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Sample records for arabidopsis ran binding

  1. An Arabidopsis Ran-binding protein, AtRanBP1c, is a co-activator of Ran GTPase-activating protein and requires the C-terminus for its cytoplasmic localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soo-Hwan; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Ran-binding proteins (RanBPs) are a group of proteins that bind to Ran (Ras-related nuclear small GTP-binding protein), and thus either control the GTP/GDP-bound states of Ran or help couple the Ran GTPase cycle to a cellular process. AtRanBP1c is a Ran-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that was recently shown to be critically involved in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression [S.-H. Kim et al. (2001) Plant Cell 13:2619-2630]. Here we report that AtRanBP1c inhibits the EDTA-induced release of GTP from Ran and serves as a co-activator of Ran-GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) in vitro. Transient expression of AtRanBP1c fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that the protein localizes primarily to the cytosol. Neither the N- nor C-terminus of AtRanBP1c, which flank the Ran-binding domain (RanBD), is necessary for the binding of PsRan1-GTP to the protein, but both are needed for the cytosolic localization of GUS-fused AtRanBP1c. These findings, together with a previous report that AtRanBP1c is critically involved in root growth and development, imply that the promotion of GTP hydrolysis by the Ran/RanGAP/AtRanBP1c complex in the cytoplasm, and the resulting concentration gradient of Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP across the nuclear membrane could be important in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression in root tips of A. thaliana.

  2. An Arabidopsis Ran-binding protein, AtRanBP1c, is a co-activator of Ran GTPase-activating protein and requires the C-terminus for its cytoplasmic localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soo-Hwan; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Ran-binding proteins (RanBPs) are a group of proteins that bind to Ran (Ras-related nuclear small GTP-binding protein), and thus either control the GTP/GDP-bound states of Ran or help couple the Ran GTPase cycle to a cellular process. AtRanBP1c is a Ran-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that was recently shown to be critically involved in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression [S.-H. Kim et al. (2001) Plant Cell 13:2619-2630]. Here we report that AtRanBP1c inhibits the EDTA-induced release of GTP from Ran and serves as a co-activator of Ran-GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) in vitro. Transient expression of AtRanBP1c fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that the protein localizes primarily to the cytosol. Neither the N- nor C-terminus of AtRanBP1c, which flank the Ran-binding domain (RanBD), is necessary for the binding of PsRan1-GTP to the protein, but both are needed for the cytosolic localization of GUS-fused AtRanBP1c. These findings, together with a previous report that AtRanBP1c is critically involved in root growth and development, imply that the promotion of GTP hydrolysis by the Ran/RanGAP/AtRanBP1c complex in the cytoplasm, and the resulting concentration gradient of Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP across the nuclear membrane could be important in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression in root tips of A. thaliana.

  3. Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis ran binding protein renders transgenic roots hypersensitive to auxin and alters auxin-induced root growth and development by arresting mitotic progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Arnold, D.; Lloyd, A.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis Ran binding protein, AtRanBP1c, and generated transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the antisense strand of the AtRanBP1c gene to understand the in vivo functions of the Ran/RanBP signal pathway. The transgenic plants showed enhanced primary root growth but suppressed growth of lateral roots. Auxin significantly increased lateral root initiation and inhibited primary root growth in the transformants at 10 pM, several orders of magnitude lower than required to induce these responses in wild-type roots. This induction was followed by a blockage of mitosis in both newly emerged lateral roots and in the primary root, ultimately resulting in the selective death of cells in the tips of both lateral and primary roots. Given the established role of Ran binding proteins in the transport of proteins into the nucleus, these findings are consistent with a model in which AtRanBP1c plays a key role in the nuclear delivery of proteins that suppress auxin action and that regulate mitotic progress in root tips.

  4. Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis ran binding protein renders transgenic roots hypersensitive to auxin and alters auxin-induced root growth and development by arresting mitotic progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Arnold, D.; Lloyd, A.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis Ran binding protein, AtRanBP1c, and generated transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the antisense strand of the AtRanBP1c gene to understand the in vivo functions of the Ran/RanBP signal pathway. The transgenic plants showed enhanced primary root growth but suppressed growth of lateral roots. Auxin significantly increased lateral root initiation and inhibited primary root growth in the transformants at 10 pM, several orders of magnitude lower than required to induce these responses in wild-type roots. This induction was followed by a blockage of mitosis in both newly emerged lateral roots and in the primary root, ultimately resulting in the selective death of cells in the tips of both lateral and primary roots. Given the established role of Ran binding proteins in the transport of proteins into the nucleus, these findings are consistent with a model in which AtRanBP1c plays a key role in the nuclear delivery of proteins that suppress auxin action and that regulate mitotic progress in root tips.

  5. The Copper Transporter RAN1 Is Essential for Biogenesis of Ethylene Receptors in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Brad M.; Rodríguez, Fernando I.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    Plants utilize ethylene as a hormone to regulate multiple developmental processes and to coordinate responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a small family of five receptor proteins typified by ETR1 mediates ethylene perception. Our previous work suggested that copper ions likely play a role in ethylene binding. An independent study indicated that the ran1 mutants, which display ethylene-like responses to the ethylene antagonist trans-cyclooctene, have mutations in the RAN1 copper-transporting P-type ATPase, once again linking copper ions to the ethylene-response pathway. The results presented herein indicate that genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing ETR1 but lacking the RAN1 homolog Ccc2p (Δccc2) lacks ethylene-binding activity. Ethylene-binding activity was restored when copper ions were added to the Δccc2 mutants, showing that it is the delivery of copper that is important. Additionally, transformation of the Δccc2 mutant yeast with RAN1 rescued ethylene-binding activity. Analysis of plants carrying loss-of-function mutations in ran1 showed that they lacked ethylene-binding activity, whereas seedlings carrying weak alleles of ran1 had normal ethylene-binding activity but were hypersensitive to copper-chelating agents. Altogether, the results show an essential role for RAN1 in the biogenesis of the ethylene receptors and copper homeostasis in Arabidopsis seedlings. Furthermore, the results indicate cross-talk between the ethylene-response pathway and copper homeostasis in Arabidopsis seedling development. PMID:20876528

  6. A Novel Class of RanGTP Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Görlich, Dirk; Dabrowski, Marylena; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Kutay, Ulrike; Bork, Peer; Hartmann, Enno; Prehn, Siegfried; Izaurralde, Elisa

    1997-01-01

    The importin-α/β complex and the GTPase Ran mediate nuclear import of proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal. Although Ran has been implicated also in a variety of other processes, such as cell cycle progression, a direct function of Ran has so far only been demonstrated for importin-mediated nuclear import. We have now identified an entire class of ∼20 potential Ran targets that share a sequence motif related to the Ran-binding site of importin-β. We have confirmed specific RanGTP binding for some of them, namely for two novel factors, RanBP7 and RanBP8, for CAS, Pse1p, and Msn5p, and for the cell cycle regulator Cse1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have studied RanBP7 in more detail. Similar to importin-β, it prevents the activation of Ran's GTPase by RanGAP1 and inhibits nucleotide exchange on RanGTP. RanBP7 binds directly to nuclear pore complexes where it competes for binding sites with importin-β, transportin, and apparently also with the mediators of mRNA and U snRNA export. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a Ran-dependent transport cycle of RanBP7 and demonstrate that RanBP7 can cross the nuclear envelope rapidly and in both directions. On the basis of these results, we propose that RanBP7 might represent a nuclear transport factor that carries an as yet unknown cargo, which could apply as well for this entire class of related RanGTP-binding proteins. PMID:9214382

  7. Ran-binding protein 5 (RanBP5) is related to the nuclear transport factor importin-beta but interacts differently with RanBP1.

    PubMed Central

    Deane, R; Schäfer, W; Zimmermann, H P; Mueller, L; Görlich, D; Prehn, S; Ponstingl, H; Bischoff, F R

    1997-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of a novel 124-kDa Ran binding protein, RanBP5. This protein is related to importin-beta, the key mediator of nuclear localization signal (NLS)-dependent nuclear transport. RanBP5 was identified by two independent methods: it was isolated from HeLa cells by using its interaction with RanGTP in an overlay assay to monitor enrichment, and it was also found by the yeast two-hybrid selection method with RanBP1 as bait. RanBP5 binds to RanBP1 as part of a trimeric RanBP1-Ran-RanBP5 complex. Like importin-beta, RanBP5 strongly binds the GTP-bound form of Ran, stabilizing it against both intrinsic and RanGAP1-induced GTP hydrolysis and also against nucleotide exchange. The GAP resistance of the RanBP5-RanGTP complex can be relieved by RanBP1, which might reflect an in vivo role for RanBP1. RanBP5 is a predominantly cytoplasmic protein that can bind to nuclear pore complexes. We propose that RanBP5 is a mediator of a nucleocytoplasmic transport pathway that is distinct from the importin-alpha-dependent import of proteins with a classical NLS. PMID:9271386

  8. Ran-binding protein 5 (RanBP5) is related to the nuclear transport factor importin-beta but interacts differently with RanBP1.

    PubMed

    Deane, R; Schäfer, W; Zimmermann, H P; Mueller, L; Görlich, D; Prehn, S; Ponstingl, H; Bischoff, F R

    1997-09-01

    We report the identification and characterization of a novel 124-kDa Ran binding protein, RanBP5. This protein is related to importin-beta, the key mediator of nuclear localization signal (NLS)-dependent nuclear transport. RanBP5 was identified by two independent methods: it was isolated from HeLa cells by using its interaction with RanGTP in an overlay assay to monitor enrichment, and it was also found by the yeast two-hybrid selection method with RanBP1 as bait. RanBP5 binds to RanBP1 as part of a trimeric RanBP1-Ran-RanBP5 complex. Like importin-beta, RanBP5 strongly binds the GTP-bound form of Ran, stabilizing it against both intrinsic and RanGAP1-induced GTP hydrolysis and also against nucleotide exchange. The GAP resistance of the RanBP5-RanGTP complex can be relieved by RanBP1, which might reflect an in vivo role for RanBP1. RanBP5 is a predominantly cytoplasmic protein that can bind to nuclear pore complexes. We propose that RanBP5 is a mediator of a nucleocytoplasmic transport pathway that is distinct from the importin-alpha-dependent import of proteins with a classical NLS.

  9. The Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Nemp1 Is a New Type of RanGTP-Binding Protein in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Shibano, Takashi; Mamada, Hiroshi; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Taira, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    The inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein Nemp1/TMEM194A has previously been suggested to be involved in eye development in Xenopus, and contains two evolutionarily conserved sequences in the transmembrane domains (TMs) and the C-terminal region, named region A and region B, respectively. To elucidate the molecular nature of Nemp1, we analyzed its interacting proteins through those conserved regions. First, we found that Nemp1 interacts with itself and lamin through the TMs and region A, respectively. Colocalization of Nemp1 and lamin at the INM suggests that the interaction with lamin participates in the INM localization of Nemp1. Secondly, through yeast two-hybrid screening using region B as bait, we identified the small GTPase Ran as a probable Nemp1-binding partner. GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays using region B and Ran mutants revealed that region B binds directly to the GTP-bound Ran through its effector domain. Immunostaining experiments using transfected COS-7 cells revealed that full-length Nemp1 recruits Ran near the nuclear envelope, suggesting a role for Nemp1 in the accumulation of RanGTP at the nuclear periphery. At the neurula-to-tailbud stages of Xenopus embryos, nemp1 expression overlapped with ran in several regions including the eye vesicles. Co-knockdown using antisense morpholino oligos for nemp1 and ran caused reduction of cell densities and severe eye defects more strongly than either single knockdown alone, suggesting their functional interaction. Finally we show that Arabidopsis thaliana Nemp1-orthologous proteins interact with A. thaliana Ran, suggesting their evolutionally conserved physical and functional interactions possibly in basic cellular functions including nuclear transportation. Taken together, we conclude that Nemp1 represents a new type of RanGTP-binding protein.

  10. Two distinct classes of Ran-binding sites on the nucleoporin Nup-358

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Nabeel R.; Blobel, Günter

    1999-01-01

    Nup-358 is a giant nucleoporin located at the tips of the cytoplasmic fibrils of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Its contains four RBH (RanBP1-homologous) domains and a zinc finger domain with eight zinc finger motifs. Using three recombinant fragments of Nup-358 that comprise two of the RBH domains and the zinc finger domain, we show that both RanGDP and RanGTP bind to Nup-358 in vitro. The RBH domains bound either RanGDP or RanGTP. Interestingly, the zinc finger domain was found to bind RanGDP exclusively. Zinc chelation by EDTA treatment abolished the binding of RanGDP to the zinc finger domain without affecting the binding of Ran to the RBH domain. Ultrastructural studies with RanGDP-conjugated colloidal gold in digitonin-permeabilized cells showed a large number of Ran-binding sites on the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC. Of those, only a portion that is closer to the central axis of the NPC was sensitive to RanBP1 competition, suggesting that most of the RBH domains of Nup-358 are situated closer to the central axis of the NPC than the zinc finger domain. Thus, the RBH and the zinc finger domains of Nup-358 were identified as two different classes of Ran-binding sites with distinct, ultrastructural locations at the NPC. PMID:10318915

  11. Crystallographic and Biochemical Analysis of the Ran-Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, James R.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; MIT

    2009-08-13

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) resides in circular openings within the nuclear envelope and serves as the sole conduit to facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotes. The asymmetric distribution of the small G protein Ran across the nuclear envelope regulates directionality of protein transport. Ran interacts with the NPC of metazoa via two asymmetrically localized components, Nup153 at the nuclear face and Nup358 at the cytoplasmic face. Both nucleoporins contain a stretch of distinct, Ran-binding zinc finger domains. Here, we present six crystal structures of Nup153-zinc fingers in complex with Ran and a 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of RanGDP. Crystal engineering allowed us to obtain well diffracting crystals so that all ZnF-Ran complex structures are refined to high resolution. Each of the four zinc finger modules of Nup153 binds one Ran molecule in apparently non-allosteric fashion. The affinity is measurably higher for RanGDP than for RanGTP and varies modestly between the individual zinc fingers. By microcalorimetric and mutational analysis, we determined that one specific hydrogen bond accounts for most of the differences in the binding affinity of individual zinc fingers. Genomic analysis reveals that only in animals do NPCs contain Ran-binding zinc fingers. We speculate that these organisms evolved a mechanism to maintain a high local concentration of Ran at the vicinity of the NPC, using this zinc finger domain as a sink.

  12. Importin {beta}-type nuclear transport receptors have distinct binding affinities for Ran-GTP

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Silvia; Schlenstedt, Gabriel

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} Determination of binding properties of nuclear transport receptor/Ran-GTP complexes. {yields} Biosensor measurements provide constants for dissociation, on-rates, and off-rates. {yields} The affinity of receptors for Ran-GTP is widely divergent. {yields} Dissociation constants differ for three orders of magnitude. {yields} The cellular concentration of yeast Ran is not limiting. -- Abstract: Cargos destined to enter or leave the cell nucleus are typically transported by receptors of the importin {beta} family to pass the nuclear pore complex. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprises 14 members of this protein family, which can be divided in importins and exportins. The Ran GTPase regulates the association and dissociation of receptors and cargos as well as the transport direction through the nuclear pore. All receptors bind to Ran exclusively in its GTP-bound state and this event is restricted to the nuclear compartment. We determined the Ran-GTP binding properties of all yeast transport receptors by biosensor measurements and observed that the affinity of importins for Ran-GTP differs significantly. The dissociation constants range from 230 pM to 270 nM, which is mostly based on a variability of the off-rate constants. The divergent affinity of importins for Ran-GTP suggests the existence of a novel mode of nucleocytoplasmic transport regulation. Furthermore, the cellular concentration of {beta}-receptors and of other Ran-binding proteins was determined. We found that the number of {beta}-receptors altogether about equals the amounts of yeast Ran, but Ran-GTP is not limiting in the nucleus. The implications of our results for nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Ran Binding Protein 9 (RanBP9) is a novel mediator of cellular DNA damage response in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Dario; Scarpa, Mario; Tessari, Anna; Uka, Rexhep; Amari, Foued; Lee, Cindy; Richmond, Timothy; Foray, Claudia; Sheetz, Tyler; Braddom, Ashley; Burd, Christin E; Parvin, Jeffrey D; Ludwig, Thomas; Croce, Carlo M; Coppola, Vincenzo

    2016-04-05

    Ran Binding Protein 9 (RanBP9, also known as RanBPM) is an evolutionary conserved scaffold protein present both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells whose biological functions remain elusive. We show that active ATM phosphorylates RanBP9 on at least two different residues (S181 and S603). In response to IR, RanBP9 rapidly accumulates into the nucleus of lung cancer cells, but this nuclear accumulation is prevented by ATM inhibition. RanBP9 stable silencing in three different lung cancer cell lines significantly affects the DNA Damage Response (DDR), resulting in delayed activation of key components of the cellular response to IR such as ATM itself, Chk2, γH2AX, and p53. Accordingly, abrogation of RanBP9 expression reduces homologous recombination-dependent DNA repair efficiency, causing an abnormal activation of IR-induced senescence and apoptosis. In summary, here we report that RanBP9 is a novel mediator of the cellular DDR, whose accumulation into the nucleus upon IR is dependent on ATM kinase activity. RanBP9 absence hampers the molecular mechanisms leading to efficient repair of damaged DNA, resulting in enhanced sensitivity to genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that targeting RanBP9 might enhance lung cancer cell sensitivity to genotoxic anti-neoplastic treatment.

  14. Mind Bomb-Binding Partner RanBP9 Plays a Contributory Role in Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Thiruvarangan, Maivannan; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Lee, Mi-Sun; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Rhee, Myungchull; Bae, Young-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Ran-binding protein family member, RanBP9 has been reported in various basic cellular mechanisms and neuropathological conditions including schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported that RanBP9 is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and retina; however, the role of RanBP9 in retinal development is largely unknown. Here, we present the novel and regulatory roles of RanBP9 in retinal development of a vertebrate animal model, zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos exhibited abundant expression of ranbp9 in developing brain tissues as well as in the developing retina. Yeast two-hybrid screening demonstrated the interaction of RanBP9 with Mind bomb, a component of Notch signaling involved in both neurogenesis and neural disease autism. The interaction is further substantiated by co-localization studies in cultured cells. Knockdown of ranbp9 resulted in retinal dysplasia with defective proliferation of retinal cells, downregulation of neuronal differentiation marker huC, elevation of neural proliferation marker her4, and alteration of cell cycle marker p57kip2. Expression of the Müller glial cell marker glutamine synthase was also affected in knockdown morphants. Our results suggest that Mind bomb-binding partner RanBP9 plays a role during retinal cell development of zebrafish embryogenesis. PMID:28359144

  15. Overexpression of OsRAN2 in rice and Arabidopsis renders transgenic plants hypersensitive to salinity and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Zang, Aiping; Xu, Xiaojie; Neill, Steven; Cai, Weiming

    2010-03-01

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning of regulatory proteins is increasingly being recognized as a major control mechanism for the regulation of signalling in plants. Ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) GTPase is required for regulating transport of proteins and RNA across the nuclear envelope and also has roles in mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope (NE) assembly. However, thus far little is known of any Ran functions in the signalling pathways in plants in response to changing environmental stimuli. The OsRAN2 gene, which has high homology (77% at the amino acid level) with its human counterpart, was isolated here. Subcellular localization results showed that OsRan2 is mainly localized in the nucleus, with some in the cytoplasm. Transcription of OsRAN2 was reduced by salt, osmotic, and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as determined by real-time PCR. Overexpression of OsRAN2 in rice resulted in enhanced sensitivity to salinity, osmotic stress, and ABA. Seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing OsRAN2 were overly sensitive to salinity stress and exogenous ABA treatment. Furthermore, three ABA- or stress-responsive genes, AtNCED3, AtPLC1, and AtMYB2, encoding a key enzyme in ABA synthesis, a phospholipase C homologue, and a putative transcriptional factor, respectively, were shown to have differentially induced expression under salinity and ABA treatments in transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. OsRAN2 overexpression in tobacco epidermal leaf cells disturbed the nuclear import of a maize (Zea mays L.) leaf colour transcription factor (Lc). In addition, gene-silenced rice plants generated via RNA interference (RNAi) displayed pleiotropic developmental abnormalities and were male sterile.

  16. Mind Bomb-Binding Partner RanBP9 Plays a Contributory Role in Retinal Development.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Thiruvarangan, Maivannan; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Lee, Mi-Sun; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Rhee, Myungchull; Bae, Young-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2017-03-28

    Ran-binding protein family member, RanBP9 has been reported in various basic cellular mechanisms and neuropathological conditions including schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported that RanBP9 is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and retina; however, the role of RanBP9 in retinal development is largely unknown. Here, we present the novel and regulatory roles of RanBP9 in retinal development of a vertebrate animal model, zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos exhibited abundant expression of ranbp9 in developing brain tissues as well as in the developing retina. Yeast two-hybrid screening demonstrated the interaction of RanBP9 with Mind bomb, a component of Notch signaling involved in both neurogenesis and neural disease autism. The interaction is further substantiated by co-localization studies in cultured cells. Knockdown of ranbp9 resulted in retinal dysplasia with defective proliferation of retinal cells, downregulation of neuronal differentiation marker huC, elevation of neural proliferation marker her4, and alteration of cell cycle marker p57kip2. Expression of the Müller glial cell marker glutamine synthase was also affected in knockdown morphants. Our results suggest that Mind bombbinding partner RanBP9 plays a role during retinal cell development of zebrafish embryogenesis.

  17. SCA31 Flies Perform in a Balancing Act between RAN Translation and RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jackson, George R

    2017-04-05

    In this issue of Neuron, Ishiguro et al. (2017) explore the toxicity of RAN translation in spinocerebellar ataxia 31. Using a Drosophila model, the authors demonstrate that TDP-43 and other RNA-binding proteins act as chaperones to regulate the formation of toxic RNA aggregates.

  18. Crystal structure of importin-α3 bound to the nuclear localization signal of Ran-binding protein 3.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masako; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-09-23

    Ran-binding protein 3 (RanBP3) is a primarily nuclear Ran-binding protein that functions as an accessory factor in the Ran GTPase system. RanBP3 associates with Ran-specific nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 and enhances its catalytic activity towards Ran. RanBP3 also promotes CRM1-mediated nuclear export as well as CRM1-independent nuclear export of β-catenin, Smad2, and Smad3. Nuclear import of RanBP3 is dependent on the nuclear import adaptor protein importin-α and, RanBP3 is imported more efficiently by importin-α3 than by other members of the importin-α family. Protein kinase signaling pathways control nucleocytoplasmic transport through phosphorylation of RanBP3 at Ser58, immediately C-terminal to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal region of RanBP3. Here we report the crystal structure of human importin-α3 bound to an N-terminal fragment of human RanBP3 containing the NLS sequence that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear import. The structure reveals that RanBP3 binds to importin-α3 residues that are strictly conserved in all seven isoforms of human importin-α at the major NLS-binding site, indicating that the region of importin-α outside the NLS-binding site, possibly the autoinhibotory importin-β1-binding domain, may be the key determinant for the preferential binding of RanBP3 to importin-α3. Computational docking simulation indicates that phosphorylation of RanBP3 at Ser58 could potentially stabilize the association of RanBP3 with importin-α through interactions between the phosphate moiety of phospho-Ser58 of RanBP3 and a cluster of basic residues (Arg96 and Lys97 in importin-α3) on armadillo repeat 1 of importin-α. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transportin acts to regulate mitotic assembly events by target binding rather than Ran sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, Cyril; Swift-Taylor, Beth; Nord, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Chook, Yuh Min; Forbes, Douglass J.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear import receptors importin β and transportin play a different role in mitosis: both act phenotypically as spatial regulators to ensure that mitotic spindle, nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore assembly occur exclusively around chromatin. Importin β is known to act by repressing assembly factors in regions distant from chromatin, whereas RanGTP produced on chromatin frees factors from importin β for localized assembly. The mechanism of transportin regulation was unknown. Diametrically opposed models for transportin action are as follows: 1) indirect action by RanGTP sequestration, thus down-regulating release of assembly factors from importin β, and 2) direct action by transportin binding and inhibiting assembly factors. Experiments in Xenopus assembly extracts with M9M, a superaffinity nuclear localization sequence that displaces cargoes bound by transportin, or TLB, a mutant transportin that can bind cargo and RanGTP simultaneously, support direct inhibition. Consistently, simple addition of M9M to mitotic cytosol induces microtubule aster assembly. ELYS and the nucleoporin 107–160 complex, components of mitotic kinetochores and nuclear pores, are blocked from binding to kinetochores in vitro by transportin, a block reversible by M9M. In vivo, 30% of M9M-transfected cells have spindle/cytokinesis defects. We conclude that the cell contains importin β and transportin “global positioning system”or “GPS” pathways that are mechanistically parallel. PMID:24478460

  20. Transportin acts to regulate mitotic assembly events by target binding rather than Ran sequestration.

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cyril; Swift-Taylor, Beth; Nord, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Chook, Yuh Min; Forbes, Douglass J

    2014-04-01

    The nuclear import receptors importin β and transportin play a different role in mitosis: both act phenotypically as spatial regulators to ensure that mitotic spindle, nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore assembly occur exclusively around chromatin. Importin β is known to act by repressing assembly factors in regions distant from chromatin, whereas RanGTP produced on chromatin frees factors from importin β for localized assembly. The mechanism of transportin regulation was unknown. Diametrically opposed models for transportin action are as follows: 1) indirect action by RanGTP sequestration, thus down-regulating release of assembly factors from importin β, and 2) direct action by transportin binding and inhibiting assembly factors. Experiments in Xenopus assembly extracts with M9M, a superaffinity nuclear localization sequence that displaces cargoes bound by transportin, or TLB, a mutant transportin that can bind cargo and RanGTP simultaneously, support direct inhibition. Consistently, simple addition of M9M to mitotic cytosol induces microtubule aster assembly. ELYS and the nucleoporin 107-160 complex, components of mitotic kinetochores and nuclear pores, are blocked from binding to kinetochores in vitro by transportin, a block reversible by M9M. In vivo, 30% of M9M-transfected cells have spindle/cytokinesis defects. We conclude that the cell contains importin β and transportin "global positioning system"or "GPS" pathways that are mechanistically parallel.

  1. Nuclear size is sensitive to NTF2 protein levels in a manner dependent on Ran binding

    PubMed Central

    Vuković, Lidija D.; Jevtić, Predrag; Zhang, Zhaojie; Stohr, Bradley A.; Levy, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Altered nuclear size is associated with many cancers, and determining whether cancer-associated changes in nuclear size contribute to carcinogenesis necessitates an understanding of mechanisms of nuclear size regulation. Although nuclear import rates generally positively correlate with nuclear size, NTF2 levels negatively affect nuclear size, despite the role of NTF2 (also known as NUTF2) in nuclear recycling of the import factor Ran. We show that binding of Ran to NTF2 is required for NTF2 to inhibit nuclear expansion and import of large cargo molecules in Xenopus laevis egg and embryo extracts, consistent with our observation that NTF2 reduces the diameter of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in a Ran-binding-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic NTF2 expression in Xenopus embryos and mammalian tissue culture cells alters nuclear size. Finally, we show that increases in nuclear size during melanoma progression correlate with reduced NTF2 expression, and increasing NTF2 levels in melanoma cells is sufficient to reduce nuclear size. These results show a conserved capacity for NTF2 to impact on nuclear size, and we propose that NTF2 might be a new cancer biomarker. PMID:26823604

  2. Nuclear size is sensitive to NTF2 protein levels in a manner dependent on Ran binding.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Lidija D; Jevtić, Predrag; Zhang, Zhaojie; Stohr, Bradley A; Levy, Daniel L

    2016-03-15

    Altered nuclear size is associated with many cancers, and determining whether cancer-associated changes in nuclear size contribute to carcinogenesis necessitates an understanding of mechanisms of nuclear size regulation. Although nuclear import rates generally positively correlate with nuclear size, NTF2 levels negatively affect nuclear size, despite the role of NTF2 (also known as NUTF2) in nuclear recycling of the import factor Ran. We show that binding of Ran to NTF2 is required for NTF2 to inhibit nuclear expansion and import of large cargo molecules in Xenopus laevis egg and embryo extracts, consistent with our observation that NTF2 reduces the diameter of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in a Ran-binding-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic NTF2 expression in Xenopus embryos and mammalian tissue culture cells alters nuclear size. Finally, we show that increases in nuclear size during melanoma progression correlate with reduced NTF2 expression, and increasing NTF2 levels in melanoma cells is sufficient to reduce nuclear size. These results show a conserved capacity for NTF2 to impact on nuclear size, and we propose that NTF2 might be a new cancer biomarker. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. An ent-kaurene that inhibits mitotic chromosome movement and binds the kinetochore protein ran-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Natalie T; Nelson, Jim; Flory, Mark R; Joseph, Jomon; Th'ng, John; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dasso, Mary; Andersen, Raymond J; Roberge, Michel

    2006-08-22

    Using a chemical genetics screen, we have identified ent-15-oxokaurenoic acid (EKA) as a chemical that causes prolonged mitotic arrest at a stage resembling prometaphase. EKA inhibits the association of the mitotic motor protein centromeric protein E with kinetochores and inhibits chromosome movement. Unlike most antimitotic agents, EKA does not inhibit the polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin. To identify EKA-interacting proteins, we used a cell-permeable biotinylated form that retains biological activity to isolate binding proteins from living cells. Mass spectrometric analysis identified six EKA-binding proteins, including Ran-binding protein 2, a kinetochore protein whose depletion by small interfering RNA causes a similar mitotic arrest phenotype.

  4. Canoe binds RanGTP to promote PinsTPR/Mud-mediated spindle orientation

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Brett; Johnston, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Regulated spindle orientation maintains epithelial tissue integrity and stem cell asymmetric cell division. In Drosophila melanogaster neural stem cells (neuroblasts), the scaffolding protein Canoe (Afadin/Af-6 in mammals) regulates spindle orientation, but its protein interaction partners and mechanism of action are unknown. In this paper, we use our recently developed induced cell polarity system to dissect the molecular mechanism of Canoe-mediated spindle orientation. We show that a previously uncharacterized portion of Canoe directly binds the Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. The Canoe–PinsTPR interaction recruits Canoe to the cell cortex and is required for activation of the PinsTPR-Mud (nuclear mitotic apparatus in mammals) spindle orientation pathway. We show that the Canoe Ras-association (RA) domains directly bind RanGTP and that both the CanoeRA domains and RanGTP are required to recruit Mud to the cortex and activate the Pins/Mud/dynein spindle orientation pathway. PMID:22024168

  5. RNA structure, binding, and coordination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Foley, Shawn W; Kramer, Marianne C; Gregory, Brian D

    2017-09-01

    From the moment of transcription, up through degradation, each RNA transcript is bound by an ever-changing cohort of RNA binding proteins. The binding of these proteins is regulated by both the primary RNA sequence, as well as the intramolecular RNA folding, or secondary structure, of the transcript. Thus, RNA secondary structure regulates many post-transcriptional processes. With the advent of next generation sequencing, several techniques have been developed to generate global landscapes of both RNA-protein interactions and RNA secondary structure. In this review, we describe the current state of the field detailing techniques to globally interrogate RNA secondary structure and/or RNA-protein interaction sites, as well as our current understanding of these features in the transcriptome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1426. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1426 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Selective impairment of a subset of Ran-GTP-binding domains of ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2) suffices to recapitulate the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) triggered by Ranbp2 ablation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Hemangi; Saha, Arjun; Senda, Eugene; Cho, Kyoung-in; Haque, MdEmdadul; Yu, Minzhong; Qiu, Sunny; Yoon, Dosuk; Hao, Ying; Peachey, Neal S; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2014-10-24

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration underpins diseases triggered by disparate genetic lesions, noxious insults, or both. The pleiotropic Ranbp2 controls the expression of intrinsic and extrinsic pathological stressors impinging on cellular viability. However, the physiological targets and mechanisms controlled by Ranbp2 in tissue homeostasis, such as RPE, are ill defined. We show that mice, RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-), with selective Ranbp2 ablation in RPE develop pigmentary changes, syncytia, hypoplasia, age-dependent centrifugal and non-apoptotic degeneration of the RPE, and secondary leakage of choriocapillaris. These manifestations are accompanied by the development of F-actin clouds, metalloproteinase-11 activation, deregulation of expression or subcellular localization of critical RPE proteins, atrophic cell extrusions into the subretinal space, and compensatory proliferation of peripheral RPE. To gain mechanistic insights into what Ranbp2 activities are vital to the RPE, we performed genetic complementation analyses of transgenic lines of bacterial artificial chromosomes of Ranbp2 harboring loss of function of selective Ranbp2 domains expressed in a Ranbp2(-/-) background. Among the transgenic lines produced, only Tg(RBD2/3*-HA)::RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-)-expressing mutations, which selectively impair binding of RBD2/3 (Ran-binding domains 2 and 3) of Ranbp2 to Ran-GTP, recapitulate RPE degeneration, as observed with RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-). By contrast, Tg(RBD2/3*-HA) expression rescues the degeneration of cone photoreceptors lacking Ranbp2. The RPE of RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-) and Tg(RBD2/3*-HA)::RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-) share proteostatic deregulation of Ran GTPase, serotransferrin, and γ-tubulin and suppression of light-evoked electrophysiological responses. These studies unravel selective roles of Ranbp2 and its RBD2 and RBD3 in RPE survival and functions. We posit that the control of Ran GTPase by Ranbp2 emerges as a novel therapeutic target in diseases promoting

  7. Individual binding pockets of importin-beta for FG-nucleoporins have different binding properties and different sensitivities to RanGTP.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shotaro; Iwasaka, Shizuka; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Takeyasu, Kunio; Yoshimura, Shige H

    2008-10-21

    Importin-beta mediates protein transport across the nuclear envelope through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) by interacting with components of the NPC, called nucleoporins, and a small G protein, Ran. Although there is accumulated knowledge on the specific interaction between importin-beta and the Phe-Gly (FG) motif in the nucleoporins as well as the effect of RanGTP on this interaction, the molecular mechanism by which importin-beta shuttles across the nuclear envelope through the NPC is unknown. In this study, we focused on four binding pockets of importin-beta for the FG motifs and characterized the interaction using a single-molecule force-measurement technique with atomic-force microscopy. The results from a series of importin-beta mutants containing amino acid substitutions within the FG-binding pockets demonstrate that the individual FG-binding pockets have different affinities to FG-Nups (Nup62 and Nup153) and different sensitivities to RanGTP; the binding of RanGTP to the amino-terminal domain of importin-beta induces the conformational change of the entire molecule and reduces the affinity of some of the pockets but not others. These heterogeneous characteristics of the multiple FG-binding pockets may play an important role in the behavior of importin-beta within the NPC. Single-molecule force measurement using the entire molecule of an NPC from a Xenopus oocyte also implies that the reduction of the affinity by RanGTP really occurs at the nucleoplasmic side of the entire NPC.

  8. RanGTP-Binding Protein NXT1 Facilitates Nuclear Export of Different Classes of RNA In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ossareh-Nazari, Batool; Maison, Christèle; Black, Ben E.; Lévesque, Lyne; Paschal, Bryce M.; Dargemont, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    To better characterize the mechanisms responsible for RNA export from the nucleus, we developed an in vitro assay based on the use of permeabilized HeLa cells. This new assay supports nuclear export of U1 snRNA, tRNA, and mRNA in an energy- and Xenopus extract-dependent manner. U1 snRNA export requires a 5′ monomethylated cap structure, the nuclear export signal receptor CRM1, and the small GTPase Ran. In contrast, mRNA export does not require the participation of CRM1. We show here that NXT1, an NTF2-related protein that binds directly to RanGTP, strongly stimulates export of U1 snRNA, tRNA, and mRNA. The ability of NXT1 to promote export is dependent on its capacity to bind RanGTP. These results support the emerging view that NXT1 is a general export factor, functioning on both CRM1-dependent and CRM1-independent pathways of RNA export. PMID:10848583

  9. Yeast Ran-Binding Protein 1 (Yrb1) Shuttles between the Nucleus and Cytoplasm and Is Exported from the Nucleus via a CRM1 (XPO1)-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Künzler, Markus; Gerstberger, Thomas; Stutz, Françoise; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Hurt, Ed

    2000-01-01

    The RanGTP-binding protein RanBP1, which is located in the cytoplasm, has been implicated in release of nuclear export complexes from the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. Here we show that Yrb1 (the yeast homolog of RanBP1) shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nuclear import of Yrb1 is a facilitated process that requires a short basic sequence within the Ran-binding domain (RBD). By contrast, nuclear export of Yrb1 requires an intact RBD, which forms a ternary complex with the Xpo1 (Crm1) NES receptor in the presence of RanGTP. Nuclear export of Yrb1, however, is insensitive towards leptomycin B, suggesting a novel type of substrate recognition between Yrb1 and Xpo1. Taken together, these data suggest that ongoing nuclear import and export is an important feature of Yrb1 function in vivo. PMID:10825193

  10. Selective Impairment of a Subset of Ran-GTP-binding Domains of Ran-binding Protein 2 (Ranbp2) Suffices to Recapitulate the Degeneration of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) Triggered by Ranbp2 Ablation*

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Hemangi; Saha, Arjun; Senda, Eugene; Cho, Kyoung-in; Haque, MdEmdadul; Yu, Minzhong; Qiu, Sunny; Yoon, Dosuk; Hao, Ying; Peachey, Neal S.; Ferreira, Paulo A.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration underpins diseases triggered by disparate genetic lesions, noxious insults, or both. The pleiotropic Ranbp2 controls the expression of intrinsic and extrinsic pathological stressors impinging on cellular viability. However, the physiological targets and mechanisms controlled by Ranbp2 in tissue homeostasis, such as RPE, are ill defined. We show that mice, RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/−, with selective Ranbp2 ablation in RPE develop pigmentary changes, syncytia, hypoplasia, age-dependent centrifugal and non-apoptotic degeneration of the RPE, and secondary leakage of choriocapillaris. These manifestations are accompanied by the development of F-actin clouds, metalloproteinase-11 activation, deregulation of expression or subcellular localization of critical RPE proteins, atrophic cell extrusions into the subretinal space, and compensatory proliferation of peripheral RPE. To gain mechanistic insights into what Ranbp2 activities are vital to the RPE, we performed genetic complementation analyses of transgenic lines of bacterial artificial chromosomes of Ranbp2 harboring loss of function of selective Ranbp2 domains expressed in a Ranbp2−/− background. Among the transgenic lines produced, only TgRBD2/3*-HA::RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/−-expressing mutations, which selectively impair binding of RBD2/3 (Ran-binding domains 2 and 3) of Ranbp2 to Ran-GTP, recapitulate RPE degeneration, as observed with RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/−. By contrast, TgRBD2/3*-HA expression rescues the degeneration of cone photoreceptors lacking Ranbp2. The RPE of RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/− and TgRBD2/3*-HA::RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/− share proteostatic deregulation of Ran GTPase, serotransferrin, and γ-tubulin and suppression of light-evoked electrophysiological responses. These studies unravel selective roles of Ranbp2 and its RBD2 and RBD3 in RPE survival and functions. We posit that the control of Ran GTPase by Ranbp2 emerges as a novel therapeutic target in diseases

  11. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RanGTP-binding protein msn5p is involved in different signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Alepuz, P M; Matheos, D; Cunningham, K W; Estruch, F

    1999-01-01

    In eukaryotes, control of transcription by extracellular signals involves the translocation to the nucleus of at least one component of the signal transduction pathway. Transport through the nuclear envelope requires the activity of an import or export receptor that interacts with the small GTPase Ran. We have cloned the MSN5 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is postulated to encode one of these receptors. Msn5p belongs to a family of proteins with a conserved N-terminal sequence that acts as a RanGTP-binding domain. The results presented here provide genetic data supporting Msn5p involvement in several different signal transduction pathways. All of these pathways include changes in gene expression, and regulated nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of a component in response to external conditions has already been described in some of them. We have cloned MSN5 following two different strategies. Msn5p was constitutively localized in the nucleus. Phenotypic analysis of the msn5 mutant demonstrated that this protein participates in processes such as catabolite repression, calcium signaling, mating, and cell proliferation, as well as being involved in previously characterized phosphate utilization. Therefore, Msn5p could be a receptor for several proteins involved in different signaling pathways. PMID:10545454

  12. The rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain of obscurin regulates assembly of titin at the Z-disk through interactions with Ran binding protein 9.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amber L; Catino, Dawn H; Strong, John C; Randall, William R; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini; Bloch, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Obscurin is an approximately 800-kDa protein composed of structural and signaling domains that organizes contractile structures in striated muscle. We have studied the Rho-GEF domain of obscurin to understand its roles in morphogenesis and signaling. We used adenoviral overexpression of this domain, together with ultrastructural and immunofluorescence methods, to examine its effect on maturing myofibrils. We report that overexpression of the Rho-GEF domain specifically inhibits the incorporation of titin into developing Z-disks and disrupts the structure of the Z-disk and Z/I junction, and alters features of the A/I junction. The organization of other sarcomeric markers, including alpha-actinin, was not affected. We identified Ran binding protein 9 (RanBP9) as a novel ligand of the Rho-GEF domain and showed that binding is specific, with an apparent binding affinity of 1.9 microM. Overexpression of the binding region of RanBP9 also disrupted the incorporation of titin into developing Z-disks. Immunofluorescence localization during myofibrillogenesis indicated that the Rho-GEF domain assembles into sarcomeres before RanBP9, which first occurs in myonuclei and later in development translocates to the myoplasm, where it colocalizes with obscurin. Both the Rho-GEF domain and its binding region on RanBP9 bind directly to the N-terminal Ig domains of titin, which flank the Z-disk. Our results suggest that the Rho-GEF domain interacts with RanBP9 and that both can interact with the N-terminal region of titin to influence the formation of the Z-disk and A/I junction.

  13. Redox regulation of Ran GTPase

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Jongyun

    2008-11-21

    Ran, a small Ras-like GTP-binding nuclear protein, plays a key role in modulation of various cellular signaling events including the cell cycle. This study shows that a cellular redox agent (nitrogen dioxide) facilitates Ran guanine nucleotide dissociation, and identifies a unique Ran redox architecture involved in that process. Sequence analysis suggests that Dexras1 and Rhes GTPases also possess the Ran redox architecture. As Ran releases an intact nucleotide, the redox regulation mechanism of Ran is likely to differ from the radical-based guanine nucleotide modification mechanism suggested for Ras and Rho GTPases. These results provide a mechanistic reason for the previously observed oxidative stress-induced perturbation of the Ran-mediated nuclear import, and suggest that oxidative stress could be a factor in the regulation of cell signal transduction pathways associated with Ran.

  14. Lil3 dimerization and chlorophyll binding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mork-Jansson, Astrid Elisabeth; Gargano, Daniela; Kmiec, Karol; Furnes, Clemens; Shevela, Dmitriy; Eichacker, Lutz Andreas

    2015-10-07

    The two-helix light harvesting like (Lil) protein Lil3 belongs to the family of chlorophyll binding light harvesting proteins of photosynthetic membranes. A function in tetrapyrrol synthesis and stabilization of geranylgeraniol reductase has been shown. Lil proteins contain the chlorophyll a/b-binding motif; however, binding of chlorophyll has not been demonstrated. We find that Lil3.2 from Arabidopsis thaliana forms heterodimers with Lil3.1 and binds chlorophyll. Lil3.2 heterodimerization (25±7.8 nM) is favored relative to homodimerization (431±59 nM). Interaction of Lil3.2 with chlorophyll a (231±49 nM) suggests that heterodimerization precedes binding of chlorophyll in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  15. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Vaka S.; Ali, Gul S.; Reddy, Anireddy S N.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  16. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Vaka S.; Ali, Gul S.; Reddy, Anireddy S N.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  17. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vaka S; Ali, Gul S; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2002-03-22

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  18. Abnormal centrosome amplification in cells through the targeting of Ran-binding protein-1 by the human T cell leukemia virus type-1 Tax oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Peloponese, Jean-Marie; Haller, Kerstin; Miyazato, Akiko; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2005-12-27

    Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus etiologically causal of adult T cell leukemia. The virus encodes a Tax oncoprotein that functions in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control, and transformation. Because adult T cell leukemia like many other human cancers is a disease of genomic instability with frequent gains and losses of chromosomes, to understand this disease it is important to comprehend how HTLV-1 engenders aneuploidy in host cells. In this regard, loss of cell cycle checkpoints permits tolerance of aneuploidy but does not explain how aneuploidy is created. We show here that HTLV-1 Tax causes abnormal centrosome fragmentation in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. We report that Tax directly binds Ran and Ran-binding protein-1, locates to centrosomes/spindle poles, and causes supernumerary centrosomes.

  19. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  20. Arabidopsis chloroplast chaperonin 10 is a calmodulin-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    Calcium regulates diverse cellular activities in plants through the action of calmodulin (CaM). By using (35)S-labeled CaM to screen an Arabidopsis seedling cDNA expression library, a cDNA designated as AtCh-CPN10 (Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast chaperonin 10) was cloned. Chloroplast CPN10, a nuclear-encoded protein, is a functional homolog of E. coli GroES. It is believed that CPN60 and CPN10 are involved in the assembly of Rubisco, a key enzyme involved in the photosynthetic pathway. Northern analysis revealed that AtCh-CPN10 is highly expressed in green tissues. The recombinant AtCh-CPN10 binds to CaM in a calcium-dependent manner. Deletion mutants revealed that there is only one CaM-binding site in the last 31 amino acids of the AtCh-CPN10 at the C-terminal end. The CaM-binding region in AtCh-CPN10 has higher homology to other chloroplast CPN10s in comparison to GroES and mitochondrial CPN10s, suggesting that CaM may only bind to chloroplast CPN10s. Furthermore, the results also suggest that the calcium/CaM messenger system is involved in regulating Rubisco assembly in the chloroplast, thereby influencing photosynthesis. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Arabidopsis chloroplast chaperonin 10 is a calmodulin-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    Calcium regulates diverse cellular activities in plants through the action of calmodulin (CaM). By using (35)S-labeled CaM to screen an Arabidopsis seedling cDNA expression library, a cDNA designated as AtCh-CPN10 (Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast chaperonin 10) was cloned. Chloroplast CPN10, a nuclear-encoded protein, is a functional homolog of E. coli GroES. It is believed that CPN60 and CPN10 are involved in the assembly of Rubisco, a key enzyme involved in the photosynthetic pathway. Northern analysis revealed that AtCh-CPN10 is highly expressed in green tissues. The recombinant AtCh-CPN10 binds to CaM in a calcium-dependent manner. Deletion mutants revealed that there is only one CaM-binding site in the last 31 amino acids of the AtCh-CPN10 at the C-terminal end. The CaM-binding region in AtCh-CPN10 has higher homology to other chloroplast CPN10s in comparison to GroES and mitochondrial CPN10s, suggesting that CaM may only bind to chloroplast CPN10s. Furthermore, the results also suggest that the calcium/CaM messenger system is involved in regulating Rubisco assembly in the chloroplast, thereby influencing photosynthesis. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Determinants of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1 (SUMO1) Protein Specificity, E3 Ligase, and SUMO-RanGAP1 Binding Activities of Nucleoporin RanBP2

    SciTech Connect

    Gareau, Jaclyn R.; Reverter, David; Lima, Christopher D.

    2012-02-16

    The RanBP2 nucleoporin contains an internal repeat domain (IR1-M-IR2) that catalyzes E3 ligase activity and forms a stable complex with SUMO-modified RanGAP1 and UBC9 at the nuclear pore complex. RanBP2 exhibits specificity for SUMO1 as RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 forms a more stable complex with RanBP2 compared with RanGAP1-SUMO2 that results in greater protection of RanGAP-SUMO1 from proteases. The IR1-M-IR2 SUMO E3 ligase activity also shows a similar preference for SUMO1. We utilized deletions and domain swap constructs in protease protection assays and automodification assays to define RanBP2 domains responsible for RanGAP1-SUMO1 protection and SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. Our data suggest that elements in both IR1 and IR2 exhibit specificity for SUMO1. IR1 protects RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 and functions as the primary E3 ligase of RanBP2, whereas IR2 retains the ability to interact with SUMO1 to promote SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. To determine the structural basis for SUMO1 specificity, a hybrid IR1 construct and IR1 were used to determine three new structures for complexes containing UBC9 with RanGAP1-SUMO1/2. These structures show more extensive contacts among SUMO, UBC9, and RanBP2 in complexes containing SUMO1 compared with SUMO2 and suggest that differences in SUMO specificity may be achieved through these subtle conformational differences.

  3. Determinants of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1 (SUMO1) Protein Specificity, E3 Ligase, and SUMO-RanGAP1 Binding Activities of Nucleoporin RanBP2*

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Jaclyn R.; Reverter, David; Lima, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    The RanBP2 nucleoporin contains an internal repeat domain (IR1-M-IR2) that catalyzes E3 ligase activity and forms a stable complex with SUMO-modified RanGAP1 and UBC9 at the nuclear pore complex. RanBP2 exhibits specificity for SUMO1 as RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 forms a more stable complex with RanBP2 compared with RanGAP1-SUMO2 that results in greater protection of RanGAP-SUMO1 from proteases. The IR1-M-IR2 SUMO E3 ligase activity also shows a similar preference for SUMO1. We utilized deletions and domain swap constructs in protease protection assays and automodification assays to define RanBP2 domains responsible for RanGAP1-SUMO1 protection and SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. Our data suggest that elements in both IR1 and IR2 exhibit specificity for SUMO1. IR1 protects RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 and functions as the primary E3 ligase of RanBP2, whereas IR2 retains the ability to interact with SUMO1 to promote SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. To determine the structural basis for SUMO1 specificity, a hybrid IR1 construct and IR1 were used to determine three new structures for complexes containing UBC9 with RanGAP1-SUMO1/2. These structures show more extensive contacts among SUMO, UBC9, and RanBP2 in complexes containing SUMO1 compared with SUMO2 and suggest that differences in SUMO specificity may be achieved through these subtle conformational differences. PMID:22194619

  4. Fusicoccin-Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. 1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christiane; Feyerabend, Martin; Weiler, Elmar W.

    1989-01-01

    Using the novel radioligand, [3H]-9′-nor-fusicoccin-8′-alcohol, high affinity binding sites for fusicoccin were characterized in preparations from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The binding site copartitioned with the plasmalemma marker, vanadate-sensitive K+, Mg2+-ATPase, when microsomal fractions were further purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning in polyethylene glycol-dextran phase systems and sedimented at an equilibrium density of 1.17 grams per cubic centimeter in continuous sucrose density gradients, as did the ATPase marker. The binding of [3H]-9′-nor-fusicoccin-8′-alcohol was saturable and Scatchard analysis revealed a biphasic plot with two apparent dissociation constants (KD), KD1 = 1.5 nanomolar and KD2 = 42 nanomolar, for the radioligand. Binding was optimal at pH 6, thermolabile, and was reduced by 70% when the membrane vesicles were pretreated with trypsin. The data are consistent with the presence of one or several binding proteins for fusicoccin at the plasma membrane of A. thaliana. Binding of the radioligand was unaffected by pretreatment of the sites with various alkylating and reducing agents, but was reduced by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, diethylpyrocarbonate, chloramine T, and periodate. A number of detergents were tested to find optimum conditions for solubilization. Nonanoyl-N-methylglucamide (50 millimolar) solubilized 70% of the radioligand-binding protein complex in undissociated form. Photoaffinity labeling of membrane preparations with a tritiated azido analog of fusicoccin resulted in the labeling of a 34 ± 1 kilodalton polypeptide. Labeling of this polypeptide, presumably the fusicoccin-binding protein, was severely reduced in the presence of unlabeled fusicoccin. PMID:16666603

  5. Tyr39 of ran preserves the Ran.GTP gradient by inhibiting GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Sven; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2010-08-06

    Ran is a member of the superfamily of small GTPases, which cycle between a GTP-bound "on" and a GDP-bound "off" state. Ran regulates nuclear transport. In order to maintain a gradient of excess Ran.GTP within the nucleoplasm and excess Ran.GDP within the cytoplasm, the hydrolysis of Ran.GTP in the nucleoplasm should be prevented, whereas in the cytoplasm, hydrolysis is catalyzed by Ran.GAP (GTPase-activating protein). In this article, we investigate the GTPase reaction of Ran in complex with its binding protein Ran-binding protein 1 by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: We show that the slowdown of the intrinsic hydrolysis of RanGTP is accomplished by tyrosine 39, which is probably misplacing the attacking water. We monitored the interaction of Ran with RanGAP, which reveals two reactions steps. By isotopic labeling of Ran and RanGAP, we were able to assign the first step to a small conformational change within the catalytic site. The following bond breakage is the rate-limiting step of hydrolysis. An intermediate of protein-bound phosphate as found for Ras or Rap systems is kinetically unresolved. This demonstrates that despite the structural similarity among the G-domain of the GTPases, different reaction mechanisms are utilized.

  6. A strong loss-of-function mutation in RAN1 results in constitutive activation of the ethylene response pathway as well as a rosette-lethal phenotype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeste, K. E.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    A recessive mutation was identified that constitutively activated the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis and resulted in a rosette-lethal phenotype. Positional cloning of the gene corresponding to this mutation revealed that it was allelic to responsive to antagonist1 (ran1), a mutation that causes seedlings to respond in a positive manner to what is normally a competitive inhibitor of ethylene binding. In contrast to the previously identified ran1-1 and ran1-2 alleles that are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, this ran1-3 allele results in a rosette-lethal phenotype. The predicted protein encoded by the RAN1 gene is similar to the Wilson and Menkes disease proteins and yeast Ccc2 protein, which are integral membrane cation-transporting P-type ATPases involved in copper trafficking. Genetic epistasis analysis indicated that RAN1 acts upstream of mutations in the ethylene receptor gene family. However, the rosette-lethal phenotype of ran1-3 was not suppressed by ethylene-insensitive mutants, suggesting that this mutation also affects a non-ethylene-dependent pathway regulating cell expansion. The phenotype of ran1-3 mutants is similar to loss-of-function ethylene receptor mutants, suggesting that RAN1 may be required to form functional ethylene receptors. Furthermore, these results suggest that copper is required not only for ethylene binding but also for the signaling function of the ethylene receptors.

  7. A strong loss-of-function mutation in RAN1 results in constitutive activation of the ethylene response pathway as well as a rosette-lethal phenotype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeste, K. E.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    A recessive mutation was identified that constitutively activated the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis and resulted in a rosette-lethal phenotype. Positional cloning of the gene corresponding to this mutation revealed that it was allelic to responsive to antagonist1 (ran1), a mutation that causes seedlings to respond in a positive manner to what is normally a competitive inhibitor of ethylene binding. In contrast to the previously identified ran1-1 and ran1-2 alleles that are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, this ran1-3 allele results in a rosette-lethal phenotype. The predicted protein encoded by the RAN1 gene is similar to the Wilson and Menkes disease proteins and yeast Ccc2 protein, which are integral membrane cation-transporting P-type ATPases involved in copper trafficking. Genetic epistasis analysis indicated that RAN1 acts upstream of mutations in the ethylene receptor gene family. However, the rosette-lethal phenotype of ran1-3 was not suppressed by ethylene-insensitive mutants, suggesting that this mutation also affects a non-ethylene-dependent pathway regulating cell expansion. The phenotype of ran1-3 mutants is similar to loss-of-function ethylene receptor mutants, suggesting that RAN1 may be required to form functional ethylene receptors. Furthermore, these results suggest that copper is required not only for ethylene binding but also for the signaling function of the ethylene receptors.

  8. The Nuclear Export Receptor Xpo1p Forms Distinct Complexes with NES Transport Substrates and the Yeast Ran Binding Protein 1 (Yrb1p)

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Patrick; Redd, Michael; Solsbacher, Jens; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Greiner, Markus; Podtelejnikov, Alexandre V.; Mann, Matthias; Stade, Katrin; Weis, Karsten; Schlenstedt, Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    Xpo1p (Crm1p) is the nuclear export receptor for proteins containing a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). Xpo1p, the NES-containing protein, and GTP-bound Ran form a complex in the nucleus that translocates across the nuclear pore. We have identified Yrb1p as the major Xpo1p-binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae extracts in the presence of GTP-bound Gsp1p (yeast Ran). Yrb1p is cytoplasmic at steady-state but shuttles continuously between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Nuclear import of Yrb1p is mediated by two separate nuclear targeting signals. Export from the nucleus requires Xpo1p, but Yrb1p does not contain a leucine-rich NES. Instead, the interaction of Yrb1p with Xpo1p is mediated by Gsp1p-GTP. This novel type of export complex requires the acidic C-terminus of Gsp1p, which is dispensable for the binding to importin β-like transport receptors. A similar complex with Xpo1p and Gsp1p-GTP can be formed by Yrb2p, a relative of Yrb1p predominantly located in the nucleus. Yrb1p also functions as a disassembly factor for NES/Xpo1p/Gsp1p-GTP complexes by displacing the NES protein from Xpo1p/Gsp1p. This Yrb1p/Xpo1p/Gsp1p complex is then completely dissociated after GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by the cytoplasmic GTPase activating protein Rna1p. PMID:11251069

  9. Triplin, a small molecule, reveals copper ion transport in ethylene signaling from ATX1 to RAN1.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbo; Lacey, Randy F; Ye, Yajin; Lu, Juan; Yeh, Kuo-Chen; Xiao, Youli; Li, Laigeng; Wen, Chi-Kuang; Binder, Brad M; Zhao, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Copper ions play an important role in ethylene receptor biogenesis and proper function. The copper transporter RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1 (RAN1) is essential for copper ion transport in Arabidopsis thaliana. However it is still unclear how copper ions are delivered to RAN1 and how copper ions affect ethylene receptors. There is not a specific copper chelator which could be used to explore these questions. Here, by chemical genetics, we identified a novel small molecule, triplin, which could cause a triple response phenotype on dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings through ethylene signaling pathway. ran1-1 and ran1-2 are hypersensitive to triplin. Adding copper ions in growth medium could partially restore the phenotype on plant caused by triplin. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that triplin could bind copper ion. Compared to the known chelators, triplin acts more specifically to copper ion and it suppresses the toxic effects of excess copper ions on plant root growth. We further showed that mutants of ANTIOXIDANT PROTEIN1 (ATX1) are hypersensitive to tiplin, but with less sensitivity comparing with the ones of ran1-1 and ran1-2. Our study provided genetic evidence for the first time that, copper ions necessary for ethylene receptor biogenesis and signaling are transported from ATX1 to RAN1. Considering that triplin could chelate copper ions in Arabidopsis, and copper ions are essential for plant and animal, we believe that, triplin not only could be useful for studying copper ion transport of plants, but also could be useful for copper metabolism study in animal and human.

