recovering the regulatory logic upstream of previously known components of cell cycle control, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the cyclic behavior of such components. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, but given that many components of cell cycle regulation are conserved among eukaryotes, when experimental data for this system was not available, we considered experimental results from yeast and animal systems. We are proposing a Boolean gene regulatory network (GRN) that converges into only one robust limit cycle attractor that closely resembles the cyclic behavior of the key cell-cycle molecular components and other regulators considered here. We validate the model by comparing our in silico configurations with data from loss- and gain-of-function mutants, where the endocyclic behavior also was recovered. Additionally, we approximate a continuous model and recovered the temporal periodic expression profiles of the cell-cycle molecular components involved, thus suggesting that the single limit cycle attractor recovered with the Boolean model is not an artifact of its discrete and synchronous nature, but rather an emergent consequence of the inherent characteristics of the regulatory logic proposed here. This dynamical model, hence provides a novel theoretical framework to address cell cycle regulation in plants, and it can also be used to propose novel predictions regarding cell cycle regulation in other eukaryotes.

  13. An Arabidopsis senescence-associated protein SAG29 regulates cell viability under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Jung-Min; Kang, Seok Ki; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important cellular organ that perceives incoming developmental and environmental signals and integrates these signals into cellular regulatory mechanisms. It also acts as a barrier against unfavorable extracellular factors to maintain cell viability. Despite its importance for cell viability, molecular components determining cell viability and underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that a plasma membrane-localized MtN3 protein SAG29 regulates cell viability under high salinity in Arabidopsis. The SAG29 gene is expressed primarily in senescing plant tissues. It is induced by osmotic stresses via an abscisic acid-dependent pathway. Whereas the SAG29-overexpressing transgenic plants (35S:SAG29) exhibited an accelerated senescence and were hypersensitive to salt stress, the SAG29-deficient mutants were less sensitive to high salinity. Consistent with this, the 35S:SAG29 transgenic plants showed reduced cell viability in the roots under normal growth condition. In contrast, cell viability in the SAG29-deficient mutant roots was indistinguishable from that in the roots of control plants. Notably, the mutant roots exhibited enhanced cell viability under high salinity. Our observations indicate that the senescence-associated SAG29 protein is associated with cell viability under high salinity and other osmotic stress conditions. We propose that the SAG29 protein may serve as a molecular link that integrates environmental stress responses into senescing process.

  14. Mapping the functional roles of cap cells in the response of Arabidopsis primary roots to gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Fasano, J. M.; Gilroy, S.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The cap is widely accepted to be the site of gravity sensing in roots because removal of the cap abolishes root curvature. Circumstantial evidence favors the columella cells as the gravisensory cells because amyloplasts (and often other cellular components) are polarized with respect to the gravity vector. However, there has been no functional confirmation of their role. To address this problem, we used laser ablation to remove defined cells in the cap of Arabidopsis primary roots and quantified the response of the roots to gravity using three parameters: time course of curvature, presentation time, and deviation from vertical growth. Ablation of the peripheral cap cells and tip cells did not alter root curvature. Ablation of the innermost columella cells caused the strongest inhibitory effect on root curvature without affecting growth rates. Many of these roots deviated significantly from vertical growth and had a presentation time 6-fold longer than the controls. Among the two inner columella stories, the central cells of story 2 contributed the most to root gravitropism. These cells also exhibited the largest amyloplast sedimentation velocities. Therefore, these results are consistent with the starch-statolith sedimentation hypothesis for gravity sensing.

  15. Arabidopsis Bax Inhibitor-1 inhibits cell death induced by pokeweed antiviral protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Tumer, Nilgun E.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an active form of programmed cell death (PCD) that plays critical roles in the development, differentiation and resistance to pathogens in multicellular organisms. Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are able to induce apoptotic cell death in mammalian cells. In this study, using yeast as a model system, we showed that yeast cells expressing pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a single-chain ribosome-inactivating protein, exhibit apoptotic-like features, such as nuclear fragmentation and ROS production. We studied the interaction between PAP and AtBI-1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Bax Inhibitor-1), a plant anti-apoptotic protein, which inhibits Bax induced cell death. Cells expressing PAP and AtBI-1 were able to survive on galactose media compared to PAP alone, indicating a reduction in the cytotoxicity of PAP in yeast. However, PAP was able to depurinate the ribosomes and to inhibit total translation in the presence of AtBI-1. A C-terminally deleted AtBI-1 was able to reduce the cytotoxicity of PAP. Since anti-apoptotic proteins form heterodimers to inhibit the biological activity of their partners, we used a co-immunoprecipitation assay to examine the binding of AtBI-1 to PAP. Both full length and C-terminal deleted AtBI-1 were capable of binding to PAP. These findings indicate that PAP induces cell death in yeast and AtBI-1 inhibits cell death induced by PAP without affecting ribosome depurination and translation inhibition. PMID:28357275

  16. An EAR-Dependent Regulatory Module Promotes Male Germ Cell Division and Sperm Fertility in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Borg, Michael; Rutley, Nicholas; Kagale, Sateesh; Hamamura, Yuki; Gherghinoiu, Mihai; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sari, Ugur; Esparza-Franco, Manuel A; Sakamoto, Wataru; Rozwadowski, Kevin; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Twell, David

    2014-05-01

    The production of the sperm cells in angiosperms requires coordination of cell division and cell differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the germline-specific MYB protein DUO1 integrates these processes, but the regulatory hierarchy in which DUO1 functions is unknown. Here, we identify an essential role for two germline-specific DUO1 target genes, DAZ1 and DAZ2, which encode EAR motif-containing C2H2-type zinc finger proteins. We show that DAZ1/DAZ2 are required for germ cell division and for the proper accumulation of mitotic cyclins. Importantly, DAZ1/DAZ2 are sufficient to promote G2- to M-phase transition and germ cell division in the absence of DUO1. DAZ1/DAZ2 are also required for DUO1-dependent cell differentiation and are essential for gamete fusion at fertilization. We demonstrate that the two EAR motifs in DAZ1/DAZ2 mediate their function in the male germline and are required for transcriptional repression and for physical interaction with the corepressor TOPLESS. Our findings uncover an essential module in a regulatory hierarchy that drives mitotic transition in male germ cells and implicates gene repression pathways in sperm cell formation and fertility.

  17. Programmed cell death in Ricinus and Arabidopsis: the function of KDEL cysteine peptidases in development.

    PubMed

    Hierl, Georg; Vothknecht, Ute; Gietl, Christine

    2012-05-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants is a prerequisite for development as well as seed and fruit production. It also plays a significant role in pathogen defense. A unique group of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases, characterized by a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL CysEP), is involved in plant PCD. Genes for these endopeptidases have been sequenced and analyzed from 25 angiosperms and gymnosperms. They have no structural relationship to caspases involved in mammalian PCD and homologs to this group of plant cysteine endopeptidases have not been found in mammals or yeast. In castor beans (Ricinus communis), the CysEP is synthesized as pre-pro-enzyme. The pro-enzyme is transported to the cytosol of cells undergoing PCD in ER-derived vesicles called ricinosomes. These vesicles release the mature CysEP in the final stages of organelle disintegration triggered by acidification of the cytoplasm resulting from the disruption of the vacuole. Mature CysEP digests the hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich proteins (extensins) that form the basic scaffold of the plant cell wall. The KDEL CysEPs accept a wide variety of amino acids at the active site, including the glycosylated Hyp residues of the extensins. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2 and AtCEP3) are expressed in tissues undergoing PCD. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing β-glucuronidase under the control of the promoters for these three genes, cell- and tissue-specific activities were mapped during seedling, flower and seed development. KDEL CysEPs participate in the collapse of tissues in the final stage of PCD and in tissue re-modeling such as lateral root formation.

  18. ARABIDOPSIS DEHISCENCE ZONE POLYGALACTURONASE1 (ADPG1), ADPG2, and QUARTET2 Are Polygalacturonases Required for Cell Separation during Reproductive Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Mikihiro; Kay, Pippa; Wilson, Sarah; Swain, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Cell separation is thought to involve degradation of pectin by several hydrolytic enzymes, particularly polygalacturonase (PG). Here, we characterize an activation tagging line with reduced growth and male sterility caused by increased expression of a PG encoded by QUARTET2 (QRT2). QRT2 is essential for pollen grain separation and is part of a small family of three closely related endo-PGs in the Arabidopsis thaliana proteome, including ARABIDOPSIS DEHISCENCE ZONE POLYGALACTURONASE1 (ADPG1) and ADPG2. Functional assays and complementation experiments confirm that ADPG1, ADPG2, and QRT2 are PGs. Genetic analysis demonstrates that ADPG1 and ADPG2 are essential for silique dehiscence. In addition, ADPG2 and QRT2 contribute to floral organ abscission, while all three genes contribute to anther dehiscence. Expression analysis is consistent with the observed mutant phenotypes. INDEHISCENT (IND) encodes a putative basic helix-loop-helix required for silique dehiscence, and we demonstrate that the closely related HECATE3 (HEC3) gene is required for normal seed abscission and show that IND and HEC3 are required for normal expression of ADPG1 in the silique dehiscence zone and seed abscission zone, respectively. We also show that jasmonic acid and ethylene act together with abscisic acid to regulate floral organ abscission, in part by promoting QRT2 expression. These results demonstrate that multiple cell separation events, including both abscission and dehiscence, require closely related PG genes. PMID:19168715

  19. Ectopic Expression of WUS in Hypocotyl Promotes Cell Division via GRP23 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Li, Junhua; Guo, Xiaoyu; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yunyuan

    2013-01-01

    WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for preventing stem cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that in addition to its functions in meristematic stem cell maintenance, WUS is involved in the regulation of cell division. The WUS gain-of-function mutant, stem ectopic flowers (sef), displayed elongated hypocotyls, whereas the loss-of-function wus-1 mutant had shortened hypocotyls. The long hypocotyl in sef was due to the presence of more cells, rather than increased cell elongation. Microscopic observation, flow cytometry assays, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and histochemical staining of CycB1;1::GUS supported the hypothesis that ectopic cell division occurred in the sef hypocotyls after germination. Both immunoblot and qRT-PCR results showed that WUS was ectopically expressed in sef hypocotyls. Luciferase activity, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that GLUTAMINE-RICH PROTEIN 23 (GRP23) expression can be activated by WUS and that GRP23 is a direct target gene of WUS. The phenotypes of 35S::GRP23 plants and GRP23 knockdown lines supported the notion that GRP23 mediates the effects of WUS on hypocotyl length. Together, our data suggest that ectopic expression of WUS in hypocotyl controls cell division through its target gene GRP23. PMID:24086632

  20. Cytoskeleton dynamics control the first asymmetric cell division in Arabidopsis zygote

    PubMed Central

    Kimata, Yusuke; Higaki, Takumi; Kawashima, Tomokazu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Yamada, Tomomi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Berger, Frederic; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric cell division of the zygote is the initial and crucial developmental step in most multicellular organisms. In flowering plants, whether zygote polarity is inherited from the preexisting organization in the egg cell or reestablished after fertilization has remained elusive. How dynamically the intracellular organization is generated during zygote polarization is also unknown. Here, we used a live-cell imaging system with Arabidopsis zygotes to visualize the dynamics of the major elements of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs), and actin filaments (F-actins), during the entire process of zygote polarization. By combining image analysis and pharmacological experiments using specific inhibitors of the cytoskeleton, we found features related to zygote polarization. The preexisting alignment of MTs and F-actin in the egg cell is lost on fertilization. Then, MTs organize into a transverse ring defining the zygote subapical region and driving cell outgrowth in the apical direction. F-actin forms an apical cap and longitudinal arrays and is required to position the nucleus to the apical region of the zygote, setting the plane of the first asymmetrical division. Our findings show that, in flowering plants, the preexisting cytoskeletal patterns in the egg cell are lost on fertilization and that the zygote reorients the cytoskeletons to perform directional cell elongation and polar nuclear migration. PMID:27911812

  1. Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Krupinski, Pawel; Wightman, Raymond; Milani, Pascale; Berquand, Alexandre; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Jönsson, Henrik; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    Although it is a central question in biology, how cell shape controls intracellular dynamics largely remains an open question. Here, we show that the shape of Arabidopsis pavement cells creates a stress pattern that controls microtubule orientation, which then guides cell wall reinforcement. Live-imaging, combined with modeling of cell mechanics, shows that microtubules align along the maximal tensile stress direction within the cells, and atomic force microscopy demonstrates that this leads to reinforcement of the cell wall parallel to the microtubules. This feedback loop is regulated: cell-shape derived stresses could be overridden by imposed tissue level stresses, showing how competition between subcellular and supracellular cues control microtubule behavior. Furthermore, at the microtubule level, we identified an amplification mechanism in which mechanical stress promotes the microtubule response to stress by increasing severing activity. These multiscale feedbacks likely contribute to the robustness of microtubule behavior in plant epidermis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01967.001 PMID:24740969

  2. Characterization of transmembrane auxin transport in Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Seifertová, Daniela; Skůpa, Petr; Rychtář, Jan; Laňková, Martina; Pařezová, Markéta; Dobrev, Petre I; Hoyerová, Klára; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Polar auxin transport is a crucial process for control and coordination of plant development. Studies of auxin transport through plant tissues and organs showed that auxin is transported by a combination of phloem flow and the active, carrier-mediated cell-to-cell transport. Since plant organs and even tissues are too complex for determination of the kinetics of carrier-mediated auxin uptake and efflux on the cellular level, simplified models of cell suspension cultures are often used, and several tobacco cell lines have been established for auxin transport assays. However, there are very few data available on the specificity and kinetics of auxin transport across the plasma membrane for Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells. In this report, the characteristics of carrier-mediated uptake (influx) and efflux for the native auxin indole-3-acetic acid and synthetic auxins, naphthalene-1-acetic and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acids (NAA and 2,4-D, respectively) in A. thaliana ecotype Landsberg erecta suspension-cultured cells (LE line) are provided. By auxin competition assays and inhibitor treatments, we show that, similarly to tobacco cells, uptake carriers have high affinity towards 2,4-D and that NAA is a good tool for studies of auxin efflux in LE cells. In contrast to tobacco cells, metabolic profiling showed that only a small proportion of NAA is metabolized in LE cells. These results show that the LE cell line is a useful experimental system for measurements of kinetics of auxin carriers on the cellular level that is complementary to tobacco cells.

  3. Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiao; Zeng, Yining; Yin, Yanbin; Pu, Yunqiao; Jackson, Lisa A; Engle, Nancy L; Martin, Madhavi Z; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Dixon, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutant of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.

  4. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor regulates programmed cell death during flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Flower development and fertilization are tightly controlled in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to permit the fertilization of a maximum amount of ovules as well as proper embryo and seed development, a subtle balance between pollen tube growth inside the transmitting tract and pollen tube exit from the septum is needed. Both processes depend on a type of programmed cell death that is still poorly understood. Here, it is shown that a Kunitz protease inhibitor related to water-soluble chlorophyll proteins of Brassicaceae (AtWSCP, encoded by At1g72290) is involved in controlling cell death during flower development in A. thaliana. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biology approaches revealed that WSCP physically interacts with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION) and that this interaction in turn inhibits the activity of RD21 as a pro-death protein. The regulatory circuit identified depends on the restricted expression of WSCP in the transmitting tract and the septum epidermis. In a respective Atwscp knock-out mutant, flowers exhibited precocious cell death in the transmitting tract and unnatural death of septum epidermis cells. As a consequence, apical-basal pollen tube growth, fertilization of ovules, as well as embryo development and seed formation were perturbed. Together, the data identify a unique mechanism of cell death regulation that fine-tunes pollen tube growth.

  5. Dynamics of vegetative cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes of pollen cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. The pollen cytoplasm develops a complicated ultrastructure and changes dramatically during these stages. Lipid droplets increase after generative cell formation and their organization and distribution change with the developmental stage. Starch grains in amyloplasts increase in number and size during generative and sperm cell formation and decrease at pollen maturity. The shape and membrane system of mitochondria change only slightly. Dictyosomes become very prominent, and numerous associated vesicles are observed during and after sperm cell formation. Endoplasmic reticulum appears extensively as stacks during sperm cell formation. Free and polyribosomes are abundant in the cytoplasm at all developmental stages although they appear denser at certain stages and in some areas. In mature pollen, all organelles are randomly distributed throughout the vegetative cytoplasm and numerous small particles appear. Organization and distribution of storage substances and appearance of these small particles during generative and sperm cell formation and pollen maturation are discussed.

  6. Light-dependent intracellular positioning of mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Sayeedul; Niwa, Yasuo; Takagi, Shingo

    2009-06-01

    Mitochondria, the power house of the cell, are one of the most dynamic cell organelles. Although there are several reports on actin- or microtubule-dependent movement of mitochondria in plant cells, intracellular positioning and motility of mitochondria under different light conditions remain open questions. Mitochondria were visualized in living Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells using green fluorescent protein fused to a mitochondrion-targeting signal. In darkness, mitochondria were distributed randomly in palisade cells. In contrast, mitochondria accumulated along the periclinal walls, similar to the accumulation response of chloroplasts, when treated with weak blue light (470 nm, 4 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Under strong blue light (100 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), mitochondria occupied the anticlinal positions similar to the avoidance response of chloroplasts and nuclei. While strong red light (660 nm, 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) induced the accumulation of mitochondria along the inner periclinal walls, green light exhibited little effect on the distribution of mitochondria. In addition, the mode of movement of individual mitochondria along the outer periclinal walls under different light conditions was precisely analyzed by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. A gradual increase in the number of static mitochondria located in the vicinity of chloroplasts with a time period of blue light illumination clearly demonstrated the accumulation response of mitochondria. Light-induced co-localization of mitochondria with chloroplasts strongly suggested their mutual metabolic interactions. This is the first characterization of the light-dependent redistribution of mitochondria in plant cells.

  7. Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Roberto A; Umeda, Masaaki; Yamamura, Saburo; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    An Arabidopsis cDNA (AtCAP1) that encodes a predicted protein of 476 amino acids highly homologous with the yeast cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was isolated. Expression of AtCAP1 in the budding yeast CAP mutant was able to rescue defects such as abnormal cell morphology and random budding pattern. The C-terminal domain, 158 amino acids of AtCAP1 possessing in vitro actin binding activity, was needed for the regulation of cytoskeleton-related defects of yeast. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtCAP1 under the regulation of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter showed different levels of AtCAP1 accumulation related to the extent of growth abnormalities, in particular size reduction of leaves as well as petioles. Morphological alterations in leaves were attributable to decreased cell size and cell number in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Tobacco suspension-cultured cells (Bright Yellow 2) overexpressing AtCAP1 exhibited defects in actin filaments and were unable to undergo mitosis. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation experiment suggested that AtCAP1 interacted with actin in vivo. Therefore, AtCAP1 may play a functional role in actin cytoskeleton networking that is essential for proper cell elongation and division.

  8. Endocytosis restricts Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin to the cell division plane during late cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Yohann; Frescatada-Rosa, Márcia; Men, Shuzhen; Chow, Cheung-Ming; Ebine, Kazuo; Gustavsson, Anna; Johansson, Lenore; Ueda, Takashi; Moore, Ian; Jürgens, Gerd; Grebe, Markus

    2010-02-03

    Cytokinesis represents the final stage of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm becomes partitioned between daughter cells. The process differs to some extent between animal and plant cells, but proteins of the syntaxin family mediate membrane fusion in the plane of cell division in diverse organisms. How syntaxin localization is kept in check remains elusive. Here, we report that localization of the Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin in the plane of cell division is maintained by sterol-dependent endocytosis involving a clathrin- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A-dependent mechanism. On genetic or pharmacological interference with endocytosis, KNOLLE mis-localizes to lateral plasma membranes after cell-plate fusion. Fluorescence-loss-in-photo-bleaching and fluorescence-recovery-after-photo-bleaching experiments reveal lateral diffusion of GFP-KNOLLE from the plane of division to lateral membranes. In an endocytosis-defective sterol biosynthesis mutant displaying lateral KNOLLE diffusion, KNOLLE secretory trafficking remains unaffected. Thus, restriction of lateral diffusion by endocytosis may serve to maintain specificity of syntaxin localization during late cytokinesis.

  9. Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qiao; Zeng, Yining; Yin, Yanbin; Pu, Yunqiao; Jackson, Lisa A.; Engle, Nancy L.; Martin, Madhavi Z.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    In this paper, pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutant of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Finally, together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.

  10. Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Qiao; Zeng, Yining; Yin, Yanbin; ...

    2014-08-05

    In this paper, pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutantmore » of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Finally, together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.« less

  11. Cell wall maturation of Arabidopsis trichomes is dependent on exocyst subunit EXO70H4 and involves callose deposition.

    PubMed

    Kulich, Ivan; Vojtíková, Zdeňka; Glanc, Matouš; Ortmannová, Jitka; Rasmann, Sergio; Žárský, Viktor

    2015-05-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf trichomes are single-cell structures with a well-studied development, but little is understood about their function. Developmental studies focused mainly on the early shaping stages, and little attention has been paid to the maturation stage. We focused on the EXO70H4 exocyst subunit, one of the most up-regulated genes in the mature trichome. We uncovered EXO70H4-dependent development of the secondary cell wall layer, highly autofluorescent and callose rich, deposited only in the upper part of the trichome. The boundary is formed between the apical and the basal parts of mature trichome by a callose ring that is also deposited in an EXO70H4-dependent manner. We call this structure the Ortmannian ring (OR). Both the secondary cell wall layer and the OR are absent in the exo70H4 mutants. Ecophysiological aspects of the trichome cell wall thickening include interference with antiherbivore defense and heavy metal accumulation. Ultraviolet B light induces EXO70H4 transcription in a CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1-dependent way, resulting in stimulation of trichome cell wall thickening and the OR biogenesis. EXO70H4-dependent trichome cell wall hardening is a unique phenomenon, which may be conserved among a variety of the land plants. Our analyses support a concept that Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model to study molecular mechanisms of secondary cell wall deposition.

  12. A proteomics dissection of Arabidopsis thaliana vacuoles isolated from cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Jaquinod, Michel; Villiers, Florent; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Hugouvieux, Véronique; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Bourguignon, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms governing cellular traffic, storage of various metabolites and their ultimate degradation, Arabidopsis thaliana vacuoles proteomes were established. To this aim, a procedure was developed to prepare highly purified vacuoles from protoplasts isolated from Arabidopsis cell cultures using Ficoll density gradients. Based on the specific activity of the vacuolar marker α-mannosidase, the enrichment factor of the vacuoles was estimated at approximately 42 fold with an average yield of 2.1%. Absence of significant contamination by other cellular compartments was validated by western blot using antibodies raised against specific markers of chloroplasts, mitochondria, plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. Based on these results, vacuole preparations showed the necessary degree of purity for proteomic study. Therefore, a proteomic approach was developed in order to identify the protein components present in both the membrane and soluble fractions of the Arabidopsis cell vacuoles. This approach includes: (i) a mild oxidation step leading to the transformation of cysteine residues into cysteic acid and methionine to methionine sulfoxide, (ii) an in-solution proteolytic digestion of very hydrophobic proteins, (iii) a pre-fractionation of proteins by short migration on SDS-PAGE followed by analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. This procedure allowed the identification of more than 650 proteins, 2/3 of which copurify with the membrane hydrophobic fraction and 1/3 with the soluble fraction. Among the 416 proteins identified from the membrane fraction, 195 were considered integral membrane proteins based on the presence of one or more predicted transmembrane domains, and 110 transporters and related proteins were identified (91 putative transporters and 19 proteins related to the V-ATPase pump). With regard to function, about 20% of the proteins identified were previously known to be associated with vacuolar

  13. Identification of candidate genes in Arabidopsis and Populus cell wall biosynthesis using text-mining, co-expression network analysis and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bisaria, Anjali; Tuskan, Gerald A; Kalluri, Udaya C

    2011-12-01

    Populus is an important bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. A greater understanding of cell wall biosynthesis processes is critical in reducing biomass recalcitrance, a major hindrance in efficient generation of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we report the identification of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes through the development and application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline. As a first step, via text-mining of PubMed publications, we obtained 121 Arabidopsis genes that had the experimental evidence supporting their involvement in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database, and additional genes were identified as neighbors of the bait genes in the network, increasing the number of genes to 548. The 548 Arabidopsis genes were then used to re-query the Arabidopsis co-expression database and re-construct a network that captured additional network neighbors, expanding to a total of 694 genes. The 694 Arabidopsis genes were computationally divided into 22 clusters. Queries of the Populus genome using the Arabidopsis genes revealed 817 Populus orthologs. Functional analysis of gene ontology and tissue-specific gene expression indicated that these Arabidopsis and Populus genes are high likelihood candidates for functional characterization in relation to cell wall biosynthesis.

  14. Suppression of Arabidopsis peroxidase 72 alters cell wall and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Pomar, Federico; Pedreño, María A; Novo-Uzal, Esther

    2015-10-01

    Class III peroxidases are glycoproteins with a major role in cell wall maturation such as lignin formation. Peroxidases are usually present in a high number of isoenzymes, which complicates to assign specific functions to individual peroxidase isoenzymes. Arabidopsis genome encodes for 73 peroxidases, among which AtPrx72 has been shown to participate in lignification. Here, we report by using knock out peroxidase mutants how the disruption of AtPrx72 causes thinner secondary walls in interfascicular fibres but not in the xylem of the stem. This effect is also age-dependent, and AtPrx72 function seems to be particularly important when lignification prevails over elongation processes. Finally, the suppression AtPrx72 leads to the down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis pathway, as well as genes and transcription factors involved in secondary wall thickening.

  15. Identification of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR signalling network: adding new regulatory players in plant stem cell maintenance and cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zermiani, Monica; Begheldo, Maura; Nonis, Alessandro; Palme, Klaus; Mizzi, Luca; Morandini, Piero; Nonis, Alberto; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The RAM/MOR signalling network of eukaryotes is a conserved regulatory module involved in co-ordination of stem cell maintenance, cell differentiation and polarity establishment. To date, no such signalling network has been identified in plants. Methods Genes encoding the bona fide core components of the RAM/MOR pathway were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) by sequence similarity searches conducted with the known components from other species. The transcriptional network(s) of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR signalling pathway were identified by running in-depth in silico analyses for genes co-regulated with the core components. In situ hybridization was used to confirm tissue-specific expression of selected RAM/MOR genes. Key Results Co-expression data suggested that the arabidopsis RAM/MOR pathway may include genes involved in floral transition, by co-operating with chromatin remodelling and mRNA processing/post-transcriptional gene silencing factors, and genes involved in the regulation of pollen tube polar growth. The RAM/MOR pathway may act upstream of the ROP1 machinery, affecting pollen tube polar growth, based on the co-expression of its components with ROP-GEFs. In silico tissue-specific co-expression data and in situ hybridization experiments suggest that different components of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR are expressed in the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem and may be involved in the fine-tuning of stem cell maintenance and cell differentiation. Conclusions The arabidopsis RAM/MOR pathway may be part of the signalling cascade that converges in pollen tube polarized growth and in fine-tuning stem cell maintenance, differentiation and organ polarity. PMID:26078466

  16. CELL WALL INVERTASE 4 is required for nectar production in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ruhlmann, Jeffrey M.; Kram, Brian W.; Carter, Clay J.

    2010-01-01

    To date, no genes have been reported to directly affect the de novo production of floral nectar. In an effort to identify genes involved in nectar production, the Affymetrix® ATH1 GeneChip was previously used to examine global gene expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana nectaries. One of the genes displaying highly enriched expression in nectaries was CELL WALL INVERTASE 4 (AtCWINV4, At2g36190), which encodes an enzyme that putatively catalyses the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. RT-PCR was used to confirm the nectary-enriched expression of AtCWINV4, as well as an orthologue from Brassica rapa. To probe biological function, two independent Arabidopsis cwinv4 T-DNA mutants were isolated. Unlike wild-type plants, cwinv4 lines did not produce nectar. While overall nectary morphology appeared to be normal, cwinv4 flowers accumulated higher than normal levels of starch in the receptacle, but not within the nectaries themselves. Conversely, wild-type, but not cwinv4, nectarial stomata stained intensely for starch. Cell wall extracts prepared from mutant flowers displayed greatly reduced invertase activity when compared with wild-type plants, and cwinv4 flowers also accumulated significantly lower levels of total soluble sugar. Cumulatively, these results implicate CWINV4 as an absolutely required factor for nectar production in the Brassicaceae, specifically by maintaining constant sink status within nectaries, thus allowing them to accumulate the sugars necessary for nectar production. In addition, CWINV4 is probably responsible for the hexose-rich composition observed for many Brassicaceae nectars. PMID:19861655

  17. METACASPASE9 modulates autophagy to confine cell death to the target cells during Arabidopsis vascular xylem differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Escamez, Sacha; André, Domenique; Zhang, Bo; Bollhöner, Benjamin; Pesquet, Edouard; Tuominen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We uncovered that the level of autophagy in plant cells undergoing programmed cell death determines the fate of the surrounding cells. Our approach consisted of using Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures capable of differentiating into two different cell types: vascular tracheary elements (TEs) that undergo programmed cell death (PCD) and protoplast autolysis, and parenchymatic non-TEs that remain alive. The TE cell type displayed higher levels of autophagy when expression of the TE-specific METACASPASE9 (MC9) was reduced using RNAi (MC9-RNAi). Misregulation of autophagy in the MC9-RNAi TEs coincided with ectopic death of the non-TEs, implying the existence of an autophagy-dependent intercellular signalling from within the TEs towards the non-TEs. Viability of the non-TEs was restored when AUTOPHAGY2 (ATG2) was downregulated specifically in MC9-RNAi TEs, demonstrating the importance of autophagy in the spatial confinement of cell death. Our results suggest that other eukaryotic cells undergoing PCD might also need to tightly regulate their level of autophagy to avoid detrimental consequences for the surrounding cells. PMID:26740571

  18. Combination of Synthetic Chemistry and Live-Cell Imaging Identified a Rapid Cell Division Inhibitor in Tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nambo, Masakazu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Yamada, Tomomi; Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Kadofusa, Naoya; Kimata, Yusuke; Kuwata, Keiko; Umeda, Masaaki; Ueda, Minako

    2016-11-01

    Cell proliferation is crucial to the growth of multicellular organisms, and thus the proper control of cell division is important to prevent developmental arrest or overgrowth. Nevertheless, tools for controlling cell proliferation are still poor in plant. To develop novel tools, we focused on a specific compound family, triarylmethanes, whose members show various antiproliferative activities in animals. By combining organic chemistry to create novel and diverse compounds containing the triarylmethyl moiety and biological screens based on live-cell imaging of a fluorescently labeled tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) culture cell line (Nicotiana tabacum), we isolated (3-furyl)diphenylmethane as a strong but partially reversible inhibitor of plant cell division. We also found that this agent had efficient antiproliferative activity in developing organs of Arabidopsis thaliana without causing secondary defects in cell morphology, and induced rapid cell division arrest independent of the cell cycle stage. Given that (3-furyl)diphenylmethane did not affect the growth of a human cell line (HeLa) and a budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), it should act specifically on plants. Taking our results together, we propose that the combination of desired chemical synthesis and detailed biological analysis is an effective tool to create novel drugs, and that (3-furyl)diphenylmethane is a specific antiproliferative agent for plants.

  19. A new picture of cell wall protein dynamics in elongating cells of Arabidopsis thaliana: Confirmed actors and newcomers

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, Muhammad; Canut, Hervé; Borderies, Gisèle; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Cell elongation in plants requires addition and re-arrangements of cell wall components. Even if some protein families have been shown to play roles in these events, a global picture of proteins present in cell walls of elongating cells is still missing. A proteomic study was performed on etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis used as model of cells undergoing elongation followed by growth arrest within a short time. Results Two developmental stages (active growth and after growth arrest) were compared. A new strategy consisting of high performance cation exchange chromatography and mono-dimensional electrophoresis was established for separation of cell wall proteins. This work allowed identification of 137 predicted secreted proteins, among which 51 had not been identified previously. Apart from expected proteins known to be involved in cell wall extension such as xyloglucan endotransglucosylase-hydrolases, expansins, polygalacturonases, pectin methylesterases and peroxidases, new proteins were identified such as proteases, proteins related to lipid metabolism and proteins of unknown function. Conclusion This work highlights the CWP dynamics that takes place between the two developmental stages. The presence of proteins known to be related to cell wall extension after growth arrest showed that these proteins may play other roles in cell walls. Finally, putative regulatory mechanisms of protein biological activity are discussed from this global view of cell wall proteins. PMID:18796151

  20. The Arabidopsis CLASP gene encodes a microtubule-associated protein involved in cell expansion and division.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, J Christian; Shoji, Tsubasa; Kotzer, Amanda M; Pighin, Jamie A; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2007-09-01

    Controlling microtubule dynamics and spatial organization is a fundamental requirement of eukaryotic cell function. Members of the ORBIT/MAST/CLASP family of microtubule-associated proteins associate with the plus ends of microtubules, where they promote the addition of tubulin subunits into attached kinetochore fibers during mitosis and stabilize microtubules in the vicinity of the plasma membrane during interphase. To date, nothing is known about their function in plants. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana CLASP protein is a microtubule-associated protein that is involved in both cell division and cell expansion. Green fluorescent protein-CLASP localizes along the full length of microtubules and shows enrichment at growing plus ends. Our analysis suggests that CLASP promotes microtubule stability. clasp-1 T-DNA insertion mutants are hypersensitive to microtubule-destabilizing drugs and exhibit more sparsely populated, yet well ordered, root cortical microtubule arrays. Overexpression of CLASP promotes microtubule bundles that are resistant to depolymerization with oryzalin. Furthermore, clasp-1 mutants have aberrant microtubule preprophase bands, mitotic spindles, and phragmoplasts, indicating a role for At CLASP in stabilizing mitotic arrays. clasp-1 plants are dwarf, have significantly reduced cell numbers in the root division zone, and have defects in directional cell expansion. We discuss possible mechanisms of CLASP function in higher plants.

  1. MicroFilament Analyzer identifies actin network organizations in epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana roots

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Eveline; Lewandowski, Michal; Buytaert, Jan; Fierens, Yves; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2013-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the cells’ growth and development during different developmental stages and it undergoes many rearrangements. In order to describe the arrangements of the F-actin cytoskeleton in root epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, the recently developed software MicroFilament Analyzer (MFA) was exploited. This software enables high-throughput identification and quantification of the orientation of filamentous structures on digital images in a highly standardized and fast way. Using confocal microscopy and transgenic GFP-FABD2-GFP plants the actin cytoskeleton was visualized in the root epidermis. MFA analysis revealed that during the early stages of cell development F-actin is organized in a mainly random pattern. As the cells grow, they preferentially adopt a longitudinal organization, a pattern that is also preserved in the largest cells. In the evolution from young to old cells, an approximately even distribution of transverse, oblique or combined orientations is always present besides the switch from random to a longitudinal oriented actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23656865

  2. In silico analyses of pericycle cell populations reinforce their relation with associated vasculature in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Parizot, Boris; Roberts, Ianto; Raes, Jeroen; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2012-06-05

    In Arabidopsis, lateral root initiation occurs in a subset of pericycle cells at the xylem pole that will divide asymmetrically to give rise to a new lateral root organ. While lateral roots never develop at the phloem pole, it is unclear how the interaction with xylem and phloem poles determines the distinct pericycle identities with different competences. Nevertheless, pericycle cells at these poles are marked by differences in size, by ultrastructural features and by specific proteins and gene expression. Here, we provide transcriptional evidence that pericycle cells are intimately associated with their vascular tissue instead of being a separate concentric layer. This has implications for the identification of cell- and tissue-specific promoters that are necessary to drive and/or alter gene expression locally, avoiding pleiotropic effects. We were able to identify a small set of genes that display specific expression in the phloem or xylem pole pericycle cells, and we were able to identify motifs that are likely to drive expression in either one of those tissues.

  3. Arabidopsis Membrane Steroid Binding Protein 1 Is Involved in Inhibition of Cell ElongationW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2005-01-01

    A putative Membrane Steroid Binding Protein (designated MSBP1) was identified and functionally characterized as a negative regulator of cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MSBP1 gene encodes a 220–amino acid protein that can bind to progesterone, 5-dihydrotestosterone, 24-epi-brassinolide (24-eBL), and stigmasterol with different affinities in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing MSBP1 showed short hypocotyl phenotype and increased steroid binding capacity in membrane fractions, whereas antisense MSBP1 transgenic plants showed long hypocotyl phenotypes and reduced steroid binding capacity, indicating that MSBP1 negatively regulates hypocotyl elongation. The reduced cell elongation of MSBP1-overexpressing plants was correlated with altered expression of genes involved in cell elongation, such as expansins and extensins, indicating that enhanced MSBP1 affected a regulatory pathway for cell elongation. Suppression or overexpression of MSBP1 resulted in enhanced or reduced sensitivities, respectively, to exogenous progesterone and 24-eBL, suggesting a negative role of MSBP1 in steroid signaling. Expression of MSBP1 in hypocotyls is suppressed by darkness and activated by light, suggesting that MSBP1, as a negative regulator of cell elongation, plays a role in plant photomorphogenesis. This study demonstrates the functional roles of a steroid binding protein in growth regulation in higher plants. PMID:15608331

  4. MYB98 Is Required for Pollen Tube Guidance and Synergid Cell Differentiation in ArabidopsisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Ryushiro D.; Portereiko, Michael F.; Sandaklie-Nikolova, Linda; Rabiger, David S.; Drews, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    The synergid cells of the female gametophyte play a role in many steps of the angiosperm fertilization process, including guidance of pollen tube growth to the female gametophyte. However, the mechanisms by which the synergid cells become specified and develop their unique features during female gametophyte development are not understood. We identified MYB98 in a screen for Arabidopsis thaliana genes expressed in the female gametophyte. MYB98 is a member of the R2R3-MYB gene family, the members of which likely encode transcription factors. In the context of the ovule, MYB98 is expressed exclusively in the synergid cells, and mutations in this gene affect the female gametophyte specifically. myb98 female gametophytes are affected in two unique features of the synergid cell, pollen tube guidance and the filiform apparatus, but are otherwise normal. MYB98 also is expressed in trichomes and endosperm. Homozygous myb98 mutants exhibit no sporophytic defects, including trichome and endosperm defects. Together, these data suggest that MYB98 controls the development of specific features within the synergid cell during female gametophyte development. PMID:16214903

  5. MYB98 is required for pollen tube guidance and synergid cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Ryushiro D; Portereiko, Michael F; Sandaklie-Nikolova, Linda; Rabiger, David S; Drews, Gary N

    2005-11-01

    The synergid cells of the female gametophyte play a role in many steps of the angiosperm fertilization process, including guidance of pollen tube growth to the female gametophyte. However, the mechanisms by which the synergid cells become specified and develop their unique features during female gametophyte development are not understood. We identified MYB98 in a screen for Arabidopsis thaliana genes expressed in the female gametophyte. MYB98 is a member of the R2R3-MYB gene family, the members of which likely encode transcription factors. In the context of the ovule, MYB98 is expressed exclusively in the synergid cells, and mutations in this gene affect the female gametophyte specifically. myb98 female gametophytes are affected in two unique features of the synergid cell, pollen tube guidance and the filiform apparatus, but are otherwise normal. MYB98 also is expressed in trichomes and endosperm. Homozygous myb98 mutants exhibit no sporophytic defects, including trichome and endosperm defects. Together, these data suggest that MYB98 controls the development of specific features within the synergid cell during female gametophyte development.

  6. Oryzalin-modified disruption of microtubular cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis thaliana root cells under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinina, Ia.; Shevchenko, G.; Kordyum, E.

    There are data on gravisensitivity of cells not specialized to perceive a gravity vector but the molecular processes by which gravity affects not graviperceptive cells are still unclear Spaceflight experiments show that the microtubule self-organization in vitro is gravity-dependent Confocal microscopic analysis of the microtubule spatial organization under altered gravity with combination of approach drugs that disrupt normal microtubule behavior should give us a better understanding of the possible role of microtubule cytoskeleton in gravisensing on cellular level With this aim we examined influence of horizontal clinorotation 2 rpm on the spatial organization of microtubules in the root cortical and epidermal cells by means of LSM 5 PASCAL Zeiss Germany Microtubules were visualized by using stably transformed line of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a green fluorescent protein-MAP4 fusion protein We inhibited microtubule function applying 5 956 M L oryzalin microtubule inhibitor in control and clinorotated seedlings Preliminary investigations show that cortical microtubule arrays were dense and predominantly transverse to the root long axis in the meristem and distal elongation zone in control and they got oblique direction when rapid cell elongation is finishing In the differentiation zone microtubules reorient with respect to the longitudinal growth axis of cell Under clinorotation cortical microtubules have the same configuration in the meristem central elongation zone and differentiation zone but it is observed appearances of several

  7. An Arabidopsis Homolog of the Bacterial Cell Division Inhibitor SulA Is Involved in Plastid DivisionW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Raynaud, Cécile; Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Perennes, Claudette; Bergounioux, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Plastids have evolved from an endosymbiosis between a cyanobacterial symbiont and a eukaryotic host cell. Their division is mediated both by proteins of the host cell and conserved bacterial division proteins. Here, we identified a new component of the plastid division machinery, Arabidopsis thaliana SulA. Disruption of its cyanobacterial homolog (SSulA) in Synechocystis and overexpression of an AtSulA-green fluorescent protein fusion in Arabidopsis demonstrate that these genes are involved in cell and plastid division, respectively. Overexpression of AtSulA inhibits plastid division in planta but rescues plastid division defects caused by overexpression of AtFtsZ1-1 and AtFtsZ2-1, demonstrating that its role in plastid division may involve an interaction with AtFtsZ1-1 and AtFtsZ2-1. PMID:15208387

  8. Meristematic cell proliferation and ribosome biogenesis are decoupled in diamagnetically levitated Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell growth and cell proliferation are intimately linked in the presence of Earth’s gravity, but are decoupled under the microgravity conditions present in orbiting spacecraft. New technologies to simulate microgravity conditions for long-duration experiments, with stable environmental conditions, in Earth-based laboratories are required to further our understanding of the effect of extraterrestrial conditions on the growth, development and health of living matter. Results We studied the response of transgenic seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana, containing either the CycB1-GUS proliferation marker or the DR5-GUS auxin-mediated growth marker, to diamagnetic levitation in the bore of a superconducting solenoid magnet. As a control, a second set of seedlings were exposed to a strong magnetic field, but not to levitation forces. A third set was exposed to a strong field and simulated hypergravity (2 g). Cell proliferation and cell growth cytological parameters were measured for each set of seedlings. Nucleolin immunodetection was used as a marker of cell growth. Collectively, the data indicate that these two fundamental cellular processes are decoupled in root meristems, as in microgravity: cell proliferation was enhanced whereas cell growth markers were depleted. These results also demonstrated delocalisation of auxin signalling in the root tip despite the fact that levitation of the seedling as a whole does not prevent the sedimentation of statoliths in the root cells. Conclusions In our model system, we found that diamagnetic levitation led to changes that are very similar to those caused by real- [e.g. on board the International Space Station (ISS)] or mechanically-simulated microgravity [e.g. using a Random Positioning Machine (RPM)]. These changes decoupled meristematic cell proliferation from ribosome biogenesis, and altered auxin polar transport. PMID:24006876

  9. Three-dimensional patterns of cell division and expansion throughout the development of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Kalve, Shweta; Fotschki, Joanna; Beeckman, Tom; Vissenberg, Kris; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2014-12-01

    Variations in size and shape of multicellular organs depend on spatio-temporal regulation of cell division and expansion. Here, cell division and expansion rates were quantified relative to the three spatial axes in the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis thaliana. The results show striking differences in expansion rates: the expansion rate in the petiole is higher than in the leaf blade; expansion rates in the lateral direction are higher than longitudinal rates between 5 and 10 days after stratification, but become equal at later stages of leaf blade development; and anticlinal expansion co-occurs with, but is an order of magnitude slower than periclinal expansion. Anticlinal expansion rates also differed greatly between tissues: the highest rates occurred in the spongy mesophyll and the lowest in the epidermis. Cell division rates were higher and continued for longer in the epidermis compared with the palisade mesophyll, causing a larger increase of palisade than epidermal cell area over the course of leaf development. The cellular dynamics underlying the effect of shading on petiole length and leaf thickness were then investigated. Low light reduced leaf expansion rates, which was partly compensated by increased duration of the growth phase. Inversely, shading enhanced expansion rates in the petiole, so that the blade to petiole ratio was reduced by 50%. Low light reduced leaf thickness by inhibiting anticlinal cell expansion rates. This effect on cell expansion was preceded by an effect on cell division, leading to one less layer of palisade cells. The two effects could be uncoupled by shifting plants to contrasting light conditions immediately after germination. This extended kinematic analysis maps the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cell division and expansion, providing a framework for further research to understand the molecular regulatory mechanisms involved.

  10. Lectin Receptor Kinases Participate in Protein-Protein Interactions to Mediate Plasma Membrane-Cell Wall Adhesions in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Gouget, Anne; Senchou, Virginie; Govers, Francine; Sanson, Arnaud; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are disrupted by the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) tripeptide sequence, a characteristic cell adhesion motif in mammals. In planta induced-O (IPI-O) is an RGD-containing protein from the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans that can disrupt cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through its RGD motif. To identify peptide sequences that specifically bind the RGD motif of the IPI-O protein and potentially play a role in receptor recognition, we screened a heptamer peptide library displayed in a filamentous phage and selected two peptides acting as inhibitors of the plasma membrane RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the two peptides also disrupted cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions. Sequence comparison of the RGD-binding peptides with the Arabidopsis proteome revealed 12 proteins containing amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains common with the two RGD-binding peptides. Eight belong to the receptor-like kinase family, four of which have a lectin-like extracellular domain. The lectin domain of one of these, At5g60300, recognized the RGD motif both in peptides and proteins. These results imply that lectin receptor kinases are involved in protein-protein interactions with RGD-containing proteins as potential ligands, and play a structural and signaling role at the plant cell surfaces. PMID:16361528

  11. Lectin receptor kinases participate in protein-protein interactions to mediate plasma membrane-cell wall adhesions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gouget, Anne; Senchou, Virginie; Govers, Francine; Sanson, Arnaud; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are disrupted by the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) tripeptide sequence, a characteristic cell adhesion motif in mammals. In planta induced-O (IPI-O) is an RGD-containing protein from the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans that can disrupt cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through its RGD motif. To identify peptide sequences that specifically bind the RGD motif of the IPI-O protein and potentially play a role in receptor recognition, we screened a heptamer peptide library displayed in a filamentous phage and selected two peptides acting as inhibitors of the plasma membrane RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the two peptides also disrupted cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions. Sequence comparison of the RGD-binding peptides with the Arabidopsis proteome revealed 12 proteins containing amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains common with the two RGD-binding peptides. Eight belong to the receptor-like kinase family, four of which have a lectin-like extracellular domain. The lectin domain of one of these, At5g60300, recognized the RGD motif both in peptides and proteins. These results imply that lectin receptor kinases are involved in protein-protein interactions with RGD-containing proteins as potential ligands, and play a structural and signaling role at the plant cell surfaces.

  12. Fluctuations of the transcription factor ATML1 generate the pattern of giant cells in the Arabidopsis sepal

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Heather M; Teles, José; Formosa-Jordan, Pau; Refahi, Yassin; San-Bento, Rita; Ingram, Gwyneth; Jönsson, Henrik; Locke, James C W; Roeder, Adrienne H K

    2017-01-01

    Multicellular development produces patterns of specialized cell types. Yet, it is often unclear how individual cells within a field of identical cells initiate the patterning process. Using live imaging, quantitative image analyses and modeling, we show that during Arabidopsis thaliana sepal development, fluctuations in the concentration of the transcription factor ATML1 pattern a field of identical epidermal cells to differentiate into giant cells interspersed between smaller cells. We find that ATML1 is expressed in all epidermal cells. However, its level fluctuates in each of these cells. If ATML1 levels surpass a threshold during the G2 phase of the cell cycle, the cell will likely enter a state of endoreduplication and become giant. Otherwise, the cell divides. Our results demonstrate a fluctuation-driven patterning mechanism for how cell fate decisions can be initiated through a random yet tightly regulated process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19131.001 PMID:28145865

  13. Chloroplast Dysfunction Causes Multiple Defects in Cell Cycle Progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf Mutant1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Hudik, Elodie; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Domenichini, Séverine; Bourge, Mickaël; Soubigout-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Yi, Dalong; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; De Veylder, Lieven; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants. PMID:25037213

  14. Cell Fate Determination and the Switch from Diffuse Growth to Planar Polarity in Arabidopsis Root Epidermal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balcerowicz, Daria; Schoenaers, Sébastjen; Vissenberg, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots fulfill important functions as they serve in water and nutrient uptake, provide anchorage of the plant body in the soil and in some species form the site of symbiotic interactions with soil-living biota. Root hairs, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specific epidermal cells, significantly increase the root’s surface area and aid in these processes. In this review we focus on the molecular mechanisms that determine the hair and non-hair cell fate of epidermal cells and that define the site on the epidermal cell where the root hair will be initiated (=planar polarity determination). In the model plant Arabidopsis, trichoblast and atrichoblast cell fate results from intra- and intercellular position-dependent signaling and from complex feedback loops that ultimately regulate GL2 expressing and non-expressing cells. When epidermal cells reach the end of the root expansion zone, root hair promoting transcription factors dictate the establishment of polarity within epidermal cells followed by the selection of the root hair initiation site at the more basal part of the trichoblast. Molecular players in the abovementioned processes as well as the role of phytohormones are discussed, and open areas for future experiments are identified. PMID:26779192

  15. A Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Model That Recovers the Cyclic Behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; García-Cruz, Karla; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Castillo, Aaron; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle control is fundamental in eukaryotic development. Several modeling efforts have been used to integrate the complex network of interacting molecular components involved in cell cycle dynamics. In this paper, we aimed at recovering the regulatory logic upstream of previously known components of cell cycle control, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the cyclic behavior of such components. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, but given that many components of cell cycle regulation are conserved among eukaryotes, when experimental data for this system was not available, we considered experimental results from yeast and animal systems. We are proposing a Boolean gene regulatory network (GRN) that converges into only one robust limit cycle attractor that closely resembles the cyclic behavior of the key cell-cycle molecular components and other regulators considered here. We validate the model by comparing our in silico configurations with data from loss- and gain-of-function mutants, where the endocyclic behavior also was recovered. Additionally, we approximate a continuous model and recovered the temporal periodic expression profiles of the cell-cycle molecular components involved, thus suggesting that the single limit cycle attractor recovered with the Boolean model is not an artifact of its discrete and synchronous nature, but rather an emergent consequence of the inherent characteristics of the regulatory logic proposed here. This dynamical model, hence provides a novel theoretical framework to address cell cycle regulation in plants, and it can also be used to propose novel predictions regarding cell cycle regulation in other eukaryotes. PMID:26340681

  16. Splicing of arabidopsis tRNA(Met) precursors in tobacco cell and wheat germ extracts.

    PubMed

    Akama, K; Junker, V; Yukawa, Y; Sugiura, M; Beier, H

    2000-09-01

    Intron-containing tRNA genes are exceptional within nuclear plant genomes. It appears that merely two tRNA gene families coding for tRNA(GpsiA(Tyr)) and elongator tRNA(CmAU(Met)) contain intervening sequences. We have previously investigated the features required by wheat germ splicing endonuclease for efficient and accurate intron excision from Arabidopsis pre-tRNA(Tyr). Here we have studied the expression of an Arabidopsis elongator tRNA(Met) gene in two plant extracts of different origin. This gene was first transcribed either in HeLa or in tobacco cell nuclear extract and splicing of intron-containing tRNA(Met) precursors was then examined in wheat germ S23 extract and in the tobacco system. The results show that conversion of pre-tRNA(Met) to mature tRNA proceeds very efficiently in both plant extracts. In order to elucidate the potential role of specific nucleotides at the 3' and 5' splice sites and of a structured intron for pre-tRNA(Met) splicing in either extract, we have performed a systematic survey by mutational analyses. The results show that cytidine residues at intron-exon boundaries impair pre-tRNA(Met) splicing and that a highly structured intron is indispensable for pre-tRNA(Met) splicing. tRNA precursors with an extended anticodon stem of three to four base pairs are readily accepted as substrates by wheat and tobacco splicing endonuclease, whereas pre-tRNA molecules that can form an extended anticodon stem of only two putative base pairs are not spliced at all. An amber suppressor, generated from the intron-containing elongator tRNA(Met) gene, is efficiently processed and spliced in both plant extracts.

  17. High lipid order of Arabidopsis cell-plate membranes mediated by sterol and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A function.

    PubMed

    Frescatada-Rosa, Márcia; Stanislas, Thomas; Backues, Steven K; Reichardt, Ilka; Men, Shuzhen; Boutté, Yohann; Jürgens, Gerd; Moritz, Thomas; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Grebe, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Membranes of eukaryotic cells contain high lipid-order sterol-rich domains that are thought to mediate temporal and spatial organization of cellular processes. Sterols are crucial for execution of cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division, in diverse eukaryotes. The cell plate of higher-plant cells is the membrane structure that separates daughter cells during somatic cytokinesis. Cell-plate formation in Arabidopsis relies on sterol- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A (DRP1A)-dependent endocytosis. However, functional relationships between lipid membrane order or lipid packing and endocytic machinery components during eukaryotic cytokinesis have not been elucidated. Using ratiometric live imaging of lipid order-sensitive fluorescent probes, we show that the cell plate of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a dynamic, high lipid-order membrane domain. The cell-plate lipid order was found to be sensitive to pharmacological and genetic alterations of sterol composition. Sterols co-localize with DRP1A at the cell plate, and DRP1A accumulates in detergent-resistant membrane fractions. Modifications of sterol concentration or composition reduce cell-plate membrane order and affect DRP1A localization. Strikingly, DRP1A function itself is essential for high lipid order at the cell plate. Our findings provide evidence that the cell plate represents a high lipid-order domain, and pave the way to explore potential feedback between lipid order and function of dynamin-related proteins during cytokinesis.

  18. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 {yields} S transition

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. {yields} TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition. {yields} Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 {yields} S arrest is discussed.

  19. Intercellular communication in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen discovered via AHG3 transcript movement from the vegetative cell to sperm

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yi, Jun; Boavida, Leonor C.; Chen, Yuan; Becker, Jörg D.; Köhler, Claudia; McCormick, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    An Arabidopsis pollen grain (male gametophyte) consists of three cells: the vegetative cell, which forms the pollen tube, and two sperm cells enclosed within the vegetative cell. It is still unclear if there is intercellular communication between the vegetative cell and the sperm cells. Here we show that ABA-hypersensitive germination3 (AHG3), encoding a protein phosphatase, is specifically transcribed in the vegetative cell but predominantly translated in sperm cells. We used a series of deletion constructs and promoter exchanges to document transport of AHG3 transcripts from the vegetative cell to sperm and showed that their transport requires sequences in both the 5′ UTR and the coding region. Thus, in addition its known role in transporting sperm during pollen tube growth, the vegetative cell also contributes transcripts to the sperm cells. PMID:26466609

  20. The tarani mutation alters surface curvature in Arabidopsis leaves by perturbing the patterns of surface expansion and cell division

    PubMed Central

    Karidas, Premananda; Challa, Krishna Reddy; Nath, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    The leaf surface usually stays flat, maintained by coordinated growth. Growth perturbation can introduce overall surface curvature, which can be negative, giving a saddle-shaped leaf, or positive, giving a cup-like leaf. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie leaf flatness, primarily because only a few mutants with altered surface curvature have been isolated and studied. Characterization of mutants of the CINCINNATA-like TCP genes in Antirrhinum and Arabidopsis have revealed that their products help maintain flatness by balancing the pattern of cell proliferation and surface expansion between the margin and the central zone during leaf morphogenesis. On the other hand, deletion of two homologous PEAPOD genes causes cup-shaped leaves in Arabidopsis due to excess division of dispersed meristemoid cells. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant, tarani (tni), with enlarged, cup-shaped leaves. Morphometric analyses showed that the positive curvature of the tni leaf is linked to excess growth at the centre compared to the margin. By monitoring the dynamic pattern of CYCLIN D3;2 expression, we show that the shape of the primary arrest front is strongly convex in growing tni leaves, leading to excess mitotic expansion synchronized with excess cell proliferation at the centre. Reduction of cell proliferation and of endogenous gibberellic acid levels rescued the tni phenotype. Genetic interactions demonstrated that TNI maintains leaf flatness independent of TCPs and PEAPODs. PMID:25711708

  1. The tarani mutation alters surface curvature in Arabidopsis leaves by perturbing the patterns of surface expansion and cell division.

    PubMed

    Karidas, Premananda; Challa, Krishna Reddy; Nath, Utpal

    2015-04-01

    The leaf surface usually stays flat, maintained by coordinated growth. Growth perturbation can introduce overall surface curvature, which can be negative, giving a saddle-shaped leaf, or positive, giving a cup-like leaf. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie leaf flatness, primarily because only a few mutants with altered surface curvature have been isolated and studied. Characterization of mutants of the CINCINNATA-like TCP genes in Antirrhinum and Arabidopsis have revealed that their products help maintain flatness by balancing the pattern of cell proliferation and surface expansion between the margin and the central zone during leaf morphogenesis. On the other hand, deletion of two homologous PEAPOD genes causes cup-shaped leaves in Arabidopsis due to excess division of dispersed meristemoid cells. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant, tarani (tni), with enlarged, cup-shaped leaves. Morphometric analyses showed that the positive curvature of the tni leaf is linked to excess growth at the centre compared to the margin. By monitoring the dynamic pattern of CYCLIN D3;2 expression, we show that the shape of the primary arrest front is strongly convex in growing tni leaves, leading to excess mitotic expansion synchronized with excess cell proliferation at the centre. Reduction of cell proliferation and of endogenous gibberellic acid levels rescued the tni phenotype. Genetic interactions demonstrated that TNI maintains leaf flatness independent of TCPs and PEAPODs.

  2. Live Imaging of Companion Cells and Sieve Elements in Arabidopsis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Cayla, Thibaud; Batailler, Brigitte; Le Hir, Rozenn; Revers, Frédéric; Anstead, James A.; Thompson, Gary A.; Grandjean, Olivier; Dinant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The phloem is a complex tissue composed of highly specialized cells with unique subcellular structures and a compact organization that is challenging to study in vivo at cellular resolution. We used confocal scanning laser microscopy and subcellular fluorescent markers in companion cells and sieve elements, for live imaging of the phloem in Arabidopsis leaves. This approach provided a simple framework for identifying phloem cell types unambiguously. It highlighted the compactness of the meshed network of organelles within companion cells. By contrast, within the sieve elements, unknown bodies were observed in association with the PP2-A1:GFP, GFP:RTM1 and RTM2:GFP markers at the cell periphery. The phloem lectin PP2-A1:GFP marker was found in the parietal ground matrix. Its location differed from that of the P-protein filaments, which were visualized with SEOR1:GFP and SEOR2:GFP. PP2-A1:GFP surrounded two types of bodies, one of which was identified as mitochondria. This location suggested that it was embedded within the sieve element clamps, specific structures that may fix the organelles to each another or to the plasma membrane in the sieve tubes. GFP:RTM1 was associated with a class of larger bodies, potentially corresponding to plastids. PP2-A1:GFP was soluble in the cytosol of immature sieve elements. The changes in its subcellular localization during differentiation provide an in vivo blueprint for monitoring this process. The subcellular features obtained with these companion cell and sieve element markers can be used as landmarks for exploring the organization and dynamics of phloem cells in vivo. PMID:25714357

  3. Live imaging of companion cells and sieve elements in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Cayla, Thibaud; Batailler, Brigitte; Le Hir, Rozenn; Revers, Frédéric; Anstead, James A; Thompson, Gary A; Grandjean, Olivier; Dinant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The phloem is a complex tissue composed of highly specialized cells with unique subcellular structures and a compact organization that is challenging to study in vivo at cellular resolution. We used confocal scanning laser microscopy and subcellular fluorescent markers in companion cells and sieve elements, for live imaging of the phloem in Arabidopsis leaves. This approach provided a simple framework for identifying phloem cell types unambiguously. It highlighted the compactness of the meshed network of organelles within companion cells. By contrast, within the sieve elements, unknown bodies were observed in association with the PP2-A1:GFP, GFP:RTM1 and RTM2:GFP markers at the cell periphery. The phloem lectin PP2-A1:GFP marker was found in the parietal ground matrix. Its location differed from that of the P-protein filaments, which were visualized with SEOR1:GFP and SEOR2:GFP. PP2-A1:GFP surrounded two types of bodies, one of which was identified as mitochondria. This location suggested that it was embedded within the sieve element clamps, specific structures that may fix the organelles to each another or to the plasma membrane in the sieve tubes. GFP:RTM1 was associated with a class of larger bodies, potentially corresponding to plastids. PP2-A1:GFP was soluble in the cytosol of immature sieve elements. The changes in its subcellular localization during differentiation provide an in vivo blueprint for monitoring this process. The subcellular features obtained with these companion cell and sieve element markers can be used as landmarks for exploring the organization and dynamics of phloem cells in vivo.

  4. Disintegration of microtubules in Arabidopsis thaliana and bladder cancer cells by isothiocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Øverby, Anders; Bævre, Mette S.; Thangstad, Ole P.; Bones, Atle M.

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) from biodegradation of glucosinolates comprise a group of electrophiles associated with growth-inhibitory effects in plant- and mammalian cells. The underlying modes of action of this feature are not fully understood. Clarifying this has involved mammalian cancer cells due to ITCs' chemopreventive potential. The binding of ITCs to tubulins has been reported as a mechanism by which ITCs induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the present study we demonstrate that ITCs disrupt microtubules in Arabidopsis thaliana contributing to the observed inhibited growth phenotype. We also confirmed this in rat bladder cancer cells (AY-27) suggesting that cells from plant and animals share mechanisms by which ITCs affect growth. Exposure of A. thaliana to vapor-phase of allyl ITC (AITC) inhibited growth and induced a concurrent bleaching of leaves in a dose-dependent manner. Transcriptional analysis was used to show an upregulation of heat shock-genes upon AITC-treatment. Transgenic A. thaliana expressing GFP-marked α-tubulin was employed to show a time- and dose-dependent disintegration of microtubules by AITC. Treatment of AY-27 with ITCs resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease of cell proliferation and G2/M-arrest. AY-27 transiently transfected to express GFP-tagged α-tubulin were treated with ITCs resulting in a loss of microtubular filaments and the subsequent formation of apoptotic bodies. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an ITC-induced mechanism leading to growth inhibition in A. thaliana and rat bladder cancer cells, and expose clues to the mechanisms underlying the physiological role of glucosinolates in vivo. PMID:25657654

  5. Inhibition of cathepsin B by caspase-3 inhibitors blocks programmed cell death in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Y; Cai, Y-M; Bonneau, L; Rotari, V; Danon, A; McKenzie, E A; McLellan, H; Mach, L; Gallois, P

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is used by plants for development and survival to biotic and abiotic stresses. The role of caspases in PCD is well established in animal cells. Over the past 15 years, the importance of caspase-3-like enzymatic activity for plant PCD completion has been widely documented despite the absence of caspase orthologues. In particular, caspase-3 inhibitors blocked nearly all plant PCD tested. Here, we affinity-purified a plant caspase-3-like activity using a biotin-labelled caspase-3 inhibitor and identified Arabidopsis thaliana cathepsin B3 (AtCathB3) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Consistent with this, recombinant AtCathB3 was found to have caspase-3-like activity and to be inhibited by caspase-3 inhibitors. AtCathepsin B triple-mutant lines showed reduced caspase-3-like enzymatic activity and reduced labelling with activity-based caspase-3 probes. Importantly, AtCathepsin B triple mutants showed a strong reduction in the PCD induced by ultraviolet (UV), oxidative stress (H2O2, methyl viologen) or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our observations contribute to explain why caspase-3 inhibitors inhibit plant PCD and provide new tools to further plant PCD research. The fact that cathepsin B does regulate PCD in both animal and plant cells suggests that this protease may be part of an ancestral PCD pathway pre-existing the plant/animal divergence that needs further characterisation. PMID:27058316

  6. Involvement of Arabidopsis Hexokinase1 in Cell Death Mediated by Myo-Inositol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Prunier, Florence; Mazubert, Christelle; de Bont, Linda; Garmier, Marie; Lugan, Raphaël; Benhamed, Moussa; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Delarue, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. We recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is deficient for the enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myo-inositol (MI) synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD. Here, we identified a suppressor of PCD by screening for mutations that abolish the mips1 cell death phenotype. Our screen identified the hxk1 mutant, mutated in the gene encoding the hexokinase1 (HXK1) enzyme that catalyzes sugar phosphorylation and acts as a genuine glucose sensor. We show that HXK1 is required for lesion formation in mips1 due to alterations in MI content, via SA-dependant signaling. Using two catalytically inactive HXK1 mutants, we also show that hexokinase catalytic activity is necessary for the establishment of lesions in mips1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed a restoration of the MI content in mips1 hxk1 that it is due to the activity of the MIPS2 isoform, while MIPS3 is not involved. Our work defines a pathway of HXK1-mediated cell death in plants and demonstrates that two MIPS enzymes act cooperatively under a particular metabolic status, highlighting a novel checkpoint of MI homeostasis in plants. PMID:26048869

  7. Cytosolic Ca(2+) Signals Enhance the Vacuolar Ion Conductivity of Bulging Arabidopsis Root Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Dindas, Julian; Rienmüller, Florian; Krebs, Melanie; Waadt, Rainer; Schumacher, Karin; Wu, Wei-Hua; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2015-11-02

    Plant cell expansion depends on the uptake of solutes across the plasma membrane and their storage within the vacuole. In contrast to the well-studied plasma membrane, little is known about the regulation of ion transport at the vacuolar membrane. We therefore established an experimental approach to study vacuolar ion transport in intact Arabidopsis root cells, with multi-barreled microelectrodes. The subcellular position of electrodes was detected by imaging current-injected fluorescent dyes. Comparison of measurements with electrodes in the cytosol and vacuole revealed an average vacuolar membrane potential of -31 mV. Voltage clamp recordings of single vacuoles resolved the activity of voltage-independent and slowly deactivating channels. In bulging root hairs that express the Ca(2+) sensor R-GECO1, rapid elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was observed, after impalement with microelectrodes, or injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA. Elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) level stimulated the activity of voltage-independent channels in the vacuolar membrane. Likewise, the vacuolar ion conductance was enhanced during a sudden increase of the cytosolic Ca(2+) level in cells injected with fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator FURA-2. These data thus show that cytosolic Ca(2+) signals can rapidly activate vacuolar ion channels, which may prevent rupture of the vacuolar membrane, when facing mechanical forces.

  8. ANGUSTIFOLIA mediates one of the multiple SCRAMBLED signaling pathways regulating cell growth pattern in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Song, Sang-Kee; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John

    2015-09-25

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, SCRAMBLED (SCM), is required for multiple developmental processes including root epidermal cell fate determination, silique dehiscence, inflorescence growth, ovule morphogenesis, and tissue morphology. Previous work suggested that SCM regulates these multiple pathways using distinct mechanisms via interactions with specific downstream factors. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is known to regulate cell and tissue morphogenesis by influencing cortical microtubule arrangement, and recently, the AN protein was reported to interact with the SCM protein. Therefore, we examined whether AN might be responsible for mediating some of the SCM-dependent phenotypes. We discovered that both scm and an mutant lines cause an abnormal spiral or twisting growth of roots, but only the scm mutant affected root epidermal patterning. The siliques of the an and scm mutants also exhibited spiral growth, as previously reported, but only the scm mutant altered silique dehiscence. Interestingly, we discovered that the spiral growth of roots and siliques of the scm mutant is rescued by a truncated SCM protein that lacks its kinase domain, and that a juxtamembrane domain of SCM was sufficient for AN binding in the yeast two-hybrid analysis. These results suggest that the AN protein is one of the critical downstream factors of SCM pathways specifically responsible for mediating its effects on cell/tissue morphogenesis through cortical microtubule arrangement.

  9. A Fusion Algorithm for GFP Image and Phase Contrast Image of Arabidopsis Cell Based on SFL-Contourlet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wei, Biao; Mi, Deling

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid multiscale and multilevel image fusion algorithm for green fluorescent protein (GFP) image and phase contrast image of Arabidopsis cell is proposed in this paper. Combining intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and sharp frequency localization Contourlet transform (SFL-CT), this algorithm uses different fusion strategies for different detailed subbands, which include neighborhood consistency measurement (NCM) that can adaptively find balance between color background and gray structure. Also two kinds of neighborhood classes based on empirical model are taken into consideration. Visual information fidelity (VIF) as an objective criterion is introduced to evaluate the fusion image. The experimental results of 117 groups of Arabidopsis cell image from John Innes Center show that the new algorithm cannot only make the details of original images well preserved but also improve the visibility of the fusion image, which shows the superiority of the novel method to traditional ones. PMID:23476716

  10. Cell division plane orientation based on tensile stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Louveaux, Marion; Julien, Jean-Daniel; Mirabet, Vincent; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Cell geometry has long been proposed to play a key role in the orientation of symmetric cell division planes. In particular, the recently proposed Besson–Dumais rule generalizes Errera’s rule and predicts that cells divide along one of the local minima of plane area. However, this rule has been tested only on tissues with rather local spherical shape and homogeneous growth. Here, we tested the application of the Besson–Dumais rule to the divisions occurring in the Arabidopsis shoot apex, which contains domains with anisotropic curvature and differential growth. We found that the Besson–Dumais rule works well in the central part of the apex, but fails to account for cell division planes in the saddle-shaped boundary region. Because curvature anisotropy and differential growth prescribe directional tensile stress in that region, we tested the putative contribution of anisotropic stress fields to cell division plane orientation at the shoot apex. To do so, we compared two division rules: geometrical (new plane along the shortest path) and mechanical (new plane along maximal tension). The mechanical division rule reproduced the enrichment of long planes observed in the boundary region. Experimental perturbation of mechanical stress pattern further supported a contribution of anisotropic tensile stress in division plane orientation. Importantly, simulations of tissues growing in an isotropic stress field, and dividing along maximal tension, provided division plane distributions comparable to those obtained with the geometrical rule. We thus propose that division plane orientation by tensile stress offers a general rule for symmetric cell division in plants. PMID:27436908

  11. Two cell-cycle regulated SET-domain proteins interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Cécile; Sozzani, Rosangela; Glab, Nathalie; Domenichini, Séverine; Perennes, Claudette; Cella, Rino; Kondorosi, Eva; Bergounioux, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) functions as a sliding clamp for DNA polymerase, and is thus a key actor in DNA replication. It is also involved in DNA repair, maintenance of heterochromatic regions throughout replication, cell cycle regulation and programmed cell death. Identification of PCNA partners is therefore necessary for understanding these processes. Here we identify two Arabidopsis SET-domain proteins that interact with PCNA: ATXR5 and ATXR6. A truncated ATXR5Deltaex2, incapable of interacting with PCNA, also occurs in planta. ATXR6, upregulated during the S phase, is upregulated by AtE2F transcription factors, suggesting that it is required for S-phase progression. The two proteins differ in their subcellular localization: ATXR5 has a dual localization in plastids and in the nucleus, whereas ATXR6 is solely nuclear. This indicates that the two proteins may play different roles in plant cells. However, overexpression of either ATXR5 or ATXR6 causes male sterility because of the degeneration of defined cell types. Taken together, our results suggest that both proteins may play a role in the cell cycle or DNA replication, and that the activity of ATXR5 may be regulated via its subcellular localization.

  12. Cellulose binding protein from the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii interacts with Arabidopsis pectin methylesterase: cooperative cell wall modification during parasitism.

    PubMed

    Hewezi, Tarek; Howe, Peter; Maier, Tom R; Hussey, Richard S; Mitchum, Melissa Goellner; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J

    2008-11-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete a complex of cell wall-digesting enzymes, which aid in root penetration and migration. The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines also produces a cellulose binding protein (Hg CBP) secretory protein. To determine the function of CBP, an orthologous cDNA clone (Hs CBP) was isolated from the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii, which is able to infect Arabidopsis thaliana. CBP is expressed only in the early phases of feeding cell formation and not during the migratory phase. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hs CBP developed longer roots and exhibited enhanced susceptibility to H. schachtii. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified Arabidopsis pectin methylesterase protein 3 (PME3) as strongly and specifically interacting with Hs CBP. Transgenic plants overexpressing PME3 also produced longer roots and exhibited increased susceptibility to H. schachtii, while a pme3 knockout mutant showed opposite phenotypes. Moreover, CBP overexpression increases PME3 activity in planta. Localization studies support the mode of action of PME3 as a cell wall-modifying enzyme. Expression of CBP in the pme3 knockout mutant revealed that PME3 is required but not the sole mechanism for CBP overexpression phenotype. These data indicate that CBP directly interacts with PME3 thereby activating and potentially targeting this enzyme to aid cyst nematode parasitism.

  13. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J.; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M.; Herrera-Rodríguez, M. Begoña; Navarro-Gochicoa, M. Teresa; Rexach, Jesús; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    One of the earliest symptoms of boron (B) deficiency is the inhibition of root elongation which can reasonably be attributed to the damaging effects of B deprivation on cell wall integrity. It is shown here that exposure of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to B deficiency for 4h led to a drastic inhibition of root cell length in the transition between the elongation and differentiation zones. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene, auxin, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of B deficiency on root cell elongation, B deficiency was applied together with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, a chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), silver ions (Ag+, an antagonist of ethylene perception), α-(phenylethyl-2‐oxo)‐indoleacetic acid (PEO-IAA, a synthetic antagonist of TIR1 receptor function), and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of ROS production). Interestingly, all these chemicals partially or fully restored cell elongation in B-deficient roots. To further explore the possible role of ethylene and auxin in the inhibition of root cell elongation under B deficiency, a genetic approach was performed by using Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ethylene (ein2‐1) or auxin (eir1-4 and aux1-22) response. Root cell elongation in these mutants was less sensitive to B-deficient treatment than that in wild-type plants. Altogether, these results demonstrated that a signalling pathway involving ethylene, auxin, and ROS participates in the reduction of root cell elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to B deficiency. A similar signalling process has been described to reduce root elongation rapidly under various types of cell wall stress which supports the idea that this signalling pathway is triggered by the impaired cell wall integrity caused by B deficiency. PMID:25922480

  14. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa; Rexach, Jesús; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    One of the earliest symptoms of boron (B) deficiency is the inhibition of root elongation which can reasonably be attributed to the damaging effects of B deprivation on cell wall integrity. It is shown here that exposure of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to B deficiency for 4h led to a drastic inhibition of root cell length in the transition between the elongation and differentiation zones. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene, auxin, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of B deficiency on root cell elongation, B deficiency was applied together with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, a chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), silver ions (Ag(+), an antagonist of ethylene perception), α-(phenylethyl-2-oxo)-indoleacetic acid (PEO-IAA, a synthetic antagonist of TIR1 receptor function), and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of ROS production). Interestingly, all these chemicals partially or fully restored cell elongation in B-deficient roots. To further explore the possible role of ethylene and auxin in the inhibition of root cell elongation under B deficiency, a genetic approach was performed by using Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ethylene (ein2-1) or auxin (eir1-4 and aux1-22) response. Root cell elongation in these mutants was less sensitive to B-deficient treatment than that in wild-type plants. Altogether, these results demonstrated that a signalling pathway involving ethylene, auxin, and ROS participates in the reduction of root cell elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to B deficiency. A similar signalling process has been described to reduce root elongation rapidly under various types of cell wall stress which supports the idea that this signalling pathway is triggered by the impaired cell wall integrity caused by B deficiency.

  15. Intracellular Calcium Decreases Upon Hyper Gravity-Treatment of Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neef, Maren; Denn, Tamara; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2016-06-01

    Cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana ( A. t.) respond to changes in the gravitational field strength with fluctuations of the amount of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+). In parabolic flight experiments, where hyper- and μg phases follow each other, μg clearly increased Ca2+, while hyper-g caused a slight reduction. Since the latter observation had not been reported before, we studied this effect in more detail. Using a special centrifuge for heavy items (ZARM, Bremen, Germany), we determined the hyper-g-dependent intracellular Ca2+ level with transgenic cell lines expressing the Ca2+ sensor, cameleon. This sensor exhibits a shift in fluorescence from 480 to 530 nm in response to Ca2+ binding. The data show a drop in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration with a threshold gravity of around 3 g. This is above hypergravity levels achieved during parabolic flights (1.8 g). The use of mutants with different sub-cellular targets of cameleon expression (nucleus, tonoplast, plasma membrane) gave the same results, i.e. Ca2+ is obviously exported from several intracellular compartments.

  16. Host-induced bacterial cell wall decomposition mediates pattern-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaokun; Grabherr, Heini M; Willmann, Roland; Kolb, Dagmar; Brunner, Frédéric; Bertsche, Ute; Kühner, Daniel; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Amin, Bushra; Felix, Georg; Ongena, Marc; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Gust, Andrea A

    2014-01-01

    Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are immunogenic bacterial surface patterns that trigger immune activation in metazoans and plants. It is generally unknown how complex bacterial structures such as PGNs are perceived by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and whether host hydrolytic activities facilitate decomposition of bacterial matrices and generation of soluble PRR ligands. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana, upon bacterial infection or exposure to microbial patterns, produces a metazoan lysozyme-like hydrolase (lysozyme 1, LYS1). LYS1 activity releases soluble PGN fragments from insoluble bacterial cell walls and cleavage products are able to trigger responses typically associated with plant immunity. Importantly, LYS1 mutant genotypes exhibit super-susceptibility to bacterial infections similar to that observed on PGN receptor mutants. We propose that plants employ hydrolytic activities for the decomposition of complex bacterial structures, and that soluble pattern generation might aid PRR-mediated immune activation in cell layers adjacent to infection sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01990.001 PMID:24957336

  17. Arabidopsis Cell Death in Compatible and Incompatible Interactions with Alternaria brassicicola

    PubMed Central

    Su’udi, Mukhamad; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2011-01-01

    Two strains of necrotrophic Alternaria brassicicola, Ab40857 and Ab42464, are virulent on Korean cabbage and several wild types of Arabidopsis thaliana. Interaction between Ab42464 and Col-0 was compatible, whereas interaction between Ab40857 and Col-0 was incompatible. The loss of defense, no death (dnd) 1 function abrogated the compatibility between Ab42464 and Col-0, and the accelerated cell death (acd) 2 mutation attenuated the Col-0’s resistance against Ab40857. These two fungal strains induced PR1 transcription in Col-0. Ab40857 accelerated transcription of PDF1.2, THI2.1, CAT, and POX by 12 h compared to those challenged with Ab42464. More abundant cell death was observed in Col-0 infected with Ab42464, however, callose deposition was evident in the incompatible interaction. Remarkably, Ab40857-infected areas of acd2-2 underwent rampant cell death and Ab42464 triggered callose production in dnd1-1. Furthermore, the incompatibility between Ab40857 and Col-0 was nullified by the coronatine- insensitive 1 (coi1) and phytoalexin-deficient 3 (pad3) mutations but not by nonexpresser of PR genes (npr1) and pad4. Ab40857 induced abundant cell death in pad3. Taken together, cell death during the early infection stage is a key determinant that discriminates between a compatible interaction and an incompatible one, and the resistance within Col-0 against Ab40857 is dependent on a defensesignaling pathway mediated by jasmonic acid and PAD3. PMID:21688205

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana RALF1 opposes brassinosteroid effects on root cell elongation and lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Bergonci, Tábata; Ribeiro, Bianca; Ceciliato, Paulo H O; Guerrero-Abad, Juan Carlos; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Moura, Daniel S

    2014-05-01

    Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a peptide signal that plays a basic role in cell biology and most likely regulates cell expansion. In this study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines with high and low levels of AtRALF1 transcripts were used to investigate this peptide's mechanism of action. Overexpression of the root-specific isoform AtRALF1 resulted in reduced cell size. Conversely, AtRALF1 silencing increased root length by increasing the size of root cells. AtRALF1-silenced plants also showed an increase in the number of lateral roots, whereas AtRALF1 overexpression produced the opposite effect. In addition, four AtRALF1-inducible genes were identified: two genes encoding proline-rich proteins (AtPRP1 and AtPRP3), one encoding a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (AtHRPG2), and one encoding a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (TCH4). These genes were expressed in roots and involved in cell-wall rearrangement, and their induction was concentration dependent. Furthermore, AtRALF1-overexpressing plants were less sensitive to exogenous brassinolide (BL); upon BL treatment, the plants showed no increase in root length and a compromised increase in hypocotyl elongation. In addition, the treatment had no effect on the number of emerged lateral roots. AtRALF1 also induces two brassinosteroid (BR)-downregulated genes involved in the BR biosynthetic pathway: the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHISM AND DWARFISM (CPD) and DWARF4 (DWF4). Simultaneous treatment with both AtRALF1 and BL caused a reduction in AtRALF1-inducible gene expression levels, suggesting that these signals may compete for components shared by both pathways. Taken together, these results indicate an opposing effect of AtRALF1 and BL, and suggest that RALF's mechanism of action could be to interfere with the BR signalling pathway.

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana RALF1 opposes brassinosteroid effects on root cell elongation and lateral root formation

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a peptide signal that plays a basic role in cell biology and most likely regulates cell expansion. In this study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines with high and low levels of AtRALF1 transcripts were used to investigate this peptide’s mechanism of action. Overexpression of the root-specific isoform AtRALF1 resulted in reduced cell size. Conversely, AtRALF1 silencing increased root length by increasing the size of root cells. AtRALF1-silenced plants also showed an increase in the number of lateral roots, whereas AtRALF1 overexpression produced the opposite effect. In addition, four AtRALF1-inducible genes were identified: two genes encoding proline-rich proteins (AtPRP1 and AtPRP3), one encoding a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (AtHRPG2), and one encoding a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (TCH4). These genes were expressed in roots and involved in cell-wall rearrangement, and their induction was concentration dependent. Furthermore, AtRALF1-overexpressing plants were less sensitive to exogenous brassinolide (BL); upon BL treatment, the plants showed no increase in root length and a compromised increase in hypocotyl elongation. In addition, the treatment had no effect on the number of emerged lateral roots. AtRALF1 also induces two brassinosteroid (BR)-downregulated genes involved in the BR biosynthetic pathway: the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHISM AND DWARFISM (CPD) and DWARF4 (DWF4). Simultaneous treatment with both AtRALF1 and BL caused a reduction in AtRALF1-inducible gene expression levels, suggesting that these signals may compete for components shared by both pathways. Taken together, these results indicate an opposing effect of AtRALF1 and BL, and suggest that RALF’s mechanism of action could be to interfere with the BR signalling pathway. PMID:24620000

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Response to Zinc, Magnesium, and Calcium Deficiency in Specific Cell Types of Arabidopsis Roots

    PubMed Central

    Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Mami; Zargar, Sajad Majeed; Kurata, Rie; Fukui, Risa; Mori, Izumi C.; Ogata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The proteome profiles of specific cell types have recently been investigated using techniques such as fluorescence activated cell sorting and laser capture microdissection. However, quantitative proteomic analysis of specific cell types has not yet been performed. In this study, to investigate the response of the proteome to zinc, magnesium, and calcium deficiency in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics using GFP-expressing protoplasts collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protoplasts were collected from the pGL2-GFPer and pMGP-GFPer marker lines for epidermis or inner cell lines (pericycle, endodermis, and cortex), respectively. To increase the number of proteins identified, iTRAQ-labeled peptides were separated into 24 fractions by OFFGFEL electrophoresis prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, 1039 and 737 proteins were identified and quantified in the epidermal and inner cell lines, respectively. Interestingly, the expression of many proteins was decreased in the epidermis by mineral deficiency, although a weaker effect was observed in inner cell lines such as the pericycle, endodermis, and cortex. Here, we report for the first time the quantitative proteomics of specific cell types in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:28248212

  1. The Arabidopsis Receptor Kinase ZAR1 Is Required for Zygote Asymmetric Division and Its Daughter Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Peng-Fei; Tang, Jun; Li, Hong-Ju; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric division of zygote is critical for pattern formation during early embryogenesis in plants and animals. It requires integration of the intrinsic and extrinsic cues prior to and/or after fertilization. How these cues are translated into developmental signals is poorly understood. Here through genetic screen for mutations affecting early embryogenesis, we identified an Arabidopsis mutant, zygotic arrest 1 (zar1), in which zygote asymmetric division and the cell fate of its daughter cells were impaired. ZAR1 encodes a member of the RLK/Pelle kinase family. We demonstrated that ZAR1 physically interacts with Calmodulin and the heterotrimeric G protein Gβ, and ZAR1 kinase is activated by their binding as well. ZAR1 is specifically expressed micropylarly in the embryo sac at eight-nucleate stage and then in central cell, egg cell and synergids in the mature embryo sac. After fertilization, ZAR1 is accumulated in zygote and endosperm. The disruption of ZAR1 and AGB1 results in short basal cell and an apical cell with basal cell fate. These data suggest that ZAR1 functions as a membrane integrator for extrinsic cues, Ca2+ signal and G protein signaling to regulate the division of zygote and the cell fate of its daughter cells in Arabidopsis. PMID:27014878

  2. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Response to Zinc, Magnesium, and Calcium Deficiency in Specific Cell Types of Arabidopsis Roots.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Mami; Zargar, Sajad Majeed; Kurata, Rie; Fukui, Risa; Mori, Izumi C; Ogata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-12

    The proteome profiles of specific cell types have recently been investigated using techniques such as fluorescence activated cell sorting and laser capture microdissection. However, quantitative proteomic analysis of specific cell types has not yet been performed. In this study, to investigate the response of the proteome to zinc, magnesium, and calcium deficiency in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics using GFP-expressing protoplasts collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protoplasts were collected from the pGL2-GFPer and pMGP-GFPer marker lines for epidermis or inner cell lines (pericycle, endodermis, and cortex), respectively. To increase the number of proteins identified, iTRAQ-labeled peptides were separated into 24 fractions by OFFGFEL electrophoresis prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, 1039 and 737 proteins were identified and quantified in the epidermal and inner cell lines, respectively. Interestingly, the expression of many proteins was decreased in the epidermis by mineral deficiency, although a weaker effect was observed in inner cell lines such as the pericycle, endodermis, and cortex. Here, we report for the first time the quantitative proteomics of specific cell types in Arabidopsis roots.

  3. Single-cell and coupled GRN models of cell patterning in the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent experimental work has uncovered some of the genetic components required to maintain the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche (SCN) and its structure. Two main pathways are involved. One pathway depends on the genes SHORTROOT and SCARECROW and the other depends on the PLETHORA genes, which have been proposed to constitute the auxin readouts. Recent evidence suggests that a regulatory circuit, composed of WOX5 and CLE40, also contributes to the SCN maintenance. Yet, we still do not understand how the niche is dynamically maintained and patterned or if the uncovered molecular components are sufficient to recover the observed gene expression configurations that characterize the cell types within the root SCN. Mathematical and computational tools have proven useful in understanding the dynamics of cell differentiation. Hence, to further explore root SCN patterning, we integrated available experimental data into dynamic Gene Regulatory Network (GRN) models and addressed if these are sufficient to attain observed gene expression configurations in the root SCN in a robust and autonomous manner. Results We found that an SCN GRN model based only on experimental data did not reproduce the configurations observed within the root SCN. We developed several alternative GRN models that recover these expected stable gene configurations. Such models incorporate a few additional components and interactions in addition to those that have been uncovered. The recovered configurations are stable to perturbations, and the models are able to recover the observed gene expression profiles of almost all the mutants described so far. However, the robustness of the postulated GRNs is not as high as that of other previously studied networks. Conclusions These models are the first published approximations for a dynamic mechanism of the A. thaliana root SCN cellular pattering. Our model is useful to formally show that the data now available are not sufficient to fully

  4. Finding Missing Interactions of the Arabidopsis thaliana Root Stem Cell Niche Gene Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Azpeitia, Eugenio; Weinstein, Nathan; Benítez, Mariana; Mendoza, Luis; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche (RSCN) has become a model system for the study of plant development and stem cell niche dynamics. Currently, many of the molecular mechanisms involved in RSCN maintenance and development have been described. A few years ago, we published a gene regulatory network (GRN) model integrating this information. This model suggested that there were missing components or interactions. Upon updating the model, the observed stable gene configurations of the RSCN could not be recovered, indicating that there are additional missing components or interactions in the model. In fact, due to the lack of experimental data, GRNs inferred from published data are usually incomplete. However, predicting the location and nature of the missing data is a not trivial task. Here, we propose a set of procedures for detecting and predicting missing interactions in Boolean networks. We used these procedures to predict putative missing interactions in the A. thaliana RSCN network model. Using our approach, we identified three necessary interactions to recover the reported gene activation configurations that have been experimentally uncovered for the different cell types within the RSCN: (1) a regulation of PHABULOSA to restrict its expression domain to the vascular cells, (2) a self-regulation of WOX5, possibly by an indirect mechanism through the auxin signaling pathway, and (3) a positive regulation of JACKDAW by MAGPIE. The procedures proposed here greatly reduce the number of possible Boolean functions that are biologically meaningful and experimentally testable and that do not contradict previous data. We believe that these procedures can be used on any Boolean network. However, because the procedures were designed for the specific case of the RSCN, formal demonstrations of the procedures should be shown in future efforts. PMID:23658556

  5. Erwinia amylovora type three-secreted proteins trigger cell death and defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Degrave, A; Fagard, M; Perino, C; Brisset, M N; Gaubert, S; Laroche, S; Patrit, O; Barny, M-A

    2008-08-01

    Erwinia amylovora is the bacterium responsible for fire blight, a necrotic disease affecting plants of the rosaceous family. E. amylovora pathogenicity requires a functional type three secretion system (T3SS). We show here that E. amylovora triggers a T3SS-dependent cell death on Arabidopsis thaliana. The plants respond by inducing T3SS-dependent defense responses, including salicylic acid (SA)-independent callose deposition, activation of the SA defense pathway, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and part of the jasmonic acid/ethylene defense pathway. Several of these reactions are similar to what is observed in host plants. We show that the cell death triggered by E. amylovora on A. thaliana could not be simply explained by the recognition of AvrRpt2 ea by the resistance gene product RPS2. We then analyzed the role of type three-secreted proteins (T3SPs) DspA/E, HrpN, and HrpW in the induction of cell death and defense reactions in A. thaliana following infection with the corresponding E. amylovora mutant strains. HrpN and DspA/E were found to play an important role in the induction of cell death, activation of defense pathways, and ROS accumulation. None of the T3SPs tested played a major role in the induction of SA-independent callose deposition. The relative importance of T3SPs in A. thaliana is correlated with their relative importance in the disease process on host plants, indicating that A. thaliana can be used as a model to study their role.

  6. Identification of nuclear target proteins for S-nitrosylation in pathogen-treated Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Mounira; Shekariesfahlan, Azam; Ageeva, Alexandra; Mengel, Alexander; von Toerne, Christine; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a significant signalling molecule involved in the regulation of many different physiological processes in plants. One of the most imperative regulatory modes of action of NO is protein S-nitrosylation--the covalent attachment of an NO group to the sulfur atom of cysteine residues. In this study, we focus on S-nitrosylation of Arabidopsis nuclear proteins after pathogen infection. After treatment of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures with pathogens, nuclear proteins were extracted and treated with the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). A biotin switch assay was performed and biotin-labelled proteins were purified by neutravidin affinity chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. A total of 135 proteins were identified, whereas nuclear localization has been described for 122 proteins of them. 117 of these proteins contain at least one cysteine residue. Most of the S-nitrosylated candidates were involved in protein and RNA metabolism, stress response, and cell organization and division. Interestingly, two plant-specific histone deacetylases were identified suggesting that nitric oxide regulated epigenetic processes in plants. In sum, this work provides a new collection of targets for protein S-nitrosylation in Arabidopsis and gives insight into the regulatory function of NO in the nucleus during plant defense response. Moreover, our data extend the knowledge on the regulatory function of NO in events located in the nucleus.

  7. Coordination of cell proliferation and cell expansion mediated by ribosome-related processes in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Ushio; Horiguchi, Gorou; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2009-08-01

    Co-ordination of cell proliferation and cell expansion is a key regulatory process in leaf-size determination, but its molecular details are unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations in a positive regulator of cell proliferation often trigger excessive cell enlargement post-mitotically in leaves. This phenomenon, called compensation syndrome, is seen in the mutant angustifolia3 (an3), which is defective in a transcription co-activator. Such compensation, however, does not occur in response to a decrease in cell number in oligocellula (oli). oli2, oli5 and oli7 did not exhibit compensation and the reduction in cell number in these mutants was moderate. However, when an oli mutation was combined with a different oli mutation to create a double mutant, cell number was further reduced and compensation was induced. Similarly, weak suppression of AN3 expression reduced cell number moderately but did not induce compensation compared with an an3 null mutant. Furthermore, double mutants of either oli2, oli5 or oli7 and an3 showed markedly enhanced compensation. These results suggest that compensation is triggered when cell proliferation regulated by OLI2/OLI5/OLI7 and AN3 is compromised in a threshold-dependent manner. OLI2 encodes a Nop2 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is involved in ribosome biogenesis, whereas OLI5 and OLI7 encode ribosome proteins RPL5A and RPL5B, respectively. This suggests that a factor involved in the induction of compensation may be under the dual control of AN3 and a ribosome-related process.

  8. Over-expression of Arabidopsis CAP causes decreased cell expansion leading to organ size reduction in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Roberto A; Umeda, Masaaki; Yamamura, Saburo; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2003-04-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAP) are multifunctional proteins involved in Ras-cAMP signalling and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. It has recently been demonstrated that over-expression of AtCAP1 in transgenic arabidopsis plants causes severe morphological defects owing to loss of actin filaments. To test the generality of the function of AtCAP1 in plants, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing an arabidopsis CAP (AtCAP1) under the regulation of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter were produced. Over-expression of AtCAP1 in transgenic tobacco plants led to growth abnormalities, in particular a reduction in the size of leaves. Morphological alterations in leaves were the result of reduced elongation of epidermal and mesophyll cells.

  9. MDP25, a novel calcium regulatory protein, mediates hypocotyl cell elongation by destabilizing cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejie; Wang, Xianling; Qin, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Jingbo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Ziding; Yuan, Ming; Mao, Tonglin

    2011-12-01

    The regulation of hypocotyl elongation is important for plant growth. Microtubules play a crucial role during hypocotyl cell elongation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. In this study, we describe a novel Arabidopsis thaliana microtubule-destabilizing protein 25 (MDP25) as a negative regulator of hypocotyl cell elongation. We found that MDP25 directly bound to and destabilized microtubules to enhance microtubule depolymerization in vitro. The seedlings of mdp25 mutant Arabidopsis lines had longer etiolated hypocotyls. In addition, MDP25 overexpression resulted in significant overall shortening of hypocotyl cells, which exhibited destabilized cortical microtubules and abnormal cortical microtubule orientation, suggesting that MDP25 plays a crucial role in the negative regulation of hypocotyl cell elongation. Although MDP25 localized to the plasma membrane under normal conditions, increased calcium levels in cells caused MDP25 to partially dissociate from the plasma membrane and move into the cytosol. Cellular MDP25 bound to and destabilized cortical microtubules, resulting in their reorientation, and subsequently inhibited hypocotyl cell elongation. Our results suggest that MDP25 exerts its function on cortical microtubules by responding to cytoplasmic calcium levels to mediate hypocotyl cell elongation.