  10. Triplin, a small molecule, reveals copper ion transport in ethylene signaling from ATX1 to RAN1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenbo; Ye, Yajin; Lu, Juan; Yeh, Kuo-Chen; Xiao, Youli; Li, Laigeng; Binder, Brad M.

    2017-01-01

    Copper ions play an important role in ethylene receptor biogenesis and proper function. The copper transporter RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1 (RAN1) is essential for copper ion transport in Arabidopsis thaliana. However it is still unclear how copper ions are delivered to RAN1 and how copper ions affect ethylene receptors. There is not a specific copper chelator which could be used to explore these questions. Here, by chemical genetics, we identified a novel small molecule, triplin, which could cause a triple response phenotype on dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings through ethylene signaling pathway. ran1-1 and ran1-2 are hypersensitive to triplin. Adding copper ions in growth medium could partially restore the phenotype on plant caused by triplin. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that triplin could bind copper ion. Compared to the known chelators, triplin acts more specifically to copper ion and it suppresses the toxic effects of excess copper ions on plant root growth. We further showed that mutants of ANTIOXIDANT PROTEIN1 (ATX1) are hypersensitive to tiplin, but with less sensitivity comparing with the ones of ran1-1 and ran1-2. Our study provided genetic evidence for the first time that, copper ions necessary for ethylene receptor biogenesis and signaling are transported from ATX1 to RAN1. Considering that triplin could chelate copper ions in Arabidopsis, and copper ions are essential for plant and animal, we believe that, triplin not only could be useful for studying copper ion transport of plants, but also could be useful for copper metabolism study in animal and human. PMID:28388654

  11. Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A polymers bind, but do not tubulate, liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Backues, Steven K.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

    2010-03-19

    The Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A (AtDRP1A) is involved in endocytosis and cell plate maturation in Arabidopsis. Unlike dynamin, AtDRP1A does not have any recognized membrane binding or protein-protein interaction domains. We report that GTPase active AtDRP1A purified from Escherichia coli as a fusion to maltose binding protein forms homopolymers visible by negative staining electron microscopy. These polymers interact with protein-free liposomes whose lipid composition mimics that of the inner leaflet of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane, suggesting that lipid-binding may play a role in AtDRP1A function. However, AtDRP1A polymers do not appear to assemble and disassemble in a dynamic fashion and do not have the ability to tubulate liposomes in vitro, suggesting that additional factors or modifications are necessary for AtDRP1A's in vivo function.

  12. Duplicate Gene Divergence by Changes in MicroRNA Binding Sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes. PMID:25644246

  13. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-02-02

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes.

  14. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  15. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  16. An Arabidopsis family of six acyl-CoA-binding proteins has three cytosolic members.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chye, Mee-Len

    2009-06-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene family of six members encodes acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs). These Arabidopsis ACBPs (designated ACBP1 to ACBP6) range in size from 10.4kDa to 73.1kDa and display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters, suggesting that they have different roles in plant lipid metabolism. In contrast, only the 10-kDa ACBPs have been well-characterized from other eukaryote species. Our previous studies have revealed that ACBP1 and ACBP2 are membrane-associated proteins, while ACBP3 is extracellularly-targeted. More recently, we have reported that the remaining three members in this protein family (namely ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6) are subcellularly localized to the cytosol in Arabidopsis. The subcellular localizations of ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6 in the cytosol were demonstrated using a number of different approaches incorporating biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged fusions and immunoelectron microscopy using ACBP-specific antibodies. Our results indicate that all three ACBPs in the cytosol are potential candidates for acyl-CoA binding and trafficking in plant cells. In this review, the functional redundancy and differences among the three cytosolic ACBPs are discussed by comparison of their light-regulated expression and substrate affinities to acyl-CoA esters, and from biochemical analyses on their knockout mutants and/or overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis. The transcriptionally light-induced ACBP4 and ACBP5, which encode the two largest forms of Arabidopsis ACBPs, bind oleoyl-CoA esters and likely transfer oleoyl-CoAs from the plastids (the site of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis) to the endoplasmic reticulum for the biosynthesis of non-plastidial membrane lipids in Arabidopsis.

  17. RanBP1 is crucial for the release of RanGTP from importin beta-related nuclear transport factors.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, F R; Görlich, D

    1997-12-15

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport appears mediated by shuttling transport receptors that bind RanGTP as a means to regulate interactions with their cargoes. The receptor-RanGTP complexes are kinetically very stable with nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis being blocked, predicting that a specific disassembly mechanism exists. Here we show in three cases receptor RanGTP x RanBP1 complexes to be the key disassembly intermediates, where RanBP1 stimulates the off-rate at the receptor/RanGTP interface by more than two orders of magnitude. The transiently released RanGTP x RanBP1 complex is then induced by RanGAP to hydrolyse GTP, preventing the receptor to rebind RanGTP. The efficient release of importin beta from RanGTP requires importin alpha, in addition to RanBP1.

  18. Interacting protein partners of Arabidopsis RNA binding protein AtRBP45b

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation and shown to play an important role in normal development and in response to environmental perturbations. Arabidopsis RBP, AtRBP45b with triple RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) have are closely related to the yeas...

  19. Differential loss of prolyl isomerase or chaperone activity of Ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2) unveils distinct physiological roles of its cyclophilin domain in proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung-in; Patil, Hemangi; Senda, Eugene; Wang, Jessica; Yi, Haiqing; Qiu, Sunny; Yoon, Dosuk; Yu, Minzhong; Orry, Andrew; Peachey, Neal S; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2014-02-21

    The immunophilins, cyclophilins, catalyze peptidyl cis-trans prolyl-isomerization (PPIase), a rate-limiting step in protein folding and a conformational switch in protein function. Cyclophilins are also chaperones. Noncatalytic mutations affecting the only cyclophilins with known but distinct physiological substrates, the Drosophila NinaA and its mammalian homolog, cyclophilin-B, impair opsin biogenesis and cause osteogenesis imperfecta, respectively. However, the physiological roles and substrates of most cyclophilins remain unknown. It is also unclear if PPIase and chaperone activities reflect distinct cyclophilin properties. To elucidate the physiological idiosyncrasy stemming from potential cyclophilin functions, we generated mice lacking endogenous Ran-binding protein-2 (Ranbp2) and expressing bacterial artificial chromosomes of Ranbp2 with impaired C-terminal chaperone and with (Tg-Ranbp2(WT-HA)) or without PPIase activities (Tg-Ranbp2(R2944A-HA)). The transgenic lines exhibit unique effects in proteostasis. Either line presents selective deficits in M-opsin biogenesis with its accumulation and aggregation in cone photoreceptors but without proteostatic impairment of two novel Ranbp2 cyclophilin partners, the cytokine-responsive effectors, STAT3/STAT5. Stress-induced STAT3 activation is also unaffected in Tg-Ranbp2(R2944A-HA)::Ranbp2(-/-). Conversely, proteomic analyses found that the multisystem proteinopathy/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, are down-regulated post-transcriptionally only in Tg-Ranbp2(R2944A-HA)::Ranbp2(-/-). This is accompanied by the age- and tissue-dependent reductions of diubiquitin and ubiquitylated proteins, increased deubiquitylation activity, and accumulation of the 26 S proteasome subunits S1 and S5b. These manifestations are absent in another line, Tg-Ranbp2(CLDm-HA)::Ranbp2(-/-), harboring SUMO-1 and S1-binding mutations in the Ranbp2 cyclophilin-like domain. These results

  20. Differential Loss of Prolyl Isomerase or Chaperone Activity of Ran-binding Protein 2 (Ranbp2) Unveils Distinct Physiological Roles of Its Cyclophilin Domain in Proteostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung-in; Patil, Hemangi; Senda, Eugene; Wang, Jessica; Yi, Haiqing; Qiu, Sunny; Yoon, Dosuk; Yu, Minzhong; Orry, Andrew; Peachey, Neal S.; Ferreira, Paulo A.

    2014-01-01

    The immunophilins, cyclophilins, catalyze peptidyl cis-trans prolyl-isomerization (PPIase), a rate-limiting step in protein folding and a conformational switch in protein function. Cyclophilins are also chaperones. Noncatalytic mutations affecting the only cyclophilins with known but distinct physiological substrates, the Drosophila NinaA and its mammalian homolog, cyclophilin-B, impair opsin biogenesis and cause osteogenesis imperfecta, respectively. However, the physiological roles and substrates of most cyclophilins remain unknown. It is also unclear if PPIase and chaperone activities reflect distinct cyclophilin properties. To elucidate the physiological idiosyncrasy stemming from potential cyclophilin functions, we generated mice lacking endogenous Ran-binding protein-2 (Ranbp2) and expressing bacterial artificial chromosomes of Ranbp2 with impaired C-terminal chaperone and with (Tg-Ranbp2WT-HA) or without PPIase activities (Tg-Ranbp2R2944A-HA). The transgenic lines exhibit unique effects in proteostasis. Either line presents selective deficits in M-opsin biogenesis with its accumulation and aggregation in cone photoreceptors but without proteostatic impairment of two novel Ranbp2 cyclophilin partners, the cytokine-responsive effectors, STAT3/STAT5. Stress-induced STAT3 activation is also unaffected in Tg-Ranbp2R2944A-HA::Ranbp2−/−. Conversely, proteomic analyses found that the multisystem proteinopathy/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, are down-regulated post-transcriptionally only in Tg-Ranbp2R2944A-HA::Ranbp2−/−. This is accompanied by the age- and tissue-dependent reductions of diubiquitin and ubiquitylated proteins, increased deubiquitylation activity, and accumulation of the 26 S proteasome subunits S1 and S5b. These manifestations are absent in another line, Tg-Ranbp2CLDm-HA::Ranbp2−/−, harboring SUMO-1 and S1-binding mutations in the Ranbp2 cyclophilin-like domain. These results unveil

  1. Arabidopsis AtADF1 is functionally affected by mutations on actin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Tang, Wei-Ping; Liu, Jia-Yao

    2013-03-01

    The plant actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) binds to both monomeric and filamentous actin, and is directly involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments. To better understand the actin binding sites of the Arabidopsis thaliana L. AtADF1, we generated mutants of AtADF1 and investigated their functions in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of mutants harboring amino acid substitutions revealed that charged residues (Arg98 and Lys100) located at the α-helix 3 and forming an actin binding site together with the N-terminus are essential for both G- and F-actin binding. The basic residues on the β-strand 5 (K82/A) and the α-helix 4 (R135/A, R137/A) form another actin binding site that is important for F-actin binding. Using transient expression of CFP-tagged AtADF1 mutant proteins in onion (Allium cepa) peel epidermal cells and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants overexpressing these mutants, we analyzed how these mutant proteins regulate actin organization and affect seedling growth. Our results show that the ADF mutants with a lower affinity for actin filament binding can still be functional, unless the affinity for actin monomers is also affected. The G-actin binding activity of the ADF plays an essential role in actin binding, depolymerization of actin polymers, and therefore in the control of actin organization. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Phosphatidic Acid Binds to Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase and Promotes Its Cleavage in Arabidopsis *

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Chul; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a class of lipid messengers involved in a variety of physiological processes. To understand how PA mediates cell functions in plants, we used a PA affinity membrane assay to isolate PA-binding proteins from Camelina sativa followed by mass spectrometric sequencing. A cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) was identified to bind to PA, and detailed analysis was carried out subsequently using GAPC1 and GAPC1 from Arabidopsis. The PA and GAPC binding was abolished by the cation zinc whereas oxidation of GAPCs promoted the PA binding. PA had little impact on the GAPC catalytic activity in vitro, but the PA treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings induced proteolytic cleavage of GAPC2 and inhibited Arabidopsis seedling growth. The extent of PA inhibition was greater in GAPC-overexpressing than wild-type seedlings, but the greater PA inhibition was abolished by application of zinc to the seedling. The PA treatment also reduced the expression of genes involved in PA synthesis and utilization, and the PA-reduced gene expression was partially recovered by zinc treatment. These data suggest that PA binds to oxidized GAPDH and promotes its cleavage and that the PA and GAPC interaction may provide a signaling link coordinating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PMID:23504314

  3. Arabidopsis Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 binding sites contain putative GAGA factor binding motifs within coding regions of genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is an essential regulator of gene expression that maintains genes in a repressed state by marking chromatin with trimethylated Histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). In Arabidopsis, loss of PRC2 function leads to pleiotropic effects on growth and development thought to be due to ectopic expression of seed and embryo-specific genes. While there is some understanding of the mechanisms by which specific genes are targeted by PRC2 in animal systems, it is still not clear how PRC2 is recruited to specific regions of plant genomes. Results We used ChIP-seq to determine the genome-wide distribution of hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged FERTLIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE-HA), the Extra Sex Combs homolog protein present in all Arabidopsis PRC2 complexes. We found that the FIE-HA binding sites co-locate with a subset of the H3K27me3 sites in the genome and that the associated genes were more likely to be de-repressed in mutants of PRC2 components. The FIE-HA binding sites are enriched for three sequence motifs including a putative GAGA factor binding site that is also found in Drosophila Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). Conclusions Our results suggest that PRC2 binding sites in plant genomes share some sequence features with Drosophila PREs. However, unlike Drosophila PREs which are located in promoters and devoid of H3K27me3, Arabidopsis FIE binding sites tend to be in gene coding regions and co-localize with H3K27me3. PMID:24001316

  4. Profiling Protein Kinases and Other ATP Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis Using Acyl-ATP Probes*

    PubMed Central

    Villamor, Joji Grace; Kaschani, Farnusch; Colby, Tom; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Zhao, David; Kaiser, Markus; Patricelli, Matthew P.; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Many protein activities are driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Here, we explore the ATP binding proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using acyl-ATP (AcATP)1 probes. These probes target ATP binding sites and covalently label lysine residues in the ATP binding pocket. Gel-based profiling using biotinylated AcATP showed that labeling is dependent on pH and divalent ions and can be competed by nucleotides. The vast majority of these AcATP-labeled proteins are known ATP binding proteins. Our search for labeled peptides upon in-gel digest led to the discovery that the biotin moiety of the labeled peptides is oxidized. The in-gel analysis displayed kinase domains of two receptor-like kinases (RLKs) at a lower than expected molecular weight, indicating that these RLKs lost the extracellular domain, possibly as a result of receptor shedding. Analysis of modified peptides using a gel-free platform identified 242 different labeling sites for AcATP in the Arabidopsis proteome. Examination of each individual labeling site revealed a preference of labeling in ATP binding pockets for a broad diversity of ATP binding proteins. Of these, 24 labeled peptides were from a diverse range of protein kinases, including RLKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and calcium-dependent kinases. A significant portion of the labeling sites could not be assigned to known nucleotide binding sites. However, the fact that labeling could be competed with ATP indicates that these labeling sites might represent previously uncharacterized nucleotide binding sites. A plot of spectral counts against expression levels illustrates the high specificity of AcATP probes for protein kinases and known ATP binding proteins. This work introduces profiling of ATP binding activities of a large diversity of proteins in plant proteomes. The data have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000188. PMID:23722185

  5. Metal binding affinity and structural properties of calmodulin-like protein 14 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Rosario; La Verde, Valentina; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Dominici, Paola; Astegno, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    In addition to the well-known Ca(2+) sensor calmodulin, plants possess many calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) that are predicted to have specific roles in the cell. Herein, we described the biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana CML14. We applied isothermal titration calorimetry to analyze the energetics of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding to CML14, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, together with intrinsic and ANS-based fluorescence, to evaluate the structural effects of metal binding and metal-induced conformational changes. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and limited proteolysis were used to characterize protein thermal and local stability. Our data demonstrate that CML14 binds one Ca(2+) ion with micromolar affinity (Kd ∼ 12 µM) and the presence of 10 mM Mg(2+) decreases the Ca(2+) affinity by ∼5-fold. Although binding of Ca(2+) to CML14 increases protein stability, it does not result in a more hydrophobic protein surface and does not induce the large conformational rearrangement typical of Ca(2+) sensors, but causes only localized structural changes in the unique functional EF-hand. Our data, together with a molecular modelling prediction, provide interesting insights into the biochemical properties of Arabidopsis CML14 and may be useful to direct additional studies aimed at understanding its physiological role. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  6. CLAVATA2 forms a distinct CLE-binding receptor complex regulating Arabidopsis stem cell specification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongfeng; Han, Linqu; Hymes, Matthew; Denver, Robert; Clark, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY CLAVATA1 (CLV1), CLV2, CLV3, CORYNE (CRN), BAM1 and BAM2 are key regulators that function at the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of plants to promote differentiation by limiting the size of the organizing center that maintains stem cell identity in neighboring cells. Previous results have indicated that the extracellular domain of the receptor-kinase CLV1 binds to the CLV3-derived CLE ligand. The biochemical role of receptor-like protein CLV2 has remained largely unknown. While genetic analysis suggested that CLV2, together with the membrane kinase CRN, act in parallel with CLV1, recent studies using transient expression indicated that CLV2 and CRN from a complex with CLV1. Here we report evidence for distinct CLV2/CRN heteromultimeric and CLV1/BAM multimeric complexes in transient expression and in Arabidopsis. Weaker interactions between the two complexes were detectable in transient expression. We also find that CLV2 alone generates a membrane-localized CLE binding activity independent of CLV1. CLV2, CLV1 and the CLV1 homologs BAM1 and BAM2 all bind to the CLV3-derived CLE peptide with similar kinetics, but BAM receptors show a broader range of interactions with different CLE peptides. Finally, we show that BAM and CLV1 over-expression can compensate for the loss of CLV2 function in vivo. These results suggest two parallel ligand-binding receptor complexes controlling stem cell specification in Arabidopsis. PMID:20626648

  7. Glycan-binding F-box protein from Arabidopsis thaliana protects plants from Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    Stefanowicz, Karolina; Lannoo, Nausicaä; Zhao, Yafei; Eggermont, Lore; Van Hove, Jonas; Al Atalah, Bassam; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-10-04

    A small group of F-box proteins consisting of a conserved F-box domain linked to a domain homologous to the glycan-binding protein has been identified within the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, the so-called F-box-Nictaba protein, encoded by the gene At2g02360, was shown to be a functional lectin which binds N-acetyllactosamine structures. Here, we present a detailed qRT-PCR expression analysis of F-box-Nictaba in Arabidopsis plants upon different stresses and hormone treatments. Expression of the F-box-Nictaba gene was enhanced after plant treatment with salicylic acid and after plant infection with the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000). β-glucuronidase histochemical staining of transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed preferential activity of the At2g02360 promoter in trichomes present on young rosette leaves. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed high expression of F-box-Nictaba in leaf trichomes. A. thaliana plants overexpressing the gene showed less disease symptoms after Pst DC3000 infection with reduced bacterial colonization compared to infected wild type and F-box-Nictaba knock-out plants. Our data show that the Arabidopsis F-box-Nictaba gene is a stress-inducible gene responsive to SA, bacterial infection and heat stress, and is involved in salicylic acid related plant defense responses. This knowledge enriched our understanding of the physiological importance of F-box-Nictaba, and can be used to create plants with better performance in changing environmental conditions.

  8. Exportin 5 is a RanGTP-dependent dsRNA-binding protein that mediates nuclear export of pre-miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bohnsack, Markus T; Czaplinski, Kevin; Gorlich, Dirk

    2004-02-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are widespread among eukaryotes, and studies in several systems have revealed that miRNAs can regulate expression of specific genes. Primary miRNA transcripts are initially processed to approximately 70-nucleotide (nt) stem-loop structures (pre-miRNAs), exported to the cytoplasm, further processed to yield approximately 22-nt dsRNAs, and finally incorporated into ribonucleoprotein particles, which are thought to be the active species. Here we study nuclear export of pre-miRNAs and show that the process is saturable and thus carrier-mediated. Export is sensitive to depletion of nuclear RanGTP and, according to this criterion, mediated by a RanGTP-dependent exportin. An unbiased affinity chromatography approach with immobilized pre-miRNAs identified exportin 5 as the pre-miRNA-specific export carrier. We have cloned exportin 5 from Xenopus and demonstrate that antibodies raised against the Xenopus receptor specifically block pre-miRNA export from nuclei of Xenopus oocytes. We further show that exportin 5 interacts with double-stranded RNA in a sequence-independent manner.

  9. Arabidopsis ACBP3 is an extracellularly targeted acyl-CoA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ka-Chun; Li, Hong-Ye; Xiao, Shi; Tse, Muk-Hei; Chye, Mee-Len

    2006-04-01

    Cytosolic 10-kDa acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) function in the storage and intracellular transport of acyl-CoA esters in eukaryotes. Fatty acids synthesized de novo in plant chloroplasts are exported as oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA esters. In Arabidopsis, other than the 10-kDa ACBP, there exists five larger ACBPs (ACBP1 to ACBP5) of which homologues have not been characterized in other organisms. To investigate the significance of this gene family, we have attempted to subcellularly localize them and compare their acyl-CoA-binding affinities. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis ACBP1 and ACBP2 are membrane-associated proteins while ACBP4 and ACBP5 contain kelch motifs. Here, to localize ACBP3, we have expressed ACBP3-red fluorescent protein (DsRed2) from the CaMV 35S promoter. ACBP3-DsRed was localized extracellularly in transiently expressed tobacco BY-2 cells and onion epidermal cells. The function of the acyl-CoA-binding domain in ACBP3 was investigated by in vitro binding assays using (His)(6)-ACBP3, which was observed to bind [(14)C]arachidonyl-CoA with high affinity in comparison to [(14)C]palmitoyl-CoA and [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA. To identify the residues functional in binding, five mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the acyl-CoA-binding domain of (His)(6)-ACBP3 and (His)(6)-ACBP1 (which also binds [(14)C]arachidonyl-CoA) were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Binding assays with arachidonyl-CoA revealed that replacement of a conserved R residue (R150A in ACBP1 and R284A in ACBP3), disrupted binding. In contrast, other substitutions in ACBP1 (Y126A, K130A, K152A and Y171A) and in ACBP3 (F260A, K264A, K286A and Y305A) did not affect arachidonyl-CoA binding, unlike their equivalents in (His)(6)-ACBP2, (His)(6)-ACBP4 and (His)(6)-ACBP5, which had altered binding to palmitoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA.

  10. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Molybdenum Cofactor-binding Proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana*

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Tobias; Gehl, Christian; Geisler, Mirco; Lehrke, Markus; Ringel, Phillip; Hallier, Stephan; Hänsch, Robert; Mendel, Ralf R.

    2010-01-01

    The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) forms part of the catalytic center in all eukaryotic molybdenum enzymes and is synthesized in a highly conserved pathway. Among eukaryotes, very little is known about the processes taking place subsequent to Moco biosynthesis, i.e. Moco transfer, allocation, and insertion into molybdenum enzymes. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified a novel protein family consisting of nine members that after recombinant expression are able to bind Moco with KD values in the low micromolar range and are therefore named Moco-binding proteins (MoBP). For two of the nine proteins atomic structures are available in the Protein Data Bank. Surprisingly, both crystal structures lack electron density for the C terminus, which may indicate a high flexibility of this part of the protein. C-terminal truncated MoBPs showed significantly decreased Moco binding stoichiometries. Experiments where the MoBP C termini were exchanged among MoBPs converted a weak Moco-binding MoBP into a strong binding MoBP, thus indicating that the MoBP C terminus, which is encoded by a separate exon, is involved in Moco binding. MoBPs were able to enhance Moco transfer to apo-nitrate reductase in the Moco-free Neurospora crassa mutant nit-1. Furthermore, we show that the MoBPs are localized in the cytosol and undergo protein-protein contact with both the Moco donor protein Cnx1 and the Moco acceptor protein nitrate reductase under in vivo conditions, thus indicating for the MoBPs a function in Arabidopsis cellular Moco distribution. PMID:20040598

  11. Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Naoyuki Kobayashi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Murakami, Seishi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2007-11-23

    The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-{delta}2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast.

  12. Solution structure of telomere binding domain of AtTRB2 derived from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Won Kyung; Kim, Heeyoun; Kim, Eunhee; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cho, Myeon Haeng; Lee, Weontae

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • We have determined solution structure of Myb domain of AtTRB2. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 is located in the N-terminal region. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 binds to plant telomeric DNA without fourth helix. • Helix 2 and 3 of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 are involved in DNA recognition. • AtTRB2 is a novel protein distinguished from other known plant TBP. - Abstract: Telomere homeostasis is regulated by telomere-associated proteins, and the Myb domain is well conserved for telomere binding. AtTRB2 is a member of the SMH (Single-Myb-Histone)-like family in Arabidopsis thaliana, having an N-terminal Myb domain, which is responsible for DNA binding. The Myb domain of AtTRB2 contains three α-helices and loops for DNA binding, which is unusual given that other plant telomere-binding proteins have an additional fourth helix that is essential for DNA binding. To understand the structural role for telomeric DNA binding of AtTRB2, we determined the solution structure of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 (AtTRB2{sub 1–64}) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the inter-molecular interaction between AtTRB2{sub 1–64} and telomeric DNA has been characterized by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and NMR titration analyses for both plant (TTTAGGG)n and human (TTAGGG)n telomere sequences. Data revealed that Trp28, Arg29, and Val47 residues located in Helix 2 and Helix 3 are crucial for DNA binding, which are well conserved among other plant telomere binding proteins. We concluded that although AtTRB2 is devoid of the additional fourth helix in the Myb-extension domain, it is able to bind to plant telomeric repeat sequences as well as human telomeric repeat sequences.

  13. Identification of lipids and lipid-binding proteins in phloem exudates from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Guelette, Brandon S; Benning, Urs F; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne

    2012-06-01

    The phloem plays a crucial role in assimilate and nutrient transport, pathogen response, and plant growth and development. Yet, few species have yielded pure phloem exudate and, if proteins need to be analysed, those species may not have sequenced genomes, making identification difficult. The enrichment of Arabidopsis thaliana phloem exudate in amounts large enough to allow for metabolite and protein analysis is described. Using this method, it was possible to identify 65 proteins present in the Arabidopsis phloem exudate. The majority of these proteins could be grouped by response to pathogens, stress, or hormones, carbon metabolism, protein interaction, modification, and turnover, and transcription factors. It was also possible to detect 11 proteins that play a role in lipid/fatty acid metabolism (aspartic protease, putative 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, UDP-sulphoquinovose synthase/SQD1, lipase, PIG-P-like protein: phosphatidylinositol-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase), storage (glycine-rich protein), binding (annexin, lipid-associated family protein, GRP17/oleosin), and/or signalling (annexin, putative lipase, PIG-P-like protein). Along with putative lipid-binding proteins, several lipids and fatty acids could be identified. Only a few examples exist of lipids (jasmonic acid, oxylipins) or lipid-binding proteins (DIR1, acyl-CoA-binding protein) in the phloem. Finding hydrophobic compounds in an aqueous environment is not without precedence in biological systems: human blood contains a variety of lipids, many of which play a significant role in human health. In blood, lipids are transported while bound to proteins. The present findings of lipids and lipid-binding proteins in phloem exudates suggest that a similar long-distance lipid signalling exists in plants and may play an important role in plant growth and development.

  14. Nucleotide Binding Site Communication in Arabidopsis thaliana Adenosine 5′-Phosphosulfate Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Ravilious, Geoffrey E.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate kinase (APSK) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS), which is an essential metabolite for sulfur assimilation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using APSK from Arabidopsis thaliana, we examine the energetics of nucleotide binary and ternary complex formation and probe active site features that coordinate the order of ligand addition. Calorimetric analysis shows that binding can occur first at either nucleotide site, but that initial interaction at the ATP/ADP site was favored and enhanced affinity for APS in the second site by 50-fold. The thermodynamics of the two possible binding models (i.e. ATP first versus APS first) differs and implies that active site structural changes guide the order of nucleotide addition. The ligand binding analysis also supports an earlier suggestion of intermolecular interactions in the dimeric APSK structure. Crystallographic, site-directed mutagenesis, and energetic analyses of oxyanion recognition by the P-loop in the ATP/ADP binding site and the role of Asp136, which bridges the ATP/ADP and APS/PAPS binding sites, suggest how the ordered nucleotide binding sequence and structural changes are dynamically coordinated for catalysis. PMID:22810229

  15. Nucleotide Binding Site Communication in Arabidopsis thaliana Adenosine 5;-Phosphosulfate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Ravilious, Geoffrey E.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-08-31

    Adenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate kinase (APSK) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of adenosine 3{prime}-phosphate 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS), which is an essential metabolite for sulfur assimilation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using APSK from Arabidopsis thaliana, we examine the energetics of nucleotide binary and ternary complex formation and probe active site features that coordinate the order of ligand addition. Calorimetric analysis shows that binding can occur first at either nucleotide site, but that initial interaction at the ATP/ADP site was favored and enhanced affinity for APS in the second site by 50-fold. The thermodynamics of the two possible binding models (i.e. ATP first versus APS first) differs and implies that active site structural changes guide the order of nucleotide addition. The ligand binding analysis also supports an earlier suggestion of intermolecular interactions in the dimeric APSK structure. Crystallographic, site-directed mutagenesis, and energetic analyses of oxyanion recognition by the P-loop in the ATP/ADP binding site and the role of Asp136, which bridges the ATP/ADP and APS/PAPS binding sites, suggest how the ordered nucleotide binding sequence and structural changes are dynamically coordinated for catalysis.

  16. Arabidopsis profilin isoforms, PRF1 and PRF2 show distinctive binding activities and subcellular distributions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Jing, Yanping; Wang, Zhen; Mao, Tonglin; Samaj, Jozef; Yuan, Ming; Ren, Haiyun

    2009-02-01

    Profilin is an actin-binding protein that shows complex effects on the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. There are five profilin isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana L. However, it is still an open question whether these isoforms are functionally different. In the present study, two profilin isoforms from Arabidopsis, PRF1 and PRF2 were fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag and expressed in Escherichia coli and A. thaliana in order to compare their biochemical properties in vitro and their cellular distributions in vivo. Biochemical analysis revealed that fusion proteins of GFP-PRF1 and GFP-PRF2 can bind to poly-L-proline and G-actin showing remarkable differences. GFP-PRF1 has much higher affinities for both poly-L-proline and G-actin compared with GFP-PRF2. Observations of living cells in stable transgenic A. thaliana lines revealed that 35S::GFP-PRF1 formed a filamentous network, while 35S::GFP-PRF2 formed polygonal meshes. Results from the treatment with latrunculin A and a subsequent recovery experiment indicated that filamentous alignment of GFP-PRF1 was likely associated with actin filaments. However, GFP-PRF2 localized to polygonal meshes resembling the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results provide evidence that Arabidopsis profilin isoforms PRF1 and PRF2 have different biochemical affinities for poly-L-proline and G-actin, and show distinctive localizations in living cells. These data suggest that PRF1 and PRF2 are functionally different isoforms.

  17. The Binding of Auxin to the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter AUX11[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, David J.; Bakar, Norliza Tendot Abu; Swarup, Ranjan; Callaghan, Richard; Napier, Richard M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2008-01-01

    The cellular import of the hormone auxin is a fundamental requirement for the generation of auxin gradients that control a multitude of plant developmental processes. The AUX/LAX family of auxin importers, exemplified by AUX1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has been shown to mediate auxin import when expressed heterologously. The quantitative nature of the interaction between AUX1 and its transport substrate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is incompletely understood, and we sought to address this in the present investigation. We expressed AUX1 to high levels in a baculovirus expression system and prepared membrane fragments from baculovirus-infected insect cells. These membranes proved suitable for determination of the binding of IAA to AUX1 and enabled us to determine a Kd of 2.6 μm, comparable with estimates for the Km for IAA transport. The efficacy of a number of auxin analogues and auxin transport inhibitors to displace IAA binding from AUX1 has also been determined and can be rationalized in terms of their physiological effects. Determination of the parameters describing the initial interaction between a plant transporter and its hormone ligand provides novel quantitative data for modeling auxin fluxes. PMID:18614710

  18. Villin-Like Actin-Binding Proteins Are Expressed Ubiquitously in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Klahre, Ulrich; Friederich, Evelyne; Kost, Benedikt; Louvard, Daniel; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2000-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the biological function of villin-like actin-binding proteins in plants we have cloned several genes encoding Arabidopsis proteins with high homology to animal villin. We found that Arabidopsis contains at least four villin-like genes (AtVLNs) encoding four different VLN isoforms. Two AtVLN isoforms are more closely related to mammalian villin in their primary structure and are also antigenically related, whereas the other two contain significant changes in the C-terminal headpiece domain. RNA and promoter/β-glucuronidase expression studies demonstrated that AtVLN genes are expressed in all organs, with elevated expression levels in certain types of cells. These results suggest that AtVLNs have less-specialized functions than mammalian villin, which is found only in the microvilli of brush border cells. Immunoblot experiments using a monoclonal antibody against pig villin showed that AtVLNs are widely distributed in a variety of plant tissues. Green fluorescent protein fused to full-length AtVLN and individual AtVLN headpiece domains can bind to both animal and plant actin filaments in vivo. PMID:10631247

  19. Oxygen binding to Arabidopsis thaliana AHb2 nonsymbiotic hemoglobin: evidence for a role in oxygen transport.

    PubMed

    Spyrakis, Francesca; Bruno, Stefano; Bidon-Chanal, Axel; Luque, Francisco Javier; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Viappiani, Cristiano; Dominici, Paola; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Nonsymbiotic hemoglobins AHb1 and AHb2 discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana are likely to carry out distinct physiological roles, in consideration of their differences in sequence, structure, expression pattern, and tissue localization. Despite a relatively fast autoxidation in the presence of O(2) , we were able to collect O(2) -binding curves for AHb2 in the presence of a reduction enzymatic system. AHb2 binds O(2) noncooperatively with a p50 of 0.021 ± 0.003 Torr, a value consistent with a recently proposed role in O(2) transport. The analysis of the internal cavities derived from the structures sampled in molecular dynamics simulations confirms strong differences with AHb1, proposed to work as a NO deoxygenase in vivo. Overall, our results are consistent with a role for AHb2 as an oxygen carrier, as recently proposed on the basis of experiments on AHb2-overexpressing mutants of A. thaliana. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. RNA-Binding Proteins Revisited - The Emerging Arabidopsis mRNA Interactome.

    PubMed

    Köster, Tino; Marondedze, Claudius; Meyer, Katja; Staiger, Dorothee

    2017-04-12

    RNA-protein interaction is an important checkpoint to tune gene expression at the RNA level. Global identification of proteins binding in vivo to mRNA has been possible through interactome capture - where proteins are fixed to target RNAs by UV crosslinking and purified through affinity capture of polyadenylated RNA. In Arabidopsis over 500 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in UV-crosslinked samples have been identified. As in mammals and yeast, the mRNA interactomes came with a few surprises. For example, a plethora of the proteins caught on RNA had not previously been linked to RNA-mediated processes, for example proteins of intermediary metabolism. Thus, the studies provide unprecedented insights into the composition of the mRNA interactome, highlighting the complexity of RNA-mediated processes.

  1. CLAVATA2 forms a distinct CLE-binding receptor complex regulating Arabidopsis stem cell specification.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongfeng; Han, Linqu; Hymes, Matthew; Denver, Robert; Clark, Steven E

    2010-09-01

    CLAVATA1 (CLV1), CLV2, CLV3, CORYNE (CRN), BAM1 and BAM2 are key regulators that function at the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of plants to promote differentiation by limiting the size of the organizing center that maintains stem cell identity in neighboring cells. Previous results have indicated that the extracellular domain of the receptor kinase CLV1 binds to the CLV3-derived CLE ligand. The biochemical role of the receptor-like protein CLV2 has remained largely unknown. Although genetic analysis suggested that CLV2, together with the membrane kinase CRN, acts in parallel with CLV1, recent studies using transient expression indicated that CLV2 and CRN from a complex with CLV1. Here, we report detection of distinct CLV2-CRN heteromultimeric and CLV1-BAM multimeric complexes in transient expression in tobacco and in Arabidopsis meristems. Weaker interactions between the two complexes were detectable in transient expression. We also find that CLV2 alone generates a membrane-localized CLE binding activity independent of CLV1. CLV2, CLV1 and the CLV1 homologs BAM1 and BAM2 all bind to the CLV3-derived CLE peptide with similar kinetics, but BAM receptors show a broader range of interactions with different CLE peptides. Finally, we show that BAM and CLV1 overexpression can compensate for the loss of CLV2 function in vivo. These results suggest two parallel ligand-binding receptor complexes controlling stem cell specification in Arabidopsis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Arabidopsis Membrane Steroid Binding Protein 1 Is Involved in Inhibition of Cell ElongationW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2005-01-01

    A putative Membrane Steroid Binding Protein (designated MSBP1) was identified and functionally characterized as a negative regulator of cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MSBP1 gene encodes a 220–amino acid protein that can bind to progesterone, 5-dihydrotestosterone, 24-epi-brassinolide (24-eBL), and stigmasterol with different affinities in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing MSBP1 showed short hypocotyl phenotype and increased steroid binding capacity in membrane fractions, whereas antisense MSBP1 transgenic plants showed long hypocotyl phenotypes and reduced steroid binding capacity, indicating that MSBP1 negatively regulates hypocotyl elongation. The reduced cell elongation of MSBP1-overexpressing plants was correlated with altered expression of genes involved in cell elongation, such as expansins and extensins, indicating that enhanced MSBP1 affected a regulatory pathway for cell elongation. Suppression or overexpression of MSBP1 resulted in enhanced or reduced sensitivities, respectively, to exogenous progesterone and 24-eBL, suggesting a negative role of MSBP1 in steroid signaling. Expression of MSBP1 in hypocotyls is suppressed by darkness and activated by light, suggesting that MSBP1, as a negative regulator of cell elongation, plays a role in plant photomorphogenesis. This study demonstrates the functional roles of a steroid binding protein in growth regulation in higher plants. PMID:15608331

  3. In Planta Determination of the mRNA-Binding Proteome of Arabidopsis Etiolated Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Marlene; Liao, Yalin; Rettel, Mandy; Ragan, Chikako; Evers, Maurits; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Horos, Rastislav; Hentze, Matthias W; Preiss, Thomas; Millar, Anthony A

    2016-10-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) control the fate and expression of a transcriptome. Despite this fundamental importance, our understanding of plant RBPs is rudimentary, being mainly derived via bioinformatic extrapolation from other kingdoms. Here, we adapted the mRNA-protein interactome capture method to investigate the RNA binding proteome in planta. From Arabidopsis thaliana etiolated seedlings, we captured more than 700 proteins, including 300 with high confidence that we have defined as the At-RBP set. Approximately 75% of these At-RBPs are bioinformatically linked with RNA biology, containing a diversity of canonical RNA binding domains (RBDs). As no prior experimental RNA binding evidence exists for the majority of these proteins, their capture now authenticates them as RBPs. Moreover, we identified protein families harboring emerging and potentially novel RBDs, including WHIRLY, LIM, ALBA, DUF1296, and YTH domain-containing proteins, the latter being homologous to animal RNA methylation readers. Other At-RBP set proteins include major signaling proteins, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, membrane transporters, and enzymes, suggesting the scope and function of RNA-protein interactions within a plant cell is much broader than previously appreciated. Therefore, our foundation data set has provided an unbiased insight into the RNA binding proteome of plants, on which future investigations into plant RBPs can be based.

  4. High affinity RGD-binding sites at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana links the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Canut, H; Carrasco, A; Galaud, J P; Cassan, C; Bouyssou, H; Vita, N; Ferrara, P; Pont-Lezica, R

    1998-10-01

    The heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD--the essential structure recognised by animal cells in substrate adhesion molecules) was tested on epidermal cells of onion and cultured cells of Arabidopsis upon plasmolysis. Dramatic changes were observed on both types of cells following treatment: on onion cells, Hechtian strands linking the cell wall to the membrane were lost, while Arabidopsis cells changed from concave to convex plasmolysis. A control heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Asp-Gly-Arg-Ser-Pro had no effect on the shape of plasmolysed cells. Protoplasts isolated from Arabidopsis cells agglutinate in the presence of ProNectinF, a genetically engineered protein of 72 kDa containing 13 RGD sequences: several protoplasts may adhere to a single molecule of ProNectinF. The addition of the RGD-heptapeptide disrupted the adhesion between the protoplasts. Purified plasma membrane from Arabidopsis cells exhibits specific binding sites for the iodinated RGD-heptapeptide. The binding is saturable, reversible, and two types of high affinity sites (Kd1 approximately 1 nM, and Kd2 approximately 40 nM) can be discerned. Competitive inhibition by several structurally related peptides and proteins noted the specific requirement for the RGD sequence. Thus, the RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis fulfils the adhesion features of integrins, i.e. peptide specificity, subcellular location, and involvement in plasma membrane-cell wall attachments.

  5. Interacting protein partners of Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein AtRBP45b.

    PubMed

    Muthuramalingam, M; Wang, Y; Li, Y; Mahalingam, R

    2017-05-01

    RNA binding proteins, important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation, usually exist in ribonuclear complexes. However, even in model systems like Arabidopsis characterisation of RBP associated proteins is limited. In this study, we investigated the interacting proteins of the Arabidopsis AtRBP45b, which is involved in stress signalling. In vivo localisation of AtRBP45b was conducted using 35S-GFP. FLAG-tagged AtRBP45b under control of the 35S promoter in the Atrbp45b-1 mutant background was used to pull down AtRBP45b interacting proteins. Yeast two-hybrid analysis, fluorescence energy resonance transfer assays were used to confirm the veracity of the AtRBP45b interacting proteins. In planta GFP-tagging indicated AtRBP45b is localised to the nucleus and the cytosol. AtRBP45b protein has a N-terminal proline-rich region and a C-terminal glutamine-rich domain that are usually involved in protein-protein interactions. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing led to identification of 30 proteins that interacted with AtRBP45b. Using information from interactome databases (BIOGRID, INTACT and STRING), pull-down assays and localisation data, 12 putative interacting proteins were selected for yeast two-hybrid analysis. Cap-binding protein (CBP20, At5g44200) and polyA-binding protein (PAB8, At1g49760) were shown to interact with AtRBP45b. Based on its interacting partners we speculate that AtRBP45b may play an important role in RNA metabolism, especially in aspects related to mRNA stability and translation initiation during stress conditions in plants.

  6. A receptor-like kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana is a calmodulin-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Charpenteau, Martine; Jaworski, Krzysztof; Ramirez, Bertha C; Tretyn, Andrzej; Ranjeva, Raoul; Ranty, Benoît

    2004-01-01

    Screening a cDNA expression library with a radiolabelled calmodulin (CaM) probe led to the isolation of AtCaMRLK, a receptor-like kinase (RLK) of Arabidopsis thaliana. AtCaMRLK polypeptide sequence shows a modular organization consisting of the four distinctive domains characteristic of receptor kinases: an amino terminal signal sequence, a domain containing seven leucine-rich repeats, a single putative membrane-spanning segment and a protein kinase domain. Using truncated versions of the protein and a synthetic peptide, we demonstrated that a region of 23 amino acids, located near the kinase domain of AtCaMRLK, binds CaM in a calcium-dependent manner. Real-time binding experiments showed that AtCaMRLK interacted in vitro with AtCaM1, a canonical CaM, but not with AtCaM8, a divergent isoform of the Ca2+ sensor. The bacterially expressed kinase domain of the protein was able to autophosphorylate and to phosphorylate the myelin basic protein, using Mn2+ preferentially to Mg2+ as an ion activator. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved lysine residue (Lys423) to alanine, in the kinase subdomain II, resulted in a complete loss of kinase activity. CaM had no influence on the autophosphorylation activity of AtCaMRLK. AtCaMRLK was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of A. thaliana, except in leaves. Disruption in the AtCaMRLK coding sequence by insertion of a DsG transposable element in an Arabidopsis mutant did not generate a discernible phenotype. The CaM-binding motif of AtCaMRLK was found to be conserved in several other members of the plant RLK family, suggesting a role for Ca2+/CaM in the regulation of RLK-mediated pathways. PMID:14720124

  7. Tentative identification of the second substrate binding site in Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ju-Chen; Yang, Chien-Chih; Sui, Yu-Ting; Lin, Shin-Yu; Juang, Rong-Huay

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) uses the substrates glutathione (GSH, γGlu-Cys-Gly) and a cadmium (Cd)-bound GSH (Cd∙GS2) to produce the shortest phytochelatin product (PC2, (γGlu-Cys)2-Gly) through a ping-pong mechanism. The binding of the 2 substrates to the active site, particularly the second substrate binding site, is not well-understood. In this study, we generated a structural model of the catalytic domain of Arabidopsis AtPCS1 (residues 12-218) by using the crystal structure of the γGlu-Cys acyl-enzyme complex of the PCS of the cyanobacterium Nostoc (NsPCS) as a template. The modeled AtPCS1 revealed a cavity in proximity to the first substrate binding site, consisting of 3 loops containing several conserved amino acids including Arg152, Lys185, and Tyr55. Substitutions of these amino acids (R152K, K185R, or double mutation) resulted in the abrogation of enzyme activity, indicating that the arrangement of these 2 positive charges is crucial for the binding of the second substrate. Recombinant AtPCS1s with mutations at Tyr55 showed lower catalytic activities because of reduced affinity (3-fold for Y55W) for the Cd∙GS2, further suggesting the role of the cation-π interaction in recognition of the second substrate. Our study results indicate the mechanism for second substrate recognition in PCS. The integrated catalytic mechanism of PCS is further discussed.

  8. Identification of the Raptor-binding motif on Arabidopsis S6 kinase and its use as a TOR signaling suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Hur, Yoon-Sun; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2016-03-25

    TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signaling plays central role as a regulator of growth and proliferation in all eukaryotic cells and its key signaling components and effectors are also conserved in plants. Unlike the mammalian and yeast counterparts, however, we found through yeast two-hybrid analysis that multiple regions of the Arabidopsis Raptor (regulatory associated protein of TOR) are required for binding to its substrate. We also identified that a 44-amino acid region at the N-terminal end of Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) specifically interacted with AtRaptor1, indicating that this region may contain a functional equivalent of the TOS (TOR-Signaling) motif present in the mammalian TOR substrates. Transient over-expression of this 44-amino acid fragment in Arabidopsis protoplasts resulted in significant decrease in rDNA transcription, demonstrating a feasibility of developing a new plant-specific TOR signaling inhibitor based upon perturbation of the Raptor-substrate interaction. - Highlights: • Multiple regions on the Arabidopsis Raptor protein were found to be involved in substrate binding. • N-terminal end of the Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) was responsible for interacting with AtRaptor1. • The Raptor-interacting fragment of AtS6K1 could be utilized as an effective inhibitor of plant TOR signaling.

  9. Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex binds both promoters and terminators to regulate gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yatusevich, Ruslan; Buszewicz, Daniel; Krzyczmonik, Katarzyna; Patryn, Jacek; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Wilczynski, Bartek; Koblowska, Marta; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are important regulators of gene expression in Eukaryotes. In plants, SWI/SNF-type complexes have been shown critical for transcriptional control of key developmental processes, growth and stress responses. To gain insight into mechanisms underlying these roles, we performed whole genome mapping of the SWI/SNF catalytic subunit BRM in Arabidopsis thaliana, combined with transcript profiling experiments. Our data show that BRM occupies thousands of sites in Arabidopsis genome, most of which located within or close to genes. Among identified direct BRM transcriptional targets almost equal numbers were up- and downregulated upon BRM depletion, suggesting that BRM can act as both activator and repressor of gene expression. Interestingly, in addition to genes showing canonical pattern of BRM enrichment near transcription start site, many other genes showed a transcription termination site-centred BRM occupancy profile. We found that BRM-bound 3΄ gene regions have promoter-like features, including presence of TATA boxes and high H3K4me3 levels, and possess high antisense transcriptional activity which is subjected to both activation and repression by SWI/SNF complex. Our data suggest that binding to gene terminators and controlling transcription of non-coding RNAs is another way through which SWI/SNF complex regulates expression of its targets. PMID:27994035

  10. Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex binds both promoters and terminators to regulate gene expression.

    PubMed

    Archacki, Rafal; Yatusevich, Ruslan; Buszewicz, Daniel; Krzyczmonik, Katarzyna; Patryn, Jacek; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Wilczynski, Bartek; Koblowska, Marta; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej; Swiezewski, Szymon

    2017-04-07

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are important regulators of gene expression in Eukaryotes. In plants, SWI/SNF-type complexes have been shown critical for transcriptional control of key developmental processes, growth and stress responses. To gain insight into mechanisms underlying these roles, we performed whole genome mapping of the SWI/SNF catalytic subunit BRM in Arabidopsis thaliana, combined with transcript profiling experiments. Our data show that BRM occupies thousands of sites in Arabidopsis genome, most of which located within or close to genes. Among identified direct BRM transcriptional targets almost equal numbers were up- and downregulated upon BRM depletion, suggesting that BRM can act as both activator and repressor of gene expression. Interestingly, in addition to genes showing canonical pattern of BRM enrichment near transcription start site, many other genes showed a transcription termination site-centred BRM occupancy profile. We found that BRM-bound 3΄ gene regions have promoter-like features, including presence of TATA boxes and high H3K4me3 levels, and possess high antisense transcriptional activity which is subjected to both activation and repression by SWI/SNF complex. Our data suggest that binding to gene terminators and controlling transcription of non-coding RNAs is another way through which SWI/SNF complex regulates expression of its targets. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Cellular localization of the Ca2+ binding TCH3 protein of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antosiewicz, D. M.; Polisensky, D. H.; Braam, J.

    1995-01-01

    TCH3 is an Arabidopsis touch (TCH) gene isolated as a result of its strong and rapid upregulation in response to mechanical stimuli, such as touch and wind. TCH3 encodes an unusual calcium ion-binding protein that is closely related to calmodulin but has the potential to bind six calcium ions. Here it is shown that TCH3 shows a restricted pattern of accumulation during Arabidopsis vegetative development. These data provide insight into the endogenous signals that may regulate TCH3 expression and the sites of TCH3 action. TCH3 is abundant in the shoot apical meristem, vascular tissue, the root columella and pericycle cells that give rise to lateral roots. In addition, TCH3 accumulation in cells of developing shoots and roots closely correlates with the process of cellular expansion. Following wind stimulation, TCH3 becomes more abundant in specific regions including the branchpoints of leaf primordia and stipules, pith parenchyma, and the vascular tissue. The consequences of TCH3 upregulation by wind are therefore spatially restricted and TCH3 may function at these sites to modify cell or tissue characteristics following mechanical stimulation. Because TCH3 accumulates specifically in cells and tissues that are thought to be under the influence of auxin, auxin levels may regulate TCH3 expression during development. TCH3 is upregulated in response to low levels of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but not by inactive auxin-related compounds. These results suggest that TCH3 protein may play roles in mediating physiological responses to auxin and mechanical environmental stimuli.

  12. Cellular localization of the Ca2+ binding TCH3 protein of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antosiewicz, D. M.; Polisensky, D. H.; Braam, J.

    1995-01-01

    TCH3 is an Arabidopsis touch (TCH) gene isolated as a result of its strong and rapid upregulation in response to mechanical stimuli, such as touch and wind. TCH3 encodes an unusual calcium ion-binding protein that is closely related to calmodulin but has the potential to bind six calcium ions. Here it is shown that TCH3 shows a restricted pattern of accumulation during Arabidopsis vegetative development. These data provide insight into the endogenous signals that may regulate TCH3 expression and the sites of TCH3 action. TCH3 is abundant in the shoot apical meristem, vascular tissue, the root columella and pericycle cells that give rise to lateral roots. In addition, TCH3 accumulation in cells of developing shoots and roots closely correlates with the process of cellular expansion. Following wind stimulation, TCH3 becomes more abundant in specific regions including the branchpoints of leaf primordia and stipules, pith parenchyma, and the vascular tissue. The consequences of TCH3 upregulation by wind are therefore spatially restricted and TCH3 may function at these sites to modify cell or tissue characteristics following mechanical stimulation. Because TCH3 accumulates specifically in cells and tissues that are thought to be under the influence of auxin, auxin levels may regulate TCH3 expression during development. TCH3 is upregulated in response to low levels of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but not by inactive auxin-related compounds. These results suggest that TCH3 protein may play roles in mediating physiological responses to auxin and mechanical environmental stimuli.

  13. Cellular localization of the Ca2+ binding TCH3 protein of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Antosiewicz, D M; Polisensky, D H; Braam, J

    1995-11-01

    TCH3 is an Arabidopsis touch (TCH) gene isolated as a result of its strong and rapid upregulation in response to mechanical stimuli, such as touch and wind. TCH3 encodes an unusual calcium ion-binding protein that is closely related to calmodulin but has the potential to bind six calcium ions. Here it is shown that TCH3 shows a restricted pattern of accumulation during Arabidopsis vegetative development. These data provide insight into the endogenous signals that may regulate TCH3 expression and the sites of TCH3 action. TCH3 is abundant in the shoot apical meristem, vascular tissue, the root columella and pericycle cells that give rise to lateral roots. In addition, TCH3 accumulation in cells of developing shoots and roots closely correlates with the process of cellular expansion. Following wind stimulation, TCH3 becomes more abundant in specific regions including the branchpoints of leaf primordia and stipules, pith parenchyma, and the vascular tissue. The consequences of TCH3 upregulation by wind are therefore spatially restricted and TCH3 may function at these sites to modify cell or tissue characteristics following mechanical stimulation. Because TCH3 accumulates specifically in cells and tissues that are thought to be under the influence of auxin, auxin levels may regulate TCH3 expression during development. TCH3 is upregulated in response to low levels of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but not by inactive auxin-related compounds. These results suggest that TCH3 protein may play roles in mediating physiological responses to auxin and mechanical environmental stimuli.

  14. Telomere repeat binding proteins are functional components of Arabidopsis telomeres and interact with telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Procházková Schrumpfová, Petra; Vychodilová, Ivona; Dvořáčková, Martina; Majerská, Jana; Dokládal, Ladislav; Schořová, Šárka; Fajkus, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Although telomere-binding proteins constitute an essential part of telomeres, in vivo data indicating the existence of a structure similar to mammalian shelterin complex in plants are limited. Partial characterization of a number of candidate proteins has not identified true components of plant shelterin or elucidated their functional mechanisms. Telomere repeat binding (TRB) proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana bind plant telomeric repeats through a Myb domain of the telobox type in vitro, and have been shown to interact with POT1b (Protection of telomeres 1). Here we demonstrate co-localization of TRB1 protein with telomeres in situ using fluorescence microscopy, as well as in vivo interaction using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Classification of the TRB1 protein as a component of plant telomeres is further confirmed by the observation of shortening of telomeres in knockout mutants of the trb1 gene. Moreover, TRB proteins physically interact with plant telomerase catalytic subunits. These findings integrate TRB proteins into the telomeric interactome of A. thaliana. PMID:24397874

  15. Identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis FG-repeat nucleoporin Nup62

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiao

    2011-01-01

    Ran is a multifunctional small GTPase that is involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope reformation. Nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2) facilitates nuclear import of Ran. It binds FxFG repeat-containing domains of the nucleoporins Nup62 (vertebrate) and Nsp1p (yeast). Here, we have identified Arabidopsis Nup62 through its sequence similarity to mammalian Nup62 and yeast Nsp1p. A GFP-AtNup62 fusion protein is associated with the nuclear envelope in transgenic Arabidopsis plants and interacts in planta with AtNTF2a, one of the two Arabidopsis NTF2 homologs. Overexpression-based co-suppression of AtNup62 leads to severely dwarfed, early-flowering plants, suggesting an important function for Nup62 in plants. PMID:21673506

  16. Identification of Specific DNA Binding Residues in the TCP Family of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Das Gupta, Mainak; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Srinivasan, N.; Nath, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    The TCP transcription factors control multiple developmental traits in diverse plant species. Members of this family share an ∼60-residue-long TCP domain that binds to DNA. The TCP domain is predicted to form a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) structure but shares little sequence similarity with canonical bHLH domain. This classifies the TCP domain as a novel class of DNA binding domain specific to the plant kingdom. Little is known about how the TCP domain interacts with its target DNA. We report biochemical characterization and DNA binding properties of a TCP member in Arabidopsis thaliana, TCP4. We have shown that the 58-residue domain of TCP4 is essential and sufficient for binding to DNA and possesses DNA binding parameters comparable to canonical bHLH proteins. Using a yeast-based random mutagenesis screen and site-directed mutants, we identified the residues important for DNA binding and dimer formation. Mutants defective in binding and dimerization failed to rescue the phenotype of an Arabidopsis line lacking the endogenous TCP4 activity. By combining structure prediction, functional characterization of the mutants, and molecular modeling, we suggest a possible DNA binding mechanism for this class of transcription factors. PMID:20363772

  17. Jasmonate Regulates the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION–C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR/DRE BINDING FACTOR1 Cascade and Freezing Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanru; Jiang, Liqun; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-01-01

    The INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION (ICE)–C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR/DRE BINDING FACTOR1 (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional pathway plays a critical role in modulating cold stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dissecting crucial upstream regulatory signals or components of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 cascade will enhance our understanding of plant cold-tolerance mechanisms. Here, we show that jasmonate positively regulates plant responses to freezing stress in Arabidopsis. Exogenous application of jasmonate significantly enhanced plant freezing tolerance with or without cold acclimation. By contrast, blocking endogenous jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling rendered plants hypersensitive to freezing stress. Consistent with the positive role of jasmonate in freezing stress, production of endogenous jasmonate was triggered by cold treatment. In addition, cold induction of genes acting in the CBF/DREB1 signaling pathway was upregulated by jasmonate. Further investigation revealed that several JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, the repressors of jasmonate signaling, physically interact with ICE1 and ICE2 transcription factors. JAZ1 and JAZ4 repress the transcriptional function of ICE1, thereby attenuating the expression of its regulon. Consistent with this, overexpression of JAZ1 or JAZ4 represses freezing stress responses of Arabidopsis. Taken together, our study provides evidence that jasmonate functions as a critical upstream signal of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 pathway to positively regulate Arabidopsis freezing tolerance. PMID:23933884

  18. Ran-dependent nuclear export mediators: a structural perspective.

    PubMed

    Güttler, Thomas; Görlich, Dirk

    2011-08-31

    Nuclear export is an essential eukaryotic activity. It proceeds through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and is mediated by soluble receptors that shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. RanGTPase-dependent export mediators (exportins) constitute the largest class of these carriers and are functionally highly versatile. All of these exportins load their substrates in response to RanGTP binding in the nucleus and traverse NPCs as ternary RanGTP-exportin-cargo complexes to the cytoplasm, where GTP hydrolysis leads to export complex disassembly. The different exportins vary greatly in their substrate range. Recent structural studies of both protein- and RNA-specific exporters have illuminated how exportins bind their cargoes, how Ran triggers cargo loading and how export complexes are disassembled in the cytoplasm. Here, we review the current state of knowledge and highlight emerging principles as well as prevailing questions.