  10. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong; Mao, Tonglin; Yuan, Ming; Li, Yunhai

    2016-01-01

    How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules. PMID:27768706

  11. Real-Time Imaging of Cellulose Reorientation during Cell Wall Expansion in Arabidopsis Roots1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles T.; Carroll, Andrew; Akhmetova, Laila; Somerville, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose forms the major load-bearing network of the plant cell wall, which simultaneously protects the cell and directs its growth. Although the process of cellulose synthesis has been observed, little is known about the behavior of cellulose in the wall after synthesis. Using Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B, a dye that fluoresces preferentially in the presence of cellulose and has excitation and emission wavelengths suitable for confocal microscopy, we imaged the architecture and dynamics of cellulose in the cell walls of expanding root cells. We found that cellulose exists in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell walls in large fibrillar bundles that vary in orientation. During anisotropic wall expansion in wild-type plants, we observed that these cellulose bundles rotate in a transverse to longitudinal direction. We also found that cellulose organization is significantly altered in mutants lacking either a cellulose synthase subunit or two xyloglucan xylosyltransferase isoforms. Our results support a model in which cellulose is deposited transversely to accommodate longitudinal cell expansion and reoriented during expansion to generate a cell wall that is fortified against strain from any direction. PMID:19965966

  12. A Genetic Screen for Mutations Affecting Cell Division in the Arabidopsis thaliana Embryo Identifies Seven Loci Required for Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Gillmor, C. Stewart; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.; Sieber, Patrick; Somerville, Chris; Lukowitz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis in plants involves the formation of unique cellular structures such as the phragmoplast and the cell plate, both of which are required to divide the cell after nuclear division. In order to isolate genes that are involved in de novo cell wall formation, we performed a large-scale, microscope-based screen for Arabidopsis mutants that severely impair cytokinesis in the embryo. We recovered 35 mutations that form abnormally enlarged cells with multiple, often polyploid nuclei and incomplete cell walls. These mutants represent seven genes, four of which have previously been implicated in phragmoplast or cell plate function. Mutations in two loci show strongly reduced transmission through the haploid gametophytic generation. Molecular cloning of both corresponding genes reveals that one is represented by hypomorphic alleles of the kinesin-5 gene RADIALLY SWOLLEN 7 (homologous to tobacco kinesin-related protein TKRP125), and that the other gene corresponds to the Arabidopsis FUSED ortholog TWO-IN-ONE (originally identified based on its function in pollen development). No mutations that completely abolish the formation of cross walls in diploid cells were found. Our results support the idea that cytokinesis in the diploid and haploid generations involve similar mechanisms. PMID:26745275

  13. The Arabidopsis EDR1 Protein Kinase Negatively Regulates the ATL1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase to Suppress Cell Death[W

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Irene; Gu, Yangnan; Qi, Dong; Dubiella, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (EDR1) gene confer enhanced programmed cell death under a variety of abiotic and biotic stress conditions. All edr1 mutant phenotypes can be suppressed by missense mutations in the KEEP ON GOING gene, which encodes a trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE)-localized E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, we report that EDR1 interacts with a second E3 ubiquitin ligase, ARABIDOPSIS TOXICOS EN LEVADURA1 (ATL1), and negatively regulates its activity. Overexpression of ATL1 in transgenic Arabidopsis induced severe growth inhibition and patches of cell death, while transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced cell death and tissue collapse. The E3 ligase activity of ATL1 was required for both of these processes. Importantly, we found that ATL1 interacts with EDR1 on TGN/EE vesicles and that EDR1 suppresses ATL1-mediated cell death in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Lastly, knockdown of ATL1 expression suppressed cell death phenotypes associated with the edr1 mutant and made Arabidopsis hypersusceptible to powdery mildew infection. Taken together, our data indicate that ATL1 is a positive regulator of programmed cell death and EDR1 negatively regulates ATL1 activity at the TGN/EE and thus controls stress responses initiated by ATL1-mediated ubiquitination events. PMID:25398498

  14. Arabidopsis chromatin remodeling factor PICKLE interacts with transcription factor HY5 to regulate hypocotyl cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yanjun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Xin; Tang, Weijiang; Wang, Wanqing; Huai, Junling; Xu, Gang; Chen, Dongqin; Li, Yunliang; Lin, Rongcheng

    2013-01-01

    Photomorphogenesis is a critical plant developmental process that involves light-mediated transcriptome changes, histone modifications, and inhibition of hypocotyl growth. However, the chromatin-based regulatory mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Here, we identify ENHANCED PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (EPP1), previously known as PICKLE (PKL), an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor of the chromodomain/helicase/DNA binding family, as a repressor of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that PKL/EPP1 expression is repressed by light in the hypocotyls in a photoreceptor-dependent manner. Furthermore, we reveal that the transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) binds to the promoters of cell elongation-related genes and recruits PKL/EPP1 through their physical interaction. PKL/EPP1 in turn negatively regulates HY5 by repressing trimethylation of histone H3 Lys 27 at the target loci, thereby regulating the expression of these genes and, thus, hypocotyl elongation. We also show that HY5 possesses transcriptional repression activity. Our study reveals a crucial role for a chromatin remodeling factor in repressing photomorphogenesis and demonstrates that transcription factor-mediated recruitment of chromatin-remodeling machinery is important for plant development in response to changing light environments.

  15. Vegetative and sperm cell-specific aquaporins of Arabidopsis highlight the vacuolar equipment of pollen and contribute to plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wudick, Michael M; Luu, Doan-Trung; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Sakamoto, Wataru; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    The water and nutrient status of pollen is crucial to plant reproduction. Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain a large vegetative cell and two smaller sperm cells. Pollen grains express AtTIP1;3 and AtTIP5;1, two members of the Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein subfamily of aquaporins. To address the spatial and temporal expression pattern of the two homologs, C-terminal fusions of AtTIP1;3 and AtTIP5;1 with green fluorescent protein and mCherry, respectively, were expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis under the control of their native promoter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that AtTIP1;3 and AtTIP5;1 are specific for the vacuoles of the vegetative and sperm cells, respectively. The tonoplast localization of AtTIP5;1 was established by reference to fluorescent protein markers for the mitochondria and vacuoles of sperm and vegetative cells and is at variance with the claim that AtTIP5;1 is localized in vegetative cell mitochondria. AtTIP1;3-green fluorescent protein and AtTIP5;1-mCherry showed concomitant expression, from first pollen mitosis up to pollen tube penetration in the ovule, thereby revealing the dynamics of vacuole morphology in maturating and germinating pollen. Transfer DNA insertion mutants for either AtTIP1;3 or AtTIP5;1 showed no apparent growth phenotype and had no significant defect in male transmission of the mutated alleles. By contrast, a double knockout displayed an abnormal rate of barren siliques, this phenotype being more pronounced under limited water or nutrient supply. The overall data indicate that vacuoles of vegetative and sperm cells functionally interact and contribute to male fertility in adverse environmental conditions.

  16. Real-time Recording of Cytosolic Calcium Levels in Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cultures during Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2015-07-01

    In plants, like in other organisms, calcium (Ca2+) is an important second messenger which participates in the conversion of environmental signals into molecular responses. There is increasing evidence, that sensing of changes in gravitation or reorientation of tissues is an example for such signaling cascades in which Ca2+ is involved. In order to determine g-dependent changes in the cytosolic calcium (Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}}) concentration of plant cells, semisolid transgenic callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (A.t.), expressing the calcium sensor YC3.6 (cameleon), were exposed to g-forces between 1.8 g and μ g during parabolic flights. Using such cells, intracellular calcium transients can be monitored by FRET in vivo and in real-time. Interestingly we observed a slight decrease of the Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} level during the hypergravity phases of a parabola but a significant increase of the Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} concentration during microgravity. Application of known Ca2+ inhibitors and antagonists yielded the following effects: nifedipine (Ca2+ channel blocker) showed no effect, whereas LaCl3, GdCl3 (both inhibitors of uptake at the plasma membrane), DPI (inhibitor of NADP oxidase), and DMSO (solvent) diminished the gravity-alteration-related Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} response. EGTA (binding of Ca2+) and eosin yellow (inhibitor of a plasma membrane-located Ca2+ pump) suppressed the respective Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} changes entirely. We thus conclude that the significant increase in Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} under microgravity is largely due to extracellular Ca2+ sources.

  17. Allocation of Heme Is Differentially Regulated by Ferrochelatase Isoforms in Arabidopsis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Espinas, Nino A.; Kobayashi, Koichi; Sato, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Takahashi, Kaori; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2016-01-01

    Heme is involved in various biological processes as a cofactor of hemoproteins located in various organelles. In plant cells, heme is synthesized by two isoforms of plastid-localized ferrochelatase, FC1 and FC2. In this study, by characterizing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants, we showed that the allocation of heme is differentially regulated by ferrochelatase isoforms in plant cells. Analyses of weak (fc1-1) and null (fc1-2) mutants suggest that FC1-producing heme is required for initial growth of seedling development. In contrast, weak (fc2-1) and null (fc2-2) mutants of FC2 showed pale green leaves and retarded growth, indicating that FC2-producing heme is necessary for chloroplast development. During the initial growth stage, FC2 deficiency caused reduction of plastid cytochromes. In addition, although FC2 deficiency marginally affected the assembly of photosynthetic reaction center complexes, it caused relatively larger but insufficient light-harvesting antenna to reaction centers, resulting in lower efficiency of photosynthesis. In the later vegetative growth, however, fc2-2 recovered photosynthetic growth, showing that FC1-producing heme may complement the FC2 deficiency. On the other hand, reduced level of cytochromes in microsomal fraction was discovered in fc1-1, suggesting that FC1-producing heme is mainly allocated to extraplastidic organelles. Furthermore, the expression of FC1 is induced by the treatment of an elicitor flg22 while that of FC2 was reduced, and fc1-1 abolished the flg22-dependent induction of FC1 expression and peroxidase activity. Consequently, our results clarified that FC2 produces heme for the photosynthetic machinery in the chloroplast, while FC1 is the housekeeping enzyme providing heme cofactor to the entire cell. In addition, FC1 can partly complement FC2 deficiency and is also involved in defense against stressful conditions. PMID:27630653

  18. Germination of Arabidopsis Seed in Space and in Simulated Microgravity: Alterations in Root Cell Growth and Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Ana I.; Matía, Isabel; González-Camacho, Fernando; Carnero-Díaz, Eugénie; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R.; Marco, Roberto; Medina, F. Javier

    2009-11-01

    Changes have been reported in the pattern of gene expression in Arabidopsis on exposure to microgravity. Plant cell growth and proliferation are functions that are potentially affected by such changes in gene expression. In the present investigation, the cell proliferation rate, the regulation of cell cycle progression and the rate of ribosome biogenesis (this latter taken to estimate cell growth) have been studied using morphometric markers or parameters evaluated by light and electron microscopy in real microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS) and in ground-based simulated microgravity, using the Random Positioning Machine and the Magnetic Levitation Instrument. Results showed enhanced cell proliferation but depleted cell growth in both real and simulated microgravity, indicating that the two processes are uncoupled, unlike the situation under normal gravity on Earth in which they are strictly co-ordinated events. It is concluded that microgravity is an important stress condition for plant cells compared to normal ground gravity conditions.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of a cell-wall invertase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaest, Maureen; Le Roy, Katrien; Sansen, Stefaan; De Coninck, Barbara; Lammens, Willem; De Ranter, Camiel J.; Van Laere, André; Van den Ende, Wim; Rabijns, Anja

    2005-08-01

    Crystals suitable for structural analysis have been prepared from a cell-wall invertase from A. thaliana. Cell-wall invertase 1 (AtcwINV1), a plant protein from Arabidopsis thaliana which is involved in the breakdown of sucrose, has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. Crystal form I grows in space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}, whereas crystal form II grows in space group C222{sub 1}. Data sets were collected for crystal forms I and II to resolution limits of 2.40 and 2.15 Å, respectively.

  20. Mapping methyl jasmonate-mediated transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism and cell cycle progression in cultured Arabidopsis cells

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Laurens; Morreel, Kris; De Witte, Emilie; Lammertyn, Freya; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Inzé, Dirk; Goossens, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant-specific signaling molecules that steer a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. Pathogen attack and wounding inflicted by herbivores induce the biosynthesis of these hormones, triggering defense responses both locally and systemically. We report on alterations in the transcriptome of a fast-dividing cell culture of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exogenous application of methyl JA (MeJA). Early MeJA response genes encoded the JA biosynthesis pathway proteins and key regulators of MeJA responses, including most JA ZIM domain proteins and MYC2, together with transcriptional regulators with potential, but yet unknown, functions in MeJA signaling. In a second transcriptional wave, MeJA reprogrammed cellular metabolism and cell cycle progression. Up-regulation of the monolignol biosynthesis gene set resulted in an increased production of monolignols and oligolignols, the building blocks of lignin. Simultaneously, MeJA repressed activation of M-phase genes, arresting the cell cycle in G2. MeJA-responsive transcription factors were screened for their involvement in early signaling events, in particular the regulation of JA biosynthesis. Parallel screens based on yeast one-hybrid and transient transactivation assays identified both positive (MYC2 and the AP2/ERF factor ORA47) and negative (the C2H2 Zn finger proteins STZ/ZAT10 and AZF2) regulators, revealing a complex control of the JA autoregulatory loop and possibly other MeJA-mediated downstream processes. PMID:18216250

  1. Nitric Oxide Is Involved in Cadmium-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis Suspension Cultures1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    De Michele, Roberto; Vurro, Emanuela; Rigo, Chiara; Costa, Alex; Elviri, Lisa; Di Valentin, Marilena; Careri, Maria; Zottini, Michela; Sanità di Toppi, Luigi; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd2+) can result in cell death, but the molecular mechanisms of Cd2+ cytotoxicity in plants are not fully understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell suspension cultures underwent a process of programmed cell death when exposed to 100 and 150 μm CdCl2 and that this process resembled an accelerated senescence, as suggested by the expression of the marker senescence-associated gene12 (SAG12). CdCl2 treatment was accompanied by a rapid increase in nitric oxide (NO) and phytochelatin synthesis, which continued to be high as long as cells remained viable. Hydrogen peroxide production was a later event and preceded the rise of cell death by about 24 h. Inhibition of NO synthesis by NG-monomethyl-arginine monoacetate resulted in partial prevention of hydrogen peroxide increase, SAG12 expression, and mortality, indicating that NO is actually required for Cd2+-induced cell death. NO also modulated the extent of phytochelatin content, and possibly their function, by S-nitrosylation. These results shed light on the signaling events controlling Cd2+ cytotoxicity in plants. PMID:19261736

  2. ROS Production and Scavenging under Anoxia and Re-Oxygenation in Arabidopsis Cells: A Balance between Redox Signaling and Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Annalisa; Caretto, Sofia; Leone, Antonella; Bove, Anna; Nisi, Rossella; De Gara, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Plants can frequently experience low oxygen concentrations due to environmental factors such as flooding or waterlogging. It has been reported that both anoxia and the transition from anoxia to re-oxygenation determine a strong imbalance in the cellular redox state involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Plant cell cultures can be a suitable system to study the response to oxygen deprivation stress since a close control of physicochemical parameters is available when using bioreactors. For this purpose, Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures grown in a stirred bioreactor were subjected to a severe anoxic stress and analyzed during anoxia and re-oxygenation for alteration in ROS and NO as well as in antioxidant enzymes and metabolites. The results obtained by confocal microscopy showed the dramatic increase of ROS, H2O2, and NO during the anoxic shock. All the ascorbate-glutathione related parameters were altered during anoxia but restored during re-oxygenation. Anoxia also induced a slight but significant increase of α-tocopherol levels measured at the end of the treatment. Overall, the evaluation of cell defenses during anoxia and re-oxygenation in Arabidopsis cell cultures revealed that the immediate response involving the overproduction of reactive species activated the antioxidant machinery including ascorbate-glutathione system, α-tocopherol and the ROS-scavenging enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase making cells able to counteract the stress toward cell survival. PMID:27990148

  3. The xipotl Mutant of Arabidopsis Reveals a Critical Role for Phospholipid Metabolism in Root System Development and Epidermal Cell Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; López-Bucio, José; Ramírez-Pimentel, Gabriel; Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Sánchez-Calderon, Lenin; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; González-Ortega, Emmanuel; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Phosphocholine (PCho) is an essential metabolite for plant development because it is the precursor for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is the major lipid component in plant cell membranes. The main step in PCho biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana is the triple, sequential N-methylation of phosphoethanolamine, catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine:phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT). In screenings performed to isolate Arabidopsis mutants with altered root system architecture, a T-DNA mutagenized line showing remarkable alterations in root development was isolated. At the seedling stage, the mutant phenotype is characterized by a short primary root, a high number of lateral roots, and short epidermal cells with aberrant morphology. Genetic and biochemical characterization of this mutant showed that the T-DNA was inserted at the At3g18000 locus (XIPOTL1), which encodes PEAMT (XIPOTL1). Further analyses revealed that inhibition of PCho biosynthesis in xpl1 mutants not only alters several root developmental traits but also induces cell death in root epidermal cells. Epidermal cell death could be reversed by phosphatidic acid treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that molecules produced downstream of the PCho biosynthesis pathway play key roles in root development and act as signals for cell integrity. PMID:15295103

  4. The AP-1 μ adaptin is required for KNOLLE localization at the cell plate to mediate cytokinesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Teh, Ooi-Kock; Shimono, Yuki; Shirakawa, Makoto; Fukao, Yoichiro; Tamura, Kentaro; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2013-06-01

    Formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) requires the scaffolding adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which are conserved across all eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis genome encodes five AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-5), and each complex consists of four subunits. In this study, we characterized the poorly defined AP-1 complex by using genetics, proteomics and live cell imaging. We showed that the AP-1 µ adaptin subunit (AP1M2) was localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and interacted physically with the AP-1 subunits in Arabidopsis. During treatment with brefeldin A (BFA), the functional fluorophore-tagged AP1M2 relocated to the BFA compartment. The AP1M2 loss-of-function mutant ap1m2 displayed deleterious growth defects, which were particularly evident in the compromised cytokinesis that was revealed by the presence of cell wall stubs in multinucleate cells. Immunolocalization of the cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE (KN) in ap1m2 showed that KN was mislocalized and aggregated around the division plane, while a secretory marker targeting to the cell plate remained unaffected. Taken together, we propose that the AP-1 complex is required for cell plate-targeted trafficking of KN in dividing plant cells, and that it has a common role in mediating plant and yeast/animal cytokinesis systems which are fundamentally different.

  5. AtPDCD5 Plays a Role in Programmed Cell Death after UV-B Exposure in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Falcone Ferreyra, María Lorena; D’Andrea, Lucio; AbdElgawad, Hamada

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage responses have evolved to sense and react to DNA damage; the induction of DNA repair mechanisms can lead to genomic restoration or, if the damaged DNA cannot be adequately repaired, to the execution of a cell death program. In this work, we investigated the role of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protein, AtPDCD5, which is highly similar to the human PDCD5 protein; it is induced by ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation and participates in programmed cell death in the UV-B DNA damage response. Transgenic plants expressing AtPDCD5 fused to GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN indicate that AtPDCD5 is localized both in the nucleus and the cytosol. By use of pdcd5 mutants, we here demonstrate that these plants have an altered antioxidant metabolism and accumulate higher levels of DNA damage after UV-B exposure, similar to levels in ham1ham2 RNA interference transgenic lines with decreased expression of acetyltransferases from the MYST family. By coimmunoprecipitation and pull-down assays, we provide evidence that AtPDCD5 interacts with HAM proteins, suggesting that both proteins participate in the same pathway of DNA damage responses. Plants overexpressing AtPDCD5 show less DNA damage but more cell death in root tips upon UV-B exposure. Finally, we here show that AtPDCD5 also participates in age-induced programmed cell death. Together, the data presented here demonstrate that AtPDCD5 plays an important role during DNA damage responses induced by UV-B radiation in Arabidopsis and also participates in programmed cell death programs. PMID:26884483

  6. Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins: specialization for stem biomechanics and cell wall architecture in Arabidopsis and Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Colleen P; Mansfield, Shawn D; Stachurski, Zbigniew H; Evans, Rob; Southerton, Simon G

    2010-05-01

    The ancient cell adhesion fasciclin (FAS) domain is found in bacteria, fungi, algae, insects and animals, and occurs in a large family of fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) in higher plants. Functional roles for FAS-containing proteins have been determined for insects, algae and vertebrates; however, the biological functions of the various higher-plant FLAs are not clear. Expression of some FLAs has been correlated with the onset of secondary-wall cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis stems, and also with wood formation in the stems and branches of trees, suggesting a biological role in plant stems. We examined whether FLAs contribute to plant stem biomechanics. Using phylogenetic, transcript abundance and promoter-GUS fusion analyses, we identified a conserved subset of single FAS domain FLAs (group A FLAs) in Eucalyptus and Arabidopsis that have specific and high transcript abundance in stems, particularly in stem cells undergoing secondary-wall deposition, and that the phylogenetic conservation appears to extend to other dicots and monocots. Gene-function analyses revealed that Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout double mutant stems had altered stem biomechanics with reduced tensile strength and a reduced tensile modulus of elasticity, as well as altered cell-wall architecture and composition, with increased cellulose microfibril angle and reduced arabinose, galactose and cellulose content. Using materials engineering concepts, we relate the effects of these FLAs on cell-wall composition with stem biomechanics. Our results suggest that a subset of single FAS domain FLAs contributes to plant stem strength by affecting cellulose deposition, and to the stem modulus of elasticity by affecting the integrity of the cell-wall matrix.

  7. Early Transcriptional Defense Responses in Arabidopsis Cell Suspension Culture under High-Light Conditions1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    González-Pérez, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Jorge; García-García, Francisco; Osuna, Daniel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Lorenzo, Óscar; Revuelta, José L.; Arellano, Juan B.

    2011-01-01

    The early transcriptional defense responses and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell suspension culture (ACSC), containing functional chloroplasts, were examined at high light (HL). The transcriptional analysis revealed that most of the ROS markers identified among the 449 transcripts with significant differential expression were transcripts specifically up-regulated by singlet oxygen (1O2). On the contrary, minimal correlation was established with transcripts specifically up-regulated by superoxide radical or hydrogen peroxide. The transcriptional analysis was supported by fluorescence microscopy experiments. The incubation of ACSC with the 1O2 sensor green reagent and 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate showed that the 30-min-HL-treated cultures emitted fluorescence that corresponded with the production of 1O2 but not of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the in vivo photodamage of the D1 protein of photosystem II indicated that the photogeneration of 1O2 took place within the photosystem II reaction center. Functional enrichment analyses identified transcripts that are key components of the ROS signaling transduction pathway in plants as well as others encoding transcription factors that regulate both ROS scavenging and water deficit stress. A meta-analysis examining the transcriptional profiles of mutants and hormone treatments in Arabidopsis showed a high correlation between ACSC at HL and the fluorescent mutant family of Arabidopsis, a producer of 1O2 in plastids. Intriguingly, a high correlation was also observed with ABA deficient1 and more axillary growth4, two mutants with defects in the biosynthesis pathways of two key (apo)carotenoid-derived plant hormones (i.e. abscisic acid and strigolactones, respectively). ACSC has proven to be a valuable system for studying early transcriptional responses to HL stress. PMID:21531897

  8. Evaluation of cell wall preparations for proteomics: a new procedure for purifying cell walls from Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Feiz, Leila; Irshad, Muhammad; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Background The ultimate goal of proteomic analysis of a cell compartment should be the exhaustive identification of resident proteins; excluding proteins from other cell compartments. Reaching such a goal closely depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific difficulties: (i) the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP) during the isolation procedure, (ii) polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins. Several reported procedures to isolate cell walls for proteomic analyses led to the isolation of a high proportion (more than 50%) of predicted intracellular proteins. Since isolated cell walls should hold secreted proteins, one can imagine alternative procedures to prepare cell walls containing a lower proportion of contaminant proteins. Results The rationales of several published procedures to isolate cell walls for proteomics were analyzed, with regard to the bioinformatic-predicted subcellular localization of the identified proteins. Critical steps were revealed: (i) homogenization in low ionic strength acid buffer to retain CWP, (ii) purification through increasing density cushions, (iii) extensive washes with a low ionic strength acid buffer to retain CWP while removing as many cytosolic proteins as possible, and (iv) absence of detergents. A new procedure was developed to prepare cell walls from etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. After salt extraction, a high proportion of proteins predicted to be secreted was released (73%), belonging to the same functional classes as proteins identified using previously described protocols. Finally, removal of intracellular proteins was obtained using detergents, but their amount represented less than 3% in mass of the total protein extract, based on protein quantification. Conclusion The new cell wall

  9. Specific localization and measurement of hydrogen peroxide in Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspensions and protoplasts elicited by COS-OGA.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Quentin; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Markό, Istvan E; Veys, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    H2O2 acts as an important signaling molecule during plant/pathogen interactions but its study remains a challenge due to the current shortcomings in H2O2-responsive probes. In this work, ContPY1, a new molecular probe developed to specifically detect H2O2 was used to study the elicitation of Arabidopsis thaliana cells by a complex of chitosan oligomers (COS) and oligogalacturonides (OGA). The comparison of cell suspensions, protoplasts of cell suspensions and leaf protoplasts treated with different inhibitors gave indications on the potential sources of hydrogen peroxide in plant cells. The relative contribution of the cell wall, of membrane dehydrogenases and of peroxidases depended on cell type and treatment and proved to be variable. Our present protocol can be used to study hydrogen peroxide production in a large variety of plant species by simple protocol adaptation.

  10. A WUSCHEL-Independent Stem Cell Specification Pathway Is Repressed by PHB, PHV and CNA in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chunghee; Clark, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of stem cells that carry out continuous organogenesis at the shoot meristem is crucial for plant development. Key known factors act to signal between the stem cells and an underlying group of cells thought to act as the stem cell niche. In Arabidopsis thaliana the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for stem cell initiation and maintenance at shoot and flower meristems. Recent data suggest that the WUS protein may move from the niche cells directly into the stem cells to maintain stem cell identity. Here we provide evidence for a second, previously unknown, pathway for stem cell specification at shoot and flower meristems that bypasses the requirement for WUS. We demonstrate that this novel stem cell specification pathway is normally repressed by the activity of the HD-zip III transcription factors PHABULOSA (PHB), PHAVOLUTA (PHV) and CORONA (CNA). When de-repressed, this second stem cell pathway leads to an accumulation of stem cells and an enlargement of the stem cell niche. When de-repressed in a wus mutant background, this second stem cell pathway leads to functional meristems with largely normal cell layering and meristem morphology, activation of WUS cis regulatory elements, and extensive, but not indeterminate, organogenesis. Thus, WUS is largely dispensable for stem cell specification and meristem function, suggesting a set of key stem cell specification factors, competitively regulated by WUS and PHB/PHV/CNA, remain unidentified.

  11. Extracting tissue and cell outlines of Arabidopsis seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT at the SPring-8 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Karahara, Ichirou; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2012-07-01

    How biological form is determined is one of the important questions in developmental biology. Physical forces are thought to be the primary determinants of the biological forms, and several theories for this were proposed nearly a century ago. To evaluate how physical forces can influence biological forms, precise determination of cell and tissue shapes and their geometries is necessary. Computed tomography (CT) is useful for visualizing three-dimensional structures without destroying a sample. Because recent progress in micro-CT has enabled visualizing cells and tissues at the sub-micron level, we investigated if we could extract cell and tissue outlines of seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT available at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. We used Arabidopsis seeds because Arabidopsis is a well-known model plant and its seed size is small enough to obtain whole images using the X-ray CT experimental system. We could trace the outlines of tissues in dry seeds using beamline BL20B2 (10 keV, 2.4µm.pixel-1). Although we could also detect the outlines of some cell types, the image resolution was not adequate to extract whole cell edges. To detect the edges of cells in the epidermis and cortex, we obtained CT images using beamline BL20XU (8 keV, 0.5 µm.pixel-1). With these CT images, we could extract the facets and edges of each cell and determine cell vertices. This method enabled us to compare the numbers of cell facets among various cell types. We could also describe cell geometry as a set of points that showed these cell vertices.

  12. Xyloglucan Deficiency Disrupts Microtubule Stability and Cellulose Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, Altering Cell Growth and Morphogenesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chaowen; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen

    2016-01-01

    Xyloglucan constitutes most of the hemicellulose in eudicot primary cell walls and functions in cell wall structure and mechanics. Although Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking detectable xyloglucan are viable, they display growth defects that are suggestive of alterations in wall integrity. To probe the mechanisms underlying these defects, we analyzed cellulose arrangement, microtubule patterning and dynamics, microtubule- and wall-integrity-related gene expression, and cellulose biosynthesis in xxt1 xxt2 plants. We found that cellulose is highly aligned in xxt1 xxt2 cell walls, that its three-dimensional distribution is altered, and that microtubule patterning and stability are aberrant in etiolated xxt1 xxt2 hypocotyls. We also found that the expression levels of microtubule-associated genes, such as MAP70-5 and CLASP, and receptor genes, such as HERK1 and WAK1, were changed in xxt1 xxt2 plants and that cellulose synthase motility is reduced in xxt1 xxt2 cells, corresponding with a reduction in cellulose content. Our results indicate that loss of xyloglucan affects both the stability of the microtubule cytoskeleton and the production and patterning of cellulose in primary cell walls. These findings establish, to our knowledge, new links between wall integrity, cytoskeletal dynamics, and wall synthesis in the regulation of plant morphogenesis. PMID:26527657

  13. The MADS domain protein DIANA acts together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to specify the central cell in Arabidopsis ovules.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Angenent, Gerco C

    2008-08-01

    MADS box genes in plants consist of MIKC-type and type I genes. While MIKC-type genes have been studied extensively, the functions of type I genes are still poorly understood. Evidence suggests that type I MADS box genes are involved in embryo sac and seed development. We investigated two independent T-DNA insertion alleles of the Arabidopsis thaliana type I MADS box gene AGAMOUS-LIKE61 (AGL61) and showed that in agl61 mutant ovules, the polar nuclei do not fuse and central cell morphology is aberrant. Furthermore, the central cell begins to degenerate before fertilization takes place. Although pollen tubes are attracted and perceived by the mutant ovules, neither endosperm development nor zygote formation occurs. AGL61 is expressed in the central cell during the final stages of embryo sac development. An AGL61:green fluorescent protein-beta-glucoronidase fusion protein localizes exclusively to the polar nuclei and the secondary nucleus of the central cell. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that AGL61 can form a heterodimer with AGL80 and that the nuclear localization of AGL61 is lost in the agl80 mutant. Thus, AGL61 and AGL80 appear to function together to differentiate the central cell in Arabidopsis. We renamed AGL61 DIANA, after the virginal Roman goddess of the hunt.

  14. PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kun; Sandal, Priyanka; Williams, Elisabeth L; Murphy, Evan; Stes, Elisabeth; Nikonorova, Natalia; Ramakrishna, Priya; Czyzewicz, Nathan; Montero-Morales, Laura; Kumpf, Robert; Lin, Zhefeng; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Iqbal, Mudassar; Van Bel, Michiel; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Meyer, Matthew R; Gadeyne, Astrid; Zipfel, Cyril; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Damme, Daniël; Gevaert, Kris; Rao, A Gururaj; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-02-02

    In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its important role in plant development, very little is known about the molecular mechanism with which ACR4 is affiliated and its network of interactions. Here, we used various complementary proteomic approaches to identify ACR4-interacting protein candidates that are likely regulators of formative cell divisions and that could pave the way to unraveling the molecular basis behind ACR4-mediated signaling. We identified PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A-3 (PP2A-3), a catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzymes, as a previously unidentified regulator of formative cell divisions and as one of the first described substrates of ACR4. Our in vitro data argue for the existence of a tight posttranslational regulation in the associated biochemical network through reciprocal regulation between ACR4 and PP2A-3 at the phosphorylation level.

  15. Deciphering the Responses of Root Border-Like Cells of Arabidopsis and Flax to Pathogen-Derived Elicitors1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as “border-like cells.” Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells. PMID:24130195

  16. Putrescine Alleviates Iron Deficiency via NO-Dependent Reutilization of Root Cell-Wall Fe in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wang, Bin; Song, Wen Feng; Zheng, Shao Jian; Shen, Ren Fang

    2016-01-01

    Plants challenged with abiotic stress show enhanced polyamines levels. Here, we show that the polyamine putrescine (Put) plays an important role to alleviate Fe deficiency. The adc2-1 mutant, which is defective in Put biosynthesis, was hypersensitive to Fe deficiency compared with wild type (Col-1 of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]). Exogenous Put decreased the Fe bound to root cell wall, especially to hemicellulose, and increased root and shoot soluble Fe content, thus alleviating the Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, exogenous Put induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) under both Fe-sufficient (+Fe) and Fe-deficient (-Fe) conditions, although the ferric-chelate reductase (FCR) activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were induced only under -Fe treatment. The alleviation of Fe deficiency by Put was diminished in the hemicellulose-level decreased mutant-xth31 and in the noa1 and nia1nia2 mutants, in which the endogenous NO levels are reduced, indicating that both NO and hemicellulose are involved in Put-mediated alleviation of Fe deficiency. However, the FCR activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were still up-regulated under -Fe+Put treatment compared with -Fe treatment in xth31, and Put-induced cell wall Fe remobilization was abolished in noa1 and nia1nia2, indicating that Put-regulated cell wall Fe reutilization is dependent on NO. From our results, we conclude that Put is involved in the remobilization of Fe from root cell wall hemicellulose in a process dependent on NO accumulation under Fe-deficient condition in Arabidopsis.

  17. Putrescine Alleviates Iron Deficiency via NO-Dependent Reutilization of Root Cell-Wall Fe in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wang, Bin; Song, Wen Feng; Zheng, Shao Jian; Shen, Ren Fang

    2016-01-01

    Plants challenged with abiotic stress show enhanced polyamines levels. Here, we show that the polyamine putrescine (Put) plays an important role to alleviate Fe deficiency. The adc2-1 mutant, which is defective in Put biosynthesis, was hypersensitive to Fe deficiency compared with wild type (Col-1 of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]). Exogenous Put decreased the Fe bound to root cell wall, especially to hemicellulose, and increased root and shoot soluble Fe content, thus alleviating the Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, exogenous Put induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) under both Fe-sufficient (+Fe) and Fe-deficient (-Fe) conditions, although the ferric-chelate reductase (FCR) activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were induced only under -Fe treatment. The alleviation of Fe deficiency by Put was diminished in the hemicellulose-level decreased mutant-xth31 and in the noa1 and nia1nia2 mutants, in which the endogenous NO levels are reduced, indicating that both NO and hemicellulose are involved in Put-mediated alleviation of Fe deficiency. However, the FCR activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were still up-regulated under -Fe+Put treatment compared with -Fe treatment in xth31, and Put-induced cell wall Fe remobilization was abolished in noa1 and nia1nia2, indicating that Put-regulated cell wall Fe reutilization is dependent on NO. From our results, we conclude that Put is involved in the remobilization of Fe from root cell wall hemicellulose in a process dependent on NO accumulation under Fe-deficient condition in Arabidopsis. PMID:26578707

  18. AtDOF5.4/OBP4, a DOF Transcription Factor Gene that Negatively Regulates Cell Cycle Progression and Cell Expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peipei; Chen, Haiying; Ying, Lu; Cai, Weiming

    2016-06-14

    In contrast to animals, plant development involves continuous organ formation, which requires strict regulation of cell proliferation. The core cell cycle machinery is conserved across plants and animals, but plants have developed new mechanisms that precisely regulate cell proliferation in response to internal and external stimuli. Here, we report that the DOF transcription factor OBP4 negatively regulates cell proliferation and expansion. OBP4 is a nuclear protein. Constitutive and inducible overexpression of OBP4 reduced the cell size and number, resulting in dwarf plants. Inducible overexpression of OBP4 in Arabidopsis also promoted early endocycle onset and inhibited cell expansion, while inducible overexpression of OBP4 fused to the VP16 activation domain in Arabidopsis delayed endocycle onset and promoted plant growth. Furthermore, gene expression analysis showed that cell cycle regulators and cell wall expansion factors were largely down-regulated in the OBP4 overexpression lines. Short-term inducible analysis coupled with in vivo ChIP assays indicated that OBP4 targets the CyclinB1;1, CDKB1;1 and XTH genes. These results strongly suggest that OBP4 is a negative regulator of cell cycle progression and cell growth. These findings increase our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of the cell cycle in plants.

  19. Identifying new components participating in the secondary cell wall formation of vessel elements in zinnia and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Pesquet, Edouard; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Gen; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Udagawa-Motose, Makiko; Kubo, Minoru; Fukuda, Hiroo; Demura, Taku

    2009-04-01

    Xylem vessel elements are hollow cellular units that assemble end-to-end to form a continuous vessel throughout the plant body; the xylem vessel is strengthened by the xylem elements' reinforced secondary cell walls (SCWs). This work aims to unravel the contribution of unknown actors in xylem vessel differentiation using the model in vitro cell culture system of Zinnia elegans differentiating cell cultures and the model in vivo system of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Tracheary Element Differentiation-Related6 (TED6) and TED7 were selected based on an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in the Zinnia system. RNAi reduction of TED6 and 7 delayed tracheary element (TE) differentiation and co-overexpression of TED6 and 7 increased TE differentiation in cultured Zinnia cells. Arabidopsis TED6 and 7 were expressed preferentially in differentiating vessel elements in seedlings. Aberrant SCW formation of root vessel elements was induced by transient RNAi of At TED7 alone and enhanced by inhibition of both TED6 and 7. Protein-protein interactions were demonstrated between TED6 and a subunit of the SCW-related cellulose synthase complex. Our strategy has succeeded in finding two novel components in SCW formation and has opened the door for in-depth analysis of their molecular functions.

  20. Transcriptomic profiling revealed an important role of cell wall remodeling and ethylene signaling pathway during salt acclimation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zenglan; Song, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajia; Jiang, Chunyun; Zhao, Yanxiu; Ma, Changle; Zhang, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Plants can successfully improve their resistance to previously lethal salinity stress by a short exposure to low levels of salt stress, a process known as salt acclimation (SA). In spite of its fundamental significance in theoretical study and agricultural practice, the molecular mechanisms underlying plant SA remain elusive. In this study, we found that salt acclimated Arabidopsis young seedlings can survive subsequent 200 mM NaCl stress. RNA-seq was performed to analyze the genome-wide transcriptional response under SA conditions. Among 518 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under SA, 366 up-regulated genes were enriched for cell wall biosynthesis, osmoregulation, oxidative stress, or transcription factors. Seven DEGs participate in the synthesis of lignin and 24 DEGs encode plant cell wall proteins, suggesting the importance of cell wall remodeling under SA. Furthermore, in comparison to non-acclimated salt stress, 228 of 245 DEGs were repressed by acclimated salt stress, including many genes related to ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway. In addition, MAPK6, a major component of the ethylene signaling pathway, was found to play a crucial role in SA. Our transcriptomic analysis has provided important insight on the roles of transcription factors, cell wall remodeling, and the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways during SA in Arabidopsis.

  1. Identifying New Components Participating in the Secondary Cell Wall Formation of Vessel Elements in Zinnia and Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Satoshi; Pesquet, Edouard; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Gen; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Udagawa-Motose, Makiko; Kubo, Minoru; Fukuda, Hiroo; Demura, Taku

    2009-01-01

    Xylem vessel elements are hollow cellular units that assemble end-to-end to form a continuous vessel throughout the plant body; the xylem vessel is strengthened by the xylem elements' reinforced secondary cell walls (SCWs). This work aims to unravel the contribution of unknown actors in xylem vessel differentiation using the model in vitro cell culture system of Zinnia elegans differentiating cell cultures and the model in vivo system of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Tracheary Element Differentiation-Related6 (TED6) and TED7 were selected based on an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in the Zinnia system. RNAi reduction of TED6 and 7 delayed tracheary element (TE) differentiation and co-overexpression of TED6 and 7 increased TE differentiation in cultured Zinnia cells. Arabidopsis TED6 and 7 were expressed preferentially in differentiating vessel elements in seedlings. Aberrant SCW formation of root vessel elements was induced by transient RNAi of At TED7 alone and enhanced by inhibition of both TED6 and 7. Protein–protein interactions were demonstrated between TED6 and a subunit of the SCW-related cellulose synthase complex. Our strategy has succeeded in finding two novel components in SCW formation and has opened the door for in-depth analysis of their molecular functions. PMID:19383897

  2. Cotton GhMYB7 is predominantly expressed in developing fibers and regulates secondary cell wall biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junfeng; Chen, Feng; Wu, Siyu; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenliang

    2016-02-01

    The secondary cell wall in mature cotton fibers contains over 90% cellulose with low quantities of xylan and lignin. However, little is known regarding the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers. In this study, we characterized an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GhMYB7, in cotton. GhMYB7 is expressed at a high level in developing fibers and encodes a MYB protein that is targeted to the cell nucleus and has transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of GhMYB7 in Arabidopsis resulted in small, curled, dark green leaves and also led to shorter inflorescence stems. A cross-sectional assay of basal stems revealed that cell wall thickness of vessels and interfascicular fibers was higher in transgenic lines overexpressing GhMYB7 than in the wild type. Constitutive expression of GhMYB7 in Arabidopsis activated the expression of a suite of secondary cell wall biosynthesis-related genes (including some secondary cell wall-associated transcription factors), leading to the ectopic deposition of cellulose and lignin. The ectopic deposition of secondary cell walls may have been initiated before the cessation of cell expansion. Moreover, GhMYB7 was capable of binding to the promoter regions of AtSND1 and AtCesA4, suggesting that GhMYB7 may function upstream of NAC transcription factors. Collectively, these findings suggest that GhMYB7 is a potential transcriptional activator, which may participate in regulating secondary cell wall biosynthesis of cotton fibers.

  3. A versatile Multisite Gateway-compatible promoter and transgenic line collection for cell type-specific functional genomics in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Marquès-Bueno, Maria Mar; Morao, Ana K; Cayrel, Anne; Platre, Matthieu P; Barberon, Marie; Caillieux, Erwann; Colot, Vincent; Jaillais, Yvon; Roudier, François; Vert, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are composed of many cell types that acquire their specific fate through a precisely controlled pattern of gene expression in time and space dictated in part by cell type-specific promoter activity. Understanding the contribution of highly specialized cell types in the development of a whole organism requires the ability to isolate or analyze different cell types separately. We have characterized and validated a large collection of root cell type-specific promoters and have generated cell type-specific marker lines. These benchmarked promoters can be readily used to evaluate cell type-specific complementation of mutant phenotypes, or to knockdown gene expression using targeted expression of artificial miRNA. We also generated vectors and characterized transgenic lines for cell type-specific induction of gene expression and cell type-specific isolation of nuclei for RNA and chromatin profiling. Vectors and seeds from transgenic Arabidopsis plants will be freely available, and will promote rapid progress in cell type-specific functional genomics. We demonstrate the power of this promoter set for analysis of complex biological processes by investigating the contribution of root cell types in the IRT1-dependent root iron uptake. Our findings revealed the complex spatial expression pattern of IRT1 in both root epidermis and phloem companion cells and the requirement for IRT1 to be expressed in both cell types for proper iron homeostasis.

  4. A versatile Multisite Gateway-compatible promoter and transgenic line collection for cell type-specific functional genomics in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Barberon, Marie; Caillieux, Erwann; Colot, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multicellular organisms are composed of many cell types that acquire their specific fate through a precisely controlled pattern of gene expression in time and space dictated in part by cell type-specific promoter activity. Understanding the contribution of highly specialized cell types in the development of a whole organism requires the ability to isolate or analyze different cell types separately. We have characterized and validated a large collection of root cell type-specific promoters and have generated cell type-specific marker lines. These benchmarked promoters can be readily used to evaluate cell type-specific complementation of mutant phenotypes, or to knockdown gene expression using targeted expression of artificial miRNA. We also generated vectors and characterized transgenic lines for cell type-specific induction of gene expression and cell type-specific isolation of nuclei for RNA and chromatin profiling. Vectors and seeds from transgenic Arabidopsis plants will be freely available, and will promote rapid progress in cell type-specific functional genomics. We demonstrate the power of this promoter set for analysis of complex biological processes by investigating the contribution of root cell types in the IRT1-dependent root iron uptake. Our findings revealed the complex spatial expression pattern of IRT1 in both root epidermis and phloem companion cells and the requirement for IRT1 to be expressed in both cell types for proper iron homeostasis. PMID:26662936

  5. Cell-to-cell movement of green fluorescent protein reveals post-phloem transport in the outer integument and identifies symplastic domains in Arabidopsis seeds and embryos.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Ruth; Lauterbach, Christian; Sauer, Norbert

    2005-10-01

    Developing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds and embryos represent a complex set of cell layers and tissues that mediate the transport and partitioning of carbohydrates, amino acids, hormones, and signaling molecules from the terminal end of the funicular phloem to and between these seed tissues and eventually to the growing embryo. This article provides a detailed analysis of the symplastic domains and the cell-to-cell connectivity from the end of the funiculus to the embryo, and within the embryo during its maturation. The cell-to-cell movement of the green fluorescent protein or of mobile and nonmobile green fluorescent protein fusions was monitored in seeds and embryos of plants expressing the corresponding cDNAs under the control of various promoters (SUC2, SUC3, TT12, and GL2) shown to be active in defined seed or embryo cell layers (SUC3, TT12, and GL2) or only outside the developing Arabidopsis seed (AtSUC2). Cell-to-cell movement was also analyzed with the low-molecular-weight fluorescent dye 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate. The analyses presented identify a phloem-unloading domain at the end of the funicular phloem, characterize the entire outer integument as a symplastic extension of the phloem, and describe the inner integument and the globular stage embryo plus the suspensor as symplastic domains. The results also show that, at the time of hypophysis specification, the symplastic connectivity between suspensor and embryo is reduced or interrupted and that the embryo develops from a single symplast (globular and heart stage) to a mature embryo with new symplastic domains.

  6. Novel complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases and a cyclin-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana with a function unrelated to cell division.

    PubMed

    Barrôco, R M; De Veylder, L; Magyar, Z; Engler, G; Inzé, D; Mironov, V

    2003-02-01

    Although the majority of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a key role in cell cycle progression, recent evidence has shown that CDKs are also implicated in transcription regulation. Here, we describe two Arabidopsis CDKs designated Arath;CDKC;1 and Arath; CDKC;2. These CDKs share a PITAIRE signature in the cyclin-binding domain and the structural characteristics of mammalian CDK9. Yeast two-hybrid screens and immunoprecipitation assays identified CDKC-interacting proteins with homology to the animal cyclin T/cyclin K group. We suggest that these Arabidopsis CDKCs may be part of a kinase complex similar to the animal positive transcription elongation factor b, whose activity is essential for transcription control. Expression studies showed that Arath; CDKC transcripts are mainly confined to epidermal tissues and are most abundant in flower tissues. No expression was detected in actively dividing Arabidopsis tissues, suggesting a role for the CDKC proteins in differentiated cells.

  7. Peroxidation due to cryoprotectant treatment is a vital factor for cell survival in Arabidopsis cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective tool for the long-term storage of plant germplasm, but damage to plant tissues and death of plants sometimes occurs. Determining the causes of this damage is vital to improving plant recovery from cryopreservation. When Arabidopsis germinating seeds were...

  8. The Cell Wall of the Arabidopsis Pollen Tube—Spatial Distribution, Recycling, and Network Formation of Polysaccharides1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chebli, Youssef; Kaneda, Minako; Zerzour, Rabah; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The pollen tube is a cellular protuberance formed by the pollen grain, or male gametophyte, in flowering plants. Its principal metabolic activity is the synthesis and assembly of cell wall material, which must be precisely coordinated to sustain the characteristic rapid growth rate and to ensure geometrically correct and efficient cellular morphogenesis. Unlike other model species, the cell wall of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen tube has not been described in detail. We used immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis to provide a detailed profile of the spatial distribution of the major cell wall polymers composing the Arabidopsis pollen tube cell wall. Comparison with predictions made by a mechanical model for pollen tube growth revealed the importance of pectin deesterification in determining the cell diameter. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that cellulose microfibrils are oriented in near longitudinal orientation in the Arabidopsis pollen tube cell wall, consistent with a linear arrangement of cellulose synthase CESA6 in the plasma membrane. The cellulose label was also found inside cytoplasmic vesicles and might originate from an early activation of cellulose synthases prior to their insertion into the plasma membrane or from recycling of short cellulose polymers by endocytosis. A series of strategic enzymatic treatments also suggests that pectins, cellulose, and callose are highly cross linked to each other. PMID:23037507

  9. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Zebrowski, Jacek; Oklejewicz, Bernadetta; Czarnik, Justyna; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage.

  10. A sub-proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana mature stems trapped on Concanavalin A is enriched in cell wall glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zoran; Jamet, Elisabeth; Négroni, Luc; Arsene Der Garabedian, P.; Zivy, Michel; Jouanin, Lise

    2007-01-01

    N-glycosylated proteins were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana mature stems using affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A Sepharose, separated by 2D-electrophoresis and identified using nanoHPLC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF MS. 102 glycoproteins were identified. 94% of these proteins were predicted by bioinformatics to be targeted to the secretory pathway and 87% of them were predicted to be localized in the cell wall or at the plasma membrane. 30% of these proteins belong to glycoside hydrolases (GHs) families with some of them possibly involved in the hydrolysis of cell wall polysaccharides. The second major class of identified proteins comprises aspartyl and serine proteases. Other proteins are predicted to be oxido-reductases, contain interacting domains, are potentially involved in signalling or have an unknown function. This is to our knowledge the first survey of plant cell wall N-glycosylated proteins. PMID:17526915

  11. Convergence of stem cell behaviors and genetic regulation between animals and plants: insights from the Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal lineage

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Juliana L.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals are two successful, but vastly different, forms of complex multicellular life. In the 1600 million years since they shared a common unicellular ancestor, representatives of these kingdoms have had ample time to devise unique strategies for building and maintaining themselves, yet they have both developed self-renewing stem cell populations. Using the cellular behaviors and the genetic control of stomatal lineage of Arabidopsis as a focal point, we find current data suggests convergence of stem cell regulation at developmental and molecular levels. Comparative studies between evolutionary distant groups, therefore, have the power to reveal the logic behind stem cell behaviors and benefit both human regenerative medicine and plant biomass production. PMID:25184043

  12. The companion cell-specific Arabidopsis disaccharide carrier AtSUC2 is expressed in nematode-induced syncytia.

    PubMed

    Juergensen, Katja; Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Sauer, Norbert; Hess, Paul; van Bel, Aart J E; Grundler, Florian M W

    2003-01-01

    Cyst nematodes induce a metabolically highly active syncytial cell complex in host roots. The syncytia are symplastically isolated. Because they form a strong sink, assimilates must be imported via the apoplast, thus suggesting that specific membrane-bound sugar transport proteins are expressed and activated. To identify possible candidate genes, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different reporter genes under the control of different promoters from Arabidopsis sugar transporter genes were infected with the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii). With polymerase chain reaction, 13 additional sugar transporters were tested for their presence in the syncytia through the use of a syncytium-specific cDNA library. Analysis of the infected roots showed that the promoter of the sucrose (Suc) transporter AtSUC2 gene that codes for a companion cell-specific Suc transporter in noninfected plants was found to be expressed in syncytia. Its expression patterns in beta-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein plants were monitored. Syncytium-specific gene expression was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results support the idea that AtSUC2 mediates the transmembrane transfer of Suc. AtSUC2 is the first disaccharide carrier described to be activated by pathogens.

  13. The Cell Wall Arabinose-Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant murus5 Encodes a Defective Allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2.

    PubMed

    Dugard, Christopher K; Mertz, Rachel A; Rayon, Catherine; Mercadante, Davide; Hart, Christopher; Benatti, Matheus R; Olek, Anna T; SanMiguel, Phillip J; Cooper, Bruce R; Reiter, Wolf-Dieter; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2016-07-01

    Traditional marker-based mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to determine that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low cell wall arabinose mutant murus5 (mur5) encodes a defective allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2 (RGP2). Marker analysis of 13 F2 confirmed mutant progeny from a recombinant mapping population gave a rough map position on the upper arm of chromosome 5, and deep sequencing of DNA from these 13 lines gave five candidate genes with G→A (C→T) transitions predicted to result in amino acid changes. Of these five, only insertional mutant alleles of RGP2, a gene that encodes a UDP-arabinose mutase that interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose, exhibited the low cell wall arabinose phenotype. The identities of mur5 and two SALK insertional alleles were confirmed by allelism tests and overexpression of wild-type RGP2 complementary DNA placed under the control of the 35S promoter in the three alleles. The mur5 mutation results in the conversion of cysteine-257 to tyrosine-257 within a conserved hydrophobic cluster predicted to be distal to the active site and essential for protein stability and possible heterodimerization with other isoforms of RGP.

  14. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haibing; Wei, Hui; Ma, Guojie; Antunes, Mauricio S; Vogt, Stefan; Cox, Joseph; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiping; Bu, Lintao; Gleber, S Charlotte; Carpita, Nicholas C; Makowski, Lee; Himmel, Michael E; Tucker, Melvin P; McCann, Maureen C; Murphy, Angus S; Peer, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  15. Transmission Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy allows simultaneous assessment of cutin and cell-wall polysaccharides of Arabidopsis petals.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Sylwester; Mucciolo, Antonio; Humbel, Bruno M; Nawrath, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    A procedure for the simultaneous analysis of cell-wall polysaccharides, amides and aliphatic polyesters by transmission Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR) has been established for Arabidopsis petals. The combination of FTIR imaging with spectra derivatization revealed that petals, in contrast to other organs, have a characteristic chemical zoning with high amount of aliphatic compounds and esters in the lamina and of polysaccharides in the stalk of the petal. The hinge region of petals was particular rich in amides as well as in vibrations potentially associated with hemicellulose. In addition, a number of other distribution patterns have been identified. Analyses of mutants in cutin deposition confirmed that vibrations of aliphatic compounds and esters present in the lamina were largely associated with the cuticular polyester. Calculation of spectrotypes, including the standard deviation of intensities, allowed detailed comparison of the spectral features of various mutants. The spectrotypes not only revealed differences in the amount of polyesters in cutin mutants, but also changes in other compound classes. For example, in addition to the expected strong deficiencies in polyester content, the long-chain acyl CoA synthase 2 mutant showed increased intensities of vibrations in a wavelength range that is typical for polysaccharides. Identical spectral features were observed in quasimodo2, a cell-wall mutant of Arabidopsis with a defect in pectin formation that exhibits increased cellulose synthase activity. FTIR thus proved to be a convenient method for the identification and characterization of mutants affected in the deposition of cutin in petals.

  16. MAIN-LIKE1 is a crucial factor for correct cell division and differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ühlken, Christine; Horvath, Beatrix; Stadler, Ruth; Sauer, Norbert; Weingartner, Magdalena

    2014-04-01

    Plant development requires accurate coordination of gene expression, both in actively dividing meristematic cells and differentiated cells. Cell fate establishment and maintenance, among others, are mediated by chromatin organization complexes that determine the stable transcriptional states of specific cell types. Here, we focus on MAIN-LIKE1 (MAIL1), one of three homologs of MAINTENANCE OF MERISTEMS (MAIN), which form a plant-specific gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that MAIL1 encodes a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein. A mail1 loss-of-function mutant developed short primary roots, in which the meristematic cells accumulated DNA double-strand breaks and underwent massive cell death. In addition, mail1 mutant showed also cell differentiation defects in root and shoot tissues, and developed disorganized callus-like structures. The genetic interaction between main and mail1 mutants suggests that they act in the same pathway, and that both are essential for maintaining correct cell division acitivity in meristematic cells, while MAIL1 has an additional function in differentiating cells.

  17. The chemical compound bubblin induces stomatal mispatterning in Arabidopsis by disrupting the intrinsic polarity of stomatal lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yumiko; Sugano, Shigeo S; Kawase, Takashi; Shirakawa, Makoto; Imai, Yu; Kawamoto, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimada, Tomoo

    2017-02-01

    Stem cell polarization is a crucial step in asymmetric cell division, which is a universal system for generating cellular diversity in multicellular organisms. Several conventional genetics studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell polarization in plants, but it remains largely unknown. In plants, stomata, which are valves for gas exchange, are generated through several rounds of asymmetric divisions. In this study, we identified and characterized a chemical compound that affects stomatal stem cell polarity. High-throughput screening for bioactive molecules identified a pyridine-thiazole derivative, named bubblin, which induced stomatal clustering in Arabidopsis epidermis. Bubblin perturbed stomatal asymmetric division, resulting in the generation of two identical daughter cells. Both cells continued to express the stomatal fate determinant SPEECHLESS, and then differentiated into mispatterned stomata. Bubblin-treated cells had a defect in the polarized localization of BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL), which is required for asymmetric cell fate determination. Our results suggest that bubblin induces stomatal lineage cells to divide without BASL-dependent pre-mitotic establishment of polarity. Bubblin is a potentially valuable tool for investigating cell polarity establishment in stomatal asymmetric division.

  18. MAPK Phosphatase AP2C3 Induces Ectopic Proliferation of Epidermal Cells Leading to Stomata Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kazanaviciute, Vaiva; Magyar, Zoltan; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Choopayak, Chonnanit; Boniecka, Justyna; Murray, James A. H.; Bogre, Laszlo; Meskiene, Irute

    2010-01-01

    In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C) that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells. PMID:21203456

  19. Arabidopsis Tetraspanins Are Confined to Discrete Expression Domains and Cell Types in Reproductive Tissues and Form Homo- and Heterodimers When Expressed in Yeast1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Boavida, Leonor C.; Qin, Peng; Broz, Miranda; Becker, Jörg D.; McCormick, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Tetraspanins are evolutionary conserved transmembrane proteins present in all multicellular organisms. In animals, they are known to act as central organizers of membrane complexes and thought to facilitate diverse biological processes, such as cell proliferation, movement, adhesion, and fusion. The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes 17 members of the tetraspanin family; however, little is known about their functions in plant development. Here, we analyzed their phylogeny, protein topology, and domain structure and surveyed their expression and localization patterns in reproductive tissues. We show that, despite their low sequence identity with metazoan tetraspanins, plant tetraspanins display the typical structural topology and most signature features of tetraspanins in other multicellular organisms. Arabidopsis tetraspanins are expressed in diverse tissue domains or cell types in reproductive tissues, and some accumulate at the highest levels in response to pollination in the transmitting tract and stigma, male and female gametophytes and gametes. Arabidopsis tetraspanins are preferentially targeted to the plasma membrane, and they variously associate with specialized membrane domains, in a polarized fashion, to intercellular contacts or plasmodesmata. A membrane-based yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid system established that tetraspanins can physically interact, forming homo- and heterodimer complexes. These results, together with a likely genetic redundancy, suggest that, similar to their metazoan counterparts, plant tetraspanins might be involved in facilitating intercellular communication, whose functions might be determined by the composition of tetraspanin complexes and their binding partners at the cell surface of specific cell types. PMID:23946353

  20. Arabidopsis tetraspanins are confined to discrete expression domains and cell types in reproductive tissues and form homo- and heterodimers when expressed in yeast.

    PubMed

    Boavida, Leonor C; Qin, Peng; Broz, Miranda; Becker, Jörg D; McCormick, Sheila

    2013-10-01

    Tetraspanins are evolutionary conserved transmembrane proteins present in all multicellular organisms. In animals, they are known to act as central organizers of membrane complexes and thought to facilitate diverse biological processes, such as cell proliferation, movement, adhesion, and fusion. The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes 17 members of the tetraspanin family; however, little is known about their functions in plant development. Here, we analyzed their phylogeny, protein topology, and domain structure and surveyed their expression and localization patterns in reproductive tissues. We show that, despite their low sequence identity with metazoan tetraspanins, plant tetraspanins display the typical structural topology and most signature features of tetraspanins in other multicellular organisms. Arabidopsis tetraspanins are expressed in diverse tissue domains or cell types in reproductive tissues, and some accumulate at the highest levels in response to pollination in the transmitting tract and stigma, male and female gametophytes and gametes. Arabidopsis tetraspanins are preferentially targeted to the plasma membrane, and they variously associate with specialized membrane domains, in a polarized fashion, to intercellular contacts or plasmodesmata. A membrane-based yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid system established that tetraspanins can physically interact, forming homo- and heterodimer complexes. These results, together with a likely genetic redundancy, suggest that, similar to their metazoan counterparts, plant tetraspanins might be involved in facilitating intercellular communication, whose functions might be determined by the composition of tetraspanin complexes and their binding partners at the cell surface of specific cell types.

  1. Early effects of altered gravity environments on plant cell growth and cell proliferation: Characterization of morphofunctional nucleolar types in an Arabidopsis cell culture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Ana Isabel; Herranz, Raul; Manzano, Aránzazu; Van Loon, Jack; Medina, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the cell growth rate of an in vitro cellular system in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by short exposure to an altered gravity environment have been estimated by a novel approach. The method consisted of defining three structural nucleolar types which are easy and reliable indicators of the ribosome biogenesis activity and, consequently, of protein biosynthesis, a parameter strictly correlated to cell growth in this cellular system. The relative abundance of each nucleolar type was statistically assessed in different conditions of gravity. Samples exposed to simulated microgravity for 200 min showed a significant decrease in nucleolar activity compared to 1g controls, whereas samples exposed to hypergravity (2g) for the same period showed nucleolar activity slightly increased,. These effects could be considered as an early cellular response to the environmental alteration, given the short duration of the treatment. The functional significance of the structural data was validated by a combination of several different well-known parameters, using microscopical, flow cytometry, qPCR and proteomic approaches, which showed that the decreased cell growth rate was decoupled from an increased cell proliferation rate under simulated microgravity, and the opposite trend was observed under hypergravity. Actually, not all parameters tested showed the same quantitative changes, indicating that the response to the environmental alteration is time-dependent. These results are in agreement with previous observations in root meristematic cells and they show the ability of plant cells to produce a response to gravity changes, independently of their integration into plant organs.

  2. Proteomic insight into reduced cell elongation resulting from overexpression of patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIIIδ in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yong; Li, Maoyin; Wang, Xuemin

    2014-01-01

    Patatin-containing phospholipase A (pPLA) hydrolyzes membrane glycerolipids, producing free fatty acids and lysoglycerolipids. Ten pPLAs in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are grouped into 3 subfamilies, and pPLAIIIs differ from pPLAI and IIs in their catalytic motifs and overexpression (OE) of pPLAIIIs reduces cell elongation and cellulose content. To probe the question of how pPLAIII overexpression results in the changes, comparative proteomic analyses were conducted between pPLAIIIδ-OE and WT seedlings. The data indicate a change in the microtubule-associated protein, MAP18. MAP18 is involved in destabilizing cortical microtubules and modulating directional cell growth. The result suggests that pPLAIII and their derived products may regulate cytoskeletal dynamics leading to retardation in anisotropic growth. PMID:24705037

  3. Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Cellulose in the Cell Walls of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, R. H.; Davies, L. M.; Harris, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance was used to characterize the molecular ordering of cellulose in a cell-wall preparation containing mostly primary walls obtained from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Proton and 13C spin relaxation time constants showed that the cellulose was in a crystalline rather than a paracrystalline state or amorphous state. Cellulose chains were distributed between the interiors (40%) and surfaces (60%) of crystallites, which is consistent with crystallite cross-sectional dimensions of about 3 nm. Digital resolution enhancement revealed signals indicative of triclinic and monoclinic crystalline forms of cellulose mixed in similar proportions. Of the five nuclear spin relaxation processes used, proton rotating-frame relaxation provided the clearest distinction between cellulose and other cell-wall components for purposes of editing solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. PMID:12226303

  4. Arabidopsis SMALL ORGAN 4, a homolog of yeast NOP53, regulates cell proliferation rate during organ growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ran; Qin, Zhixiang; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Yuxin

    2015-10-01

    Cell proliferation is a fundamental event essential for plant organogenesis and contributes greatly to the final organ size. Although the control of cell proliferation in plants has been extensively studied, how the plant sets the cell number required for a single organ is largely elusive. Here, we describe the Arabidopsis SMALL ORGAN 4 (SMO4) that functions in the regulation of cell proliferation rate and thus final organ size. The smo4 mutant exhibits a reduced size of organs due to the decreased cell number, and further analysis reveals that such phenotype results from a retardation of the cell cycle progression during organ development. SMO4 encodes a homolog of NUCLEOLAR PROTEIN 53 (NOP53) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is expressed primarily in tissues undergoing cell proliferation. Nevertheless, further complementation tests show that SMO4 could not rescue the lethal defect of NOP53 mutant of S. cerevisiae. These results define SMO4 as an important regulator of cell proliferation during organ growth and suggest that SMO4 might have been evolutionarily divergent from NOP53.

  5. Knock-out of Arabidopsis metal transporter gene IRT1 results in iron deficiency accompanied by cell differentiation defects.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Rossana; Jásik, Ján; Klein, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico; Feller, Urs; Schell, Jeff; Pais, Maria S; Koncz, Csaba

    2002-11-01

    IRT1 and IRT2 are members of the Arabidopsis ZIP metal transporter family that are specifically induced by iron deprivation in roots and act as heterologous suppressors of yeast mutations inhibiting iron and zinc uptake. Although IRT1 and IRT2 are thought to perform redundant functions as root-specific metal transporters, insertional inactivation of the IRT1 gene alone results in typical symptoms of iron deficiency causing severe leaf chlorosis and lethality in soil. The irt1 mutation is characterized by specific developmental defects, including a drastic reduction of chloroplast thylakoid stacking into grana and lack of palisade parenchyma differentiation in leaves, reduced number of vascular bundles in stems, and irregular patterns of enlarged endodermal and cortex cells in roots. Pulse labeling with 59Fe through the root system shows that the irt1 mutation reduces iron accumulation in the shoots. Short-term labeling with 65Zn reveals no alteration in spatial distribution of zinc, but indicates a lower level of zinc accumulation. In comparison to wild-type, the irt1 mutant responds to iron and zinc deprivation by altered expression of certain zinc and iron transporter genes, which results in the activation of ZIP1 in shoots, reduction of ZIP2 transcript levels in roots, and enhanced expression of IRT2 in roots. These data support the conclusion that IRT1 is an essential metal transporter required for proper development and regulation of iron and zinc homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  6. Interplay between ABA and GA Modulates the Timing of Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Arabidopsis Root Ground Tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin Ae; Jang, Sejeong; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Heo, Jung-Ok; Chang, Kwang Suk; Choi, Ji Won; Dhar, Souvik; Kim, Gyuree; Choe, Jeong-Eun; Heo, Jae Bok; Kwon, Chian; Ko, Jae-Heung; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Lim, Jun

    2016-06-06

    In multicellular organisms, controlling the timing and extent of asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) is crucial for correct patterning. During post-embryonic root development in Arabidopsis thaliana, ground tissue (GT) maturation involves an additional ACD of the endodermis, which generates two different tissues: the endodermis (inner) and the middle cortex (outer). It has been reported that the abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) pathways are involved in middle cortex (MC) formation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between ABA and GA during GT maturation remain largely unknown. Through transcriptome analyses, we identified a previously uncharacterized C2H2-type zinc finger gene, whose expression is regulated by GA and ABA, thus named GAZ (GA- AND ABA-RESPONSIVE ZINC FINGER). Seedlings ectopically overexpressing GAZ (GAZ-OX) were sensitive to ABA and GA during MC formation, whereas GAZ-SRDX and RNAi seedlings displayed opposite phenotypes. In addition, our results indicated that GAZ was involved in the transcriptional regulation of ABA and GA homeostasis. In agreement with previous studies that ABA and GA coordinate to control the timing of MC formation, we also confirmed the unique interplay between ABA and GA and identified factors and regulatory networks bridging the two hormone pathways during GT maturation of the Arabidopsis root.

  7. A General G1/S-Phase Cell-Cycle Control Module in the Flowering Plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin'Ai; Harashima, Hirofumi; Dissmeyer, Nico; Pusch, Stefan; Weimer, Annika K.; Bramsiepe, Jonathan; Bouyer, Daniel; Rademacher, Svenja; Nowack, Moritz K.; Novak, Bela; Sprunck, Stefanie; Schnittger, Arp

    2012-01-01

    The decision to replicate its DNA is of crucial importance for every cell and, in many organisms, is decisive for the progression through the entire cell cycle. A comparison of animals versus yeast has shown that, although most of the involved cell-cycle regulators are divergent in both clades, they fulfill a similar role and the overall network topology of G1/S regulation is highly conserved. Using germline development as a model system, we identified a regulatory cascade controlling entry into S phase in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which, as a member of the Plantae supergroup, is phylogenetically only distantly related to Opisthokonts such as yeast and animals. This module comprises the Arabidopsis homologs of the animal transcription factor E2F, the plant homolog of the animal transcriptional repressor Retinoblastoma (Rb)-related 1 (RBR1), the plant-specific F-box protein F-BOX-LIKE 17 (FBL17), the plant specific cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors KRPs, as well as CDKA;1, the plant homolog of the yeast and animal Cdc2+/Cdk1 kinases. Our data show that the principle of a double negative wiring of Rb proteins is highly conserved, likely representing a universal mechanism in eukaryotic cell-cycle control. However, this negative feedback of Rb proteins is differently implemented in plants as it is brought about through a quadruple negative regulation centered around the F-box protein FBL17 that mediates the degradation of CDK inhibitors but is itself directly repressed by Rb. Biomathematical simulations and subsequent experimental confirmation of computational predictions revealed that this regulatory circuit can give rise to hysteresis highlighting the here identified dosage sensitivity of CDK inhibitors in this network. PMID:22879821

  8. Texture of cellulose microfibrils of root hair cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula, and Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, M; Franssen-Verheijen, M A W; Immerzeel, P; Hollander, L D E N; Schel, J H N; Emons, A M C

    2012-07-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth, and has qualities that make it suitable for biofuel. There are new tools for the visualisation of the cellulose synthase complexes in living cells, but those do not show their product, the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs). In this study we report the characteristics of cell wall textures, i.e. the architectures of the CMFs in the wall, of root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Vicia sativa and compare the different techniques we used to study them. Root hairs of these species have a random primary cell wall deposited at the root hair tip, which covers the outside of the growing and fully grown hair. The secondary wall starts between 10 (Arabidopsis) and 40 (Vicia) μm from the hair tip and the CMFs make a small angle, Z as well as S direction, with the long axis of the root hair. CMFs are 3-4 nm wide in thin sections, indicating that single cellulose synthase complexes make them. Thin sections after extraction of cell wall matrix, leaving only the CMFs, reveal the type of wall texture and the orientation and width of CMFs, but CMF density within a lamella cannot be quantified, and CMF length is always underestimated by this technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and surface preparations for transmission electron microscopy reveal the type of wall texture and the orientation of individual CMFs. Only when the orientation of CMFs in subsequent deposited lamellae is different, their density per lamella can be determined. It is impossible to measure CMF length with any of the EM techniques.

  9. Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Sup; Frost, Jennifer M.; Park, Kyunghyuk; Ohr, Hyonhwa; Park, Guen Tae; Kim, Seohyun; Eom, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ilha; Brooks, Janie S.; Fischer, Robert L.; Choi, Yeonhee

    2017-01-01

    The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell. Here, we show that, in the male gametophyte, DME expression is limited to the companion cell of sperm, the vegetative cell, and to a narrow window of time: immediately after separation of the companion cell lineage from the germline. We define transcriptional regulatory elements of DME using reporter genes, showing that a small region, which surprisingly lies within the DME gene, controls its expression in male and female companion cells. DME expression from this minimal promoter is sufficient to rescue seed abortion and the aberrant DNA methylome associated with the null dme-2 mutation. Within this minimal promoter, we found short, conserved enhancer sequences necessary for the transcriptional activities of DME and combined predicted binding motifs with published transcription factor binding coordinates to produce a list of candidate upstream pathway members in the genetic circuitry controlling DNA demethylation in gamete companion cells. These data show how DNA demethylation is regulated to facilitate endosperm gene imprinting and potential transgenerational epigenetic regulation, without subjecting the germline to potentially deleterious transposable element demethylation. PMID:28130550

  10. The Caspase-Related Protease Separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES) Regulates Cell Polarity and Cytokinesis in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Moschou, Panagiotis N.; Smertenko, Andrei P.; Minina, Elena A.; Fukada, Kazutake; Savenkov, Eugene I.; Robert, Stephanie; Hussey, Patrick J.; Bozhkov, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle trafficking plays an important role in cell division, establishment of cell polarity, and translation of environmental cues to developmental responses. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating vesicle trafficking remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the evolutionarily conserved caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES [ESP]) is required for the establishment of cell polarity and cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. At the cellular level, separase colocalizes with microtubules and RabA2a (for RAS GENES FROM RAT BRAINA2a) GTPase-positive structures. Separase facilitates polar targeting of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) to the rootward side of the root cortex cells. Plants with the radially swollen4 (rsw4) allele with compromised separase activity, in addition to mitotic failure, display isotropic cell growth, perturbation of auxin gradient formation, slower gravitropic response in roots, and cytokinetic failure. Measurements of the dynamics of vesicle markers on the cell plate revealed an overall reduction of the delivery rates of KNOLLE and RabA2a GTPase in separase-deficient roots. Furthermore, dissociation of the clathrin light chain, a protein that plays major role in the formation of coated vesicles, was slower in rsw4 than in the control. Our results demonstrate that separase is a key regulator of vesicle trafficking, which is indispensable for cytokinesis and the establishment of cell polarity. PMID:23898031

  11. Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sup; Frost, Jennifer M; Park, Kyunghyuk; Ohr, Hyonhwa; Park, Guen Tae; Kim, Seohyun; Eom, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ilha; Brooks, Janie S; Fischer, Robert L; Choi, Yeonhee

    2017-02-21

    The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell. Here, we show that, in the male gametophyte, DME expression is limited to the companion cell of sperm, the vegetative cell, and to a narrow window of time: immediately after separation of the companion cell lineage from the germline. We define transcriptional regulatory elements of DME using reporter genes, showing that a small region, which surprisingly lies within the DME gene, controls its expression in male and female companion cells. DME expression from this minimal promoter is sufficient to rescue seed abortion and the aberrant DNA methylome associated with the null dme-2 mutation. Within this minimal promoter, we found short, conserved enhancer sequences necessary for the transcriptional activities of DME and combined predicted binding motifs with published transcription factor binding coordinates to produce a list of candidate upstream pathway members in the genetic circuitry controlling DNA demethylation in gamete companion cells. These data show how DNA demethylation is regulated to facilitate endosperm gene imprinting and potential transgenerational epigenetic regulation, without subjecting the germline to potentially deleterious transposable element demethylation.

  12. Sulfate Is Both a Substrate and an Activator of the Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel of Arabidopsis Hypocotyl Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Frachisse, Jean-Marie; Thomine, Sébastien; Colcombet, Jean; Guern, Jean; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the anion content of in vitro-cultured Arabidopsis plantlets, we explored the selectivity of the voltage-dependent anion channel of the plasma membrane of hypocotyl cells. In the whole-cell configuration, substitution of cytosolic Cl− by different anions led to the following sequence of relative permeabilities: NO3− (2.6) ≥ SO42− (2.0) > Cl− (1.0) > HCO3− (0.8) ≫ malate2− (0.03). Large whole-cell currents were measured for NO3− and SO42−, about five to six times higher than the equivalent Cl− currents. Since SO42− is usually considered to be a weakly permeant or non-permeant ion, the components of the large whole-cell current were explored in more detail. Aside from its permeation through the channel with a unitary conductance, about two-thirds that of Cl−, SO42− had a regulatory effect on channel activity by preventing the run-down of the anion current both in the whole-cell and the outside-out configuration, increasing markedly the whole-cell current. The fact that the voltage-dependent plasma membrane anion channel of hypocotyl cells can mediate large NO3− and SO42− currents and is regulated by nucleotides favors the idea that this anion channel can contribute to the cellular homeostasis of important metabolized anions. PMID:10482681

  13. Sticking to cellulose: exploiting Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage to understand cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall polysaccharide interactions.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; North, Helen M

    2017-02-13

    The cell wall defines the shape of cells and ultimately plant architecture. It provides mechanical resistance to osmotic pressure while still being malleable and allowing cells to grow and divide. These properties are determined by the different components of the wall and the interactions between them. The major components of the cell wall are the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and more recently in the mucilage-producing epidermal cells of the seed coat. The latter has emerged as an excellent system to study cellulose biosynthesis and the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall polymers. Here we review some of the major advances in our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in the seed coat, and how mucilage has aided our understanding of the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall components required for wall cohesion. Recently, 10 genes involved in cellulose or hemicellulose biosynthesis in mucilage have been identified. These discoveries have helped to demonstrate that xylan side-chains on rhamnogalacturonan I act to link this pectin directly to cellulose. We also examine other factors that, either directly or indirectly, influence cellulose organization or crystallization in mucilage.

  14. Cell wall accumulation of fluorescent proteins derived from a trans-Golgi cisternal membrane marker and paramural bodies in interdigitated Arabidopsis leaf epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kae; Kobayashi, Megumi; Sato, Mayuko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ueda, Takashi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nagata, Noriko; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Higaki, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    In most dicotyledonous plants, leaf epidermal pavement cells develop jigsaw puzzle-like shapes during cell expansion. The rapid growth and complicated cell shape of pavement cells is suggested to be achieved by targeted exocytosis that is coordinated with cytoskeletal rearrangement to provide plasma membrane and/or cell wall materials for lobe development during their morphogenesis. Therefore, visualization of membrane trafficking in leaf pavement cells should contribute an understanding of the mechanism of plant cell morphogenesis. To reveal membrane trafficking in pavement cells, we observed monomeric red fluorescent protein-tagged rat sialyl transferases, which are markers of trans-Golgi cisternal membranes, in the leaf epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Quantitative fluorescence imaging techniques and immunoelectron microscopic observations revealed that accumulation of the red fluorescent protein occurred mostly in the curved regions of pavement cell borders and guard cell ends during leaf expansion. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that apoplastic vesicular membrane structures called paramural bodies were more frequent beneath the curved cell wall regions of interdigitated pavement cells and guard cell ends in young leaf epidermis. In addition, pharmacological studies showed that perturbations in membrane trafficking resulted in simple cell shapes. These results suggested possible heterogeneity of the curved regions of plasma membranes, implying a relationship with pavement cell morphogenesis.

  15. MicroRNA miR396 Regulates the Switch between Stem Cells and Transit-Amplifying Cells in Arabidopsis Roots.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Ramiro E; Ercoli, María Florencia; Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Breakfield, Natalie W; Mecchia, Martin A; Sabatini, Martin; Cools, Toon; De Veylder, Lieven; Benfey, Philip N; Palatnik, Javier F

    2015-12-01

    To ensure an adequate organ mass, the daughters of stem cells progress through a transit-amplifying phase displaying rapid cell division cycles before differentiating. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana microRNA miR396 regulates the transition of root stem cells into transit-amplifying cells by interacting with GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs). The GRFs are expressed in transit-amplifying cells but are excluded from the stem cells through inhibition by miR396. Inactivation of the GRFs increases the meristem size and induces periclinal formative divisions in transit-amplifying cells. The GRFs repress PLETHORA (PLT) genes, regulating their spatial expression gradient. Conversely, PLT activates MIR396 in the stem cells to repress the GRFs. We identified a pathway regulated by GRF transcription factors that represses stem cell-promoting genes in actively proliferating cells, which is essential for the progression of the cell cycle and the orientation of the cell division plane. If unchecked, the expression of the GRFs in the stem cell niche suppresses formative cell divisions and distorts the organization of the quiescent center. We propose that the interactions identified here between miR396 and GRF and PLT transcription factors are necessary to establish the boundary between the stem cell niche and the transit-amplifying region.

  16. SCARECROW, SCR-LIKE 23 and SHORT-ROOT control bundle sheath cell fate and function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongchang; Kong, Danyu; Liu, Xiuwen; Hao, Yueling

    2014-04-01

    Bundle sheath (BS) cells form a single cell layer surrounding the vascular tissue in leaves. In C3 plants, photosynthesis occurs in both the BS and mesophyll cells, but the BS cells are the major sites of photosynthesis in C4 plants, whereas the mesophyll cells are only involved in CO2 fixation. Because C4 plants are more efficient photosynthetically, introduction of the C4 mechanism into C3 plants is considered a key strategy to improve crop yield. One prerequisite for such C3-to-C4 engineering is the ability to manipulate the number and physiology of the BS cells, but the molecular basis of BS cell-fate specification remains unclear. Here we report that mutations in three GRAS family transcription factors, SHORT-ROOT (SHR), SCARECROW (SCR) and SCARECROW-LIKE 23 (SCL23), affect BS cell fate in Arabidopsis thaliana. SCR and SCL23 are expressed specifically in the BS cells and act redundantly in BS cell-fate specification, but their expression pattern and function diverge at later stages of leaf development. Using ChIP-chip experiments and sugar assays, we show that SCR is primarily involved in sugar transport whereas SCL23 functions in mineral transport. SHR is also essential for BS cell-fate specification, but it is expressed in the central vascular tissue. However, the SHR protein moves into the BS cells, where it directly regulates SCR and SCL23 expression. SHR, SCR and SCL23 homologs are present in many plant species, suggesting that this developmental pathway for BS cell-fate specification is likely to be evolutionarily conserved.

  17. Endodermal cell–cell contact is required for the spatial control of Casparian band development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Martinka, Michal; Dolan, Liam; Pernas, Monica; Abe, Jun; Lux, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Apoplasmic barriers in plants fulfil important roles such as the control of apoplasmic movement of substances and the protection against invasion of pathogens. The aim of this study was to describe the development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) in endodermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana primary root and during lateral root initiation. Methods Modifications of the endodermal cell walls in roots of wild-type Landsberg erecta (Ler) and mutants with defective endodermal development – scarecrow-3 (scr-3) and shortroot (shr) – of A. thaliana plants were characterized by light, fluorescent, confocal laser scanning, transmission and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Key Results In wild-type plant roots Casparian bands initiate at approx. 1600 µm from the root cap junction and suberin lamellae first appear on the inner primary cell walls at approx. 7000–8000 µm from the root apex in the region of developing lateral root primordia. When a single cell replaces a pair of endodermal and cortical cells in the scr-3 mutant, Casparian band-like material is deposited ectopically at the junction between this ‘cortical’ cell and adjacent pericycle cells. Shr mutant roots with an undeveloped endodermis deposit Casparian band-like material in patches in the middle lamellae of cells of the vascular cylinder. Endodermal cells in the vicinity of developing lateral root primordia develop suberin lamellae earlier, and these are thicker, compared wih the neighbouring endodermal cells. Protruding primordia are protected by an endodermal pocket covered by suberin lamellae. Conclusions The data suggest that endodermal cell–cell contact is required for the spatial control of Casparian band development. Additionally, the endodermal cells form a collet (collar) of short cells covered by a thick suberin layer at the base of lateral root, which may serve as a barrier constituting a ‘safety zone’ protecting the vascular cylinder

  18. Metabolomic, proteomic and biophysical analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana cells exposed to a caesium stress. Influence of potassium supply.

    PubMed

    Le Lay, P; Isaure, M-P; Sarry, J-E; Kuhn, L; Fayard, B; Le Bail, J-L; Bastien, O; Garin, J; Roby, C; Bourguignon, J

    2006-11-01

    The incorporation and localisation of 133Cs in a plant cellular model and the metabolic response induced were analysed as a function of external K concentration using a multidisciplinary approach. Sucrose-fed photosynthetic Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells, grown in a K-containing or K-depleted medium, were submitted to a 1 mM Cs stress. Cell growth, strongly diminished in absence of K, was not influenced by Cs. In contrast, the chlorophyll content, affected by a Cs stress superposed to K depletion, did not vary under the sole K depletion. The uptake of Cs was monitored in vivo using 133Cs NMR spectroscopy while the final K and Cs concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Cs absorption rate and final concentration increased in a K-depleted external medium; in vivo NMR revealed that intracellular Cs was distributed in two kinds of compartment. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy indicated that one could be the chloroplasts. In parallel, the cellular response to the Cs stress was analysed using proteomic and metabolic profiling. Proteins up- and down-regulated in response to Cs, in presence of K+ or not, were analysed by 2D gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. No salient feature was detected excepting the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, a common response of Arabidopsis cells stressed whether by Cs or by K-depletion. 13C and 31P NMR analysis of acid extracts showed that the metabolome impact of the Cs stress was also a function of the K nutrition. These analyses suggested that sugar metabolism and glycolytic fluxes were affected in a way depending upon the medium content in K+. Metabolic flux measurements using 13C labelling would be an elegant way to pursue on this line. Using our experimental system, a progressively stronger Cs stress might point out other specific responses elicited by Cs.

  19. Functional analysis of HvSPY, a negative regulator of GA response, in barley aleurone cells and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Fiona; Robertson, Masumi; Singh, Davinder Pal; Parish, Roger W; Swain, Stephen M

    2009-02-01

    SPINDLY (SPY) is an important regulator of plant development, and consists of an N-half tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain containing 10 TPR motifs and a C-half catalytic domain, similar to O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) of animals. The best characterised role of SPY is a negative regulator of GA signalling, and all known spy alleles have been isolated based on increased GA response. Of the eight alleles that directly affect the TPR domain, all alter TPRs 6, 8 and/or 9. To test the hypothesis that a subset of TPRs, including 6, 8 and 9, are both essential and sufficient for the regulation of GA response, we overexpressed the full-length barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) SPY protein (HvSPY) and several deletion mutants in barley aleurone cells and in Arabidopsis wild type (WT) and spy-4 plants. Transient assays in barley aleurone cells, that also express endogenous HvSPY, demonstrated that introduced HvSPY and HvTPR inhibited GA(3)-induced alpha-amylase expression. With the exception of HvSPYDelta1-5, the other deletion proteins were partially active in the barley assay, including HvSPYDelta6-9 which lacks TPRs 6, 8 and 9. In Arabidopsis, analysis of seed germination under a range of conditions revealed that 35S:HvSPY increased seed dormancy. Hvspy-2, which lacks parts of the eighth and ninth TPRs, was able to partially complement all aspects of the spy-4 phenotype. In the presence of AtSPY, 35S:HvTPR caused some phenotypes consistent with a decrease in GA signalling, including increased seed sensitivity to paclobutrazol and delayed flowering. These plants also possessed distorted leaf morphology and altered epidermal cell shape. Thus, despite genetic analysis demonstrating that TPRs 6, 8 and 9 are required for regulation of GA signalling, our results suggest that these TPRs are neither absolutely essential nor sufficient for SPY activity.

  20. Xanthomonas campestris Overcomes Arabidopsis Stomatal Innate Immunity through a DSF Cell-to-Cell Signal-Regulated Virulence Factor1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Gudesblat, Gustavo E.; Torres, Pablo S.; Vojnov, Adrián A.

    2009-01-01

    Pathogen-induced stomatal closure is part of the plant innate immune response. Phytopathogens using stomata as a way of entry into the leaf must avoid the stomatal response of the host. In this article, we describe a factor secreted by the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) capable of interfering with stomatal closure induced by bacteria or abscisic acid (ABA). We found that living Xcc, as well as ethyl acetate extracts from Xcc culture supernatants, are capable of reverting stomatal closure induced by bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, or ABA. Xcc ethyl acetate extracts also complemented the infectivity of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) mutants deficient in the production of the coronatine toxin, which is required to overcome stomatal defense. By contrast, the rpfF and rpfC mutant strains of Xcc, which are unable to respectively synthesize or perceive a diffusible molecule involved in bacterial cell-to-cell signaling, were incapable of reverting stomatal closure, indicating that suppression of stomatal response by Xcc requires an intact rpf/diffusible signal factor system. In addition, we found that guard cell-specific Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase3 (MPK3) antisense mutants were unresponsive to bacteria or lipopolysaccharide in promotion of stomatal closure, and also more sensitive to Pst coronatine-deficient mutants, showing that MPK3 is required for stomatal immune response. Additionally, we found that, unlike in wild-type Arabidopsis, ABA-induced stomatal closure in MPK3 antisense mutants is not affected by Xcc or by extracts from Xcc culture supernatants, suggesting that the Xcc factor might target some signaling component in the same pathway as MPK3. PMID:19091877

  1. The histone deacetylase HDA19 controls root cell elongation and modulates a subset of phosphate starvation responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Wu, Keqiang; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The length of root epidermal cells and their patterning into files of hair-bearing and non-hair cells are genetically determined but respond with high plasticity to environmental cues. Limited phyto-availability of the essential mineral nutrient phosphate (Pi) increases the number of root hairs by longitudinal shortening of epidermal cells and by reprogramming the fate of cells in positions normally occupied by non-hair cells. Through analysis of the root morphology and transcriptional profiles from transgenic Arabidopsis lines with altered expression of the histone deacetylase HDA19, we show that in an intricate interplay of Pi availability and intrinsic factors, HDA19 controls the epidermal cell length, probably by altering the positional bias that dictates epidermal patterning. In addition, HDA19 regulates several Pi-responsive genes that encode proteins with important regulatory or metabolic roles in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. In particular, HDA19 affects genes encoding SPX (SYG1/Pho81/XPR) domain-containing proteins and genes involved in membrane lipid remodeling, a key response to Pi starvation that increases the free Pi in plants. Our data add a novel, non-transcriptionally regulated component of the Pi signaling network and emphasize the importance of reversible post-translational histone modification for the integration of external signals into intrinsic developmental and metabolic programs. PMID:26508133

  2. Whole-mount confocal imaging of nuclei in giant feeding cells induced by root-knot nematodes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2012-07-01

    • Excellent visualization of nuclei was obtained here using a whole-mount procedure adapted to provide high-resolution images of large, irregularly shaped nuclei. The procedure is based on tissue clearing, and fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA with the dye propidium iodide. • The method developed for standard confocal imaging was applied to large multicellular root swellings, named galls, induced in plant hosts by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. • Here, we performed a functional analysis, and examined the nuclear structure in giant feeding cells overexpressing the cell cycle inhibitor Kip-related protein 4 (KRP4). Ectopic KRP4 expression in galls led to aberrant nuclear structure, disturbing giant cell expansion and nematode reproduction. In vivo live-cell imaging of GFP-KRP4 demonstrated that this protein co-localizes to chromosomes from prophase to late anaphase during cell cycle progression. • The data presented here suggest the involvement of KRP4 during mitotic progression in plant cells. The detailed results obtained using confocal analysis also demonstrate the potential utility of a rapid, easy-to-use clearing method for the analysis of the nuclei of certain Arabidopsis mutants and other complex plant nuclei.

  3. Cell wall pectic arabinans influence the mechanical properties of Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems and their response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Verhertbruggen, Yves; Marcus, Susan E; Chen, Jianshe; Knox, J Paul

    2013-08-01

    Little is known of the dynamics of plant cell wall matrix polysaccharides in response to the impact of mechanical stress on plant organs. The capacity of the imposition of a mechanical stress (periodic brushing) to reduce the height of the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings has been used to study the role of pectic arabinans in the mechanical properties and stress responsiveness of a plant organ. The arabinan-deficient-1 (arad1) mutation that affects arabinan structures in epidermal cell walls of inflorescence stems is demonstrated to reduce the impact on inflorescence stem heights caused by mechanical stress. The arabinan-deficient-2 (arad2) mutation, that does not have detectable impact on arabinan structures, is also shown to reduce the impact on stem heights caused by mechanical stress. The LM13 linear arabinan epitope is specifically detected in epidermal cell walls of the younger, flexible regions of inflorescence stems and increases in abundance at the base of inflorescence stems in response to an imposed mechanical stress. The strain (percentage deformation) of stem epidermal cells in the double mutant arad1 × arad2 is lower in unbrushed plants than in wild-type plants, but rises to wild-type levels in response to brushing. The study demonstrates the complexity of arabinan structures within plant cell walls and also that their contribution to cell wall mechanical properties is a factor influencing responsiveness to mechanical stress.

  4. Null Mutants of Individual RABA Genes Impact the Proportion of Different Cell Wall Components in Stem Tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, Daniel; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R.; Tucker, Gregory A.; Lycett, Grantley W.

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, and other plants, the RABA GTPases (orthologous to the Rab11a of mammals) have expanded in number and diversity and have been shown to belong to eight sub clades, some of which have been implicated in controlling vesicles that traffic cell wall polymers and enzymes that synthesise or modify them to the cell wall. In order to investigate this, we have investigated whether T-DNA insertion knockouts of individual RABA genes belonging to different sub clades, impact on the composition of the plant cell wall. Single gene knockouts of the RABA1, RABA2 and RABA4 sub clades primarily affected the percentage composition of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose within the cell wall, respectively, despite having no obvious phenotype in the whole plant. We hypothesise that vesicles carrying specific types of cargoes from the Golgi to the cell surface may be regulated by particular sub types of RABA proteins, a finding that could have wider implications for how trafficking systems work and could be a useful tool in cell wall research and other fields of plant biology. PMID:24124508

  5. The Arabidopsis Class III Peroxidase AtPRX71 Negatively Regulates Growth under Physiological Conditions and in Response to Cell Wall Damage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Sara; Ranocha, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the cell wall has a major impact on plant growth and development, and alteration of cell wall structural components is often detrimental to biomass production. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these negative effects are largely unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered pectin composition because of either the expression of the Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase II (AnPGII; 35S:AnPGII plants) or a mutation in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene that encodes a putative pectin methyltransferase (qua2-1 plants), display severe growth defects. Here, we show that expression of Arabidopsis PEROXIDASE71 (AtPRX71), encoding a class III peroxidase, strongly increases in 35S:AnPGII and qua2-1 plants as well as in response to treatments with the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben, which also impairs cell wall integrity. Analysis of atprx71 loss-of-function mutants and plants overexpressing AtPRX71 indicates that this gene negatively influences Arabidopsis growth at different stages of development, likely limiting cell expansion. The atprx71-1 mutation partially suppresses the dwarf phenotype of qua2-1, suggesting that AtPRX71 contributes to the growth defects observed in plants undergoing cell wall damage. Furthermore, AtPRX71 seems to promote the production of reactive oxygen species in qua2-1 plants as well as plants treated with isoxaben. We propose that AtPRX71 contributes to strengthen cell walls, therefore restricting cell expansion, during normal growth and in response to cell wall damage. PMID:26468518

  6. Methionine catabolism in Arabidopsis cells is initiated by a gamma-cleavage process and leads to S-methylcysteine and isoleucine syntheses.