  19. Ran-dependent nuclear export mediators: a structural perspective

    PubMed Central

    Güttler, Thomas; Görlich, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear export is an essential eukaryotic activity. It proceeds through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and is mediated by soluble receptors that shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. RanGTPase-dependent export mediators (exportins) constitute the largest class of these carriers and are functionally highly versatile. All of these exportins load their substrates in response to RanGTP binding in the nucleus and traverse NPCs as ternary RanGTP–exportin–cargo complexes to the cytoplasm, where GTP hydrolysis leads to export complex disassembly. The different exportins vary greatly in their substrate range. Recent structural studies of both protein- and RNA-specific exporters have illuminated how exportins bind their cargoes, how Ran triggers cargo loading and how export complexes are disassembled in the cytoplasm. Here, we review the current state of knowledge and highlight emerging principles as well as prevailing questions. PMID:21878989

  20. Encephalomyocarditis virus Leader protein hinge domain is responsible for interactions with Ran GTPase

    SciTech Connect

    Bacot-Davis, Valjean R.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2013-08-15

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a Cardiovirus, initiates its polyprotein with a short 67 amino acid Leader (L) sequence. The protein acts as a unique pathogenicity factor, with anti-host activities which include the triggering of nuclear pore complex hyperphosphorylation and direct binding inhibition of the active cellular transport protein, Ran GTPase. Chemical modifications and protein mutagenesis now map the Ran binding domain to the L hinge-linker region, and in particular, to amino acids 35–40. Large deletions affecting this region were shown previously to diminish Ran binding. New point mutations, especially K35Q, D37A and W40A, preserve the intact L structure, abolish Ran binding and are deficient for nucleoporin (Nup) hyperphosphorylation. Ran itself morphs through multiple configurations, but reacts most effectively with L when in the GDP format, preferably with an empty nucleotide binding pocket. Therefore, L:Ran binding, mediated by the linker-hinge, is a required step in L-induced nuclear transport inhibition. - Highlights: • The hinge domain provides critical residues in Cardiovirus L:Ran complex formation. • Leader prefers to bind Ran in a nucleotide free, GDP-conformation. • L-induced Nup62 phosphorylation is reduced with Ran-deficient binding mutations.

  1. Heterodimeric Capping Protein from Arabidopsis Is a Membrane-Associated, Actin-Binding Protein1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C.; Wang, Xia; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Huang, Shanjin; Szymanski, Daniel B.; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a major regulator of cell morphogenesis and responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. The organization and activities of the cytoskeleton are choreographed by hundreds of accessory proteins. Many actin-binding proteins are thought to be stimulus-response regulators that bind to signaling phospholipids and change their activity upon lipid binding. Whether these proteins associate with and/or are regulated by signaling lipids in plant cells remains poorly understood. Heterodimeric capping protein (CP) is a conserved and ubiquitous regulator of actin dynamics. It binds to the barbed end of filaments with high affinity and modulates filament assembly and disassembly reactions in vitro. Direct interaction of CP with phospholipids, including phosphatidic acid, results in uncapping of filament ends in vitro. Live-cell imaging and reverse-genetic analyses of cp mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) recently provided compelling support for a model in which CP activity is negatively regulated by phosphatidic acid in vivo. Here, we used complementary biochemical, subcellular fractionation, and immunofluorescence microscopy approaches to elucidate CP-membrane association. We found that CP is moderately abundant in Arabidopsis tissues and present in a microsomal membrane fraction. Sucrose density gradient separation and immunoblotting with known compartment markers were used to demonstrate that CP is enriched on membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. This association could facilitate cross talk between the actin cytoskeleton and a wide spectrum of essential cellular functions such as organelle motility and signal transduction. PMID:25201878

  2. Importin-beta is a GDP-to-GTP exchange factor of Ran: implications for the mechanism of nuclear import.

    PubMed

    Lonhienne, Thierry G; Forwood, Jade K; Marfori, Mary; Robin, Gautier; Kobe, Bostjan; Carroll, Bernard J

    2009-08-21

    Ran-GTP interacts strongly with importin-beta, and this interaction promotes the release of the importin-alpha-nuclear localization signal cargo from importin-beta. Ran-GDP also interacts with importin-beta, but this interaction is 4 orders of magnitude weaker than the Ran-GTP.importin-beta interaction. Here we use the yeast complement of nuclear import proteins to show that the interaction between Ran-GDP and importin-beta promotes the dissociation of GDP from Ran. The release of GDP from the Ran-GDP-importin-beta complex stabilizes the complex, which cannot be dissociated by importin-alpha. Although Ran has a higher affinity for GDP compared with GTP, Ran in complex with importin-beta has a higher affinity for GTP. This feature is responsible for the generation of Ran-GTP from Ran-GDP by importin-beta. Ran-binding protein-1 (RanBP1) activates this reaction by forming a trimeric complex with Ran-GDP and importin-beta. Importin-alpha inhibits the GDP exchange reaction by sequestering importin-beta, whereas RanBP1 restores the GDP nucleotide exchange by importin-beta by forming a tetrameric complex with importin-beta, Ran, and importin-alpha. The exchange is also inhibited by nuclear-transport factor-2 (NTF2). We suggest a mechanism for nuclear import, additional to the established RCC1 (Ran-guanine exchange factor)-dependent pathway that incorporates these results.

  3. An arabidopsis promoter microarray and its initial usage in the identification of HY5 binding targets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Li, Jinming; Strickland, Elizabeth; Hua, Sujun; Zhao, Hongyu; Chen, Zhangliang; Qu, Lijia; Deng, Xing Wang

    2004-03-01

    To analyze transcription factor-promoter interactions in Arabidopsis, a general strategy for generating a promoter microarray has been established. This includes an integrated platform for promoter sequence extraction and the design of primers for the PCR amplification of the promoter regions of annotated genes in the Arabidopsis genome. A web-interfaced primer-retrieval program was used to obtain up to 10 primer pairs with a suitability ranking given to each gene. We selected primer pairs for the promoters of about 3800 genes, and greater than 95% of the promoter fragments from the total genomic DNA were successfully amplified by PCR. These PCR products were purified and used to print an Arabidopsis promoter microarray. This initial promoter microarray was used to study the in vitro binding of the transcription factor HY5 to its promoter targets. A set of promoter fragments exhibited consistent and strong interaction with the HY5 protein in vitro, and computational analysis revealed that they were enriched with the HY5 consensus binding G-box motif. Thus, a promoter microarray can be a useful tool for identifying transcription factor binding sites at the genomic scale in higher plants.

  4. RAN Translation in Huntington Disease.

    PubMed

    Bañez-Coronel, Monica; Ayhan, Fatma; Tarabochia, Alex D; Zu, Tao; Perez, Barbara A; Tusi, Solaleh Khoramian; Pletnikova, Olga; Borchelt, David R; Ross, Christopher A; Margolis, Russell L; Yachnis, Anthony T; Troncoso, Juan C; Ranum, Laura P W

    2015-11-18

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG ⋅ CTG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. While most research has focused on the HTT polyGln-expansion protein, we demonstrate that four additional, novel, homopolymeric expansion proteins (polyAla, polySer, polyLeu, and polyCys) accumulate in HD human brains. These sense and antisense repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation proteins accumulate most abundantly in brain regions with neuronal loss, microglial activation and apoptosis, including caudate/putamen, white matter, and, in juvenile-onset cases, also the cerebellum. RAN protein accumulation and aggregation are length dependent, and individual RAN proteins are toxic to neural cells independent of RNA effects. These data suggest RAN proteins contribute to HD and that therapeutic strategies targeting both sense and antisense genes may be required for efficacy in HD patients. This is the first demonstration that RAN proteins are expressed across an expansion located in an open reading frame and suggests RAN translation may also contribute to other polyglutamine diseases.

  5. RAN Translation in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bañez-Coronel, Monica; Ayhan, Fatma; Tarabochia, Alex D.; Zu, Tao; Perez, Barbara A.; Tusi, Solaleh Khoramian; Pletnikova, Olga; Borchelt, David R.; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russell L.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Ranum, Laura P.W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG·CTG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. While most research has focused on the HTT polyGln-expansion protein, we demonstrate that four additional, novel, homopolymeric expansion proteins (polyAla, polySer, polyLeu, and polyCys) accumulate in HD human brains. These sense and antisense repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation proteins accumulate most abundantly in brain regions with neuronal loss, microglial activation and apoptosis, including caudate/putamen, white matter, and, in juvenile-onset cases, also the cerebellum. RAN protein accumulation and aggregation are length dependent, and individual RAN proteins are toxic to neural cells independent of RNA effects. These data suggest RAN proteins contribute to HD and that therapeutic strategies targeting both sense and antisense genes may be required for efficacy in HD patients. This is the first demonstration that RAN proteins are expressed across an expansion located in an open reading frame and suggests RAN translation may also contribute to other poly-glutamine diseases. PMID:26590344

  6. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP6 localizes in the phloem and affects jasmonate composition.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi-Wei; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Hu, Tai-Hua; Chen, Qin-Fang; Suen, Yung-Lee; Wang, Mingfu; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Yeung, Edward; Chye, Mee-Len

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN6 (AtACBP6) encodes a cytosolic 10-kDa AtACBP. It confers freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, possibly by its interaction with lipids as indicated by the binding of acyl-CoA esters and phosphatidylcholine to recombinant AtACBP6. Herein, transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP6 promoter-driven β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct exhibited strong GUS activity in the vascular tissues. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-AtACBP6 antibodies showed AtACBP6 localization in the phloem especially in the companion cells and sieve elements. Also, the presence of gold grains in the plasmodesmata indicated its potential role in systemic trafficking. The AtACBP6 protein, but not its mRNA, was found in phloem exudate of wild-type Arabidopsis. Fatty acid profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed an increase in the jasmonic acid (JA) precursor, 12-oxo-cis,cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and a reduction in JA and/or its derivatives in acbp6 phloem exudates in comparison to the wild type. Quantitative real-time PCR showed down-regulation of COMATOSE (CTS) in acbp6 rosettes suggesting that AtACBP6 affects CTS function. AtACBP6 appeared to affect the content of JA and/or its derivatives in the sieve tubes, which is consistent with its role in pathogen-defense and in its wound-inducibility of AtACBP6pro::GUS. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of AtACBP6 in JA-biosynthesis in Arabidopsis phloem tissues.

  7. Light-regulated Arabidopsis ACBP4 and ACBP5 encode cytosolic acyl-CoA-binding proteins that bind phosphatidylcholine and oleoyl-CoA ester.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chen, Qin-Fang; Chye, Mee-Len

    2009-10-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, six genes encode acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) that show conservation of an acyl-CoA-binding domain. These ACBPs display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters, suggesting of different cellular roles. We have recently reported that three members (ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6) are subcellularly localized to the cytosol by biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged fusions and immuno-electron microscopy using ACBP-specific antibodies. In this study, we observed by Northern blot analysis that ACBP4 and ACBP5 mRNAs in rosettes were up-regulated by light and dampened-off in darkness, mimicking FAD7 which encodes omega-3-fatty acid desaturase, an enzyme involved in plastidial lipid metabolism. Results from in vitro binding assays indicate that recombinant ACBP4 and ACBP5 proteins bind [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA esters better than recombinant ACBP6, suggesting that light-regulated ACBP4 and ACBP5 encode cytosolic ACBPs that are potential candidates for the intracellular transport of oleoyl-CoA ester exported from the chloroplast to the endoplasmic reticulum for the biosynthesis of non-plastidial membrane lipids. Nonetheless, His-tagged ACBP4 and ACBP5 resemble ACBP6 in their ability to bind phosphatidylcholine suggesting that all three ACBPs are available for the intracellular transfer of phosphatidylcholine.

  8. Arabidopsis BPG2: a phytochrome-regulated gene whose protein product binds to plastid ribosomal RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hoon; Malec, Przemyslaw; Waloszek, Andrzej; von Arnim, Albrecht G

    2012-08-01

    BPG2 (Brz-insensitive pale green 2) is a dark-repressible and light-inducible gene that is required for the greening process in Arabidopsis. Light pulse experiments suggested that light-regulated gene expression of BPG2 is mediated by phytochrome. The T-DNA insertion mutant bpg2-2 exhibited a reduced level of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigmentation in the plastids. Measurements of time resolved chlorophyll fluorescence and of fluorescence emission at 77 K indicated defective photosystem II and altered photosystem I functions in bpg2 mutants. Kinetic analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence induction suggested that the reduction of the primary acceptor (QA) is impaired in bpg2. The observed alterations resulted in reduced photosynthetic efficiency as measured by the electron transfer rate. BPG2 protein is localized in the plastid stroma fraction. Co-immunoprecipitation of a formaldehyde cross-linked RNA-protein complex indicated that BPG2 protein binds with specificity to chloroplast 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs. The direct physical interaction with the plastid rRNAs supports an emerging model whereby BPG2 provides light-regulated ribosomal RNA processing functions, which are rate limiting for development of the plastid and its photosynthetic apparatus.

  9. Fibrillin 5 Is Essential for Plastoquinone-9 Biosynthesis by Binding to Solanesyl Diphosphate Synthases in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ha; Lee, Yongjik

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are lipid-associated proteins in plastids and are ubiquitous in plants. They accumulate in chromoplasts and sequester carotenoids during the development of flowers and fruits. However, little is known about the functions of fibrillins in leaf tissues. Here, we identified fibrillin 5 (FBN5), which is essential for plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Homozygous fbn5-1 mutations were seedling-lethal, and XVE:FBN5-B transgenic plants expressing low levels of FBN5-B had a slower growth rate and were smaller than wild-type plants. In chloroplasts, FBN5-B specifically interacted with solanesyl diphosphate synthases (SPSs) 1 and 2, which biosynthesize the solanesyl moiety of PQ-9. Plants containing defective FBN5-B accumulated less PQ-9 and its cyclized product, plastochromanol-8, but the levels of tocopherols were not affected. The reduced PQ-9 content of XVE:FBN5-B transgenic plants was consistent with their lower photosynthetic performance and higher levels of hydrogen peroxide under cold stress. These results indicate that FBN5-B is required for PQ-9 biosynthesis through its interaction with SPS. Our study adds FBN5 as a structural component involved in the biosynthesis of PQ-9. FBN5 binding to the hydrophobic solanesyl moiety, which is generated by SPS1 and SPS2, in FBN5-B/SPS homodimeric complexes stimulates the enzyme activity of SPS1 and SPS2. PMID:26432861

  10. Subgroup II PAK-mediated phosphorylation regulates Ran activity during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Bompard, Guillaume; Rabeharivelo, Gabriel; Frank, Marie; Cau, Julien; Delsert, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Ran is an essential GTPase that controls nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitosis, and nuclear envelope formation. These functions are regulated by interaction of Ran with different partners, and by formation of a Ran-GTP gradient emanating from chromatin. Here, we identify a novel level of Ran regulation. We show that Ran is a substrate for p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) and that its phosphorylation on serine-135 increases during mitosis. The endogenous phosphorylated Ran and active PAK4 dynamically associate with different components of the microtubule spindle during mitotic progression. A GDP-bound Ran phosphomimetic mutant cannot undergo RCC1-mediated GDP/GTP exchange and cannot induce microtubule asters in mitotic Xenopus egg extracts. Conversely, phosphorylation of GTP-bound Ran facilitates aster nucleation. Finally, phosphorylation of Ran on serine-135 impedes its binding to RCC1 and RanGAP1. Our study suggests that PAK4-mediated phosphorylation of GDP- or GTP-bound Ran regulates the assembly of Ran-dependent complexes on the mitotic spindle. PMID:20805321

  11. Ice-binding proteins confer freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bredow, Melissa; Vanderbeld, Barbara; Walker, Virginia K

    2017-01-01

    Lolium perenne is a freeze-tolerant perennial ryegrass capable of withstanding temperatures below -13 °C. Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) presumably help prevent damage associated with freezing by restricting the growth of ice crystals in the apoplast. We have investigated the expression, localization and in planta freezing protection capabilities of two L. perenne IBP isoforms, LpIRI2 and LpIRI3, as well as a processed IBP (LpAFP). One of these isoforms, LpIRI2, lacks a conventional signal peptide and was assumed to be a pseudogene. Nevertheless, both LpIRI2 and LpIRI3 transcripts were up-regulated following cold acclimation. LpIRI2 also demonstrated ice-binding activity when produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli. Both the LpIRI3 and LpIRI2 isoforms appeared to accumulate in the apoplast of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. In contrast, the fully processed isoform, LpAFP, remained intracellular. Transgenic plants expressing either LpIRI2 or LpIRI3 showed reduced ion leakage (12%-39%) after low-temperature treatments, and significantly improved freezing survival, while transgenic LpAFP-expressing lines did not confer substantial subzero protection. Freeze protection was further enhanced by with the introduction of more than one IBP isoform; ion leakage was reduced 26%-35% and 10% of plants survived temperatures as low as -8 °C. Our results demonstrate that apoplastic expression of multiple L. perenne IBP isoforms shows promise for providing protection to crops susceptible to freeze-induced damage. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Iron Binding Properties of Recombinant Class A Protein Disulfide Isomerase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Remelli, William; Santabarbara, Stefano; Carbonera, Donatella; Bonomi, Francesco; Ceriotti, Aldo; Casazza, Anna Paola

    2017-04-07

    The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family comprises a wide set of enzymes mainly involved in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum. Class A PDIs (PDI-A) constitute the smallest members of the family, consisting of a single thioredoxin (TRX) module without any additional domains. To date, their catalytic activity and cellular function are still poorly understood. To gain insight into the role of higher-plant class A PDIs, the biochemical properties of rAtPDI-A, the recombinant form of Arabidopsis thaliana PDI-A, have been investigated. As expressed, rAtPDI-A has only little oxidoreductase activity, but it appears to be capable of binding an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster, most likely a [2Fe-2S] center, at the interface between two protein monomers. A mutational survey of all cysteine residues of rAtPDI-A indicates that only the second and third cysteines of the CXXXCKHC stretch, containing the putative catalytic site CKHC, are primarily involved in cluster coordination. A key role is also played by the lysine residue. Its substitution with glycine, which restores the canonical PDI active site CGHC, does not influence the oxidoreductase activity of the protein, which remains marginal, but strongly affects the binding of the cluster. It is therefore proposed that the unexpected ability of rAtPDI-A to accommodate an Fe-S cluster is due to its very unique CKHC motif, which is conserved in all higher-plant class A PDIs, differentiating them from all other members of the PDI family.

  13. Analysis of the Small GTPase Gene Superfamily of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Vernoud, Vanessa; Horton, Amy C.; Yang, Zhenbiao; Nielsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins regulate diverse processes in eukaryotic cells such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and intracellular membrane trafficking. These proteins function as molecular switches that cycle between “active” and “inactive” states, and this cycle is linked to the binding and hydrolysis of GTP. The Arabidopsis genome contains 93 genes that encode small GTP-binding protein homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes shows that plants contain Rab, Rho, Arf, and Ran GTPases, but no Ras GTPases. We have assembled complete lists of these small GTPases families, as well as accessory proteins that control their activity, and review what is known of the functions of individual members of these families in Arabidopsis. We also discuss the possible roles of these GTPases in relation to their similarity to orthologs with known functions and localizations in yeast and/or animal systems. PMID:12644670

  14. The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FLS2 binds flg22 and determines the specificity of flagellin perception.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Delphine; Bauer, Zsuzsa; Regenass, Martin; Boller, Thomas; Felix, Georg

    2006-02-01

    Flagellin, the main building block of the bacterial flagellum, acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern triggering the innate immune response in animals and plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Leu-rich repeat transmembrane receptor kinase FLAGELLIN SENSITIVE2 (FLS2) is essential for flagellin perception. Here, we demonstrate the specific interaction of the elicitor-active epitope flg22 with the FLS2 protein by chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation. The functionality of this receptor was further tested by heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis FLS2 gene in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells. The perception of flg22 in tomato differs characteristically from that in Arabidopsis. Expression of Arabidopsis FLS2 conferred an additional flg22-perception system on the cells of tomato, which showed all of the properties characteristic of the perception of this elicitor in Arabidopsis. In summary, these results show that FLS2 constitutes the pattern-recognition receptor that determines the specificity of flagellin perception.

  15. Disrupting the bimolecular binding of the haem-binding protein 5 (AtHBP5) to haem oxygenase 1 (HY1) leads to oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Buckhout, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana L. SOUL/haem-binding proteins, AtHBPs belong to a family of five members. The Arabidopsis cytosolic AtHBP1 (At1g17100) and AtHBP2 (At2g37970) have been shown to bind porphyrins and metalloporphyrins including haem. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of these haem-binding proteins, AtHBP5 (At5g20140) encodes a protein with an N-terminal transit peptide that probably directs targeting to the chloroplast. In this report, it is shown that AtHBP5 binds haem and interacts with the haem oxygenase, HY1, in both yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays. The expression of HY1 is repressed in the athbp5 T-DNA knockdown mutant and the accumulation of H2O2 is observed in athbp5 seedlings that are treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a ROS-producing stress hormone. In contrast, AtHBP5 over-expressing plants show a decreased accumulation of H2O2 after MeJA treatment compared with the controls. It is proposed that the interaction between the HY1 and AtHBP5 proteins participate in an antioxidant pathway that might be mediated by reaction products of haem catabolism. PMID:22991161

  16. Using Centromere Mediated Genome Elimination to Elucidate the Functional Redundancy of Candidate Telomere Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Nick; Riha, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Proteins that bind to telomeric DNA form the key structural and functional constituents of telomeres. While telomere binding proteins have been described in the majority of organisms, their identity in plants remains unknown. Several protein families containing a telomere binding motif known as the telobox have been previously described in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nonetheless, functional evidence for their involvement at telomeres has not been obtained, likely due to functional redundancy. Here we performed genetic analysis on the TRF-like family consisting of six proteins (TRB1, TRP1, TRFL1, TRFL2, TRFL4, and TRF9) which have previously shown to bind telomeric DNA in vitro. We used haploid genetics to create multiple knock-out plants deficient for all six proteins of this gene family. These plants did not exhibit changes in telomere length, or phenotypes associated with telomere dysfunction. This data demonstrates that this telobox protein family is not involved in telomere maintenance in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis in major plant lineages revealed early diversification of telobox proteins families indicating that telomere function may be associated with other telobox proteins. PMID:26779251

  17. Using Centromere Mediated Genome Elimination to Elucidate the Functional Redundancy of Candidate Telomere Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Nick; Riha, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Proteins that bind to telomeric DNA form the key structural and functional constituents of telomeres. While telomere binding proteins have been described in the majority of organisms, their identity in plants remains unknown. Several protein families containing a telomere binding motif known as the telobox have been previously described in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nonetheless, functional evidence for their involvement at telomeres has not been obtained, likely due to functional redundancy. Here we performed genetic analysis on the TRF-like family consisting of six proteins (TRB1, TRP1, TRFL1, TRFL2, TRFL4, and TRF9) which have previously shown to bind telomeric DNA in vitro. We used haploid genetics to create multiple knock-out plants deficient for all six proteins of this gene family. These plants did not exhibit changes in telomere length, or phenotypes associated with telomere dysfunction. This data demonstrates that this telobox protein family is not involved in telomere maintenance in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis in major plant lineages revealed early diversification of telobox proteins families indicating that telomere function may be associated with other telobox proteins.

  18. Mutational definition of binding requirements of an hnRNP-like protein in Arabidopsis using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Leder, Verena; Lummer, Martina; Tegeler, Kathrin; Humpert, Fabian; Lewinski, Martin; Schüttpelz, Mark; Staiger, Dorothee

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • We use FCS to investigate binding site requirements for the hnRNP-like protein AtGRP7. • We identify three nucleotides critical for AtGRP7 binding to its own intron. • Mutation of the conserved R{sup 49} abolishes binding altogether. • The paralogue AtGRP8 binds to an overlapping motif with different sequence requirement. • The glycine-rich stretch of a plant hnRNP-like protein contributes to binding. - Abstract: Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RNA binding protein 7 (AtGRP7) is part of a negative feedback loop through which it regulates alternative splicing and steady-state abundance of its pre-mRNA. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to investigate the requirements for AtGRP7 binding to its intron using fluorescently-labelled synthetic oligonucleotides. By systematically introducing point mutations we identify three nucleotides that lead to an increased K{sub d} value when mutated and thus are critical for AtGRP7 binding. Simultaneous mutation of all three residues abrogates binding. The paralogue AtGRP8 binds to an overlapping motif but with a different sequence preference, in line with overlapping but not identical functions of this protein pair. Truncation of the glycine-rich domain reduces the binding affinity of AtGRP7, showing for the first time that the glycine-rich stretch of a plant hnRNP-like protein contributes to binding. Mutation of the conserved R{sup 49} that is crucial for AtGRP7 function in pathogen defence and splicing abolishes binding.

  19. Characterization of a Ran gene from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici involved in fungal growth and anti-cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yulin; Yao, Juanni; Zhang, Yanru; Li, Shumin; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-01-01

    Ran, an important family of small GTP-binding proteins, has been shown to regulate a variety of important cellular processes in many eukaryotes. However, little is known about Ran function in pathogenic fungi. In this study, we report the identification and functional analysis of a Ran gene (designated PsRan) from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), an important fungal pathogen affecting wheat production worldwide. The PsRan protein contains all conserved domains of Ran GTPases and shares more than 70% identity with Ran proteins from other organisms, indicating that Ran proteins are conserved in different organisms. PsRan shows a low level of intra-species polymorphism and is localized to the nucleus. qRT-PCR analysis showed that transcript level of PsRan was induced in planta during Pst infection. Silencing of PsRan did not alter Pst virulence phenotype but impeded fungal growth of Pst. In addition, heterologous overexpression of PsRan in plant failed to induce cell death but suppressed cell death triggered by a mouse BAX gene or a Pst Ras gene. Our results suggest that PsRan is involved in the regulation of fungal growth and anti-cell death, which provides significant insight into Ran function in pathogenic fungi. PMID:27734916

  20. Binding of Arabinogalactan Proteins by Yariv Phenylglycoside Triggers Wound-Like Responses in Arabidopsis Cell Cultures1[w

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yu; Nothnagel, Eugene A.

    2004-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are cell wall proteoglycans and are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Classical AGPs and some nonclassical AGPs are predicted to have a glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor and have been suggested to be involved in cell-cell signaling. Yariv phenylglycoside is a synthetic probe that specifically binds to plant AGPs and has been used to study AGP functions. We treated Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures with Yariv phenylglycoside and observed decreased cell viability, increased cell wall apposition and cytoplasmic vesiculation, and induction of callose deposition. The induction of cell wall apposition and callose synthesis led us to hypothesize that Yariv binding of plant surface AGPs triggers wound-like responses. To study the effect of Yariv binding to plant surface AGPs and to further understand AGP functions, an Arabidopsis whole genome array was used to monitor the transcriptional modifications after Yariv treatment. By comparing the genes that are induced by Yariv treatment with genes whose expressions have been previously shown to be induced by other conditions, we conclude that the gene expression profile induced by Yariv phenylglycoside treatment is most similar to that of wound induction. It remains uncertain whether the Yariv phenylglycoside cross-linking of cell surface AGPs induces these genes through a specific AGP-based signaling mechanism or through a general mechanical perturbation of the cell surface. PMID:15235117

  1. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Leiyun; Yang, Fen; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hua, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures), and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance. PMID:27138552

  2. Identification of the Raptor-binding motif on Arabidopsis S6 kinase and its use as a TOR signaling suppressor.

    PubMed

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Hur, Yoon-Sun; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2016-03-25

    TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signaling plays central role as a regulator of growth and proliferation in all eukaryotic cells and its key signaling components and effectors are also conserved in plants. Unlike the mammalian and yeast counterparts, however, we found through yeast two-hybrid analysis that multiple regions of the Arabidopsis Raptor (regulatory associated protein of TOR) are required for binding to its substrate. We also identified that a 44-amino acid region at the N-terminal end of Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) specifically interacted with AtRaptor1, indicating that this region may contain a functional equivalent of the TOS (TOR-Signaling) motif present in the mammalian TOR substrates. Transient over-expression of this 44-amino acid fragment in Arabidopsis protoplasts resulted in significant decrease in rDNA transcription, demonstrating a feasibility of developing a new plant-specific TOR signaling inhibitor based upon perturbation of the Raptor-substrate interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellulose binding protein from the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii interacts with Arabidopsis pectin methylesterase: cooperative cell wall modification during parasitism.

    PubMed

    Hewezi, Tarek; Howe, Peter; Maier, Tom R; Hussey, Richard S; Mitchum, Melissa Goellner; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J

    2008-11-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete a complex of cell wall-digesting enzymes, which aid in root penetration and migration. The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines also produces a cellulose binding protein (Hg CBP) secretory protein. To determine the function of CBP, an orthologous cDNA clone (Hs CBP) was isolated from the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii, which is able to infect Arabidopsis thaliana. CBP is expressed only in the early phases of feeding cell formation and not during the migratory phase. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hs CBP developed longer roots and exhibited enhanced susceptibility to H. schachtii. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified Arabidopsis pectin methylesterase protein 3 (PME3) as strongly and specifically interacting with Hs CBP. Transgenic plants overexpressing PME3 also produced longer roots and exhibited increased susceptibility to H. schachtii, while a pme3 knockout mutant showed opposite phenotypes. Moreover, CBP overexpression increases PME3 activity in planta. Localization studies support the mode of action of PME3 as a cell wall-modifying enzyme. Expression of CBP in the pme3 knockout mutant revealed that PME3 is required but not the sole mechanism for CBP overexpression phenotype. These data indicate that CBP directly interacts with PME3 thereby activating and potentially targeting this enzyme to aid cyst nematode parasitism.

  4. Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of the Selenium-binding and Reducing Site in Arabidopsis thaliana Homologue to Mammals Selenium-binding Protein 1*

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Florie; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Palencia, Andrés; Cobessi, David; Sarret, Géraldine; Zubieta, Chloé; Jourdain, Agnès; Dumas, Renaud; Forge, Vincent; Testemale, Denis; Bourguignon, Jacques; Hugouvieux, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    The function of selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1), present in almost all organisms, has not yet been established. In mammals, SBP1 is known to bind the essential element selenium but the binding site has not been identified. In addition, the SBP family has numerous potential metal-binding sites that may play a role in detoxification pathways in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtSBP1 over-expression increases tolerance to two toxic compounds for plants, selenium and cadmium, often found as soil pollutants. For a better understanding of AtSBP1 function in detoxification mechanisms, we investigated the chelating properties of the protein toward different ligands with a focus on selenium using biochemical and biophysical techniques. Thermal shift assays together with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that AtSBP1 binds selenium after incubation with selenite (SeO32−) with a ligand to protein molar ratio of 1:1. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirmed the 1:1 stoichiometry and revealed an unexpectedly large value of binding enthalpy suggesting a covalent bond between selenium and AtSBP1. Titration of reduced Cys residues and comparative mass spectrometry on AtSBP1 and the purified selenium-AtSBP1 complex identified Cys21 and Cys22 as being responsible for the binding of one selenium. These results were validated by site-directed mutagenesis. Selenium K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy performed on the selenium-AtSBP1 complex demonstrated that AtSBP1 reduced SeO32− to form a R-S-Se(II)-S-R-type complex. The capacity of AtSBP1 to bind different metals and selenium is discussed with respect to the potential function of AtSBP1 in detoxification mechanisms and selenium metabolism. PMID:25274629

  5. Identification of an Arabidopsis thaliana protein that binds to tomato mosaic virus genomic RNA and inhibits its multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisaki, Koki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2008-10-25

    The genomic RNAs of positive-strand RNA viruses carry RNA elements that play positive, or in some cases, negative roles in virus multiplication by interacting with viral and cellular proteins. In this study, we purified Arabidopsis thaliana proteins that specifically bind to 5' or 3' terminal regions of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) genomic RNA, which contain important regulatory elements for translation and RNA replication, and identified these proteins by mass spectrometry analyses. One of these host proteins, named BTR1, harbored three heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K-homology RNA-binding domains and preferentially bound to RNA fragments that contained a sequence around the initiation codon of the 130K and 180K replication protein genes. The knockout and overexpression of BTR1 specifically enhanced and inhibited, respectively, ToMV multiplication in inoculated A. thaliana leaves, while such effect was hardly detectable in protoplasts. These results suggest that BTR1 negatively regulates the local spread of ToMV.

  6. The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2-His2 zinc finger motif.

    PubMed

    Dathan, Nina; Zaccaro, Laura; Esposito, Sabrina; Isernia, Carla; Omichinski, James G; Riccio, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V

    2002-11-15

    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) gene has been shown to be important in maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels, and is presumed to act by regulating cell proliferation. In this work, we show that the SUP protein, which contains a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain including the QALGGH sequence, highly conserved in the plant zinc finger proteins, binds DNA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was determined that the minimal domain required for specific DNA binding (residues 15-78) includes the single zinc finger and two basic regions located on either side of this motif. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions in the zinc finger or in the basic regions, including a mutation that knocks out the function of the SUP protein in vivo (glycine 63 to aspartate), have been found to abolish the activity of the SUP DNA-binding domain. These results strongly suggest that the SUP protein functions in vivo by acting as a DNA-binding protein, likely involved in transcriptional regulation. The association of both an N-terminal and a C-terminal basic region with a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger represents a novel DNA-binding motif suggesting that the mechanism of DNA recognition adopted by the SUP protein is different from that described so far in other zinc finger proteins.

  7. Arabidopsis Acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP2 interacts with an ethylene-responsive element-binding protein, AtEBP, via its ankyrin repeats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Ye; Chye, Mee-Len

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBP) bind long-chain acyl-CoAs and act as intracellular acyl-CoA transporters and maintain acyl-CoA pools. Arabidopsis thaliana ACBP2 shows conservation at the acyl-CoA-binding domain to cytosolic ACBPs but is distinct by the presence of an N-terminal transmembrane domain and C-terminal ankyrin repeats. The function of the acyl-CoA-binding domain in ACBP2 has been confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and four conserved residues crucial for palmitoyl-CoA binding have been identified. Results from ACBP2:GFP fusions transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells have demonstrated that the transmembrane domain functions in plasma membrane targeting, suggesting that ACBP2 transfers acyl-CoA esters to this membrane. In this study, we investigated the significance of its ankyrin repeats in mediating protein-protein interactions by yeast two-hybrid analysis and in vitro protein-binding assays; we showed that ACBP2 interacts with the A. thaliana ethylene-responsive element-binding protein AtEBP via its ankyrin repeats. This interaction was lacking in yeast two-hybrid analysis upon removal of the ankyrin repeats. When the subcellular localizations of ACBP2 and AtEBP were further investigated using autofluorescent protein fusions in transient expression by agroinfiltration of tobacco leaves, the DsRed:ACBP2 fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane while the GFP:AtEBP fusion protein was targeted to the nucleus and plasma membrane. Co-expression of DsRed:ACBP2 and GFP:AtEBP showed a common localization of both proteins at the plasma membrane, suggesting that ACBP2 likely interacts with AtEBP at the plasma membrane.

  8. Photochemical properties of the flavin mononucleotide-binding domains of the phototropins from Arabidopsis, rice, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Masahiro; Swartz, Trevor E; Olney, Margaret A; Onodera, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Asamizu, Erika; Tabata, Satoshi; Kanegae, Hiromi; Takano, Makoto; Christie, John M; Nagatani, Akira; Briggs, Winslow R

    2002-06-01

    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2, formerly designated nph1 and npl1) are blue-light receptors that mediate phototropism, blue light-induced chloroplast relocation, and blue light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. Phototropins contain two light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains at their N termini (LOV1 and LOV2), each a binding site for the chromophore flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Their C termini contain a serine/threonine protein kinase domain. Here, we examine the kinetic properties of the LOV domains of Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2, rice (Oryza sativa) phot1 and phot2, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phot. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified LOV domains from all phototropins examined bind FMN tightly and undergo a self-contained photocycle, characterized by fluorescence and absorption changes induced by blue light (T. Sakai, T. Kagawa, M. Kasahara, T.E. Swartz, J.M. Christie, W.R. Briggs, M. Wada, K. Okada [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 6969-6974; M. Salomon, J.M. Christie, E. Knieb, U. Lempert, W.R. Briggs [2000] Biochemistry 39: 9401-9410). The photocycle involves the light-induced formation of a cysteinyl adduct to the C(4a) carbon of the FMN chromophore, which subsequently breaks down in darkness. In each case, the relative quantum efficiencies for the photoreaction and the rate constants for dark recovery of LOV1, LOV2, and peptides containing both LOV domains are presented. Moreover, the data obtained from full-length Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2 expressed in insect cells closely resemble those obtained for the tandem LOV-domain fusion proteins expressed in E. coli. For both Arabidopsis and rice phototropins, the LOV domains of phot1 differ from those of phot2 in their reaction kinetic properties and relative quantum efficiencies. Thus, in addition to differing in amino acid sequence, the phototropins can be distinguished on the basis of the photochemical cycles of their LOV domains. The LOV domains of C. reinhardtii phot also undergo light

  9. Five eIF4E isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana are characterized by distinct features of cap analogs binding.

    PubMed

    Kropiwnicka, Anna; Kuchta, Krzysztof; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Zuberek, Joanna

    2015-01-02

    The assembly of the ribosome on majority of eukaryotic mRNAs is initiated by the recruitment of eIF4E protein to the mRNA 5' end cap structure. Flowering plants use two eIF4E isoforms, named eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E, as canonical translation initiation factors and possess a homolog of mammalian 4EHP (or eIF4E-2) termed nCBP. Plants from Brassicaceae family additionally conserve a close paralog of eIF4E which in Arabidopsis thaliana has two copies named eIF4E1b and eIF4E1c. In order to assess the efficiency of plant non-canonical (eIF4E1b/1c and nCBP) and canonical (eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E) eIF4E proteins to bind mRNAs we utilized fluorescence titrations to determine accurate binding affinities of five A.thaliana eIF4E isoforms for a series of cap analogs. We found that eIF4E binds cap analogs from 4-fold to 10-fold stronger than eIF(iso)4E, while binding affinities of nCBP and eIF(iso)4E are comparable. Furthermore, eIF4E1c interacts similarly strongly with the cap as eIF4E, but eIF4E1b binds cap analogs ca. 2-fold weaker than eIF4E1c, regardless of the 95% sequence identity between these two proteins. The use of differentially chemically modified cap analogs in binding studies and a detailed analysis of the obtained homology models gave us insight into the molecular characteristic of varying cap-binding abilities of Arabidopsis eIF4E isoforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. AtMBD6, a methyl CpG binding domain protein, maintains gene silencing in Arabidopsis by interacting with RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Parida, Adwaita Prasad; Sharma, Amrapali; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation, mediated by double-stranded RNA, is a conserved epigenetic phenomenon that protects a genome from transposons, silences unwanted genes and has a paramount function in plant or animal development. Methyl CpG binding domain proteins are members of a class of proteins that bind to methylated DNA. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 13 methyl CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins, but the molecular/biological functions of most of these proteins are still not clear. In the present study, we identified four proteins that interact with AtMBD6. Interestingly, three of them contain RNA binding domains and are co-localized with AtMBD6 in the nucleus. The interacting partners includes AtRPS2C (a 40S ribosomal protein), AtNTF2 (nuclear transport factor 2) and AtAGO4 (Argonoute 4). The fourth protein that physically interacts with AtMBD6 is a histone-modifying enzyme, histone deacetylase 6 (AtHDA6), which is a known component of the RNA-mediated gene silencing system. Analysis of genomic DNA methylation in the atmbd6, atrps2c and atntf2 mutants, using methylation-sensitive PCR detected decreased DNA methylation at miRNA/siRNA producing loci, pseudogenes and other targets of RNA-directed DNA methylation. Our results indicate that AtMBD6 is involved in RNA-mediated gene silencing and it binds to RNA binding proteins like AtRPS2C, AtAGO4 and AtNTF2. AtMBD6 also interacts with histone deacetylase AtHDA6 that might have a role in chromatin condensation at the targets of RdDM.

  11. Arabidopsis membrane-associated acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP1 is involved in stem cuticle formation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Shi; Kim, Juyoung; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Chen, Liang; Tanner, Julian A.; Suh, Mi Chung; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (AtACBP1) plays important roles in embryogenesis and abiotic stress responses, and interacts with long-chain (LC) acyl-CoA esters. Here, AtACBP1 function in stem cuticle formation was investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP1pro::GUS construct revealed β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression on the stem (but not leaf) surface, suggesting a specific role in stem cuticle formation. Isothermal titration calorimetry results revealed that (His)6-tagged recombinant AtACBP1 interacts with LC acyl-CoA esters (18:1-, 18:2-, and 18:3-CoAs) and very-long-chain (VLC) acyl-CoA esters (24:0-, 25:0-, and 26:0-CoAs). VLC fatty acids have been previously demonstrated to act as precursors in wax biosynthesis. Gas chromatography (GC)–flame ionization detector (FID) and GC–mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed that an acbp1 mutant showed a reduction in stem and leaf cuticular wax and stem cutin monomer composition in comparison with the wild type (Col-0). Consequently, the acbp1 mutant showed fewer wax crystals on the stem surface in scanning electron microscopy and an irregular stem cuticle layer in transmission electron microscopy in comparison with the wild type. Also, the mutant stems consistently showed a decline in expression of cuticular wax and cutin biosynthetic genes in comparison with the wild type, and the mutant leaves were more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these findings suggest that AtACBP1 participates in Arabidopsis stem cuticle formation by trafficking VLC acyl-CoAs. PMID:25053648

  12. Arabidopsis membrane-associated acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP1 is involved in stem cuticle formation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Shi; Kim, Juyoung; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Chen, Liang; Tanner, Julian A; Suh, Mi Chung; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-10-01

    The membrane-anchored Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (AtACBP1) plays important roles in embryogenesis and abiotic stress responses, and interacts with long-chain (LC) acyl-CoA esters. Here, AtACBP1 function in stem cuticle formation was investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP1pro::GUS construct revealed β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression on the stem (but not leaf) surface, suggesting a specific role in stem cuticle formation. Isothermal titration calorimetry results revealed that (His)6-tagged recombinant AtACBP1 interacts with LC acyl-CoA esters (18:1-, 18:2-, and 18:3-CoAs) and very-long-chain (VLC) acyl-CoA esters (24:0-, 25:0-, and 26:0-CoAs). VLC fatty acids have been previously demonstrated to act as precursors in wax biosynthesis. Gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed that an acbp1 mutant showed a reduction in stem and leaf cuticular wax and stem cutin monomer composition in comparison with the wild type (Col-0). Consequently, the acbp1 mutant showed fewer wax crystals on the stem surface in scanning electron microscopy and an irregular stem cuticle layer in transmission electron microscopy in comparison with the wild type. Also, the mutant stems consistently showed a decline in expression of cuticular wax and cutin biosynthetic genes in comparison with the wild type, and the mutant leaves were more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these findings suggest that AtACBP1 participates in Arabidopsis stem cuticle formation by trafficking VLC acyl-CoAs.

  13. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, Nora; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved

  14. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Nora; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved

  15. MYCBP2 Is a Guanosine Exchange Factor for Ran Protein and Determines Its Localization in Neurons of Dorsal Root Ganglia*

    PubMed Central

    Dörr, Angela; Pierre, Sandra; Zhang, Dong D.; Henke, Marina; Holland, Sabrina; Scholich, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase Ran coordinates retrograde axonal transport in neurons, spindle assembly during mitosis, and the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of mRNA. Its localization is tightly regulated by the GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 and the nuclear guanosine exchange factor (GEF) RCC1. We show that loss of the neuronal E3 ubiquitin ligase MYCBP2 caused the up-regulation of Ran and RanGAP1 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) under basal conditions and during inflammatory hyperalgesia. SUMOylated RanGAP1 physically interacted with MYCBP2 and inhibited its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Stimulation of neurons induced a RanGAP1-dependent translocation of MYCBP2 to the nucleus. In the nucleus of DRG neurons MYCBP2 co-localized with Ran and facilitated through its RCC1-like domain the GDP/GTP exchange of Ran. In accordance with the necessity of a GEF to promote GTP-binding and nuclear export of Ran, the nuclear localization of Ran was strongly increased in MYCBP2-deficient DRGs. The finding that other GEFs for Ran besides RCC1 exist gives new insights in the complexity of the regulation of the Ran signaling pathway. PMID:26304119

  16. The EF-Hand Ca2+ Binding Protein MICU Choreographs Mitochondrial Ca2+ Dynamics in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Carraretto, Luca; Teardo, Enrico; Cendron, Laura; Füßl, Magdalena; Doccula, Fabrizio G.; Szabò, Ildikò

    2015-01-01

    Plant organelle function must constantly adjust to environmental conditions, which requires dynamic coordination. Ca2+ signaling may play a central role in this process. Free Ca2+ dynamics are tightly regulated and differ markedly between the cytosol, plastid stroma, and mitochondrial matrix. The mechanistic basis of compartment-specific Ca2+ dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we studied the function of At-MICU, an EF-hand protein of Arabidopsis thaliana with homology to constituents of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter machinery in mammals. MICU binds Ca2+ and localizes to the mitochondria in Arabidopsis. In vivo imaging of roots expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ sensor in the mitochondrial matrix revealed that lack of MICU increased resting concentrations of free Ca2+ in the matrix. Furthermore, Ca2+ elevations triggered by auxin and extracellular ATP occurred more rapidly and reached higher maximal concentrations in the mitochondria of micu mutants, whereas cytosolic Ca2+ signatures remained unchanged. These findings support the idea that a conserved uniporter system, with composition and regulation distinct from the mammalian machinery, mediates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in plants under in vivo conditions. They further suggest that MICU acts as a throttle that controls Ca2+ uptake by moderating influx, thereby shaping Ca2+ signatures in the matrix and preserving mitochondrial homeostasis. Our results open the door to genetic dissection of mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling in plants. PMID:26530087

  17. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong; Mao, Tonglin; Yuan, Ming; Li, Yunhai

    2016-01-01

    How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules. PMID:27768706

  18. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangliang; Peng, Yuancheng; Tian, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong; Kong, Zhaosheng; Mao, Tonglin; Yuan, Ming; Li, Yunhai

    2016-10-01

    How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  19. A 25-Amino Acid Sequence of the Arabidopsis TGD2 Protein Is Sufficient for Specific Binding of Phosphatidic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Binbin; Benning, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Genetic analysis suggests that the TGD2 protein of Arabidopsis is required for the biosynthesis of endoplasmic reticulum derived thylakoid lipids. TGD2 is proposed to be the substrate-binding protein of a presumed lipid transporter consisting of the TGD1 (permease) and TGD3 (ATPase) proteins. The TGD1, -2, and -3 proteins are localized in the inner chloroplast envelope membrane. TGD2 appears to be anchored with an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain into the inner envelope membrane, whereas the C-terminal domain faces the intermembrane space. It was previously shown that the C-terminal domain of TGD2 binds phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). To investigate the PtdOH binding site of TGD2 in detail, the C-terminal domain of the TGD2 sequence lacking the transit peptide and transmembrane sequences was fused to the C terminus of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DR). This greatly improved the solubility of the resulting DR-TGD2C fusion protein following production in Escherichia coli. The DR-TGD2C protein bound PtdOH with high specificity, as demonstrated by membrane lipid-protein overlay and liposome association assays. Internal deletion and truncation mutagenesis identified a previously undescribed minimal 25-amino acid fragment in the C-terminal domain of TGD2 that is sufficient for PtdOH binding. Binding characteristics of this 25-mer were distinctly different from those of TGD2C, suggesting that additional sequences of TGD2 providing the proper context for this 25-mer are needed for wild type-like PtdOH binding. PMID:19416982

  20. The ULTRACURVATA2 Gene of Arabidopsis Encodes an FK506-Binding Protein Involved in Auxin and Brassinosteroid Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    The dwarf ucu (ultracurvata) mutants of Arabidopsis display vegetative leaves that are spirally rolled downwards and show reduced expansion along the longitudinal axis. We have previously determined that the UCU1 gene encodes a SHAGGY/GSK3-like kinase that participates in the signaling pathways of auxins and brassinosteroids. Here, we describe four recessive alleles of the UCU2 gene, whose homozygotes display helical rotation of several organs in addition to other phenotypic traits shared with ucu1 mutants. Following a map-based strategy, we identified the UCU2 gene, which was found to encode a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase of the FK506-binding protein family, whose homologs in metazoans are involved in cell signaling and protein trafficking. Physiological and double mutant analyses suggest that UCU2 is required for growth and development and participates in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling. PMID:14730066

  1. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development.

  2. An in silico strategy identified the target gene candidates regulated by dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) in Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shichen; Yang, Shuo; Yin, Yuejia; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Shan; Hao, Dongyun

    2009-01-01

    Identification of downstream target genes of stress-relating transcription factors (TFs) is desirable in understanding cellular responses to various environmental stimuli. However, this has long been a difficult work for both experimental and computational practices. In this research, we presented a novel computational strategy which combined the analysis of the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) contexts and machine learning approach. Using this strategy, we conducted a genome-wide investigation into novel direct target genes of dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs), the members of AP2-EREBPs transcription factor super family which is reported to be responsive to various abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. The genome-wide searching yielded in total 474 target gene candidates. With reference to the microarray data for abiotic stresses-inducible gene expression profile, 268 target gene candidates out of the total 474 genes predicted, were induced during the 24-h exposure to abiotic stresses. This takes about 57% of total predicted targets. Furthermore, GO annotations revealed that these target genes are likely involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation, protein binding and Endomembrane sorting system. The results suggested that the predicted target gene candidates were adequate to meet the essential biological principle of stress-resistance in plants.

  3. The Interplay of Chromatin Landscape and DNA-Binding Context Suggests Distinct Modes of EIN3 Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zemlyanskaya, Elena V.; Levitsky, Victor G.; Oshchepkov, Dmitry Y.; Grosse, Ivo; Mironova, Victoria V.

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene regulates numerous developmental processes and stress responses. Ethylene signaling proceeds via a linear pathway, which activates transcription factor (TF) EIN3, a primary transcriptional regulator of ethylene response. EIN3 influences gene expression upon binding to a specific sequence in gene promoters. This interaction, however, might be considerably affected by additional co-factors. In this work, we perform whole genome bioinformatics study to identify the impact of epigenetic factors in EIN3 functioning. The analysis of publicly available ChIP-Seq data on EIN3 binding in Arabidopsis thaliana showed bimodality of distribution of EIN3 binding regions (EBRs) in gene promoters. Besides a sharp peak in close proximity to transcription start site, which is a common binding region for a wide variety of TFs, we found an additional extended peak in the distal promoter region. We characterized all EBRs with respect to the epigenetic status appealing to previously published genome-wide map of nine chromatin states in A. thaliana. We found that the implicit distal peak was associated with a specific chromatin state (referred to as chromatin state 4 in the primary source), which was just poorly represented in the pronounced proximal peak. Intriguingly, EBRs corresponding to this chromatin state 4 were significantly associated with ethylene response, unlike the others representing the overwhelming majority of EBRs related to the explicit proximal peak. Moreover, we found that specific EIN3 binding sequences predicted with previously described model were enriched in the EBRs mapped to the chromatin state 4, but not to the rest ones. These results allow us to conclude that the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors might cause the distinct modes of EIN3 regulation. PMID:28119721

  4. S-nitrosylation influences the structure and DNA binding activity of AtMYB30 transcription factor from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Carolina Pereira; Vernal, Javier; Delena, Ricardo Alexandre; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Cassia, Raul; Terenzi, Hernán

    2014-04-01

    MYB proteins are a family of transcription factors that play an important role in plant development and regulatory defense processes. Arabidopsis thaliana MYB30 (AtMYB30), a member of this protein family, is involved in cell death processes during the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants. HR is characterized by a vast production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). NO may thus influence the binding of AtMYB30 to DNA. In this work we evaluated the effect of NO on AtMYB30 DNA binding activity, and also in the protein structural properties. A fully active minimal DNA-binding domain (DBD) of AtMYB30 (residues 11-116) containing two cysteine residues (C49 and C53) was overexpressed and purified. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to obtain AtMYB30 DBD mutants C49A and C53A. The DNA binding activity of AtMYB30 DBD, and Cys single mutants is clearly inhibited upon incubation with a NO donor, and S-nitrosylation was confirmed by the biotin switch assay. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of NO effect on AtMYB30 DNA binding activity we performed circular dichroism analysis, to correlate the observed protein function inhibition and a potential structural impairment on AtMYB30 DBD. Indeed, NO modification of C49 and C53 residues promotes a subtle modification on the secondary structure of this transcription factor. We thus demonstrated, using various techniques, the in vitro effect of NO on AtMYB30 DBD, and thus the potential consequences of NO activity on plant metabolism influenced by this transcription factor.

  5. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 and GLABRA1 Compete for Binding to GLABRA3 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Martina; Schultheiß, Ilka; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Uhrig, Joachim F; Koegl, Manfred; Clemen, Christoph S; Simon, Rüdiger; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Hülskamp, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The MBW (for R2R3MYB, basic helix-loop-helix [bHLH], and WD40) genes comprise an evolutionarily conserved gene cassette that regulates several traits such as (pro)anthocyanin and anthocyanin biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in plants. Trichome differentiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is governed by GLABRA1 (GL1; R2R3MYB), GL3 (bHLH), and transparent TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1; WD40). They are thought to form a trimeric complex that acts as a transcriptional activation complex. We provide evidence that these three MBW proteins form either GL1 GL3 or GL3 TTG1 dimers. The formation of each dimer is counteracted by the respective third protein in yeast three-hybrid assays, pulldown experiments (luminescence-based mammalian interactome), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies. We further show that two target promoters, Triptychon (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC), are differentially regulated: GL1 represses the activation of the TRY promoter by GL3 and TTG1, and TTG1 suppresses the activation of the CPC promoter by GL1 and GL3. Our data suggest that the transcriptional activation by the MBW complex involves alternative complex formation and that the two dimers can differentially regulate downstream genes.