    PubMed

    Rébeillé, Fabrice; Jabrin, Samuel; Bligny, Richard; Loizeau, Karen; Gambonnet, Bernadette; Van Wilder, Valérie; Douce, Roland; Ravanel, Stéphane

    2006-10-17

    Despite recent progress in elucidating the regulation of methionine (Met) synthesis, little is known about the catabolism of this amino acid in plants. In this article, we present several lines of evidence indicating that the cleavage of Met catalyzed by Met gamma-lyase is the first step in this process. First, we cloned an Arabidopsis cDNA coding a functional Met gamma-lyase (AtMGL), a cytosolic enzyme catalyzing the conversion of Met into methanethiol, alpha-ketobutyrate, and ammonia. AtMGL is present in all of the Arabidopsis organs and tissues analyzed, except in quiescent dry mature seeds, thus suggesting that AtMGL is involved in the regulation of Met homeostasis in various situations. Also, we demonstrated that the expression of AtMGL was induced in Arabidopsis cells in response to high Met levels, probably to bypass the elevated Km of the enzyme for Met. Second, [13C]-NMR profiling of Arabidopsis cells fed with [13C]Met allowed us to identify labeled S-adenosylmethionine, S-methylmethionine, S-methylcysteine (SMC), and isoleucine (Ile). The unexpected production of SMC and Ile was directly associated to the function of Met gamma-lyase. Indeed, we showed that part of the methanethiol produced during Met cleavage could react with an activated form of serine to produce SMC. The second product of Met cleavage, alpha-ketobutyrate, entered the pathway of Ile synthesis in plastids. Together, these data indicate that Met catabolism in Arabidopsis cells is initiated by a gamma-cleavage process and can result in the formation of the essential amino acid Ile and a potential storage form for sulfide or methyl groups, SMC.

  7. Salicylic acid modulates levels of phosphoinositide dependent-phospholipase C substrates and products to remodel the Arabidopsis suspension cell transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Ruelland, Eric; Pokotylo, Igor; Djafi, Nabila; Cantrel, Catherine; Repellin, Anne; Zachowski, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity controls gene expression in Arabidopsis suspension cells and seedlings. PI-PLC catalyzes the production of phosphorylated inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphoinositides. It is not known how PI-PLC regulates the transcriptome although the action of DAG-kinase (DGK) on DAG immediately downstream from PI-PLC is responsible for some of the regulation. We previously established a list of genes whose expression is affected in the presence of PI-PLC inhibitors. Here this list of genes was used as a signature in similarity searches of curated plant hormone response transcriptome data. The strongest correlations obtained with the inhibited PI-PLC signature were with salicylic acid (SA) treatments. We confirm here that in Arabidopsis suspension cells SA treatment leads to an increase in phosphoinositides, then demonstrate that SA leads to a significant 20% decrease in phosphatidic acid, indicative of a decrease in PI-PLC products. Previous sets of microarray data were re-assessed. The SA response of one set of genes was dependent on phosphoinositides. Alterations in the levels of a second set of genes, mostly SA-repressed genes, could be related to decreases in PI-PLC products that occur in response to SA action. Together, the two groups of genes comprise at least 40% of all SA-responsive genes. Overall these two groups of genes are distinct in the functional categories of the proteins they encode, their promoter cis-elements and their regulation by DGK or phospholipase D. SA-regulated genes dependent on phosphoinositides are typical SA response genes while those with an SA response that is possibly dependent on PI-PLC products are less SA-specific. We propose a model in which SA inhibits PI-PLC activity and alters levels of PI-PLC products and substrates, thereby regulating gene expression divergently. PMID:25426125

  8. YUCCA-mediated auxin biogenesis is required for cell fate transition occurring during de novo root organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lyuqin; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Ruan, Ying; Liu, Jingchun; Zeng, Minhuan; Huang, Hai; Wang, Jia-Wei; Xu, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Many plant organs have the ability to regenerate a new plant after detachment or wounding via de novo organogenesis. During de novo root organogenesis from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants, endogenic auxin is essential for the fate transition of regeneration-competent cells to become root founder cells via activation of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 11 (WOX11). However, the molecular events from leaf explant detachment to auxin-mediated cell fate transition are poorly understood. In this study, we used an assay to determine the concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to provide direct evidence that auxin is produced after leaf explant detachment, a process that involves YUCCA (YUC)-mediated auxin biogenesis. Inhibition of YUC prevents expression of WOX11 and fate transition of competent cells, resulting in the blocking of rooting. Further analysis showed that YUC1 and YUC4 act quickly (within 4 hours) in response to wounding after detachment in both light and dark conditions and promote auxin biogenesis in both mesophyll and competent cells, whereas YUC5, YUC8, and YUC9 primarily respond in dark conditions. In addition, YUC2 and YUC6 contribute to rooting by providing a basal auxin level in the leaf. Overall, our study indicates that YUC genes exhibit a division of labour during de novo root organogenesis from leaf explants in response to multiple signals.

  9. Plastid position in Arabidopsis columella cells is similar in microgravity and on a random-positioning machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, T. F.; van Loon, J. J.; Kiss, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    In order to study gravity effects on plant structure and function, it may become necessary to remove the g-stimulus. On Earth, various instruments such as clinostats have been used by biologists in an attempt to neutralize the effects of gravity. In this study, the position of amyloplasts was assayed in columella cells in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings grown in the following conditions: on Earth, on a two-dimensional clinostat at 1 rpm, on a three-dimensional clinostat (also called a random-positioning machine, or an RPM), and in space (true microgravity). In addition, the effects of these gravity treatments on columella cell area and plastid area also were measured. In terms of the parameters measured, only amyloplast position was affected by the gravity treatments. Plastid position was not significantly different between spaceflight and RPM conditions but was significantly different between spaceflight and the classical two-dimensional clinostat treatments. Flanking columella cells showed a greater susceptibility to changes in gravity compared to the central columella cells. In addition, columella cells of seedlings that were grown on the RPM did not exhibit deleterious effects in terms of their ultrastructure as has been reported previously for seedlings grown on a two-dimensional clinostat. This study supports the hypothesis that the RPM provides a useful simulation of weightlessness.

  10. Abscisic acid signalling determines susceptibility of bundle sheath cells to photoinhibition in high light-exposed Arabidopsis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Gorecka, Magdalena; Alvarez-Fernandez, Ruben; Slattery, Katie; McAusland, Lorna; Davey, Phillip A.; Karpinski, Stanislaw; Lawson, Tracy; Mullineaux, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid induction of the bundle sheath cell (BSC)-specific expression of ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 (APX2) in high light (HL)-exposed leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana is, in part, regulated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by vascular parenchyma cells. In this study, we provide more details of the ABA signalling that regulates APX2 expression and consider its importance in the photosynthetic responses of BSCs and whole leaves. This was done using a combination of analyses of gene expression and chlorophyll a fluorescence of both leaves and individual BSCs and mesophyll cells. The regulation of APX2 expression occurs by the combination of the protein kinase SnRK2.6 (OST1):protein phosphatase 2C ABI2 and a Gα (GPA1)-regulated signalling pathway. The use of an ost1-1/gpa1-4 mutant established that these signalling pathways are distinct but interact to regulate APX2. In HL-exposed leaves, BSC chloroplasts were more susceptible to photoinhibition than those of mesophyll cells. The activity of the ABA-signalling network determined the degree of susceptibility of BSCs to photoinhibition by influencing non-photochemical quenching. By contrast, in HL-exposed whole leaves, ABA signalling did not have any major influence on their transcriptomes nor on their susceptibility to photoinhibition, except where guard cell responses were observed. PMID:24591719

  11. Sirtinol, a Sir2 protein inhibitor, affects stem cell maintenance and root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by modulating auxin-cytokinin signaling components

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sharmila; Singh, Alka; Yadav, Sandeep; Gautam, Vibhav; Singh, Archita; Sarkar, Ananda K.

    2017-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, besides several key transcription factors and chromatin modifiers, phytohormones auxin and cytokinin play pivotal role in shoot and root meristem maintenance, and lateral root (LR) development. Sirtinol, a chemical inhibitor of Sir2 proteins, is known to promote some auxin induced phenotypes in Arabidopsis. However, its effect on plant stem cell maintenance or organ formation remained unaddressed. Here we show that sirtinol affects meristem maintenance by altering the expression of key stem cell regulators, cell division and differentiation by modulating both auxin and cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of shoot stem cell niche related genes WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) was upregulated, whereas SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) was downregulated in sirtinol treated seedlings. The expression level and domain of key root stem cell regulators PLETHORA (PLTs) and WUS-Related Homeobox 5 (WOX5) were altered in sirtinol treated roots. Sirtinol affects LR development by disturbing proper auxin transport and maxima formation, similar to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Sirtinol also affects LR formation by altering cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling genes in roots. Therefore, sirtinol affects shoot and root growth, meristem maintenance and LR development by altering the expression of cytokinin-auxin signaling components, and regulators of stem cells, meristems, and LRs. PMID:28195159

  12. ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG of TRITHORAX1 (ATX1) is required for cell production, patterning, and morphogenesis in root development

    PubMed Central

    Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl; Shishkova, Svetlana; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG of TRITHORAX1 (ATX1/SDG27), a known regulator of flower development, encodes a H3K4histone methyltransferase that maintains a number of genes in an active state. In this study, the role of ATX1 in root development was evaluated. The loss-of-function mutant atx1-1 was impaired in primary root growth. The data suggest that ATX1 controls root growth by regulating cell cycle duration, cell production, and the transition from cell proliferation in the root apical meristem (RAM) to cell elongation. In atx1-1, the quiescent centre (QC) cells were irregular in shape and more expanded than those of the wild type. This feature, together with the atypical distribution of T-divisions, the presence of oblique divisions, and the abnormal cell patterning in the RAM, suggests a lack of coordination between cell division and cell growth in the mutant. The expression domain of QC-specific markers was expanded both in the primary RAM and in the developing lateral root primordia of atx1-1 plants. These abnormalities were independent of auxin-response gradients. ATX1 was also found to be required for lateral root initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence. The time from lateral root initiation to emergence was significantly extended in the atx1-1 mutant. Overall, these data suggest that ATX1 is involved in the timing of root development, stem cell niche maintenance, and cell patterning during primary and lateral root development. Thus, ATX1 emerges as an important player in root system architecture. PMID:25205583

  13. Arabidopsis homolog of trithorax1 (ATX1) is required for cell production, patterning, and morphogenesis in root development.

    PubMed

    Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl; Shishkova, Svetlana; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2014-12-01

    Arabidopsis homolog of trithorax1 (ATX1/SDG27), a known regulator of flower development, encodes a H3K4histone methyltransferase that maintains a number of genes in an active state. In this study, the role of ATX1 in root development was evaluated. The loss-of-function mutant atx1-1 was impaired in primary root growth. The data suggest that ATX1 controls root growth by regulating cell cycle duration, cell production, and the transition from cell proliferation in the root apical meristem (RAM) to cell elongation. In atx1-1, the quiescent centre (QC) cells were irregular in shape and more expanded than those of the wild type. This feature, together with the atypical distribution of T-divisions, the presence of oblique divisions, and the abnormal cell patterning in the RAM, suggests a lack of coordination between cell division and cell growth in the mutant. The expression domain of QC-specific markers was expanded both in the primary RAM and in the developing lateral root primordia of atx1-1 plants. These abnormalities were independent of auxin-response gradients. ATX1 was also found to be required for lateral root initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence. The time from lateral root initiation to emergence was significantly extended in the atx1-1 mutant. Overall, these data suggest that ATX1 is involved in the timing of root development, stem cell niche maintenance, and cell patterning during primary and lateral root development. Thus, ATX1 emerges as an important player in root system architecture.

  14. Differential Roles of Two Homologous Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Regulating Cell Cycle and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Safae; Zhang, Chong; Gill, Manroop; Churchman, Michelle; Larkin, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Precise cell-cycle control is critical for plant development and responses to pathogen invasion. Two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, SIAMESE (SIM) and SIM-RELATED 1 (SMR1), were recently shown to regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) defense based on phenotypes conferred by a sim smr1 double mutant. However, whether these two genes play differential roles in cell-cycle and defense control is unknown. In this report, we show that while acting synergistically to promote endoreplication, SIM and SMR1 play different roles in affecting the ploidy of trichome and leaf cells, respectively. In addition, we found that the smr1-1 mutant, but not sim-1, was more susceptible to a virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain, and this susceptibility could be rescued by activating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense. Consistent with these results, smr1-1 partially suppressed the dwarfism, high SA levels, and cell death phenotypes in acd6-1, a mutant used to gauge the change of defense levels. Thus, SMR1 functions partly through SA in defense control. The differential roles of SIM and SMR1 are due to differences in temporal and spatial expression of these two genes in Arabidopsis tissues and in response to P. syringae infection. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of plants with altered SA signaling revealed that SA is necessary, but not sufficient, to change cell-cycle progression. We further found that a mutant with three CYCD3 genes disrupted also compromised disease resistance to P. syringae. Together, this study reveals differential roles of two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in regulating cell-cycle progression and innate immunity in Arabidopsis and provides insights into the importance of cell-cycle control during host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26561564

  15. Enhanced homologous recombination is induced by alpha-particle radiation in somatic cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Po; Liu, Ping; Wu, Yuejin

    Almost 9 percent of cosmic rays which strike the earth's atmosphere are alpha particles. As one of the ionizing radiations (IR), its biological effects have been widely studied. However, the plant genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation was not largely known. In this research, the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic for GUS recombination substrate was used to evaluate the genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation (3.3MeV). The pronounced effects of systemic exposure to alpha-particle radiation on the somatic homologous recombination frequency (HRF) were found at different doses. The 10Gy dose of radiation induced the maximal HRF which was 1.9-fold higher than the control. The local radiation of alpha-particle (10Gy) on root also resulted in a 2.5-fold increase of somatic HRF in non-radiated aerial plant, indicating that the signal(s) of genomic instability was transferred to non-radiated parts and initiated their genomic instability. Concurrent treatment of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana with alpha-particle and DMSO(ROS scavenger) both in systemic and local radiation signifi- cantly suppressed the somatic HR, indicating that the free radicals produced by alpha-particle radiation took part in the production of signal of genomic instability rather than the signal transfer. Key words: alpha-particle radiation, somatic homologous recombination, genomic instability

  16. α-Xylosidase plays essential roles in xyloglucan remodelling, maintenance of cell wall integrity, and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Shigeyama, Takuma; Watanabe, Asuka; Tokuchi, Konatsu; Toh, Shigeo; Sakurai, Naoki; Shibuya, Naoto; Kawakami, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Regulation and maintenance of cell wall physical properties are crucial for plant growth and environmental response. In the germination process, hypocotyl cell expansion and endosperm weakening are prerequisites for dicot seeds to complete germination. We have identified the Arabidopsis mutant thermoinhibition-resistant germination 1 (trg1), which has reduced seed dormancy and insensitivity to unfavourable conditions for germination owing to a loss-of-function mutation of TRG1/XYL1, which encodes an α-xylosidase. Compared to those of wild type, the elongating stem of trg1 showed significantly lower viscoelasticity, and the fruit epidermal cells were longitudinally shorter and horizontally enlarged. Actively growing tissues of trg1 over-accumulated free xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs), and the seed cell wall had xyloglucan with a greatly reduced molecular weight. These observations suggest that XGOs reduce xyloglucan size by serving as an acceptor in transglycosylation and eventually enhancing cell wall loosening. TRG1/XYL1 gene expression was abundant in growing wild-type organs and tissues but relatively low in cells at most actively elongating part of the tissues, suggesting that α-xylosidase contributes to maintaining the mechanical integrity of the primary cell wall in the growing and pre-growing tissues. In germinating seeds of trg1, expression of genes encoding specific abscisic acid and gibberellin metabolism enzymes was altered in accordance with the aberrant germination phenotype. Thus, cell wall integrity could affect seed germination not only directly through the physical properties of the cell wall but also indirectly through the regulation of hormone gene expression. PMID:27605715

  17. The observation research of the differences in cell death and reactive oxygen species in the process of infecting Arabidopsis with avirulent strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, HuaBin; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Objective: To observe the differences of cell death and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the process of infecting Arabidopsis with avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (avrB, avrRps4), it will be of great importance to research the role of plant disease resistance and defense response. Methods: Using WT, AtrbohD and AtrbohF mutant as experimental materials, we discuss the impact of cell death and ROS on the leaves of Arabidopsis infected with avirulent Pst DC3000 (avrB, avrRps4), observed by spectral analysis and visualized by DAB and trypan blue stain. Results: When infected with avirulent Pst DC3000, both WT and AtrbohF mutant line behaved resistance that exhibited burst of ROS and HR occur, limit senescence and pathogen induced chlorotic cell death. Paradoxically, AtrbohD mutant behaved susceptible characters that exhibited a small quantity of ROS accumulated and enhanced cell death. Conclusion: After infection of Arabidopsis with avirulent Pst DC3000, WT exhibited more ROS accumulation than AtrbohF, and AtrbohD eliminated the majority of total ROS production. Although both WT and AtrbohF mutant exhibited HR occur, enhanced cell death in AtrbohD mutant.

  18. Transcriptome profiling in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems grown under hypergravity in terms of cell walls and plant hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, D.; Karahara, I.; Nishiuchi, T.; De Oliveira, S.; Schreiber, L.; Wakasugi, T.; Yamada, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kamisaka, S.

    2009-07-01

    Land plants rely on lignified secondary cell walls in supporting their body weight on the Earth. Although gravity influences the formation of the secondary cell walls, the regulatory mechanism of their formation by gravity is not yet understood. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana L. using microarray (22 K) to identify genes whose expression is modulated under hypergravity condition (300 g). Total RNA was isolated from the basal region of inflorescence stems of plants grown for 24 h at 300 g or 1 g. Microarray analysis showed that hypergravity up-regulated the expression of 403 genes to more than 2-fold. Hypergravity up-regulated the genes responsible for the biosynthesis or modification of cell wall components such as lignin, xyloglucan, pectin and structural proteins. In addition, hypergravity altered the expression of genes related to the biosynthesis of plant hormones such as auxin and ethylene and that of genes encoding hormone-responsive proteins. Our transcriptome profiling indicates that hypergravity influences the formation of secondary cell walls by modulating the pattern of gene expression, and that auxin and/or ethylene play an important role in signaling hypergravity stimulus.

  19. TONNEAU2/FASS Regulates the Geometry of Microtubule Nucleation and Cortical Array Organization in Interphase Arabidopsis Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kirik, Angela; Ehrhardt, David W.; Kirik, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Organization of microtubules into ordered arrays involves spatial and temporal regulation of microtubule nucleation. Here, we show that acentrosomal microtubule nucleation in plant cells involves a previously unknown regulatory step that determines the geometry of microtubule nucleation. Dynamic imaging of interphase cortical microtubules revealed that the ratio of branching to in-bundle microtubule nucleation on cortical microtubules is regulated by the Arabidopsis thaliana B′′ subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, which is encoded by the TONNEAU2/FASS (TON2) gene. The probability of nucleation from γ-tubulin complexes localized at the cell cortex was not affected by a loss of TON2 function, suggesting a specific role of TON2 in regulating the nucleation geometry. Both loss of TON2 function and ectopic targeting of TON2 to the plasma membrane resulted in defects in cell shape, suggesting the importance of TON2-mediated regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton in cell morphogenesis. Loss of TON2 function also resulted in an inability for cortical arrays to reorient in response to light stimulus, suggesting an essential role for TON2 and microtubule branching nucleation in reorganization of microtubule arrays. Our data establish TON2 as a regulator of interphase microtubule nucleation and provide experimental evidence for a novel regulatory step in the process of microtubule-dependent nucleation. PMID:22395485

  20. Arabidopsis NDR1 is an integrin-like protein with a role in fluid loss and plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Caleb; Savory, Elizabeth A; Day, Brad

    2011-05-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (NDR1), a plasma membrane-localized protein, plays an essential role in resistance mediated by the coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class of resistance (R) proteins, which includes RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE2 (RPS2), RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV MACULICOLA1, and RPS5. Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 expressing the bacterial effector proteins AvrRpt2, AvrB, and AvrPphB activates resistance by the aforementioned R proteins. Whereas the genetic requirement for NDR1 in plant disease resistance signaling has been detailed, our study focuses on determining a global, physiological role for NDR1. Through the use of homology modeling and structure threading, NDR1 was predicted to have a high degree of structural similarity to Arabidopsis LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT14, a protein implicated in abiotic stress responses. Specific protein motifs also point to a degree of homology with mammalian integrins, well-characterized proteins involved in adhesion and signaling. This structural homology led us to examine a physiological role for NDR1 in preventing fluid loss and maintaining cell integrity through plasma membrane-cell wall adhesions. Our results show a substantial alteration in induced (i.e. pathogen-inoculated) electrolyte leakage and a compromised pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune response in ndr1-1 mutant plants. As an extension of these analyses, using a combination of genetic and cell biology-based approaches, we have identified a role for NDR1 in mediating plasma membrane-cell wall adhesions. Taken together, our data point to a broad role for NDR1 both in mediating primary cellular functions in Arabidopsis through maintaining the integrity of the cell wall-plasma membrane connection and as a key signaling component of these responses during pathogen infection.

  1. Plastidial Glycolytic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Is an Important Determinant in the Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism of Heterotrophic Cells in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Anoman, Armand D; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Rosa-Téllez, Sara; Flores-Tornero, María; Serrano, Ramón; Bueso, Eduardo; Fernie, Alisdair R; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2015-11-01

    This study functionally characterizes the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastidial glycolytic isoforms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPCp) in photosynthetic and heterotrophic cells. We expressed the enzyme in gapcp double mutants (gapcp1gapcp2) under the control of photosynthetic (Rubisco small subunit RBCS2B [RBCS]) or heterotrophic (phosphate transporter PHT1.2 [PHT]) cell-specific promoters. Expression of GAPCp1 under the control of RBCS in gapcp1gapcp2 had no significant effect on the metabolite profile or growth in the aerial part (AP). GAPCp1 expression under the control of the PHT promoter clearly affected Arabidopsis development by increasing the number of lateral roots and having a major effect on AP growth and metabolite profile. Our results indicate that GAPCp1 is not functionally important in photosynthetic cells but plays a fundamental role in roots and in heterotrophic cells of the AP. Specifically, GAPCp activity may be required in root meristems and the root cap for normal primary root growth. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses indicate that the lack of GAPCp activity affects nitrogen and carbon metabolism as well as mineral nutrition and that glycerate and glutamine are the main metabolites responding to GAPCp activity. Thus, GAPCp could be an important metabolic connector of glycolysis with other pathways, such as the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis, the ammonium assimilation pathway, or the metabolism of γ-aminobutyrate, which in turn affect plant development.

  2. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl

    2014-05-23

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  3. Plastidial Glycolytic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Is an Important Determinant in the Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism of Heterotrophic Cells in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Anoman, Armand D.; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Rosa-Téllez, Sara; Flores-Tornero, María; Serrano, Ramón; Bueso, Eduardo; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2015-01-01

    This study functionally characterizes the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastidial glycolytic isoforms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPCp) in photosynthetic and heterotrophic cells. We expressed the enzyme in gapcp double mutants (gapcp1gapcp2) under the control of photosynthetic (Rubisco small subunit RBCS2B [RBCS]) or heterotrophic (phosphate transporter PHT1.2 [PHT]) cell-specific promoters. Expression of GAPCp1 under the control of RBCS in gapcp1gapcp2 had no significant effect on the metabolite profile or growth in the aerial part (AP). GAPCp1 expression under the control of the PHT promoter clearly affected Arabidopsis development by increasing the number of lateral roots and having a major effect on AP growth and metabolite profile. Our results indicate that GAPCp1 is not functionally important in photosynthetic cells but plays a fundamental role in roots and in heterotrophic cells of the AP. Specifically, GAPCp activity may be required in root meristems and the root cap for normal primary root growth. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses indicate that the lack of GAPCp activity affects nitrogen and carbon metabolism as well as mineral nutrition and that glycerate and glutamine are the main metabolites responding to GAPCp activity. Thus, GAPCp could be an important metabolic connector of glycolysis with other pathways, such as the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis, the ammonium assimilation pathway, or the metabolism of γ-aminobutyrate, which in turn affect plant development. PMID:26134167

  4. Endogenous abscisic acid is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production but not in cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenxiu; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-09-01

    We recently demonstrated that endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous ABA is involved in MeJA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production and cytosolic alkalization in guard cells using an ABA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant, aba2-2, and an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridon (FLU). The aba2-2 mutation impaired MeJA-induced ROS and NO production. FLU inhibited MeJA-induced ROS production in wild-type guard cells. Pretreatment with 0.1 μM ABA, which does not induce stomatal closure in the wild type, complemented the insensitivity to MeJA of the aba2-2 mutant. However, MeJA induced cytosolic alkalization in both wild-type and aba2-2 guard cells. These results suggest that endogenous ABA is involved in MeJA-induced ROS and NO production but not in MeJA-induced cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells.

  5. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J

    2014-05-23

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  6. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes. PMID:24852237

  7. Multi-omics analysis identifies genes mediating the extension of cell walls in the Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation zone

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael H.; Holman, Tara J.; Sørensen, Iben; Cancho-Sanchez, Ester; Wells, Darren M.; Swarup, Ranjan; Knox, J. Paul; Willats, William G. T.; Ubeda-Tomás, Susana; Holdsworth, Michael; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Vissenberg, Kris; Hodgman, T. Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Plant cell wall composition is important for regulating growth rates, especially in roots. However, neither analyses of cell wall composition nor transcriptomes on their own can comprehensively reveal which genes and processes are mediating growth and cell elongation rates. This study reveals the benefits of carrying out multiple analyses in combination. Sections of roots from five anatomically and functionally defined zones in Arabidopsis thaliana were prepared and divided into three biological replicates. We used glycan microarrays and antibodies to identify the major classes of glycans and glycoproteins present in the cell walls of these sections, and identified the expected decrease in pectin and increase in xylan from the meristematic zone (MS), through the rapid and late elongation zones (REZ, LEZ) to the maturation zone and the rest of the root, including the emerging lateral roots. Other compositional changes included extensin and xyloglucan levels peaking in the REZ and increasing levels of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP) epitopes from the MS to the LEZ, which remained high through the subsequent mature zones. Immuno-staining using the same antibodies identified the tissue and (sub)cellular localization of many epitopes. Extensins were localized in epidermal and cortex cell walls, while AGP glycans were specific to different tissues from root-hair cells to the stele. The transcriptome analysis found several gene families peaking in the REZ. These included a large family of peroxidases (which produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) needed for cell expansion), and three xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase genes (XTH17, XTH18, and XTH19). The significance of the latter may be related to a role in breaking and re-joining xyloglucan cross-bridges between cellulose microfibrils, a process which is required for wall expansion. Knockdowns of these XTHs resulted in shorter root lengths, confirming a role of the corresponding proteins in root extension

  8. A role for katanin in plant cell division: microtubule organization in dividing root cells of fra2 and lue1Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.

    PubMed

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Voulgari, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Galini

    2011-07-01

    Severing of microtubules by katanin has proven to be crucial for cortical microtubule organization in elongating and differentiating plant cells. On the contrary, katanin is currently not considered essential during cell division in plants as it is in animals. However, defects in cell patterning have been observed in katanin mutants, implying a role for it in dividing plant cells. Therefore, microtubule organization was studied in detail by immunofluorescence in dividing root cells of fra2 and lue1 katanin mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In both, early preprophase bands consisted of poorly aligned microtubules, prophase spindles were multipolar, and the microtubules of expanding phragmoplasts were elongated, bended toward and connected to the surface of daughter nuclei. Accordingly, severing by katanin seems to be necessary for the proper organization of these microtubule arrays. In both fra2 and lue1, metaphase/anaphase spindles and initiating phragmoplasts exhibited typical organization. However, they were obliquely oriented more frequently than in the wild type. It is proposed that this oblique orientation may be due to prophase spindle multipolarity and results in a failure of the cell plate to follow the predetermined division plane, during cytokinesis, producing oblique cell walls in the roots of both mutants. It is therefore concluded that, like in animal cells, katanin is important for plant cell division, influencing the organization of several microtubule arrays. Moreover, failure in microtubule severing indirectly affects the orientation of the division plane.

  9. Atomic force microscopy stiffness tomography on living Arabidopsis thaliana cells reveals the mechanical properties of surface and deep cell-wall layers during growth.

    PubMed

    Radotić, Ksenija; Roduit, Charles; Simonović, Jasna; Hornitschek, Patricia; Fankhauser, Christian; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Steinbach, Gabor; Dietler, Giovanni; Kasas, Sandor

    2012-08-08

    Cell-wall mechanical properties play a key role in the growth and the protection of plants. However, little is known about genuine wall mechanical properties and their growth-related dynamics at subcellular resolution and in living cells. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) stiffness tomography to explore stiffness distribution in the cell wall of suspension-cultured Arabidopsis thaliana as a model of primary, growing cell wall. For the first time that we know of, this new imaging technique was performed on living single cells of a higher plant, permitting monitoring of the stiffness distribution in cell-wall layers as a function of the depth and its evolution during the different growth phases. The mechanical measurements were correlated with changes in the composition of the cell wall, which were revealed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In the beginning and end of cell growth, the average stiffness of the cell wall was low and the wall was mechanically homogenous, whereas in the exponential growth phase, the average wall stiffness increased, with increasing heterogeneity. In this phase, the difference between the superficial and deep wall stiffness was highest. FTIR spectra revealed a relative increase in the polysaccharide/lignin content.

  10. Changes in Gene Expression of Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Cultures Upon Exposure to Real and Simulated Partial- g Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengler, Svenja; Spirer, Ina; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hauslage, Jens; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2016-06-01

    Cell cultures of the plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to partial- g forces during parabolic flight and clinostat experiments (0.16 g, 0.38 g and 0.5 g were tested). In order to investigate gravity-dependent alterations in gene expression, samples were metabolically quenched by the fixative RNA later Ⓡ to stabilize nucleic acids and used for whole-genome microarray analysis. An attempt to identify the potential threshold acceleration for the gravity-dependent response showed that the smaller the experienced g-force, the greater was the susceptibility of the cell cultures. Compared to short-term μ g during a parabolic flight, the number of differentially expressed genes under partial- g was lower. In addition, the effect on the alteration of amounts of transcripts decreased during partial- g parabolic flight due to the sequence of the different parabolas (0.38 g, 0.16 g and μ g). A time-dependent analysis under simulated 0.5 g indicates that adaptation occurs within minutes. Differentially expressed genes (at least 2-fold up- or down-regulated in expression) under real flight conditions were to some extent identical with those affected by clinorotation. The highest number of homologuous genes was detected within seconds of exposure to 0.38 g (both flight and clinorotation). To a considerable part, these genes deal with cell wall properties. Additionally, responses specific for clinorotation were observed.

  11. Arabidopsis IRT2 cooperates with the high-affinity iron uptake system to maintain iron homeostasis in root epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Vert, Grégory; Barberon, Marie; Zelazny, Enric; Séguéla, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all organisms but toxic when present in excess. Consequently, plants carefully regulate their iron uptake, dependent on the FRO2 ferric reductase and the IRT1 transporter, to control its homeostasis. Arabidopsis IRT2 gene, whose expression is induced in root epidermis upon iron deprivation, was shown to encode a functional iron/zinc transporter in yeast, and proposed to function in iron acquisition from the soil. In this study, we demonstrate that, unlike its close homolog IRT1, IRT2 is not involved in iron absorption from the soil since overexpression of IRT2 does not rescue the iron uptake defect of irt1-1 mutant and since a null irt2 mutant shows no chlorosis in low iron. Consistently, an IRT2-green fluorescent fusion protein, transiently expressed in culture cells, localizes to intracellular vesicles. However, IRT2 appears strictly co-regulated with FRO2 and IRT1, supporting the view that IRT2 is an integral component of the root response to iron deficiency in root epidermal cells. We propose a model where IRT2 likely prevents toxicity from IRT1-dependent iron fluxes in epidermal cells, through compartmentalization.

  12. Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Cvi-0 Accession Reveals an Important Role of MPK12 in Guard Cell CO2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nuhkat, Maris; Wang, Cun; Wang, Yuh-Shuh; Hõrak, Hanna; Valk, Ervin; Pechter, Priit; Sindarovska, Yana; Tang, Jing; Xiao, Chuanlei; Xu, Yang; Gerst Talas, Ulvi; García-Sosa, Alfonso T.; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Maran, Uko; Remm, Maido; Roelfsema, M. Rob G.; Hu, Honghong; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Loog, Mart; Schroeder, Julian I.; Kollist, Hannes; Brosché, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is regulated by guard cells that form stomatal pores. Stomatal adjustments are crucial for plant survival; they regulate uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis, loss of water, and entrance of air pollutants such as ozone. We mapped ozone hypersensitivity, more open stomata, and stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Cvi-0 to a single amino acid substitution in MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN (MAP) KINASE 12 (MPK12). In parallel, we showed that stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of a mutant cis (CO2-insensitive) were caused by a deletion of MPK12. Lack of MPK12 impaired bicarbonate-induced activation of S-type anion channels. We demonstrated that MPK12 interacted with the protein kinase HIGH LEAF TEMPERATURE 1 (HT1)—a central node in guard cell CO2 signaling—and that MPK12 functions as an inhibitor of HT1. These data provide a new function for plant MPKs as protein kinase inhibitors and suggest a mechanism through which guard cell CO2 signaling controls plant water management. PMID:27923039

  13. Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Cvi-0 Accession Reveals an Important Role of MPK12 in Guard Cell CO2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, Liina; Vaahtera, Lauri; Tõldsepp, Kadri; Nuhkat, Maris; Wang, Cun; Wang, Yuh-Shuh; Hõrak, Hanna; Valk, Ervin; Pechter, Priit; Sindarovska, Yana; Tang, Jing; Xiao, Chuanlei; Xu, Yang; Gerst Talas, Ulvi; García-Sosa, Alfonso T; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Maran, Uko; Remm, Maido; Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hu, Honghong; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Loog, Mart; Schroeder, Julian I; Kollist, Hannes; Brosché, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    Plant gas exchange is regulated by guard cells that form stomatal pores. Stomatal adjustments are crucial for plant survival; they regulate uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis, loss of water, and entrance of air pollutants such as ozone. We mapped ozone hypersensitivity, more open stomata, and stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Cvi-0 to a single amino acid substitution in MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN (MAP) KINASE 12 (MPK12). In parallel, we showed that stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of a mutant cis (CO2-insensitive) were caused by a deletion of MPK12. Lack of MPK12 impaired bicarbonate-induced activation of S-type anion channels. We demonstrated that MPK12 interacted with the protein kinase HIGH LEAF TEMPERATURE 1 (HT1)-a central node in guard cell CO2 signaling-and that MPK12 functions as an inhibitor of HT1. These data provide a new function for plant MPKs as protein kinase inhibitors and suggest a mechanism through which guard cell CO2 signaling controls plant water management.

  14. Arabidopsis phospholipase D alpha 1-derived phosphatidic acid regulates microtubule organization and cell development under microtubule-interacting drugs treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Qu, Yana; Wang, Qing; Song, Ping; Wang, Peipei; Jia, Qianru; Guo, Jinhe

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) are emerging as essential regulators of cytoskeleton organization in plants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PA-mediated microtubule reorganization in plants remain largely unknown. In this study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to analyze the function of Arabidopsis thaliana PLDα1 in the regulation of microtubule organization and cell development in response to microtubule-affecting drugs. Treatment with the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel resulted in less growth inhibition and decreased rightward slant of roots, longitudinal alignment of microtubules, and enhanced length of hypocotyl epidermal cells in the pldα1 mutant, the phenotype of which was rescued by exogenous application of PA. Moreover, the pldα1 mutant was sensitive to the microtubule-disrupting drugs oryzalin and propyzamide in terms of seedling survival ratio, left-skewing angle of roots and microtubule organization. In addition, both disruption and stabilization of microtubules induced by drugs activated PLDα1 activity. Our findings demonstrate that in A. thaliana, PLDα1/PA might regulate cell development by modulating microtubule organization in an activity-dependent manner.

  15. Electron Tomographic Analysis of Somatic Cell Plate Formation in Meristematic Cells of Arabidopsis Preserved by High-Pressure FreezingW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Seguí-Simarro, José M.; Austin, Jotham R.; White, Erin A.; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the process of somatic-type cytokinesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) meristem cells with a three-dimensional resolution of ∼7 nm by electron tomography of high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted samples. Our data demonstrate that this process can be divided into four phases: phragmoplast initials, solid phragmoplast, transitional phragmoplast, and ring-shaped phragmoplast. Phragmoplast initials arise from clusters of polar microtubules (MTs) during late anaphase. At their equatorial planes, cell plate assembly sites are formed, consisting of a filamentous ribosome-excluding cell plate assembly matrix (CPAM) and Golgi-derived vesicles. The CPAM, which is found only around growing cell plate regions, is suggested to be responsible for regulating cell plate growth. Virtually all phragmoplast MTs terminate inside the CPAM. This association directs vesicles to the CPAM and thereby to the growing cell plate. Cell plate formation within the CPAM appears to be initiated by the tethering of vesicles by exocyst-like complexes. After vesicle fusion, hourglass-shaped vesicle intermediates are stretched to dumbbells by a mechanism that appears to involve the expansion of dynamin-like springs. This stretching process reduces vesicle volume by ∼50%. At the same time, the lateral expansion of the phragmoplast initials and their CPAMs gives rise to the solid phragmoplast. Later arriving vesicles begin to fuse to the bulbous ends of the dumbbells, giving rise to the tubulo-vesicular membrane network (TVN). During the transitional phragmoplast stage, the CPAM and MTs disassemble and then reform in a peripheral ring phragmoplast configuration. This creates the centrifugally expanding peripheral cell plate growth zone, which leads to cell plate fusion with the cell wall. Simultaneously, the central TVN begins to mature into a tubular network, and ultimately into a planar fenestrated sheet (PFS), through the removal of membrane via clathrin

  16. Nitric Oxide Has a Concentration-Dependent Effect on the Cell Cycle Acting via EIN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Galina V.; Mur, Luis A. J.; Nosov, Alexander V.; Fomenkov, Artem A.; Mironov, Kirill S.; Mamaeva, Anna S.; Shilov, Evgeny S.; Rakitin, Victor Y.; Hall, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is known to influence the cell cycle (CC) via poorly characterized roles whilst nitric oxide (NO) has well-established roles in the animal CC but analogous role(s) have not been reported for plants. As NO and ethylene signaling events often interact we examined their role in CC in cultured cells derived from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col-0) plants and from ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1 plants. Both NO and ethylene were produced mainly during the first 5 days of the sub-cultivation period corresponding to the period of active cell division. However, in ein2-1 cells, ethylene generation was significantly reduced while NO levels were increased. With application of a range of concentrations of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (between 20 and 500 μM) ethylene production was significantly diminished in Col-0 but unchanged in ein2-1 cells. Flow cytometry assays showed that in Col-0 cells treatments with 5 and 10 μM SNP concentrations led to an increase in S-phase cell number indicating the stimulation of G1/S transition. However, at ≥20 μM SNP CC progression was restrained at G1/S transition. In the mutant ein2-1 strain, the index of S-phase cells was not altered at 5–10 μM SNP but decreased dramatically at higher SNP concentrations. Concomitantly, 5 μM SNP induced transcription of genes encoding CDKA;1 and CYCD3;1 in Col-0 cells whereas transcription of CDKs and CYCs were not significantly altered in ein2-1 cells at any SNP concentrations examined. Hence, it is appears that EIN2 is required for full responses at each SNP concentration. In ein2-1 cells, greater amounts of NO, reactive oxygen species, and the tyrosine-nitrating peroxynitrite radical were detected, possibly indicating NO-dependent post-translational protein modifications which could stop CC. Thus, we suggest that in Arabidopsis cultured cells NO affects CC progression as a concentration-dependent modulator with a dependency on EIN2 for both ethylene production and a NO

  17. Nitric Oxide Has a Concentration-Dependent Effect on the Cell Cycle Acting via EIN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Galina V; Mur, Luis A J; Nosov, Alexander V; Fomenkov, Artem A; Mironov, Kirill S; Mamaeva, Anna S; Shilov, Evgeny S; Rakitin, Victor Y; Hall, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is known to influence the cell cycle (CC) via poorly characterized roles whilst nitric oxide (NO) has well-established roles in the animal CC but analogous role(s) have not been reported for plants. As NO and ethylene signaling events often interact we examined their role in CC in cultured cells derived from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col-0) plants and from ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1 plants. Both NO and ethylene were produced mainly during the first 5 days of the sub-cultivation period corresponding to the period of active cell division. However, in ein2-1 cells, ethylene generation was significantly reduced while NO levels were increased. With application of a range of concentrations of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (between 20 and 500 μM) ethylene production was significantly diminished in Col-0 but unchanged in ein2-1 cells. Flow cytometry assays showed that in Col-0 cells treatments with 5 and 10 μM SNP concentrations led to an increase in S-phase cell number indicating the stimulation of G1/S transition. However, at ≥20 μM SNP CC progression was restrained at G1/S transition. In the mutant ein2-1 strain, the index of S-phase cells was not altered at 5-10 μM SNP but decreased dramatically at higher SNP concentrations. Concomitantly, 5 μM SNP induced transcription of genes encoding CDKA;1 and CYCD3;1 in Col-0 cells whereas transcription of CDKs and CYCs were not significantly altered in ein2-1 cells at any SNP concentrations examined. Hence, it is appears that EIN2 is required for full responses at each SNP concentration. In ein2-1 cells, greater amounts of NO, reactive oxygen species, and the tyrosine-nitrating peroxynitrite radical were detected, possibly indicating NO-dependent post-translational protein modifications which could stop CC. Thus, we suggest that in Arabidopsis cultured cells NO affects CC progression as a concentration-dependent modulator with a dependency on EIN2 for both ethylene production and a NO

  18. A Gene Regulatory Network Model for Cell-Fate Determination during Arabidopsis thaliana Flower Development That Is Robust and Recovers Experimental Gene Expression ProfilesW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Soto, Carlos; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2004-01-01

    Flowers are icons in developmental studies of complex structures. The vast majority of 250,000 angiosperm plant species have flowers with a conserved organ plan bearing sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels in the center. The combinatorial model for the activity of the so-called ABC homeotic floral genes has guided extensive experimental studies in Arabidopsis thaliana and many other plant species. However, a mechanistic and dynamical explanation for the ABC model and prevalence among flowering plants is lacking. Here, we put forward a simple discrete model that postulates logical rules that formally summarize published ABC and non-ABC gene interaction data for Arabidopsis floral organ cell fate determination and integrates this data into a dynamic network model. This model shows that all possible initial conditions converge to few steady gene activity states that match gene expression profiles observed experimentally in primordial floral organ cells of wild-type and mutant plants. Therefore, the network proposed here provides a dynamical explanation for the ABC model and shows that precise signaling pathways are not required to restrain cell types to those found in Arabidopsis, but these are rather determined by the overall gene network dynamics. Furthermore, we performed robustness analyses that clearly show that the cell types recovered depend on the network architecture rather than on specific values of the model's gene interaction parameters. These results support the hypothesis that such a network constitutes a developmental module, and hence provide a possible explanation for the overall conservation of the ABC model and overall floral plan among angiosperms. In addition, we have been able to predict the effects of differences in network architecture between Arabidopsis and Petunia hybrida. PMID:15486106

  19. Intraspecific variability of cadmium tolerance and accumulation, and cadmium-induced cell wall modifications in the metal hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Claire-Lise; Juraniec, Michal; Huguet, Stéphanie; Chaves-Rodriguez, Elena; Salis, Pietro; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Certain molecular mechanisms of Cd tolerance and accumulation have been identified in the model species Arabidopsis halleri, while intraspecific variability of these traits and the mechanisms of shoot detoxification were little addressed. The Cd tolerance and accumulation of metallicolous and non-metallicolous A. halleri populations from different genetic units were tested in controlled conditions. In addition, changes in shoot cell wall composition were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Indeed, recent works on A. halleri suggest Cd sequestration both inside cells and in the cell wall/apoplast. All A. halleri populations tested were hypertolerant to Cd, and the metallicolous populations were on average the most tolerant. Accumulation was highly variable between and within populations, and populations that were non-accumulators of Cd were identified. The effect of Cd on the cell wall composition was quite similar in the sensitive species A. lyrata and in A. halleri individuals; the pectin/polysaccharide content of cell walls seems to increase after Cd treatment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by Cd were more pronounced in the less tolerant individuals, leading to a correlation between the level of tolerance and the extent of modifications. This work demonstrated that Cd tolerance and accumulation are highly variable traits in A. halleri, suggesting adaptation at the local scale and involvement of various molecular mechanisms. While in non-metallicolous populations drastic modifications of the cell wall occur due to higher Cd toxicity and/or Cd immobilization in this compartment, the increased tolerance of metallicolous populations probably involves other mechanisms such as vacuolar sequestration. PMID:25873677

  20. Arabidopsis metacaspase 2d is a positive mediator of cell death induced during biotic and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naohide; Lam, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Cysteine proteases such as caspases play important roles in programmed cell death (PCD) of metazoans. Plant metacaspases (MCPs), a family of cysteine proteases structurally related to caspases, have been hypothesized to be ancestors of metazoan caspases, despite their different substrate specificity. Arabidopsis thaliana contains six type II MCP genes (AtMCP2a-f). Whether and how these individual members are involved in controlling PCD in plants remains largely unknown. Here we investigated the function and regulation of AtMCP2d, the predominant and constitutively expressed member of type II MCPs, in stress-inducible PCD. Two AtMCP2d mutants (mcp2d-1 and mcp2d-3) exhibited reduced sensitivity to PCD-inducing mycotoxin fumonisin B1 as well as oxidative stress inducers, whereas AtMCP2d over-expressors were more sensitive to these agents, and exhibited accelerated cell-death progression. We found that AtMCP2d exclusively localizes to the cytosol, and its accumulation and self-processing patterns were age-dependent in leaves. Importantly, active proteolytic processing of AtMCP2d proteins dependent on its catalytic activity was observed in mature leaves during mycotoxin-induced cell death. We also found that mcp2d-1 leaves exhibited reduced cell death in response to Pseudomonas syringae carrying avirulent gene avrRpt2, and that self-processing of AtMCP2d was also detected in wild-type leaves in response to this pathogen. Furthermore, increases in processed AtMCP2d proteins were found to correlate with conditional cell-death induction in two lesion-mimic mutants (cpr22 and ssi4) that exhibit spontaneous cell-death phenotypes. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that AtMCP2d plays a positive regulatory role in biotic and abiotic stress-induced PCD.

  1. Novel ABP1-TMK auxin sensing system controls ROP GTPase-mediated interdigitated cell expansion in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jisheng; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2014-06-30

    ROP GTPases (Rho-like GTPase from plants), plant counterparts of animal and fungal Rho-family GTPases, have recently been shown to be key components of a novel signaling pathway activated by the plant hormone auxin. Auxin (indole acetic acid) is a key regulator of virtually every aspect of plant growth and development, yet the molecular mechanisms of auxin responses remain largely unknown. AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is an ancient protein that binds auxin and has been implied as a receptor for a number of auxin responses, but its precise mechanism remains unresolved. A paradox for ABP1's action is that it is predominantly found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen, while it has been implicated as a cell surface auxin receptor, functionally distinct from the nuclear TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family that regulates transcriptional responses. Since our group reported that ABP1 is required for activating two antagonizing ROP signaling pathways involved in cytoskeletal reorganization and cell shape formation in Arabidopsis leaf pavement cells, we recently further showed that the plasma membrane-localized TMK receptor-like kinases functionally interact in a complex with ABP1 and are required for ABP1-dependent activation of ROP GTPases by auxin. The formation of this cell surface complex is induced by auxin and requires functional ABP1. These exciting findings provide convincing evidence for this novel auxin sensing system on the cell surface and suggest intriguing mechanisms for TMKs being functional partners of ABP1 to transmit extracellular auxin signal to intracellular ROP signaling module during polar cell expansion.