  6. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 and GLABRA1 Compete for Binding to GLABRA3 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Martina; Schultheiß, Ilka; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Clemen, Christoph S.; Hülskamp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The MBW (for R2R3MYB, basic helix-loop-helix [bHLH], and WD40) genes comprise an evolutionarily conserved gene cassette that regulates several traits such as (pro)anthocyanin and anthocyanin biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in plants. Trichome differentiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is governed by GLABRA1 (GL1; R2R3MYB), GL3 (bHLH), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1; WD40). They are thought to form a trimeric complex that acts as a transcriptional activation complex. We provide evidence that these three MBW proteins form either GL1 GL3 or GL3 TTG1 dimers. The formation of each dimer is counteracted by the respective third protein in yeast three-hybrid assays, pulldown experiments (luminescence-based mammalian interactome), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies. We further show that two target promoters, TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC), are differentially regulated: GL1 represses the activation of the TRY promoter by GL3 and TTG1, and TTG1 suppresses the activation of the CPC promoter by GL1 and GL3. Our data suggest that the transcriptional activation by the MBW complex involves alternative complex formation and that the two dimers can differentially regulate downstream genes. PMID:25926482

  7. RanBPM (RanBP9) regulates mouse c-Kit receptor level and is essential for normal development of bone marrow progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyendra; Klarmann, Kimberly D.; Coppola, Vincenzo; Keller, Jonathan R.; Tessarollo, Lino

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit is a tyrosine kinase receptor important for gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, melanogenesis and mast cell biology. Dysregulation of c-Kit function is oncogenic and its expression in the stem cell niche of a number of tissues has underlined its relevance for regenerative medicine and hematopoietic stem cell biology. Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that control c-Kit protein levels. Here we show that the RanBPM/RanBP9 scaffold protein binds to c-Kit and is necessary for normal c-Kit protein expression in the mouse testis and subset lineages of the hematopoietic system. RanBPM deletion causes a reduction in c-Kit protein but not its mRNA suggesting a posttranslational mechanism. This regulation is specific to the c-Kit receptor since RanBPM reduction does not affect other membrane proteins examined. Importantly, in both mouse hematopoietic system and testis, RanBPM deficiency causes defects consistent with c-Kit loss of expression suggesting that RanBPM is an important regulator of c-Kit function. The finding that this regulatory mechanism is also present in human cells expressing endogenous RanBPM and c-Kit suggests a potential new strategy to target oncogenic c-Kit in malignancies. PMID:27835883

  8. A novel calmodulin-binding protein functions as a negative regulator of osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed

    Perruc, Elian; Charpenteau, Martine; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Jauneau, Alain; Galaud, Jean-Philippe; Ranjeva, Raoul; Ranty, Benoît

    2004-05-01

    A clone for a novel Arabidopsisthaliana calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein of 25 kDa (AtCaMBP25) has been isolated by using a radiolabelled CaM probe to screen a cDNA expression library derived from A. thaliana cell suspension cultures challenged with osmotic stress. The deduced amino acid sequence of AtCaMBP25 contains putative nuclear localization sequences and shares significant degree of similarity with hypothetical plant proteins only. Fusion of the AtCaMBP25 coding sequence to reporter genes targets the hybrid protein to the nucleus. Bacterially expressed AtCaMBP25 binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to a canonical CaM but not to a less conserved isoform of the calcium sensor. AtCaMBP25 is encoded by a single-copy gene, whose expression is induced in Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to dehydration, low temperature or high salinity. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtCaMBP25 exhibits an increased sensitivity to both ionic (NaCl) and non-ionic (mannitol) osmotic stress during seed germination and seedling growth. By contrast, transgenic lines expressing antisense AtCaMBP25 are significantly more tolerant to mannitol and NaCl stresses than the wild type. Thus, the AtCaMBP25 gene functions as a negative effector of osmotic stress tolerance and likely participates in stress signal transduction pathways.

  9. Transfer of rps19 to the nucleus involves the gain of an RNP-binding motif which may functionally replace RPS13 in Arabidopsis mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, H; Fester, T; Kloska, S; Schröder, W; Schuster, W

    1996-01-01

    The discovery of disrupted rps19 genes in Arabidopsis mitochondria prompted speculation about the transfer to the nuclear compartment. We here describe the functional gene transfer of rps19 into the nucleus of Arabidopsis. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of rps19 show that the nuclear gene encodes a long N-terminal extension. Import studies of the precursor protein indicate that only a small part of this extension is cleaved off during import. The larger part of the extension, which shows high similarity to conserved RNA-binding domains of the RNP-CS type, became part of the S19 protein. In the Escherichia coli ribosome S19 forms an RNA-binding complex as heterodimer with S13. By using immuno-analysis and import studies we show that a eubacterial-like S13 protein is absent from Arabidopsis mitochondria, and is not substituted by either a chloroplastic or a cytosolic homologue of this ribosomal protein. We therefore propose that either a highly diverged or missing RPS13 has been functionally replaced by an RNP domain that most likely derived from a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein. These results represent the first case of a functional replacement of a ribosomal protein by a common RNA-binding domain and offer a new view on the flexibility of biological systems in using well-adapted functional domains for different jobs. Images PMID:8641279

  10. Arabidopsis-derived shrimp viral-binding protein, PmRab7 can protect white spot syndrome virus infection in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Thagun, Chonprakun; Srisala, Jiraporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Sojikul, Punchapat

    2012-09-15

    White spot syndrome virus is currently the leading cause of production losses in the shrimp industry. Penaeus monodon Rab7 protein has been recognized as a viral-binding protein with an efficient protective effect against white spot syndrome infection. Plant-derived recombinant PmRab7 might serve as an alternative source for in-feed vaccination, considering the remarkable abilities of plant expression systems. PmRab7 was introduced into the Arabidopsis thaliana T87 genome. Arabidopsis-derived recombinant PmRab7 showed high binding activity against white spot syndrome virus and a viral envelope, VP28. The growth profile of Arabidopsis suspension culture expressing PmRab7 (ECR21# 35) resembled that of its counterpart. PmRab7 expression in ECR21# 35 reached its maximum level at 5 mg g(-1) dry weight in 12 days, which was higher than those previously reported in Escherichia coli and in Pichia. Co-injection of white spot syndrome virus and Arabidopsis crude extract containing PmRab7 in Litopenaeus vannamei showed an 87% increase in shrimp survival rate at 5 day after injection. In this study, we propose an alternative PmRab7 source with higher production yield, and cheaper culture media costs, that might serve the industry's need for an in-feed supplement against white spot syndrome infection.

  11. A novel class of PTEN protein in Arabidopsis displays unusual phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and efficiently binds phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Pribat, Anne; Sormani, Rodnay; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Julkowska, Magdalena M; Testerink, Christa; Joubès, Jerôme; Castroviejo, Michel; Laguerre, Michel; Meyer, Christian; Germain, Véronique; Rothan, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) proteins are dual phosphatases with both protein and phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. They modulate signalling pathways controlling growth, metabolism and apoptosis in animals and are implied in several human diseases. In the present paper we describe a novel class of PTEN pro-teins in plants, termed PTEN2, which comprises the AtPTEN (Arabidopsis PTEN) 2a and AtPTEN2b proteins in Arabidopsis. Both display low in vitro tyrosine phosphatase activity. In addition, AtPTEN2a actively dephosphorylates in vitro the 3' phosphate group of PI3P (phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate), PI(3,4)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate) and PI(3,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate). In contrast with animal PTENs, PI(3,4,5)P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) is a poor substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis of AtPTEN2a and molecular modelling of protein-phosphoinositide interactions indicated that substitutions at the PTEN2 core catalytic site of the Lys267 and Gly268 residues found in animals, which are critical for animal PTEN activity, by Met267 and Ala268 found in the eudicot PTEN2 are responsible for changes in substrate specificity. Remarkably, the AtPTEN2a protein also displays strong binding activity for PA (phosphatidic acid), a major lipid second messenger in plants. Promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase) fusion, transcript and protein analyses further showed the transcriptional regulation of the ubiquitously expressed AtPTEN2a and AtPTEN2b by salt and osmotic stress. The results of the present study suggest a function for this novel class of plant PTEN proteins as an effector of lipid signalling in plants.

  12. The RanGTP Pathway: From Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport to Spindle Assembly and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cavazza, Tommaso; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Ran regulates the interaction of transport receptors with a number of cellular cargo proteins. The high affinity binding of the GTP-bound form of Ran to import receptors promotes cargo release, whereas its binding to export receptors stabilizes their interaction with the cargo. This basic mechanism linked to the asymmetric distribution of the two nucleotide-bound forms of Ran between the nucleus and the cytoplasm generates a switch like mechanism controlling nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Since 1999, we have known that after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) Ran and the above transport receptors also provide a local control over the activity of factors driving spindle assembly and regulating other aspects of cell division. The identification and functional characterization of RanGTP mitotic targets is providing novel insights into mechanisms essential for cell division. Here we review our current knowledge on the RanGTP system and its regulation and we focus on the recent advances made through the characterization of its mitotic targets. We then briefly review the novel functions of the pathway that were recently described. Altogether, the RanGTP system has moonlighting functions exerting a spatial control over protein interactions that drive specific functions depending on the cellular context. PMID:26793706

  13. Structural Insights of the ssDNA Binding Site in the Multifunctional Endonuclease AtBFN2 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Chia-Yun; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Lin, Tsai-Yun; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The multi S1/P1 nuclease AtBFN2 (EC 3.1.30.1) encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana At1g68290 gene is a glycoprotein that digests RNA, ssDNA, and dsDNA. AtBFN2 depends on three zinc ions for cleaving DNA and RNA at 3′-OH to yield 5′-nucleotides. In addition, AtBFN2′s enzymatic activity is strongly glycan dependent. Plant Zn2+-dependent endonucleases present a unique fold, and belong to the Phospholipase C (PLC)/P1 nuclease superfamily. In this work, we present the first complete, ligand-free, AtBFN2 crystal structure, along with sulfate, phosphate and ssDNA co-crystal structures. With these, we were able to provide better insight into the glycan structure and possible enzymatic mechanism. In comparison with other nucleases, the AtBFN2/ligand-free and AtBFN2/PO4 models suggest a similar, previously proposed, catalytic mechanism. Our data also confirm that the phosphate and vanadate can inhibit the enzyme activity by occupying the active site. More importantly, the AtBFN2/A5T structure reveals a novel and conserved secondary binding site, which seems to be important for plant Zn2+-dependent endonucleases. Based on these findings, we propose a rational ssDNA binding model, in which the ssDNA wraps itself around the protein and the attached surface glycan, in turn, reinforces the binding complex. PMID:25157844

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKBP12 binds Arabidopsis thaliana TOR and its expression in plants leads to rapamycin susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Sormani, Rodnay; Yao, Lei; Menand, Benoît; Ennar, Najla; Lecampion, Cécile; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Background The eukaryotic TOR pathway controls translation, growth and the cell cycle in response to environmental signals such as nutrients or growth-stimulating factors. The TOR protein kinase can be inactivated by the antibiotic rapamycin following the formation of a ternary complex between TOR, rapamycin and FKBP12 proteins. The TOR protein is also found in higher plants despite the fact that they are rapamycin insensitive. Previous findings using the yeast two hybrid system suggest that the FKBP12 plant homolog is unable to form a complex with rapamycin and TOR, while the FRB domain of plant TOR is still able to bind to heterologous FKBP12 in the presence of rapamycin. The resistance to rapamycin is therefore limiting the molecular dissection of the TOR pathway in higher plants. Results Here we show that none of the FKBPs from the model plant Arabidopsis (AtFKBPs) is able to form a ternary complex with the FRB domain of AtTOR in the presence of rapamycin in a two hybrid system. An antibody has been raised against the AtTOR protein and binding of recombinant yeast ScFKBP12 to native Arabidopsis TOR in the presence of rapamycin was demonstrated in pull-down experiments. Transgenic lines expressing ScFKBP12 were produced and were found to display a rapamycin-dependent reduction of the primary root growth and a lowered accumulation of high molecular weight polysomes. Conclusion These results further strengthen the idea that plant resistance to rapamycin evolved as a consequence of mutations in plant FKBP proteins. The production of rapamycin-sensitive plants through the expression of the ScFKBP12 protein illustrates the conservation of the TOR pathway in eukaryotes. Since AtTOR null mutants were found to be embryo lethal [1], transgenic ScFKBP12 plants will provide an useful tool for the post-embryonic study of plant TOR functions. This work also establish for the first time a link between TOR activity and translation in plant cells PMID:17543119

  15. A Single Amino Acid Change in Turnip Crinkle Virus Movement Protein p8 Affects RNA Binding and Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wobbe, Kristin K.; Akgoz, Muslum; Dempsey, D’Maris Amick; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the symptoms caused by turnip crinkle virus strain M (TCV-M) and TCV-B infection of a resistant Arabidopsis thaliana line termed Di-17 demonstrates that TCV-B has a greater ability to spread in planta. This ability is due to a single amino acid change in the viral movement protein p8 and inversely correlates with p8 RNA binding affinity. PMID:9621099

  16. A Trihelix DNA Binding Protein Counterbalances Hypoxia-Responsive Transcriptional Activation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Licausi, Francesco; Kosmacz, Monika; Oosumi, Teruko; van Dongen, Joost T.; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional activation in response to hypoxia in plants is orchestrated by ethylene-responsive factor group VII (ERF-VII) transcription factors, which are stable during hypoxia but destabilized during normoxia through their targeting to the N-end rule pathway of selective proteolysis. Whereas the conditionally expressed ERF-VII genes enable effective flooding survival strategies in rice, the constitutive accumulation of N-end-rule–insensitive versions of the Arabidopsis thaliana ERF-VII factor RAP2.12 is maladaptive. This suggests that transcriptional activation under hypoxia that leads to anaerobic metabolism may need to be fine-tuned. However, it is presently unknown whether a counterbalance of RAP2.12 exists. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses identified an uncharacterized trihelix transcription factor gene, which we named HYPOXIA RESPONSE ATTENUATOR1 (HRA1), as highly up-regulated by hypoxia. HRA1 counteracts the induction of core low oxygen-responsive genes and transcriptional activation of hypoxia-responsive promoters by RAP2.12. By yeast-two-hybrid assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation we demonstrated that HRA1 interacts with the RAP2.12 protein but with only a few genomic DNA regions from hypoxia-regulated genes, indicating that HRA1 modulates RAP2.12 through protein–protein interaction. Comparison of the low oxygen response of tissues characterized by different levels of metabolic hypoxia (i.e., the shoot apical zone versus mature rosette leaves) revealed that the antagonistic interplay between RAP2.12 and HRA1 enables a flexible response to fluctuating hypoxia and is of importance to stress survival. In Arabidopsis, an effective low oxygen-sensing response requires RAP2.12 stabilization followed by HRA1 induction to modulate the extent of the anaerobic response by negative feedback regulation of RAP2.12. This mechanism is crucial for plant survival under suboptimal oxygenation conditions. The discovery of the feedback loop regulating the oxygen

  17. TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE27 Affects Aluminum Sensitivity by Modulating the O-Acetylation of Xyloglucan and Aluminum-Binding Capacity in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Bao Cai; Mansoori, Nasim; Wan, Jiang Xue; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhi Wei; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Zhou, Yi Hua; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2014-01-01

    Xyloglucan (XyG) has been reported to contribute to the aluminum (Al)-binding capacity of the cell wall in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the influence of O-acetylation of XyG, accomplished by the putative O-acetyltransferase TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE27 (TBL27 [AXY4]), on its Al-binding capacity is not known. In this study, we found that the two corresponding TBL27 mutants, axy4-1 and axy4-3, were more Al sensitive than wild-type Columbia-0 plants. TBL27 was expressed in roots as well as in leaves, stems, flowers, and siliques. Upon Al treatment, even within 30 min, TBL27 transcript accumulation was strongly down-regulated. The mutants axy4-1 and axy4-3 accumulated significantly more Al in the root and wall, which could not be correlated with pectin content or pectin methylesterase activity, as no difference in the mutants was observed compared with the wild type when exposed to Al stress. The increased Al accumulation in the wall of the mutants was found to be in the hemicellulose fraction. While the total sugar content of the hemicellulose fraction did not change, the O-acetylation level of XyG was reduced by Al treatment. Taken together, we conclude that modulation of the O-acetylation level of XyG influences the Al sensitivity in Arabidopsis by affecting the Al-binding capacity in the hemicellulose. PMID:25006026

  18. Analysis of the Plastidic phosphate translocator Gene Family in Arabidopsis and Identification of New phosphate translocator-Homologous Transporters, Classified by Their Putative Substrate-Binding Site1

    PubMed Central

    Knappe, Silke; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Fischer, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed the complete set of plastidic phosphate translocator (pPT) genes. The Arabidopsis genome contains 16 pPT genes: single copies of genes coding for the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator and the xylulose phosphate/phosphate translocator, and two genes coding for each the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator and the glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator. A relatively high number of truncated phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator genes (six) and glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator genes (four) could be detected with almost conserved intron/exon structures as compared with the functional genes. In addition, a variety of PT-homologous (PTh) genes could be identified in Arabidopsis and other organisms. They all belong to the drug/metabolite transporter superfamily showing significant similarities to nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs). The pPT, PTh, and NST proteins all possess six to eight transmembrane helices. According to the analysis of conserved motifs in these proteins, the PTh proteins can be divided into (a) the lysine (Lys)/arginine group comprising only non-plant proteins, (b) the Lys-valine/alanine/glycine group of Arabidopsis proteins, (c) the Lys/asparagine group of Arabidopsis proteins, and (d) the Lys/threonine group of plant and non-plant proteins. None of these proteins have been characterized so far. The analysis of the putative substrate-binding sites of the pPT, PTh, and NST proteins led to the suggestion that all these proteins share common substrate-binding sites on either side of the membrane each of which contain a conserved Lys residue. PMID:12644669

  19. Components of the Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor cold-response pathway are conserved in Brassica napus and other plant species.

    PubMed

    Jaglo, K R; Kleff, S; Amundsen, K L; Zhang, X; Haake, V; Zhang, J Z; Deits, T; Thomashow, M F

    2001-11-01

    Many plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Cold acclimation in Arabidopsis involves rapid cold-induced expression of the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) transcriptional activators followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes that increase freezing tolerance. Here, we present evidence for a CBF cold-response pathway in Brassica napus. We show that B. napus encodes CBF-like genes and that transcripts for these genes accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature followed closely by expression of the cold-regulated Bn115 gene, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis CBF-targeted COR15a gene. Moreover, we show that constitutive overexpression of the Arabidopsis CBF genes in transgenic B. napus plants induces expression of orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF-targeted genes and increases the freezing tolerance of both nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants. Transcripts encoding CBF-like proteins were also found to accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Norstar) and rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma), which cold acclimate, as well as in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Bonny Best, Castle Mart, Micro-Tom, and D Huang), a freezing-sensitive plant that does not cold acclimate. An alignment of the CBF proteins from Arabidopsis, B. napus, wheat, rye, and tomato revealed the presence of conserved amino acid sequences, PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP and DSAWR, that bracket the AP2/EREBP DNA binding domains of the proteins and distinguish them from other members of the AP2/EREBP protein family. We conclude that components of the CBF cold-response pathway are highly conserved in flowering plants and not limited to those that cold acclimate.

  20. Components of the Arabidopsis C-Repeat/Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding Factor Cold-Response Pathway Are Conserved in Brassica napus and Other Plant Species1

    PubMed Central

    Jaglo, Kirsten R.; Kleff, Susanne; Amundsen, Keenan L.; Zhang, Xin; Haake, Volker; Zhang, James Z.; Deits, Thomas; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Many plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Cold acclimation in Arabidopsis involves rapid cold-induced expression of the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) transcriptional activators followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes that increase freezing tolerance. Here, we present evidence for a CBF cold-response pathway in Brassica napus. We show that B. napus encodes CBF-like genes and that transcripts for these genes accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature followed closely by expression of the cold-regulated Bn115 gene, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis CBF-targeted COR15a gene. Moreover, we show that constitutive overexpression of the Arabidopsis CBF genes in transgenic B. napus plants induces expression of orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF-targeted genes and increases the freezing tolerance of both nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants. Transcripts encoding CBF-like proteins were also found to accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Norstar) and rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma), which cold acclimate, as well as in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Bonny Best, Castle Mart, Micro-Tom, and D Huang), a freezing-sensitive plant that does not cold acclimate. An alignment of the CBF proteins from Arabidopsis, B. napus, wheat, rye, and tomato revealed the presence of conserved amino acid sequences, PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP and DSAWR, that bracket the AP2/EREBP DNA binding domains of the proteins and distinguish them from other members of the AP2/EREBP protein family. We conclude that components of the CBF cold-response pathway are highly conserved in flowering plants and not limited to those that cold acclimate. PMID:11706173

  1. The Ran Pathway in Drosophila melanogaster Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jack W. C.; Barker, Amy R.; Wakefield, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the small GTPase Ran has emerged as a central regulator of both mitosis and meiosis, particularly in the generation, maintenance, and regulation of the microtubule (MT)-based bipolar spindle. Ran-regulated pathways in mitosis bear many similarities to the well-characterized functions of Ran in nuclear transport and, as with transport, the majority of these mitotic effects are mediated through affecting the physical interaction between karyopherins and Spindle Assembly Factors (SAFs)—a loose term describing proteins or protein complexes involved in spindle assembly through promoting nucleation, stabilization, and/or depolymerization of MTs, through anchoring MTs to specific structures such as centrosomes, chromatin or kinetochores, or through sliding MTs along each other to generate the force required to achieve bipolarity. As such, the Ran-mediated pathway represents a crucial functional module within the wider spindle assembly landscape. Research into mitosis using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster has contributed substantially to our understanding of centrosome and spindle function. However, in comparison to mammalian systems, very little is known about the contribution of Ran-mediated pathways in Drosophila mitosis. This article sets out to summarize our understanding of the roles of the Ran pathway components in Drosophila mitosis, focusing on the syncytial blastoderm embryo, arguing that it can provide important insights into the conserved functions on Ran during spindle formation. PMID:26636083

  2. The Arabidopsis thaliana DNA-binding protein AHL19 mediates verticillium wilt resistance.

    PubMed

    Yadeta, Koste A; Hanemian, Mathieu; Smit, Patrick; Hiemstra, Jelle A; Pereira, Andy; Marco, Yves; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2011-12-01

    Verticillium spp. are destructive soilborne fungal pathogens that cause vascular wilt diseases in a wide range of plant species. Verticillium wilts are particularly notorious, and genetic resistance in crop plants is the most favorable means of disease control. In a gain-of-function screen using an activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant collection, we identified four mutants, A1 to A4, which displayed enhanced resistance toward the vascular wilt species Verticillium dahliae, V. albo-atrum and V. longisporum but not to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani. Further testing revealed that mutant A2 displayed enhanced Ralstonia solanacearum resistance, while mutants A1 and A3 were more susceptible toward Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Identification of the activation tag insertion site in the A1 mutant revealed an insertion in close proximity to the gene encoding AHL19, which was constitutively expressed in the mutant. AHL19 knock-out alleles were found to display enhanced Verticillium susceptibility whereas overexpression of AHL19 resulted in enhanced Verticillium resistance, showing that AHL19 acts as a positive regulator of plant defense.

  3. The zinc finger cluster domain of RanBP2 is a specific docking site for the nuclear export factor, exportin-1.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Patel, H H; Roepman, R; Schick, D; Ferreira, P A

    1999-12-24

    The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a large scaffold cyclophilin-related protein expressed in photoreceptor cells. Red/green opsin, Ran-GTPase, and the 19 S regulatory complex of the proteasome associate with specific RanBP2 structural modules. Some of these play a role in chaperoning the functional expression of opsin. RanBP2 localization at cytoplasmic fibrils emanating from the nuclear pore complex and interaction with the Ran-GTPase support also its role in nucleocytoplasmic transport processes. The degenerate nucleoporin repeat motifs FXFG, GLFG, and XXFG have been proposed to mediate the movement of nucleocytoplasmic transport factors. In particular, RanBP2 has been implicated in nuclear import processes. Here, we show the zinc fingers of RanBP2 associate with high specificity to the nuclear export factor, exportin-1 (CRM1). The bovine RanBP2 transcript contained only five of the eight zinc fingers reported in the human counterpart and are sufficient for exportin-1 association with RanBP2. In contrast to Ran interaction with RanBP2-exportin-1 complex, exportin-1 binding to the zinc finger cluster domain of RanBP2 is insensitive to leptomycin B and nucleotide-bound state of Ran-GTPase. Our results indicate that the zinc finger-rich domain of RanBP2 constitutes a docking site for exportin-1 during nuclear export. Thus, RanBP2 emerges as a key component of the nuclear export pathway.

  4. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs from Arabidopsis are key regulators of alternative splicing with implications in fundamental developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5' splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid-dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner.

  5. Abundant accumulation of the calcium-binding molecular chaperone calreticulin in specific floral tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D E; Glaunsinger, B; Bohnert, H J

    1997-05-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a calcium-binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with an established role as a molecular chaper-one. An additional function in signal transduction, specifically in calcium distribution, is suggested but not proven. We have analyzed the expression pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana CRTs for a comparison with these proposed roles. Three CRT genes were expressed, with identities of the encoded proteins ranging from 54 to 86%. Protein motifs with established functions found in CRTs of other species were conserved. CRT was found in all of the cells in low amounts, whereas three distinct floral tissues showed abundant expression: secreting nectaries, ovules early in development, and a set of subepidermal cells near the abaxial surface of the anther. Localization in the developing endosperm, which is characterized by high protein synthesis rates, can be reconciled with a specific chaperone function. Equally, nectar production and secretion, a developmental stage marked by abundant ER, may require abundant CRT to accommodate the traffic of secretory proteins through the ER. Localization of CRT in the anthers, which are degenerating at the time of maximum expression of CRT, cannot easily be reconciled with a chaperone function but may indicate a role for CRT in anther maturation or dehiscence.

  6. The Arabidopsis floral repressor BFT delays flowering by competing with FT for FD binding under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Hyo-Jun; Seo, Pil Joon; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Ahn, Ji Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-02-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most serious agricultural problems that significantly reduce crop yields in the arid and semi-arid regions. It influences various phases of plant growth and developmental processes, such as seed germination, leaf and stem growth, and reproductive propagation. Salt stress delays the onset of flowering in many plant species. We have previously reported that the Arabidopsis BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) acts as a floral repressor under salt stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the BFT function in the salt regulation of flowering induction is unknown. In this work, we found that BFT delays flowering under high salinity by competing with FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) for binding to the FD transcription factor. The flowering time of FD-deficient fd-2 mutant was insensitive to high salinity. BFT interacts with FD in the nucleus via the C-terminal domain of FD, which is also required for the interaction of FD with FT, and interferes with the FT-FD interaction. These observations indicate that BFT constitutes a distinct salt stress signaling pathway that modulates the function of the FT-FD module and possibly provides an adaptation strategy that fine-tunes photoperiodic flowering under high salinity.

  7. A plant small polypeptide is a novel component of DNA-binding protein phosphatase 1-mediated resistance to plum pox virus in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Castelló, María José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Daniel, Jacques; Granot, David; Vera, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    DNA-binding protein phosphatases (DBPs) have been identified as a novel class of plant-specific regulatory factors playing a role in plant-virus interactions. NtDBP1 from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was shown to participate in transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to virus infection in compatible interactions, and AtDBP1, its closest relative in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has recently been found to mediate susceptibility to potyvirus, one of the most speciose taxa of plant viruses. Here, we report on the identification of a novel family of highly conserved small polypeptides that interact with DBP1 proteins both in tobacco and Arabidopsis, which we have designated DBP-interacting protein 2 (DIP2). The interaction of AtDIP2 with AtDBP1 was demonstrated in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and AtDIP2 was shown to functionally interfere with AtDBP1 in yeast. Furthermore, reducing AtDIP2 gene expression leads to increased susceptibility to the potyvirus Plum pox virus and to a lesser extent also to Turnip mosaic virus, whereas overexpression results in enhanced resistance. Therefore, we describe a novel family of conserved small polypeptides in plants and identify AtDIP2 as a novel host factor contributing to resistance to potyvirus in Arabidopsis.

  8. A Plant Small Polypeptide Is a Novel Component of DNA-Binding Protein Phosphatase 1-Mediated Resistance to Plum pox virus in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, María José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Daniel, Jacques; Granot, David; Vera, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    DNA-binding protein phosphatases (DBPs) have been identified as a novel class of plant-specific regulatory factors playing a role in plant-virus interactions. NtDBP1 from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was shown to participate in transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to virus infection in compatible interactions, and AtDBP1, its closest relative in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has recently been found to mediate susceptibility to potyvirus, one of the most speciose taxa of plant viruses. Here, we report on the identification of a novel family of highly conserved small polypeptides that interact with DBP1 proteins both in tobacco and Arabidopsis, which we have designated DBP-interacting protein 2 (DIP2). The interaction of AtDIP2 with AtDBP1 was demonstrated in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and AtDIP2 was shown to functionally interfere with AtDBP1 in yeast. Furthermore, reducing AtDIP2 gene expression leads to increased susceptibility to the potyvirus Plum pox virus and to a lesser extent also to Turnip mosaic virus, whereas overexpression results in enhanced resistance. Therefore, we describe a novel family of conserved small polypeptides in plants and identify AtDIP2 as a novel host factor contributing to resistance to potyvirus in Arabidopsis. PMID:22021419

  9. Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter COMATOSE and the Multifunctional Protein ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM Are Required for the Production of Benzoylated Metabolites in Arabidopsis Seeds1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bussell, John D.; Reichelt, Michael; Wiszniewski, Andrew A.G.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Smith, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites derived from benzoic acid (BA) are of central importance in the interactions of plants with pests, pathogens, and symbionts and are potentially important in plant development. Peroxisomal β-oxidation has recently been shown to contribute to BA biosynthesis in plants, but not all of the enzymes involved have been defined. In this report, we demonstrate that the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter COMATOSE is required for the accumulation of benzoylated secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, including benzoylated glucosinolates and substituted hydroxybenzoylcholines. The ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM protein, one of two multifunctional proteins encoded by Arabidopsis, is essential for the accumulation of these compounds, and MULTIFUNCTIONAL PROTEIN2 contributes to the synthesis of substituted hydroxybenzoylcholines. Of the two major 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A thiolases, KAT2 plays the primary role in BA synthesis. Thus, BA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis employs the same core set of β-oxidation enzymes as in the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-butyric acid. PMID:24254312

  10. Determination of floral organ identity by Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG is independent of their DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1997-01-01

    The MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1 (AP1), APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS (AG) combinatorially specify the identity of Arabidopsis floral organs. AP1/AP1, AG/AG, and AP3/PI dimers bind to similar CArG box sequences; thus, differences in DNA-binding specificity among these proteins do not seem to be the origin of their distinct organ identity properties. To assess the overall contribution that specific DNA binding could make to their biological specificity, we have generated chimeric genes in which the amino-terminal half of the MADS domain of AP1, AP3, PI, and AG was substituted by the corresponding sequences of human SRF and MEF2A proteins. In vitro DNA-binding assays reveal that the chimeric proteins acquired the respective, and distinct, DNA-binding specificity of SRF or MEF2A. However, ectopic expression of the chimeric genes reproduces the dominant gain-of-function phenotypes exhibited by plants ectopically expressing the corresponding Arabidopsis wild-type genes. In addition, both the SRF and MEF2 chimeric genes can complement the pertinent ap1-1, ap3-3, pi-1, or ag-3 mutations to a degree similar to that of AP1, AP3, PI, and AG when expressed under the control of the same promoter. These results indicate that determination of floral organ identity by the MADS domain homeotic proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG is independent of their DNA-binding specificity. In addition, the DNA-binding experiments show that either one of the two MADS domains of a dimer can be sufficient to confer a particular DNA-binding specificity to the complex and that sequences outside the amino-terminal basic region of the MADS domain can, in some cases, contribute to the DNA-binding specificity of the proteins. Images PMID:9243505

  11. Metal binding to the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the PIB ATPase HMA4 is required for metal transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Clémentine; Lekeux, Gilles; Ukuwela, Ashwinie A; Xiao, Zhiguang; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Bosman, Bernard; Carnol, Monique; Motte, Patrick; Damblon, Christian; Galleni, Moreno; Hanikenne, Marc

    2016-03-01

    PIB ATPases are metal cation pumps that transport metals across membranes. These proteins possess N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic extensions that contain Cys- and His-rich high affinity metal binding domains, which may be involved in metal sensing, metal ion selectivity and/or in regulation of the pump activity. The PIB ATPase HMA4 (Heavy Metal ATPase 4) plays a central role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and has a key function in zinc and cadmium hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation in the extremophile plant species Arabidopsis halleri. Here, we examined the function and structure of the N-terminal cytoplasmic metal-binding domain of HMA4. We mutagenized a conserved CCTSE metal-binding motif in the domain and assessed the impact of the mutations on protein function and localization in planta, on metal-binding properties in vitro and on protein structure by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The two Cys residues of the motif are essential for the function, but not for localization, of HMA4 in planta, whereas the Glu residue is important but not essential. These residues also determine zinc coordination and affinity. Zinc binding to the N-terminal domain is thus crucial for HMA4 protein function, whereas it is not required to maintain the protein structure. Altogether, combining in vivo and in vitro approaches in our study provides insights towards the molecular understanding of metal transport and specificity of metal P-type ATPases.

  12. A domain unique to plant RanGAP is responsible for its targeting to the plant nuclear rim

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Annkatrin; Meier, Iris

    2001-01-01

    Ran is a small signaling GTPase that is involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Two additional functions of animal Ran in the formation of spindle asters and the reassembly of the nuclear envelope in mitotic cells have been recently reported. In contrast to Ras or Rho, Ran is not associated with membranes. Instead, the spatial sequestering of its accessory proteins, the Ran GTPase-activating protein RanGAP and the nucleotide exchange factor RCC1, appears to define the local concentration of RanGTP vs. RanGDP involved in signaling. Mammalian RanGAP is bound to the nuclear pore by a mechanism involving the attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier protein (SUMO) to its C terminus and the subsequent binding of the SUMOylated domain to the nucleoporin Nup358. Here we show that plant RanGAP utilizes a different mechanism for nuclear envelope association, involving a novel targeting domain that appears to be unique to plants. The N-terminal WPP domain is highly conserved among plant RanGAPs and the small, plant-specific nuclear envelope-associated protein MAF1, but not present in yeast or animal RanGAP. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins showed that it is necessary for RanGAP targeting and sufficient to target the heterologous protein GFP to the plant nuclear rim. The highly conserved tryptophan and proline residues of the WPP motif are necessary for its function. The 110-aa WPP domain is the first nuclear-envelope targeting domain identified in plants. Its fundamental difference to its mammalian counterpart implies that different mechanisms have evolved in plants and animals to anchor RanGAP at the nuclear surface. PMID:11752475

  13. A domain unique to plant RanGAP is responsible for its targeting to the plant nuclear rim.

    PubMed

    Rose, A; Meier, I

    2001-12-18

    Ran is a small signaling GTPase that is involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Two additional functions of animal Ran in the formation of spindle asters and the reassembly of the nuclear envelope in mitotic cells have been recently reported. In contrast to Ras or Rho, Ran is not associated with membranes. Instead, the spatial sequestering of its accessory proteins, the Ran GTPase-activating protein RanGAP and the nucleotide exchange factor RCC1, appears to define the local concentration of RanGTP vs. RanGDP involved in signaling. Mammalian RanGAP is bound to the nuclear pore by a mechanism involving the attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier protein (SUMO) to its C terminus and the subsequent binding of the SUMOylated domain to the nucleoporin Nup358. Here we show that plant RanGAP utilizes a different mechanism for nuclear envelope association, involving a novel targeting domain that appears to be unique to plants. The N-terminal WPP domain is highly conserved among plant RanGAPs and the small, plant-specific nuclear envelope-associated protein MAF1, but not present in yeast or animal RanGAP. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins showed that it is necessary for RanGAP targeting and sufficient to target the heterologous protein GFP to the plant nuclear rim. The highly conserved tryptophan and proline residues of the WPP motif are necessary for its function. The 110-aa WPP domain is the first nuclear-envelope targeting domain identified in plants. Its fundamental difference to its mammalian counterpart implies that different mechanisms have evolved in plants and animals to anchor RanGAP at the nuclear surface.

  14. RANS Simulations using OpenFOAM Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED RANS Simulations using OpenFOAM Software D.A. Jones1, M. Chapuis3, M. Liefvendahl3, D. Norrison1, and R. Widjaja2...Agency - FOI, SE 147 25 Tumba, Stockholm, Sweden DST-Group-TR-3204 ABSTRACT The use of the OpenFOAM software suite for the performance of Reynolds...016-502 January 2016 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED RANS Simulations using OpenFOAM Software Executive Summary

  15. A DNA-binding surface of SPO11-1, an Arabidopsis SPO11 orthologue required for normal meiosis.

    PubMed

    Shingu, Yoshinori; Mikawa, Tsutomu; Onuma, Mariko; Hirayama, Takashi; Shibata, Takehiko

    2010-05-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-stranded breaks introduced by the SPO11 protein. Despite a decade of research, the biochemical functions of SPO11 remain largely unknown, perhaps because of difficulties in studying the functionally active SPO11. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes three SPO11-related proteins, two of which (SPO11-1 and SPO11-2) are required for, and cooperate in, meiosis. We isolated soluble SPO11-1, fused with or free of a trigger factor-tag at its N terminus. The tag-free SPO11-1 needed to interact physically with soluble SPO11-1 to maintain its solubility, suggesting a multimeric active form including a solubilizing protein cofactor. An N-terminal fragment of PRD1, a SPO11-1-interacting protein required for normal meiosis, but not SPO11-2, forms a soluble complex with trigger factor-tagged SPO11-1, but the trigger factor-tag was required for the solubility. Formation of the complex is not sufficient to express endonuclease activity. Trigger factor-tagged SPO11-1 exhibited DNA-binding activities: Glu substitutions of the invariant Gly215 and Arg222 and of the nonconserved Arg223 and Arg226 in a conserved motif (G215E, R222E, R223E, R226E) reduced the DNA-binding ability in vitro, but substitutions of the conserved Arg130 and invariant Tyr103 (a residue in the putative endonuclease-active center) and of Arg residues outside conserved motifs by Glu or Phe (R130E, Y103F, R207E and R254E), did not. Tests for the ability of mutant spo11-1 proteins to complement the silique-defective phenotype of a spo11-1-homozygous mutant in vivo revealed that R222E and G215E induced serious deficiencies, while R130E caused a partial defect in silique formation. Thus, the Gly215, Arg222 and Arg223 residues of SPO11-1 form a DNA-binding surface that is functional in meiosis.

  16. BASIC PENTACYSTEINE1, a GA Binding Protein That Induces Conformational Changes in the Regulatory Region of the Homeotic Arabidopsis Gene SEEDSTICK

    PubMed Central

    Kooiker, Maarten; Airoldi, Chiara A.; Losa, Alessia; Manzotti, Priscilla S.; Finzi, Laura; Kater, Martin M.; Colombo, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms for the regulation of homeotic genes are poorly understood in most organisms, including plants. We identified BASIC PENTACYSTEINE1 (BPC1) as a regulator of the homeotic Arabidopsis thaliana gene SEEDSTICK (STK), which controls ovule identity, and characterized its mechanism of action. A combination of tethered particle motion analysis and electromobility shift assays revealed that BPC1 is able to induce conformational changes by cooperative binding to purine-rich elements present in the STK regulatory sequence. Analysis of STK expression in the bpc1 mutant showed that STK is upregulated. Our results give insight into the regulation of gene expression in plants and provide the basis for further studies to understand the mechanisms that control ovule identity in Arabidopsis. PMID:15722463

  17. A conserved KIN17 curved DNA-binding domain protein assembles with SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE7 to adapt Arabidopsis growth and development to limiting copper availability.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Xing, Shuping; Huijser, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Proper copper (Cu) homeostasis is required by living organisms to maintain essential cellular functions. In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE7 (SPL7) transcription factor participates in reprogramming global gene expression during Cu insufficiency in order to improve the metal uptake and prioritize its distribution to Cu proteins of major importance. As a consequence, spl7 null mutants show morphological and physiological disorders during Cu-limited growth, resulting in lower fresh weight, reduced root elongation, and chlorosis. On the other hand, the Arabidopsis KIN17 homolog belongs to a well-conserved family of essential eukaryotic nuclear proteins known to be stress activated and involved in DNA and possibly RNA metabolism in mammals. In the study presented here, we uncovered that Arabidopsis KIN17 participates in promoting the Cu deficiency response by means of a direct interaction with SPL7. Moreover, the double mutant kin17-1 spl7-2 displays an enhanced Cu-dependent phenotype involving growth arrest, oxidative stress, floral bud abortion, and pollen inviability. Taken together, the data presented here provide evidence for SPL7 and KIN17 protein interaction as a point of convergence in response to both Cu deficiency and oxidative stress.

  18. Characterization of Peptidyl-Prolyl Cis-Trans Isomerase- and Calmodulin-Binding Activity of a Cytosolic Arabidopsis thaliana Cyclophilin AtCyp19-3

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gundeep; Singh, Supreet; Singh, Harpreet; Chawla, Mrinalini; Dutta, Tanima; Kaur, Harsimran; Bender, Kyle; Snedden, W. A.; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pareek, Ashwani; Singh, Prabhjeet

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins, which bind to immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA), are ubiquitous proteins and constitute a multigene family in higher organisms. Several members of this family are reported to catalyze cis-trans isomerisation of the peptidyl-prolyl bond, which is a rate limiting step in protein folding. The physiological role of these proteins in plants, with few exceptions, is still a matter of speculation. Although Arabidopsis genome is predicted to contain 35 cyclophilin genes, biochemical characterization, imperative for understanding their cellular function(s), has been carried only for few of the members. The present study reports the biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis cyclophilin, AtCyp19-3, which demonstrated that this protein is enzymatically active and possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity that is specifically inhibited by CsA with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 18.75 nM. The PPIase activity of AtCyp19-3 was also sensitive to Cu2+, which covalently reacts with the sulfhydryl groups, implying redox regulation. Further, using calmodulin (CaM) gel overlay assays it was demonstrated that in vitro interaction of AtCyp19-3 with CaM is Ca2+-dependent, and CaM-binding domain is localized to 35–70 amino acid residues in the N-terminus. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that AtCyp19-3 interacts with CaM in vivo also, thus, validating the in vitro observations. However, the PPIase activity of the Arabidopsis cyclophilin was not affected by CaM. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Ca2+ signaling and cyclophilin activity in Arabidopsis. PMID:26317213

  19. Characterization of Peptidyl-Prolyl Cis-Trans Isomerase- and Calmodulin-Binding Activity of a Cytosolic Arabidopsis thaliana Cyclophilin AtCyp19-3.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gundeep; Singh, Supreet; Singh, Harpreet; Chawla, Mrinalini; Dutta, Tanima; Kaur, Harsimran; Bender, Kyle; Snedden, W A; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pareek, Ashwani; Singh, Prabhjeet

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins, which bind to immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA), are ubiquitous proteins and constitute a multigene family in higher organisms. Several members of this family are reported to catalyze cis-trans isomerisation of the peptidyl-prolyl bond, which is a rate limiting step in protein folding. The physiological role of these proteins in plants, with few exceptions, is still a matter of speculation. Although Arabidopsis genome is predicted to contain 35 cyclophilin genes, biochemical characterization, imperative for understanding their cellular function(s), has been carried only for few of the members. The present study reports the biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis cyclophilin, AtCyp19-3, which demonstrated that this protein is enzymatically active and possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity that is specifically inhibited by CsA with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 18.75 nM. The PPIase activity of AtCyp19-3 was also sensitive to Cu(2+), which covalently reacts with the sulfhydryl groups, implying redox regulation. Further, using calmodulin (CaM) gel overlay assays it was demonstrated that in vitro interaction of AtCyp19-3 with CaM is Ca(2+)-dependent, and CaM-binding domain is localized to 35-70 amino acid residues in the N-terminus. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that AtCyp19-3 interacts with CaM in vivo also, thus, validating the in vitro observations. However, the PPIase activity of the Arabidopsis cyclophilin was not affected by CaM. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Ca(2+) signaling and cyclophilin activity in Arabidopsis.

  20. Calmodulin-binding protein CBP60g functions as a negative regulator in Arabidopsis anthocyanin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Bo; Wan, Dongli; Li, Ruili; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Guojing; Wang, Ruigang

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins, a kind of flavonoid, normally accumulate in the flowers and fruits and make them colorful. Anthocyanin accumulation is regulated via the different temporal and spatial expression of anthocyanin regulatory and biosynthetic genes. CBP60g, a calmodulin binding protein, has previously been shown to have a role in pathogen resistance, drought tolerance and ABA sensitivity. In this study, we found that CBP60g repressed anthocyanin accumulation induced by drought, sucrose and kinetin. The expression pattern of CBP60g was in accordance with the anthocyanin accumulation tissues. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes CHS, CHI and DFR, as well as two members of MBW complex, PAP1, a MYB transcription factor, and TT8, a bHLH transcription factor, were down regulated by CBP60g. PMID:28253311

  1. Reducing RANS Model Error Using Random Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Wu, Jin-Long; Xiao, Heng; Ling, Julia

    2016-11-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are still the work-horse tools in the turbulence modeling of industrial flows. However, the model discrepancy due to the inadequacy of modeled Reynolds stresses largely diminishes the reliability of simulation results. In this work we use a physics-informed machine learning approach to improve the RANS modeled Reynolds stresses and propagate them to obtain the mean velocity field. Specifically, the functional forms of Reynolds stress discrepancies with respect to mean flow features are trained based on an offline database of flows with similar characteristics. The random forest model is used to predict Reynolds stress discrepancies in new flows. Then the improved Reynolds stresses are propagated to the velocity field via RANS equations. The effects of expanding the feature space through the use of a complete basis of Galilean tensor invariants are also studied. The flow in a square duct, which is challenging for standard RANS models, is investigated to demonstrate the merit of the proposed approach. The results show that both the Reynolds stresses and the propagated velocity field are improved over the baseline RANS predictions. SAND Number: SAND2016-7437 A

  2. Hyperactivity of the Arabidopsis cryptochrome (cry1) L407F mutant is caused by a structural alteration close to the cry1 ATP-binding site.

    PubMed

    Orth, Christian; Niemann, Nils; Hennig, Lars; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Batschauer, Alfred

    2017-08-04

    Plant cryptochromes (cry) act as UV-A/blue light receptors. The prototype, Arabidopsis thaliana cry1, regulates several light responses during the life cycle, including de-etiolation, and is also involved in regulating flowering time. The cry1 photocycle is initiated by light absorption by its FAD chromophore, which is most likely fully oxidized (FADox) in the dark state and photoreduced to the neutral flavin semiquinone (FADH°) in its lit state. Cryptochromes lack the DNA-repair activity of the closely related DNA photolyases, but they retain the ability to bind nucleotides such as ATP. The previously characterized L407F mutant allele of Arabidopsis cry1 is biologically hyperactive and seems to mimic the ATP-bound state of cry1, but the reason for this phenotypic change is unclear. Here, we show that cry1L407F can still bind ATP, has less pronounced photoreduction and formation of FADH° than wild-type cry1, and has a dark reversion rate 1.7 times lower than that of the wild type. The hyperactivity of cry1L407F is not related to a higher FADH° occupancy of the photoreceptor but is caused by a structural alteration close to the ATP-binding site. Moreover, we show that ATP binds to cry1 in both the dark and the lit states. This binding was not affected by cry1's C-terminal extension, which is important for signal transduction. Finally, we show that a recently discovered chemical inhibitor of cry1, 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole, competes for ATP binding and thereby diminishes FADH° formation, which demonstrates that both processes are important for cry1 function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The Arabidopsis Putative Selenium-Binding Protein Family: Expression Study and Characterization of SBP1 as a Potential New Player in Cadmium Detoxification Processes1[W

    PubMed Central

    Dutilleul, Christelle; Jourdain, Agnès; Bourguignon, Jacques; Hugouvieux, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the putative selenium-binding protein (SBP) gene family is composed of three members (SBP1–SBP3). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that SBP1 expression was ubiquitous. SBP2 was expressed at a lower level in flowers and roots, whereas SBP3 transcripts were only detected in young seedling tissues. In cadmium (Cd)-treated seedlings, SBP1 level of expression was rapidly increased in roots. In shoots, SBP1 transcripts accumulated later and for higher Cd doses. SBP2 and SBP3 expression showed delayed or no responsiveness to Cd. In addition, luciferase (LUC) activity recorded on Arabidopsis lines expressing the LUC gene under the control of the SBP1 promoter further showed dynamic regulation of SBP1 expression during development and in response to Cd stress. Western-blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies raised against SBP1 showed that SBP1 protein accumulated in Cd-exposed tissues in correlation with SBP1 transcript amount. The sbp1 null mutant displayed no visible phenotype under normal and stress conditions that was explained by the up-regulation of SBP2 expression. SBP1 overexpression enhanced Cd accumulation in roots and reduced sensitivity to Cd in wild type and, more significantly, in Cd-hypersensitive cad mutants that lack phytochelatins. Similarly, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SBP1 expression led to increased Cd tolerance of the Cd-hypersensitive ycf1 mutant. In vitro experiments showed that SBP1 has the ability to bind Cd. These data highlight the importance of maintaining the adequate SBP protein level under healthy and stress conditions and suggest that, during Cd stress, SBP1 accumulation efficiently helps to detoxify Cd potentially through direct binding. PMID:18354042

  4. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding proteins ACBP4 and ACBP5 are subcellularly localized to the cytosol and ACBP4 depletion affects membrane lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Jiao-Ping; Chan, Suk-Wah; Chye, Mee-Len

    2008-12-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are encoded by six genes, and they display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters. Recombinant ACBP4 and ACBP5 have been shown to bind oleoyl-CoA esters in vitro. In this study, the subcellular localizations of ACBP4 and ACBP5 were determined by biochemical fractionation followed by western blot analyses using anti-ACBP4 and anti-ACBP5 antibodies and immuno-electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy of autofluorescence-tagged ACBP4 and ACBP5, expressed transiently in onion epidermal cells and in transgenic Arabidopsis, confirmed their expression in the cytosol. Taken together, ACBP4 and ACBP5 are available in the cytosol to bind and transfer cytosolic oleoyl-CoA esters. Lipid profile analysis further revealed that an acbp4 knockout mutant showed decreases in membrane lipids (digalactosyldiacylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol) while acbp4-complemented lines attained levels similar to wild type, suggesting that ACBP4 plays a role in the biosynthesis of membrane lipids including galactolipids and phospholipids.

  5. Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 Protein SEC11 Is a Competitive and Dynamic Modulator of SNARE Binding and SYP121-Dependent Vesicle Traffic[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Karnik, Rucha; Grefen, Christopher; Bayne, Robert; Honsbein, Annegret; Köhler, Tim; Kioumourtzoglou, Dimitrios; Williams, Mary; Bryant, Nia J.; Blatt, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana Qa-SNARE SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) drives vesicle traffic at the plasma membrane of cells throughout the vegetative plant. It facilitates responses to drought, to the water stress hormone abscisic acid, and to pathogen attack, and it is essential for recovery from so-called programmed stomatal closure. How SYP121-mediated traffic is regulated is largely unknown, although it is thought to depend on formation of a fusion-competent SNARE core complex with the cognate partners VAMP721 and SNAP33. Like SYP121, the Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 (=KEULE) is expressed throughout the vegetative plant. We find that SEC11 binds directly with SYP121 both in vitro and in vivo to affect secretory traffic. Binding occurs through two distinct modes, one requiring only SEC11 and SYP121 and the second dependent on assembly of a complex with VAMP721 and SNAP33. SEC11 competes dynamically for SYP121 binding with SNAP33 and VAMP721, and this competition is predicated by SEC11 association with the N terminus of SYP121. These and additional data are consistent with a model in which SYP121-mediated vesicle fusion is regulated by an unusual “handshaking” mechanism of concerted SEC11 debinding and rebinding. They also implicate one or more factors that alter or disrupt SEC11 association with the SYP121 N terminus as an early step initiating SNARE complex formation. PMID:23572542

  6. Pathogen-responsive expression of a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter gene conferring resistance to the diterpenoid sclareol is regulated by multiple defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Emma J; Schenk, Peer M; Kazan, Kemal; Penninckx, Iris A M A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Maclean, Don J; Cammue, Bruno P A; Ebert, Paul R; Manners, John M

    2003-11-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a member of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily of ABC transporters. AtPDR12 displayed distinct induction profiles after inoculation of plants with compatible and incompatible fungal pathogens and treatments with salicylic acid, ethylene, or methyl jasmonate. Analysis of AtPDR12 expression in a number of Arabidopsis defense signaling mutants further revealed that salicylic acid accumulation, NPR1 function, and sensitivity to jasmonates and ethylene were all required for pathogen-responsive expression of AtPDR12. Germination assays using seeds from an AtPDR12 insertion line in the presence of sclareol resulted in lower germination rates and much stronger inhibition of root elongation in the AtPDR12 insertion line than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that AtPDR12 may be functionally related to the previously identified ABC transporters SpTUR2 and NpABC1, which transport sclareol. Our data also point to a potential role for terpenoids in the Arabidopsis defensive armory.

  7. A green fluorescent protein fusion to actin-binding domain 2 of Arabidopsis fimbrin highlights new features of a dynamic actin cytoskeleton in live plant cells.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Michael B; Staiger, Chris J; Rose, Ray J; McCurdy, David W

    2004-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton coordinates numerous cellular processes required for plant development. The functions of this network are intricately linked to its dynamic arrangement, and thus progress in understanding how actin orchestrates cellular processes relies on critical evaluation of actin organization and turnover. To investigate the dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton, we used a fusion protein between green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the second actin-binding domain (fABD2) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin, AtFIM1. The GFP-fABD2 fusion protein labeled highly dynamic and dense actin networks in diverse species and cell types, revealing structural detail not seen with alternative labeling methods, such as the commonly used mouse talin GFP fusion (GFP-mTalin). Further, we show that expression of the GFP-fABD2 fusion protein in Arabidopsis, unlike GFP-mTalin, has no detectable adverse effects on plant morphology or development. Time-lapse confocal microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses of the actin cytoskeleton labeled with GFP-fABD2 revealed that lateral-filament migration and sliding of individual actin filaments or bundles are processes that contribute to the dynamic and continually reorganizing nature of the actin scaffold. These new observations of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton in plant cells using GFP-fABD2 reveal the value of this probe for future investigations of how actin filaments coordinate cellular processes required for plant development.

  8. Novel plant SUN-KASH bridges are involved in RanGAP anchoring and nuclear shape determination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Graumann, Katja; Evans, David E; Meier, Iris

    2012-01-23

    Inner nuclear membrane Sad1/UNC-84 (SUN) proteins interact with outer nuclear membrane (ONM) Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne homology (KASH) proteins, forming linkers of nucleoskeleton to cytoskeleton conserved from yeast to human and involved in positioning of nuclei and chromosomes. Defects in SUN-KASH bridges are linked to muscular dystrophy, progeria, and cancer. SUN proteins were recently identified in plants, but their ONM KASH partners are unknown. Arabidopsis WPP domain-interacting proteins (AtWIPs) are plant-specific ONM proteins that redundantly anchor Arabidopsis RanGTPase-activating protein 1 (AtRanGAP1) to the nuclear envelope (NE). In this paper, we report that AtWIPs are plant-specific KASH proteins interacting with Arabidopsis SUN proteins (AtSUNs). The interaction is required for both AtWIP1 and AtRanGAP1 NE localization. AtWIPs and AtSUNs are necessary for maintaining the elongated nuclear shape of Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Together, our data identify the first KASH members in the plant kingdom and provide a novel function of SUN-KASH complexes, suggesting that a functionally diverged SUN-KASH bridge is conserved beyond the opisthokonts.

  9. The mechanism of nuclear export of Smad3 involves exportin 4 and Ran.

    PubMed

    Kurisaki, Akira; Kurisaki, Keiko; Kowanetz, Marcin; Sugino, Hiromu; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2006-02-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptors phosphorylate Smad3 and induce its nuclear import so it can regulate gene transcription. Smad3 can return to the cytoplasm to propagate further cycles of signal transduction or to be degraded. We demonstrate that Smad3 is exported by a constitutive mechanism that is insensitive to leptomycin B. The Mad homology 2 (MH2) domain is responsible for Smad3 export, which requires the GTPase Ran. Inactive, GDP-locked RanT24N or nuclear microinjection of Ran GTPase activating protein 1 blocked Smad3 export. Inactivation of the Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 inhibited Smad3 export and led to nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated Smad3. A screen for importin/exportin family members that associate with Smad3 identified exportin 4, which binds a conserved peptide sequence in the MH2 domain of Smad3 in a Ran-dependent manner. Exportin 4 is sufficient for carrying the in vitro nuclear export of Smad3 in cooperation with Ran. Knockdown of endogenous exportin 4 completely abrogates the export of endogenous Smad3. A short peptide representing the minimal interaction domain in Smad3 effectively competes with Smad3 association to exportin 4 and blocks nuclear export of Smad3 in vivo. We thus delineate a novel nuclear export pathway for Smad3.

  10. Identification of likely orthologs of tobacco salicylic acid-binding protein 2 and their role in systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vlot, Anna Corina; Liu, Po-Pu; Cameron, Robin K; Park, Sang-Wook; Yang, Yue; Kumar, Dhirendra; Zhou, Fasong; Padukkavidana, Thihan; Gustafsson, Claes; Pichersky, Eran; Klessig, Daniel F

    2008-11-01

    Salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2) is essential for the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco; SABP2's methyl salicylate (MeSA) esterase activity is required in healthy systemic tissues of infected plants to release the active defense phytohormone SA from MeSA, which serves as a long-distance signal for SAR. In the current study, we characterize a new gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding 18 potentially active alpha/beta fold hydrolases that share 32-57% identity with SABP2. Of 14 recombinant AtMES (MES for methyl esterase) proteins tested, five showed preference for MeSA as a substrate and displayed SA inhibition of MeSA esterase activity in vitro (AtMES1, -2, -4, -7, and -9). The two genes encoding MeSA esterases with the greatest activity, AtMES1 and -9, as well as AtMES7 were transcriptionally upregulated during infection of Arabidopsis with avirulent Pseudomonas syringae. In addition, conditional expression of AtMES1, -7, or -9 complemented SAR deficiency in SABP2-silenced tobacco, suggesting that these three members of the AtMES family are SABP2 functional homologs (orthologs). Underexpression by knockout mutation and/or RNAi-mediated silencing of multiple AtMES genes, including AtMES1, -2, -7, and -9, compromised SAR in Arabidopsis and correlated with enhanced accumulation of MeSA in the systemic tissue of SAR-induced plants. Together, the data show that several members of the AtMES gene family are functionally homologous to SABP2 and redundant for MeSA hydrolysis and probably SAR. These data suggest that MeSA is a conserved SAR signal in Arabidopsis and tobacco.