  2. Migration of sperm cells during pollen tube elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana: behavior during transport, maturation and upon dissociation of male germ unit associations.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lili; Gou, Xiaoping; Yuan, Tong; Strout, Greg W; Nakashima, Jin; Blancaflor, Elison B; Tian, Hui Qiao; Russell, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    The promoter sequence of sperm-expressed gene, PzIPT isolated from the S(vn) (sperm associated with the vegetative nucleus) of Plumbago zeylanica, was fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter sequence and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana to better visualize the live behavior of angiosperm sperm cells. Angiosperm sperm cells are not independently motile, migrating in a unique cell-within-a-cell configuration within the pollen tube. Sperm cells occur in association with the vegetative nucleus forming a male germ unit (MGU). In Arabidopsis, GFP was expressed equally in both sperm cells and was observed using a spinning disk confocal microscope, which allowed long duration observation of cells without bleaching or visible laser radiation damage. Pollen activation is reflected by conspicuous movement of sperm and pollen cytoplasm. Upon pollen germination, sperm cells enter the forming tube and become oriented, typically with a sperm cytoplasmic projection leading the sperm cells in the MGU, which remains intact throughout normal pollen tube elongation. Maturational changes, including vacuolization, general rounding and entry into G2, were observed during in vitro culture. When MGUs were experimentally disrupted by mild temperature elevation, sperm cells no longer tracked the growth of the tube and separated from the MGU, providing critical direct evidence that the MGU is a functional unit required for sperm transmission.

  3. Transcriptional Regulation of Arabidopsis Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Coordinates Cell-Type Proliferation and Differentiation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Li; Turco, Gina; Morao, Ana Karina; Kim, Dahae

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of transcription is fine-tuned at multiple levels, including chromatin compaction. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes the trimethylation of Histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), which is the hallmark of a repressive chromatin state. Multiple PRC2 complexes have been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana to control the expression of genes involved in developmental transitions and maintenance of organ identity. Here, we show that PRC2 member genes display complex spatiotemporal gene expression patterns and function in root meristem and vascular cell proliferation and specification. Furthermore, PRC2 gene expression patterns correspond with vascular and nonvascular tissue-specific H3K27me3-marked genes. This tissue-specific repression via H3K27me3 regulates the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. Using enhanced yeast one-hybrid analysis, upstream regulators of the PRC2 member genes are identified, and genetic analysis demonstrates that transcriptional regulation of some PRC2 genes plays an important role in determining PRC2 spatiotemporal activity within a developing organ. PMID:27650334

  4. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  5. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-09-14

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H(+)-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms.

  6. The influence of microgravity and spaceflight on columella cell ultrastructure in starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guisinger, M. M.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    The ultrastructure of root cap columella cells was studied by morphometric analysis in wild-type, a reduced-starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis grown in microgravity (F-microgravity) and compared to ground 1g (G-1g) and flight 1g (F-1g) controls. Seedlings of the wild-type and reduced-starch mutant that developed during an experiment on the Space Shuttle (both the F-microgravity samples and the F-lg control) exhibited a decreased starch content in comparison to the G-1g control. These results suggest that some factor associated with spaceflight (and not microgravity per se) affects starch metabolism. Elevated levels of ethylene were found during the experiments on the Space Shuttle, and analysis of ground controls with added ethylene demonstrated that this gas was responsible for decreased starch levels in the columella cells. This is the first study to use an on-board centrifuge as a control when quantifying starch in spaceflight-grown plants. Furthermore, our results show that ethylene levels must be carefully considered and controlled when designing experiments with plants for the International Space Station.

  7. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Foudree, Andrew; Zabotina, Olga A.; Rodermel, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-to-nucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. We conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27050746

  8. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    DOE PAGES

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; ...

    2016-04-06

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplificationmore » of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-tonucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. Lastly, we conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and hostpathogen interactions.« less

  9. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Foudree, Andrew; Zabotina, Olga A.; Rodermel, Steven R.

    2016-04-06

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-tonucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. Lastly, we conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and hostpathogen interactions.

  10. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Pogorelko, Gennady V; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Foudree, Andrew; Zabotina, Olga A; Rodermel, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-to-nucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. We conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and host-pathogen interactions.

  11. Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox 12 (ATHB12), a homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, regulates leaf growth by promoting cell expansion and endoreduplication.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Sun; Um, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Sunghan; Kim, Kyunga; Park, Hee-Jung; Lim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Woo-Young; Jun, Sang Eun; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Lim, Jun; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Kim, Donggiun; Park, Jongbum; Kim, Gyung-Tae; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox 12 (ATHB12), a homeodomain-leucine zipper class I (HD-Zip I) gene, is highly expressed in leaves and stems, and induced by abiotic stresses, but its role in development remains obscure. To understand its function during plant development, we studied the effects of loss and gain of function. Expression of ATHB12 fused to the EAR-motif repression domain (SRDX) - P35 S ::ATHB12SRDX (A12SRDX) and PATHB 12 ::ATHB12SRDX - slowed both leaf and root growth, while the growth of ATHB12-overexpressing seedlings (A12OX) was accelerated. Microscopic examination revealed changes in the size and number of leaf cells. Ploidy was reduced in A12SRDX plants, accompanied by decreased cell expansion and increased cell numbers. By contrast, cell size was increased in A12OX plants, along with increased ploidy and elevated expression of cell cycle switch 52s (CCS52s), which are positive regulators of endoreduplication, indicating that ATHB12 promotes leaf cell expansion and endoreduplication. Overexpression of ATHB12 led to decreased phosphorylation of Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomal protein S6 (AtRPS6), a regulator of cell growth. In addition, induction of ATHB12 in the presence of cycloheximide increased the expression of several genes related to cell expansion, such as EXPANSIN A10 (EXPA10) and DWARF4 (DWF4). Our findings strongly suggest that ATHB12 acts as a positive regulator of endoreduplication and cell growth during leaf development.

  12. Global Analysis of Arabidopsis Gene Expression Uncovers a Complex Array of Changes Impacting Pathogen Response and Cell Cycle during Geminivirus Infection1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ascencio-Ibáñez, José Trinidad; Sozzani, Rosangela; Lee, Tae-Jin; Chu, Tzu-Ming; Wolfinger, Russell D.; Cella, Rino; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Geminiviruses are small DNA viruses that use plant replication machinery to amplify their genomes. Microarray analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcriptome in response to cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) infection uncovered 5,365 genes (false discovery rate <0.005) differentially expressed in infected rosette leaves at 12 d postinoculation. Data mining revealed that CaLCuV triggers a pathogen response via the salicylic acid pathway and induces expression of genes involved in programmed cell death, genotoxic stress, and DNA repair. CaLCuV also altered expression of cell cycle-associated genes, preferentially activating genes expressed during S and G2 and inhibiting genes active in G1 and M. A limited set of core cell cycle genes associated with cell cycle reentry, late G1, S, and early G2 had increased RNA levels, while core cell cycle genes linked to early G1 and late G2 had reduced transcripts. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of nuclei from infected leaves revealed a depletion of the 4C population and an increase in 8C, 16C, and 32C nuclei. Infectivity studies of transgenic Arabidopsis showed that overexpression of CYCD3;1 or E2FB, both of which promote the mitotic cell cycle, strongly impaired CaLCuV infection. In contrast, overexpression of E2FA or E2FC, which can facilitate the endocycle, had no apparent effect. These results showed that geminiviruses and RNA viruses interface with the host pathogen response via a common mechanism, and that geminiviruses modulate plant cell cycle status by differentially impacting the CYCD/retinoblastoma-related protein/E2F regulatory network and facilitating progression into the endocycle. PMID:18650403

  13. Arabidopsis Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase Acts in the Auxin/PLETHORA Pathway in Regulating Postembryonic Maintenance of the Root Stem Cell Niche[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenkun; Wei, Lirong; Xu, Jian; Zhai, Qingzhe; Jiang, Hongling; Chen, Rong; Chen, Qian; Sun, Jiaqiang; Chu, Jinfang; Zhu, Lihuang; Liu, Chun-Ming; Li, Chuanyou

    2010-01-01

    Recent identification of the Arabidopsis thaliana tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST) and a group of Tyr-sulfated peptides known as root meristem growth factors (RGFs) highlights the importance of protein Tyr sulfation in plant growth and development. Here, we report the action mechanism of TPST in maintenance of the root stem cell niche, which in the Arabidopsis root meristem is an area of four mitotically inactive quiescent cells plus the surrounding mitotically active stem cells. Mutation of TPST leads to defective maintenance of the root stem cell niche, decreased meristematic activity, and stunted root growth. We show that TPST expression is positively regulated by auxin and that mutation of this gene affects auxin distribution by reducing local expression levels of several PIN genes and auxin biosynthetic genes in the stem cell niche region. We also show that mutation of TPST impairs basal- and auxin-induced expression of the PLETHORA (PLT) stem cell transcription factor genes and that overexpression of PLT2 rescues the root meristem defects of the loss-of-function mutant of TPST. Together, these results support that TPST acts to maintain root stem cell niche by regulating basal- and auxin-induced expression of PLT1 and PLT2. TPST-dependent sulfation of RGFs provides a link between auxin and PLTs in regulating root stem cell niche maintenance. PMID:21045165

  14. The Arabidopsis translatome cell-specific mRNA atlas: Mining suberin and cutin lipid monomer biosynthesis genes as an example for data application.

    PubMed

    Mustroph, Angelika; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2010-03-01

    Plants consist of distinct cell types distinguished by position, morphological features and metabolic activities. We recently developed a method to extract cell-type specific mRNA populations by immunopurification of ribosome-associated mRNAs. Microarray profiles of 21 cell-specific mRNA populations from seedling roots and shoots comprise the Arabidopsis Translatome dataset. This gene expression atlas provides a new tool for the study of cell-specific processes. Here we provide an example of how genes involved in a pathway limited to one or few cell-types can be further characterized and new candidate genes can be predicted. Cells of the root endodermis produce suberin as an inner barrier between the cortex and stele, whereas the shoot epidermal cells form cutin as a barrier to the external environment. Both polymers consist of fatty acid derivates, and share biosynthetic origins. We use the Arabidopsis Translatome dataset to demonstrate the significant cell-specific expression patterns of genes involved in those biosynthetic processes and suggest new candidate genes in the biosynthesis of suberin and cutin.

  15. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Panoli, Aneesh; Martin, Maria Victoria; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Simon, Marissa; Neff, Christina; Swarup, Ranjan; Bellido, Andrés; Yuan, Li; Pagnussat, Gabriela C; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2) are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development.

  16. Conditional Repression of AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 Reveals That It Coordinates Cell Division and Cell Expansion during Postembryonic Shoot Development in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Nils; Wyrzykowska, Joanna; Muller, Philippe; David, Karine; Couch, Daniel; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) has long been characterized as a potentially important mediator of auxin action in plants. Analysis of the functional requirement for ABP1 during development was hampered because of embryo lethality of the null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we used conditional repression of ABP1 to investigate its function during vegetative shoot development. Using an inducible cellular immunization approach and an inducible antisense construct, we showed that decreased ABP1 activity leads to a severe retardation of leaf growth involving an alteration in cell division frequency, an altered pattern of endocycle induction, a decrease in cell expansion, and a change in expression of early auxin responsive genes. In addition, local repression of ABP1 activity in the shoot apical meristem revealed an additional role for ABP1 in cell plate formation and cell shape. Moreover, cells at the site of presumptive leaf initiation were more sensitive to ABP1 repression than other regions of the meristem. This spatial context-dependent response of the meristem to ABP1 inactivation and the other data presented here are consistent with a model in which ABP1 acts as a coordinator of cell division and expansion, with local auxin levels influencing ABP1 effectiveness. PMID:18952781

  17. A P-Loop NTPase Regulates Quiescent Center Cell Division and Distal Stem Cell Identity through the Regulation of ROS Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Root

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qianqian; Tian, Huiyu; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xugang; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized as important regulators of cell division and differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana P-loop NTPase encoded by APP1 affects root stem cell niche identity through its control of local ROS homeostasis. The disruption of APP1 is accompanied by a reduction in ROS level, a rise in the rate of cell division in the quiescent center (QC) and the promotion of root distal stem cell (DSC) differentiation. Both the higher level of ROS induced in the app1 mutant by exposure to methyl viologen (MV), and treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) rescued the mutant phenotype, implying that both the increased rate of cell division in the QC and the enhancement in root DSC differentiation can be attributed to a low level of ROS. APP1 is expressed in the root apical meristem cell mitochondria, and its product is associated with ATP hydrolase activity. The key transcription factors, which are defining root distal stem niche, such as SCARECROW (SCR) and SHORT ROOT (SHR) are both significantly down-regulated at both the transcriptional and protein level in the app1 mutant, indicating that SHR and SCR are important downstream targets of APP1-regulated ROS signaling to control the identity of root QC and DSCs. PMID:27583367

  18. Distinct cell-specific expression patterns of early and late gibberellin biosynthetic genes during Arabidopsis seed germination.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, S; Kamiya, Y; Sun, T

    2001-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are biosynthesized through a complex pathway that involves several classes of enzymes. To predict sites of individual GA biosynthetic steps, we studied cell type-specific expression of genes encoding early and late GA biosynthetic enzymes in germinating Arabidopsis seeds. We showed that expression of two genes, AtGA3ox1 and AtGA3ox2, encoding GA 3-oxidase, which catalyzes the terminal biosynthetic step, was mainly localized in the cortex and endodermis of embryo axes in germinating seeds. Because another GA biosynthetic gene, AtKO1, coding for ent-kaurene oxidase, exhibited a similar cell-specific expression pattern, we predicted that the synthesis of bioactive GAs from ent-kaurene oxidation occurs in the same cell types during seed germination. We also showed that the cortical cells expand during germination, suggesting a spatial correlation between GA production and response. However, promoter activity of the AtCPS1 gene, responsible for the first committed step in GA biosynthesis, was detected exclusively in the embryo provasculature in germinating seeds. When the AtCPS1 cDNA was expressed only in the cortex and endodermis of non-germinating ga1-3 seeds (deficient in AtCPS1) using the AtGA3ox2 promoter, germination was not as resistant to a GA biosynthesis inhibitor as expression in the provasculature. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of GAs during seed germination takes place in two separate locations with the early step occurring in the provasculature and the later steps in the cortex and endodermis. This implies that intercellular transport of an intermediate of the GA biosynthetic pathway is required to produce bioactive GAs.

  19. SHORT-ROOT Deficiency Alleviates the Cell Death Phenotype of the Arabidopsis catalase2 Mutant under Photorespiration-Promoting Conditions.

    PubMed

    Waszczak, Cezary; Kerchev, Pavel I; Mühlenbock, Per; Hoeberichts, Frank A; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Mhamdi, Amna; Willems, Patrick; Denecker, Jordi; Kumpf, Robert P; Noctor, Graham; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can act as a signaling molecule that influences various aspects of plant growth and development, including stress signaling and cell death. To analyze molecular mechanisms that regulate the response to increased H2O2 levels in plant cells, we focused on the photorespiration-dependent peroxisomal H2O2 production in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking CATALASE2 (CAT2) activity (cat2-2). By screening for second-site mutations that attenuate the PSII maximum efficiency (Fv'/Fm') decrease and lesion formation linked to the cat2-2 phenotype, we discovered that a mutation in SHORT-ROOT (SHR) rescued the cell death phenotype of cat2-2 plants under photorespiration-promoting conditions. SHR deficiency attenuated H2O2-dependent gene expression, oxidation of the glutathione pool, and ascorbate depletion in a cat2-2 genetic background upon exposure to photorespiratory stress. Decreased glycolate oxidase and catalase activities together with accumulation of glycolate further implied that SHR deficiency impacts the cellular redox homeostasis by limiting peroxisomal H2O2 production. The photorespiratory phenotype of cat2-2 mutants did not depend on the SHR functional interactor SCARECROW and the sugar signaling component ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4, despite the requirement for exogenous sucrose for cell death attenuation in cat2-2 shr-6 double mutants. Our findings reveal a link between SHR and photorespiratory H2O2 production that has implications for the integration of developmental and stress responses.

  20. A green fluorescent protein fusion to actin-binding domain 2 of Arabidopsis fimbrin highlights new features of a dynamic actin cytoskeleton in live plant cells.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Michael B; Staiger, Chris J; Rose, Ray J; McCurdy, David W

    2004-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton coordinates numerous cellular processes required for plant development. The functions of this network are intricately linked to its dynamic arrangement, and thus progress in understanding how actin orchestrates cellular processes relies on critical evaluation of actin organization and turnover. To investigate the dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton, we used a fusion protein between green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the second actin-binding domain (fABD2) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin, AtFIM1. The GFP-fABD2 fusion protein labeled highly dynamic and dense actin networks in diverse species and cell types, revealing structural detail not seen with alternative labeling methods, such as the commonly used mouse talin GFP fusion (GFP-mTalin). Further, we show that expression of the GFP-fABD2 fusion protein in Arabidopsis, unlike GFP-mTalin, has no detectable adverse effects on plant morphology or development. Time-lapse confocal microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses of the actin cytoskeleton labeled with GFP-fABD2 revealed that lateral-filament migration and sliding of individual actin filaments or bundles are processes that contribute to the dynamic and continually reorganizing nature of the actin scaffold. These new observations of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton in plant cells using GFP-fABD2 reveal the value of this probe for future investigations of how actin filaments coordinate cellular processes required for plant development.

  1. TYPE-ONE PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE4 Regulates Pavement Cell Interdigitation by Modulating PIN-FORMED1 Polarity and Trafficking in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaola; Qin, Qianqian; Yan, Jia; Niu, Yali; Huang, Bingyao; Guan, Liping; Li, Yuan; Ren, Dongtao; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2015-01-01

    In plants, cell morphogenesis is dependent on intercellular auxin accumulation. The polar subcellular localization of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein is crucial for this process. Previous studies have shown that the protein kinase PINOID (PID) and protein phosphatase6-type phosphatase holoenzyme regulate the phosphorylation status of PIN1 in root tips and shoot apices. Here, we show that a type-one protein phosphatase, TOPP4, is essential for the formation of interdigitated pavement cell (PC) pattern in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf. The dominant-negative mutant topp4-1 showed severely inhibited interdigitated PC growth. Expression of topp4-1 gene in wild-type plants recapitulated the PC defects in the mutant. Genetic analyses suggested that TOPP4 and PIN1 likely function in the same pathway to regulate PC morphogenesis. Furthermore, colocalization, in vitro and in vivo protein interaction studies, and dephosphorylation assays revealed that TOPP4 mediated PIN1 polar localization and endocytic trafficking in PCs by acting antagonistically with PID to modulate the phosphorylation status of PIN1. In addition, TOPP4 affects the cytoskeleton pattern through the Rho of Plant GTPase-dependent auxin-signaling pathway. Therefore, we conclude that TOPP4-regulated PIN1 polar targeting through direct dephosphorylation is crucial for PC morphogenesis in the Arabidopsis leaf. PMID:25560878

  2. New Arabidopsis thaliana Cytochrome c Partners: A Look Into the Elusive Role of Cytochrome c in Programmed Cell Death in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Fábregas, Jonathan; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Janocha, Simon; Navarro, José A.; Hervás, Manuel; Bernhardt, Rita; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; De la Rosa, Miguel Á.

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death is an event displayed by many different organisms along the evolutionary scale. In plants, programmed cell death is necessary for development and the hypersensitive response to stress or pathogenic infection. A common feature in programmed cell death across organisms is the translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. To better understand the role of cytochrome c in the onset of programmed cell death in plants, a proteomic approach was developed based on affinity chromatography and using Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome c as bait. Using this approach, ten putative new cytochrome c partners were identified. Of these putative partners and as indicated by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, nine of them bind the heme protein in plant protoplasts and human cells as a heterologous system. The in vitro interaction between cytochrome c and such soluble cytochrome c-targets was further corroborated using surface plasmon resonance. Taken together, the results obtained in the study indicate that Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome c interacts with several distinct proteins involved in protein folding, translational regulation, cell death, oxidative stress, DNA damage, energetic metabolism, and mRNA metabolism. Interestingly, some of these novel Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome c-targets are closely related to those for Homo sapiens cytochrome c (Martínez-Fábregas et al., unpublished). These results indicate that the evolutionarily well-conserved cytosolic cytochrome c, appearing in organisms from plants to mammals, interacts with a wide range of targets on programmed cell death. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000280. PMID:24019145

  3. Novel proteins, putative membrane transporters, and an integrated metabolic network are revealed by quantitative proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis cell culture peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Eubel, Holger; Meyer, Etienne H; Taylor, Nicolas L; Bussell, John D; O'Toole, Nicholas; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Castleden, Ian; Small, Ian D; Smith, Steven M; Millar, A Harvey

    2008-12-01

    Peroxisomes play key roles in energy metabolism, cell signaling, and plant development. A better understanding of these important functions will be achieved with a more complete definition of the peroxisome proteome. The isolation of peroxisomes and their separation from mitochondria and other major membrane systems have been significant challenges in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) model system. In this study, we present new data on the Arabidopsis peroxisome proteome obtained using two new technical advances that have not previously been applied to studies of plant peroxisomes. First, we followed density gradient centrifugation with free-flow electrophoresis to improve the separation of peroxisomes from mitochondria. Second, we used quantitative proteomics to identify proteins enriched in the peroxisome fractions relative to mitochondrial fractions. We provide evidence for peroxisomal localization of 89 proteins, 36 of which have not previously been identified in other analyses of Arabidopsis peroxisomes. Chimeric green fluorescent protein constructs of 35 proteins have been used to confirm their localization in peroxisomes or to identify endoplasmic reticulum contaminants. The distribution of many of these peroxisomal proteins between soluble, membrane-associated, and integral membrane locations has also been determined. This core peroxisomal proteome from nonphotosynthetic cultured cells contains a proportion of proteins that cannot be predicted to be peroxisomal due to the lack of recognizable peroxisomal targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) or PTS2 signals. Proteins identified are likely to be components in peroxisome biogenesis, beta-oxidation for fatty acid degradation and hormone biosynthesis, photorespiration, and metabolite transport. A considerable number of the proteins found in peroxisomes have no known function, and potential roles of these proteins in peroxisomal metabolism are discussed. This is aided by a metabolic network analysis that reveals a

  4. MDP25, A Novel Calcium Regulatory Protein, Mediates Hypocotyl Cell Elongation by Destabilizing Cortical Microtubules in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiejie; Wang, Xianling; Qin, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Jingbo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Ziding; Yuan, Ming; Mao, Tonglin

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of hypocotyl elongation is important for plant growth. Microtubules play a crucial role during hypocotyl cell elongation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. In this study, we describe a novel Arabidopsis thaliana microtubule-destabilizing protein 25 (MDP25) as a negative regulator of hypocotyl cell elongation. We found that MDP25 directly bound to and destabilized microtubules to enhance microtubule depolymerization in vitro. The seedlings of mdp25 mutant Arabidopsis lines had longer etiolated hypocotyls. In addition, MDP25 overexpression resulted in significant overall shortening of hypocotyl cells, which exhibited destabilized cortical microtubules and abnormal cortical microtubule orientation, suggesting that MDP25 plays a crucial role in the negative regulation of hypocotyl cell elongation. Although MDP25 localized to the plasma membrane under normal conditions, increased calcium levels in cells caused MDP25 to partially dissociate from the plasma membrane and move into the cytosol. Cellular MDP25 bound to and destabilized cortical microtubules, resulting in their reorientation, and subsequently inhibited hypocotyl cell elongation. Our results suggest that MDP25 exerts its function on cortical microtubules by responding to cytoplasmic calcium levels to mediate hypocotyl cell elongation. PMID:22209764

  5. Cell cycle and mismatch repair genes as potential biomarkers in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exposed to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, Prakash M; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-06-01

    The expression of cell cycle genes and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes were analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exposed to 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L of silver nanoparticles for 24, 48 and 72 h using real-time PCR. Significant up-regulation of AtPCNA1 was observed after 24 h exposure to 0.2 and 0.5 mg/L of silver nanoparticles. AtPCNA2 gene was up-regulated after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure to 0.5 and 1 mg/L of silver nanoparticles. AtMLH1 gene was up-regulated after 48 h exposure to 0.5 and 1 mg/L of silver nanoparticles and down-regulated after 72 h. Down-regulation of AtMSH2, AtMSH3, AtMSH6 and AtMSH7 mRNA was observed after exposure to all concentrations of silver nanoparticles for different time periods. Exposure to silver ions showed no significant change in the expression levels of AtPCNA and MMR genes. The results show that AtPCNA and MMR genes could be used as potential molecular biomarkers.

  6. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    PubMed

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants.

  7. The Fanconi anemia ortholog FANCM ensures ordered homologous recombination in both somatic and meiotic cells in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Alexander; Higgins, James D; Seeliger, Katharina; Reha, Sarah J; Dangel, Natalie J; Bauknecht, Markus; Schröpfer, Susan; Franklin, F Christopher H; Puchta, Holger

    2012-04-01

    The human hereditary disease Fanconi anemia leads to severe symptoms, including developmental defects and breakdown of the hematopoietic system. It is caused by single mutations in the FANC genes, one of which encodes the DNA translocase FANCM (for Fanconi anemia complementation group M), which is required for the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links to ensure replication progression. We identified a homolog of FANCM in Arabidopsis thaliana that is not directly involved in the repair of DNA lesions but suppresses spontaneous somatic homologous recombination via a RecQ helicase (At-RECQ4A)-independent pathway. In addition, it is required for double-strand break-induced homologous recombination. The fertility of At-fancm mutant plants is compromised. Evidence suggests that during meiosis At-FANCM acts as antirecombinase to suppress ectopic recombination-dependent chromosome interactions, but this activity is antagonized by the ZMM pathway to enable the formation of interference-sensitive crossovers and chromosome synapsis. Surprisingly, mutation of At-FANCM overcomes the sterility phenotype of an At-MutS homolog4 mutant by apparently rescuing a proportion of crossover-designated recombination intermediates via a route that is likely At-MMS and UV sensitive81 dependent. However, this is insufficient to ensure the formation of an obligate crossover. Thus, At-FANCM is not only a safeguard for genome stability in somatic cells but is an important factor in the control of meiotic crossover formation.

  8. Knockout of Arabidopsis ACCELERATED-CELL-DEATH11 encoding a sphingosine transfer protein causes activation of programmed cell death and defense

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Peter; Petersen, Morten; Pike, Helen M.; Olszak, Brian; Skov, Søren; Ødum, Niels; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    We describe the lethal, recessive accelerated-cell-death11 Arabidopsis mutant (acd11). Cell death in acd11 exhibits characteristics of animal apoptosis monitored by flow cytometry, and acd11 constitutively expresses defense-related genes that accompany the hypersensitive response normally triggered by avirulent pathogens. Global transcriptional changes during programmed cell death (PCD) and defense activation in acd11 were monitored by cDNA microarray hybridization. The PCD and defense pathways activated in acd11 are salicylic acid (SA) dependent, but do not require intact jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling pathways. Light is required for PCD execution in acd11, as application of an SA-analog to SA-deficient acd11 induced death in the light, but not in the dark. Epistatic analysis showed that the SA-dependent pathways require two regulators of SA-mediated resistance responses, PAD4 and EDS1. Furthermore, acd11 PR1 gene expression, but not cell death, depends on the SA signal tranducer NPR1, suggesting that the npr1-1 mutation uncouples resistance responses and cell death in acd11. The acd11 phenotype is caused by deletion of the ACD11 gene encoding a protein homologous to a mammalian glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP). In contrast to GLTP, ACD11 accelerates the transfer of sphingosine, but not of glycosphingolipids, between membranes in vitro. PMID:11850411

  9. Metacaspase-8 modulates programmed cell death induced by ultraviolet light and H2O2 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Rui; Drury, Georgina E; Rotari, Vitalie I; Gordon, Anna; Willer, Martin; Farzaneh, Tabasum; Woltering, Ernst J; Gallois, Patrick

    2008-01-11

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically controlled cell death that is regulated during development and activated in response to environmental stresses or pathogen infection. The degree of conservation of PCD across kingdoms and phylum is not yet clear; however, whereas caspases are proteases that act as key components of animal apoptosis, plants have no orthologous caspase sequences in their genomes. The discovery of plant and fungi metacaspases as proteases most closely related to animal caspases led to the hypothesis that metacaspases are the functional homologues of animal caspases in these organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana has nine metacaspase genes, and so far it is unknown which members of the family if any are involved in the regulation of PCD. We show here that metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is a member of the gene family strongly up-regulated by oxidative stresses caused by UVC, H(2)O(2), or methyl viologen. This up-regulation was dependent of RCD1, a mediator of the oxidative stress response. Recombinant metacaspase-8 cleaved after arginine, had a pH optimum of 8, and complemented the H(2)O(2) no-death phenotype of a yeast metacaspase knock-out. Overexpressing AtMC8 up-regulated PCD induced by UVC or H(2)O(2), and knocking out AtMC8 reduced cell death triggered by UVC and H(2)O(2) in protoplasts. Knock-out seeds and seedlings had an increased tolerance to the herbicide methyl viologen. We suggest that metacaspase-8 is part of an evolutionary conserved PCD pathway activated by oxidative stress.

  10. Water-polysaccharide interactions in the primary cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana from polarization transfer solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    White, Paul B; Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Hong, Mei

    2014-07-23

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are hydrated under functional conditions, but the molecular interactions between water and polysaccharides in the wall have not been investigated. In this work, we employ polarization transfer solid-state NMR techniques to study the hydration of primary-wall polysaccharides of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. By transferring water (1)H polarization to polysaccharides through distance- and mobility-dependent (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings and detecting it through polysaccharide (13)C signals, we obtain information about water proximity to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins as well as water mobility. Both intact and partially extracted cell wall samples are studied. Our results show that water-pectin polarization transfer is much faster than water-cellulose polarization transfer in all samples, but the extent of extraction has a profound impact on the water-polysaccharide spin diffusion. Removal of calcium ions and the consequent extraction of homogalacturonan (HG) significantly slowed down spin diffusion, while further extraction of matrix polysaccharides restored the spin diffusion rate. These trends are observed in cell walls with similar water content, thus they reflect inherent differences in the mobility and spatial distribution of water. Combined with quantitative analysis of the polysaccharide contents, our results indicate that calcium ions and HG gelation increase the amount of bound water, which facilitates spin diffusion, while calcium removal disrupts the gel and gives rise to highly dynamic water, which slows down spin diffusion. The recovery of spin diffusion rates after more extensive extraction is attributed to increased water-exposed surface areas of the polysaccharides. Water-pectin spin diffusion precedes water-cellulose spin diffusion, lending support to the single-network model of plant primary walls in which a substantial fraction of the cellulose surface is surrounded by pectins.

  11. Light, genotype, and abscisic acid affect chloroplast positioning in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in distinct ways.

    PubMed

    Königer, Martina; Jessen, Brita; Yang, Rui; Sittler, Dorothea; Harris, Gary C

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of light intensity, genotype, and various chemical treatments on chloroplast movement in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. After treatment at various light intensities (dark, low, and high light), leaf discs were fixed with glutaraldehyde, and imaged using confocal laser microscopy. Each chloroplast was assigned a horizontal (close to pore, center, or epidermal side) and vertical (outer, middle, inner) position. White light had a distinct effect on chloroplast positioning, most notably under high light (HL) when chloroplasts on the upper leaf surface of wild-type (WT) moved from epidermal and center positions toward the pore. This was not the case for phot1-5/phot2-1 or phot2-1 plants, thus phototropins are essential for chloroplast positioning in guard cells. In npq1-2 mutants, fewer chloroplasts moved to the pore position under HL than in WT plants, indicating that white light can affect chloroplast positioning also in a zeaxanthin-dependent way. Cytochalasin B inhibited the movement of chloroplasts to the pore under HL, while oryzalin did not, supporting the idea that actin plays a role in the movement. The movement along actin cables is dependent on CHUP1 since chloroplast positioning in chup1 was significantly altered. Abscisic acid (ABA) caused most chloroplasts in WT and phot1-5/phot2-1 to be localized in the center, middle part of the guard cells irrespective of light treatment. This indicates that not only light but also water stress influences chloroplast positioning.

  12. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  13. Expression of a Cs(+)-resistant guard cell K+ channel confers Cs(+)-resistant, light-induced stomatal opening in transgenic arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Ichida, A M; Pei, Z M; Baizabal-Aguirre, V M; Turner, K J; Schroeder, J I

    1997-01-01

    Inward-rectifying K+ (K+in) channels in the guard cell plasma membrane have been suggested to function as a major pathway for K+ influx into guard cells during stomatal opening. When K+in channels were blocked with external Cs+ in wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells, light-induced stomatal opening was reduced. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated that expressed a mutant of the guard cell K+in channel, KAT1, which shows enhanced resistance to the Cs+ block. Stomata in these transgenic lines opened in the presence of external Cs+. Patch-clamp experiments with transgenic guard cells showed that inward K+(in) currents were blocked less by Cs+ than were K+ currents in controls. These data provide direct evidence that KAT1 functions as a plasma membrane K+ channel in vivo and that K+in channels constitute an important mechanism for light-induced stomatal opening. In addition, biophysical properties of K+in channels in guard cells indicate that components in addition to KAT1 may contribute to the formation of K+in channels in vivo. PMID:9368418

  14. A comparative study of the Arabidopsis thaliana guard-cell transcriptome and its modulation by sucrose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that photosynthesis-derived sugar signals guard cells to adjust stomatal opening, we determined the profile of genes expressed in isolated guard cells. The results revealed that expression of 289 genes increased in guard cells in response to sucrose. Consistent with the hypoth...

  15. A high-resolution gene expression map of the Arabidopsis shoot meristem stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram Kishor; Tavakkoli, Montreh; Xie, Mingtang; Girke, Thomas; Reddy, G Venugopala

    2014-07-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) acts as a reservoir for stem cells. The central zone (CZ) harbors stem cells. The stem cell progenitors differentiate in the adjacent peripheral zone and in the rib meristem located just beneath the CZ. The SAM is further divided into distinct clonal layers: the L1 epidermal, L2 sub-epidermal and L3 layers. Collectively, SAMs are complex structures that consist of cells of different clonal origins that are organized into functional domains. By employing fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we have generated gene expression profiles of ten cell populations that belong to different clonal layers as well as domains along the central and peripheral axis. Our work reveals that cells in distinct clonal layers exhibit greater diversity in gene expression and greater transcriptional complexity than clonally related cell types in the central and peripheral axis. Assessment of molecular functions and biological processes reveals that epidermal cells express genes involved in pathogen defense: the L2 layer cells express genes involved in DNA repair pathways and telomere maintenance, and the L3 layers express transcripts involved in ion balance and salt tolerance besides photosynthesis. Strikingly, the stem cell-enriched transcriptome comprises very few hormone-responsive transcripts. In addition to providing insights into the expression profiles of hundreds of transcripts, the data presented here will act as a resource for reverse genetic analysis and will be useful in deciphering molecular pathways involved in cell type specification and their functions.

  16. Multiple feedback loops through cytokinin signaling control stem cell number within the Arabidopsis shoot meristem.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sean P; Chickarmane, Vijay S; Ohno, Carolyn; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2009-09-22

    A central unanswered question in stem cell biology, both in plants and in animals, is how the spatial organization of stem cell niches are maintained as cells move through them. We address this question for the shoot apical meristem (SAM) which harbors pluripotent stem cells responsible for growth of above-ground tissues in flowering plants. We find that localized perception of the plant hormone cytokinin establishes a spatial domain in which cell fate is respecified through induction of the master regulator WUSCHEL as cells are displaced during growth. Cytokinin-induced WUSCHEL expression occurs through both CLAVATA-dependent and CLAVATA-independent pathways. Computational analysis shows that feedback between cytokinin response and genetic regulators predicts their relative patterning, which we confirm experimentally. Our results also may explain how increasing cytokinin concentration leads to the first steps in reestablishing the shoot stem cell niche in vitro.

  17. Alterations in protein expression of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures during hyper- , simulated and sounding rocket micro-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, Ruediger; Barjaktarović, Žarko; Babbick, Maren; Magel, Elisabeth; Nordheim, Alfred; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Hampp, Ruediger

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to hypergravity (8g), 2D clinorotation and random positioning exhibit changes in gene expression (Martzivanou et al., Protoplasma 229:155-162, 2003). In a recent investigation we could show that after 2 hrs of exposure also the protein complement shows treatment-related changes. These are indicative for reactive oxygen species being involved in the perception of / response to changes in the gravitational field. In the present study we have extended these investigations for a period of up to 16 hrs of exposure. We report on changes in abundance of 28 proteins which have been identified by nano HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, and which were altered in amount after 2 hrs of treatment. According to changes between 2 and 16 hrs we could distinguish four groups of proteins which either declined, increased from down-regulated to control levels, showed a transient decline or a transient increase. With regard to function, our data indicate stress relief or adaption to a new gravitational steady state under prolonged exposure. The latter assumption is supported by the appearance of a new set of 19 proteins which is changed in abundance after 8 hrs of hypergravity. A comparative analysis of the different treatments showed some similarities in response between 8g centrifugation and 2D clinorotation, while random positioning showed the least responses. In addition, we report on the impact of reduced gravitation on the phospho proteom. Cell cultures exposed to 12 min of microgravity as obtained on board of sounding rockets do not respond with alterations in total protein but in the degree of phosphorylation as demonstrated after 2D SDS PAGE separation and sequencing. On this basis we give evidence for signaling cascades involved in the transduction of gravitational signals.

  18. The MADS Domain Protein DIANA Acts Together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to Specify the Central Cell in Arabidopsis Ovules[W

    PubMed Central

    Bemer, Marian; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2008-01-01

    MADS box genes in plants consist of MIKC-type and type I genes. While MIKC-type genes have been studied extensively, the functions of type I genes are still poorly understood. Evidence suggests that type I MADS box genes are involved in embryo sac and seed development. We investigated two independent T-DNA insertion alleles of the Arabidopsis thaliana type I MADS box gene AGAMOUS-LIKE61 (AGL61) and showed that in agl61 mutant ovules, the polar nuclei do not fuse and central cell morphology is aberrant. Furthermore, the central cell begins to degenerate before fertilization takes place. Although pollen tubes are attracted and perceived by the mutant ovules, neither endosperm development nor zygote formation occurs. AGL61 is expressed in the central cell during the final stages of embryo sac development. An AGL61:green fluorescent protein–β-glucoronidase fusion protein localizes exclusively to the polar nuclei and the secondary nucleus of the central cell. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that AGL61 can form a heterodimer with AGL80 and that the nuclear localization of AGL61 is lost in the agl80 mutant. Thus, AGL61 and AGL80 appear to function together to differentiate the central cell in Arabidopsis. We renamed AGL61 DIANA, after the virginal Roman goddess of the hunt. PMID:18713950

  19. Arabidopsis annexin1 mediates the radical-activated plasma membrane Ca²+- and K+-permeable conductance in root cells.

    PubMed

    Laohavisit, Anuphon; Shang, Zhonglin; Rubio, Lourdes; Cuin, Tracey A; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Wang, Aihua; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Macpherson, Neil; Coxon, Katy M; Battey, Nicholas H; Brownlee, Colin; Park, Ohkmae K; Sentenac, Hervé; Shabala, Sergey; Webb, Alex A R; Davies, Julia M

    2012-04-01

    Plant cell growth and stress signaling require Ca²⁺ influx through plasma membrane transport proteins that are regulated by reactive oxygen species. In root cell growth, adaptation to salinity stress, and stomatal closure, such proteins operate downstream of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidases that produce extracellular superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species that is readily converted to extracellular hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, OH•. In root cells, extracellular OH• activates a plasma membrane Ca²⁺-permeable conductance that permits Ca²⁺ influx. In Arabidopsis thaliana, distribution of this conductance resembles that of annexin1 (ANN1). Annexins are membrane binding proteins that can form Ca²⁺-permeable conductances in vitro. Here, the Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutant for annexin1 (Atann1) was found to lack the root hair and epidermal OH•-activated Ca²⁺- and K⁺-permeable conductance. This manifests in both impaired root cell growth and ability to elevate root cell cytosolic free Ca²⁺ in response to OH•. An OH•-activated Ca²⁺ conductance is reconstituted by recombinant ANN1 in planar lipid bilayers. ANN1 therefore presents as a novel Ca²⁺-permeable transporter providing a molecular link between reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca²⁺ in plants.

  20. Differential abscisic acid regulation of guard cell slow anion channels in Arabidopsis wild-type and abi1 and abi2 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Z M; Kuchitsu, K; Ward, J M; Schwarz, M; Schroeder, J I

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates vital physiological responses, and a number of events in the ABA signaling cascade remain to be identified. To allow quantitative analysis of genetic signaling mutants, patch-clamp experiments were developed and performed with the previously inaccessible Arabidopsis guard cells from the wild type and ABA-insensitive (abi) mutants. Slow anion channels have been proposed to play a rate-limiting role in ABA-induced stomatal closing. We now directly demonstrate that ABA strongly activates slow anion channels in wild-type guard cells. Furthermore, ABA-induced anion channel activation and stomatal closing were suppressed by protein phosphatase inhibitors. In abi1-1 and abi2-1 mutant guard cells, ABA activation of slow anion channels and ABA-induced stomatal closing were abolished. These impairments in ABA signaling were partially rescued by kinase inhibitors in abi1 but not in abi2 guard cells. These data provide cell biological evidence that the abi2 locus disrupts early ABA signaling, that abi1 and abi2 affect ABA signaling at different steps in the cascade, and that protein kinases act as negative regulators of ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. New models for ABA signaling pathways and roles for abi1, abi2, and protein kinases and phosphatases are discussed. PMID:9090884

  1. Arabidopsis Annexin1 Mediates the Radical-Activated Plasma Membrane Ca2+- and K+-Permeable Conductance in Root Cells[W

    PubMed Central

    Laohavisit, Anuphon; Shang, Zhonglin; Rubio, Lourdes; Cuin, Tracey A.; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Wang, Aihua; Mortimer, Jennifer C.; Macpherson, Neil; Coxon, Katy M.; Battey, Nicholas H.; Brownlee, Colin; Park, Ohkmae K.; Sentenac, Hervé; Shabala, Sergey; Webb, Alex A.R.; Davies, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell growth and stress signaling require Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane transport proteins that are regulated by reactive oxygen species. In root cell growth, adaptation to salinity stress, and stomatal closure, such proteins operate downstream of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidases that produce extracellular superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species that is readily converted to extracellular hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, OH•. In root cells, extracellular OH• activates a plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable conductance that permits Ca2+ influx. In Arabidopsis thaliana, distribution of this conductance resembles that of annexin1 (ANN1). Annexins are membrane binding proteins that can form Ca2+-permeable conductances in vitro. Here, the Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutant for annexin1 (Atann1) was found to lack the root hair and epidermal OH•-activated Ca2+- and K+-permeable conductance. This manifests in both impaired root cell growth and ability to elevate root cell cytosolic free Ca2+ in response to OH•. An OH•-activated Ca2+ conductance is reconstituted by recombinant ANN1 in planar lipid bilayers. ANN1 therefore presents as a novel Ca2+-permeable transporter providing a molecular link between reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca2+ in plants. PMID:22523205

  2. Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Hong, Mei

    2015-07-01

    The structural role of pectins in plant primary cell walls is not yet well understood because of the complex and disordered nature of the cell wall polymers. We recently introduced multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the spatial proximities of wall polysaccharides. The data showed extensive cross peaks between pectins and cellulose in the primary wall of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), indicating subnanometer contacts between the two polysaccharides. This result was unexpected because stable pectin-cellulose interactions are not predicted by in vitro binding assays and prevailing cell wall models. To investigate whether the spatial contacts that give rise to the cross peaks are artifacts of sample preparation, we now compare never-dried Arabidopsis primary walls with dehydrated and rehydrated samples. One-dimensional (13)C spectra, two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra, water-polysaccharide correlation spectra, and dynamics data all indicate that the structure, mobility, and intermolecular contacts of the polysaccharides are indistinguishable between never-dried and rehydrated walls. Moreover, a partially depectinated cell wall in which 40% of homogalacturonan is extracted retains cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that the cellulose-pectin contacts are not due to molecular crowding. The cross peaks are observed both at -20 °C and at ambient temperature, thus ruling out freezing as a cause of spatial contacts. These results indicate that rhamnogalacturonan I and a portion of homogalacturonan have significant interactions with cellulose microfibrils in the native primary wall. This pectin-cellulose association may be formed during wall biosynthesis and may involve pectin entrapment in or between cellulose microfibrils, which cannot be mimicked by in vitro binding assays.

  3. Spatio-temporal analysis of cellulose synthesis during cell plate formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Miart, Fabien; Desprez, Thierry; Biot, Eric; Morin, Halima; Belcram, Katia; Höfte, Herman; Gonneau, Martine; Vernhettes, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    During cytokinesis a new crosswall is rapidly laid down. This process involves the formation at the cell equator of a tubulo-vesicular membrane network (TVN). This TVN evolves into a tubular network (TN) and a planar fenestrated sheet, which extends at its periphery before fusing to the mother cell wall. The role of cell wall polymers in cell plate assembly is poorly understood. We used specific stains and GFP-labelled cellulose synthases (CESAs) to show that cellulose, as well as three distinct CESAs, accumulated in the cell plate already at the TVN stage. This early presence suggests that cellulose is extruded into the tubular membrane structures of the TVN. Co-localisation studies using GFP-CESAs suggest the delivery of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) to the cell plate via phragmoplast-associated vesicles. In the more mature TN part of the cell plate, we observed delivery of GFP-CESA from doughnut-shaped organelles, presumably Golgi bodies. During the conversion of the TN into a planar fenestrated sheet, the GFP-CESA density diminished, whereas GFP-CESA levels remained high in the TVN zone at the periphery of the expanding cell plate. We observed retrieval of GFP-CESA in clathrin-containing structures from the central zone of the cell plate and from the plasma membrane of the mother cell, which may contribute to the recycling of CESAs to the peripheral growth zone of the cell plate. These observations, together with mutant phenotypes of cellulose-deficient mutants and pharmacological experiments, suggest a key role for cellulose synthesis already at early stages of cell plate assembly.

  4. Two-Step Regulation of a Meristematic Cell Population Acting in Shoot Branching in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Caihuan; Wang, Jin; Xu, Tengfei; Xu, Yan; Ohno, Carolyn; Sablowski, Robert; Heisler, Marcus G.; Theres, Klaus; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Shoot branching requires the establishment of new meristems harboring stem cells; this phenomenon raises questions about the precise regulation of meristematic fate. In seed plants, these new meristems initiate in leaf axils to enable lateral shoot branching. Using live-cell imaging of leaf axil cells, we show that the initiation of axillary meristems requires a meristematic cell population continuously expressing the meristem marker SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). The maintenance of STM expression depends on the leaf axil auxin minimum. Ectopic expression of STM is insufficient to activate axillary buds formation from plants that have lost leaf axil STM expressing cells. This suggests that some cells undergo irreversible commitment to a developmental fate. In more mature leaves, REVOLUTA (REV) directly up-regulates STM expression in leaf axil meristematic cells, but not in differentiated cells, to establish axillary meristems. Cell type-specific binding of REV to the STM region correlates with epigenetic modifications. Our data favor a threshold model for axillary meristem initiation, in which low levels of STM maintain meristematic competence and high levels of STM lead to meristem initiation. PMID:27398935

  5. Embedding Arabidopsis Plant Cell Suspensions in Low-Melting Agarose Facilitates Altered Gravity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Khaled Y.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Medina, F. Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2017-02-01

    Gravity plays a role in modulating plant growth and development and its alteration induces changes in these processes. Microgravity research has recently been extended to the use of in vitro plant cell cultures which are considered as an ideal model system to study cell proliferation and growth. In general, among the ground-based facilities available for microgravity simulation, the 2D pipette clinostat had been previously considered a suitable facility to be used for unicellular biological models although studies using single plant cell cultures raised some concerns. The incompatibility comes from the standard requirement of shaking a suspension culture for assuring its viability and active proliferation status in the control samples. Moreover, a related issue applies to the use of the random positioning machine (RPM) for cell suspension experiments. Here, we demonstrate an alternative culture method based on the immobilization of the culture before the altered gravity treatment occurs, such that it behaves as a solid object. Our immobilization procedure preserved plant cell culture viability without compromising basic cell properties as viability, morphology, cell cycle phases distribution, or chromatin organization, when compared with a standard cell suspension under shaking as a control. This approach should allow the space biology community to improve the quantity and quality of plant cell results in future simulated microgravity experiments or spaceflight opportunities.