  11. RanBP3 Regulates Melanoma Cell Proliferation via Selective Control of Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Pathria, Gaurav; Garg, Bhavuk; Wagner, Christine; Garg, Kanika; Gschaider, Melanie; Jalili, Ahmad; Wagner, Stephan N

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome region maintenance 1-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport has been shown as a potential anticancer target in various malignancies. However, the role of the most characterized chromosome region maintenance 1 cofactor ran binding protein 3 (RanBP3) in cancer cell biology has never been investigated. Utilizing a loss-of-function experimental setting in a vast collection of genetically varied melanoma cell lines, we observed the requirement of RanBP3 in melanoma cell proliferation and survival. Mechanistically, we suggest the reinstatement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-Smad2/3-p21(Cip1) tumor-suppressor axis as part of the RanBP3 silencing-associated antiproliferative program. Employing extensive nuclear export sequence analyses and immunofluorescence-based protein localization studies, we further present evidence suggesting the requirement of RanBP3 function for the nuclear exit of the weak nuclear export sequence-harboring extracellular signal-regulated kinase protein, although it is dispensable for general CRM1-mediated nuclear export of strong nuclear export sequence-harboring cargoes. Rendering mechanistic support to RanBP3 silencing-mediated apoptosis, consequent to extracellular signal-regulated kinase nuclear entrapment, we observed increased levels of cytoplasmically restricted nonphosphorylated/active proapoptotic Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death (BAD) protein. Last, we present evidence suggesting the frequently activated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in melanoma as a potential founding basis for a deregulated post-translational control of RanBP3 activity. Collectively, the presented data suggest RanBP3 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in human melanoma.

  12. A plasma membrane-associated protein of Arabidopsis thaliana AtPCaP1 binds copper ions and changes its higher order structure.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki-Takeuchi, Nahoko; Miyano, Masashi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2008-10-01

    PCaP1, a hydrophilic cation-binding protein, is bound to the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana. We focused on the physicochemical properties of PCaP1 to understand its uniqueness in terms of structure and binding of metal ions. On fluorescence analysis, PCaP1 showed a signal of structural change in the presence of Cu(2+). The near-UV CD spectra showed a marked change of PCaP1 in CuCl(2) solution. The far-UV CD spectra showed the presence of alpha-helices and the intrinsically unstructured region. However, addition of Cu(2+) gave no change in the far-UV CD spectra. These results indicate that Cu(2+) induced a change in the tertiary structure without changing the secondary structure. The protein was sensitive to proteinase in the presence of Cu(2+), supporting that Cu(2+) is involved in the structural change. The PCaP1 solution was titrated with CuCl(2) and the change in the fluorescence spectrum was monitored to characterize Cu(2+)-binding properties. The obtained values of K(d) for Cu(2+) and the ligand-binding number were 10 microM and six ions per molecule, respectively. These findings indicate that PCaP1 has a high Cu(2+)-binding capacity with a relatively high affinity. PCaP1 lacks cysteine and histidine residues. A large number of glutamate residues may be involved in the Cu(2+) binding.

  13. Expression of turtle riboflavin-binding protein represses mitochondrial electron transport gene expression and promotes flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Hu, Li; Han, Li-Ping; Ji, Hongtao; Zhu, Yueyue; Wang, Xiaobing; Ge, Jun; Xu, Manyu; Shen, Dan; Dong, Hansong

    2014-12-30

    Recently we showed that de novo expression of a turtle riboflavin-binding protein (RfBP) in transgenic Arabidopsis increased H2O2 concentrations inside leaf cells, enhanced the expression of floral regulatory gene FD and floral meristem identity gene AP1 at the shoot apex, and induced early flowering. Here we report that RfBP-induced H2O2 presumably results from electron leakage at the mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) and this source of H2O2 contributes to the early flowering phenotype. While enhanced expression of FD and AP1 at the shoot apex was correlated with early flowering, the foliar expression of 13 of 19 METC genes was repressed in RfBP-expressing (RfBP+) plants. Inside RfBP+ leaf cells, cytosolic H2O2 concentrations were increased possibly through electron leakage because similar responses were also induced by a known inducer of electron leakage from METC. Early flowering no longer occurred when the repression on METC genes was eliminated by RfBP gene silencing, which restored RfBP+ to wild type in levels of FD and AP1 expression, H2O2, and flavins. Flowering was delayed by the external riboflavin application, which brought gene expression and flavins back to the steady-state levels but only caused 55% reduction of H2O2 concentrations in RfBP+ plants. RfBP-repressed METC gene expression remedied the cytosolic H2O2 diminution by genetic disruption of transcription factor NFXLl and compensated for compromises in FD and AP1 expression and flowering time. By contrast, RfBP resembled a peroxisomal catalase mutation, which augments the cytosolic H2O2, to enhance FD and AP1 expression and induce early flowering. RfBP-repressed METC gene expression potentially causes electron leakage as one of cellular sources for the generation of H2O2 with the promoting effect on flowering. The repressive effect on METC gene expression is not the only way by which RfBP induces H2O2 and currently unappreciated factors may also function under RfBP+ background.

  14. Lynne Cherry's "A River Ran Wild."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Carolyn; Brent, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Paraphrases the book "A River Ran Wild" by Lynne Cherry, contrasts how Native American and European settlers use a river, and discusses the pollution and cleanup of the river. Provides classroom discussion questions, and individual or group activities in language arts, art, role-playing, geography, and interviewing. Includes an annotated…

  15. The Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Giovanni; Ammirati, Alfredo; de Nardis, Rita; Filippi, Luisa; Gallo, Antonella; Lavecchia, Giusy; Sirignano, Sebastiano; Zambonelli, Elisa; Nicoletti, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A network for the strong motion monitoring of the territory allows recording data that provide an excellent opportunity to study the source, path, and site effects on the ground motions, specifically in near source area, for updating seismic hazard map and consequently construction codes and earthquake resistant design. Strong motion data also help to increase the effective preparation and response to seismic emergencies and the ability of a community to quickly recover from the damages of an earthquake contributes to lower the seismic risk usually measured in term of casualties and economic losses. The Italian network for monitoring the strong movement of the national territory (RAN) is the result of a fruitful cooperation over the last 16 years between the Italian government, the regions and local authorities and now counts more than 500 stations. Over the years, as a priority the DPC has focused mainly on the expansion of the network in terms of the number of measurement points and technological improvement of instrumentation as well as the data transmission system. A data acquisition centre was implemented in which the Antelope software collects, processes and archives, automatically, the data of the RAN and of the external strong motion networks that contribute to the database of the RAN. Recently the DPC has dedicated specific resources to improve the response of the network, in particular, in case of emergency. The efficiency of the network on a daily basis is not less than 95% and temporary networks were installed in the epicentral area within 24 hours after the earthquake and connected to the data acquisition centre in Rome. A fast seismic data analysis is essential to provide useful information to Authorities which make decisions immediately after a strong earthquake occurrence. During a strong earthquake, the modern accelerometers are the only instruments which can provide near source high-quality data that are important both for scientific and for civil

  16. Inhibition of HDAC6 activity through interaction with RanBPM and its associated CTLH complex.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Louisa M; Maitland, Matthew E R; Yefet, Eyal R; Schild-Poulter, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a microtubule-associated deacetylase that promotes many cellular processes that lead to cell transformation and tumour development. We previously documented an interaction between Ran-Binding Protein M (RanBPM) and HDAC6 and found that RanBPM expression inhibits HDAC6 activity. RanBPM is part of a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, termed the C-terminal to LisH (CTLH) complex. Here, we investigated the involvement of the CTLH complex on HDAC6 inhibition and assessed the outcome of this regulation on the cellular motility induced by HDAC6. Cell lines (Hela, HEK293 and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts) stably or transiently downregulated for several components of the CTLH complex were employed for the assays used in this study. Interactions of HDAC6, RanBPM and muskelin were assessed by co-immunoprecipitations. Quantifications of western blot analyses were employed to evaluate acetylated α-tubulin levels. Confocal microscopy analyses were used to determine microtubule association of HDAC6 and CTLH complex members. Cell migration was evaluated using wound healing assays. We demonstrate that RanBPM-mediated inhibition of HDAC6 is dependent on its association with HDAC6. We show that, while HDAC6 does not require RanBPM to associate with microtubules, RanBPM association with microtubules requires HDAC6. Additionally, we show that Twa1 (Two-hybrid-associated protein 1 with RanBPM) and MAEA (Macrophage Erythroblast Attacher), two CTLH complex members, also associate with α-tubulin and that muskelin, another component of the CTLH complex, is able to associate with HDAC6. Downregulation of CTLH complex members muskelin and Rmnd5A (Required for meiotic nuclear division homolog A) resulted in decreased acetylation of HDAC6 substrate α-tubulin. Finally, we demonstrate that the increased cell migration resulting from downregulation of RanBPM is due to the relief in inhibition of HDAC6 α-tubulin deacetylase activity. Our work shows

  17. Genome-wide analysis of ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif-containing transcriptional regulators in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kagale, Sateesh; Links, Matthew G; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    The ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif is a transcriptional regulatory motif identified in members of the ethylene-responsive element binding factor, C2H2, and auxin/indole-3-acetic acid families of transcriptional regulators. Sequence comparison of the core EAR motif sites from these proteins revealed two distinct conservation patterns: LxLxL and DLNxxP. Proteins containing these motifs play key roles in diverse biological functions by negatively regulating genes involved in developmental, hormonal, and stress signaling pathways. Through a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis, we have identified the complete repertoire of the EAR repressome in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) comprising 219 proteins belonging to 21 different transcriptional regulator families. Approximately 72% of these proteins contain a LxLxL type of EAR motif, 22% contain a DLNxxP type of EAR motif, and the remaining 6% have a motif where LxLxL and DLNxxP are overlapping. Published in vitro and in planta investigations support approximately 40% of these proteins functioning as negative regulators of gene expression. Comparative sequence analysis of EAR motif sites and adjoining regions has identified additional preferred residues and potential posttranslational modification sites that may influence the functionality of the EAR motif. Homology searches against protein databases of poplar (Populus trichocarpa), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) revealed that the EAR motif is conserved across these diverse plant species. This genome-wide analysis represents the most extensive survey of EAR motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis to date and provides a resource enabling investigations into their biological roles and the mechanism of EAR motif-mediated transcriptional regulation.

  18. The Magnesium-Chelatase H Subunit Binds Abscisic Acid and Functions in Abscisic Acid Signaling: New Evidence in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fu-Qing; Xin, Qi; Cao, Zheng; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Shu-Yuan; Mei, Chao; Zhao, Chen-Xi; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Shang, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Yan, Lu; Zhao, Rui; Cui, Zi-Ning; Liu, Rui; Sun, Hai-Li; Yang, Xin-Ling; Su, Zhen; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Using a newly developed abscisic acid (ABA)-affinity chromatography technique, we showed that the magnesium-chelatase H subunit ABAR/CHLH (for putative abscisic acid receptor/chelatase H subunit) specifically binds ABA through the C-terminal half but not the N-terminal half. A set of potential agonists/antagonists to ABA, including 2-trans,4-trans-ABA, gibberellin, cytokinin-like regulator 6-benzylaminopurine, auxin indole-3-acetic acid, auxin-like substance naphthalene acetic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester, did not bind ABAR/CHLH. A C-terminal C370 truncated ABAR with 369 amino acid residues (631–999) was shown to bind ABA, which may be a core of the ABA-binding domain in the C-terminal half. Consistently, expression of the ABAR/CHLH C-terminal half truncated proteins fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wild-type plants conferred ABA hypersensitivity in all major ABA responses, including seed germination, postgermination growth, and stomatal movement, and the expression of the same truncated proteins fused with GFP in an ABA-insensitive cch mutant of the ABAR/CHLH gene restored the ABA sensitivity of the mutant in all of the ABA responses. However, the effect of expression of the ABAR N-terminal half fused with GFP in the wild-type plants was limited to seedling growth, and the restoring effect of the ABA sensitivity of the cch mutant was limited to seed germination. In addition, we identified two new mutant alleles of ABAR/CHLH from the mutant pool in the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center via Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Targeting-Induced Local Lesions in Genomes. The abar-2 mutant has a point mutation resulting in the N-terminal Leu-348→Phe, and the abar-3 mutant has a point mutation resulting in the N-terminal Ser-183→Phe. The two mutants show altered ABA-related phenotypes in seed germination and postgermination growth but not in stomatal movement. These findings support the idea that ABAR/CHLH is an ABA receptor and reveal

  19. Ectopic Overexpression of SsCBF1, a CRT/DRE-Binding Factor from the Nightshade Plant Solanum lycopersicoides, Confers Freezing and Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhenjun; Li, Jingfu; Wang, Aoxue

    2013-01-01

    The C-repeat (CRT)/dehydration-responsive element (DRE) binding factor (CBF/DREB1) transcription factors play a key role in cold response. However, the detailed roles of many plant CBFs are far from fully understood. A CBF gene (SsCBF1) was isolated from the cold-hardy plant Solanum lycopersicoides. A subcellular localization study using GFP fusion protein indicated that SsCBF1 is localized in the nucleus. We delimited the SsCBF1 transcriptional activation domain to the C-terminal segment comprising amino acid residues 193–228 (SsCBF1193–228). The expression of SsCBF1 could be dramatically induced by cold, drought and high salinity. Transactivation assays in tobacco leaves revealed that SsCBF1 could specifically bind to the CRT cis-elements in vivo to activate the expression of downstream reporter genes. The ectopic overexpression of SsCBF1 conferred increased freezing and high-salinity tolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis. RNA-sequencing data exhibited that a set of cold and salt stress responsive genes were up-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that SsCBF1 behaves as a typical CBF to contribute to plant freezing tolerance. Increased resistance to high-salinity and late flowering phenotype derived from SsCBF1 OE lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant CBFs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions. PMID:23755095

  20. CONSTANS and the CCAAT Box Binding Complex Share a Functionally Important Domain and Interact to Regulate Flowering of Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wenkel, Stephan; Turck, Franziska; Singer, Kamy; Gissot, Lionel; Gourrierec, José Le; Samach, Alon; Coupland, George

    2006-01-01

    The CCT (for CONSTANS, CONSTANS-LIKE, TOC1) domain is found in 45 Arabidopsis thaliana proteins involved in processes such as photoperiodic flowering, light signaling, and regulation of circadian rhythms. We show that this domain exhibits similarities to yeast HEME ACTIVATOR PROTEIN2 (HAP2), which is a subunit of the HAP2/HAP3/HAP5 trimeric complex that binds to CCAAT boxes in eukaryotic promoters. Moreover, we demonstrate that CONSTANS (CO), which promotes Arabidopsis flowering, interacts with At HAP3 and At HAP5 in yeast, in vitro, and in planta. Mutations in CO that delay flowering affect residues highly conserved between CCT and the DNA binding domain of HAP2. Taken together, these data suggest that CO might replace At HAP2 in the HAP complex to form a trimeric CO/At HAP3/At HAP5 complex. Flowering was delayed by overexpression of At HAP2 or At HAP3 throughout the plant or in phloem companion cells, where CO is expressed. This phenotype was correlated with reduced abundance of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA and no change in CO mRNA levels. At HAP2 or At HAP3 overexpression may therefore impair formation of a CO/At HAP3/At HAP5 complex leading to reduced expression of FT. During plant evolution, the number of genes encoding HAP proteins was greatly amplified, and these proteins may have acquired novel functions, such as mediating the effect of CCT domain proteins on gene expression. PMID:17138697

  1. Binding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebsamen, Werner

    1981-01-01

    Categorizes contemporary methods of binding printed materials in terms of physical preservation--hand binding (archival restoration), edition binding (paperback, hardcover), publication binding (magazines), textbook binding (sidesewn), single-sheet binding (loose-leaf, mechanical), and library binding (oversewn, sidesewn). Seven references are…

  2. The nucleoporin MEL-28 promotes RanGTP-dependent γ-tubulin recruitment and microtubule nucleation in mitotic spindle formation.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hideki; Koch, Birgit; Walczak, Rudolf; Ciray-Duygu, Fulya; González-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Devos, Damien P; Mattaj, Iain W; Gruss, Oliver J

    2014-01-01

    The GTP-bound form of the Ran GTPase (RanGTP), produced around chromosomes, drives nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complex (NPC) re-assembly after mitosis. The nucleoporin MEL-28/ELYS binds chromatin in a RanGTP-regulated manner and acts to seed NPC assembly. Here we show that, upon mitotic NPC disassembly, MEL-28 dissociates from chromatin and re-localizes to spindle microtubules and kinetochores. MEL-28 directly binds microtubules in a RanGTP-regulated way via its C-terminal chromatin-binding domain. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we demonstrate that MEL-28 is essential for RanGTP-dependent microtubule nucleation and spindle assembly, independent of its function in NPC assembly. Specifically, MEL-28 interacts with the γ-tubulin ring complex and recruits it to microtubule nucleation sites. Our data identify MEL-28 as a RanGTP target that functions throughout the cell cycle. Its cell cycle-dependent binding to chromatin or microtubules discriminates MEL-28 functions in interphase and mitosis, and ensures that spindle assembly occurs only after NPC breakdown.

  3. GUN4-Porphyrin Complexes Bind the ChlH/GUN5 Subunit of Mg-Chelatase and Promote Chlorophyll Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Neil D.; Froehlich, John E.; Strand, Deserah D.; Buck, Stephanie M.; Kramer, David M.; Larkin, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The GENOMES UNCOUPLED4 (GUN4) protein stimulates chlorophyll biosynthesis by activating Mg-chelatase, the enzyme that commits protoporphyrin IX to chlorophyll biosynthesis. This stimulation depends on GUN4 binding the ChlH subunit of Mg-chelatase and the porphyrin substrate and product of Mg-chelatase. After binding porphyrins, GUN4 associates more stably with chloroplast membranes and was proposed to promote interactions between ChlH and chloroplast membranes—the site of Mg-chelatase activity. GUN4 was also proposed to attenuate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by binding and shielding light-exposed porphyrins from collisions with O2. To test these proposals, we first engineered Arabidopsis thaliana plants that express only porphyrin binding–deficient forms of GUN4. Using these transgenic plants and particular mutants, we found that the porphyrin binding activity of GUN4 and Mg-chelatase contribute to the accumulation of chlorophyll, GUN4, and Mg-chelatase subunits. Also, we found that the porphyrin binding activity of GUN4 and Mg-chelatase affect the associations of GUN4 and ChlH with chloroplast membranes and have various effects on the expression of ROS-inducible genes. Based on our findings, we conclude that ChlH and GUN4 use distinct mechanisms to associate with chloroplast membranes and that mutant alleles of GUN4 and Mg-chelatase genes cause sensitivity to intense light by a mechanism that is potentially complex. PMID:21467578

  4. The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2–His2 zinc finger motif

    PubMed Central

    Dathan, Nina; Zaccaro, Laura; Esposito, Sabrina; Isernia, Carla; Omichinski, James G.; Riccio, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V.

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) gene has been shown to be important in maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels, and is presumed to act by regulating cell proliferation. In this work, we show that the SUP protein, which contains a single Cys2–His2 zinc finger domain including the QALGGH sequence, highly conserved in the plant zinc finger proteins, binds DNA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was determined that the minimal domain required for specific DNA binding (residues 15–78) includes the single zinc finger and two basic regions located on either side of this motif. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions in the zinc finger or in the basic regions, including a mutation that knocks out the function of the SUP protein in vivo (glycine 63 to aspartate), have been found to abolish the activity of the SUP DNA-binding domain. These results strongly suggest that the SUP protein functions in vivo by acting as a DNA-binding protein, likely involved in transcriptional regulation. The association of both an N-terminal and a C-terminal basic region with a single Cys2–His2 zinc finger represents a novel DNA-binding motif suggesting that the mechanism of DNA recognition adopted by the SUP protein is different from that described so far in other zinc finger proteins. PMID:12433998

  5. Targeting the Cyclophilin Domain of Ran-binding Protein 2 (Ranbp2) with Novel Small Molecules to Control the Proteostasis of STAT3, hnRNPA2B1 and M-Opsin

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung-in; Orry, Andrew; Park, Se Eun; Ferreira, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins are peptidyl cis-trans prolyl isomerases (PPIases), whose activity is typically inhibited by cyclosporine A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressor. Cyclophilins are also chaperones. Emerging evidence supports that cyclophilins present non-overlapping PPIase and chaperone activities. The proteostasis of the disease-relevant substrates, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and 5 (STAT3/STAT5), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1) and M-opsin, are regulated by non-overlapping chaperone and PPIase activities of the cyclophilin domain (CY) of Ranbp2, a multifunctional and modular scaffold which controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and proteostasis of selective substrates. Although highly homologous, CY and the archetypal cyclophilin A (CyPA) present distinct catalytic and CsA-binding activities owing to unique structural features between these cylophilins. We explored structural idiosyncrasies between CY and CyPA to screen in silico nearly 9 million small molecules (SM) against the CY PPIase pocket and identify SMs with selective bioactivity toward STAT3, hnRNPA2B1 and/or M-opsin proteostasis. We found three classes of SMs that enhance the cytokine-stimulated transcriptional activity of STAT3 without changing latent and activated STAT3 levels, down-regulate hnRNPA2B1 or M-opsin proteostasis, or a combination of these. Further, a SM which suppresses hnRNPA2B1 proteostasis also inhibits strongly and selectively the PPIase activity of CY. This study unravels chemical probes for multimodal regulation of CY of Ranbp2 and its substrates and this regulation likely results in the allosterism stemming from the interconversion of conformational substates of cyclophilins. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of CY in drug discovery against disease-relevant substrates controlled by Ranbp2 and they open new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:26030368

  6. Targeting the cyclophilin domain of Ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2) with novel small molecules to control the proteostasis of STAT3, hnRNPA2B1 and M-opsin.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung-In; Orry, Andrew; Park, Se Eun; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2015-08-19

    Cyclophilins are peptidyl cis-trans prolyl isomerases (PPIases), whose activity is typically inhibited by cyclosporine A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressor. Cyclophilins are also chaperones. Emerging evidence supports that cyclophilins present nonoverlapping PPIase and chaperone activities. The proteostasis of the disease-relevant substrates, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and 5 (STAT3/STAT5), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), and M-opsin, is regulated by nonoverlapping chaperone and PPIase activities of the cyclophilin domain (CY) of Ranbp2, a multifunctional and modular scaffold that controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and proteostasis of selective substrates. Although highly homologous, CY and the archetypal cyclophilin A (CyPA) present distinct catalytic and CsA-binding activities owing to unique structural features between these cylophilins. We explored structural idiosyncrasies between CY and CyPA to screen in silico nearly 9 million small molecules (SM) against the CY PPIase pocket and identify SMs with selective bioactivity toward STAT3, hnRNPA2B1, or M-opsin proteostasis. We found three classes of SMs that enhance the cytokine-stimulated transcriptional activity of STAT3 without changing latent and activated STAT3 levels, down-regulate hnRNPA2B1 or M-opsin proteostasis, or a combination of these. Further, a SM that suppresses hnRNPA2B1 proteostasis also inhibits strongly and selectively the PPIase activity of CY. This study unravels chemical probes for multimodal regulation of CY of Ranbp2 and its substrates, and this regulation likely results in the allosterism stemming from the interconversion of conformational substates of cyclophilins. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of CY in drug discovery against disease-relevant substrates controlled by Ranbp2, and they open new opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

  7. A strong loss-of-function mutation in RAN1 results in constitution activation of the ethylene response pathway as well as a rosette-lethal phenotype

    Treesearch

    Keith Woeste; Joseph J. Kieber

    2000-01-01

    A recessive mutation was identified that constitutively activated the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis and resuited in a rosette-lethal phenotype. Positional cloning of the gene corresponding to this mutation revealed that it was allelic to responsive to antagonist1 (ran1), a mutation that causes seedlings to respond in a positive manner to what is normally a...

  8. Cell biology: Ran, mitosis and the cancer connection.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Helen S; Clarke, Paul R

    2006-06-20

    The small GTPase Ran has been shown to regulate HURP, a protein that interacts with several mitotic spindle assembly factors. This discovery sheds new light on the role of Ran in the fidelity of mitosis and in cancer.

  9. The Arabidopsis GAGA-Binding Factor BASIC PENTACYSTEINE6 Recruits the POLYCOMB-REPRESSIVE COMPLEX1 Component LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 to GAGA DNA Motifs1

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Andreas; Brand, Luise H.; Peter, Sébastien; Simoncello, Nathalie; Kilian, Joachim; Gaudin, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb-repressive complexes (PRCs) play key roles in development by repressing a large number of genes involved in various functions. Much, however, remains to be discovered about PRC-silencing mechanisms as well as their targeting to specific genomic regions. Besides other mechanisms, GAGA-binding factors in animals can guide PRC members in a sequence-specific manner to Polycomb-responsive DNA elements. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GAGA-motif binding factor protein BASIC PENTACYSTEINE6 (BPC6) interacts with LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1), a PRC1 component, and associates with VERNALIZATION2 (VRN2), a PRC2 component, in vivo. By using a modified DNA-protein interaction enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, we could show that BPC6 was required and sufficient to recruit LHP1 to GAGA motif-containing DNA probes in vitro. We also found that LHP1 interacts with VRN2 and, therefore, can function as a possible scaffold between BPC6 and VRN2. The lhp1-4 bpc4 bpc6 triple mutant displayed a pleiotropic phenotype, extreme dwarfism and early flowering, which disclosed synergistic functions of LHP1 and group II plant BPC members. Transcriptome analyses supported this synergy and suggested a possible function in the concerted repression of homeotic genes, probably through histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation. Hence, our findings suggest striking similarities between animal and plant GAGA-binding factors in the recruitment of PRC1 and PRC2 components to Polycomb-responsive DNA element-like GAGA motifs, which must have evolved through convergent evolution. PMID:26025051

  10. Specific interactions between Dicer-like proteins and HYL1/DRB-family dsRNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hiraguri, Akihiro; Itoh, Riku; Kondo, Naoko; Nomura, Yasuko; Aizawa, Daisuke; Murai, Yusuke; Koiwa, Hisashi; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    Proteins that specifically bind double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are involved in the regulation of cellular signaling events and gene expression, and are characterized by a conserved dsRNA-binding motif (dsRBM). Here we report the biochemical properties of nine such gene products, each containing one or two dsRBMs: four Arabidopsis Dicer-like proteins (DCL1-4), Arabidopsis HYL1 and four of its homologs (DRB2, DRB4, DRB5 and OsDRB1). DCL1, DCL3, HYL1 and the four HYL1 homologs exhibit significant dsRNA-binding activity, indicating that these proteins are involved in RNA metabolism. The dsRBMs from dsRBM-containing proteins (dsRBPs) also function as a protein-protein interaction domain and homo- and heterodimerization are essential for biological functioning of these proteins. We show that DRB4 interacts specifically with DCL4, and HYL1 most strongly interacts with DCL1. These results indicate that each HYL1/DRB family protein interacts with one specific partner among the four Dicer-like proteins. Localization studies using GFP fusion proteins demonstrate that DCL1, DCL4, HYL1 and DRB4 localize in the nucleus, while DRB2 is present in the cytoplasm. Subcellular localizations of HYL1, DRB4, DCL1 and DCL4 further strengthen the notion that HYL1 and DCL1, and DRB4 and DCL4, exist as complexes. The presented data suggest that each member of the HYL1/DRB protein family may individually modulate Dicer function through heterodimerization with a Dicer-like protein in vivo.

  11. Tomato ASR1 abrogates the response to abscisic acid and glucose in Arabidopsis by competing with ABI4 for DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Shkolnik, Doron; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2008-05-01

    The manipulation of transacting factors is commonly used to achieve a wide change in the expression of a large number of genes in transgenic plants as a result of a change in the expression of a single gene product. This is mostly achieved by the overexpression of transactivator or repressor proteins. In this study, it is demonstrated that the overexpression of an exogenous DNA-binding protein can be used to compete with the expression of an endogenous transcription factor sharing the same DNA-binding sequence. Arabidopsis was transformed with cDNA encoding tomato abscisic acid stress ripening 1 (ASR1), a sequence-specific DNA protein that has no orthologues in the Arabidopsis genome. ASR1-overexpressing (ASR1-OE) plants display an abscisic acid-insensitive 4 (abi4) phenotype: seed germination is not sensitive to inhibition by abscisic acid (ABA), glucose, NaCl and paclobutrazol. ASR1 binds coupling element 1 (CE1), a cis-acting element bound by the ABI4 transcription factor, located in the ABI4-regulated promoters, including that of the ABI4 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that ASR1 is bound in vivo to the promoter of the ABI4 gene in ASR1-OE plants, but not to promoters of genes known to be regulated by the transcription factors ABI3 or ABI5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis confirmed that the expression of ABI4 and ABI4-regulated genes is markedly reduced in ASR1-OE plants. Therefore, it is concluded that the abi4 phenotype of ASR1-OE plants is the result of competition between the foreign ASR1 and the endogenous ABI4 on specific promoter DNA sequences. The biotechnological advantage of using this approach in crop plants from the Brassicaceae family to reduce the transactivation activity of ABI4 is discussed.

  12. Metal-binding thermodynamics of the histidine-rich sequence from the metal-transport protein IRT1 of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Nicholas E; Akilesh, Shreeram; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Wilcox, Dean E

    2006-10-16

    The widespread ZIP family of transmembrane metal-transporting proteins is characterized by a large intracellular loop that contains a histidine-rich sequence whose biological role is unknown. To provide a chemical basis for this role, we prepared and studied a peptide corresponding to this sequence from the first iron-regulated transporter (IRT1) of Arabidopsis thaliana, which transports Fe2+ as well as Mn2+, Co2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements, which required novel experiments and data analysis, and supporting spectroscopic methods were used to quantify IRT1's metal-binding affinity and associated thermodynamics. The peptide, PHGHGHGHGP, binds metal ions with 1:1 stoichiometry and stabilities that are consistent with the Irving-Williams series. Comparison of the metal-binding thermodynamics of the peptide with those of trien provides new insight about enthalpic and entropic contributions to the stability of the metal-peptide complex. Although Fe2+ and other IRT1-transported metal ions do not bind very tightly, this His-rich sequence has a very high entropy-driven affinity for Fe3+, which may have biological significance.

  13. Vacuolar Transport of Abscisic Acid Glucosyl Ester Is Mediated by ATP-Binding Cassette and Proton-Antiport Mechanisms in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burla, Bo; Pfrunder, Stefanie; Nagy, Réka; Francisco, Rita Maria; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key plant hormone involved in diverse physiological and developmental processes, including abiotic stress responses and the regulation of stomatal aperture and seed germination. Abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) is a hydrolyzable ABA conjugate that accumulates in the vacuole and presumably also in the endoplasmic reticulum. Deconjugation of ABA-GE by the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar β-glucosidases allows the rapid formation of free ABA in response to abiotic stress conditions such as dehydration and salt stress. ABA-GE further contributes to the maintenance of ABA homeostasis, as it is the major ABA catabolite exported from the cytosol. In this work, we identified that the import of ABA-GE into vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll cells is mediated by two distinct membrane transport mechanisms: proton gradient-driven and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Both systems have similar Km values of approximately 1 mm. According to our estimations, this low affinity appears nevertheless to be sufficient for the continuous vacuolar sequestration of ABA-GE produced in the cytosol. We further demonstrate that two tested multispecific vacuolar ABCC-type ABC transporters from Arabidopsis exhibit ABA-GE transport activity when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which also supports the involvement of ABC transporters in ABA-GE uptake. Our findings suggest that the vacuolar ABA-GE uptake is not mediated by specific, but rather by several, possibly multispecific, transporters that are involved in the general vacuolar sequestration of conjugated metabolites. PMID:24028845

  14. Defective nuclear import of Tpr in Progeria reflects the Ran sensitivity of large cargo transport

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Chelsi J.; Dar, Ashraf; Dutta, Anindya; Kehlenbach, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    The RanGTPase acts as a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport by controlling assembly and disassembly of nuclear transport complexes. RanGTP is required in the nucleus to release nuclear localization signal (NLS)–containing cargo from import receptors, and, under steady-state conditions, Ran is highly concentrated in the nucleus. We previously showed the nuclear/cytoplasmic Ran distribution is disrupted in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) fibroblasts that express the Progerin form of lamin A, causing a major defect in nuclear import of the protein, translocated promoter region (Tpr). In this paper, we show that Tpr import was mediated by the most abundant import receptor, KPNA2, which binds the bipartite NLS in Tpr with nanomolar affinity. Analyses including NLS swapping revealed Progerin did not cause global inhibition of nuclear import. Rather, Progerin inhibited Tpr import because transport of large protein cargoes was sensitive to changes in the Ran nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution that occurred in HGPS. We propose that defective import of large protein complexes with important roles in nuclear function may contribute to disease-associated phenotypes in Progeria. PMID:23649804

  15. Defective nuclear import of Tpr in Progeria reflects the Ran sensitivity of large cargo transport.

    PubMed

    Snow, Chelsi J; Dar, Ashraf; Dutta, Anindya; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Paschal, Bryce M

    2013-05-13

    The RanGTPase acts as a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport by controlling assembly and disassembly of nuclear transport complexes. RanGTP is required in the nucleus to release nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing cargo from import receptors, and, under steady-state conditions, Ran is highly concentrated in the nucleus. We previously showed the nuclear/cytoplasmic Ran distribution is disrupted in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) fibroblasts that express the Progerin form of lamin A, causing a major defect in nuclear import of the protein, translocated promoter region (Tpr). In this paper, we show that Tpr import was mediated by the most abundant import receptor, KPNA2, which binds the bipartite NLS in Tpr with nanomolar affinity. Analyses including NLS swapping revealed Progerin did not cause global inhibition of nuclear import. Rather, Progerin inhibited Tpr import because transport of large protein cargoes was sensitive to changes in the Ran nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution that occurred in HGPS. We propose that defective import of large protein complexes with important roles in nuclear function may contribute to disease-associated phenotypes in Progeria.

  16. A specific variant of the PHR1 binding site is highly enriched in the Arabidopsis phosphate-responsive phospholipase DZ2 coexpression network.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-08-01

    PLDZ2 is a member of the Arabidopsis phospholipase D gene family that is induced in both shoot and root in response to phosphate (Pi) starvation. Recently, through deletion and gain-of-function analyses of the PLDZ2 promoter, we identified a 65 bp region (denominated enhancer EZ2) capable of conferring tissue-specific and low-Pi responses to a minimal inactive promoter. The EZ2 element contains two P1BS motifs, each of which is the binding site for PHR1 and related transcription factors. This structural organization is evolutionarily conserved in orthologous promoters within the rosid clade. To determine whether EZ2 is significantly over-represented in Arabidopsis genes coexpressed with PLDZ2, we constructed a PLDZ2 coexpression network containing 26 genes, almost half of them encoding enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in Pi recycling. A variant of the P1BS motif was found to be highly enriched in the promoter regions of these coexpressed genes, showing an EZ2-like arrangement in seven of them. No other motifs were significantly enriched. The over-representation of the EZ2 arrangement of P1BS motifs in the promoters of genes coexpressed with PLDZ2, suggests this unit has a particularly important role as a regulatory element in a coexpression network involved in the release of Pi from phospholipids and other molecules under Pi-limiting conditions.

  17. A specific variant of the PHR1 binding site is highly enriched in the Arabidopsis phosphate-responsive phospholipase DZ2 coexpression network

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-01-01

    PLDZ2 is a member of the Arabidopsis phospholipase D gene family that is induced in both shoot and root in response to phosphate (Pi) starvation. Recently, through deletion and gain-of-function analyses of the PLDZ2 promoter, we identified a 65 bp region (denominated enhancer EZ2) capable of conferring tissue-specific and low-Pi responses to a minimal inactive promoter. The EZ2 element contains two P1BS motifs, each of which is the binding site for PHR1 and related transcription factors. This structural organization is evolutionarily conserved in orthologous promoters within the rosid clade. To determine whether EZ2 is significantly over-represented in Arabidopsis genes coexpressed with PLDZ2, we constructed a PLDZ2 coexpression network containing 26 genes, almost half of them encoding enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in Pi recycling. A variant of the P1BS motif was found to be highly enriched in the promoter regions of these coexpressed genes, showing an EZ2-like arrangement in seven of them. No other motifs were significantly enriched. The over-representation of the EZ2 arrangement of P1BS motifs in the promoters of genes coexpressed with PLDZ2, suggests this unit has a particularly important role as a regulatory element in a coexpression network involved in the release of Pi from phospholipids and other molecules under Pi-limiting conditions. PMID:22836502

  18. Structure of the putative 32 kDa myrosinase-binding protein from Arabidopsis (At3g16450.1) determined by SAIL-NMR.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Sugimori, Nozomi; Torizawa, Takuya; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Ono, Akira M; Yagi, Hirokazu; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Kato, Koichi; Ikeya, Teppei; Jee, Jungoo; Güntert, Peter; Aceti, David J; Markley, John L; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2008-12-01

    The product of gene At3g16450.1 from Arabidopsis thaliana is a 32 kDa, 299-residue protein classified as resembling a myrosinase-binding protein (MyroBP). MyroBPs are found in plants as part of a complex with the glucosinolate-degrading enzyme myrosinase, and are suspected to play a role in myrosinase-dependent defense against pathogens. Many MyroBPs and MyroBP-related proteins are composed of repeated homologous sequences with unknown structure. We report here the three-dimensional structure of the At3g16450.1 protein from Arabidopsis, which consists of two tandem repeats. Because the size of the protein is larger than that amenable to high-throughput analysis by uniform (13)C/(15)N labeling methods, we used stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) technology to prepare an optimally (2)H/(13)C/(15)N-labeled sample. NMR data sets collected using the SAIL protein enabled us to assign (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts to 95.5% of all atoms, even at a low concentration (0.2 mm) of protein product. We collected additional NOESY data and determined the three-dimensional structure using the cyana software package. The structure, the first for a MyroBP family member, revealed that the At3g16450.1 protein consists of two independent but similar lectin-fold domains, each composed of three beta-sheets.

  19. Arabidopsis AUGMIN Subunit8 Is a Microtubule Plus-End Binding Protein That Promotes Microtubule Reorientation in Hypocotyls[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingyan; Wang, Linhai; Zheng, Min; Cao, Hong; Ding, Lian; Zhang, Xiaolan; Fu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In plant cells, cortical microtubules provide tracks for cellulose-synthesizing enzymes and regulate cell division, growth, and morphogenesis. The role of microtubules in these essential cellular processes depends on the spatial arrangement of the microtubules. Cortical microtubules are reoriented in response to changes in cell growth status and cell shape. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism that underlies the change in microtubule orientation will provide insight into plant cell growth and morphogenesis. This study demonstrated that AUGMIN subunit8 (AUG8) in Arabidopsis thaliana is a novel microtubule plus-end binding protein that participates in the reorientation of microtubules in hypocotyls when cell elongation slows down. AUG8 bound to the plus ends of microtubules and promoted tubulin polymerization in vitro. In vivo, AUG8 was recruited to the microtubule branch site immediately before nascent microtubules branched out. It specifically associated with the plus ends of growing cortical microtubules and regulated microtubule dynamics, which facilitated microtubule reorientation when microtubules changed their growth trajectory or encountered obstacle microtubules during microtubule reorientation. This study thus reveals a novel mechanism underlying microtubule reorientation that is critical for modulating cell elongation in Arabidopsis. PMID:23735294

  20. The Arabidopsis Multistress Regulator TSPO Is a Heme Binding Membrane Protein and a Potential Scavenger of Porphyrins via an Autophagy-Dependent Degradation Mechanism[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vanhee, Celine; Zapotoczny, Grzegorz; Masquelier, Danièle; Ghislain, Michel; Batoko, Henri

    2011-01-01

    TSPO, a stress-induced, posttranslationally regulated, early secretory pathway-localized plant cell membrane protein, belongs to the TspO/MBR family of regulatory proteins, which can bind porphyrins. This work finds that boosting tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enhanced TSPO degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana and that TSPO could bind heme in vitro and in vivo. This binding required the His residue at position 91 (H91), but not that at position 115 (H115). The H91A and double H91A/H115A substitutions stabilized TSPO and rendered the protein insensitive to heme-regulated degradation, suggesting that heme binding regulates At-TSPO degradation. TSPO degradation was inhibited in the autophagy-defective atg5 mutant and was sensitive to inhibitors of type III phosphoinositide 3-kinases, which regulate autophagy in eukaryotic cells. Mutation of the two Tyr residues in a putative ubiquitin-like ATG8 interacting motif of At-TSPO did not affect heme binding in vitro but stabilized the protein in vivo, suggesting that downregulation of At-TSPO requires an active autophagy pathway, in addition to heme. Abscisic acid–dependent TSPO induction was accompanied by an increase in unbound heme levels, and downregulation of TSPO coincided with the return to steady state levels of unbound heme, suggesting that a physiological consequence of active TSPO downregulation may be heme scavenging. In addition, overexpression of TSPO attenuated aminolevulinic acid–induced porphyria in plant cells. Taken together, these data support a role for TSPO in porphyrin binding and scavenging during stress in plants. PMID:21317376

  1. Light stress photodynamics of chlorophyll-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membranes revealed by high-resolution mass spectrometric studies.

    PubMed

    Galetskiy, D N; Lohscheider, J N; Kononikhin, A S; Kharybin, O N; Popov, I A; Adamska, I; Nikolaev, E N

    2011-01-01

    In higher plants the light energy is captured by the photosynthetic pigments that are bound to photosystem I and II and their light-harvesting complex (LHC) subunits. In this study, we examined the photodynamic changes within chlorophyll-protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves adapted to low light and subsequently exposed to light stress. Chlorophyll-protein complexes were isolated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation and blue-native polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Proteome analysis was performed using SDS-PAGE, HPLC and high resolution mass spectrometry. We identified several rarely expressed and stress-induced chlorophyll-binding proteins, showed changes in localization of early light-induced protein family and LHC protein family members between different photosynthetic complexes and assembled/disassembled subcomplexes under light stress conditions and discuss their role in a variety of light stress-related processes.

  2. AtMRP1 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a glutathione S-conjugate pump: isolation and functional definition of a plant ATP-binding cassette transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y P; Li, Z S; Rea, P A

    1997-07-22

    Because plants produce cytotoxic compounds to which they, themselves, are susceptible and are exposed to exogenous toxins (microbial products, allelochemicals, and agrochemicals), cell survival is contingent on mechanisms for detoxifying these agents. One detoxification mechanism is the glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed glutathionation of the toxin, or an activated derivative, and transport of the conjugate out of the cytosol. We show here that a transporter responsible for the removal of glutathione S-conjugates from the cytosol, a specific Mg2+-ATPase, is encoded by the AtMRP1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. The sequence of AtMRP1 and the transport capabilities of membranes prepared from yeast cells transformed with plasmid-borne AtMRP1 demonstrate that this gene encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter competent in the transport of glutathione S-conjugates of xenobiotics and endogenous substances, including herbicides and anthocyanins.

  3. At-ACA8 Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Localized Calcium-ATPase of Arabidopsis with a Calmodulin-Binding Domain at the N Terminus1

    PubMed Central

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Morandini, Piero; Luoni, Laura; Geisler, Markus; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    2000-01-01

    A Ca2+-ATPase was purified from plasma membranes (PM) isolated from Arabidopsis cultured cells by calmodulin (CaM)-affinity chromatography. Three tryptic fragments from the protein were microsequenced and the corresponding cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed from the microsequences of the tryptic fragments. At-ACA8 (Arabidopsis-autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 8, accession no. AJ249352) encodes a 1,074 amino acid protein with 10 putative transmembrane domains, which contains all of the characteristic motifs of Ca2+-transporting P-type Ca2+-ATPases. The identity of At-ACA8p as the PM Ca2+-ATPase was confirmed by immunodetection with an antiserum raised against a sequence (valine-17 through threonine-31) that is not found in other plant CaM-stimulated Ca2+-ATPases. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of protoplasts immunodecorated with the same antiserum confirmed the PM localization of At-ACA8. At-ACA8 is the first plant PM localized Ca2+-ATPase to be cloned and is clearly distinct from animal PM Ca2+-ATPases due to the localization of its CaM-binding domain. CaM overlay assays localized the CaM-binding domain of At-ACA8p to a region of the N terminus of the enzyme around tryptophan-47, in contrast to a C-terminal localization for its animal counterparts. Comparison between the sequence of At-ACA8p and those of endomembrane-localized type IIB Ca2+-ATPases of plants suggests that At-ACA8 is a representative of a new subfamily of plant type IIB Ca2+-ATPases. PMID:10938365

  4. A BAR-Domain Protein SH3P2, Which Binds to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate and ATG8, Regulates Autophagosome Formation in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaohong; Wang, Hao; Lam, Sheung Kwan; Gao, Caiji; Wang, Xiangfeng; Cai, Yi; Jiang, Liwen

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a well-defined catabolic mechanism whereby cytoplasmic materials are engulfed into a structure termed the autophagosome. In plants, little is known about the underlying mechanism of autophagosome formation. In this study, we report that SH3 DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN2 (SH3P2), a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs domain–containing protein, translocates to the phagophore assembly site/preautophagosome structure (PAS) upon autophagy induction and actively participates in the membrane deformation process. Using the SH3P2–green fluorescent protein fusion as a reporter, we found that the PAS develops from a cup-shaped isolation membranes or endoplasmic reticulum–derived omegasome-like structures. Using an inducible RNA interference (RNAi) approach, we show that RNAi knockdown of SH3P2 is developmentally lethal and significantly suppresses autophagosome formation. An in vitro membrane/lipid binding assay demonstrates that SH3P2 is a membrane-associated protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. SH3P2 may facilitate membrane expansion or maturation in coordination with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex during autophagy, as SH3P2 promotes PI3K foci formation, while PI3K inhibitor treatment inhibits SH3P2 from translocating to autophagosomes. Further interaction analysis shows that SH3P2 associates with the PI3K complex and interacts with ATG8s in Arabidopsis thaliana, whereby SH3P2 may mediate autophagy. Thus, our study has identified SH3P2 as a novel regulator of autophagy and provided a conserved model for autophagosome biogenesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:24249832

  5. A New Formulation for Hybrid LES-RANS Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Ideally, a hybrid LES-RANS computation would employ LES only where necessary to make up for the failure of the RANS model to provide sufficient accuracy or to provide time-dependent information. Current approaches are fairly restrictive in the placement of LES and RANS regions; an LES-RANS transition in a boundary layer, for example, yields an unphysical log-layer shift. A hybrid computation is formulated here to allow greater control over the placement of LES and RANS regions and the transitions between them. The concept of model invariance is introduced, which provides a basis for interpreting hybrid results within an LES-RANS transition zone. Consequences of imposing model invariance include the addition of terms to the governing equations that compensate for unphysical gradients created as the model changes between RANS and LES. Computational results illustrate the increased accuracy of the approach and its insensitivity to the location of the transition and to the blending function employed.

  6. RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe; Zhu, Danling; Lin, Xiaoya; Miao, Jin; Gu, Lianfeng; Deng, Xian; Zhu, Danmeng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Dean, Caroline; Aoyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins are involved in various aspects of RNA metabolism, which in turn modulates gene expression. However, the functions of nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we report the functions of two proteins containing RNA recognition motifs, RZ-1B and RZ-1C, in Arabidopsis thaliana. RZ-1B and RZ-1C were localized to nuclear speckles and interacted with a spectrum of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins through their C termini. RZ-1C preferentially bound to purine-rich RNA sequences in vitro through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif. Disrupting the RNA binding activity of RZ-1C with SR proteins through overexpression of the C terminus of RZ-1C conferred defective phenotypes similar to those observed in rz-1b rz-1c double mutants, including delayed seed germination, reduced stature, and serrated leaves. Loss of function of RZ-1B and RZ-1C was accompanied by defective splicing of many genes and global perturbation of gene expression. In addition, we found that RZ-1C directly targeted FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), promoting efficient splicing of FLC introns and likely also repressing FLC transcription. Our findings highlight the critical role of RZ-1B/1C in regulating RNA splicing, gene expression, and many key aspects of plant development via interaction with proteins including SR proteins. PMID:26721863

  7. RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe; Zhu, Danling; Lin, Xiaoya; Miao, Jin; Gu, Lianfeng; Deng, Xian; Yang, Qian; Sun, Kangtai; Zhu, Danmeng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Dean, Caroline; Aoyama, Takashi; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins are involved in various aspects of RNA metabolism, which in turn modulates gene expression. However, the functions of nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we report the functions of two proteins containing RNA recognition motifs, RZ-1B and RZ-1C, in Arabidopsis thaliana. RZ-1B and RZ-1C were localized to nuclear speckles and interacted with a spectrum of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins through their C termini. RZ-1C preferentially bound to purine-rich RNA sequences in vitro through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif. Disrupting the RNA binding activity of RZ-1C with SR proteins through overexpression of the C terminus of RZ-1C conferred defective phenotypes similar to those observed in rz-1b rz-1c double mutants, including delayed seed germination, reduced stature, and serrated leaves. Loss of function of RZ-1B and RZ-1C was accompanied by defective splicing of many genes and global perturbation of gene expression. In addition, we found that RZ-1C directly targeted FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), promoting efficient splicing of FLC introns and likely also repressing FLC transcription. Our findings highlight the critical role of RZ-1B/1C in regulating RNA splicing, gene expression, and many key aspects of plant development via interaction with proteins including SR proteins. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruegger, M.; Dewey, E.; Hobbie, L.; Brown, D.; Bernasconi, P.; Turner, J.; Muday, G.; Estelle, M.

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development.

  9. Catalytically-inactive beta-amylase BAM4 required for starch breakdown in Arabidopsis leaves is a starch-binding-protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Francisco, Perigio; Zhou, Wenxu; Edner, Christoph; Steup, Martin; Ritte, Gerhard; Bond, Charles S; Smith, Steven M

    2009-09-01

    Of the four chloroplast beta-amylase (BAM) proteins identified in Arabidopsis, BAM3 and BAM4 were previously shown to play the major roles in leaf starch breakdown, although BAM4 apparently lacks key active site residues and beta-amylase activity. Here we tested multiple BAM4 proteins with different N-terminal sequences with a range of glucan substrates and assay methods, but detected no alpha-1,4-glucan hydrolase activity. BAM4 did not affect BAM1, BAM2 or BAM3 activity even when added in 10-fold excess, nor the BAM3-catalysed release of maltose from isolated starch granules in the presence of glucan water dikinase. However, BAM4 binds to amylopectin and to amylose-Sepharose whereas BAM2 has very low beta-amylase activity and poor glucan binding. The low activity of BAM2 may be explained by poor glucan binding but absence of BAM4 activity is not. These results suggest that BAM4 facilitates starch breakdown by a mechanism involving direct interaction with starch or other alpha-1,4-glucan.

  10. Arabidopsis ATPase family gene 1-like protein 1 is a calmodulin-binding AAA+-ATPase with a dual localization in chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bussemer, Johanna; Chigri, Fatima; Vothknecht, Ute C

    2009-07-01

    Members of the AAA(+)-ATPase superfamily (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) are found in all kingdoms of life and they are involved in very diverse cellular processes, including protein degradation, membrane fusion or cell division. The Arabidopsis genome encodes approximately 140 different proteins that are putative members of this superfamily, although the exact function of most of these proteins remains unknown. Using affinity chromatography on calmodulin-agarose with chloroplast proteins, we purified a 50 kDa protein encoded by AT4G30490 with similarity to the ATPase family gene 1 protein from yeast. Structural analysis showed that the protein possesses a single AAA-domain characteristic for members of the AAA(+)-ATPase superfamily and that this contains all features specific to proteins of the ATPase family gene 1-like subfamily. In vitro pull-down as well as cross-linking assays corroborate calcium-dependent binding of the protein to calmodulin. The calmodulin binding domain could be located to a region of 20 amino acids within the AAA-domain in close proximity to the Walker A motif. Our analysis further showed that the protein is localized in both mitochondria and chloroplasts, further supporting the incorporation of both endosymbiotic organelles into the calcium-signaling network of the cell. Localization of the same calmodulin-binding protein into mitochondria and chloroplasts could be a means to provide a coordinated regulation of processes in both organelles by calcium signals.

  11. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruegger, M.; Dewey, E.; Hobbie, L.; Brown, D.; Bernasconi, P.; Turner, J.; Muday, G.; Estelle, M.

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development.

  12. Merging RANS & LES approaches in submesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fock, B. H.; Schluenzen, K. H.

    2010-09-01

    Merging LES and RANS simulation is important for extending the application range of mesoscale models to the sub-mesoscale. Hence many traditional mesoscale modeling groups are currently working on adding LES capabilities to their models. To investigate the differences, which occur by switching from RANS to LES approaches, simulations with the METRAS and METRAS-LES (Fock, 2007) are presented. These differences are investigated in terms of effects caused by the choice of the computational grid and the sub-grid scale closures. Simulations of convective boundary layers on two different grids are compared to investigate the influence of vertical grid spacing and extension. One simulation is carried out on a high-resolution vertical homogeneous grid and the other with a vertical stretched grid, which has coarser resolution in higher altitudes. The stretched grid is vertical defined, as it would be done in the standard setup for the mesoscale model. Hence, this investigation shows to what amount the eddy resolving capabilities of a LES model is effected by the transition of the grid to a grid, which is vertically the same as typically used in mesoscale modeling. The differences, which occur by using different approaches for subgrid scale turbulence, are quantified and compared with the effects caused by the computational grid. Additional some details of the used LES SGS closure (Deardorff, 1980) are investigated. These details deal on evaluating the importance of the reduced characteristic filter length scale for stable stratification. But the main focus is on comparing RANS and LES and discussion of combination in a mixed turbulence scheme, which applies a the LES closure in the atmospheric boundary layer and a RANS based turbulence model in the stable atmosphere above. References: Deardorff J. W. (1980): Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model. Boundary-Layer Meteorology. 18. (4). 495-527. DOI:10.1007/BF00119502 Fock B. H. (2007): METRAS

  13. Immunoproteomic and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis of Arabidopsis dehydration response element-binding protein 1A (DREB1A)-transgenic potato.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Rika; Satoh, Rie; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Shimazaki, Takayoshi; Kasuga, Mie; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Kikuchi, Akira; Watanabe, Kazuo N; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    To produce crops that are more tolerant to stresses such as heat, cold, and salt, transgenic plants have been produced those express stress-associated proteins. In this study, we used immunoproteomic and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) methods to investigate the allergenicity of transgenic potatoes expressing Arabidopsis DREB1A (dehydration responsive element-binding protein 1A), driven by the rd29A promoter or the 35S promoter. Immunoproteomic analysis using sera from potato-allergic patients revealed several immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding protein spots. The patterns of protein binding were almost the same between transgenic and non-transgenic potatoes. The IgE-binding proteins in potato were identified as patatin precursors, a segment of serine protease inhibitor 2, and proteinase inhibitor II by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS/MS. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed several differences in protein expression between non-transgenic potato and transgenic potato; those showing increased expression in transgenic potatoes were identified as precursors of patatin, a major potato allergen, and those showing decreased expression in transgenic potatoes were identified as lipoxygenase and glycogen (starch) synthase. These results suggested that transgenic potatoes may express slightly higher levels of allergens, but their IgE-binding patterns were almost the same as those of control potatoes. Further research on changes in protein expressions in response to environmental factors is required to confirm whether the differences observed in this study are due to gene transfection, rather than environmental factors.

  14. Analysis of the DNA-Binding Activities of the Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Family by One-Hybrid Experiments in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Zsolt; Sebastian, Alvaro; Xu, Wenjia; Grain, Damaris; Salsac, Fabien; Avon, Alexandra; Berger, Nathalie; Tran, Joseph; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Lurin, Claire; Lepiniec, Loïc; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Dubos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The control of growth and development of all living organisms is a complex and dynamic process that requires the harmonious expression of numerous genes. Gene expression is mainly controlled by the activity of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins called transcription factors (TFs). Amongst the various classes of eukaryotic TFs, the MYB superfamily is one of the largest and most diverse, and it has considerably expanded in the plant kingdom. R2R3-MYBs have been extensively studied over the last 15 years. However, DNA-binding specificity has been characterized for only a small subset of these proteins. Therefore, one of the remaining challenges is the exhaustive characterization of the DNA-binding specificity of all R2R3-MYB proteins. In this study, we have developed a library of Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB open reading frames, whose DNA-binding activities were assayed in vivo (yeast one-hybrid experiments) with a pool of selected cis-regulatory elements. Altogether 1904 interactions were assayed leading to the discovery of specific patterns of interactions between the various R2R3-MYB subgroups and their DNA target sequences and to the identification of key features that govern these interactions. The present work provides a comprehensive in vivo analysis of R2R3-MYB binding activities that should help in predicting new DNA motifs and identifying new putative target genes for each member of this very large family of TFs. In a broader perspective, the generated data will help to better understand how TF interact with their target DNA sequences. PMID:26484765

  15. Mechanistic Insights from Structural Analyses of Ran-GTPase-Driven Nuclear Export of Proteins and RNAs.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-22

    Understanding how macromolecules are rapidly exchanged between the nucleus and the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes is a fundamental problem in biology. Exportins are Ran-GTPase-dependent nuclear transport factors that belong to the karyopherin-β family and mediate nuclear export of a plethora of proteins and RNAs, except for bulk mRNA nuclear export. Exportins bind cargo macromolecules in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner in the nucleus, forming exportin-cargo-Ran-GTP complexes (nuclear export complexes). Transient weak interactions between exportins and nucleoporins containing characteristic FG (phenylalanine-glycine) repeat motifs facilitate nuclear pore complex passage of nuclear export complexes. In the cytoplasm, nuclear export complexes are disassembled, thereby releasing the cargo. GTP hydrolysis by Ran promoted in the cytoplasm makes the disassembly reaction virtually irreversible and provides thermodynamic driving force for the overall export reaction. In the past decade, X-ray crystallography of some of the exportins in various functional states coupled with functional analyses, single-particle electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and small-angle solution X-ray scattering has provided rich insights into the mechanism of cargo binding and release and also begins to elucidate how exportins interact with the FG repeat motifs. The knowledge gained from structural analyses of nuclear export is being translated into development of clinically useful inhibitors of nuclear export to treat human diseases such as cancer and influenza.