  6. Meristematic competence is disrupted by microgravity, real or simulated, in seedlings and cultured cells of Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Francisco Javier; Herranz, Raul; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Kiss, John; Valbuena, Miguel A.; Youssef, Khaled

    In actively proliferating plant cells, the rate of cell proliferation is strictly coordinated with cell growth, and this coordination is called “meristematic competence”. Cell proliferation consists of the adequate progression of the cell division cycle throughout specific regulatory checkpoints, and cell growth consists of reaching the critical size making possible cell division, based on the increase of biomass, essentially by means of protein synthesis. There are two cellular models in which these processes can be studied, namely the meristematic tissues of plants and seedlings and the in vitro suspension cell cultures. Meristems are essential for the determination of the developmental pattern of the plant, which is primarily based on the balance between proliferating (meristematic) and differentiated cells. Auxin is a fundamental phytohormone, responsible for the maintenance of meristematic competence and for the control of the rate of differentiation. We first studied the proliferating activity of root meristematic cells in the International Space Station (ISS) and in a random positioning machine (RPM), a ground-based device for simulated microgravity. The result in both experiments was the increase of mitotic activity (cell proliferation) and the depletion of ribosome synthesis (cell growth), that is, the disruption of meristematic competence. We found these effects associated with changes in the auxin levels and polar transport, which is related to the role of auxin as a mediator of the transduction of the gravitropic signal sensed in the root columella. We plan to advance in the investigation of mechanisms of the auxin control of meristematic competence in microgravity conditions in a new experiment, “Seedling Growth”, to be performed in the ISS. We will use mutants of the auxin transport pathway and we will also test the potential activating role of red light, known to be a cell proliferation and gene expression enhancer. The role played by

  7. XND1, a member of the NAC domain family in Arabidopsis thaliana, negatively regulates lignocellulose synthesis and programmed cell death in xylem

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; U. Avci; E. Grant; C.H. Haigler; E.P. Beers

    2007-10-23

    Members of the large Arabidopsis NAC domain transcription factor family are regulators of meristem development, organ elongation and separation, and deposition of patterned secondary cell walls. XYLEM NAC DOMAIN 1 (XND1) is highly expressed in xylem. Changes observed for XND1 knockout plants compared with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana included a reduction in both plant height and tracheary element length and an increase in metaxylem relative to protoxylem in roots of plants treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Overexpression of XND1 resulted in extreme dwarfism associated with the absence of xylem vessels and little or no expression of tracheary element marker genes. In contrast, phloem marker-gene expression was not altered and phloem-type cells still formed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that parenchyma-like cells in the incipient xylem zone in hypocotyls of XND1 overexpressors lacked secondary wall thickenings and retained their cytoplasmic content. Considered together, these findings suggest that XND1 affects tracheary element growth through regulation of secondary wall synthesis and programmed cell death.

  8. AtLa1 protein initiates IRES-dependent translation of WUSCHEL mRNA and regulates the stem cell homeostasis of Arabidopsis in response to environmental hazards.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuchao; Rao, Shaofei; Chang, Beibei; Wang, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Kaidian; Hou, Xueliang; Zhu, Xueyi; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong; Yang, Chengwei; Huang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Plant stem cells are hypersensitive to environmental hazards throughout their life cycle, but the mechanism by which plants safeguard stem cell homeostasis in response to environmental hazards is largely unknown. The homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) protein maintains the stem cell pool in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that the translation of WUS mRNA is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5'-untranslated region. The AtLa1 protein, an RNA-binding factor, binds to the 5'-untranslated region and initiates the IRES-dependent translation of WUS mRNA. Knockdown of AtLa1 expression represses the WUS IRES-dependent translation and leads to the arrest of growth and development. The AtLa1 protein is mainly located in the nucleoplasm. However, environmental hazards promote the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of the AtLa1 protein, which further enhances the IRES-dependent translation of WUS mRNA. Genetic evidence indicates that the WUS protein increases the tolerance of the shoot apical meristem to environmental hazards. Based on these results, we conclude that the stem cell niche in Arabidopsis copes with environmental hazards by enhancing the IRES-dependent translation of WUS mRNA under the control of the AtLa1 protein.

  9. The mitochondrial cycle of Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem and leaf primordium meristematic cells is defined by a perinuclear tentaculate/cage-like mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Seguí-Simarro, José M; Coronado, María José; Staehelin, L Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Plant cells exhibit a high rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination. This implies that before cytokinesis, the different mitochondrial compartments must fuse to allow for mtDNA intermixing. When and how the conditions for mtDNA intermixing are established are largely unknown. We have investigated the cell cycle-dependent changes in mitochondrial architecture in different Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell types using confocal microscopy, conventional, and three-dimensional electron microscopy techniques. Whereas mitochondria of cells from most plant organs are always small and dispersed, shoot apical and leaf primordial meristematic cells contain small, discrete mitochondria in the cell periphery and one large, mitochondrial mass in the perinuclear region. Serial thin-section reconstructions of high-pressure-frozen shoot apical meristem cells demonstrate that during G1 through S phase, the large, central mitochondrion has a tentaculate morphology and wraps around one nuclear pole. In G2, both types of mitochondria double their volume, and the large mitochondrion extends around the nucleus to establish a second sheet-like domain at the opposite nuclear pole. During mitosis, approximately 60% of the smaller mitochondria fuse with the large mitochondrion, whose volume increases to 80% of the total mitochondrial volume, and reorganizes into a cage-like structure encompassing first the mitotic spindle and then the entire cytokinetic apparatus. During cytokinesis, the cage-like mitochondrion divides into two independent tentacular mitochondria from which new, small mitochondria arise by fission. These cell cycle-dependent changes in mitochondrial architecture explain how these meristematic cells can achieve a high rate of mtDNA recombination and ensure the even partitioning of mitochondria between daughter cells.

  10. The Mitochondrial Cycle of Arabidopsis Shoot Apical Meristem and Leaf Primordium Meristematic Cells Is Defined by a Perinuclear Tentaculate/Cage-Like Mitochondrion1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Seguí-Simarro, José M.; Coronado, María José; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells exhibit a high rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination. This implies that before cytokinesis, the different mitochondrial compartments must fuse to allow for mtDNA intermixing. When and how the conditions for mtDNA intermixing are established are largely unknown. We have investigated the cell cycle-dependent changes in mitochondrial architecture in different Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell types using confocal microscopy, conventional, and three-dimensional electron microscopy techniques. Whereas mitochondria of cells from most plant organs are always small and dispersed, shoot apical and leaf primordial meristematic cells contain small, discrete mitochondria in the cell periphery and one large, mitochondrial mass in the perinuclear region. Serial thin-section reconstructions of high-pressure-frozen shoot apical meristem cells demonstrate that during G1 through S phase, the large, central mitochondrion has a tentaculate morphology and wraps around one nuclear pole. In G2, both types of mitochondria double their volume, and the large mitochondrion extends around the nucleus to establish a second sheet-like domain at the opposite nuclear pole. During mitosis, approximately 60% of the smaller mitochondria fuse with the large mitochondrion, whose volume increases to 80% of the total mitochondrial volume, and reorganizes into a cage-like structure encompassing first the mitotic spindle and then the entire cytokinetic apparatus. During cytokinesis, the cage-like mitochondrion divides into two independent tentacular mitochondria from which new, small mitochondria arise by fission. These cell cycle-dependent changes in mitochondrial architecture explain how these meristematic cells can achieve a high rate of mtDNA recombination and ensure the even partitioning of mitochondria between daughter cells. PMID:18799659

  11. Overexpression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a alleviates mitochondria-dependent programmed cell death induced by aluminium phytotoxicity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Li, Zhe; Wang, Yongqiang; Xing, Da

    2014-08-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal oxidase found in all plants, and functions to maintain the electron flux and reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our previous study demonstrated that aluminium (Al) treatment could induce increased expression of the AOX1a gene, but the mechanism of how AOX1a participates in the regulation of Al-induced programmed cell death (PCD) is still not clear. To investigate the possible mechanism, mitochondrial ROS production and the behaviour of mitochondria, as well as caspase-3-like activation were monitored under Al treatment in wild-type (WT), AOX1a-lacking (aox1a), and AOX1a-overexpressing (AOX1a-OE) Arabidopsis. Our results showed that Al treatment increased the expression of AOX1a at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Overexpression of AOX1a reduced mitochondrial ROS production by maintaining the mitochondrial electron flux, and alleviated subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3-like activation in Al-induced PCD. Moreover, it was found that a change in AOX1a level could influence the expression levels of downstream functional genes that play protective roles in Al-induced PCD. Experiments using mutants and inhibitors demonstrated that superoxide anion (O2 (-)) derived from mitochondria was involved in Al-induced upregulation of AOX1a gene expression. Taken together, these results indicated that overexpression of AOX1a alleviated Al-induced PCD by maintaining mitochondrial function and promoting the expression of protective functional genes, providing new insights into the signalling cascades that modulate the Al phytotoxicity mechanism.

  12. MAP65-3 Microtubule-Associated Protein Is Essential for Nematode-Induced Giant Cell Ontogenesis in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Lecomte, Philippe; Jammes, Fabien; Quentin, Michaël; Pagnotta, Sophie; Andrio, Emilie; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Marfaing, Nicolas; Gounon, Pierre; Abad, Pierre; Favery, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The infection of plants by obligate parasitic nematodes constitutes an interesting model for investigating plant cytoskeleton functions. Root knot nematodes have evolved the ability to manipulate host functions to their own advantage by redifferentiating root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied feeding cells. These giant cells result from repeated rounds of karyokinesis without cell division. Detailed functional analyses demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana Microtubule-Associated Protein65-3 (MAP65-3) was essential for giant cell ontogenesis and that cytokinesis was initiated but not completed in giant cells. In developing giant cells, MAP65-3 was associated with a novel kind of cell plate—the giant cell mini cell plate—that separates daughter nuclei. In the absence of functional MAP65-3, giant cells developed but failed to fully differentiate and were eventually destroyed. These defects in giant cells impaired the maturation of nematode larvae. Thus, MAP65-3 is essential for giant cell development during root knot nematode infection. Subcellular localization of MAP65-3 and analysis of microtubule organization in the dyc283 T-DNA map65-3 mutant demonstrated that MAP65-3 played a critical role in organizing the mitotic microtubule array during both early and late mitosis in all plant organs. Here, we propose a model for the role of MAP65-3 in giant cell ontogenesis. PMID:18263774

  13. Depletion of MOM1 in non-dividing cells of Arabidopsis plants releases transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad; Habu, Yoshiki; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2002-10-01

    Mitotic and meiotic inheritance of epigenetic information is coupled to the reproduction of chromatin conformation and DNA methylation patterns. This implies that the S phase of the cell cycle provides a window of opportunity for changes in epigenetic determination. Recent studies, however, have suggested that chromatin structure is also rather dynamic in quiescent cells of multicellular eukaryotes and that silent heterochromatic regions can become accessible to transcription. Such epigenetic flexibility in differentiated tissues could be of physiological importance. The mechanisms and molecular components involved are of great interest but as yet unknown. We examined MOM1 (Morpheus' Molecule 1), a regulator of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) that acts independently of DNA methylation, for its role in the maintenance of TGS in non-dividing, differentiated cells. The results provide evidence that TGS maintenance mediated by MOM1 is a dynamic process that can be modified in non-dividing cells of mature plant organs by depletion of MOM1.

  14. The conflict between cell proliferation and expansion primarily affects stem organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Saori; Gunji, Shizuka; Hanai, Kenya; Hirano, Tomonari; Kazama, Yusuke; Ohbayashi, Iwai; Abe, Tomoko; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Ferjani, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Plant shoot organs such as stems, leaves and flowers are derived from specialized groups of stem cells organized at the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Organogenesis involves two major processes, namely cell proliferation and differentiation, whereby the former contributes to increasing the cell number and the latter involves substantial increases in cell volume through cell expansion. Co-ordination between the above processes in time and space is essential for proper organogenesis. To identify regulatory factors involved in proper organogenesis, heavy-ion beam-irradiated de-etiolated (det) 3-1 seeds have been used to identify striking phenotypes in the A#26-2; det3-1 mutant. In addition to the stunted plant stature mimicking det3-1, the A#26-2; det3-1 mutant exhibited stem thickening, increased floral organ number and a fruit shape reminiscent of clavata (clv) mutants. DNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that A#26-2; det3-1 harbors a mutation in the CLV3 gene. Importantly, A#26-2; det3-1 displayed cracks that randomly occurred on the main stem with a frequency of approximately 50%. Furthermore, the double mutants clv3-8 det3-1, clv1-4 det3-1 and clv2-1 det3-1 consistently showed stem cracks with frequencies of approximately 97, 38 and 35%, respectively. Cross-sections of stems further revealed an increase in vascular bundle number, cell number and size in the pith of clv3-8 det3-1 compared with det3-1. These findings suggest that the stem inner volume increase due to clv mutations exerts an outward mechanical stress; that in a det3-1 background (defective in cell expansion) resulted in cracking of the outermost layer of epidermal cells.

  15. The nucleolar structure and nucleolar proteins in proliferating cells of Arabidopsis seeds germinated in the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matía, I.; González-Camacho, F.; Marco, R.; Kiss, J. Z.; Gasset, G.; Medina, F. J.

    Seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were sent to the ISS in the ``Cervantes Mission'' (Spanish Soyuz Mission) within MAMBA Biocontainers (Dutch Space B.V.). These Biocontainers are capable of supplying liquids to the biosample by means of a motorized mechanism based on the ``Berlingot-Ampoule'' concept. Seed germination was activated by supplying culture medium to them, and the process progressed for 4 days at 22°C. Then, growth was stopped by the addition of paraformaldehyde (PFA) fixative. Once back on the ground, samples were immediately processed for microscopical observation. A parallel ground control experiment was simultaneously replicated, following the same schedule and conditions. Seed germination occurred at a high rate in the Space. No differences in the germination rate were observed with respect to the ground control, although Space-grown seedlings were substantially longer (affecting the roots and also the hypocotyl) than the parallel samples grown at 1 g. The mitotic index and the cellular morphometric parameters (length, width, nuclear size) were measured and compared in both the experimental and control conditions. Bidimensional protein electrophoresis was performed on samples in which PFA fixation was reverted by prolonged (two weeks) storage in PBS buffer. The total proteomic profile of seedlings showed differences between the Space sample and the ground control, affecting to nearly one third of the spots. Remarkably, a set of spots around 35 kDa and pI 8.0 are conspicuous in the Space sample and do not appear in the ground control. A more specialized proteomic analysis, with functional significance, was carried out using the AgNOR staining method on Western blots, a technique revealing nucleolar proteins associated with cell proliferation. Immunocytochemical experiments showed the in situ distribution of nucleolin, a nucleolar multifunctional protein regulated by kinases related with cell cycle and proliferation control mechanisms. Finally, the

  16. Quantification and cluster analysis of actin cytoskeletal structures in plant cells: role of actin bundling in stomatal movement during diurnal cycles in Arabidopsis guard cells.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Sano, Toshio; Kondo, Noriaki; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Manual evaluation of cellular structures is a popular approach in cell biological studies. However, such approaches are laborious and are prone to error, especially when large quantities of image data need to be analyzed. Here, we introduce an image analysis framework that overcomes these limitations by semi-automatic quantification and clustering of cytoskeletal structures. In our framework, cytoskeletal orientation, bundling and density are quantified by measurement of newly-developed, robust metric parameters from microscopic images. Thereafter, the microscopic images are classified without supervision by clustering based on the metric patterns. Clustering allows us to collectively investigate the large number of cytoskeletal structure images without laborious inspection. Application of this framework to images of GFP-actin binding domain 2 (GFP-ABD2)-labeled actin cytoskeletons in Arabidopsis guard cells determined that microfilaments (MFs) are radially oriented and transiently bundled in the process of diurnal stomatal opening. The framework also revealed that the expression of mouse talin GFP-ABD (GFP-mTn) continuously induced MF bundling and suppressed the diurnal patterns of stomatal opening, suggesting that changes in the level of MF bundling are crucial for promoting stomatal opening. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of our image analysis framework.

  17. Functional characterization of the Arabidopsis eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-2 that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development by regulating cell division, cell growth, and cell death.

    PubMed

    Feng, Haizhong; Chen, Qingguo; Feng, Jian; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Xiaohui; Zuo, Jianru

    2007-07-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is a highly conserved protein found in all eukaryotic organisms. Although originally identified as a translation initiation factor, recent studies in mammalian and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells suggest that eIF-5A is mainly involved in RNA metabolism and trafficking, thereby regulating cell proliferation, cell growth, and programmed cell death. In higher plants, the physiological function of eIF-5A remains largely unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant fumonisin B(1)-resistant12 (fbr12). The fbr12 mutant shows an antiapoptotic phenotype and has reduced dark-induced leaf senescence. Moreover, fbr12 displays severe defects in plant growth and development. The fbr12 mutant plant is extreme dwarf with substantially reduced size and number of all adult organs. During reproductive development, fbr12 causes abnormal development of floral organs and defective sporogenesis, leading to the abortion of both female and male germline cells. Microscopic studies revealed that these developmental defects are associated with abnormal cell division and cell growth. Genetic and molecular analyses indicated that FBR12 encodes a putative eIF-5A-2 protein. When expressed in a yeast mutant strain carrying a mutation in the eIF-5A gene, FBR12 cDNA is able to rescue the lethal phenotype of the yeast mutant, indicating that FBR12 is a functional eIF-5A. We propose that FBR12/eIF-5A-2 is fundamental for plant growth and development by regulating cell division, cell growth, and cell death.

  18. Brassinosteroid signaling directs formative cell divisions and protophloem differentiation in Arabidopsis root meristems.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yeon Hee; Breda, Alice; Hardtke, Christian S

    2017-01-15

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) trigger an intracellular signaling cascade through its receptors BR INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), BRI1-LIKE 1 (BRL1) and BRL3. Recent studies suggest that BR-independent inputs related to vascular differentiation, for instance root protophloem development, modulate downstream BR signaling components. Here, we report that protophloem sieve element differentiation is indeed impaired in bri1 brl1 brl3 mutants, although this effect might not be mediated by canonical downstream BR signaling components. We also found that their small meristem size is entirely explained by reduced cell elongation, which is, however, accompanied by supernumerary formative cell divisions in the radial dimension. Thus, reduced cell expansion in conjunction with growth retardation, because of the need to accommodate supernumerary formative divisions, can account for the overall short root phenotype of BR signaling mutants. Tissue-specific re-addition of BRI1 activity partially rescued subsets of these defects through partly cell-autonomous, partly non-cell-autonomous effects. However, protophloem-specific BRI1 expression essentially rescued all major bri1 brl1 brl3 root meristem phenotypes. Our data suggest that BR perception in the protophloem is sufficient to systemically convey BR action in the root meristem context.

  19. Unidirectional Movement of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Deposit Cellulose Involved in Mucilage Extrusion, Adherence, and Ray Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patricia; Young, Robin; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) synthesizes cellulose necessary for seed mucilage adherence to seed coat epidermal cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The involvement of additional CESA proteins in this process and details concerning the manner in which cellulose is deposited in the mucilage pocket are unknown. Here, we show that both CESA3 and CESA10 are highly expressed in this cell type at the time of mucilage synthesis and localize to the plasma membrane adjacent to the mucilage pocket. The isoxaben resistant1-1 and isoxaben resistant1-2 mutants affecting CESA3 show defects consistent with altered mucilage cellulose biosynthesis. CESA3 can interact with CESA5 in vitro, and green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA5, CESA3, and CESA10 proteins move in a linear, unidirectional fashion around the cytoplasmic column of the cell, parallel with the surface of the seed, in a pattern similar to that of cortical microtubules. Consistent with this movement, cytological evidence suggests that the mucilage is coiled around the columella and unwinds during mucilage extrusion to form a linear ray. Mutations in CESA5 and CESA3 affect the speed of mucilage extrusion and mucilage adherence. These findings imply that cellulose fibrils are synthesized in an ordered helical array around the columella, providing a distinct structure to the mucilage that is important for both mucilage extrusion and adherence. PMID:25926481

  20. A putative Arabidopsis thaliana glycosyltransferase, At4g01220, which is closely related to three plant cell wall-specific xylosyltransferases, is differentially expressed spatially and temporally.

    PubMed

    Fangel, Jonatan U; Petersen, Bent L; Jensen, Niels B; Willats, William G T; Bacic, Antony; Egelund, Jack

    2011-03-01

    Plant cell wall polysaccharides are amongst the most complex, heterogeneous and abundant bio-molecules on earth. This makes the biosynthetic enzymes, namely the glycosyltransferases and polysaccharide synthases, important research targets in plant science and biotechnology. As an initial step to characterize At4g01220, a putative Arabidopsis thaliana encoding glycosyltransferases in CAZy GT-family-77 that is similar to three known xylosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan II, we conducted an expression analysis. In transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants containing a fusion between the At4g01220 promoter and the gusA reporter gene we found the expression to be spatially and developmentally regulated. Analysis of Nicotiana benthamiana transfected with the At2g01220::YFP fusion protein revealed that the fusion protein resided in a Brefeldin A-sensitive compartment consistent with a sub-cellular location in the Golgi apparatus. In addition, in silico expression analysis from the Genevestigator database revealed that At4g01220 was up-regulated upon treatment with isoxaben, an inhibitor of cellulose synthesis, which, together with a co-expression analysis that identified a number of plant cell wall co-related biosynthetic genes, suggests involvement in cell wall biosynthesis with pectin being a prime candidate. The data presented provide insights into the expression, sub-cellular location and regulation of At4g01220 under various conditions and may help elucidate its specific function.

  1. Loss-of-Function Mutation of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION2 in Arabidopsis Leads to Reduced Cell Wall Acetylation and Increased Resistance to Botrytis cinerea1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Nafisi, Majse; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Orfila, Caroline; Gille, Sascha; Rautengarten, Carsten; Cherk, Candice; Marcus, Susan E.; Somerville, Shauna; Pauly, Markus; Knox, J. Paul; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all polysaccharides in plant cell walls are O-acetylated, including the various pectic polysaccharides and the hemicelluloses xylan, mannan, and xyloglucan. However, the enzymes involved in the polysaccharide acetylation have not been identified. While the role of polysaccharide acetylation in vivo is unclear, it is known to reduce biofuel yield from lignocellulosic biomass by the inhibition of microorganisms used for fermentation. We have analyzed four Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of the protein Cas1p known to be involved in polysaccharide O-acetylation in Cryptococcus neoformans. Loss-of-function mutants in one of the genes, designated REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION2 (RWA2), had decreased levels of acetylated cell wall polymers. Cell wall material isolated from mutant leaves and treated with alkali released about 20% lower amounts of acetic acid when compared with the wild type. The same level of acetate deficiency was found in several pectic polymers and in xyloglucan. Thus, the rwa2 mutations affect different polymers to the same extent. There were no obvious morphological or growth differences observed between the wild type and rwa2 mutants. However, both alleles of rwa2 displayed increased tolerance toward the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. PMID:21212300

  2. ALA-Induced Flavonols Accumulation in Guard Cells Is Involved in Scavenging H2O2 and Inhibiting Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Feng, Xinxin; Liu, Longbo; Xiong, Lijun; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a new plant growth regulator, can inhibit stomatal closure by reducing H2O2 accumulation in guard cells. Flavonols are a main kind of flavonoids and have been proposed as H2O2 scavengers in guard cells. 5-aminolevulinic acid can significantly improve flavonoids accumulation in plants. However, whether ALA increases flavonols content in guard cells and the role of flavonols in ALA-regulated stomatal movement remains unclear. In this study, we first demonstrated that ALA pretreatment inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure by reducing H2O2 accumulation in guard cells of Arabidopsis seedlings. This result confirms the inhibitory effect of ALA on stomatal closure and the important role of decreased H2O2 accumulation in this process. We also found that ALA significantly improved flavonols accumulation in guard cells using a flavonol-specific dye. Furthermore, using exogenous quercetin and kaempferol, two major components of flavonols in Arabidopsis leaves, we showed that flavonols accumulation inhibited ABA-induced stomatal movement by suppressing H2O2 in guard cells. Finally, we showed that the inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was largely impaired in flavonoid-deficient transparent testa4 (tt4) mutant. In addition, exogenous flavonols recovered stomatal responses of tt4 to the wild-type levels. Taken together, we conclude that ALA-induced flavonol accumulation in guard cells is partially involved in the inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced H2O2 accumulation and stomatal closure. Our data provide direct evidence that ALA can regulate stomatal movement by improving flavonols accumulation, revealing new insights into guard cell signaling. PMID:27895660

  3. Localization of the Microtubule End Binding Protein EB1 Reveals Alternative Pathways of Spindle Development in Arabidopsis Suspension CellsW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jordi; Calder, Grant; Fox, Samantha; Lloyd, Clive

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study on Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells transiently infected with the microtubule end binding protein AtEB1a–green fluorescent protein (GFP), we reported that interphase microtubules grow from multiple sites dispersed over the cortex, with plus ends forming the characteristic comet-like pattern. In this study, AtEB1a-GFP was used to study the transitions of microtubule arrays throughout the division cycle of cells lacking a defined centrosome. During division, the dispersed origin of microtubules was replaced by a more focused pattern with the plus end comets growing away from sites associated with the nuclear periphery. The mitotic spindle then evolved in two quite distinct ways depending on the presence or absence of the preprophase band (PPB): the cells displaying outside-in as well as inside-out mitotic pathways. In those cells possessing a PPB, the fusion protein labeled material at the nuclear periphery that segregated into two polar caps, perpendicular to the PPB, before nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). These polar caps then marked the spindle poles upon NEBD. However, in the population of cells without PPBs, there was no prepolarization of material at the nuclear envelope before NEBD, and the bipolar spindle only emerged clearly after NEBD. Such cells had variable spindle orientations and enhanced phragmoplast mobility, suggesting that the PPB is involved in a polarization event that promotes early spindle pole morphogenesis and subsequent positional stability during division. Astral-like microtubules are not usually prominent in plant cells, but they are clearly seen in these Arabidopsis cells, and we hypothesize that they may be involved in orienting the division plane, particularly where the plane is not determined before division. PMID:15879559

  4. Disruption of the human CGI-58 homologue in Arabidopsis results in lipid droplet accumulation in the cytosol of plant cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CGI-58 has been identified as the causative gene in the human neutral lipid storage disease called Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome. This disorder results in accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets in non-adipose tissues. Here we show that disruption of the homologous CGI-58 gene in Arabidopsis thal...

  5. GRIM REAPER peptide binds to receptor kinase PRK5 to trigger cell death in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wrzaczek, Michael; Vainonen, Julia P; Stael, Simon; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Help-Rinta-Rahko, Hanna; Gauthier, Adrien; Kaufholdt, David; Bollhöner, Benjamin; Lamminmäki, Airi; Staes, An; Gevaert, Kris; Tuominen, Hannele; Van Breusegem, Frank; Helariutta, Ykä; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of extracellular peptides by plasma membrane-localized receptor proteins is commonly used in signal transduction. In plants, very little is known about how extracellular peptides are processed and activated in order to allow recognition by receptors. Here, we show that induction of cell death in planta by a secreted plant protein GRIM REAPER (GRI) is dependent on the activity of the type II metacaspase METACASPASE-9. GRI is cleaved by METACASPASE-9 in vitro resulting in the release of an 11 amino acid peptide. This peptide bound in vivo to the extracellular domain of the plasma membrane-localized, atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase POLLEN-SPECIFIC RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 5 (PRK5) and was sufficient to induce oxidative stress/ROS-dependent cell death. This shows a signaling pathway in plants from processing and activation of an extracellular protein to recognition by its receptor. PMID:25398910

  6. GRIM REAPER peptide binds to receptor kinase PRK5 to trigger cell death in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wrzaczek, Michael; Vainonen, Julia P; Stael, Simon; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Help-Rinta-Rahko, Hanna; Gauthier, Adrien; Kaufholdt, David; Bollhöner, Benjamin; Lamminmäki, Airi; Staes, An; Gevaert, Kris; Tuominen, Hannele; Van Breusegem, Frank; Helariutta, Ykä; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2015-01-02

    Recognition of extracellular peptides by plasma membrane-localized receptor proteins is commonly used in signal transduction. In plants, very little is known about how extracellular peptides are processed and activated in order to allow recognition by receptors. Here, we show that induction of cell death in planta by a secreted plant protein GRIM REAPER (GRI) is dependent on the activity of the type II metacaspase METACASPASE-9. GRI is cleaved by METACASPASE-9 in vitro resulting in the release of an 11 amino acid peptide. This peptide bound in vivo to the extracellular domain of the plasma membrane-localized, atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase POLLEN-SPECIFIC RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 5 (PRK5) and was sufficient to induce oxidative stress/ROS-dependent cell death. This shows a signaling pathway in plants from processing and activation of an extracellular protein to recognition by its receptor.

  7. Senescence-inducible cell wall and intracellular purple acid phosphatases: implications for phosphorus remobilization in Hakea prostrata (Proteaceae) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Shane, Michael W; Stigter, Kyla; Fedosejevs, Eric T; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-01

    Despite its agronomic importance, the metabolic networks mediating phosphorus (P) remobilization during plant senescence are poorly understood. Highly efficient P remobilization (~85%) from senescing leaves and proteoid roots of harsh hakea (Hakea prostrata), a native 'extremophile' plant of south-western Australia, was linked with striking up-regulation of cell wall-localized and intracellular acid phosphatase (APase) and RNase activities. Non-denaturing PAGE followed by in-gel APase activity staining revealed senescence-inducible 120kDa and 60kDa intracellular APase isoforms, whereas only the 120kDa isoform was detected in corresponding cell wall fractions. Kinetic and immunological properties of the 120kDa and 60kDa APases partially purified from senescing leaves indicated that they are purple acid phosphatases (PAPs). Results obtained with cell wall-targeted hydrolases of harsh hakea were corroborated using Arabidopsis thaliana in which an ~200% increase in cell wall APase activity during leaf senescence was paralleled by accumulation of immunoreactive 55kDa AtPAP26 polypeptides. Senescing leaves of an atpap26 T-DNA insertion mutant displayed a >90% decrease in cell wall APase activity. Previous research established that senescing leaves of atpap26 plants exhibited a similar reduction in intracellular (vacuolar) APase activity, while displaying markedly impaired P remobilization efficiency and delayed senescence. It is hypothesized that up-regulation and dual targeting of PAPs and RNases to the cell wall and vacuolar compartments make a crucial contribution to highly efficient P remobilization that dominates the P metabolism of senescing tissues of harsh hakea and Arabidopsis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the apparent contribution of cell wall-targeted hydrolases to remobilizing key macronutrients such as P during senescence has not been previously suggested.

  8. Senescence-inducible cell wall and intracellular purple acid phosphatases: implications for phosphorus remobilization in Hakea prostrata (Proteaceae) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shane, Michael W.; Stigter, Kyla; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Plaxton, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its agronomic importance, the metabolic networks mediating phosphorus (P) remobilization during plant senescence are poorly understood. Highly efficient P remobilization (~85%) from senescing leaves and proteoid roots of harsh hakea (Hakea prostrata), a native ‘extremophile’ plant of south-western Australia, was linked with striking up-regulation of cell wall-localized and intracellular acid phosphatase (APase) and RNase activities. Non-denaturing PAGE followed by in-gel APase activity staining revealed senescence-inducible 120kDa and 60kDa intracellular APase isoforms, whereas only the 120kDa isoform was detected in corresponding cell wall fractions. Kinetic and immunological properties of the 120kDa and 60kDa APases partially purified from senescing leaves indicated that they are purple acid phosphatases (PAPs). Results obtained with cell wall-targeted hydrolases of harsh hakea were corroborated using Arabidopsis thaliana in which an ~200% increase in cell wall APase activity during leaf senescence was paralleled by accumulation of immunoreactive 55kDa AtPAP26 polypeptides. Senescing leaves of an atpap26 T-DNA insertion mutant displayed a >90% decrease in cell wall APase activity. Previous research established that senescing leaves of atpap26 plants exhibited a similar reduction in intracellular (vacuolar) APase activity, while displaying markedly impaired P remobilization efficiency and delayed senescence. It is hypothesized that up-regulation and dual targeting of PAPs and RNases to the cell wall and vacuolar compartments make a crucial contribution to highly efficient P remobilization that dominates the P metabolism of senescing tissues of harsh hakea and Arabidopsis. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the apparent contribution of cell wall-targeted hydrolases to remobilizing key macronutrients such as P during senescence has not been previously suggested. PMID:25170100

  9. Constitutive Expresser of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 Is Required for Pavement Cell Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Chen, Liang; Wang, Jing; Wu, Zhongliang; Yan, Longfeng; Hou, Suiwen

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, researchers have focused on the mechanisms underlying the important roles of the cytoskeleton in controlling the cell growth direction and cell expansion. In our study, we performed ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis on Col-0 background and identified two new CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED GENES 1 (CPR1) alleles with pavement cell (PC) morphogenetic defects. Morphological characterizations showed that polar growth initiation and expansion of PCs are seriously suppressed in cpr1. Closer cytoskeleton investigation showed that the directional arrangement of microtubules (MTs) during PC development is defective and the cortical fine actin filaments cannot be aggregated effectively to form actin cable networks in cpr1 mutants. These results suggest that the abnormal PC morphogenesis in cpr1 is accompanying with the aberrant arrangement of cytoskeleton. Site-directed mutagenesis and knockout within the F-box-associated (FBA) domain, which is reported to be a motif for recognizing particular substrates of CPR1, proved that the FBA domain is indispensable for normal CPR1 regulation of the PC morphogenesis. Further genetic analysis indicated that the defects on PC morphogenesis of cpr1 depend on two lipase-like proteins, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4. Our results provide further insights into the relationship between the cytoskeleton and PC morphogenesis, and suggest that the cytoskeleton-mediated PC morphogenesis control might be tightly linked to plant defense responses.

  10. CHD3 proteins and polycomb group proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Villar, Corina B R; Farrona, Sara; Reyes, José C; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia

    2009-08-01

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure is of fundamental importance for modulating genomic activities in higher eukaryotes. The opposing activities of Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) proteins are part of a chromatin-based cellular memory system ensuring the correct expression of specific transcriptional programs at defined developmental stages. The default silencing activity of PcG proteins is counteracted by trxG proteins that activate PcG target genes and prevent PcG mediated silencing activities. Therefore, the timely expression and regulation of PcG proteins and counteracting trxG proteins is likely to be of fundamental importance for establishing cell identity. Here, we report that the chromodomain/helicase/DNA-binding domain CHD3 proteins PICKLE (PKL) and PICKLE RELATED2 (PKR2) have trxG-like functions in plants and are required for the expression of many genes that are repressed by PcG proteins. The pkl mutant could partly suppress the leaf and flower phenotype of the PcG mutant curly leaf, supporting the idea that CHD3 proteins and PcG proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in plants. The direct targets of PKL in roots include the PcG genes SWINGER and EMBRYONIC FLOWER2 that encode subunits of Polycomb repressive complexes responsible for trimethylating histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). Similar to mutants lacking PcG proteins, lack of PKL and PKR2 caused reduced H3K27me3 levels and, therefore, increased expression of a set of PcG protein target genes in roots. Thus, PKL and PKR2 are directly required for activation of PcG protein target genes and in roots are also indirectly required for repression of PcG protein target genes. Reduced PcG protein activity can lead to cell de-differentiation and callus-like tissue formation in pkl pkr2 mutants. Thus, in contrast to mammals, where PcG proteins are required to maintain pluripotency and to prevent cell differentiation, in plants PcG proteins are required to promote cell

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Extracellular Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications from Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures and Seedlings: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremani, Mina; Stigter, Kyla A.; Plaxton, William

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by plant cells into the extracellular space, consisting of the cell wall, apoplastic fluid, and rhizosphere, play crucial roles during development, nutrient acquisition, and stress acclimation. However, isolating the full range of secreted proteins has proven difficult, and new strategies are constantly evolving to increase the number of proteins that can be detected and identified. In addition, the dynamic nature of the extracellular proteome presents the further challenge of identifying and characterizing the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of secreted proteins, particularly glycosylation and phosphorylation. Such PTMs are common and important regulatory modifications of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes. This review explores the most recent methods in isolating and characterizing the plant extracellular proteome with a focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, highlighting the current challenges yet to be overcome. Moreover, the crucial role of protein PTMs in cell wall signalling, development, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress is discussed. PMID:28248235

  12. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Sucrose Nonfermenting 1-Related Protein Kinases 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana in E. coli-Based Cell-Free System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wang, Jun; Zi, Jing; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Shaolin; Wan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family is considered an important regulator of plant responses to abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salinity, and nutrition deficiency. However, little information is available on how SnRK2s regulate sulfur deprivation responses in Arabidopsis. Large-scale production of SnRK2 kinases in vitro can help to elucidate the biochemical properties and physiological functions of this protein family. However, heterogenous expression of SnRK2s usually leads to inactive proteins. In this study, we expressed a recombinant Arabidopsis SnRK2.1 in a modified E. coli cell-free system, which combined two kinds of extracts allowing for a convenient and affordable protein preparation. The recombinant SnRK2.1 was produced in large-scale and the autophosphorylation activity of purified SnRK2.1 was characterized, allowing for further biochemical and substrate binding analysis in sulfur signaling. The application of this improved E. coli cell-free system provides us a promising and convenient platform to enhance expression of the target proteins economically.

  13. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Sucrose Nonfermenting 1-Related Protein Kinases 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana in E. coli-Based Cell-Free System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuangxi; Wang, Jun; Zi, Jing; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family is considered an important regulator of plant responses to abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salinity, and nutrition deficiency. However, little information is available on how SnRK2s regulate sulfur deprivation responses in Arabidopsis. Large-scale production of SnRK2 kinases in vitro can help to elucidate the biochemical properties and physiological functions of this protein family. However, heterogenous expression of SnRK2s usually leads to inactive proteins. In this study, we expressed a recombinant Arabidopsis SnRK2.1 in a modified E. coli cell-free system, which combined two kinds of extracts allowing for a convenient and affordable protein preparation. The recombinant SnRK2.1 was produced in large-scale and the autophosphorylation activity of purified SnRK2.1 was characterized, allowing for further biochemical and substrate binding analysis in sulfur signaling. The application of this improved E. coli cell-free system provides us a promising and convenient platform to enhance expression of the target proteins economically. PMID:27999818

  14. Analyses of Ca2+ Accumulation and Dynamics in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Arabidopsis Root Cells Using a Genetically Encoded Cameleon Sensor1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Loro, Giovanna; Behera, Smrutisanjita; Wong, Andrea; Kudla, Jörg; Costa, Alex

    2013-01-01

    In planta, very limited information is available about how the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributes to cellular Ca2+ dynamics and homeostasis. Here, we report the generation of an ER-targeted Cameleon reporter protein suitable for analysis of Ca2+ accumulation and dynamics in the lumen of the ER in plant cells. Using stably transformed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing this reporter protein, we observed a transiently enhanced accumulation of Ca2+ in the ER in response to stimuli inducing cytosolic Ca2+ rises in root tip cells. In all experimental conditions, ER Ca2+ dynamics were substantially different from those monitored in the cytosol. A pharmacological approach enabled us to evaluate the contribution of the different ER-resident Ca2+-ATPase classes in the regulation of the ER Ca2+ homeostasis. Taken together, our results do not provide evidence for a role of the ER as a major source that releases Ca2+ for stimulus-induced increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Instead, our results show that the luminal ER Ca2+ elevations typically follow cytosolic ones, but with distinct dynamics. These findings suggest fundamental differences for the function of the ER in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis in plants and animals. PMID:24082028

  15. The Cell Wall Arabinose-Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant murus5 Encodes a Defective Allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE21[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dugard, Christopher K.; Olek, Anna T.; Cooper, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional marker-based mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to determine that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low cell wall arabinose mutant murus5 (mur5) encodes a defective allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2 (RGP2). Marker analysis of 13 F2 confirmed mutant progeny from a recombinant mapping population gave a rough map position on the upper arm of chromosome 5, and deep sequencing of DNA from these 13 lines gave five candidate genes with G→A (C→T) transitions predicted to result in amino acid changes. Of these five, only insertional mutant alleles of RGP2, a gene that encodes a UDP-arabinose mutase that interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose, exhibited the low cell wall arabinose phenotype. The identities of mur5 and two SALK insertional alleles were confirmed by allelism tests and overexpression of wild-type RGP2 complementary DNA placed under the control of the 35S promoter in the three alleles. The mur5 mutation results in the conversion of cysteine-257 to tyrosine-257 within a conserved hydrophobic cluster predicted to be distal to the active site and essential for protein stability and possible heterodimerization with other isoforms of RGP. PMID:27217494

  16. The Simbox Experiment with Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Cultures: Hardware-Tests and First Resutls from the German-Chinese satellite Mission Shenzhou 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengler, Svenja; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Ruediger

    2013-02-01

    The Simbox experiment was the first joint German-Chinese space project. In this context Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures were exposed to microgravity for a 17-day period. To carry out a successful space mission, diverse hardware tests were performed in advance. Due to the limited oxygen supply inside the hardware units, cells were fixed after 5 days under microgravity conditions. As a control, samples were exposed in an on-board 1g reference centrifuge. To investigate the space effect, a ground-based study was performed with the same hardware and identical experimental procedures. As we were able to obtain high quality RNA from the RNAlater quenched samples, we used the Affymetrix Arabidopsis genome array for a transcriptome analysis. Our experiment aimed at the identification of plant genes that were differentially expressed after long-term exposure to microgravity. Pair-wise comparison of flight samples with 1g controls revealed the largest differences between space 1g and ground 1g controls.

  17. Spatiotemporal relationships between growth and microtubule orientation as revealed in living root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with green-fluorescent-protein gene construct GFP-MBD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants were transformed with GFP-MBD (J. Marc et al., Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939, 1998) under the control of a constitutive (35S) or copper-inducible promoter. GFP-specific fluorescence distributions, levels, and persistence were determined and found to vary with age, tissue type, transgenic line, and individual plant. With the exception of an increased frequency of abnormal roots of 35S GFP-MBD plants grown on kanamycin-containing media, expression of GFP-MBD does not appear to affect plant phenotype. The number of leaves, branches, bolts, and siliques as well as overall height, leaf size, and seed set are similar between wild-type and transgenic plants as is the rate of root growth. Thus, we conclude that the transgenic plants can serve as a living model system in which the dynamic behavior of microtubules can be visualized. Confocal microscopy was used to simultaneously monitor growth and microtubule behavior within individual cells as they passed through the elongation zone of the Arabidopsis root. Generally, microtubules reoriented from transverse to oblique or longitudinal orientations as growth declined. Microtubule reorientation initiated at the ends of the cell did not necessarily occur simultaneously in adjacent neighboring cells and did not involve complete disintegration and repolymerization of microtubule arrays. Although growth rates correlated with microtubule reorientation, the two processes were not tightly coupled in terms of their temporal relationships, suggesting that other factor(s) may be involved in regulating both events. Additionally, microtubule orientation was more defined in cells whose growth was accelerating and less stringent in cells whose growth was decelerating, indicating that microtubule-orienting factor(s) may be sensitive to growth acceleration, rather than growth per se.

  18. Calcium specificity signaling mechanisms in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Benjamin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Wang, Cun; Nguyen, Desiree; Yong, Taiming; Yang, Paul G; Poretsky, Elly; Belknap, Thomas F; Waadt, Rainer; Alemán, Fernando; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-01-01

    A central question is how specificity in cellular responses to the eukaryotic second messenger Ca2+ is achieved. Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca2+-signaling specificity in plants. In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca2+-sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca2+-signaling. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show impairment of ABA signal transduction in stomata of calcium-dependent protein kinase quadruple mutant plants. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 2Cs prevent non-specific Ca2+-signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca2+-signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03599.001 PMID:26192964

  19. Reassessment of an Arabidopsis cell wall invertase inhibitor AtCIF1 reveals its role in seed germination and early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Wolf, Sebastian; Han, Mei; Zhao, Hongbo; Wei, Hongbin; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants, cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) are recognized as essential players in sugar metabolism and sugar signaling, thereby affecting source-sink interactions, plant development and responses to environmental cues. CWI and VI expression levels are transcriptionally controlled; however, both enzymes are also subject to posttranslational control by invertase inhibitor proteins. The physiological significances of inhibitor proteins during seed germination and early seedling development are not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibitor isoform AtCIF1 impacted on seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. The primary target of AtCIF1 was shown to be localized to the apoplast after expressing an AtCIF1 YFP-fusion construct in tobacco epidermis and transgenic Arabidopsis root. The analysis of expression patterns showed that AtCWI1 was co-expressed spatiotemporally with AtCIF1 within the early germinating seeds. Seed germination was observed to be accelerated independently of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in the AtCIF1 loss-of-function mutant cif1-1. This effect coincided with a drastic increase of CWI activity in cif1-1 mutant seeds by 24 h after the onset of germination, both in vitro and in planta. Accordingly, quantification of sugar content showed that hexose levels were significantly boosted in germinating seeds of the cif1-1 mutant. Further investigation of AtCIF1 overexpressors in Arabidopsis revealed a markedly suppressed CWI activity as well as delayed seed germination. Thus, we conclude that the posttranslational modulation of CWI activity by AtCIF1 helps to orchestrate seed germination and early seedling growth via fine-tuning sucrose hydrolysis and, possibly, sugar signaling.

  20. RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Evan; Vu, Lam Dai; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Lin, Zhefeng; Ramakrishna, Priya; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Gaudinier, Allison; Goh, Tatsuaki; Slane, Daniel; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Brady, Siobhan M; Fukaki, Hidehiro; De Smet, Ive

    2016-08-01

    In plants, many signalling molecules, such as phytohormones, miRNAs, transcription factors, and small signalling peptides, drive growth and development. However, very few small signalling peptides have been shown to be necessary for lateral root development. Here, we describe the role of the peptide RALFL34 during early events in lateral root development, and demonstrate its specific importance in orchestrating formative cell divisions in the pericycle. Our results further suggest that this small signalling peptide acts on the transcriptional cascade leading to a new lateral root upstream of GATA23, an important player in lateral root formation. In addition, we describe a role for ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs) in regulating RALFL34 expression. Taken together, we put forward RALFL34 as a new, important player in lateral root initiation.

  1. RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Evan; Vu, Lam Dai; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Lin, Zhefeng; Ramakrishna, Priya; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Gaudinier, Allison; Goh, Tatsuaki; Slane, Daniel; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Brady, Siobhan M.; Fukaki, Hidehiro; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    In plants, many signalling molecules, such as phytohormones, miRNAs, transcription factors, and small signalling peptides, drive growth and development. However, very few small signalling peptides have been shown to be necessary for lateral root development. Here, we describe the role of the peptide RALFL34 during early events in lateral root development, and demonstrate its specific importance in orchestrating formative cell divisions in the pericycle. Our results further suggest that this small signalling peptide acts on the transcriptional cascade leading to a new lateral root upstream of GATA23, an important player in lateral root formation. In addition, we describe a role for ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs) in regulating RALFL34 expression. Taken together, we put forward RALFL34 as a new, important player in lateral root initiation. PMID:27521602

  2. Unravelling the potential of a new uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) from Arabidopsis thaliana in sensitizing HeLa cells towards 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sharmila; Sanpui, Pallab; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-10-01

    In silico studies with uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtUPRT) revealed its lower binding energies for uracil and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as compared to those of bacterial UPRT indicating the prospective of AtUPRT in gene therapy implications. Hence, AtUPRT was cloned and stably expressed in cervical cancer cells (HeLa) to investigate the effect of prodrug 5-FU on these transfected cancer cells. The treatment of AtUPRT-expressing HeLa (HeLa-UPP) cells with 5-FU for 72h resulted in significant decrease in cell viability. Moreover, 5-FU was observed to induce apoptosis and perturb mitochondrial membrane potential in HeLa-UPP cells. While cell cycle analysis revealed significant S-phase arrest as a result of 5-FU treatment in HeLa-UPP cells, quantitative gene expression analysis demonstrated simultaneous upregulation of important cell cycle related genes, cyclin D1 and p21. The survival fractions of non-transfected, vector-transfected and AtUPRT-transfected HeLa cells, following 5-FU treatment, were calculated to be 0.425, 0.366 and 0.227, respectively.