  16. Role of the N-terminal starch-binding domains in the kinetic properties of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Hugo A; Busi, Maria V; Wayllace, Nahuel Z; Parisi, Gustavo; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2008-03-04

    Starch synthase III (SSIII), one of the SS isoforms involved in plant starch synthesis, has been reported to play a regulatory role in the synthesis of transient starch. SSIII from Arabidopsis thaliana contains 1025 amino acid residues and has an N-terminal transit peptide for chloroplast localization which is followed by three repeated starch-binding domains (SBDs; SSIII residues 22-591) and a C-terminal catalytic domain (residues 592-1025) similar to bacterial glycogen synthase. In this work, we constructed recombinant full-length and truncated isoforms of SSIII, lacking one, two, or three SBDs, and recombinant proteins, containing three, two, or one SBD, to investigate the role of these domains in enzyme activity. Results revealed that SSIII uses preferentially ADPGlc, although UDPGlc can also be used as a sugar donor substrate. When ADPGlc was used, the presence of the SBDs confers particular properties to each isoform, increasing the apparent affinity and the V max for the oligosaccharide acceptor substrate. However, no substantial changes in the kinetic parameters for glycogen were observed when UDPGlc was the donor substrate. Under glycogen saturating conditions, the presence of SBDs increases progressively the apparent affinity and V max for ADPGlc but not for UDPGlc. Adsorption assays showed that the N-terminal region of SSIII, containing three, two, or one SBD module have increased capacity to bind starch depending on the number of SBD modules, with the D23 protein (containing the second and third SBD module) being the one that makes the greatest contribution to binding. The results presented here suggest that the N-terminal SBDs have a regulatory role, showing a starch binding capacity and modulating the catalytic properties of SSIII.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus: comparison with Arabidopsis ABC protein family.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2006-10-31

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large family in plants with more than 120 members each in Arabidopsis and rice, and have various functions including the transport of auxin and alkaloid, as well as the regulation of stomata movement. In this report, we carried out genome-wide analysis of ABC protein genes in a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus. For analysis of the Lotus genome sequence, we devised a new method 'domain-based clustering analysis', where domain structures like the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and transmembrane domain (TMD), instead of full-length amino acid sequences, are used to compare phylogenetically each other. This method enabled us to characterize fragments of ABC proteins, which frequently appear in a draft sequence of the Lotus genome. We identified 91 putative ABC proteins in L. japonicus, i.e. 43 'full-size', 40 'half-size' and 18 'soluble' putative ABC proteins. The characteristic feature of the composition is that Lotus has extraordinarily many paralogs similar to AtMRP14 and AtPDR12, which are at least six and five members, respectively. Expression analysis of the latter genes performed with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed their putative involvement in the nodulation process.

  18. A mutation in the Arabidopsis HYL1 gene encoding a dsRNA binding protein affects responses to abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C.; Fedoroff, N.

    2000-01-01

    Both physiological and genetic evidence indicate interconnections among plant responses to different hormones. We describe a pleiotropic recessive Arabidopsis transposon insertion mutation, designated hyponastic leaves (hyl1), that alters the plant's responses to several hormones. The mutant is characterized by shorter stature, delayed flowering, leaf hyponasty, reduced fertility, decreased rate of root growth, and an altered root gravitropic response. It also exhibits less sensitivity to auxin and cytokinin and hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid normalizes the mutant phenotype somewhat, whereas another auxin transport inhibitor, N-(1-naph-thyl)phthalamic acid, exacerbates the phenotype. The gene, designated HYL1, encodes a 419-amino acid protein that contains two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding motifs, a nuclear localization motif, and a C-terminal repeat structure suggestive of a protein-protein interaction domain. We present evidence that the HYL1 gene is ABA-regulated and encodes a nuclear dsRNA binding protein. We hypothesize that the HYL1 protein is a regulatory protein functioning at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level.

  19. A mutation in the Arabidopsis HYL1 gene encoding a dsRNA binding protein affects responses to abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C.; Fedoroff, N.

    2000-01-01

    Both physiological and genetic evidence indicate interconnections among plant responses to different hormones. We describe a pleiotropic recessive Arabidopsis transposon insertion mutation, designated hyponastic leaves (hyl1), that alters the plant's responses to several hormones. The mutant is characterized by shorter stature, delayed flowering, leaf hyponasty, reduced fertility, decreased rate of root growth, and an altered root gravitropic response. It also exhibits less sensitivity to auxin and cytokinin and hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid normalizes the mutant phenotype somewhat, whereas another auxin transport inhibitor, N-(1-naph-thyl)phthalamic acid, exacerbates the phenotype. The gene, designated HYL1, encodes a 419-amino acid protein that contains two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding motifs, a nuclear localization motif, and a C-terminal repeat structure suggestive of a protein-protein interaction domain. We present evidence that the HYL1 gene is ABA-regulated and encodes a nuclear dsRNA binding protein. We hypothesize that the HYL1 protein is a regulatory protein functioning at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level.

  20. Structural Insights into the Nucleotide-Binding Domains of the P1B-type ATPases HMA6 and HMA8 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Mayerhofer, Hubert; Sautron, Emeline; Rolland, Norbert; Catty, Patrice; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Ravaud, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Copper is a crucial ion in cells, but needs to be closely controlled due to its toxic potential and ability to catalyse the formation of radicals. In chloroplasts, an important step for the proper functioning of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain is the delivery of copper to plastocyanin in the thylakoid lumen. The main route for copper transport to the thylakoid lumen is driven by two PIB-type ATPases, Heavy Metal ATPase 6 (HMA6) and HMA8, located in the inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope and in the thylakoid membrane, respectively. Here, the crystal structures of the nucleotide binding domain of HMA6 and HMA8 from Arabidopsis thaliana are reported at 1.5Å and 1.75Å resolution, respectively, providing the first structural information on plants Cu+-ATPases. The structures reveal a compact domain, with two short helices on both sides of a twisted beta-sheet. A double mutant, aiding in the crystallization, provides a new crystal contact, but also avoids an internal clash highlighting the benefits of construct modifications. Finally, the histidine in the HP motif of the isolated domains, unable to bind ATP, shows a side chain conformation distinct from nucleotide bound structures. PMID:27802305

  1. Structural Insights into the Nucleotide-Binding Domains of the P1B-type ATPases HMA6 and HMA8 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Hubert; Sautron, Emeline; Rolland, Norbert; Catty, Patrice; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Ravaud, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Copper is a crucial ion in cells, but needs to be closely controlled due to its toxic potential and ability to catalyse the formation of radicals. In chloroplasts, an important step for the proper functioning of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain is the delivery of copper to plastocyanin in the thylakoid lumen. The main route for copper transport to the thylakoid lumen is driven by two PIB-type ATPases, Heavy Metal ATPase 6 (HMA6) and HMA8, located in the inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope and in the thylakoid membrane, respectively. Here, the crystal structures of the nucleotide binding domain of HMA6 and HMA8 from Arabidopsis thaliana are reported at 1.5Å and 1.75Å resolution, respectively, providing the first structural information on plants Cu+-ATPases. The structures reveal a compact domain, with two short helices on both sides of a twisted beta-sheet. A double mutant, aiding in the crystallization, provides a new crystal contact, but also avoids an internal clash highlighting the benefits of construct modifications. Finally, the histidine in the HP motif of the isolated domains, unable to bind ATP, shows a side chain conformation distinct from nucleotide bound structures.

  2. FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER Negatively Regulates Ethylene Response DNA-Binding Factors by Activating an Ethylene-Responsive Factor to Control Arabidopsis Floral Organ Senescence and Abscission1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Fang; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    In this study of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we investigated the relationship between FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) and Ethylene Response DNA-binding Factors (EDFs) and functionally analyzed a key FYF target, an Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF), that controls flower senescence/abscission. Ectopic expression of EDF1/2/3/4 caused promotion of flower senescence/abscission and the activation of the senescence-associated genes. The presence of a repressor domain in EDFs and the enhancement of the promotion of senescence/abscission in EDF1/2/3/4+SRDX (converting EDFs to strong repressors by fusion with the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motif repression domain SRDX) transgenic plants suggested that EDFs act as repressors. The significant reduction of β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression by 35S:FYF in EDF1/2/3/4:GUS plants indicates that EDF1/2/3/4 functions downstream of FYF in regulating flower senescence/abscission. In this study, we also characterized an ERF gene, FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER UP-REGULATING FACTOR1 (FUF1), which is up-regulated by FYF during flower development. Ectopic expression of FUF1 caused similar delayed flower senescence/abscission as seen in 35S:FYF plants. This phenotype was correlated with deficient abscission zone formation, ethylene insensitivity, and down-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 and abscission-associated genes in 35S:FUF1 flowers. In contrast, significant promotion of flower senescence/abscission and up-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 were observed in 35S:FUF1+SRDX transgenic dominant-negative plants, in which FUF1 is converted to a potent repressor by fusion to an SRDX-suppressing motif. Thus, FUF1 acts as an activator in suppressing EDF1/2/3/4 function and senescence/abscission of the flowers. Our results reveal that FYF regulates flower senescence/abscission by negatively regulating EDF1/2/3/4, which is the downstream gene in the ethylene response, by activating FUF1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:26063506

  3. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Juan; Yu, Lu-Jun; Chen, Qin-Fang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Huang, Li; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are encoded by a family of six genes (ACBP1 to ACBP6), and are essential for diverse cellular activities. Recent investigations suggest that the membrane-anchored ACBPs are involved in oxygen sensing by sequestration of group VII ethylene-responsive factors under normoxia. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of Arabidopsis ACBP3 in hypoxic tolerance. ACBP3 transcription was remarkably induced following submergence under both dark (DS) and light (LS) conditions. ACBP3-overexpressors (ACBP3-OEs) showed hypersensitivity to DS, LS and ethanolic stresses, with reduced transcription of hypoxia-responsive genes as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the rosettes. In contrast, suppression of ACBP3 in ACBP3-KOs enhanced plant tolerance to DS, LS and ethanol treatments. By analyses of double combinations of OE-1 with npr1-5, coi1-2, ein3-1 as well as ctr1-1 mutants, we observed that the attenuated hypoxic tolerance in ACBP3-OEs was dependent on NPR1- and CTR1-mediated signaling pathways. Lipid profiling revealed that both the total amounts and very-long-chain species of phosphatidylserine (C42:2- and C42:3-PS) and glucosylinositolphosphorylceramides (C22:0-, C22:1-, C24:0-, C24:1-, and C26:1-GIPC) were significantly lower in ACBP3-OEs but increased in ACBP3-KOs upon LS exposure. By microscale thermophoresis analysis, the recombinant ACBP3 protein bound VLC acyl-CoA esters with high affinities in vitro. Further, a knockout mutant of MYB30, a master regulator of very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis, exhibited enhanced sensitivities to LS and ethanolic stresses, phenotypes that were ameliorated by ACBP3-RNAi. Taken together, these findings suggest that Arabidopsis ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating VLCFA metabolism. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER Negatively Regulates Ethylene Response DNA-Binding Factors by Activating an Ethylene-Responsive Factor to Control Arabidopsis Floral Organ Senescence and Abscission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Han; Li, Pei-Fang; Chen, Ming-Kun; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    In this study of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we investigated the relationship between FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) and Ethylene Response DNA-binding Factors (EDFs) and functionally analyzed a key FYF target, an Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF), that controls flower senescence/abscission. Ectopic expression of EDF1/2/3/4 caused promotion of flower senescence/abscission and the activation of the senescence-associated genes. The presence of a repressor domain in EDFs and the enhancement of the promotion of senescence/abscission in EDF1/2/3/4+SRDX (converting EDFs to strong repressors by fusion with the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motif repression domain SRDX) transgenic plants suggested that EDFs act as repressors. The significant reduction of β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression by 35S:FYF in EDF1/2/3/4:GUS plants indicates that EDF1/2/3/4 functions downstream of FYF in regulating flower senescence/abscission. In this study, we also characterized an ERF gene, FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER UP-REGULATING FACTOR1 (FUF1), which is up-regulated by FYF during flower development. Ectopic expression of FUF1 caused similar delayed flower senescence/abscission as seen in 35S:FYF plants. This phenotype was correlated with deficient abscission zone formation, ethylene insensitivity, and down-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 and abscission-associated genes in 35S:FUF1 flowers. In contrast, significant promotion of flower senescence/abscission and up-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 were observed in 35S:FUF1+SRDX transgenic dominant-negative plants, in which FUF1 is converted to a potent repressor by fusion to an SRDX-suppressing motif. Thus, FUF1 acts as an activator in suppressing EDF1/2/3/4 function and senescence/abscission of the flowers. Our results reveal that FYF regulates flower senescence/abscission by negatively regulating EDF1/2/3/4, which is the downstream gene in the ethylene response, by activating FUF1 in Arabidopsis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights

  5. Overexpression of a Hevea brasiliensis ErbB-3 Binding protein 1 Gene Increases Drought Tolerance and Organ Size in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Han; Chen, Xiang; Zhu, Jianshun; Huang, Huasun

    2016-01-01

    Rubber trees are economically important tropical tree species and the major source of natural rubber, which is an essential industrial material. This tropical perennial tree is susceptible to cold stress and other abiotic stresses, especially in the marginal northern tropics. Recent years, the genome sequencing and RNA-seq projects produced huge amount of sequence data, which greatly facilitated the functional genomics study. However, the characterization of individual functional gene is in urgent demands, especially for those involved in stress resistance. Here we identified and characterized the rubber tree gene ErbB-3 binding protein 1, which undergoes changes in expression in response to cold, drought stress and ABA treatment. HbEBP1 overexpression (OE) in Arabidopsis increased organ size, facilitated root growth and increased adult leaf number by delaying the vegetative-to-reproductive transition. In addition, HbEBP1 OE enhanced the resistance of the Arabidopsis plants to freezing and drought stress, demonstrating that this gene participates in the regulation of abiotic stress resistance. RD29a, RD22 and CYCD3;1 expression was also greatly enhanced by HbEBP1 OE, which explains its regulatory roles in organ size and stress resistance. The regulation of drought stress resistance is a novel function identified in plant EBP1 genes, which expands our understanding of the roles of EBP1 gene in response to the environment. Our results provide information that may lead to the use of HbEBP1 in genetically engineered crops to increase both biomass and abiotic stress resistance. PMID:27895658

  6. Cassava C-repeat binding factor 1 gene responds to low temperature and enhances cold tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis and cassava.

    PubMed

    An, Dong; Ma, Qiuxiang; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Wenzhi; Zhang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    Cassava MeCBF1 is a typical CBF transcription factor mediating cold responses but its low expression in apical buds along with a retarded response cause inefficient upregulation of downstream cold-related genes, rendering cassava chilling-sensitive. Low temperature is a major abiotic stress factor affecting survival, productivity and geographic distribution of important crops worldwide. The C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB) are important regulators of abiotic stress response in plants. In this study, MeCBF1, a CBF-like gene, was identified in the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The MeCBF1 encodes a protein that shares strong homology with DREB1As/CBFs from Arabidopsis as well as other species. The MeCBF1 was localized to the nucleus and is mainly expressed in stem and mature leaves, but not in apical buds or stem cambium. MeCBF1 expression was not only highly responsive to cold, but also significantly induced by salt, PEG and ABA treatment. Several stress-associated cis-elements were found in its promoter region, e.g., ABRE-related, MYC recognition sites, and MYB responsive element. Compared with AtCBF1, the MeCBF1 expression induced by cold in cassava was retarded and upregulated only after 4 h, which was also confirmed by its promoter activity. Overexpression of MeCBF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis and cassava plants conferred enhanced crytolerance. The CBF regulon was smaller and not entirely co-regulated with MeCBF1 expression in overexpressed cassava. The retarded MeCBF1 expression in response to cold and attenuated CBF-regulon might lead cassava to chilling sensitivity.

  7. Arabidopsis Putative Selenium-Binding Protein1 Expression Is Tightly Linked to Cellular Sulfur Demand and Can Reduce Sensitivity to Stresses Requiring Glutathione for Tolerance1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hugouvieux, Véronique; Dutilleul, Christelle; Jourdain, Agnès; Reynaud, Florie; Lopez, Véronique; Bourguignon, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Selenium-Binding Protein1 (SBP1) gene expression was studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings challenged with several stresses, including cadmium (Cd), selenium {selenate [Se(VI)] and selenite [Se(IV)]}, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using transgenic lines expressing the luciferase (LUC) reporter gene under the control of the SBP1 promoter. In roots and shoots of SBP1∷LUC lines, LUC activity increased in response to Cd, Se(VI), Cu, and H2O2 but not in response to Se(IV) or Zn. The pattern of expression of SBP1 was similar to that of PRH43, which encodes the 5′-Adenylylphosphosulfate Reductase2, a marker for the induction of the sulfur assimilation pathway, suggesting that an enhanced sulfur demand triggers SBP1 up-regulation. Correlated to these results, SBP1 promoter showed enhanced activity in response to sulfur starvation. The sulfur starvation induction of SBP1 was abolished by feeding the plants with glutathione (GSH) and was enhanced when seedlings were treated simultaneously with buthionine sulfoxide, which inhibits GSH synthesis, indicating that GSH level participates in the regulation of SBP1 expression. Changes in total GSH level were observed in seedlings challenged with Cd, Se(VI), and H2O2. Accordingly, cad2-1 seedlings, affected in GSH synthesis, were more sensitive than wild-type plants to these three stresses. Moreover, wild-type and cad2-1 seedlings overexpressing SBP1 showed a significant enhanced tolerance to Se(VI) and H2O2 in addition to the previously described resistance to Cd, highlighting that SBP1 expression decreases sensitivity to stress requiring GSH for tolerance. These results are discussed with regard to the potential regulation and function of SBP1 in plants. PMID:19710230

  8. Heterology Expression of the Arabidopsis C-Repeat/Dehydration Response Element Binding Factor 1 Gene Confers Elevated Tolerance to Chilling and Oxidative Stresses in Transgenic Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tsai-Hung; Lee, Jent-Turn; Yang, Pei-Tzu; Chiu, Li-Hui; Charng, Yee-yung; Wang, Yu-Chie; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants, an expression vector containing an Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration responsive element binding factor 1 (CBF1) cDNA driven by a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was transferred into tomato plants. Transgenic expression of CBF1 was proved by northern- and western-blot analyses. The degree of chilling tolerance of transgenic T1 and T2 plants was found to be significantly greater than that of wild-type tomato plants as measured by survival rate, chlorophyll fluorescence value, and radical elongation. The transgenic tomato plants exhibited patterns of growth retardation; however, they resumed normal growth after GA3 (gibberellic acid) treatment. More importantly, GA3-treated transgenic plants still exhibited a greater degree of chilling tolerance compared with wild-type plants. Subtractive hybridization was performed to isolate the responsive genes of heterologous Arabidopsis CBF1 in transgenic tomato plants. CATALASE1 (CAT1) was obtained and showed activation in transgenic tomato plants. The CAT1 gene and catalase activity were also highly induced in the transgenic tomato plants. The level of H2O2 in the transgenic plants was lower than that in the wild-type plants under either normal or cold conditions. The transgenic plants also exhibited considerable tolerance against oxidative damage induced by methyl viologen. Results from the current study suggest that heterologous CBF1 expression in transgenic tomato plants may induce several oxidative-stress responsive genes to protect from chilling stress. PMID:12114563

  9. VrDREB2A, a DREB-binding transcription factor from Vigna radiata, increased drought and high-salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Liu, Liping; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2016-03-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is commonly grown in Asia as an important nutritional dry grain legume, as it can survive better in arid conditions than other crops. Abiotic stresses, such as drought and high-salt contents, negatively impact its growth and production. The dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2 (DREB2) transcription factors play a significant role in the response to these stress stimuli via transcriptional regulation of downstream genes containing the cis-element dehydration-responsive element (DRE). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of this species remain elusive, with very few reported candidate genes. No DREB2 ortholog has been reported for mung bean, and the function of mung bean DREB2 is not clear. In this study, a novel VrDREB2A gene with conserved AP2 domains and transactivation ability was isolated from mung bean. A modified VrDREB2A protein lacking the putative negative regulatory domain encoded by nucleotides 394-543 was shown to be localized in the nucleus. Expression of the VrDREB2A gene was induced by drought, high salt concentrations and abscisic acid treatment. Furthermore, comparing with the wild type Arabidopsis, the overexpression of VrDREB2A activated the expression of downstream genes in transgenic Arabidopsis, resulting in enhanced tolerance to drought and high-salt stresses and no growth retardation. The results from this study indicate that VrDREB2A functions as an important transcriptional activator and may help increase the abiotic stress tolerance of the mung bean plant.

  10. Overexpression of a Hevea brasiliensis ErbB-3 Binding protein 1 Gene Increases Drought Tolerance and Organ Size in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han; Chen, Xiang; Zhu, Jianshun; Huang, Huasun

    2016-01-01

    Rubber trees are economically important tropical tree species and the major source of natural rubber, which is an essential industrial material. This tropical perennial tree is susceptible to cold stress and other abiotic stresses, especially in the marginal northern tropics. Recent years, the genome sequencing and RNA-seq projects produced huge amount of sequence data, which greatly facilitated the functional genomics study. However, the characterization of individual functional gene is in urgent demands, especially for those involved in stress resistance. Here we identified and characterized the rubber tree gene ErbB-3 binding protein 1, which undergoes changes in expression in response to cold, drought stress and ABA treatment. HbEBP1 overexpression (OE) in Arabidopsis increased organ size, facilitated root growth and increased adult leaf number by delaying the vegetative-to-reproductive transition. In addition, HbEBP1 OE enhanced the resistance of the Arabidopsis plants to freezing and drought stress, demonstrating that this gene participates in the regulation of abiotic stress resistance. RD29a, RD22 and CYCD3;1 expression was also greatly enhanced by HbEBP1 OE, which explains its regulatory roles in organ size and stress resistance. The regulation of drought stress resistance is a novel function identified in plant EBP1 genes, which expands our understanding of the roles of EBP1 gene in response to the environment. Our results provide information that may lead to the use of HbEBP1 in genetically engineered crops to increase both biomass and abiotic stress resistance.

  11. Localization of the Microtubule End Binding Protein EB1 Reveals Alternative Pathways of Spindle Development in Arabidopsis Suspension CellsW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jordi; Calder, Grant; Fox, Samantha; Lloyd, Clive

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study on Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells transiently infected with the microtubule end binding protein AtEB1a–green fluorescent protein (GFP), we reported that interphase microtubules grow from multiple sites dispersed over the cortex, with plus ends forming the characteristic comet-like pattern. In this study, AtEB1a-GFP was used to study the transitions of microtubule arrays throughout the division cycle of cells lacking a defined centrosome. During division, the dispersed origin of microtubules was replaced by a more focused pattern with the plus end comets growing away from sites associated with the nuclear periphery. The mitotic spindle then evolved in two quite distinct ways depending on the presence or absence of the preprophase band (PPB): the cells displaying outside-in as well as inside-out mitotic pathways. In those cells possessing a PPB, the fusion protein labeled material at the nuclear periphery that segregated into two polar caps, perpendicular to the PPB, before nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). These polar caps then marked the spindle poles upon NEBD. However, in the population of cells without PPBs, there was no prepolarization of material at the nuclear envelope before NEBD, and the bipolar spindle only emerged clearly after NEBD. Such cells had variable spindle orientations and enhanced phragmoplast mobility, suggesting that the PPB is involved in a polarization event that promotes early spindle pole morphogenesis and subsequent positional stability during division. Astral-like microtubules are not usually prominent in plant cells, but they are clearly seen in these Arabidopsis cells, and we hypothesize that they may be involved in orienting the division plane, particularly where the plane is not determined before division. PMID:15879559

  12. A C-repeat binding factor transcriptional activator (CBF/DREB1) from European bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) induces freezing tolerance when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Oakenfull, Rachael J; Baxter, Robert; Knight, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Freezing stress affects all plants from temperate zones to the poles. Global climate change means such freezing events are becoming less predictable. This in turn reduces the ability of plants to predict the approaching low temperatures and cold acclimate. This has consequences for crop yields and distribution of wild plant species. C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) are transcription factors previously shown to play a vital role in the acclimation process of Arabidopsis thaliana, controlling the expression of hundreds of genes whose products are necessary for freezing tolerance. Work in other plant species cements CBFs as key determinants in the trait of freezing tolerance in higher plants. To test the function of CBFs from highly freezing tolerant plants species we cloned and sequenced CBF transcription factors from three Vaccinium species (Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) which we collected in the Arctic. We tested the activity of CBF transcription factors from the three Vaccinium species by producing transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing them. Only the Vaccinium myrtillus CBF was able to substantially activate COR (CBF-target) gene expression in the absence of cold. Correspondingly, only the lines expressing the Vaccinium myrtillus CBF were constitutively freezing tolerant. The basis for the differences in potency of the three Vaccinium CBFs was tested by observing cellular localisation and protein levels. All three CBFs were correctly targeted to the nucleus, but Vaccinium uliginosum CBF appeared to be relatively unstable. The reasons for lack of potency for Vaccinium vitis-idaea CBF were not due to stability or targeting, and we speculate that this was due to altered transcription factor function.

  13. Spatial and temporal coordination of mitosis by Ran GTPase.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paul R; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2008-06-01

    The small nuclear GTPase Ran controls the directionality of macromolecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Ran also has important roles during mitosis, when the nucleus is dramatically reorganized to allow chromosome segregation. Ran directs the assembly of the mitotic spindle, nuclear-envelope dynamics and the timing of cell-cycle transitions. The mechanisms that underlie these functions provide insights into the spatial and temporal coordination of the changes that occur in intracellular organization during the cell-division cycle.

  14. RanBPM is essential for mouse spermatogenesis and oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Puverel, Sandrine; Barrick, Colleen; Dolci, Susanna; Coppola, Vincenzo; Tessarollo, Lino

    2011-01-01

    RanBPM is a recently identified scaffold protein that links and modulates interactions between cell surface receptors and their intracellular signaling pathways. RanBPM has been shown to interact with a variety of functionally unrelated proteins; however, its function remains unclear. Here, we show that RanBPM is essential for normal gonad development as both male and female RanBPM−/− mice are sterile. In the mutant testis there was a marked decrease in spermatogonia proliferation during postnatal development. Strikingly, the first wave of spermatogenesis was totally compromised, as seminiferous tubules of homozygous mutant animals were devoid of post-meiotic germ cells. We determined that spermatogenesis was arrested around the late pachytene-diplotene stages of prophase I; surprisingly, without any obvious defect in chromosome synapsis. Interestingly, RanBPM deletion led to a remarkably quick disappearance of all germ cell types at around one month of age, suggesting that spermatogonia stem cells are also affected by the mutation. Moreover, in chimeric mice generated with RanBPM−/− embryonic stem cells all mutant germ cells disappeared by 3 weeks of age suggesting that RanBPM is acting in a cell-autonomous way in germ cells. RanBPM homozygous mutant females displayed a premature ovarian failure due to a depletion of the germ cell pool at the end of prophase I, as in males. Taken together, our results highlight a crucial role for RanBPM in mammalian gametogenesis in both genders. PMID:21561988

  15. A DNA-binding-site landscape and regulatory network analysis for NAC transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lindemose, Søren; Jensen, Michael K.; de Velde, Jan Van; O'Shea, Charlotte; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Workman, Christopher T.; Vandepoele, Klaas; Skriver, Karen; Masi, Federico De

    2014-01-01

    Target gene identification for transcription factors is a prerequisite for the systems wide understanding of organismal behaviour. NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors are amongst the largest transcription factor families in plants, yet limited data exist from unbiased approaches to resolve the DNA-binding preferences of individual members. Here, we present a TF-target gene identification workflow based on the integration of novel protein binding microarray data with gene expression and multi-species promoter sequence conservation to identify the DNA-binding specificities and the gene regulatory networks of 12 NAC transcription factors. Our data offer specific single-base resolution fingerprints for most TFs studied and indicate that NAC DNA-binding specificities might be predicted from their DNA-binding domain's sequence. The developed methodology, including the application of complementary functional genomics filters, makes it possible to translate, for each TF, protein binding microarray data into a set of high-quality target genes. With this approach, we confirm NAC target genes reported from independent in vivo analyses. We emphasize that candidate target gene sets together with the workflow associated with functional modules offer a strong resource to unravel the regulatory potential of NAC genes and that this workflow could be used to study other families of transcription factors. PMID:24914054

  16. The nuclear import of the constitutive androstane receptor by importin/Ran-GTP systems.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Miyazaki, Yukari; Inouye, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The CAR is normally located in the cytoplasmic compartment of untreated liver cells and translocates to the nucleus after exposure to phenobarbital (PB) or PB-like chemicals. Previously, we identified two nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the rat constitutive androstane/active receptor (CAR), NLS1, which is located in the hinge region, and NLS2, which overlaps with the ligand-binding domain. However, the nuclear import mechanism of CAR is unclear. In this study, we show that nuclear import of CAR is regulated by importin/Ran-GTP systems. The regulation of CAR nuclear import by a Ran-GTP concentration gradient was confirmed using the dominant negative, GTPase-deficient form of Ran (RanQ69L), suggesting the involvement of transport receptors of the importinbeta family. IPO13 was shown to be involved in the PB-mediated nuclear translocation of CAR, which was found to be susceptible to inhibition by a dominant negative mutant of IPO13 in primary hepatocytes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mel-18 interacts with RanGAP1 and inhibits its sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sarge, Kevin D

    2008-10-17

    Our previous results showed that the polycomb protein mel-18 binds to a protein called HSF2 and inhibits HSF2 sumoylation, thereby functioning as an anti-SUMO E3 factor. This study also suggested that mel-18 regulates the sumoylation of other cellular proteins, but the identities of these other proteins were unknown. Here we show that mel-18 interacts with the RanGAP1 protein and inhibits its sumoylation, and that these activities do not require the RING domain of mel-18. The results also show that RanGAP1 sumoylation is decreased during mitosis, and that this is associated with increased interaction between RanGAP1 and mel-18 during this stage of the cell cycle. Intriguingly, this regulatory relationship is the opposite of that found for mel-18 and HSF2, in which the interaction between these two proteins decreases during mitosis, resulting in elevated HSF2 sumoylation. The results of this study strengthen the conclusion that mel-18 functions as an anti-SUMO E3 factor, and extend its targets to include regulation of the sumoylation of the important cellular protein RanGAP1.

  18. Biophysical analysis of Arabidopsis protein-only RNase P alone and in complex with tRNA provides a refined model of tRNA binding.

    PubMed

    Pinker, Franziska; Schelcher, Cédric; Fernandez-Millan, Pablo; Gobert, Anthony; Birck, Catherine; Thureau, Aurélien; Roblin, Pierre; Giegé, Philippe; Sauter, Claude

    2017-08-25

    RNase P is a universal enzyme that removes 5' leader sequences from tRNA precursors. The enzyme is therefore essential for maturation of functional tRNAs and mRNA translation. RNase P represents a unique example of an enzyme that can occur either as ribonucleoprotein or as protein alone. The latter form of the enzyme, called protein-only RNase P (PRORP), is widespread in eukaryotes in which it can provide organellar or nuclear RNase P activities. Here, we have focused on Arabidopsis nuclear PRORP2 and its interaction with tRNA substrates. Affinity measurements helped assess the respective importance of individual pentatricopeptide repeat motifs in PRORP2 for RNA binding. We characterized the PRORP2 structure by X-ray crystallography and by small-angle X-ray scattering in solution as well as that of its complex with a tRNA precursor by small-angle X-ray scattering. Of note, our study reports the first structural data of a PRORP-tRNA complex. Combined with complementary biochemical and biophysical analyses, our structural data suggest that PRORP2 undergoes conformational changes to accommodate its substrate. In particular, the catalytic domain and the RNA-binding domain can move around a central hinge. Altogether, this work provides a refined model of the PRORP-tRNA complex that illustrates how protein-only RNase P enzymes specifically bind tRNA and highlights the contribution of protein dynamics to achieve this specific interaction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. COPS5 (Jab1) protein increases β site processing of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid β peptide generation by stabilizing RanBP9 protein levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjie; Dey, Debleena; Carrera, Ivan; Minond, Dmitriy; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Xu, Shaohua; Lakshmana, Madepalli K

    2013-09-13

    Increased processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the brain is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the identification of molecules that regulate Aβ generation is crucial for future therapeutic approaches for AD. We demonstrated previously that RanBP9 regulates Aβ generation in a number of cell lines and primary neuronal cultures by forming tripartite protein complexes with APP, low-density lipoprotein-related protein, and BACE1, consequently leading to increased amyloid plaque burden in the brain. RanBP9 is a scaffold protein that exists and functions in multiprotein complexes. To identify other proteins that may bind RanBP9 and regulate Aβ levels, we used a two-hybrid analysis against a human brain cDNA library and identified COPS5 as a novel RanBP9-interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells and mouse brain. Colocalization of COPS5 and RanBP9 in the same subcellular compartments further supported the interaction of both proteins. Furthermore, like RanBP9, COPS5 robustly increased Aβ generation, followed by increased soluble APP-β (sAPP-β) and decreased soluble-APP-α (sAPP-α) levels. Most importantly, down-regulation of COPS5 by siRNAs reduced Aβ generation, implying that endogenous COPS5 regulates Aβ generation. Finally, COPS5 levels were increased significantly in AD brains and APΔE9 transgenic mice, and overexpression of COPS5 strongly increased RanBP9 protein levels by increasing its half-life. Taken together, these results suggest that COPS5 increases Aβ generation by increasing RanBP9 levels. Thus, COPS5 is a novel RanBP9-binding protein that increases APP processing and Aβ generation by stabilizing RanBP9 protein levels.

  20. Overexpression of a LAM domain containing RNA-binding protein LARP1c induces precocious leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bangyue; Jia, Jianheng; Yang, Min; Yan, Chunxia; Han, Yuzhen

    2012-10-01

    Leaf senescence is the final stage of leaf life history, and it can be regulated by multiple internal and external cues. La-related proteins (LARPs), which contain a well-conserved La motif (LAM) domain and normally a canonical RNA recognition motif (RRM) or noncanonical RRM-like motif, are widely present in eukaryotes. Six LARP genes (LARP1a-1c and LARP6a-6c) are present in Arabidopsis, but their biological functions have not been studied previously. In this study, we investigated the biological roles of LARP1c from the LARP1 family. Constitutive or inducible overexpression of LARP1c caused premature leaf senescence. Expression levels of several senescence-associated genes and defense-related genes were elevated upon overexpression of LARP1c. The LARP1c null mutant 1c-1 impaired ABA-, SA-, and MeJA-induced leaf senescence in detached leaves. Gene expression profiles of LARP1c showed age-dependent expression in rosette leaves. Taken together, our results suggest LARP1c is involved in regulation of leaf senescence.

  1. Overexpression of a LAM Domain Containing RNA-Binding Protein LARP1c Induces Precocious Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bangyue; Jia, Jianheng; Yang, Min; Yan, Chunxia; Han, Yuzhen

    2012-01-01

    Leaf senescence is the final stage of leaf life history, and it can be regulated by multiple internal and external cues. La-related proteins (LARPs), which contain a well-conserved La motif (LAM) domain and normally a canonical RNA recognition motif (RRM) or noncanonical RRM-like motif, are widely present in eukaryotes. Six LARP genes (LARP1a-1c and LARP6a-6c) are present in Arabidopsis, but their biological functions have not been studied previously. In this study, we investigated the biological roles of LARP1c from the LARP1 family. Constitutive or inducible overexpression of LARP1c caused premature leaf senescence. Expression levels of several senescence-associated genes and defense-related genes were elevated upon overexpression of LARP1c. The LARP1c null mutant 1c-1 impaired ABA-, SA-, and MeJA-induced leaf senescence in detached leaves. Gene expression profiles of LARP1c showed age-dependent expression in rosette leaves. Taken together, our results suggest LARP1c is involved in regulation of leaf senescence. PMID:22965746

  2. The lysin motif receptor-like kinase (LysM-RLK) CERK1 is a major chitin-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and subject to chitin-induced phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Petutschnig, Elena K; Jones, Alexandra M E; Serazetdinova, Liliya; Lipka, Ulrike; Lipka, Volker

    2010-09-10

    Plants detect potential pathogens by sensing microbe-associated molecular patterns via pattern recognition receptors. In the dicot model plant Arabidopsis, the lysin motif (LysM)-containing chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 (CERK1) has been shown to be essential for perception of the fungal cell wall component chitin and for resistance to fungal pathogens. Recent in vitro studies with CERK1 protein expressed heterologously in yeast suggested direct chitin binding activity. Here we show in an affinity purification approach that CERK1 is a major chitin-binding protein of Arabidopsis cells, along with several known and putative chitinases. The ectodomain of CERK1 harbors three distinct LysM domains with potential ligand binding capacity. We demonstrate that the CERK1 ectodomain binds chitin and partially deacetylated chitosan directly without any requirement for interacting proteins and that all three LysM domains are necessary for chitin binding. Ligand-induced phosphorylation events are a general feature of animal and plant signal transduction pathways. Our studies show that chitin, chitin oligomers, and chitosan rapidly induce in vivo phosphorylation of CERK1 at multiple residues in the juxtamembrane and kinase domain. Functional analyses with a kinase dead variant provide evidence that kinase activity of CERK1 is required for its chitin-dependent in vivo phosphorylation, as well as for early defense responses and downstream signaling. Collectively, our data suggest that in Arabidopsis, CERK1 is a major chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligomer binding component and that chitin signaling depends on CERK1 post-translational modification and kinase activity.

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana CBF1 encodes an AP2 domain-containing transcriptional activator that binds to the C-repeat/DRE, a cis-acting DNA regulatory element that stimulates transcription in response to low temperature and water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Stockinger, Eric J.; Gilmour, Sarah J.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    1997-01-01

    Recent efforts have defined a cis-acting DNA regulatory element in plants, the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (DRE), that stimulates transcription in response to low temperature and water deficit. Here we report the isolation of an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA that encodes a C-repeat/DRE binding factor, CBF1 (C-repeat/DRE Binding Factor 1). Analysis of the deduced CBF1 amino acid sequence indicates that the protein has a molecular mass of 24 kDa, a potential nuclear localization sequence, and a possible acidic activation domain. CBF1 also has an AP2 domain, which is a DNA-binding motif of about 60 aa present in the Arabidopsis proteins APETALA2, AINTEGUMENTA, and TINY; the tobacco ethylene response element binding proteins; and numerous other plant proteins of unknown function. The transcript levels for CBF1, which appears to be a single or low copy number gene, did not change appreciably in plants exposed to low temperature or in detached leaves subjected to water deficit. Binding of CBF1 to the C-repeat/DRE was demonstrated in gel shift assays using recombinant CBF1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Moreover, expression of CBF1 in yeast was found to activate transcription of reporter genes containing the C-repeat/DRE as an upstream activator sequence but not mutant versions of the DNA element. We conclude that CBF1 can function as a transcriptional activator that binds to the C-repeat/DRE DNA regulatory element and, thus, is likely to have a role in cold- and dehydration-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:9023378

  4. The Anatomy of the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contrast three models of the RAN-reading relationship derived from the most prominent theoretical accounts of how RAN is related to reading: the phonological processing, the orthographic processing and the speed of processing accounts. Grade 4 Greek-speaking children (n = 208; 114 girls, 94 boys; mean…

  5. RAN Backward: A Test of the Visual Scanning Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is strongly correlated with reading fluency. A substantial part of this correlation is ascribed to the serial nature of the task. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the left-to-right and downward scanning direction of reading and RAN may partially underlie their relationship. 107 Grade 6 Greek children were…

  6. RAN Backward: A Test of the Visual Scanning Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is strongly correlated with reading fluency. A substantial part of this correlation is ascribed to the serial nature of the task. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the left-to-right and downward scanning direction of reading and RAN may partially underlie their relationship. 107 Grade 6 Greek children were…

  7. The Anatomy of the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contrast three models of the RAN-reading relationship derived from the most prominent theoretical accounts of how RAN is related to reading: the phonological processing, the orthographic processing and the speed of processing accounts. Grade 4 Greek-speaking children (n = 208; 114 girls, 94 boys; mean…

  8. Genes encoding glycine-rich Arabidopsis thaliana proteins with RNA-binding motifs are influenced by cold treatment and an endogenous circadian rhythm.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, C D; Kreps, J A; Simon, A E

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized the expression of two members of a class of Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich, putative RNA-binding proteins that we denote Ccr1 and Ccr2. Southern blot analysis indicates that Ccr1 and Ccr2 are members of a small gene family. Both Ccr1 and Ccr2 mRNA levels were influenced by a circadian rhythm that has an unusual phase for plants, with maximal accumulation at 6:00 PM and minimal accumulation at 10:00 AM. The level of CCR1 protein, however, remained relatively constant throughout the cycle. The transcript accumulation patterns of the Ccr1 and Ccr2 genes differed considerably from conditions that affect the expression of similar genes from maize, sorghum, and carrot. Levels of Ccr1 and Ccr2 mRNAs were unchanged in wounded plants, increased at least 4-fold in cold-stressed plants, and decreased 2- to 3-fold in abscisic acid-treated plants. Ccr1 transcript levels decreased in response to drought, whereas Ccr2 transcript levels increased under the same conditions. Based on the presence of additional Ccr transcripts in dark-grown plants, we propose that Ccr transcripts may be subjected to a light- or dark-mediated regulation. PMID:7513083

  9. SlDREB2, a tomato dehydration-responsive element-binding 2 transcription factor, mediates salt stress tolerance in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Clippe, André; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    To counter environmental cues, cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has evolved adaptive mechanisms requiring regulation of downstream genes. The dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2 (DREB2) transcription factors regulate abiotic stresses responses in plants. Herein, we isolated a novel DREB2-type regulator involved in salinity response, named SlDREB2. Spatio-temporal expression profile together with investigation of its promoter activity indicated that SlDREB2 is expressed during early stages of seedling establishment and in various vegetative and reproductive organs of adult plants. SlDREB2 is up-regulated in roots and young leaves following exposure to NaCl, but is also induced by KCl and drought. Its overexpression in WT Arabidopsis and atdreb2a mutants improved seed germination and plant growth in presence of different osmotica. In tomato, SlDREB2 affected vegetative and reproductive organs development and the intronic sequence present in the 5' UTR drives its expression. Physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic analyses showed that SlDREB2 enhanced plant tolerance to salinity by improvement of K(+) /Na(+) ratio, and proline and polyamines biosynthesis. Exogenous hormonal treatments (abscisic acid, auxin and cytokinins) and analysis of WT and 35S::SlDREB2 tomatoes hormonal contents highlighted SlDREB2 involvement in abscisic acid biosynthesis/signalling. Altogether, our results provide an overview of SlDREB2 mode of action during early salt stress response. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Arabidopsis PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE8/ABCG36 ATP binding cassette transporter modulates sensitivity to the auxin precursor indole-3-butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Strader, Lucia C; Bartel, Bonnie

    2009-07-01

    Plants have developed numerous mechanisms to store hormones in inactive but readily available states, enabling rapid responses to environmental changes. The phytohormone auxin has a number of storage precursors, including indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which is apparently shortened to active indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in peroxisomes by a process similar to fatty acid beta-oxidation. Whereas metabolism of auxin precursors is beginning to be understood, the biological significance of the various precursors is virtually unknown. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant that specifically restores IBA, but not IAA, responsiveness to auxin signaling mutants. This mutant is defective in PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE8 (PDR8)/PENETRATION3/ABCG36, a plasma membrane-localized ATP binding cassette transporter that has established roles in pathogen responses and cadmium transport. We found that pdr8 mutants display defects in efflux of the auxin precursor IBA and developmental defects in root hair and cotyledon expansion that reveal previously unknown roles for IBA-derived IAA in plant growth and development. Our results are consistent with the possibility that limiting accumulation of the IAA precursor IBA via PDR8-promoted efflux contributes to auxin homeostasis.

  11. The Arabidopsis pxa1 Mutant Is Defective in an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter-Like Protein Required for Peroxisomal Fatty Acid β-Oxidation1

    PubMed Central

    Zolman, Bethany K.; Silva, Illeana D.; Bartel, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisomes are important organelles in plant metabolism, containing all the enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. More than 20 proteins are required for peroxisomal biogenesis and maintenance. The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant, originally isolated because it is resistant to the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), developmentally arrests when germinated without supplemental sucrose, suggesting defects in fatty acid β-oxidation. Because IBA is converted to the more abundant auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a mechanism that parallels β-oxidation, the mutant is likely to be IBA resistant because it cannot convert IBA to IAA. Adult pxa1 plants grow slowly compared with wild type, with smaller rosettes, fewer leaves, and shorter inflorescence stems, indicating that PXA1 is important throughout development. We identified the molecular defect in pxa1 using a map-based positional approach. PXA1 encodes a predicted peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter that is 42% identical to the human adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) protein, which is defective in patients with the demyelinating disorder X-linked ALD. Homology to ALD protein and other human and yeast peroxisomal transporters suggests that PXA1 imports coenzyme A esters of fatty acids and IBA into the peroxisome for β-oxidation. The pxa1 mutant makes fewer lateral roots than wild type, both in response to IBA and without exogenous hormones, suggesting that the IAA derived from IBA during seedling development promotes lateral root formation. PMID:11706205

  12. TOM9.2 Is a Calmodulin-Binding Protein Critical for TOM Complex Assembly but Not for Mitochondrial Protein Import in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Nargis; Carrie, Chris; Pabst, Isabelle; Läßer, Antonia; Laha, Debabrata; Paul, Melanie V; Geigenberger, Peter; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten; Vothknecht, Ute C; Chigri, Fatima

    2017-04-03

    The translocon on the outer membrane of mitochondria (TOM) facilitates the import of nuclear-encoded proteins. The principal machinery of mitochondrial protein transport seems conserved in eukaryotes; however, divergence in the composition and structure of TOM components has been observed between mammals, yeast, and plants. TOM9, the plant homolog of yeast Tom22, is significantly smaller due to a truncation in the cytosolic receptor domain, and its precise function is not understood. Here we provide evidence showing that TOM9.2 from Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the formation of mature TOM complex, most likely by influencing the assembly of the pore-forming subunit TOM40. Dexamethasone-induced RNAi gene silencing of TOM9.2 results in a severe reduction in the mature TOM complex, and the assembly of newly imported TOM40 into the complex is impaired. Nevertheless, mutant plants are fully viable and no obvious downstream effects of the loss of TOM complex, i.e., on mitochondrial import capacity, were observed. Furthermore, we found that TOM9.2 can bind calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and that CaM impairs the assembly of TOM complex in the isolated wild-type mitochondria, suggesting a regulatory role of TOM9.2 and a possible integration of TOM assembly into the cellular calcium signaling network. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein Homologs from Arabidopsis Are Key Regulators of Alternative Splicing with Implications in Fundamental Developmental Processes[W

    PubMed Central

    Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5′ splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid–dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

  14. Conditional Repression of AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 Reveals That It Coordinates Cell Division and Cell Expansion during Postembryonic Shoot Development in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Nils; Wyrzykowska, Joanna; Muller, Philippe; David, Karine; Couch, Daniel; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) has long been characterized as a potentially important mediator of auxin action in plants. Analysis of the functional requirement for ABP1 during development was hampered because of embryo lethality of the null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we used conditional repression of ABP1 to investigate its function during vegetative shoot development. Using an inducible cellular immunization approach and an inducible antisense construct, we showed that decreased ABP1 activity leads to a severe retardation of leaf growth involving an alteration in cell division frequency, an altered pattern of endocycle induction, a decrease in cell expansion, and a change in expression of early auxin responsive genes. In addition, local repression of ABP1 activity in the shoot apical meristem revealed an additional role for ABP1 in cell plate formation and cell shape. Moreover, cells at the site of presumptive leaf initiation were more sensitive to ABP1 repression than other regions of the meristem. This spatial context-dependent response of the meristem to ABP1 inactivation and the other data presented here are consistent with a model in which ABP1 acts as a coordinator of cell division and expansion, with local auxin levels influencing ABP1 effectiveness. PMID:18952781

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding protein AtPH1 controls the localization of the metal transporter NRAMP1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Agorio, Astrid; Giraudat, Jérôme; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Marion, Jessica; Espagne, Christelle; Castaings, Loren; Lelièvre, Françoise; Curie, Catherine; Thomine, Sébastien; Merlot, Sylvain

    2017-04-03

    "Too much of a good thing" perfectly describes the dilemma that living organisms face with metals. The tight control of metal homeostasis in cells depends on the trafficking of metal transporters between membranes of different compartments. However, the mechanisms regulating the location of transport proteins are still largely unknown. Developing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings require the natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP3 and NRAMP4) transporters to remobilize iron from seed vacuolar stores and thereby acquire photosynthetic competence. Here, we report that mutations in the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing protein AtPH1 rescue the iron-deficient phenotype of nramp3nramp4 Our results indicate that AtPH1 binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) in vivo and acts in the late endosome compartment. We further show that loss of AtPH1 function leads to the mislocalization of the metal uptake transporter NRAMP1 to the vacuole, providing a rationale for the reversion of nramp3nramp4 phenotypes. This work identifies a PH domain protein as a regulator of plant metal transporter localization, providing evidence that PH domain proteins may be effectors of PI3P for protein sorting.

  16. A Member of the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE Family of ATP Binding Cassette Transporters Is Required for the Formation of a Functional Cuticle in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Bessire, Michael; Borel, Sandra; Fabre, Guillaume; Carraça, Luis; Efremova, Nadia; Yephremov, Alexander; Cao, Yan; Jetter, Reinhard; Jacquat, Anne-Claude; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Nawrath, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Although the multilayered structure of the plant cuticle was discovered many years ago, the molecular basis of its formation and the functional relevance of the layers are not understood. Here, we present the permeable cuticle1 (pec1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which displays features associated with a highly permeable cuticle in several organs. In pec1 flowers, typical cutin monomers, such as ω-hydroxylated fatty acids and 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate, are reduced to 40% of wild-type levels and are accompanied by the appearance of lipidic inclusions within the epidermal cell. The cuticular layer of the cell wall, rather than the cuticle proper, is structurally altered in pec1 petals. Therefore, a significant role for the formation of the diffusion barrier in petals can be attributed to this layer. Thus, pec1 defines a new class of mutants. The phenotypes of the pec1 mutant are caused by the knockout of ATP BINDING CASSETTEG32 (ABCG32), an ABC transporter from the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE family that is localized at the plasma membrane of epidermal cells in a polar manner toward the surface of the organs. Our results suggest that ABCG32 is involved in the formation of the cuticular layer of the cell wall, most likely by exporting particular cutin precursors from the epidermal cell. PMID:21628525

  17. Redundant ERF-VII Transcription Factors Bind to an Evolutionarily Conserved cis-Motif to Regulate Hypoxia-Responsive Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gasch, Philipp; Fundinger, Moritz; Müller, Jana T.; Lee, Travis; Mustroph, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The response of Arabidopsis thaliana to low-oxygen stress (hypoxia), such as during shoot submergence or root waterlogging, includes increasing the levels of ∼50 hypoxia-responsive gene transcripts, many of which encode enzymes associated with anaerobic metabolism. Upregulation of over half of these mRNAs involves stabilization of five group VII ethylene response factor (ERF-VII) transcription factors, which are routinely degraded via the N-end rule pathway of proteolysis in an oxygen- and nitric oxide-dependent manner. Despite their importance, neither the quantitative contribution of individual ERF-VIIs nor the cis-regulatory elements they govern are well understood. Here, using single- and double-null mutants, the constitutively synthesized ERF-VIIs RELATED TO APETALA2.2 (RAP2.2) and RAP2.12 are shown to act redundantly as principle activators of hypoxia-responsive genes; constitutively expressed RAP2.3 contributes to this redundancy, whereas the hypoxia-induced HYPOXIA RESPONSIVE ERF1 (HRE1) and HRE2 play minor roles. An evolutionarily conserved 12-bp cis-regulatory motif that binds to and is sufficient for activation by RAP2.2 and RAP2.12 is identified through a comparative phylogenetic motif search, promoter dissection, yeast one-hybrid assays, and chromatin immunopurification. This motif, designated the hypoxia-responsive promoter element, is enriched in promoters of hypoxia-responsive genes in multiple species. PMID:26668304

  18. The Role of Arabidopsis ABCG9 and ABCG31 ATP Binding Cassette Transporters in Pollen Fitness and the Deposition of Steryl Glycosides on the Pollen Coat[W

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunju; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Kim, Yu-Young; Jin, Jun-Young; Lee, Saet Buyl; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Muranaka, Toshiya; Suh, Mi Chung; Fujioka, Shozo; Lee, Youngsook

    2014-01-01

    The pollen coat protects pollen grains from harmful environmental stresses such as drought and cold. Many compounds in the pollen coat are synthesized in the tapetum. However, the pathway by which they are transferred to the pollen surface remains obscure. We found that two Arabidopsis thaliana ATP binding cassette transporters, ABCG9 and ABCG31, were highly expressed in the tapetum and are involved in pollen coat deposition. Upon exposure to dry air, many abcg9 abcg31 pollen grains shriveled up and collapsed, and this phenotype was restored by complementation with ABCG9pro:GFP:ABCG9. GFP-tagged ABCG9 or ABCG31 localized to the plasma membrane. Electron microscopy revealed that the mutant pollen coat resembled the immature coat of the wild type, which contained many electron-lucent structures. Steryl glycosides were reduced to about half of wild-type levels in the abcg9 abcg31 pollen, but no differences in free sterols or steryl esters were observed. A mutant deficient in steryl glycoside biosynthesis, ugt80A2 ugt80B1, exhibited a similar phenotype. Together, these results indicate that steryl glycosides are critical for pollen fitness, by supporting pollen coat maturation, and that ABCG9 and ABCG31 contribute to the accumulation of this sterol on the surface of pollen. PMID:24474628

  19. A member of the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE family of ATP binding cassette transporters is required for the formation of a functional cuticle in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bessire, Michael; Borel, Sandra; Fabre, Guillaume; Carraça, Luis; Efremova, Nadia; Yephremov, Alexander; Cao, Yan; Jetter, Reinhard; Jacquat, Anne-Claude; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Nawrath, Christiane

    2011-05-01

    Although the multilayered structure of the plant cuticle was discovered many years ago, the molecular basis of its formation and the functional relevance of the layers are not understood. Here, we present the permeable cuticle1 (pec1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which displays features associated with a highly permeable cuticle in several organs. In pec1 flowers, typical cutin monomers, such as ω-hydroxylated fatty acids and 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate, are reduced to 40% of wild-type levels and are accompanied by the appearance of lipidic inclusions within the epidermal cell. The cuticular layer of the cell wall, rather than the cuticle proper, is structurally altered in pec1 petals. Therefore, a significant role for the formation of the diffusion barrier in petals can be attributed to this layer. Thus, pec1 defines a new class of mutants. The phenotypes of the pec1 mutant are caused by the knockout of ATP BINDING CASSETTEG32 (ABCG32), an ABC transporter from the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE family that is localized at the plasma membrane of epidermal cells in a polar manner toward the surface of the organs. Our results suggest that ABCG32 is involved in the formation of the cuticular layer of the cell wall, most likely by exporting particular cutin precursors from the epidermal cell.

  20. Comparative genetics of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat resistance gene homologues in the genomes of two dicotyledons: tomato and arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Q; Liu, Y S; Budai-Hadrian, O; Sela, M; Carmel-Goren, L; Zamir, D; Fluhr, R

    2000-01-01

    The presence of a single resistance (R) gene allele can determine plant disease resistance. The protein products of such genes may act as receptors that specifically interact with pathogen-derived factors. Most functionally defined R-genes are of the nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) supergene family and are present as large multigene families. The specificity of R-gene interactions together with the robustness of plant-pathogen interactions raises the question of their gene number and diversity in the genome. Genomic sequences from tomato showing significant homology to genes conferring race-specific resistance to pathogens were identified by systematically "scanning" the genome using a variety of primer pairs based on ubiquitous NBS motifs. Over 70 sequences were isolated and 10% are putative pseudogenes. Mapping of the amplified sequences on the tomato genetic map revealed their organization as mixed clusters of R-gene homologues that showed in many cases linkage to genetically characterized tomato resistance loci. Interspecific examination within Lycopersicon showed the existence of a null allele. Consideration of the tomato and potato comparative genetic maps unveiled conserved syntenic positions of R-gene homologues. Phylogenetic clustering of R-gene homologues within tomato and other Solanaceae family members was observed but not with R-gene homologues from Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data indicate remarkably rapid evolution of R-gene homologues during diversification of plant families. PMID:10790405

  1. Two homologous ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, AtMDR1 and AtPGP1, regulate Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis and root development by mediating polar auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rongcheng; Wang, Haiyang

    2005-06-01

    Light and auxin control many aspects of plant growth and development in an overlapping manner. We report here functional characterization of two closely related ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter genes, AtMDR1 and AtPGP1, in light and auxin responses. We showed that loss-of-function atmdr1 and atpgp1 mutants display hypersensitivity to far-red, red, and blue-light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, reduced chlorophyll and anthocyanin accumulation, and abnormal expression of several light-responsive genes, including CAB3, RBCS, CHS, and PORA, under both darkness and far-red light conditions. In addition, we showed that the atmdr1-100 and atmdr1-100/atpgp1-100 mutants are defective in multiple aspects of root development, including increased root-growth sensitivity to 1-naphthalene acetic acid (1-NAA), and decreased sensitivity to naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Consistent with the proposed role of AtMDR1 in basipetal auxin transport, we found that expression of the auxin responsive DR5::GUS reporter gene in the central elongation zone is significantly reduced in the atmdr1-100 mutant roots treated with 1-NAA at the root tips, compared to similarly treated wild-type plants. Moreover, atmdr1-100, atpgp1-100, and their double mutants produced fewer lateral roots, in the presence or absence of 1-NAA or NPA. The atmdr1-100 and atmdr1-100/atpgp1-100 mutants also displayed enhanced root gravitropism. Genetic-epistasis analysis revealed that mutations in phyA largely suppress the randomized-hypocotyl growth and the short-hypocotyl phenotype of the atmdr1-100 mutants under far-red light, suggesting that phyA acts downstream of AtMDR1. Together, our results suggest that AtMDR1 and AtPGP1 regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) photomorphogenesis and multiple aspects of root development by mediating polar auxin transport.

  2. Proteomics Identification of Nuclear Ran GTPase as an Inhibitor of Human VRK1 and VRK2 (Vaccinia-related Kinase) Activities*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-García, Marta; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Lazo, Pedro A.

    2008-01-01

    Human vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) 1 is a novel serine-threonine kinase that regulates several transcription factors, nuclear envelope assembly, and chromatin condensation and is also required for cell cycle progression. The regulation of this kinase family is unknown. Mass spectrometry has permitted the identification of Ran as an interacting and regulatory protein of the VRK serine-threonine kinase activities. The stable interaction has been validated by pulldown of endogenous proteins as well as by reciprocal immunoprecipitations. The three members of the VRK family stably interact with Ran, and the interaction was not affected by the bound nucleotide, GDP or GTP. The interaction was stronger with the RanT24N that is locked in its inactive conformation and cannot bind nucleotides. None of the kinases phosphorylated Ran or RCC1. VRK1 does not directly interact with RCC1, but if Ran is present they can be isolated as a complex. The main effect of the interaction of inactive RanGDP with VRK1 is the inhibition of its kinase activity, which was detected by a reduction in VRK1 autophosphorylation and a reduction in phosphorylation of histone H3 in residues Thr-3 and Ser-10. The kinase activity inhibition can be relieved by the interaction with the constitutively active RanGTP or RanL43E, which locks Ran in its GTP-bound active conformation. In this complex, the interaction with VRK proteins does not alter the effect of its guanine exchange factor, RCC1. Ran is a novel negative regulator of nuclear VRK1 and VRK2 kinase activity, which may vary in different subcellular localizations generating an asymmetric intracellular distribution of kinase activity depending on local protein interactions. PMID:18617507

  3. Arabidopsis Sigma Factor Binding Proteins Are Activators of the WRKY33 Transcription Factor in Plant Defense[W

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhibing; Li, Ying; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Yuan; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2011-01-01

    Necrotrophic pathogens are important plant pathogens that cause many devastating plant diseases. Despite their impact, our understanding of the plant defense response to necrotrophic pathogens is limited. The WRKY33 transcription factor is important for plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens; therefore, elucidation of its functions will enhance our understanding of plant immunity to necrotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the identification of two WRKY33-interacting proteins, nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2, which also interact with plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase SIGMA FACTOR1. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain an N-terminal chloroplast targeting signal and a putative nuclear localization signal, suggesting that they are dual targeted. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation indicates that WRKY33 interacts with SIBs in the nucleus of plant cells. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain a short VQ motif that is important for interaction with WRKY33. The two VQ motif–containing proteins recognize the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulate the DNA binding activity of WRKY33. Like WRKY33, both SIB1 and SIB2 are rapidly and strongly induced by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to B. cinerea is compromised in the sib1 and sib2 mutants but enhanced in SIB1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that dual-targeted SIB1 and SIB2 function as activators of WRKY33 in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:21990940

  4. DNA-binding protein phosphatase AtDBP1 acts as a promoter of flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Hong; Ning, Wenfeng; Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Xingzheng; Lü, Shixiang; Xia, Zhengjun

    2016-03-01

    We provide evidence that AtDBP1 promotes flowering by regulating the transcript levels of several important integrators and floral meristem identity genes, including FLC, CO, SOC1, LFY, FT and FD. DNA-binding protein phosphatases (DBP) which exhibit both sequence specific DNA-binding and protein phosphatase 2C activities are important regulators that are involved in both the transcriptional and post-translational regulations. DBP factors are known to mediate susceptibility to potyviruses; however, whether they are involved in other processes is still unclear. In this study, under both long day (LD) and short day conditions, AtDBP1 overexpressing plants displayed early flowering, while the knock out mutants, atdbp1, exhibited a delay in flowering relative to the wild-type plants; both the overexpressing lines and atdbp1 mutants remained photoperiodic sensitive, indicating that AtDBP1 was involved in the autonomous pathway. AtDBP1 does not respond to vernalization at transcript level, and both AtDBP1 overexpressing plants and atdbp1 mutants remain responsive to vernalization, indicating that AtDBP1 may not be directly involved in vernalization. Real-time PCR analysis showed that AtDBP1 can suppress FLOWERING LOCUC C (FLC) expression, a key integrator of the autonomous and vernalization pathways, and enhance the expression levels of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUC T, key regulators of the LD pathway. Furthermore, expression of floral meristem identity genes including SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1, LEAFY and FD was also promoted in AtDBP1 overexpressing plants. AtDBP1 transcription can be detected in root, leaf, stem, flower and silique. AtDBP1-GFP and YFP-AtDBP1 fusion protein were localized in the cytosol and nucleus. Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effective role of AtDBP1 for flowering time regulation and report a novel function of DBP factors in planta besides in plant defense.

  5. Class II members of the poly(A) binding protein family exhibit distinct functions during Arabidopsis growth and development.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs and contributes to their stability and translational efficiency. In plants, PABP is expressed from an unusually large gene family grouped into 3 classes that expanded during the evolution of land plants. Subsequent to expansion of the family, members diverged in their primary sequence and in expression. Further expansion of the family and divergence of its members in the Brassicaceae demonstrate the continued dynamic evolution of PABP in plants. In this study, the function of the widely-expressed class II PABP family members was examined to determine how individual class II members contribute to plant growth and development. Of the 3 class II PABP members, PAB2 and PAB4 contribute most to vegetative growth and vegetative-to-floral transition whereas PAB2, and the recently-evolved third class II member, PAB8, contribute to inflorescence and silique growth. Interestingly, although class I and class III PABP members are expressed specifically in reproductive organs, class II PABP members are also necessary for fertility in that the combinatorial loss of PAB2 and either PAB4 or PAB8 expression resulted in reduced fertility. Although all 3 class II members are required for protein expression, PAB4 contributes most to the steady-state level of a reporter mRNA and to protein expression. These findings suggest that class II PABP members are partially overlapping in function but also involved in distinct aspects of plant growth and development.

  6. AtMRP2, an Arabidopsis ATP binding cassette transporter able to transport glutathione S-conjugates and chlorophyll catabolites: functional comparisons with Atmrp1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y P; Li, Z S; Drozdowicz, Y M; Hortensteiner, S; Martinoia, E; Rea, P A

    1998-01-01

    Three ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter-like activities directed toward large amphipathic organic anions have recently been identified on the vacuolar membrane of plant cells. These are the Mg-ATP-energized, vanadate-inhibitable vacuolar accumulation of glutathione S-conjugates (GS conjugates), chlorophyll catabolites, and bile acids, respectively. Although each of these activities previously had been assigned to distinct pumps in native plant membranes, we describe here the molecular cloning, physical mapping, and heterologous expression of a gene, AtMRP2, from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a multispecific ABC transporter competent in the transport of both GS conjugates and chlorophyll catabolites. Unlike its isoform, AtMRP1, which transports the model Brassica napus chlorophyll catabolite transporter substrate Bn-NCC-1 at low efficiency, heterologously expressed AtMRP2 has the facility for simultaneous high-efficiency parallel transport of GS conjugates and Bn-NCC-1. The properties of AtMRP2 therefore establish a basis for the manipulation of two previously identified plant ABC transporter activities and provide an explanation for how the comparable transporter in native plant membranes would be systematically mistaken for two distinct transporters. These findings are discussed with respect to the functional organization of AtMRP2, the inability of AtMRP2 and AtMRP1 to transport the model bile acid transporter substrate taurocholate (despite the pronounced sensitivity of both to direct inhibition by this agent), the differential patterns of expression of their genes in the intact plant, and the high capacity of AtMRP2 for the transport of glutathionated herbicides and anthocyanins. PMID:9490749

  7. Double-stranded RNA-binding protein DRB3 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis by modulating PAP1 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Hikaru; Matsuzaki, Takuma; Usui, Tomoyuki; Tabara, Midori; Fukudome, Akihito; Kanaya, Akihiro; Tanoue, Daichi; Hiraguri, Akihiro; Horiguchi, Gorou; Ohtani, Misato; Demura, Taku; Kozaki, Toshinori; Ishii, Kazuo; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has five double-stranded RNA-binding proteins (DRB1-DRB5), two of which, DRB1 and DRB4, are well characterized. In contrast, the functions of DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we tried to uncover their functions using drb mutants and DRB-over-expressed lines. In over-expressed lines of all five DRB genes, the over-expression of DRB2 or DRB3 (DRB2ox or DRB3ox) conferred a downward-curled leaf phenotype, but the expression profiles of ten small RNAs were similar to that of the wild-type (WT) plant. Phenotypes were examined in response to abiotic stresses. Both DRB2ox and DRB3ox plants exhibited salt-tolerance. When these plants were exposed to cold stress, drb2 and drb3 over-accumulated anthocyanin but DRB2ox and DRB3ox did not. Therefore, the over-expression of DRB2 or DRB3 had pleiotropic effects on host plants. Microarray and deep-sequencing analyses indicated that several genes encoding key enzymes for anthocyanin biosynthesis, including chalcone synthase (CHS), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), were down-regulated in DRB3ox plants. When DRB3ox was crossed with the pap1-D line, which is an activation-tagged transgenic line that over-expresses the key transcription factor PAP1 (Production of anthocyanin pigmentation1) for anthocyanin biosynthesis, over-expression of DRB3 suppressed the expression of PAP1, CHS, DFR and ANS genes. DRB3 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis by modulating the level of PAP1 transcript. Since two different small RNAs regulate PAP1 gene expression, a possible function of DRB3 for small RNA biogenesis is discussed.

  8. ARA24/Ran enhances the androgen-dependent NH{sub 2}- and COOH-terminal interaction of the androgen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Naoki; Ohmori, Yuji; Yamaji, Ryoichi Higashimura, Yasuki; Okamoto, Kazuki; Isohashi, Fumihide; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi

    2008-08-29

    The androgen receptor (AR) acts as an androgen-dependent transcription factor controlling the development of prostate tissue. Upon binding to androgen, AR undergoes a dynamic structural change leading to interaction between the NH{sub 2}- and COOH-terminal regions of AR (N-C interaction). ARA24/Ran, which is a small GTPase, functions as an AR coactivator. Here, we report that ARA24/Ran enhances the N-C interaction of AR. The constitutively GTP- or GDP-bound form of ARA24/Ran repressed the AR N-C interaction. ARA24/Ran did not enhance the transcriptional activities of AR mutants that disrupt the N-C interaction. ARA24/Ran formed an endogenous protein complex with nuclear AR, but not cytoplasmic AR. Unlike SRC-1 with the positive activity for AR N-C interaction, ARA24/Ran did not enhance the transcriptional activity of the COOH-terminal domain-deleted AR mutant that is constitutively localized in the nucleus. These data demonstrate that ARA24/Ran increases AR transactivation by enhancing the AR N-C interaction in the nucleus.

  9. RANS Calculations of the Flow Past Inclined Propellers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Defence R&D Canada – Atlantic DEFENCE DÉFENSE & RANS calculations of the flow past inclined propellers Paul-Edouard Leras ENSIETA, Brest, France...développement pour la défense Canada This page intentionally left blank. RANS calculations of the flow past inclined propellers Paul-Edouard Leras ...Original signed by David Hally David Hally Approved by Original signed by D. Hopkin D. Hopkin Head/Maritime Asset Protection Approved for release by C

  10. Coupling Turbulence in Hybrid LES-RANS Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A formulation is proposed for hybrid LES-RANS computations that permits accurate computations during resolution changes, so that resolution may be changed at will in order to employ only as much resolution in each subdomain as is required by the physics. The two components of this formulation, establishing the accuracy of a hybrid model at constant resolutions throughout the RANS-to-LES range and maintaining that accuracy when resolution is varied, are demonstrated for decaying, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence.

  11. Arabidopsis seed germination speed is controlled by SNL histone deacetylase-binding factor-mediated regulation of AUX1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Fengying; Li, Xiaoying; Cao, Hong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Cun; Zuo, Jinghong; Xu, Chaonan; Xu, Jimei; Deng, Xin; Xiang, Yong; Soppe, Wim J. J.; Liu, Yongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is known to affect the speed of seed germination, but the molecular regulatory basis of this remains ambiguous. Here we report that loss of function of two histone deacetylase-binding factors, SWI-INDEPENDENT3 (SIN3)-LIKE1 (SNL1) and SNL2, results in accelerated radicle protrusion and growth during seed germination. AUXIN RESISTANT 1 (AUX1) is identified as a key factor in this process, enhancing germination speed downstream of SNL1 and SNL2. AUX1 expression and histone H3 acetylation at lysines 9 and 18 is regulated by SNL1 and SNL2. The D-type cyclins encoding genes CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 display increased expression in AUX1 over-expression lines and the snl1snl2 double mutant. Accordingly, knockout of CYCD4;1 reduces seed germination speed of AUX1 over-expression lines and snl1snl2 suggesting the importance of cell cycling for radicle protrusion during seed germination. Together, our work identifies AUX1 as a link between histone acetylation mediated by SNL1 and SNL2, and radicle growth promoted by CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 during seed germination. PMID:27834370

  12. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Beta Protects Nuclear Envelope Integrity by Controlling RCC1 Localization and Ran Activity

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Muñoz, Javier; Pérez-García, Vicente; Rodríguez, María J.; Valpuesta, José M.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) forms a barrier between the nucleus and the cytosol that preserves genomic integrity. The nuclear lamina and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are NE components that regulate nuclear events through interaction with other proteins and DNA. Defects in the nuclear lamina are associated with the development of laminopathies. As cells depleted of phosphoinositide 3-kinase beta (PI3Kβ) showed an aberrant nuclear morphology, we studied the contribution of PI3Kβ to maintenance of NE integrity. pik3cb depletion reduced the nuclear membrane tension, triggered formation of areas of lipid bilayer/lamina discontinuity, and impaired NPC assembly. We show that one mechanism for PI3Kβ regulation of NE/NPC integrity is its association with RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation 1), the activator of nuclear Ran GTPase. PI3Kβ controls RCC1 binding to chromatin and, in turn, Ran activation. These findings suggest that PI3Kβ regulates the nuclear envelope through upstream regulation of RCC1 and Ran. PMID:25348717

  13. Numerical Study of Flow Past a Circular Cylinder Using RANS, Hybrid RANS/LES and PANS Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Massey, Steven J.; Pao, S. Paul

    2004-01-01

    Two multiscale type turbulence models are implemented in the PAB3D solver. The models are based on modifying the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The first scheme is a hybrid RANS/LES model utilizing the two-equation (k(sub epsilon)) model with a RANS/LES transition function dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model, where the unresolved kinetic energy parameter (f(sub k)) is allowed to vary as a function of grid spacing and the turbulence length scale. Solutions from these models are compared to RANS results and experimental data for a stationary and rotating cylinder. The parameter f(sub k) varies between zero and one and has the characteristic to be equal to one in the viscous sub layer, and when the RANS turbulent viscosity becomes smaller than the LES viscosity. The formulation, usage methodology, and validation example are presented to demonstrate the enhancement of PAB3D's time-accurate and turbulence modeling capabilities. The models are compared to RANS results and experimental data for turbulent separated flows (TS) and laminar separated flows (LS) around stationary and rotating cylinders. For a stationary cylinder, the TS case is accurately simulated using the general two-equation k(sub epsilon) turbulence model (eddy-viscosity model). PAB3D accurately predicts the drag coefficient (CD), lift coefficient (CL) and the Strouhal number (St). The LS case was a challenge for the RANS computation with an eddy-viscosity turbulence model. The RANS/LES and PANS performed well and showed marked improvements over the RANS solution. The modified PANS model was the most accurate. For the rotating cylinder, the spin ratio varied from zero to one, and the PANS results were in good agreement with published experimental data. RANS/LES and PANS capture both temporal and spatial fluctuations and produce large-scale structures that do not

  14. Decomposing the relation between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and reading ability.

    PubMed

    Arnell, Karen M; Joanisse, Marc F; Klein, Raymond M; Busseri, Michael A; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-09-01

    The Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) test involves rapidly naming sequences of items presented in a visual array. RAN has generated considerable interest because RAN performance predicts reading achievement. This study sought to determine what elements of RAN are responsible for the shared variance between RAN and reading performance using a series of cognitive tasks and a latent variable modelling approach. Participants performed RAN measures, a test of reading speed and comprehension, and six tasks, which tapped various hypothesised components of the RAN. RAN shared 10% of the variance with reading comprehension and 17% with reading rate. Together, the decomposition tasks explained 52% and 39% of the variance shared between RAN and reading comprehension and between RAN and reading rate, respectively. Significant predictors suggested that working memory encoding underlies part of the relationship between RAN and reading ability.

  15. JACALIN-LECTIN LIKE1 Regulates the Nuclear Accumulation of GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN7, Influencing the RNA Processing of FLOWERING LOCUS C Antisense Transcripts and Flowering Time in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Chunhua; Xu, Shujuan; Xing, Lijing; Xu, Yunyuan; Chong, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Lectins selectively recognize sugars or glycans for defense in living cells, but less is known about their roles in the development process and the functional network with other factors. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) JACALIN-LECTIN LIKE1 (AtJAC1) functions in flowering time control. Loss of function of AtJAC1 leads to precocious flowering, whereas overexpression of AtJAC1 causes delayed flowering. AtJAC1 influences flowering through regulation of the key flowering repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Genetic analysis revealed that AtJAC1’s function is mostly dependent on GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN7 (GRP7), an upstream regulator of FLC. Biochemical and cell biological data indicated that AtJAC1 interacted physically with GRP7 specifically in the cytoplasm. AtJAC1 influences the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of GRP7, with predominant nuclear localization of GRP7 when AtJAC1 function is lost but retention of GRP7 in the cytoplasm when AtJAC1 is overexpressed. A temporal inducible assay suggested that AtJAC1’s regulation of flowering could be compromised by the nuclear accumulation of GRP7. In addition, GRP7 binds to the antisense precursor messenger RNA of FLC through a conserved RNA motif. Loss of GRP7 function leads to the elevation of total FLC antisense transcripts and reduced proximal-distal polyadenylation ratio, as well as histone methylation changes in the FLC gene body region and increased total functional sense FLC transcript. Attenuating the direct binding of GRP7 with competing artificial RNAs leads to changes of FLC antisense precursor messenger RNA processing and flowering transition. Taken together, our study indicates that AtJAC1 coordinates with GRP7 in shaping plant development through the regulation of RNA processing in Arabidopsis. PMID:26392261

  16. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1.

    PubMed

    Hauk, Glenn; Bowman, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1, which is essential in yeast and known as DDX3 in humans, shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and takes part in several basic processes including RNA processing and translation. A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out of the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that Xpo1 and Ran[GTP] together reduce the RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase activities of Ded1. Binding and inhibition of Ded1 by Xpo1 depend on the affinity of the Ded1 nuclear export sequence (NES) for Xpo1 and the presence of Ran[GTP]. Association with Xpo1/Ran[GTP] reduces RNA-stimulated ATPase activity of Ded1 by increasing the apparent KM for the RNA substrate. Despite the increased KM, the Ded1:Xpo1:Ran[GTP] ternary complex retains the ability to bind single stranded RNA, suggesting that Xpo1/Ran[GTP] may modulate the substrate specificity of Ded1. These results demonstrate that, in addition to transport, exportins such as Xpo1 also have the capability to alter enzymatic activities of their cargo.

  17. Pathogen-Responsive Expression of a Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene Conferring Resistance to the Diterpenoid Sclareol Is Regulated by Multiple Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Emma J.; Schenk, Peer M.; Kazan, Kemal; Penninckx, Iris A.M.A.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Maclean, Don J.; Cammue, Bruno P.A.; Ebert, Paul R.; Manners, John M.

    2003-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a member of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily of ABC transporters. AtPDR12 displayed distinct induction profiles after inoculation of plants with compatible and incompatible fungal pathogens and treatments with salicylic acid, ethylene, or methyl jasmonate. Analysis of AtPDR12 expression in a number of Arabidopsis defense signaling mutants further revealed that salicylic acid accumulation, NPR1 function, and sensitivity to jasmonates and ethylene were all required for pathogen-responsive expression of AtPDR12. Germination assays using seeds from an AtPDR12 insertion line in the presence of sclareol resulted in lower germination rates and much stronger inhibition of root elongation in the AtPDR12 insertion line than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that AtPDR12 may be functionally related to the previously identified ABC transporters SpTUR2 and NpABC1, which transport sclareol. Our data also point to a potential role for terpenoids in the Arabidopsis defensive armory. PMID:14526118

  18. A VLES/T-RANS approach to indoor climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenjeres, S.; Hanjalic, K.; Gunarjo, S. B.

    2001-11-01

    Demands for better design, control and optimization of indoor climate, particularly in complex and special buildings (occupied residential and office space, atria, hospitals, auditoriums) impose requirements for accurate predictions of air movement, temperature, turbulence and concentration distributions in space and time. A time-dependent RANS (T-RANS) approach is proposed for accurate prediction of flow, scalar transport and wall heat and mass transfer in complex building space. The method resolves in time and space the large-scale coherent motion which is the major carrier of momentum heat and species, whereas the residual ("subscale") turbulence is modelled by an algebraic RANS type stress/flux model. The method is especially advantageous for predicting flows driven or affected by thermal buoyancy, for which the conventional eddy-viscosity/diffusivity RANS models and gradient transport hypotheses are known to fail even in simple generic configurations. The approach was validated in a series of buoyancy-driven flows for which experimental, DNS and LES data are available. Examples of full-scale application to be presented include numerical simulations of real occupied and furnished residential space. The simulation showed that the T-RANS approach can be used as a reliable tool for a variety of applications such as optimization of of heating and ventilation system, indoor quality, safety measures related to smoke and fire spreading, as well as wall heat and mass transfer.

  19. Hybrid RANS/LES of round impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Slawomir; Rokicki, Jacek; Dick, Erik

    2011-12-01

    Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are presented for simulations of round impinging jets at two nozzle-plate distances H/D = 2 and 10 (D is the nozzle exit diameter) and two Reynolds numbers Re = 5000 and 70,000 with hybrid RANS/LES (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation), dynamic Smagorinsky LES and RANS k-ω models. Three k-ω based hybrid RANS/LES models are analyzed. With the hybrid RANS/LES models, improved heat transfer results are obtained, when compared to RANS, in the impact region and in the developing wall-jet region. For accurate predictions at low nozzle-plate distance, it is necessary to sufficiently resolve the formation and development of the near-wall vortices in the jet impingement region. At high nozzle-plate distance, it is important to capture the evolution and breakup of the unsteady vortices in the shear layer of the jet, so that realistic mean and fluctuating velocity profiles are obtained in the impact jet region.

  20. A Hybrid RANS/LES Approach for Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid acoustic prediction methods have an important advantage over the current Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based methods in that they only involve modeling of the relatively universal subscale motion and not the configuration dependent larger scale turbulence. Unfortunately, they are unable to account for the high frequency sound generated by the turbulence in the initial mixing layers. This paper introduces an alternative approach that directly calculates the sound from a hybrid RANS/LES flow model (which can resolve the steep gradients in the initial mixing layers near the nozzle lip) and adopts modeling techniques similar to those used in current RANS based noise prediction methods to determine the unknown sources in the equations for the remaining unresolved components of the sound field. The resulting prediction method would then be intermediate between the current noise prediction codes and previously proposed hybrid noise prediction methods.

  1. Genome-Wide Mapping of Uncapped and Cleaved Transcripts Reveals a Role for the Nuclear mRNA Cap-Binding Complex in Cotranslational RNA Decay in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Willmann, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    RNA turnover is necessary for controlling proper mRNA levels posttranscriptionally. In general, RNA degradation is via exoribonucleases that degrade RNA either from the 5′ end to the 3′ end, such as XRN4, or in the opposite direction by the multisubunit exosome complex. Here, we use genome-wide mapping of uncapped and cleaved transcripts to reveal the global landscape of cotranslational mRNA decay in the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. We found that this process leaves a clear three nucleotide periodicity in open reading frames. This pattern of cotranslational degradation is especially evident near the ends of open reading frames, where we observe accumulation of cleavage events focused 16 to 17 nucleotides upstream of the stop codon because of ribosomal pausing during translation termination. Following treatment of Arabidopsis plants with the translation inhibitor cycloheximide, cleavage events accumulate 13 to 14 nucleotides upstream of the start codon where initiating ribosomes have been stalled with these sequences in their P site. Further analysis in xrn4 mutant plants indicates that cotranslational RNA decay is XRN4 dependent. Additionally, studies in plants lacking CAP BINDING PROTEIN80/ABA HYPERSENSITIVE1, the largest subunit of the nuclear mRNA cap binding complex, reveal a role for this protein in cotranslational decay. In total, our results demonstrate the global prevalence and features of cotranslational RNA decay in a plant transcriptome. PMID:27758893

  2. Expression of potato RNA-binding proteins StUBA2a/b and StUBA2c induces hypersensitive-like cell death and early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jong-Kuk; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Dool-Yi; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), UBP1-associated protein 2a (UBA2a), UBA2b, and UBA2c, that contain two RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains. They play important roles in wounding response and leaf senescence, and are homologs of Vicia faba abscisic-acid-activated protein kinase-interacting protein 1 (VfAKIP1). The potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome encodes at least seven AKIP1-like RBPs. Here, two potato RBPs have been characterized, StUBA2a/b and StUBA2c, that are homologous to VfAKIP1 and Arabidopsis UBA2s. Transient expression of StUBA2s induced a hypersensitive-like cell death phenotype in tobacco leaves, and an RRM-domain deletion assay of StUBA2s revealed that the first RRM domain is crucial for the phenotype. Unlike overexpression of Arabidopsis UBA2s, constitutive expression of StUBA2a/b in Arabidopsis did not cause growth arrest and lethality at the young seedling stage, but induced early leaf senescence. This phenotype was associated with increased expression of defence- and senescence-associated genes, including pathogen-related genes (PR) and a senescence-associated gene (SAG13), and it was aggravated upon flowering and ultimately resulted in a shortened life cycle. Leaf senescence of StUBA2a/b Arabidopsis plants was enhanced under darkness and was accompanied by H2O2 accumulation and altered expression of autophagy-associated genes, which likely cause cellular damage and are proximate causes of the early leaf senescence. Expression of salicylic acid signalling and biosynthetic genes was also upregulated in StUBA2a/b plants. Consistent with the localization of UBA2s-GFPs and VfAKIP1-GFP, soluble-modified GFP-StUBA2s localized in the nucleus within nuclear speckles. StUBA2s potentially can be considered for transgenic approaches to induce potato shoot senescence, which is desirable at harvest. PMID:25944928

  3. COPT6 is a plasma membrane transporter that functions in copper homeostasis in Arabidopsis and is a novel target of SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like 7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in plants is the regulation of its uptake and tissue partitioning. Here we characterized a newly identified member of the conserved CTR/COPT family of copper transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana, COPT6. We showed that COPT6 resides at the plasma me...

  4. Towards a transport model for epistemic UQ in RANS closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeling, Wouter; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    Due to their computational efficiency, Reynold-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models remain a vital tool for modeling turbulent flows. However, it is well known that RANS predictions are locally corrupted by epistemic model-form uncertainty. Whereas some Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) approaches attempt to quantify this uncertainty by considering the model coefficients as random variables, we directly perturb the Reynold-stress tensor at locations in the flow domain where the modeling assumptions are likely to be invalid. Inferring the perturbations on a point-by-point basis would lead to a high-dimensional problem. To reduce the dimensionality, we propose separate model equations based on the transport of linear invariants of the anisotropy tensor. This provides us with a low-dimensional UQ framework where the invariant transport model decides on the magnitude and direction of the perturbations. Where the perturbations are small, the RANS result is recovered. Using traditional turbulence modeling practices we derive weak realizability constraints, and we will rely on Bayesian inference to calibrate the model on high-fidelity data. We will demonstrate our framework on a number of canonical flow problems where RANS models are prone to failure.

  5. Counting and RAN: Predictors of Arithmetic Calculation and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Tuire; Salmi, Paula; Eklund, Kenneth; Aro, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether counting and rapid automatized naming (RAN) could operate as significant predictors of both later arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. The authors also took an important step to clarify the cognitive mechanisms underlying these predictive relationships by controlling for the effect of phonological awareness and…

  6. Statistical Modeling of Epistemic Uncertainty in RANS Turbulence Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbari, Iman; Esfahanian, Vahid

    2014-11-01

    RANS turbulence models are widely used in industrial applications thanks to their low computational costs. However, they introduce model-form uncertainty originating from eddy-viscosity hypothesis, assumptions behind transport equations of turbulent properties, free parameters in the models, and wall functions. In contrast, DNS provides detailed and accurate results but in high computational costs making it unaffordable in industrial uses. Therefore, quantification of structural uncertainty in RANS models using DNS data could help engineers to make better decisions from the results of turbulence models. In this study, a new and efficient method for statistical modeling of uncertainties in RANS models is presented, in which deviation of predicted Reynolds stress tensor from results of DNS data is modeled through a Gaussian Random Field. A new covariance kernel is proposed based on eigendecomposition of a sample kernel, hyperparameters are found by minimization of negative log likelihood employing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Thereafter, the random field is sampled using Karhunen-Loeve expansion followed by solving RANS equations to obtain the quantity of interest for each sample as uncertainty propagation. In the present study, fully developed channel flow as well as flow in a converging-diverging channel are considered as test cases.

  7. Eye-Movement Control in RAN and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Henry, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the "visual scanning hypothesis", which suggests that fluent oculomotor control is an important component underlying the predictive relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks and reading ability. Our approach was to isolate components of saccadic planning, articulation, and lexical retrieval in 3…

  8. Eye-Movement Control in RAN and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Henry, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the "visual scanning hypothesis", which suggests that fluent oculomotor control is an important component underlying the predictive relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks and reading ability. Our approach was to isolate components of saccadic planning, articulation, and lexical retrieval in 3…

  9. Spatial organization of the Ran pathway by microtubules in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Doogie; Yu, Che-Hang; Needleman, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Concentration gradients of soluble proteins are believed to be responsible for control of morphogenesis of subcellular systems, but the mechanisms that generate the spatial organization of these subcellular gradients remain poorly understood. Here, we use a newly developed multipoint fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy technique to study the ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) pathway, which forms soluble gradients around chromosomes in mitosis and is thought to spatially regulate microtubule behaviors during spindle assembly. We found that the distribution of components of the Ran pathway that influence microtubule behaviors is determined by their interactions with microtubules, resulting in microtubule nucleators being localized by the microtubules whose formation they stimulate. Modeling and perturbation experiments show that this feedback makes the length of the spindle insensitive to the length scale of the Ran gradient, allows the spindle to assemble outside the peak of the Ran gradient, and explains the scaling of the spindle with cell size. Such feedback between soluble signaling pathways and the mechanics of the cytoskeleton may be a general feature of subcellular organization. PMID:27439876

  10. meRanTK: methylated RNA analysis ToolKit.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Dietmar; Amort, Thomas; Kugler, Elisabeth; Lusser, Alexandra; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2016-03-01

    The significance and function of posttranscriptional cytosine methylation in poly(A)RNA attracts great interest but is still poorly understood. High-throughput sequencing of RNA treated with bisulfite (RNA-BSseq) or subjected to enrichment techniques like Aza-IP or miCLIP enables transcriptome wide studies of this particular modification at single base pair resolution. However, to date, there are no specialized software tools available for the analysis of RNA-BSseq or Aza-IP data. Therefore, we developed meRanTK, the first publicly available tool kit which addresses the special demands of high-throughput RNA cytosine methylation data analysis. It provides fast and easy to use splice-aware bisulfite sequencing read mapping, comprehensive methylation calling and identification of differentially methylated cytosines by statistical analysis of single- and multi-replicate experiments. Application of meRanTK to RNA-BSseq or Aza-IP data produces accurate results in standard compliant formats. meRanTK, source code and test data are released under the GNU GPLv3+ license and are available at http://icbi.at/software/meRanTK/ CONTACT: dietmar.rieder@i-med.ac.at. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Data-driven RANS for simulations of large wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, G. V.; Viola, F.; Ciri, U.; Rotea, M. A.; Leonardi, S.

    2015-06-01

    In the wind energy industry there is a growing need for real-time predictions of wind turbine wake flows in order to optimize power plant control and inhibit detrimental wake interactions. To this aim, a data-driven RANS approach is proposed in order to achieve very low computational costs and adequate accuracy through the data assimilation procedure. The RANS simulations are implemented with a classical Boussinesq hypothesis and a mixing length turbulence closure model, which is calibrated through the available data. High-fidelity LES simulations of a utility-scale wind turbine operating with different tip speed ratios are used as database. It is shown that the mixing length model for the RANS simulations can be calibrated accurately through the Reynolds stress of the axial and radial velocity components, and the gradient of the axial velocity in the radial direction. It is found that the mixing length is roughly invariant in the very near wake, then it increases linearly with the downstream distance in the diffusive region. The variation rate of the mixing length in the downstream direction is proposed as a criterion to detect the transition between near wake and transition region of a wind turbine wake. Finally, RANS simulations were performed with the calibrated mixing length model, and a good agreement with the LES simulations is observed.

  12. On the accuracy of RANS simulations with DNS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Colmenares F., Juan D.; Murman, Scott M.

    2016-11-01

    Simulation results conducted for incompressible planar wall-bounded turbulent flows with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with no modeling involved are presented. Instead, all terms but the molecular diffusion are represented by the data from direct numerical simulation (DNS). In simulations, the transport equations for velocity moments through the second order (and the fourth order where the data are available) are solved in a zero-pressure gradient boundary layer over a flat plate and in a fully developed channel flow in a wide range of Reynolds numbers using DNS data from Sillero et al., Lee and Moser, and Jeyapaul et al. The results obtained demonstrate that DNS data are the significant and dominant source of uncertainty in such simulations (hereafter, RANS-DNS simulations). Effects of the Reynolds number, flow geometry, and the velocity moment order as well as an uncertainty quantification technique used to collect the DNS data on the results of RANS-DNS simulations are analyzed. New criteria for uncertainty quantification in statistical data collected from DNS are proposed to guarantee the data accuracy sufficient for their use in RANS equations and for the turbulence model validation.

  13. Counting and RAN: Predictors of Arithmetic Calculation and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Tuire; Salmi, Paula; Eklund, Kenneth; Aro, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether counting and rapid automatized naming (RAN) could operate as significant predictors of both later arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. The authors also took an important step to clarify the cognitive mechanisms underlying these predictive relationships by controlling for the effect of phonological awareness and…

  14. Physical association of the NB-LRR resistance protein Rx with a Ran GTPase-activating protein is required for extreme resistance to Potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Tameling, Wladimir I L; Baulcombe, David C

    2007-05-01

    Nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins play an important role in plant and mammalian innate immunity. In plants, these resistance proteins recognize specific pathogen-derived effector proteins. Recognition subsequently triggers a rapid and efficient defense response often associated with the hypersensitive response and other poorly understood processes that suppress the pathogen. To investigate mechanisms associated with the activation of disease resistance responses, we investigated proteins binding to the potato (Solanum tuberosum) NB-LRR protein Rx that confers extreme resistance to Potato virus X (PVX) in potato and Nicotiana benthamiana. By affinity purification experiments, we identified an endogenous N. benthamiana Ran GTPase-Activating Protein2 (RanGAP2) as an Rx-associated protein in vivo. Further characterization confirmed the specificity of this interaction and showed that the association occurs through their N-terminal domains. By specific virus-induced gene silencing of RanGAP2 in N. benthamiana carrying Rx, we demonstrated that this interaction is required for extreme resistance to PVX and suggest that RanGAP2 is part of the Rx signaling complex. These results implicate RanGAP-mediated cellular mechanisms, including nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, in the activation of disease resistance.

  15. Dynamics of the STAT3 Transcription Factor: Nuclear Import Dependent on Ran and Importin-β1

    PubMed Central

    Cimica, Velasco; Chen, Hui-Chen; Iyer, Janaki K.; Reich, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) induces transcription of genes that control differentiation, inflammation, proliferation, and tumor cell invasion. Cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interferon stimulate the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, which confers its ability to bind consensus DNA targets. In addition, unphosphorylated STAT3 has been demonstrated to induce specific gene expression. STAT3 must gain entrance to the nucleus to impact transcription, however access to the nucleus is a tightly regulated process. Because nuclear trafficking is critical to the function of STAT3, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which STAT3 is imported to the nucleus. Live cell imaging techniques were used with STAT3 tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP) or photoactivatable GFP to follow the cellular dynamics of both unphosphorylated and tyrosine phosphorylated forms. Cytokine activation did not alter the rate of STAT3 nuclear import or nuclear export. In addition, Förster resonance energy transfer experiments revealed homomeric interaction of unphosphorylated STAT3 dependent on its amino terminus, but this dimerization is not necessary for its nuclear import. Previous work demonstrated the adapter importin-α3 binds to STAT3 and is required for nuclear import. To determine whether STAT3 nuclear import is mediated by the importin-α/importin-β1 heterodimer, the effects of siRNA to importin-β1 were evaluated. Results indicate STAT3 nuclear import is dependent on the function of importin-β1. Since the Ran GTPase is necessary to bind importin-β1 in the nucleus for release of importin-α-cargo, the effect of a GTPase deficient mutant of Ran was tested. Expression of the Ran interfering mutant inhibited STAT3 nuclear import. This study defines importin-α/importin-β1/Ran as the molecular mechanism by which STAT3 traffics to the nucleus. PMID:21625522

  16. Expression of Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein AtGRP2 or AtGRP7 improves grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deok Hee; Kwak, Kyung Jin; Kim, Min Kyung; Park, Su Jung; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although posttranscriptional regulation of RNA metabolism is increasingly recognized as a key regulatory process in plant response to environmental stresses, reports demonstrating the importance of RNA metabolism control in crop improvement under adverse environmental stresses are severely limited. To investigate the potential use of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in developing stress-tolerant transgenic crops, we generated transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) that express Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RBP (AtGRP) 2 or 7, which have been determined to harbor RNA chaperone activity and confer stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, and analyzed the response of the transgenic rice plants to abiotic stresses. AtGRP2- or AtGRP7-expressing transgenic rice plants displayed similar phenotypes comparable with the wild-type plants under high salt or cold stress conditions. By contrast, AtGRP2- or AtGRP7-expressing transgenic rice plants showed much higher recovery rates and grain yields compared with the wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. The higher grain yield of the transgenic rice plants was due to the increases in filled grain numbers per panicle. Collectively, the present results show the importance of posttranscriptional regulation of RNA metabolism in plant response to environmental stress and suggest that GRPs can be utilized to improve the yield potential of crops under stress conditions.

  17. Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis C-repeat binding factor 3 (AtCBF3) and cold-regulated 15A (AtCOR15A) enhanced chilling tolerance in transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Wan, Faxiang; Pan, Yu; Li, Jinghua; Chen, Xiangfu; Pan, Yanglu; Wang, Yongqing; Tian, Shibing; Zhang, Xingguo

    2014-12-01

    Our study shows that the expression of AtCBF3 and AtCOR15A improved the chilling tolerance in transgenic eggplant. In an attempt to improve chilling tolerance of eggplant (Solanum melongena L) plants, Arabidopsis C-repeat binding factor 3 (AtCBF3) and cold-regulated 15A (AtCOR15A) genes both driven by an Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DESSICATION 29A promoter (AtRD29A) were transferred into the plants of eggplant cultivar Sanyueqie. Two independent homozygous transgenic lines were tested for their cold tolerance. The leaves of the transgenic plants in both lines withered much slower and slighter than the wild-type plants after exposure to cold stress treatment at 2 ± 1 °C. The gene expression of AtCBF3 and AtCOR15A was significantly increased as well as the proline content and the levels of catalase and peroxidase activities, while the relative electrical conductivity and the malondialdehyde content were remarkably decreased in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type at 4 ± 0.5 °C. The results showed that the expression of the exogenous AtCBF3 and AtCOR15A could promote the cold adaptation process to protect eggplant plants from chilling stress.

  18. Preparation of biologically active Arabidopsis ribosomes and comparison with yeast ribosomes for binding to a tRNA-mimic that enhances translation of plant plus-strand RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Stupina, Vera A.; Simon, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of biologically active cell components from multicellular eukaryotic organisms often poses difficult challenges such as low yields and inability to retain the integrity and functionality of the purified compound. We previously identified a cap-independent translation enhancer (3′CITE) in the 3′UTR of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) that structurally mimics a tRNA and binds to yeast 80S ribosomes and 60S subunits in the P-site. Yeast ribosomes were used for these studies due to the lack of methods for isolation of plant ribosomes with high yields and integrity. To carry out studies with more natural components, a simple and efficient procedure has been developed for the isolation of large quantities of high quality ribosomes and ribosomal subunits from Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts prepared from seed-derived callus tissue. Attempts to isolate high quality ribosomes from wheat germ, bean sprouts, and evacuolated protoplasts were unsuccessful. Addition of purified Arabidopsis 80S plant ribosomes to ribosome-depleted wheat germ lysates resulted in a greater than 1200-fold enhancement in in vitro translation of a luciferase reporter construct. The TCV 3′CITE bound to ribosomes with a three to sevenfold higher efficiency when using plant 80S ribosomes compared with yeast ribosomes, indicating that this viral translational enhancer is adapted to interact more efficiently with host plant ribosomes. PMID:23885260

  19. Production of a Brassica napus Low-Molecular Mass Acyl-Coenzyme A-Binding Protein in Arabidopsis Alters the Acyl-Coenzyme A Pool and Acyl Composition of Oil in Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Olga; Singer, Stacy D.; Nykiforuk, Cory L.; Gidda, Satinder; Mullen, Robert T.; Moloney, Maurice M.; Weselake, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of a Brassica napus ACBP (BnACBP) complementary DNA in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in increased levels of polyunsaturated FAs at the expense of eicosenoic acid (20:1cisΔ11) and saturated FAs in seed oil. In this study, we investigated whether alterations in the FA composition of seed oil at maturity were correlated with changes in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pool in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BnACBP. Our results indicated that both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP exhibited relative increases in linoleic acid (18:2cisΔ9,12; 17.9%–44.4% and 7%–13.2%, respectively) and decreases in 20:1cisΔ11 (38.7%–60.7% and 13.8%–16.3%, respectively). However, alterations in the FA composition of the acyl-CoA pool did not always correlate with those seen in the seed oil. In addition, we found that targeting of BnACBP to the endoplasmic reticulum resulted in FA compositional changes that were similar to those seen in lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP, with the most prominent exception being a relative reduction in α-linolenic acid (18:3cisΔ9,12,15) in both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of the former (48.4%–48.9% and 5.3%–10.4%, respectively). Overall, these data support the role of ACBP in acyl trafficking in developing seeds and validate its use as a biotechnological tool for modifying the FA composition of seed oil. PMID:24740000

  20. Production of a Brassica napus Low-Molecular Mass Acyl-Coenzyme A-Binding Protein in Arabidopsis Alters the Acyl-Coenzyme A Pool and Acyl Composition of Oil in Seeds.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga; Singer, Stacy D; Nykiforuk, Cory L; Gidda, Satinder; Mullen, Robert T; Moloney, Maurice M; Weselake, Randall J

    2014-06-01

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of a Brassica napus ACBP (BnACBP) complementary DNA in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in increased levels of polyunsaturated FAs at the expense of eicosenoic acid (20:1(cisΔ11)) and saturated FAs in seed oil. In this study, we investigated whether alterations in the FA composition of seed oil at maturity were correlated with changes in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pool in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BnACBP. Our results indicated that both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP exhibited relative increases in linoleic acid (18:2(cisΔ9,12); 17.9%-44.4% and 7%-13.2%, respectively) and decreases in 20:1(cisΔ11) (38.7%-60.7% and 13.8%-16.3%, respectively). However, alterations in the FA composition of the acyl-CoA pool did not always correlate with those seen in the seed oil. In addition, we found that targeting of BnACBP to the endoplasmic reticulum resulted in FA compositional changes that were similar to those seen in lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP, with the most prominent exception being a relative reduction in α-linolenic acid (18:3(cisΔ9,12,15)) in both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of the former (48.4%-48.9% and 5.3%-10.4%, respectively). Overall, these data support the role of ACBP in acyl trafficking in developing seeds and validate its use as a biotechnological tool for modifying the FA composition of seed oil. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Uncertainty Quantification and Validation for RANS Turbulence Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Uncertainty quantification and validation procedures for RANS turbulence models are developed and applied. The procedures used here rely on a Bayesian view of probability. In particular, the uncertainty quantification methodology requires stochastic model development, model calibration, and model comparison, all of which are pursued using tools from Bayesian statistics. Model validation is also pursued in a probabilistic framework. The ideas and processes are demonstrated on a channel flow example. Specifically, a set of RANS models--including Baldwin-Lomax, Spalart-Allmaras, k- ɛ, k- ω, and v2- f--and uncertainty representations are analyzed using DNS data for fully-developed channel flow. Predictions of various quantities of interest and the validity (or invalidity) of the various models for making those predictions will be examined. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  2. The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 Regulates Abiotic Stress-Responsive Gene Expression by Binding to Different cis-Acting Elements in Response to Different Stress Signals1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mei-Chun; Liao, Po-Ming; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2013-01-01

    ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) is an upstream component in both jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling and is involved in pathogen resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that ERF1 might be related to the salt stress response through ethylene signaling. However, the specific role of ERF1 in abiotic stress and the molecular mechanism underlying the signaling cross talk still need to be elucidated. Here, we report that ERF1 was highly induced by high salinity and drought stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The salt stress induction required both JA and ET signaling but was inhibited by abscisic acid. ERF1-overexpressing lines (35S:ERF1) were more tolerant to drought and salt stress. They also displayed constitutively smaller stomatal aperture and less transpirational water loss. Surprisingly, 35S:ERF1 also showed enhanced heat tolerance and up-regulation of heat tolerance genes compared with the wild type. Several suites of genes activated by JA, drought, salt, and heat were found in microarray analysis of 35S:ERF1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays found that ERF1 up-regulates specific suites of genes in response to different abiotic stresses by stress-specific binding to GCC or DRE/CRT. In response to biotic stress, ERF1 bound to GCC boxes but not DRE elements; conversely, under abiotic stress, we observed specific binding of ERF1 to DRE elements. Furthermore, ERF1 bound preferentially to only one among several GCC box or DRE/CRT elements in the promoter region of its target genes. ERF1 plays a positive role in salt, drought, and heat stress tolerance by stress-specific gene regulation, which integrates JA, ET, and abscisic acid signals. PMID:23719892

  3. Propeller Analysis Using RANS/BEM Coupling Accounting for Blade Blockage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-04

    DRDC-RDDC-2015-N005 Fourth International Symposium on Marine Propulsors smp’15, Austin, Texas, USA, June 2015 Propeller Analysis Using RANS/ BEM ...of the flow around the hull with a solution for the flow around the propeller calculated using the Boundary Element Method ( BEM ). In the RANS/ BEM ...Keywords Propellers, effective wake, RANS, BEM . 1 INTRODUCTION Although full Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solutions of a propeller

  4. Potential involvement of drought-induced Ran GTPase CLRan1 in root growth enhancement in a xerophyte wild watermelon.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kajikawa, Masataka; Hanada, Kouhei; Kosaka, Rina; Kato, Atsushi; Katoh, Akira; Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Yokota, Akiho

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced root growth is known as the survival strategy of plants under drought. Previous proteome analysis in drought-resistant wild watermelon has shown that Ran GTPase, an essential regulator of cell division and proliferation, was induced in the roots under drought. In this study, two cDNAs were isolated from wild watermelon, CLRan1 and CLRan2, which showed a high degree of structural similarity with those of other plant Ran GTPases. Quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays suggested that CLRan1 was expressed mainly in the root apex and lateral root primordia, whereas CLRan2 was more broadly expressed in other part of the roots. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed that the abundance of CLRan proteins was elevated in the root apex region under drought stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing CLRan1 showed enhanced primary root growth, and the growth was maintained under osmotic stress, indicating that CLRan1 functions as a positive factor for maintaining root growth under stress conditions.

  5. Neural Systems for Rapid Automatized Naming in Skilled Readers: Unraveling the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Maya; Katzir, Tamar; Wolf, Maryanne; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of children and adults with reading disabilities exhibit pronounced difficulties on naming-speed measures such as tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN). RAN tasks require speeded naming of serially presented stimuli and share key characteristics with reading, but different versions of the RAN task vary in their sensitivity: The RAN…

  6. Neural Systems for Rapid Automatized Naming in Skilled Readers: Unraveling the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Maya; Katzir, Tamar; Wolf, Maryanne; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of children and adults with reading disabilities exhibit pronounced difficulties on naming-speed measures such as tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN). RAN tasks require speeded naming of serially presented stimuli and share key characteristics with reading, but different versions of the RAN task vary in their sensitivity: The RAN…

  7. SUMO modification through rapamycin-mediated heterodimerization reveals a dual role for Ubc9 in targeting RanGAP1 to nuclear pore complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Shanshan; Zhang Hong; Matunis, Michael J. . E-mail: mmatunis@jhsph.edu

    2006-04-15

    SUMOs (small ubiquitin-related modifiers) are eukaryotic proteins that are covalently conjugated to other proteins and thereby regulate a wide range of important cellular processes. The molecular mechanisms by which SUMO modification influences the functions of most target proteins and cellular processes, however, remain poorly defined. A major obstacle to investigating the effects of SUMO modification is the availability of a system for selectively inducing the modification or demodification of an individual protein. To address this problem, we have developed a procedure using the rapamycin heterodimerizer system. This procedure involves co-expression of rapamycin-binding domain fusion proteins of SUMO and candidate SUMO substrates in living cells. Treating cells with rapamycin induces a tight association between SUMO and a single SUMO substrate, thereby allowing specific downstream effects to be analyzed. Using RanGAP1 as a model SUMO substrate, the heterodimerizer system was used to investigate the molecular mechanism by which SUMO modification targets RanGAP1 from the cytoplasm to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our results revealed a dual role for Ubc9 in targeting RanGAP1 to NPCs: In addition to conjugating SUMO-1 to RanGAP1, Ubc9 is also required to form a stable ternary complex with SUMO-1 modified RanGAP1 and Nup358. As illustrated by our studies, the rapamycin heterodimerizer system represents a novel tool for studying the molecular effects of SUMO modification.

  8. Overexpression of Ran gene from Lepidium latifolium L. (LlaRan) renders transgenic tobacco plants hypersensitive to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Vimlendu Bhushan; Grover, Atul; Singh, Sadhana; Pande, Veena; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2014-09-01

    Ran is a multifunctional small GTPase involved in important cellular activities like nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly, nuclear envelope formation, etc., but is also known to be differentially expressed in response to abiotic stress, particularly low temperature. We have over-expressed Lepidium latifolium (Fam. Brassicaceae) Ran gene in tobacco to study the response of the plants to cold stress (24 h; 4 °C). Transformation of the tobacco plants was verified using PCR targeting Ran gene and co-transformed selectable marker gene nptII. Segregation in Mendelian ratios was validated in five transgenic lines by germination of T1 and T2 seeds on moist filter papers containing 150 mg/l kanamycin. Higher levels of electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation pointed towards hypersensitivity of plants. Similarly, lesser proline accumulation compared to wild types also indicated susceptibility of plants to death under chilling conditions. Specific activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was also measured under stressed and control conditions. A variation was observed across the different lines, and four out of five lines showed lesser specific activity compared to wild type plants, thus indicating reduced capability of scavenging free radicals. In totality, a strong evidence on induced hypersensitivity to cold stress has been collected which may further be helpful in designing appropriate strategies for engineering crop plants for survival under cold stress conditions.

  9. A pathway linking oxidative stress and the Ran GTPase system in progeria.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J; Paschal, Bryce M

    2014-04-01

    Maintaining the Ran GTPase at a proper concentration in the nucleus is important for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Previously we found that nuclear levels of Ran are reduced in cells from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a disease caused by constitutive attachment of a mutant form of lamin A (termed progerin) to the nuclear membrane. Here we explore the relationship between progerin, the Ran GTPase, and oxidative stress. Stable attachment of progerin to the nuclear membrane disrupts the Ran gradient and results in cytoplasmic localization of Ubc9, a Ran-dependent import cargo. Ran and Ubc9 disruption can be induced reversibly with H2O2. CHO cells preadapted to oxidative stress resist the effects of progerin on Ran and Ubc9. Given that HGPS-patient fibroblasts display elevated ROS, these data suggest that progerin inhibits nuclear transport via oxidative stress. A drug that inhibits pre-lamin A cleavage mimics the effects of progerin by disrupting the Ran gradient, but the effects on Ran are observed before a substantial ROS increase. Moreover, reducing the nuclear concentration of Ran is sufficient to induce ROS irrespective of progerin. We speculate that oxidative stress caused by progerin may occur upstream or downstream of Ran, depending on the cell type and physiological setting.

  10. Inhibition of RNA transportation induces glioma cell apoptosis via downregulation of RanGAP1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Yao; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Chen, Ku-Chung; Lin, Chien-Ju; Shih, Chwen-Ming

    2015-05-05

    The prognosis of glioblastoma remains poor, even treatment with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Therefore, it is still important to develop a new strategy for treatment of glioblastoma. Previous reports demonstrated that rRNA is produced at abnormally high levels in tumor cells. Nuclear export of all non-coding RNAs are known to depend on RanGTPase system. Hydrolyzation of RanGTP-RNA complex by RanGTPase activating protein 1 (RanGAP1) releases RNA from nucleus to cytoplasm. Therefore, inhibition of RNA transportation would be a useful strategy to affect cancer cell fate. In this study, 5-30 μM of oridonin, a natural diterpenoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Rabdosia rubescens, induced U87MG glioma cell apoptosis and RNA accumulation in nucleus at 12h-time point. Before U87MG cell apoptosis, the RanGAP1 protein amount decreased and RanGTP accumulated in nucleus as respectively determined by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, suggesting that decrease of RanGAP1 may result in nuclear entrapment of RanGTP and RNA, and then induce U87MG cell death. In contrast, over-expression of the RanGAP1 protein reversed oridonin-induced U87MG cell apoptosis. Hence, we demonstrated that downregulation of the RanGAP1 protein level by oridonin may result in RNA accumulation in nucleus via nuclear entrapment of RanGTP which eventually led to the apoptosis of glioma cells.

  11. Measurement of neutron diffraction with compact neutron source RANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Takamura, M.; Taketani, A.; Sunaga, H.; Otake, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Kumagai, M.; Oba, Y.; Hama, T.

    2016-11-01

    Diffraction is used as a measurement technique for crystal structure. X-rays or electron beam with wavelength that is close to the lattice constant of the crystal is often used for the measurement. They have sensitivity in surface (0.01mm) of heavy metals due to the mean free path for heavy ions. Neutron diffraction has the probe of the internal structure of the heavy metals because it has a longer mean free path than that of the X-rays or the electrons. However, the neutron diffraction measurement is not widely used because large facilities are required in the many neutron sources. RANS (Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source) is developed as a neutron source which is usable easily in laboratories and factories. In RANS, fast neutrons are generated by 7MeV protons colliding on a Be target. Some fast neutrons are moderated with polyethylene to thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons of 10meV which have wavelength of 10nm can be used for the diffraction measurement. In this study, the texture evolution in steels was measured with RANS and the validity of the compact neutron source was proved. The texture of IF steel sheets with the thickness of 1.0mm was measured with 10minutes run. The resolution is 2% and is enough to analyze a evolution in texture due to compression/tensile deformation or a volume fraction of two phases in the steel sample. These results have proven the possibility to use compact neutron source for the analysis of mesoscopic structure of metallic materials.

  12. Validating the BHR RANS model for variable density turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, Daniel M; Gore, Robert A; Stalsberg - Zarling, Krista L

    2009-01-01

    The BHR RANS model is a turbulence model for multi-fluid flows in which density variation plays a strong role in the turbulence processes. In this paper they demonstrate the usefulness of BHR over a wide range of flows which include the effects of shear, buoyancy, and shocks. The results are in good agreement with experimental and DNS data across the entire set of validation cases, with no need to retune model coefficients between cases. The model has potential application to a number of aerospace related flow problems.