  3. TIR-only protein RBA1 recognizes a pathogen effector to regulate cell death in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Marc T; Anderson, Ryan G; Cherkis, Karen A; Law, Terry F; Liu, Qingli L; Machius, Mischa; Nimchuk, Zachary L; Yang, Li; Chung, Eui-Hwan; El Kasmi, Farid; Hyunh, Michael; Osborne Nishimura, Erin; Sondek, John E; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2017-03-07

    Detection of pathogens by plants is mediated by intracellular nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptor proteins. NLR proteins are defined by their stereotypical multidomain structure: an N-terminal Toll-interleukin receptor (TIR) or coiled-coil (CC) domain, a central nucleotide-binding (NB) domain, and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR). The plant innate immune system contains a limited NLR repertoire that functions to recognize all potential pathogens. We isolated Response to the bacterial type III effector protein HopBA1 (RBA1), a gene that encodes a TIR-only protein lacking all other canonical NLR domains. RBA1 is sufficient to trigger cell death in response to HopBA1. We generated a crystal structure for HopBA1 and found that it has similarity to a class of proteins that includes esterases, the heme-binding protein ChaN, and an uncharacterized domain of Pasteurella multocida toxin. Self-association, coimmunoprecipitation with HopBA1, and function of RBA1 require two previously identified TIR-TIR dimerization interfaces. Although previously described as distinct in other TIR proteins, in RBA1 neither of these interfaces is sufficient when the other is disrupted. These data suggest that oligomerization of RBA1 is required for function. Our identification of RBA1 demonstrates that "truncated" NLRs can function as pathogen sensors, expanding our understanding of both receptor architecture and the mechanism of activation in the plant immune system.

  4. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Phan, Nguyen; Augustin, Kelsey; Bayne, Robert S; Booker, Katherine S; Botella, Jose R; Carpita, Nicholas C; Carr, Tyrell; Chen, Jin-Gui; Cooke, Thomas Ryan; Frick-Cheng, Arwen; Friedman, Erin J; Fulk, Brandon; Hahn, Michael G; Jiang, Kun; Jorda, Lucia; Kruppe, Lydia; Liu, Chenggang; Lorek, Justine; McCann, Maureen C; Molina, Antonio; Moriyama, Etsuko N; Mukhtar, M Shahid; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Schwarz, John; Seta, Steven; Tan, Matthew; Temp, Ulrike; Trusov, Yuri; Urano, Daisuke; Welter, Bastian; Yang, Jing; Panstruga, Ralph; Uhrig, Joachim F; Jones, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, we detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification. PMID:21952135

  5. Differential TOR activation and cell proliferation in Arabidopsis root and shoot apexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojuan; Cai, Wenguo; Liu, Yanlin; Li, Hui; Fu, Liwen; Liu, Zengyu; Xu, Lin; Liu, Hongtao; Xu, Tongda; Xiong, Yan

    2017-03-07

    The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals. Glucose energy signaling is sufficient to activate target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in root apexes. In contrast, both the glucose and light signals are required for TOR activation in shoot apexes. Strikingly, exogenously applied auxin is able to replace light to activate TOR in shoot apexes and promote true leaf development. A relatively low concentration of auxin in the shoot and high concentration of auxin in the root might be responsible for this distinctive light requirement in root and shoot apexes, because light is required to promote auxin biosynthesis in the shoot. Furthermore, we reveal that the small GTPase Rho-related protein 2 (ROP2) transduces light-auxin signal to activate TOR by direct interaction, which, in turn, promotes transcription factors E2Fa,b for activating cell cycle genes in shoot apexes. Consistently, constitutively activated ROP2 plants stimulate TOR in the shoot apex and cause true leaf development even without light. Together, our findings establish a pivotal hub role of TOR signaling in integrating different environmental signals to regulate distinct developmental transition and growth in the shoot and root.

  6. TIR-only protein RBA1 recognizes a pathogen effector to regulate cell death in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ryan G.; Cherkis, Karen A.; Law, Terry F.; Liu, Qingli L.; Machius, Mischa; Nimchuk, Zachary L.; Yang, Li; Chung, Eui-Hwan; El Kasmi, Farid; Hyunh, Michael; Sondek, John E.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2017-01-01

    Detection of pathogens by plants is mediated by intracellular nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptor proteins. NLR proteins are defined by their stereotypical multidomain structure: an N-terminal Toll–interleukin receptor (TIR) or coiled-coil (CC) domain, a central nucleotide-binding (NB) domain, and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR). The plant innate immune system contains a limited NLR repertoire that functions to recognize all potential pathogens. We isolated Response to the bacterial type III effector protein HopBA1 (RBA1), a gene that encodes a TIR-only protein lacking all other canonical NLR domains. RBA1 is sufficient to trigger cell death in response to HopBA1. We generated a crystal structure for HopBA1 and found that it has similarity to a class of proteins that includes esterases, the heme-binding protein ChaN, and an uncharacterized domain of Pasteurella multocida toxin. Self-association, coimmunoprecipitation with HopBA1, and function of RBA1 require two previously identified TIR–TIR dimerization interfaces. Although previously described as distinct in other TIR proteins, in RBA1 neither of these interfaces is sufficient when the other is disrupted. These data suggest that oligomerization of RBA1 is required for function. Our identification of RBA1 demonstrates that “truncated” NLRs can function as pathogen sensors, expanding our understanding of both receptor architecture and the mechanism of activation in the plant immune system. PMID:28137883

  7. Differential TOR activation and cell proliferation in Arabidopsis root and shoot apexes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojuan; Cai, Wenguo; Liu, Yanlin; Li, Hui; Fu, Liwen; Liu, Zengyu; Liu, Hongtao; Xu, Tongda; Xiong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals. Glucose energy signaling is sufficient to activate target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in root apexes. In contrast, both the glucose and light signals are required for TOR activation in shoot apexes. Strikingly, exogenously applied auxin is able to replace light to activate TOR in shoot apexes and promote true leaf development. A relatively low concentration of auxin in the shoot and high concentration of auxin in the root might be responsible for this distinctive light requirement in root and shoot apexes, because light is required to promote auxin biosynthesis in the shoot. Furthermore, we reveal that the small GTPase Rho-related protein 2 (ROP2) transduces light-auxin signal to activate TOR by direct interaction, which, in turn, promotes transcription factors E2Fa,b for activating cell cycle genes in shoot apexes. Consistently, constitutively activated ROP2 plants stimulate TOR in the shoot apex and cause true leaf development even without light. Together, our findings establish a pivotal hub role of TOR signaling in integrating different environmental signals to regulate distinct developmental transition and growth in the shoot and root. PMID:28223530

  8. Trans-Golgi network localized ECHIDNA/Ypt interacting protein complex is required for the secretion of cell wall polysaccharides in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Delphine; McFarlane, Heather E; Johnson, Errin; Mouille, Gregory; Sjödin, Andreas; Oh, Jaesung; Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Samuels, Lacey; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2013-07-01

    The secretion of cell wall polysaccharides through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is required for plant cell elongation. However, the components mediating the post-Golgi secretion of pectin and hemicellulose, the two major cell wall polysaccharides, are largely unknown. We identified evolutionarily conserved YPT/RAB GTPase Interacting Protein 4a (YIP4a) and YIP4b (formerly YIP2), which form a TGN-localized complex with ECHIDNA (ECH) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The localization of YIP4 and ECH proteins at the TGN is interdependent and influences the localization of VHA-a1 and SYP61, which are key components of the TGN. YIP4a and YIP4b act redundantly, and the yip4a yip4b double mutants have a cell elongation defect. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological analyses demonstrate that the ECH/YIP4 complex plays a key role in TGN-mediated secretion of pectin and hemicellulose to the cell wall in dark-grown hypocotyls and in secretory cells of the seed coat. In keeping with these observations, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis revealed that the ech and yip4a yip4b mutants exhibit changes in their cell wall composition. Overall, our results reveal a TGN subdomain defined by ECH/YIP4 that is required for the secretion of pectin and hemicellulose and distinguishes the role of the TGN in secretion from its roles in endocytic and vacuolar trafficking.

  9. Changes in cytosolic pH within Arabidopsis root columella cells play a key role in the early signaling pathway for root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, A. C.; Allen, N. S.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Ratiometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy with 1',7'- bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)-dextran demonstrated that gravistimulation leads to rapid changes in cytoplasmic pH (pHc) in columella cells of Arabidopsis roots. The pHc of unstimulated columella cells in tiers 2 and 3, known sites of graviperception (E.B. Blancaflor, J.B. Fasano, S. Gilroy [1998] Plant Physiol 116: 213-222), was 7.22 +/- 0.02 pH units. Following gravistimulation, the magnitude and direction of pHc changes in these cells depended on their location in the columella. Cells in the lower side of tier 2 became more alkaline by 0.4 unit within 55 s of gravistimulation, whereas alkalinization of the cells on the upper side was slower (100 s). In contrast, all cells in tier 3 acidified by 0.4 pH unit within 480 s after gravistimulation. Disrupting these pHc changes in the columella cells using pHc modifiers at concentrations that do not affect root growth altered the gravitropic response. Acidifying agents, including bafilomycin A1, enhanced curvature, whereas alkalinizing agents disrupted gravitropic bending. These results imply that pHc changes in the gravisensing cells and the resultant pH gradients across the root cap are important at an early stage in the signal cascade leading to the gravitropic response.

  10. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    DOE PAGES

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; ...

    2015-06-04

    Xylan is a crucial component of many plant primary and secondary cell walls. However, the structure and function of xylan in the dicotyledon primary cell wall is not well understood. Here, we characterized a xylan that is specific to tissues enriched in Arabidopsis primary cell walls. Unlike previously described xylans, this xylan carries a pentose linked 1–2 to the α-1,2-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains on the β-1,4-Xyl backbone. The frequent and precisely regular spacing of GlcA substitutions every six xylosyl residues along the backbone is also unlike that previously observed in secondary cell wall xylan. Molecular genetics, in vitro assays,more » and expression data suggest that IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14 are required for xylan backbone synthesis in primary cell wall synthesising tissues. IRX9 and IRX10 are not involved in the primary cell wall xylan synthesis but are functionally exchangeable with IRX9L and IRX10L. GUX3 is the only glucuronyltransferase required for the addition of the GlcA decorations on the xylan. The differences in xylan structure in primary versus secondary cell walls might reflect the different roles in cross-linking and interaction with other cell wall components.« less

  11. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; Tryfona, Theodora; Sorieul, Mathias; Ng, Yao Z.; Zhang, Zhinong; Stott, Katherine; Anders, Nadine; Dupree, Paul

    2015-06-04

    Xylan is a crucial component of many plant primary and secondary cell walls. However, the structure and function of xylan in the dicotyledon primary cell wall is not well understood. Here, we characterized a xylan that is specific to tissues enriched in Arabidopsis primary cell walls. Unlike previously described xylans, this xylan carries a pentose linked 1–2 to the α-1,2-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains on the β-1,4-Xyl backbone. The frequent and precisely regular spacing of GlcA substitutions every six xylosyl residues along the backbone is also unlike that previously observed in secondary cell wall xylan. Molecular genetics, in vitro assays, and expression data suggest that IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14 are required for xylan backbone synthesis in primary cell wall synthesising tissues. IRX9 and IRX10 are not involved in the primary cell wall xylan synthesis but are functionally exchangeable with IRX9L and IRX10L. GUX3 is the only glucuronyltransferase required for the addition of the GlcA decorations on the xylan. The differences in xylan structure in primary versus secondary cell walls might reflect the different roles in cross-linking and interaction with other cell wall components.

  12. The Role of the Plant-Specific ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 Protein in Arabidopsis Cell Wall Polysaccharide O-Acetylation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schultink, Alex; Naylor, Dan; Dama, Murali; Pauly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A mutation in the ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 (AXY9) gene was found to be causative for the decreased xyloglucan acetylation phenotype of the axy9.1 mutant, which was identified in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants. The axy9.1 mutant also exhibits decreased O-acetylation of xylan, implying that the AXY9 protein has a broad role in polysaccharide acetylation. An axy9 insertional mutant exhibits severe growth defects and collapsed xylem, demonstrating the importance of wall polysaccharide O-acetylation for normal plant growth and development. Localization and topological experiments indicate that the active site of the AXY9 protein resides within the Golgi lumen. The AXY9 protein appears to be a component of the plant cell wall polysaccharide acetylation pathway, which also includes the REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION and TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins. The AXY9 protein is distinct from the TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins, reported to be polysaccharide acetyltransferases, but does share homology with them and other acetyltransferases, suggesting that the AXY9 protein may act to produce an acetylated intermediate that is part of the O-acetylation pathway. PMID:25681330

  13. Arabidopsis PARG1 is the key factor promoting cell survival among the enzymes regulating post-translational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailei; Gu, Zongying; Wu, Qiao; Yang, Lifeng; Liu, Caifeng; Ma, Hong; Xia, Yiji; Ge, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a reversible post-translational modification of proteins, characterized by the addition of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to proteins by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and removal of PAR by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Three PARPs and two PARGs have been found in Arabidopsis, but their respective roles are not fully understood. In this study, the functions of each PARP and PARG in DNA repair were analyzed based on their mutant phenotypes under genotoxic stresses. Double or triple mutant analysis revealed that PARP1 and PARP2, but not PARP3, play a similar but not critical role in DNA repair in Arabidopsis seedlings. PARG1 and PARG2 play an essential and a minor role, respectively under the same conditions. Mutation of PARG1 results in increased DNA damage level and enhanced cell death in plants after bleomycin treatment. PARG1 expression is induced primarily in root and shoot meristems by bleomycin and induction of PARG1 is dependent on ATM and ATR kinases. PARG1 also antagonistically modulates the DNA repair process by preventing the over-induction of DNA repair genes. Our study determined the contribution of each PARP and PARG member in DNA repair and indicated that PARG1 plays a critical role in this process. PMID:26516022

  14. Mre11 deficiency in Arabidopsis is associated with chromosomal instability in somatic cells and Spo11-dependent genome fragmentation during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Puizina, Jasna; Siroky, Jiri; Mokros, Petr; Schweizer, Dieter; Riha, Karel

    2004-08-01

    The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex is involved in many aspects of chromosome metabolism. Aberrant function of the complex is associated with defects in the DNA checkpoint, double-strand break repair, meiosis, and telomere maintenance. In this article, we report the consequences of Mre11 dysfunction for the stability of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although plants homozygous for a T-DNA insertion in a conserved region of the MRE11 gene are viable, they exhibit growth defects and are infertile. Analysis of mitotic chromosomes prepared from the mutant plants revealed abundant dicentric chromosomes and chromosomal fragments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that anaphase bridges are often formed by homologous chromosome arms. The frequency of chromosome fusions was not reduced in mre11 ku70 double mutants, suggesting that plants possess DNA end-joining activities independent of the Ku70/80 and Mre11 complexes. Cytogenetic examination of pollen mother cells revealed massive chromosome fragmentation and the absence of synapsis in the initial stages of meiosis. The fragmentation was substantially suppressed in mre11 spo11-1 double mutants, indicating that Mre11 is required for repair but not for the induction of Spo11-dependent meiotic DNA breaks in Arabidopsis.

  15. Multiple Signaling Pathways in Gene Expression during Sugar Starvation. Pharmacological Analysis of din Gene Expression in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Yuki; Ito, Masaki; Nishida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We have identified many dark-inducible (din) genes that are expressed in Arabidopsis leaves kept in the dark. In the present study we addressed the question of how plant cells sense the depletion of sugars, and how sugar starvation triggers din gene expression in suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis. Depletion of sucrose in the medium triggered marked accumulation of din transcripts. Suppression of din gene expression by 2-deoxy-Glc, and a non-suppressive effect exerted by 3-O-methyl-Glc, suggested that sugar-repressible expression of din genes is mediated through the phosphorylation of hexose by hexokinase, as exemplified in the repression of photosynthetic genes by sugars. We have further shown that the signaling triggered by sugar starvation involves protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events, and have provided the first evidence that multiple pathways of protein dephosphorylation exist in sugar starvation-induced gene expression. An inhibitor of serine/threonine protein kinase, K-252a, inhibited din gene expression in sugar-depleted cells. Okadaic acid, which may preferentially inhibit type 2A protein phosphatases over type 1, enhanced the transcript levels of all din genes, except din6 and din10, under sugar starvation. Conversely, a more potent inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, calyculin A, increased transcripts from din2 and din9, but decreased those from other din genes, in sugar-depleted cells. On the other hand, calyculin A, but not okadaic acid, completely inhibited the gene expression of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein under sugar starvation. These results indicate that multiple signaling pathways, mediated by different types of protein phosphatases, regulate gene expression during sugar starvation. PMID:11080291

  16. Lhcb Transcription Is Coordinated with Cell Size and Chlorophyll Accumulation (Studies on Fluorescence-Activated, Cell-Sorter-Purified Single Cells from Wild-Type and immutans Arabidopsis thaliana).

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, L.; Harkins, K.; Chory, J.; Rodermel, S.

    1996-01-01

    To study the mechanisms that integrate pigment and chlorophyll a/b-binding apoprotein biosynthesis during light-harvesting complex II assembly, we have examined [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme activities, chlorophyll contents, and cell sizes in fluorescence-activated, cell-sorting-separated single cells from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and immutans variegation mutant plants that express an Lhcb (photosystem II chlorophyll a/b-binding polypeptide gene)/GUS promoter fusion. We found that GUS activities are positively correlated with chlorophyll content and cell size in green cells from the control and immutans plants, indicating that Lhcb gene transcription is coordinated with cell size in this species. Compared with the control plants, however, chlorophyll production is enhanced in the green cells of immutans; this may represent part of a strategy to maximize photosynthesis in the green sectors to compensate for a lack of photosynthesis in the white sectors of the mutant. Lhcb transcription is significantly higher in pure-white cells of the transgenic immutans plants than in pure-white cells from norflurazon-treated, photooxidized A. thaliana leaves. This suggests that immutans partially uncouples Lhcb transcription from its normal dependence on chlorophyll accumulation and chloroplast development. We conclude that immutans may play a role in regulating Lhcb transcription, and may be a key component in the signal transduction pathways that control chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:12226428

  17. S6K1 and E2FB are in mutually antagonistic regulatory links controlling cell growth and proliferation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Rossana; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László

    2013-06-01

    Plant development is dependent on the coordination between growth and cell proliferation. The nutrient sensing TOR kinase and its downstream target, the 40S ribosomal S6 Kinase, are central controllers of cell growth that were also shown to determine cell size by inhibiting the onset of mitosis in yeast and animal cells. We have shown that the Arabidopsis S6 Kinase1 inhibits cell proliferation through the RBR-E2FB complex. S6K1 interacts with RBR via its N-terminal RBR binding motif, promotes its nuclear localization and consequent RBR-dependent repression of cell cycle genes through E2FB. Here we show that S6K1 and E2FB are in a mutually antagonistic relationship both in their protein abundance and in their activity. We propose that this double inhibitory regulatory connection between S6K1 and E2FB forms a regulatory switch that might be important to determine whether cells divide or grow.

  18. A cell type-specific view on the translation of mRNAs from ROS-responsive genes upon paraquat treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Benina, Maria; Ribeiro, Dimas Mendes; Gechev, Tsanko S; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress causes dramatic changes in the expression levels of many genes. The formation of a functional protein through successful mRNA translation is central to a coordinated cellular response. To what extent the response towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) is regulated at the translational level is poorly understood. Here we analysed leaf- and tissue-specific translatomes using a set of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing a FLAG-tagged ribosomal protein to immunopurify polysome-bound mRNAs before and after oxidative stress. We determined transcript levels of 171 ROS-responsive genes upon paraquat treatment, which causes formation of superoxide radicals, at the whole-organ level. Furthermore, the translation of mRNAs was determined for five cell types: mesophyll, bundle sheath, phloem companion, epidermal and guard cells. Mesophyll and bundle sheath cells showed the strongest response to paraquat treatment. Interestingly, several ROS-responsive transcription factors displayed cell type-specific translation patterns, while others were translated in all cell types. In part, cell type-specific translation could be explained by the length of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Our analysis reveals insights into the translational regulation of ROS-responsive genes, which is important to understanding cell-specific responses and functions during oxidative stress.

  19. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 Promotes Arabidopsis Mucilage Release by Limiting Methylesterification of Homogalacturonan in Seed Coat Epidermal Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Botran, Lucy; Ropartz, David; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Imbibed seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Djarly are affected in mucilage release from seed coat epidermal cells. The impaired locus was identified as a pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene, PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 (PMEI6), specifically expressed in seed coat epidermal cells at the time when mucilage polysaccharides are accumulated. This spatio-temporal regulation appears to be modulated by GLABRA2 and LEUNIG HOMOLOG/MUCILAGE MODIFIED1, as expression of PMEI6 is reduced in mutants of these transcription regulators. In pmei6, mucilage release was delayed and outer cell walls of epidermal cells did not fragment. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) demethylate homogalacturonan (HG), and the majority of HG found in wild-type mucilage was in fact derived from outer cell wall fragments. This correlated with the absence of methylesterified HG labeling in pmei6, whereas transgenic plants expressing the PMEI6 coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter had increased labeling of cell wall fragments. Activity tests on seeds from pmei6 and 35S:PMEI6 transgenic plants showed that PMEI6 inhibits endogenous PME activities, in agreement with reduced overall methylesterification of mucilage fractions and demucilaged seeds. Another regulator of PME activity in seed coat epidermal cells, the subtilisin-like Ser protease SBT1.7, acts on different PMEs, as a pmei6 sbt1.7 mutant showed an additive phenotype. PMID:23362209

  20. Overexpression of PIP2;5 aquaporin alleviates effects of low root temperature on cell hydraulic conductivity and growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Hee; Chung, Gap Chae; Jang, Ji Young; Ahn, Sung Ju; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2012-05-01

    The effects of low root temperature on growth and root cell water transport were compared between wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and plants overexpressing plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1;4 (PIP1;4) and PIP2;5. Descending root temperature from 25°C to 10°C quickly reduced cell hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) in wild-type plants but did not affect L(p) in plants overexpressing PIP1;4 and PIP2;5. Similarly, when the roots of wild-type plants were exposed to 10°C for 1 d, L(p) was lower compared with 25°C. However, there was no effect of low root temperature on L(p) in PIP1;4- and PIP2;5-overexpressing plants after 1 d of treatment. When the roots were exposed to 10°C for 5 d, L(p) was reduced in wild-type plants and in plants overexpressing PIP1;4, whereas there was still no effect in PIP2;5-overexpressing plants. These results suggest that the gating mechanism in PIP1;4 may be more sensitive to prolonged low temperature compared with PIP2;5. The reduction of L(p) at 10°C in roots of wild-type plants was partly restored to the preexposure level by 5 mm Ca(NO(3))(2) and protein phosphatase inhibitors (75 nm okadaic acid or 1 μm Na(3)VO(4)), suggesting that aquaporin phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes were involved in this response. The temperature sensitivity of cell water transport in roots was reflected by a reduction in shoot and root growth rates in the wild-type and PIP1;4-overexpressing plants exposed to 10°C root temperature for 5 d. However, low root temperature had no effect on growth in plants overexpressing PIP2;5. These results provide strong evidence for a link between growth at low root temperature and aquaporin-mediated root water transport in Arabidopsis.

  1. The cell wall-targeted purple acid phosphatase AtPAP25 is critical for acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to nutritional phosphorus deprivation.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Hernan A; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Knowles, Vicki L; Kanno, Satomi; Tanoi, Keitaro; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-01

    Plant purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) belong to a relatively large gene family whose individual functions are poorly understood. Three PAP isozymes that are up-regulated in the cell walls of phosphate (Pi)-starved (-Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells were purified and identified by MS as AtPAP12 (At2g27190), AtPAP25 (At4g36350) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 were previously isolated from the culture medium of -Pi cell cultures, and shown to be secreted by roots of Arabidopsis seedlings to facilitate Pi scavenging from soil-localized organophosphates. AtPAP25 exists as a 55 kDa monomer containing complex NX(S/T) glycosylation motifs at Asn172, Asn367 and Asn424. Transcript profiling and immunoblotting with anti-AtPAP25 immune serum indicated that AtPAP25 is exclusively synthesized under -Pi conditions. Coupled with potent mixed-type inhibition of AtPAP25 by Pi (I50 = 50 μm), this indicates a tight feedback control by Pi that prevents AtPAP25 from being synthesized or functioning as a phosphatase except when Pi levels are quite low. Promoter-GUS reporter assays revealed AtPAP25 expression in shoot vascular tissue of -Pi plants. Development of an atpap25 T-DNA insertion mutant was arrested during cultivation on soil lacking soluble Pi, but rescued upon Pi fertilization or complementation with AtPAP25. Transcript profiling by quantitative RT-PCR indicated that Pi starvation signaling was attenuated in the atpap25 mutant. AtPAP25 exhibited near-optimal phosphatase activity with several phosphoproteins and phosphoamino acids as substrates. We hypothesize that AtPAP25 plays a key signaling role during Pi deprivation by functioning as a phosphoprotein phosphatase rather than as a non-specific scavenger of Pi from extracellular P-monoesters.

  2. The manipulation of auxin in the abscission zone cells of Arabidopsis flowers reveals that indoleacetic acid signaling is a prerequisite for organ shedding.

    PubMed

    Basu, Manojit M; González-Carranza, Zinnia H; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Tang, Shouya; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Roberts, Jeremy A

    2013-05-01

    A number of novel strategies were employed to examine the role of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in regulating floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of auxin influx facilitator expression in β-glucuronidase reporter plants revealed that AUXIN RESISTANT1, LIKE AUX1, and LAX3 were specifically up-regulated at the site of floral organ shedding. Flowers from mutants where individual family members were down-regulated exhibited a reduction in the force necessary to bring about petal separation; however, the effect was not additive in double or quadruple mutants. Using the promoter of a polygalacturonase (At2g41850), active primarily in cells undergoing separation, to drive expression of the bacterial genes iaaL and iaaM, we have shown that it is possible to manipulate auxin activity specifically within the floral organ abscission zone (AZ). Analysis of petal breakstrength reveals that if IAA AZ levels are reduced, shedding takes place prematurely, while if they are enhanced, organ loss is delayed. The At2g41850 promoter was also used to transactivate the gain-of-function AXR3-1 gene in order to disrupt auxin signaling specifically within the floral organ AZ cells. Flowers from transactivated lines failed to shed their sepals, petals, and anthers during pod expansion and maturity, and these organs frequently remained attached to the plant even after silique desiccation and dehiscence had taken place. These observations support a key role for IAA in the regulation of abscission in planta and reveal, to our knowledge for the first time, a requirement for a functional IAA signaling pathway in AZ cells for organ shedding to take place.

  3. The Manipulation of Auxin in the Abscission Zone Cells of Arabidopsis Flowers Reveals That Indoleacetic Acid Signaling Is a Prerequisite for Organ Shedding1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Manojit M.; González-Carranza, Zinnia H.; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Tang, Shouya; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of novel strategies were employed to examine the role of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in regulating floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of auxin influx facilitator expression in β-glucuronidase reporter plants revealed that AUXIN RESISTANT1, LIKE AUX1, and LAX3 were specifically up-regulated at the site of floral organ shedding. Flowers from mutants where individual family members were down-regulated exhibited a reduction in the force necessary to bring about petal separation; however, the effect was not additive in double or quadruple mutants. Using the promoter of a polygalacturonase (At2g41850), active primarily in cells undergoing separation, to drive expression of the bacterial genes iaaL and iaaM, we have shown that it is possible to manipulate auxin activity specifically within the floral organ abscission zone (AZ). Analysis of petal breakstrength reveals that if IAA AZ levels are reduced, shedding takes place prematurely, while if they are enhanced, organ loss is delayed. The At2g41850 promoter was also used to transactivate the gain-of-function AXR3-1 gene in order to disrupt auxin signaling specifically within the floral organ AZ cells. Flowers from transactivated lines failed to shed their sepals, petals, and anthers during pod expansion and maturity, and these organs frequently remained attached to the plant even after silique desiccation and dehiscence had taken place. These observations support a key role for IAA in the regulation of abscission in planta and reveal, to our knowledge for the first time, a requirement for a functional IAA signaling pathway in AZ cells for organ shedding to take place. PMID:23509178

  4. Rho of Plant GTPase Signaling Regulates the Behavior of Arabidopsis Kinesin-13A to Establish Secondary Cell Wall Patterns[W

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yoshihisa; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2013-01-01

    Plant cortical microtubule arrays determine the cell wall deposition pattern and proper cell shape and function. Although various microtubule-associated proteins regulate the cortical microtubule array, the mechanisms underlying marked rearrangement of cortical microtubules during xylem differentiation are not fully understood. Here, we show that local Rho of Plant (ROP) GTPase signaling targets an Arabidopsis thaliana kinesin-13 protein, Kinesin-13A, to cortical microtubules to establish distinct patterns of secondary cell wall formation in xylem cells. Kinesin-13A was preferentially localized with cortical microtubules in secondary cell wall pits, areas where cortical microtubules are depolymerized to prevent cell wall deposition. This localization of Kinesin-13A required the presence of the activated ROP GTPase, MICROTUBULE DEPLETION DOMAIN1 (MIDD1) protein, and cortical microtubules. Knockdown of Kinesin-13A resulted in the formation of smaller secondary wall pits, while overexpression of Kinesin-13A enlarged their surface area. Kinesin-13A alone could depolymerize microtubules in vitro; however, both MIDD1 and Kinesin-13A were required for the depolymerization of cortical microtubules in vivo. These results indicate that Kinesin-13A regulates the formation of secondary wall pits by promoting cortical microtubule depolymerization via the ROP-MIDD1 pathway. PMID:24280391

  5. Cell wall-associated ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10, a proline-rich receptor-like kinase, is a negative modulator of Arabidopsis root hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Youra; Lee, Hyodong; Lee, Young-Sook; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell growth is restricted by the cell wall, and cell wall dynamics act as signals for the cytoplasmic and nuclear events of cell growth. Among various receptor kinases, ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10) belongs to a poorly known receptor kinase subfamily with a proline-rich extracellular domain. Here, we report that RHS10 defines the root hair length of Arabidopsis thaliana by negatively regulating hair growth. RHS10 modulates the duration of root hair growth rather than the growth rate. As poplar and rice RHS10 orthologs also showed a root hair-inhibitory function, this receptor kinase-mediated function appears to be conserved in angiosperms. RHS10 showed a strong association with the cell wall, most probably through its extracellular proline-rich domain (ECD). Deletion analysis of the ECD demonstrated that a minimal extracellular part, which includes a few proline residues, is required for RHS10-mediated root hair inhibition. RHS10 suppressed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the root, which are necessary for root hair growth. A yeast two-hybrid screening identified an RNase (RNS2) as a putative downstream target of RHS10. Accordingly, RHS10 overexpression decreased and RHS10 loss increased RNA levels in the hair-growing root region. Our results suggest that RHS10 mediates cell wall-associated signals to maintain proper root hair length, at least in part by regulating RNA catabolism and ROS accumulation. PMID:26884603

  6. Ubiquitylation activates a peptidase that promotes cleavage and destabilization of its activating E3 ligases and diverse growth regulatory proteins to limit cell proliferation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hui; Dumenil, Jack; Lu, Fu-Hao; Na, Li; Vanhaeren, Hannes; Naumann, Christin; Klecker, Maria; Prior, Rachel; Smith, Caroline; McKenzie, Neil; Saalbach, Gerhard; Chen, Liangliang; Xia, Tian; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Seguela, Mathilde; Inzé, Dirk; Dissmeyer, Nico; Li, Yunhai; Bevan, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristic shapes and sizes of organs are established by cell proliferation patterns and final cell sizes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms coordinating these are poorly understood. Here we characterize a ubiquitin-activated peptidase called DA1 that limits the duration of cell proliferation during organ growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. The peptidase is activated by two RING E3 ligases, Big Brother (BB) and DA2, which are subsequently cleaved by the activated peptidase and destabilized. In the case of BB, cleavage leads to destabilization by the RING E3 ligase PROTEOLYSIS 1 (PRT1) of the N-end rule pathway. DA1 peptidase activity also cleaves the deubiquitylase UBP15, which promotes cell proliferation, and the transcription factors TEOSINTE BRANCED 1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF 15 (TCP15) and TCP22, which promote cell proliferation and repress endoreduplication. We propose that DA1 peptidase activity regulates the duration of cell proliferation and the transition to endoreduplication and differentiation during organ formation in plants by coordinating the destabilization of regulatory proteins. PMID:28167503

  7. XTH20 and XTH19 regulated by ANAC071 under auxin flow are involved in cell proliferation in incised Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.

    PubMed

    Pitaksaringkarn, Weerasak; Matsuoka, Keita; Asahina, Masashi; Miura, Kenji; Sage-Ono, Kimiyo; Ono, Michiyuki; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Iwai, Hiroaki; Satoh, Shinobu

    2014-11-01

    One week after partial incision of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems, the repair process in damaged tissue includes pith cell proliferation. Auxin is a key factor driving this process, and ANAC071, a transcription factor gene, is upregulated in the distal region of the incised stem. Here we show that XTH20 and the closely related XTH19, members of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases family catalyzing molecular grafting and/or hydrolysis of cell wall xyloglucans, were also upregulated in the distal part of the incised stem, similar to ANAC071. XTH19 was expressed in the proximal incision region after 3 days or after auxin application to the decapitated stem. Horizontal positioning of the plant with the incised side up resulted in decreased ProDR 5 :GUS, ANAC071, XTH20, and XTH19 expression and reduced pith cell proliferation. In incised stems of Pro35S :ANAC071-SRDX plants, expression of XTH20 and XTH19 was substantially and moderately decreased, respectively. XTH20 and XTH19 expression and pith cell proliferation were suppressed in anac071 plants and were increased in Pro35S :ANAC071 plants. Pith cell proliferation was also inhibited in the xth20xth19 double mutant. Furthermore, ANAC071 bound to the XTH20 and XTH19 promoters to induce their expression. This study revealed XTH20 and XTH19 induction by auxin via ANAC071 in the distal part of an incised stem and their involvement in cell proliferation in the tissue reunion process.

  8. Cell-Specific Vacuolar Calcium Storage Mediated by CAX1 Regulates Apoplastic Calcium Concentration, Gas Exchange, and Plant Productivity in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Simon J.; Athman, Asmini; Schreiber, Andreas W.; Baumann, Ute; Moller, Isabel; Cheng, Ning-Hui; Stancombe, Matthew A.; Hirschi, Kendal D.; Webb, Alex A.R.; Burton, Rachel; Kaiser, Brent N.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Leigh, Roger A.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological role and mechanism of nutrient storage within vacuoles of specific cell types is poorly understood. Transcript profiles from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells differing in calcium concentration ([Ca], epidermis <10 mM versus mesophyll >60 mM) were compared using a microarray screen and single-cell quantitative PCR. Three tonoplast-localized Ca2+ transporters, CAX1 (Ca2+/H+-antiporter), ACA4, and ACA11 (Ca2+-ATPases), were identified as preferentially expressed in Ca-rich mesophyll. Analysis of respective loss-of-function mutants demonstrated that only a mutant that lacked expression of both CAX1 and CAX3, a gene ectopically expressed in leaves upon knockout of CAX1, had reduced mesophyll [Ca]. Reduced capacity for mesophyll Ca accumulation resulted in reduced cell wall extensibility, stomatal aperture, transpiration, CO2 assimilation, and leaf growth rate; increased transcript abundance of other Ca2+ transporter genes; altered expression of cell wall–modifying proteins, including members of the pectinmethylesterase, expansin, cellulose synthase, and polygalacturonase families; and higher pectin concentrations and thicker cell walls. We demonstrate that these phenotypes result from altered apoplastic free [Ca2+], which is threefold greater in cax1/cax3 than in wild-type plants. We establish CAX1 as a key regulator of apoplastic [Ca2+] through compartmentation into mesophyll vacuoles, a mechanism essential for optimal plant function and productivity. PMID:21258004

  9. The ASH1-RELATED3 SET-Domain Protein Controls Cell Division Competence of the Meristem and the Quiescent Center of the Arabidopsis Primary Root1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kumpf, Robert; Thorstensen, Tage; Rahman, Mohummad Aminur; Heyman, Jefri; Nenseth, H. Zeynep; Lammens, Tim; Herrmann, Ullrich; Swarup, Ranjan; Veiseth, Silje Veie; Emberland, Gitika; Bennett, Malcolm J.; De Veylder, Lieven; Aalen, Reidunn B.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell niche of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) primary root apical meristem is composed of the quiescent (or organizing) center surrounded by stem (initial) cells for the different tissues. Initial cells generate a population of transit-amplifying cells that undergo a limited number of cell divisions before elongating and differentiating. It is unclear whether these divisions occur stochastically or in an orderly manner. Using the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine to monitor DNA replication of cells of Arabidopsis root meristems, we identified a pattern of two, four, and eight neighboring cells with synchronized replication along the cortical, epidermal, and endodermal cell files, suggested to be daughters, granddaughters, and great-granddaughters of the direct progeny of each stem cell. Markers of mitosis and cytokinesis were not present in the region closest to the transition zone where the cells start to elongate, suggesting that great-granddaughter cells switch synchronously from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreduplication. Mutations in the stem cell niche-expressed ASH1-RELATED3 (ASHR3) gene, encoding a SET-domain protein conferring histone H3 lysine-36 methylation, disrupted this pattern of coordinated DNA replication and cell division and increased the cell division rate in the quiescent center. E2Fa/E2Fb transcription factors controlling the G1-to-S-phase transition regulate ASHR3 expression and bind to the ASHR3 promoter, substantiating a role for ASHR3 in cell division control. The reduced length of the root apical meristem and primary root of the mutant ashr3-1 indicate that synchronization of replication and cell divisions is required for normal root growth and development. PMID:25034019

  10. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ding, Shi-You; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Yang, Shihui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has led to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. The implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed. PMID:26029221

  11. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: Implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; ...

    2015-05-13

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, for this study, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has ledmore » to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. Finally, the implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed.« less

  12. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: Implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ding, Shi -You; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Yang, Shihui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-05-13

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, for this study, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has led to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. Finally, the implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed.

  13. Multidimensional solid-state NMR studies of the structure and dynamics of pectic polysaccharides in uniformly 13C-labeled Arabidopsis primary cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Wang, Tuo; Salazar, Andre; Zabotina, Olga A.; Hong, Mei

    2012-07-08

    Plant cell wall (CW) polysaccharides are responsible for the mechanical strength and growth of plant cells; however, the high-resolution structure and dynamics of the CW polysaccharides are still poorly understood because of the insoluble nature of these molecules. Here, we use 2D and 3D magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to investigate the structural role of pectins in the plant CW. Intact and partially depectinated primary CWs of Arabidopsis thaliana were uniformly labeled with 13C and their NMR spectra were compared. Recent 13C resonance assignment of the major polysaccharides in Arabidopsis thaliana CWs allowed us to determine the effects of depectination on the intermolecular packing and dynamics of the remaining wall polysaccharides. 2D and 3D correlation spectra show the suppression of pectin signals, confirming partial pectin removal by chelating agents and sodium carbonate. Importantly, higher cross peaks are observed in 2D and 3D 13C spectra of the depectinated CW, suggesting higher rigidity and denser packing of the remaining wall polysaccharides compared with the intact CW. 13C spin–lattice relaxation times and 1H rotating-frame spin–lattice relaxation times indicate that the polysaccharides are more rigid on both the nanosecond and microsecond timescales in the depectinated CW. Taken together, these results indicate that pectic polysaccharides are highly dynamic and endow the polysaccharide network of the primary CW with mobility and flexibility, which may be important for pectin functions. This study demonstrates the capability of multidimensional SSNMR to determine the intermolecular interactions and dynamic structures of complex plant materials under near-native conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Proteins SPR1 and EB1b Interact to Maintain Polar Cell Elongation and Directional Organ Growth in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Galva, Charitha; Kirik, Viktor; Lindeboom, Jelmer J.; Kaloriti, Despoina; Rancour, David M.; Hussey, Patrick J.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Sedbrook, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) END BINDING1b (EB1b) and SPIRAL1 (SPR1) are required for normal cell expansion and organ growth. EB proteins are viewed as central regulators of +TIPs and cell polarity in animals; SPR1 homologs are specific to plants. To explore if EB1b and SPR1 fundamentally function together, we combined genetic, biochemical, and cell imaging approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that eb1b-2 spr1-6 double mutant roots exhibit substantially more severe polar expansion defects than either single mutant, undergoing right-looping growth and severe axial twisting instead of waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces. Protein interaction assays revealed that EB1b and SPR1 bind each other and tubulin heterodimers, which is suggestive of a microtubule loading mechanism. EB1b and SPR1 show antagonistic association with microtubules in vitro. Surprisingly, our combined analyses revealed that SPR1 can load onto microtubules and function independently of EB1 proteins, setting SPR1 apart from most studied +TIPs in animals and fungi. Moreover, we found that the severity of defects in microtubule dynamics in spr1 eb1b mutant hypocotyl cells correlated well with the severity of growth defects. These data indicate that SPR1 and EB1b have complex interactions as they load onto microtubule plus ends and direct polar cell expansion and organ growth in response to directional cues. PMID:25415978

  15. An Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor NAC4 promotes pathogen-induced cell death under negative regulation by microRNA164.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Hoon; Jeon, Hwi Seong; Kim, Hye Gi; Park, Ohkmae K

    2017-04-01

    Hypersensitive response (HR) is a form of programmed cell death (PCD) and the primary immune response that prevents pathogen invasion in plants. Here, we show that a microRNAmiR164 and its target gene NAC4 (At5g07680), encoding a NAC transcription factor, play essential roles in the regulation of HR PCD in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell death symptoms were noticeably enhanced in NAC4-overexpressing (35S:NAC4) and mir164 mutant plants in response to avirulent bacterial pathogens. NAC4 expression was induced by pathogen infection and negatively regulated by miR164 expression. NAC4-binding DNA sequences were determined by in vitro binding site selection using random oligonucleotide sequences. Microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses, followed by cell death assays in protoplasts, led to the identification of NAC4 target genes LURP1, WRKY40 and WRKY54, which act as negative regulators of cell death. Our results suggest that NAC4 promotes hypersensitive cell death by suppressing its target genes and this immune process is fine-tuned by the negative action of miR164.

  16. A triple helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix cascade controls cell elongation downstream of multiple hormonal and environmental signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming-Yi; Fan, Min; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Environmental and endogenous signals, including light, temperature, brassinosteroid (BR), and gibberellin (GA), regulate cell elongation largely by influencing the expression of the paclobutrazol-resistant (PRE) family helix-loop-helix (HLH) factors, which promote cell elongation by interacting antagonistically with another HLH factor, IBH1. However, the molecular mechanism by which PREs and IBH1 regulate gene expression has remained unknown. Here, we show that IBH1 interacts with and inhibits a DNA binding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, HBI1, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of HBI1 increased hypocotyl and petiole elongation, whereas dominant inactivation of HBI1 and its homologs caused a dwarf phenotype, indicating that HBI1 is a positive regulator of cell elongation. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that HBI1 directly bound to the promoters and activated two EXPANSIN genes encoding cell wall-loosening enzymes; HBI1's DNA binding and transcriptional activities were inhibited by IBH1, but the inhibitory effects of IBH1 were abolished by PRE1. The results indicate that PREs activate the DNA binding bHLH factor HBI1 by sequestering its inhibitor IBH1. Altering each of the three factors affected plant sensitivities to BR, GA, temperature, and light. Our study demonstrates that PREs, IBH1, and HBI1 form a chain of antagonistic switches that regulates cell elongation downstream of multiple external and endogenous signals.

  17. Statolith Sedimentation Kinetics and Force Transduction to the Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum in Gravity-Sensing Arabidopsis Columella Cells[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Leitz, Guenther; Kang, Byung-Ho; Schoenwaelder, Monica E.A.; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The starch statolith hypothesis of gravity sensing in plants postulates that the sedimentation of statoliths in specialized statocytes (columella cells) provides the means for converting the gravitational potential energy into a biochemical signal. We have analyzed the sedimentation kinetics of statoliths in the central S2 columella cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. The statoliths can form compact aggregates with gap sizes between statoliths approaching <30 nm. Significant intra-aggregate sliding motions of individual statoliths suggest a contribution of hydrodynamic forces to the motion of statoliths. The reorientation of the columella cells accelerates the statoliths toward the central cytoplasm within <1 s of reorientation. During the subsequent sedimentation phase, the statoliths tend to move at a distance to the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) boundary and interact only transiently with the ER. Statoliths moved by laser tweezers against the ER boundary experience an elastic lift force upon release from the optical trap. High-resolution electron tomography analysis of statolith-to-ER contact sites indicate that the weight of statoliths is sufficient to locally deform the ER membranes that can potentially activate mechanosensitive ion channels. We suggest that in root columella cells, the transduction of the kinetic energy of sedimenting statoliths into a biochemical signal involves a combination of statolith-driven motion of the cytosol, statolith-induced deformation of the ER membranes, and a rapid release of kinetic energy from the ER during reorientation to activate mechanosensitive sites within the central columella cells. PMID:19276442

  18. The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins SPR1 and EB1b interact to maintain polar cell elongation and directional organ growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Galva, Charitha; Kirik, Viktor; Lindeboom, Jelmer J; Kaloriti, Despoina; Rancour, David M; Hussey, Patrick J; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Ehrhardt, David W; Sedbrook, John C

    2014-11-01

    The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) END BINDING1b (EB1b) and SPIRAL1 (SPR1) are required for normal cell expansion and organ growth. EB proteins are viewed as central regulators of +TIPs and cell polarity in animals; SPR1 homologs are specific to plants. To explore if EB1b and SPR1 fundamentally function together, we combined genetic, biochemical, and cell imaging approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that eb1b-2 spr1-6 double mutant roots exhibit substantially more severe polar expansion defects than either single mutant, undergoing right-looping growth and severe axial twisting instead of waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces. Protein interaction assays revealed that EB1b and SPR1 bind each other and tubulin heterodimers, which is suggestive of a microtubule loading mechanism. EB1b and SPR1 show antagonistic association with microtubules in vitro. Surprisingly, our combined analyses revealed that SPR1 can load onto microtubules and function independently of EB1 proteins, setting SPR1 apart from most studied +TIPs in animals and fungi. Moreover, we found that the severity of defects in microtubule dynamics in spr1 eb1b mutant hypocotyl cells correlated well with the severity of growth defects. These data indicate that SPR1 and EB1b have complex interactions as they load onto microtubule plus ends and direct polar cell expansion and organ growth in response to directional cues.

  19. An Auxin Gradient and Maximum in the Arabidopsis Root Apex Shown by High-Resolution Cell-Specific Analysis of IAA Distribution and Synthesis[W

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Sara V.; Johansson, Annika I.; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Makoveychuk, Alexander; Wang, Jean Y.; Moritz, Thomas; Grebe,