  13. Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Nup358/RanBP2

    PubMed Central

    Kassube, Susanne A.; Stuwe, Tobias; Lin, Daniel H.; Antonuk, C. Danielle; Napetschnig, Johanna; Blobel, Günter; Hoelz, André

    2014-01-01

    Key steps in mRNA export are the nuclear assembly of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs), the translocation of mRNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), and the mRNP remodeling events at the cytoplasmic side of the NPC. Nup358/RanBP2 is a constituent of the cytoplasmic filaments of the NPC specific to higher eukaryotes and provides a multitude of binding sites for the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Nup358 N-terminal domain (NTD) at 0.95-Å resolution. The structure reveals an α-helical domain that harbors three central tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR), flanked on each side by an additional solvating amphipathic α helix. Overall, the NTD adopts an unusual extended conformation that lacks the characteristic peptide-binding groove observed in canonical TPR domains. Strikingly, the vast majority of the NTD surface exhibits an evolutionarily conserved, positive electrostatic potential, and we demonstrate that the NTD possesses the capability to bind single-stranded RNA in solution. Together, these data suggest that the NTD contributes to mRNP remodeling events at the cytoplasmic face of the NPC. PMID:22959972

  14. Cellular Transcriptional Coactivator RanBP10 and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 Interact and Synergistically Promote Viral Gene Expression and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuka; Kato, Akihisa; Maruzuru, Yuhei; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Arii, Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) regulatory protein ICP0 promotes viral gene expression and replication, we screened cells overexpressing ICP0 for ICP0-binding host cell proteins. Tandem affinity purification of transiently expressed ICP0 coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology and subsequent analyses showed that ICP0 interacted with cell protein RanBP10, a known transcriptional coactivator, in HSV-1-infected cells. Knockdown of RanBP10 in infected HEp-2 cells resulted in a phenotype similar to that observed with the ICP0-null mutation, including reduction in viral replication and in the accumulation of viral immediate early (ICP27), early (ICP8), and late (VP16) mRNAs and proteins. In addition, RanBP10 knockdown or the ICP0-null mutation increased the level of histone H3 association with the promoters of these viral genes, which is known to repress transcription. These effects observed in wild-type HSV-1-infected HEp-2 RanBP10 knockdown cells or those observed in ICP0-null mutant virus-infected control HEp-2 cells were remarkably increased in ICP0-null mutant virus-infected HEp-2 RanBP10 knockdown cells. Our results suggested that ICP0 and RanBP10 redundantly and synergistically promoted viral gene expression by regulating chromatin remodeling of the HSV-1 genome for efficient viral replication. IMPORTANCE Upon entry of herpesviruses into a cell, viral gene expression is restricted by heterochromatinization of the viral genome. Therefore, HSV-1 has evolved multiple mechanisms to counteract this epigenetic silencing for efficient viral gene expression and replication. HSV-1 ICP0 is one of the viral proteins involved in counteracting epigenetic silencing. Here, we identified RanBP10 as a novel cellular ICP0-binding protein and showed that RanBP10 and ICP0 appeared to act synergistically to promote viral gene expression and replication by modulating viral chromatin remodeling. Our results

  15. Cellular Transcriptional Coactivator RanBP10 and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 Interact and Synergistically Promote Viral Gene Expression and Replication.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuka; Kato, Akihisa; Maruzuru, Yuhei; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Arii, Jun; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2016-01-06

    To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) regulatory protein ICP0 promotes viral gene expression and replication, we screened cells overexpressing ICP0 for ICP0-binding host cell proteins. Tandem affinity purification of transiently expressed ICP0 coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology and subsequent analyses showed that ICP0 interacted with cell protein RanBP10, a known transcriptional coactivator, in HSV-1-infected cells. Knockdown of RanBP10 in infected HEp-2 cells resulted in a phenotype similar to that observed with the ICP0-null mutation, including reduction in viral replication and in the accumulation of viral immediate early (ICP27), early (ICP8), and late (VP16) mRNAs and proteins. In addition, RanBP10 knockdown or the ICP0-null mutation increased the level of histone H3 association with the promoters of these viral genes, which is known to repress transcription. These effects observed in wild-type HSV-1-infected HEp-2 RanBP10 knockdown cells or those observed in ICP0-null mutant virus-infected control HEp-2 cells were remarkably increased in ICP0-null mutant virus-infected HEp-2 RanBP10 knockdown cells. Our results suggested that ICP0 and RanBP10 redundantly and synergistically promoted viral gene expression by regulating chromatin remodeling of the HSV-1 genome for efficient viral replication. Upon entry of herpesviruses into a cell, viral gene expression is restricted by heterochromatinization of the viral genome. Therefore, HSV-1 has evolved multiple mechanisms to counteract this epigenetic silencing for efficient viral gene expression and replication. HSV-1 ICP0 is one of the viral proteins involved in counteracting epigenetic silencing. Here, we identified RanBP10 as a novel cellular ICP0-binding protein and showed that RanBP10 and ICP0 appeared to act synergistically to promote viral gene expression and replication by modulating viral chromatin remodeling. Our results provide insight into

  16. Genome-wide DNA-binding specificity of PIL5, an Arabidopsis basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyojin; Oh, Eunkyoo; Choi, Giltsu; Lee, Doheon

    2010-01-01

    PIL5 is a member of the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor superfamily. We previously showed that PIL5 binds to the G-box (CACGTG) motif with high affinity. However, since there are many randomly matched G-box motifs throughout the genome, other factors must account for the in-vivo PIL5 binding specificity. In this study, we investigated if in-vivo PIL5 binding sites can be explained by any other attributes extracted from various sources. Our results showed that PIL5 binding sites can be explained by attributes such as neighbouring motif composition, nucleosome density, DNA methylation and distance from transcription start site in addition to G-box.

  17. Understanding the relations between RAN letter subtest components and word reading in first-grade students.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Graham E; Swank, Paul R

    2002-01-01

    First-grade students (N = 221) were individually tested on a battery of cognitive and achievement measures of verbal fluency, visual attention, phonological awareness, orthographic recognition, rapid automatized naming (RAN) of letters and objects, and reading. All tests were subjected to postacquisition scoring, and all RAN measures were segregated into measures of articulation time, pause time, and consistency of the pause time. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that word reading was directly and significantly predicted by RAN letter naming and general RAN cognitive processing time of objects. Moreover, RAN letter reading constructs were significantly and directly predicted by the latent variables of phonological awareness, orthographic recognition, and general RAN object articulation and cognitive processing times. RAN letter naming constructs were also significantly and indirectly predicted by visual attention. The reading model was found to be consistent with a total mediation of the relation of phonological awareness and reading through RAN letter naming and supported the validity of the RAN letter naming subtest as a basic letter reading test. These findings supported the double-deficit hypothesis for letter reading. We suggest that phonological memory is a basic factor underlying general RAN cognitive processing time of objects and domain-specific information associated with phonemes and their graphic representations.

  18. A novel-type phosphatidylinositol phosphate-interactive, Ca-binding protein PCaP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana: stable association with plasma membrane and partial involvement in stomata closure.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisako; Miwa, Chika; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Suito, Momoe; Tsuchihira, Ayako; Sato, Yori; Segami, Shoji; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein-1 (PCaP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a new type protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and Ca(2+)-calmodulin complex as well as free Ca(2+). Although biochemical properties, such as binding to ligands and N-myristoylation, have been revealed, the intracellular localization, tissue and cell specificity, integrity of membrane association and physiological roles of PCaP1 are unknown. We investigated the tissue and intracellular distribution of PCaP1 by using transgenic lines expressing PCaP1 linked with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) at the carboxyl terminus of PCaP1. GFP fluorescence was obviously detected in most tissues including root, stem, leaf and flower. In these tissues, PCaP1-GFP signal was observed predominantly in the plasma membrane even under physiological stress conditions but not in other organelles. The fluorescence was detected in the cytosol when the 25-residue N-terminal sequence was deleted from PCaP1 indicating essential contribution of N-myristoylation to the plasma membrane anchoring. Fluorescence intensity of PCaP1-GFP in roots was slightly decreased in seedlings grown in medium supplemented with high concentrations of iron for 1 week and increased in those grown with copper. In stomatal guard cells, PCaP1-GFP was strictly, specifically localized to the plasma membrane at the epidermal-cell side but not at the pore side. A T-DNA insertion mutant line of PCaP1 did not show marked phenotype in a life cycle except for well growth under high CO2 conditions. However, stomata of the mutant line did not close entirely even in high osmolarity, which usually induces stomata closure. These results suggest that PCaP1 is involved in the stomatal movement, especially closure process, in leaves and response to excessive copper in root and leaf as a mineral nutrient as a physiological role.

  19. A lentiviral sponge for miR-101 regulates RanBP9 expression and amyloid precursor protein metabolism in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Barbato, Christian; Pezzola, Silvia; Caggiano, Cinzia; Antonelli, Martina; Frisone, Paola; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Ruberti, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration associated with amyloid β (Aβ) peptide accumulation, synaptic loss, and memory impairment are pathophysiological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous microRNAs regulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression and metabolism. We previously reported that miR-101 is a negative regulator of APP expression in cultured hippocampal neurons. In this study, a search for predicted APP metabolism-associated miR-101 targets led to the identification of a conserved miR-101 binding site within the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA encoding Ran-binding protein 9 (RanBP9). RanBP9 increases APP processing by β-amyloid converting enzyme 1 (BACE1), secretion of soluble APPβ (sAPPβ), and generation of Aβ. MiR-101 significantly reduced reporter gene expression when co-transfected with a RanBP9 3′-UTR reporter construct, while site-directed mutagenesis of the predicted miR-101 target site eliminated the reporter response. To investigate the effect of stable inhibition of miR-101 both in vitro and in vivo, a microRNA sponge was developed to bind miR-101 and derepress its targets. Four tandem bulged miR-101 responsive elements (REs), located downstream of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) open reading frame and driven by the synapsin promoter, were placed in a lentiviral vector to create the pLSyn-miR-101 sponge. Delivery of the sponge to primary hippocampal neurons significantly increased both APP and RanBP9 expression, as well as sAPPβ levels in the conditioned medium. Importantly, silencing of endogenous RanBP9 reduced sAPPβ levels in miR-101 sponge-containing hippocampal cultures, indicating that miR-101 inhibition may increase amyloidogenic processing of APP by RanBP9. Lastly, the impact of miR-101 on its targets was demonstrated in vivo by intrahippocampal injection of the pLSyn-miR-101 sponge into C57BL6 mice. This study thus provides the basis for studying the consequences of long-term miR-101 inhibition on the

  20. AtC3H14, a plant-specific tandem CCCH zinc-finger protein, binds to its target mRNAs in a sequence-specific manner and affects cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Chan; Kim, Joo-Yeol; Ko, Jae-Heung; Kang, Hunseung; Kim, Jungmook; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    AtC3H14 (At1 g66810) is a plant-specific tandem CCCH zinc-finger (TZF) protein that belongs to the 68-member CCCH family in Arabidopsis thaliana. In animals, TZFs have been shown to bind and recruit target mRNAs to the cytoplasmic foci where mRNA decay enzymes are active. However, it is not known whether plant TZF proteins such as AtC3H14 function. So far, no mRNA targets of plant TZFs have been identified. We have obtained several lines of experimental evidence in support of our hypothesis that AtC3H14 is involved in post-transcriptional regulation of its target genes. Nucleic acid binding assays using [(35) S]-labeled AtC3H14 protein showed that AtC3H14 could bind to ssDNA, dsDNA, and ribohomopolymers, suggesting its RNA-binding activity. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay identified several putative target RNAs of AtC3H14, including a polygalacturonase, a well-known cell wall modifying gene. RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays (RNA-EMSA) were used to confirm the RIP results and demonstrate that the TZF domain of AtC3H14 is required for the target RNA binding. Microarray analysis of 35S::AtC3H14 plants revealed that many of the cell wall elongation and/or modification-associated genes were differentially expressed, which is consistent with the cell elongation defect phenotype and the changes in the cell wall monosaccharide composition. In addition, yeast activation assay showed that AtC3H14 also function as a transcriptional activator, which is consistent with the previous finding that AtC3H14 activate the secondary wall biosynthesis genes. Taken together, we conclude that AtC3H14 may play a key role in both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differential expression of Ran GTPase during HMBA-induced differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, N; García-Sacristán, A; López-Fernández, L A; Párraga, M; del Mazo, J; Hernández, P; Schvartzman, J B; Krimer, D B

    2003-07-01

    Murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells undergo erythroid differentiation in vitro when treated with hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). To identify genes involved in the commitment of MEL cells to differentiate, we screened a cDNA library constructed from HMBA-induced cells by differential hybridization and isolated GTPase Ran as a down-regulated gene. We observed that Ran was expressed in a biphasic mode. Following a decrease in mRNA level during the initial hours of induction, Ran re-expressed at 24-48 h, and gradually declined again. To investigate the role of Ran during MEL differentiation we constructed MEL transfectants capable to express or block Ran mRNA production constitutively. No effects were observed on cell growth and proliferation. Blockage of Ran, however, interfered with MEL cell differentiation resulting in a decrease of cell survival in the committed population.

  2. The Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Binding Proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 Play Complementary Roles during State Transitions in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzykowska, Malgorzata; Suorsa, Marjaana; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Tikkanen, Mikko; Boekema, Egbert J.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting in plants is regulated by phosphorylation-driven state transitions: functional redistributions of the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to balance the relative excitation of photosystem I and photosystem II. State transitions are driven by reversible LHCII phosphorylation by the STN7 kinase and PPH1/TAP38 phosphatase. LHCII trimers are composed of Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 proteins in various trimeric configurations. Here, we show that despite their nearly identical amino acid composition, the functional roles of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are different but complementary. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking only Lhcb2 contain thylakoid protein complexes similar to wild-type plants, where Lhcb2 has been replaced by Lhcb1. However, these do not perform state transitions, so phosphorylation of Lhcb2 seems to be a critical step. In contrast, plants lacking Lhcb1 had a more profound antenna remodeling due to a decrease in the amount of LHCII trimers influencing thylakoid membrane structure and, more indirectly, state transitions. Although state transitions are also found in green algae, the detailed architecture of the extant seed plant light-harvesting antenna can now be dated back to a time after the divergence of the bryophyte and spermatophyte lineages, but before the split of the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages more than 300 million years ago. PMID:25194026

  3. Molecular phylogeny of a RING E3 ubiquitin ligase, conserved in eukaryotic cells and dominated by homologous components, the muskelin/RanBPM/CTLH complex.

    PubMed

    Francis, Ore; Han, Fujun; Adams, Josephine C

    2013-01-01

    origin of muskelin in opisthokonts as a RanBPM-binding protein.

  4. LES/RANS Simulation of a Supersonic Reacting Wall Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Jack R.; Boles, John A.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents results from large-eddy / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) simulations of the well-known Burrows-Kurkov supersonic reacting wall-jet experiment. Generally good agreement with experimental mole fraction, stagnation temperature, and Pitot pressure profiles is obtained for non-reactive mixing of the hydrogen jet with a non-vitiated air stream. A lifted flame, stabilized between 10 and 22 cm downstream of the hydrogen jet, is formed for hydrogen injected into a vitiated air stream. Flame stabilization occurs closer to the hydrogen injection location when a three-dimensional combustor geometry (with boundary layer development resolved on all walls) is considered. Volumetric expansion of the reactive shear layer is accompanied by the formation of large eddies which interact strongly with the reaction zone. Time averaged predictions of the reaction zone structure show an under-prediction of the peak water concentration and stagnation temperature, relative to experimental data and to results from a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculation. If the experimental data can be considered as being accurate, this result indicates that the present LES/RANS method does not correctly capture the cascade of turbulence scales that should be resolvable on the present mesh. Instead, energy is concentrated in the very largest scales, which provide an over-mixing effect that excessively cools and strains the flame. Predictions improve with the use of a low-dissipation version of the baseline piecewise parabolic advection scheme, which captures the formation of smaller-scale structures superimposed on larger structures of the order of the shear-layer width.

  5. How Is RAN Related to Reading Fluency? A Comprehensive Examination of the Prominent Theoretical Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George C.; Georgiou, George K.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prominent theoretical explanations of the RAN-reading relationship in a relatively transparent language (Greek) in a sample of children (n = 286) followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. Specifically, we tested the fit of eight different models, as defined by the type of reading performance predicted (oral vs. silent word reading fluency), the type of RAN tasks (non-alphanumeric vs. alphanumeric), and the RAN effects (direct vs. indirect). Working memory, attention, processing speed, and motor skills were used as “common cause” variables predicting both RAN and reading fluency and phonological awareness and orthographic processing were used as mediators of RAN's effects on reading fluency. The findings of both concurrent and longitudinal analyses indicated that RAN is a unique predictor of oral reading fluency, but not silent reading fluency. Using alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric RAN did not particularly affect the RAN-reading relationship. Both phonological awareness and orthographic processing partly mediated RAN's effects on reading fluency. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27605918

  6. Arabidopsis AtNaKR1 is a phloem mobile metal-binding protein necessary for phloem function and root meristem maintenance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1) encodes a soluble metal binding protein that is specifically expressed in companion cells of the phloem. The nakr1-1 mutant phenotype includes high Na+, K+, and Rb+ accumulation in leaves, short roots, and late flowering. Starch accumulation in the leave...

  7. A novel ethylene-responsive factor from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, is a GCC-box- and DRE-motif binding protein that negatively modulates abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liuqiang; Qin, Liping; Liu, Wenjin; Zhang, Daoyuan; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-09-01

    Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) family is one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factor that can positively or negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. However, their functions in regulating abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the functions of an ERF gene from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, which can negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. The expression of ThERF1 was induced by salinity, PEG-simulated drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ThERF1 can specifically bind to GCC-box and DRE motifs. Overexpression of ThERF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed inhibited seed germination, and decreased fresh weight gain and root growth compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, the transcript levels of several superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) genes in transgenic plants were significantly inhibited compared with in WT plants, resulting in decreased SOD and POD activities in transgenic plants under salt and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and cell membrane damage in ThERF1-transformed plants were all highly increased relative to WT plants. Our results suggest that ThERF1 negatively regulates abiotic stress tolerance by strongly inhibiting the expression of SOD and POD genes, leading to decreased ROS-scavenging ability.

  8. An Arabidopsis hydrophilic Ca2(+) -binding protein with a PEVK-rich domain, PCaP2, is associated with the plasma membrane and interacts with calmodulin and phosphatidylinositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mariko; Nagasaki-Takeuchi, Nahoko; Ide, Yuki; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    We found a new hydrophilic protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the protein was expressed in roots. Histochemical analysis of promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusions demonstrated its extensive expression in root hairs. The protein is rich in proline, glutamate, valine and lysine residues (PEVK-rich domain), and bound Ca(2+) even in the presence of Mg(2+) and K(+) when examined by the (45)Ca overlay assay. Treatment of seedlings with K(+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Na(+), ABA and gibberellic acid, and cold and drought stresses enhanced the transcription. Expression of the protein linked to green fluorescent protein in A. thaliana showed its plasma membrane localization and cell-specific expression in the epidermal cells including root hairs and the elongating pollen tubes. Therefore, we named the protein PCaP2 (plasma membrane-associated Ca(2+)-binding protein-2). The substitution of glycine at position 2 with alanine resulted in cytoplasmic localization of PCaP2. These results and the N-terminal characteristic motif suggest that PCaP2 is N-myristoylated at Gly2. We examined the capacity for binding to phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs), and found that PCaP2 interacts strongly with PtdIns(3,5)P(2), PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), and weakly with PtdIns(3,4)P(2). Furthermore, calmodulin was associated with PCaP2 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and its association weakened the interaction of PCaP2 with PtdInsPs. These results indicate that PCaP2 is involved in intracellular signaling through interaction with PtdInsPs and calmodulin in growing root hairs. PCaP2 was previously reported as microtubule-associated protein-18. We discuss the physiological roles of PCaP2 in relation to microtubules in cells.

  9. Francis-99 turbine numerical flow simulation of steady state operation using RANS and RANS/LES turbulence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakov, A.; Platonov, D.; Sentyabov, A.; Gavrilov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of flow in a laboratory model of a Francis hydroturbine at three regimes, using two eddy-viscosity- (EVM) and a Reynolds stress (RSM) RANS models (realizable k-ɛ, k-ω SST, LRR) and detached-eddy-simulations (DES), as well as large-eddy simulations (LES). Comparison of calculation results with the experimental data was carried out. Unlike the linear EVMs, the RSM, DES, and LES reproduced well the mean velocity components, and pressure pulsations in the diffusor draft tube. Despite relatively coarse meshes and insufficient resolution of the near-wall region, LES, DES also reproduced well the intrinsic flow unsteadiness and the dominant flow structures and the associated pressure pulsations in the draft tube.

  10. Arabidopsis SH3P2 is an ubiquitin-binding protein that functions together with ESCRT-I and the deubiquitylating enzyme AMSH3.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Kalinowska, Kamila; Vogel, Karin; Reynolds, Gregory D; Wu, Zhixiang; Anzenberger, Franziska; Ichikawa, Mie; Tsutsumi, Chie; Sato, Masa H; Kuster, Bernhard; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Isono, Erika

    2017-08-22

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins is an essential regulatory process that controls plasma membrane protein abundance and is therefore important for many signaling pathways, such as hormone signaling and biotic and abiotic stress responses. On endosomal sorting, plasma membrane proteins maybe recycled or targeted for vacuolar degradation, which is dependent on ubiquitin modification of the cargos and is driven by the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). Components of the ESCRT machinery are highly conserved among eukaryotes, but homologs of ESCRT-0 that are responsible for recognition and concentration of ubiquitylated proteins are absent in plants. Recently several ubiquitin-binding proteins have been identified that serve in place of ESCRT-0; however, their function in ubiquitin recognition and endosomal trafficking is not well understood yet. In this study, we identified Src homology-3 (SH3) domain-containing protein 2 (SH3P2) as a ubiquitin- and ESCRT-I-binding protein that functions in intracellular trafficking. SH3P2 colocalized with clathrin light chain-labeled punctate structures and interacted with clathrin heavy chain in planta, indicating a role for SH3P2 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, SH3P2 cofractionates with clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), suggesting that it associates with CCVs in planta Mutants of SH3P2 and VPS23 genetically interact, suggesting that they could function in the same pathway. Based on these results, we suggest a role of SH3P2 as an ubiquitin-binding protein that binds and transfers ubiquitylated proteins to the ESCRT machinery.

  11. Arabidopsis CULLIN4-Damaged DNA Binding Protein 1 Interacts with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1-SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA Complexes to Regulate Photomorphogenesis and Flowering Time[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haodong; Huang, Xi; Gusmaroli, Giuliana; Terzaghi, William; Lau, On Sun; Yanagawa, Yuki; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jigang; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Zhu, Danmeng; Deng, Xing Wang

    2010-01-01

    CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) possesses E3 ligase activity and promotes degradation of key factors involved in the light regulation of plant development. The finding that CULLIN4 (CUL4)-Damaged DNA Binding Protein1 (DDB1) interacts with DDB1 binding WD40 (DWD) proteins to act as E3 ligases implied that CUL4-DDB1 may associate with COP1-SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA (SPA) protein complexes, since COP1 and SPAs are DWD proteins. Here, we demonstrate that CUL4-DDB1 physically associates with COP1-SPA complexes in vitro and in vivo, likely via direct interaction of DDB1 with COP1 and SPAs. The interactions between DDB1 and COP1, SPA1, and SPA3 were disrupted by mutations in the WDXR motifs of MBP-COP1, His-SPA1, and His-SPA3. CUL4 cosuppression mutants enhanced weak cop1 photomorphogenesis and flowered early under short days. Early flowering of short day–grown cul4 mutants correlated with increased FLOWERING LOCUS T transcript levels, whereas CONSTANS transcript levels were not altered. De-etiolated1 and COP1 can bind DDB1 and may work with CUL4-DDB1 in distinct complexes, but they mediate photomorphogenesis in concert. Thus, a series of CUL4-DDB1-COP1-SPA E3 ligase complexes may mediate the repression of photomorphogenesis and, possibly, of flowering time. PMID:20061554

  12. RAN as a Predictor of Reading Skills, and Vice Versa: Results from a Randomised Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for…

  13. RAN Is Not a Measure of Orthographic Processing. Evidence from the Asymmetric German Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Kristina; Fussenegger, Barbara; Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2009-01-01

    In three large samples (N = 1248) of children learning to read German we investigated the correlations between rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), phonological decoding (nonword reading fluency), and orthographic processing (word reading fluency and spelling). In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, RAN explained…

  14. A functional investigation of RAN letters, digits, and objects: how similar are they?

    PubMed

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Szepesvari, Eszter; Chouinard, Brea; Hanif, Wahab; Georgiou, George K

    2014-12-15

    Although rapid automatized naming (RAN) of letters, digits, and objects are popular tasks and have been used interchangeably to predict academic performance, it remains unknown if they tap into the same neural regions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the neural overlap across different RAN tasks. Fifteen university students were assessed on RAN digits, letters, and objects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results showed a common neural pattern that included regions related to motor planning (e.g., cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor association, motor/pre-motor, anterior cingulate cortex), and grapheme-phoneme mapping (ventral supramarginal gyrus). However, RAN digits and letters showed many unique regions of activation over and above RAN objects particularly in semantic and articulatory regions, including precuneus, bilateral supramarginal gyrus, nucleus accumbens and thalamus. The only region unique to RAN objects included bilateral fusiform, a region commonly implicated in object processing. Overall, our results provide the first neural evidence for a stronger relationship between RAN letters and digits than when either task is compared to RAN objects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ran GTPase promotes cancer progression via Met receptor-mediated downstream signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hiu-Fung; Chan, Ka-Kui; Platt-Higgins, Angela; Dakir, El-Habib; Matchett, Kyle B.; Haggag, Yusuf Ahmed; Jithesh, Puthen V.; Habib, Tanwir; Faheem, Ahmed; Dean, Fennell A.; Morgan, Richard; Rudland, Philip S.; El-Tanani, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown previously that cancer cells with an activated oncogenic pathway, including Met activation, require Ran for growth and survival. Here, we show that knockdown of Ran leads to a reduction of Met receptor expression in several breast and lung cancer cell lines. This, in turn suppressed HGF expression and the Met-mediated activation of the Akt pathway, as well as cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. In a cell line model where Met amplification has previously been shown to contribute to gefitinib resistance, Ran knockdown sensitized cells to gefitinib-mediated inhibition of Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and consequently reduced cell proliferation. We further demonstrate that Met reduction-mediated by knockdown of Ran, occurs at the post-transcriptional level, probably via a matrix metalloproteinase. Moreover, the level of immunoreactive Ran and Met are positively associated in human breast cancer specimens, suggesting that a high level of Ran may be a pre-requisite for Met overexpression. Interestingly, a high level of immunoreactive Ran dictates the prognostic significance of Met, indicating that the co-overexpression of Met and Ran may be associated with cancer progression and could be used in combination as a prognostic indicator. PMID:27716616

  16. RAN as a Predictor of Reading Skills, and Vice Versa: Results from a Randomised Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for…

  17. RAN as a predictor of reading skills, and vice versa: results from a randomised reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-07-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training.

  18. Different RAN Components Relate to Reading at Different Points in Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kaizer, Eleni L.

    2014-01-01

    The present 10-year longitudinal study examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--relate to reading fluency. Seventy-five Greek-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 10 and were assessed five times (in Grades 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10) on RAN (digits and objects) and reading fluency (word…

  19. Examining the Cross-Lagged Relationships between RAN and Word Reading in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; Georgiou, George K.; Deng, Ciping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 4-year longitudinal study was to specify the direction of the relationship between RAN and word reading (accuracy and fluency) in Chinese. This is important in light of arguments that the developmental relationships between RAN and reading can disclose changes in the reading processes underlying reading as development proceeds.…

  20. Different RAN Components Relate to Reading at Different Points in Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kaizer, Eleni L.

    2014-01-01

    The present 10-year longitudinal study examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--relate to reading fluency. Seventy-five Greek-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 10 and were assessed five times (in Grades 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10) on RAN (digits and objects) and reading fluency (word…

  1. Measures of Information Processing in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Their Relation To Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Graham; Foorman, Barbara R.; Francis, David J.; Carlson, Coleen D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined articulation and interarticulation (pause) times on Rapid Automatized Naming Tests for first- and second-graders. Found that pause and articulation times for RAN letters and objects were not reliably related, compared to RAN numbers articulation and pause durations. Subtest pause durations were differentially related to reading. RAN…

  2. Examining the Cross-Lagged Relationships between RAN and Word Reading in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; Georgiou, George K.; Deng, Ciping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 4-year longitudinal study was to specify the direction of the relationship between RAN and word reading (accuracy and fluency) in Chinese. This is important in light of arguments that the developmental relationships between RAN and reading can disclose changes in the reading processes underlying reading as development proceeds.…

  3. Involvement of Ran in the regulation of phagocytosis against virus infection in S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2013-12-01

    Phagocytosis plays important roles in innate and adaptive immunity in animals. Some small G proteins are found to be related to phagocytosis. However, the Ran GTPase has not been intensively characterized in immunity. In this paper, the sequence analysis showed that the Ran was highly conserved in animals, suggesting that its function was preserved during animal evolution. The results showed that Ran was upregulated in S2 cells in response to DCV infection. It was further revealed that the antiviral phagocytosis could be mediated by Ran in S2 cells. By comparison with the early marker and late marker of phagosomes, the results showed that the Ran protein played an essential role at the early stage of phagocytosis or throughout the entire phagocytic process. Therefore our findings enlarged our limited knowledge about the phagocytosis regulation by small G proteins concerning to the nucleus.

  4. Lesions in the mRNA cap-binding gene ABA HYPERSENSITIVE 1 suppress FRIGIDA-mediated delayed flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Isabel C; Michaels, Scott D; Schomburg, Fritz M; Amasino, Richard M

    2004-10-01

    Recessive mutations that suppress the late-flowering phenotype conferred by FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and which also result in serrated leaf morphology were identified in T-DNA and fast-neutron mutant populations. Molecular analysis showed that the mutations are caused by lesions in the gene encoding the large subunit of the nuclear mRNA cap-binding protein, ABH1 (ABA hypersensitive1). The suppression of late flowering is caused by the inability of FRI to increase FLC mRNA levels in the abh1 mutant background. The serrated leaf morphology of abh1 is similar to the serrate (se) mutant and, like abh1, se is also a suppressor of FRI-mediated late flowering although it is a weaker suppressor than abh1. Unlike se, in abh1 the rate of leaf production and the number of juvenile leaves are not altered. The abh1 lesion affects several developmental processes, perhaps because the processing of certain mRNAs in these pathways is more sensitive to loss of cap-binding activity than the majority of cellular mRNAs.

  5. RANS and LES simulations of the airflow through nasal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics and health problems. The long-term goal of the OpenNOSE project is to develop a reliable open-source computational tool based on the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox that can assist surgeons in their daily practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the turbulence model and boundary conditions on simulations of the airflow in nasal cavities. The geometry, including paranasal sinuses, was reconstructed from a carefully selected CT scan, and RANS and LES simulations were carried out for steady inspiration and expiration. At a flow rate near 20 l/min, the flow is laminar in most of the domain. During the inspiration phase, turbulence develops in nasopharynx and oropharynx regions; during the expiration phase, another vortical region is observed down the nostrils. A comparison between different boundary conditions suggests the use of a total pressure condition, or alternatively a uniform velocity, at the inlet and outlet. In future work the same geometry will be used for setting up a laboratory experiment, intended to cross-validate the numerical results.

  6. Assessment of RANS to predict flows with large streamline curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J. L.; Wang, D. Z.; Cheng, H.; Gu, W. G.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide a guideline for choosing turbulence models in computation of complex flows with large streamline curvature, this paper presents a comprehensive comparison investigation of different RANS models widely used in engineering to check each model's sensibility on the streamline curvature. First, different models including standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, Renormalization-group (RNG) k-ε model, Shear-stress transport k-ω model and non-linear eddy-viscosity model v2-f model are tested to simulated the flow in a 2D U-bend which has the standard bench mark available. The comparisons in terms of non-dimensional velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show that large differences exist among the results calculated by various models. To further validate the capability to predict flows with secondary flows, the involved models are tested in a 3D 90° bend flow. Also, the velocities are compared. As a summary, the advantages and disadvantages of each model are analysed and guidelines for choice of turbulence model are presented.

  7. Unsteady RANS and Large Eddy simulations of multiphase diesel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Jenna; Green, Melissa; Akih-Kumgeh, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of two-phase flow and evaporation of high pressure diesel injection into a quiescent, high temperature environment is investigated. Unsteady RANS and LES are turbulent flow simulation approaches used to determine complex flow fields. The latter allows for more accurate predictions of complex phenomena such as turbulent mixing and physio-chemical processes associated with diesel combustion. In this work we investigate a high pressure diesel injection using the Euler-Lagrange method for multiphase flows as implemented in the Star-CCM+ CFD code. A dispersed liquid phase is represented by Lagrangian particles while the multi-component gas phase is solved using an Eulerian method. Results obtained from the two approaches are compared with respect to spray penetration depth and air entrainment. They are also compared with experimental data taken from the Sandia Engine Combustion Network for ``Spray A''. Characteristics of primary and secondary atomization are qualitatively evaluated for all simulation modes.

  8. Flow Control Analysis on the Hump Model with RANS Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2003-01-01

    A concerted effort is underway at NASA Langley Research Center to create a benchmark for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes. both unstructured and structured, against a data set for the hump model with actuation. The hump model was tested in the NASA Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The CFD codes used for the analyses are the FUN2D (Full Unstructured Navier-Stokes 2-Dimensional) code, the structured TLNS3D (Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes 3-Dimensional) code, and the structured CFL3D code, all developed at NASA Langley. The current investigation uses the time-accurate Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to predict aerodynamic performance of the active flow control experimental database for the hump model. Two-dimensional computational results verified that steady blowing and suction and oscillatory suction/blowing can be used to significantly reduce the separated flow region on the model. Discrepancies do exist between the CFD results and experimental data in the region downstream of the slot with the largest differences in the oscillatory cases. Overall, the structured CFD codes exhibited similar behavior with each other for a wide range of control conditions, with the unstructured FUN2D code showing moderately different results in the separated flow region for the suction and oscillatory cases.

  9. Data-driven RANS for prediction of wind turbine wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Viola, Francesco; Ciri, Umberto; Camarri, Simone; Rotea, Mario A.; Leonardi, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Wind turbine wakes are highly turbulent flows resulting from the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and wake vorticity structures. Measurement technologies, such as wind LiDARs, are currently available to perform velocity measurements in a set of locations of wakes past utility-scale wind turbines; however, computational methods are still needed to predict wake downstream evolution. In this work, a low-computational cost and accurate algorithm is proposed for prediction of the spatial evolution of wind turbine wakes. Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations (RANS) are formulated in cylindrical coordinates and simplified by using a boundary layer type approximation. Turbulence effects are taken into account with a mixing length model calibrated on the available observations. In this study, observations of wind turbine wakes consist in LES data of wakes produced by a wind turbine operating with different incoming wind and loading conditions. The mixing length calibrated on the LES data is constant in the near wake and only affected by the incoming turbulence, whereas further downstream it increases roughly linearly with the downstream position and with increased slope for increasing rotational speed of the turbine.

  10. RanBP9 at the intersection between cofilin and Aβ pathologies: rescue of neurodegenerative changes by RanBP9 reduction.

    PubMed

    Woo, J A; Boggess, T; Uhlar, C; Wang, X; Khan, H; Cappos, G; Joly-Amado, A; De Narvaez, E; Majid, S; Minamide, L S; Bamburg, J R; Morgan, D; Weeber, E; Kang, D E

    2015-03-05

    Molecular pathways underlying the neurotoxicity and production of amyloid β protein (Aβ) represent potentially promising therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently found that overexpression of the scaffolding protein RanBP9 increases Aβ production in cell lines and in transgenic mice while promoting cofilin activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Translocation of cofilin to mitochondria and induction of cofilin-actin pathology require the activation/dephosphorylation of cofilin by Slingshot homolog 1 (SSH1) and cysteine oxidation of cofilin. In this study, we found that endogenous RanBP9 positively regulates SSH1 levels and mediates Aβ-induced translocation of cofilin to mitochondria and induction of cofilin-actin pathology in cultured cells, primary neurons, and in vivo. Endogenous level of RanBP9 was also required for Aβ-induced collapse of growth cones in immature neurons (days in vitro 9 (DIV9)) and depletion of synaptic proteins in mature neurons (DIV21). In vivo, amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) mice exhibited 3.5-fold increased RanBP9 levels, and RanBP9 reduction protected against cofilin-actin pathology, synaptic damage, gliosis, and Aβ accumulation associated with APP/PS1 mice. Brains slices derived from APP/PS1 mice showed significantly impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), and RanBP9 reduction significantly enhanced paired pulse facilitation and LTP, as well as partially rescued contextual memory deficits associated with APP/PS1 mice. Therefore, these results underscore the critical importance of endogenous RanBP9 not only in Aβ accumulation but also in mediating the neurotoxic actions of Aβ at the level of synaptic plasticity, mitochondria, and cofilin-actin pathology via control of the SSH1-cofilin pathway in vivo.

  11. Arabidopsis CaM1 and CaM4 Promote Nitric Oxide Production and Salt Resistance by Inhibiting S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase via Direct Binding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Peng, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Junfeng; Chen, Kunming; Zhao, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Salt is a major threat to plant growth and crop productivity. Calmodulin (CaM), the most important multifunctional Ca2+ sensor protein in plants, mediates reactions against environmental stresses through target proteins; however, direct proof of the participation of CaM in salt tolerance and its corresponding signaling pathway in vivo is lacking. In this study, we found that AtCaM1 and AtCaM4 produced salt-responsive CaM isoforms according to real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses; this result was verified based on a phenotypic analysis of salt-treated loss-of-function mutant and transgenic plants. We also found that the level of nitric oxide (NO), an important salt-responsive signaling molecule, varied in response to salt treatment depending on AtCaM1 and AtCaM4 expression. GSNOR is considered as an important and widely utilized regulatory component of NO homeostasis in plant resistance protein signaling networks. In vivo and in vitro protein-protein interaction assays revealed direct binding between AtCaM4 and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), leading to reduced GSNOR activity and an increased NO level. Overexpression of GSNOR intensified the salt sensitivity of cam4 mutant plants accompanied by a reduced internal NO level, whereas a gsnor deficiency increased the salt tolerance of cam4 plants accompanied by an increased internal NO level. Physiological experiments showed that CaM4-GSNOR, acting through NO, reestablished the ion balance to increase plant resistance to salt stress. Together, these data suggest that AtCaM1 and AtCaM4 serve as signals in plant salt resistance by promoting NO accumulation through the binding and inhibition of GSNOR. This could be a conserved defensive signaling pathway in plants and animals. PMID:27684709

  12. Arabidopsis miR171-Targeted Scarecrow-Like Proteins Bind to GT cis-Elements and Mediate Gibberellin-Regulated Chlorophyll Biosynthesis under Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhaoxue; Hu, Xupeng; Cai, Wenjuan; Huang, Weihua; Zhou, Xin; Luo, Qian; Yang, Hongquan; Wang, Jiawei; Huang, Jirong

    2014-01-01

    An extraordinarily precise regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis is essential for plant growth and development. However, our knowledge on the complex regulatory mechanisms of chlorophyll biosynthesis is very limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR171-targeted scarecrow-like proteins (SCL6/22/27) negatively regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis via an unknown mechanism. Here we showed that SCLs inhibit the expression of the key gene encoding protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) in light-grown plants, but have no significant effect on protochlorophyllide biosynthesis in etiolated seedlings. Histochemical analysis of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in transgenic plants expressing pSCL27::rSCL27-GUS revealed that SCL27-GUS accumulates at high levels and suppresses chlorophyll biosynthesis at the leaf basal proliferation region during leaf development. Transient gene expression assays showed that the promoter activity of PORC is indeed regulated by SCL27. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR assays showed that SCL27 binds to the promoter region of PORC in vivo. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that SCL27 is directly interacted with G(A/G)(A/T)AA(A/T)GT cis-elements of the PORC promoter. Furthermore, genetic analysis showed that gibberellin (GA)-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis is mediated, at least in part, by SCLs. We demonstrated that SCL27 interacts with DELLA proteins in vitro and in vivo by yeast-two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analysis and found that their interaction reduces the binding activity of SCL27 to the PORC promoter. Additionally, we showed that SCL27 activates MIR171 gene expression, forming a feedback regulatory loop. Taken together, our data suggest that the miR171-SCL module is critical for mediating GA-DELLA signaling in the coordinate regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and leaf growth in light. PMID:25101599

  13. A RanGTP-independent mechanism allows ribosomal protein nuclear import for ribosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Altvater, Martin; Nerurkar, Purnima; Peña, Cohue; Gerber, Michaela; Chang, Yiming; Caesar, Stefanie; Schubert, Olga T; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Panse, Vikram G

    2014-01-01

    Within a single generation time a growing yeast cell imports ∼14 million ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) into the nucleus for ribosome production. After import, it is unclear how these intrinsically unstable and aggregation-prone proteins are targeted to the ribosome assembly site in the nucleolus. Here, we report the discovery of a conserved nuclear carrier Tsr2 that coordinates transfer of the r-protein eS26 to the earliest assembling pre-ribosome, the 90S. In vitro studies revealed that Tsr2 efficiently dissociates importin:eS26 complexes via an atypical RanGTP-independent mechanism that terminates the import process. Subsequently, Tsr2 binds the released eS26, shields it from proteolysis, and ensures its safe delivery to the 90S pre-ribosome. We anticipate similar carriers—termed here escortins—to securely connect the nuclear import machinery with pathways that deposit r-proteins onto developing pre-ribosomal particles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03473.001 PMID:25144938

  14. A RanGTP-independent mechanism allows ribosomal protein nuclear import for ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Altvater, Martin; Nerurkar, Purnima; Peña, Cohue; Gerber, Michaela; Chang, Yiming; Caesar, Stefanie; Schubert, Olga T; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Panse, Vikram G

    2014-08-21

    Within a single generation time a growing yeast cell imports ∼14 million ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) into the nucleus for ribosome production. After import, it is unclear how these intrinsically unstable and aggregation-prone proteins are targeted to the ribosome assembly site in the nucleolus. Here, we report the discovery of a conserved nuclear carrier Tsr2 that coordinates transfer of the r-protein eS26 to the earliest assembling pre-ribosome, the 90S. In vitro studies revealed that Tsr2 efficiently dissociates importin:eS26 complexes via an atypical RanGTP-independent mechanism that terminates the import process. Subsequently, Tsr2 binds the released eS26, shields it from proteolysis, and ensures its safe delivery to the 90S pre-ribosome. We anticipate similar carriers-termed here escortins-to securely connect the nuclear import machinery with pathways that deposit r-proteins onto developing pre-ribosomal particles. Copyright © 2014, Schütz et al.

  15. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs), also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF) families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs) or Myb Response Elements (MREs), respectively. Results Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Oryza sativa) model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE) and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Conclusions Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation. PMID:22852874

  16. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Berendzen, Kenneth W; Weiste, Christoph; Wanke, Dierk; Kilian, Joachim; Harter, Klaus; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs), also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF) families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs) or Myb Response Elements (MREs), respectively. Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Oryza sativa) model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE) and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation.

  17. Rans S-12 RPV Takes off with Spacewedge #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Rans S-12 remotely piloted 'mothership' takes off from a lakebed runway carrying a Spacewedge research model during 1992 flight tests. The Spacewedge was lauched in flight from the Rans S-12 aircraft and then glided back to a landing under a steerable parafoil. Technology tested in the Spacewedge program was used in developing the X-38 research vehicle. From October 1991 to December 1996, NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) conducted a research program know as the Spacecraft Autoland Project. This Project was designed to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of flight, including a precision landing. The Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Army participated in various phases of the program. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory developed the software for Wedge 3 under contract to the Army. Four generic spacecraft (each called a Spacewedge or simply a Wedge) were built; the last one was built to test the feasibility of a parafoil for delivering Army cargoes. Technology developed during this program has applications for future spacecraft recovery systems, such as the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle demonstrator. The Spacewedge program demonstrated precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. The program showed that a flexible, deployable system using autonomous navigation and landing was a viable and practical way to recover spacecraft. NASA researchers conducted flight tests of the Spacewedge at three sites near Dryden, a hillside near Tehachapi, the Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, and the California City Airport Drop Zone. During the first phase of testing 36 flights were made. Phase II consisted of 45 flights using a smaller parafoil. A third Phase of 34 flights was conducted primarily by the Army and resulted in the development of an Army guidance system for precision offset

  18. The mechanism of inhibition of Ran-dependent nuclear transport by cellular ATP depletion

    PubMed Central

    Schwoebel, Eric D.; Ho, Thai H.; Moore, Mary Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Rran-dependent nuclear transport requires a nuclear pool of RanGTP both for the assembly of export complexes and the disassembly of import complexes. Accordingly, in order for these processes to proceed, Ran-dependent nuclear import and export assays in vitro require the addition of GTP to produce RanGTP. Notably, no ATP requirement can be detected for these transport processes in vitro. But in vivo, when cells are depleted of ATP by the addition of sodium azide and 2-deoxyglucose to block ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, respectively, Ran-dependent nuclear import and export are rapidly inhibited. This raised the question of whether there is an ATP requirement for these nuclear transport pathways in an intact cell that has remained undetected in vitro. Here we report that the free (but not total) GTP concentration rapidly drops to an undetectable level upon ATP depletion as does the availability of RanGTP. Our conclusion is that the inhibition of Ran-dependent nuclear transport observed upon ATP depletion in vivo results from a shortage of RanGTP rather than the inhibition of some ATP-dependent process. PMID:12058015

  19. Altered Profile of Secondary Metabolites in the Root Exudates of Arabidopsis ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Mutants1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Dayakar V.; Loyola-Vargas, Victor M.; Broeckling, Corey D.; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Jasinski, Michal; Santelia, Diana; Martinoia, Enrico; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Banta, Lois M.; Stermitz, Frank; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2008-01-01

    Following recent indirect evidence suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in root exudation of phytochemicals, we identified 25 ABC transporter genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. Of these 25 genes, we also selected six full-length ABC transporters and a half-size transporter for in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses. We compared the exuded root phytochemical profiles of these seven ABC transporter mutants to those of the wild type. There were three nonpolar phytochemicals missing in various ABC transporter mutants compared to the wild type when the samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data suggest that more than one ABC transporter can be involved in the secretion of a given phytochemical and that a transporter can be involved in the secretion of more than one secondary metabolite. The primary and secondary metabolites present in the root exudates of the mutants were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed for the identification of groups of compounds differentially found in some of the mutants compared to the wild type. For instance, the mutant Atpdr6 secreted a lower level of organic acids and Atmrp2 secreted a higher level of amino acids as compared to the wild type. We conclude that the release of phytochemicals by roots is partially controlled by ABC transporters. PMID:18065561

  20. A small nuclear GTP-binding protein from tomato suppresses a Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell-cycle mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ach, R A; Gruissem, W

    1994-01-01

    Ran is a 25-kDa Ras-related nuclear GTP-binding protein which is very highly conserved in humans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Ran has been found to form a stable, noncovalent complex with the chromatin-associated protein RCC1, a negative regulator of mitosis. In Sch. pombe, a temperature-sensitive mutation in the RCC1 homolog encoded by the pim1 gene causes premature induction of mitosis, and this mutation can be suppressed by overexpression of the Ran homolog encoded by spi1. We report here the cloning of three Ran cDNAs from tomato. The Ran protein is very highly conserved among plants, animals, and fungi. In tomato, Ran mRNA is expressed in all tissues examined, even those with little or no cell division, indicating that Ran in plants may have functions other than just control of mitosis. We have found that the tomato Ran protein can direct a beta-glucuronidase reporter protein to the plant cell nucleus, confirming that Ran is a nuclear protein in plants. We show that the tomato Ran protein can suppress the Sch. pombe pim1 mutation, indicating that the tomato Ran protein and the Sch. pombe spi1 protein are functionally homologous. Images PMID:8016079

  1. PRL1, an RNA-Binding Protein, Positively Regulates the Accumulation of miRNAs and siRNAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxin; Liu, Yuhui; Yu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary conserved WD-40 protein PRL1 plays important roles in immunity and development. Here we show that PRL1 is required for the accumulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). PRL1 positively influences the processing of miRNA primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Furthermore, PRL1 interacts with the pri-miRNA processor, DCL1, and the dsRNA processors (DCL3 and DCL4). These results suggest that PRL1 may function as a general factor to promote the production of miRNAs and siRNAs. We also show that PRL1 is an RNA-binding protein and associates with pri-miRNAs in vivo. In addition, prl1 reduces pri-miRNA levels without affecting pri-miRNA transcription. These results suggest that PRL1 may stabilize pri-miRNAs and function as a co-factor to enhance DCL1 activity. We further reveal the genetic interaction of PRL1 with CDC5, which interacts with PRL1 and regulates transcription and processing of pri-miRNAs. Both miRNA and pri-miRNA levels are lower in cdc5 prl1 than those in either cdc5 or prl1. However, the processing efficiency of pri-miRNAs in cdc5 prl1 is similar to that in cdc5 and slightly lower than that in prl1. Based on these results, we propose that CDC5 and PRL1 cooperatively regulate pri-miRNA levels, which results in their synergistic effects on miRNA accumulation, while they function together as a complex to enhance DCL1 activity. PMID:25474114

  2. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-02-27

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.

  3. The Interaction of RNA Helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP Complex during the HIV Replication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP. PMID:25723178

  4. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle

    DOE PAGES

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-02-27

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNAmore » transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.« less

  5. Ran-dependent TPX2 activation promotes acentrosomal microtubule nucleation in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Shin; Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Yung-An; Hsieh, Bing-Yuan; Chiu, Ho-Chieh; Kao, Pei-Ying; Chao, Chih-Yuan; Hwang, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is essential for the formation of morphologically appropriate neurons. The existence of the acentrosomal MT organizing center in neurons has been proposed but its identity remained elusive. Here we provide evidence showing that TPX2 is an important component of this acentrosomal MT organizing center. First, neurite elongation is compromised in TPX2-depleted neurons. In addition, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and along the neurite shaft bound to MTs. Depleting TPX2 decreases MT formation frequency specifically at the tip and the base of the neurite, and these correlate precisely with the regions where active GTP-bound Ran proteins are enriched. Furthermore, overexpressing the downstream effector of Ran, importin, compromises MT formation and neuronal morphogenesis. Finally, applying a Ran-importin signaling interfering compound phenocopies the effect of TPX2 depletion on MT dynamics. Together, these data suggest a model in which Ran-dependent TPX2 activation promotes acentrosomal MT nucleation in neurons. PMID:28205572

  6. Application of CFD to Abrupt Wing Stall Using RANS and DES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Jim

    2004-01-01

    For DES, RANS is responsible for predicting boundary layer growth and separation. LES is responsible for predicting the geometry dependent turbulent flow features. Grid adaptation done using NASA Langley s RefineMesh program. Adaptation on time average of vorticity

  7. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  8. Tuning a RANS k-e model for jet-in-crossflow simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Lefantzi, Sophia; Ray, Jaideep; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin

    2013-09-01

    We develop a novel calibration approach to address the problem of predictive ke RANS simulations of jet-incrossflow. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that predictive ke parameters can be obtained by estimating them from a strongly vortical flow, specifically, flow over a square cylinder. In this study, we estimate three ke parameters, C%CE%BC, Ce2 and Ce1 by fitting 2D RANS simulations to experimental data. We use polynomial surrogates of 2D RANS for this purpose. We conduct an ensemble of 2D RANS runs using samples of (C%CE%BC;Ce2;Ce1) and regress Reynolds stresses to the samples using a simple polynomial. We then use this surrogate of the 2D RANS model to infer a joint distribution for the ke parameters by solving a Bayesian inverse problem, conditioned on the experimental data. The calibrated (C%CE%BC;Ce2;Ce1) distribution is used to seed an ensemble of 3D jet-in-crossflow simulations. We compare the ensemble's predictions of the flowfield, at two planes, to PIV measurements and estimate the predictive skill of the calibrated 3D RANS model. We also compare it against 3D RANS predictions using the nominal (uncalibrated) values of (C%CE%BC;Ce2;Ce1), and find that calibration delivers a significant improvement to the predictive skill of the 3D RANS model. We repeat the calibration using surrogate models based on kriging and find that the calibration, based on these more accurate models, is not much better that those obtained with simple polynomial surrogates. We discuss the reasons for this rather surprising outcome.

  9. Molecular characterization of Ran gene up-regulated in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) immunity.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Yao, Cui-luan; Wang, Zhi-yong

    2010-08-01

    RanGTPase, one family of small G protein superfamily, has been widely demonstrated to be involved in transport system between cytoplasm and nucleus. However the knowledge about the function of RanGTPase in immunity remains limited. In this report, Ran gene (named LycRan) cDNA was cloned from the large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, a marine fish. The full-length cDNA of LycRan was of 1033 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 43 bp, 3'-terminal UTR of 338 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp encoding a polypeptide of 216 amino acids. The deduced protein is highly homologous, it shares 90.74%, 88.89%, 89.35% and 85.20% identities with those of salmon, frog, human and fruit fly respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that LycRan gene was constitutively expressed in 9 tissues examined, including kidney, liver, gill, muscle, spleen, skin, heart, intestine and blood. The result of quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis revealed the highest expression in kidney and the weakest expression in skin. Time course analysis showed that LycRan expression was obviously up-regulated in kidney, blood and spleen after immunization with either poly I:C or formalin-inactive Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. It indicated that the highest expression was 2.8 times (at 48 h) as much as that in the control in the kidney (p < 0.05) challenged by poly I:C and 3.2 times (at 24 h) in the blood (p < 0.05) challenged by bacteria. These results suggested that LycRan might play an important role in large yellow croaker defense against the pathogen infection. Our study, therefore, might provide a clue to elucidate the large yellow croaker innate immunity.

  10. A Physics-Informed Machine Learning Framework for RANS-based Predictive Turbulence Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Heng; Wu, Jinlong; Wang, Jianxun; Ling, Julia

    2016-11-01

    Numerical models based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are widely used in turbulent flow simulations in support of engineering design and optimization. In these models, turbulence modeling introduces significant uncertainties in the predictions. In light of the decades-long stagnation encountered by the traditional approach of turbulence model development, data-driven methods have been proposed as a promising alternative. We will present a data-driven, physics-informed machine-learning framework for predictive turbulence modeling based on RANS models. The framework consists of three components: (1) prediction of discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses based on machine learning algorithms, (2) propagation of improved Reynolds stresses to quantities of interests with a modified RANS solver, and (3) quantitative, a priori assessment of predictive confidence based on distance metrics in the mean flow feature space. Merits of the proposed framework are demonstrated in a class of flows featuring massive separations. Significant improvements over the baseline RANS predictions are observed. The favorable results suggest that the proposed framework is a promising path toward RANS-based predictive turbulence in the era of big data. (SAND2016-7435 A).

  11. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes

    PubMed Central

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation. PMID:21825128

  12. Autonomic Closure in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Simulations of Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlf, Rick J.

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation is the industry standard for computing practical turbulent flows - since large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) require comparatively massive computational power to simulate even relatively simple flows. RANS, like LES, requires that a user specify a "closure model" for the underlying turbulence physics. However, despite more than 60 years of research into turbulence modeling, current models remain largely unable to accurately predict key aspects of the complex turbulent flows frequently encountered in practical engineering applications. Recently a new approach, termed "autonomic closure", has been developed for LES that avoids the need to specify any prescribed turbulence model. Autonomic closure is a fully-adaptive, self-optimizing approach to the closure problem, in which the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and the simulation variables via solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. In principle, it should be possible to extend autonomic closure from LES to RANS simulations, and this thesis is the initial exploration of such an extension. A RANS implementation of autonomic closure would have far-reaching impacts on the ability to simulate practical engineering applications that involve turbulent flows. This thesis has developed the formal connection between autonomic closure for LES and its counterpart for RANS simulations, and provides a priori results from FLUENT simulations of the turbulent flow over a backward-facing step to evaluate the performance of an initial implementation of autonomic closure for RANS. Key aspects of these results lay the groundwork on which future efforts to extend autonomic closure to RANS simulations can be based.

  13. Evolution and variability of Solanum RanGAP2, a cofactor in the incompatible interaction between the resistance protein GPA2 and the Globodera pallida effector Gp-RBP-1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    interactions. StRanGAP2 gene appears to evolve under purifying selection. Its variability does not seem to influence the specificity of GPA2 recognition but is able to modulate this activity by enhancing the defence response. It seems therefore that the interaction with the plant resistance protein GPA2 (and/or Rx) rather than with the nematode effector was the major force in the evolution of the RanGAP2 locus in potato. From a mechanistic point of view these results are in accordance with a physical interaction of RanGAP2 with GPA2 and suggest that RBP-1 would rather bind the RanGAP2-GPA2 complex than the RanGAP2 protein alone. PMID:23601377

  14. Evolution and variability of Solanum RanGAP2, a cofactor in the incompatible interaction between the resistance protein GPA2 and the Globodera pallida effector Gp-RBP-1.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Jean; Grenier, Eric; Esquibet, Magalie; Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Moffett, Peter; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Kerlan, Marie-Claire

    2013-04-19

    appears to evolve under purifying selection. Its variability does not seem to influence the specificity of GPA2 recognition but is able to modulate this activity by enhancing the defence response. It seems therefore that the interaction with the plant resistance protein GPA2 (and/or Rx) rather than with the nematode effector was the major force in the evolution of the RanGAP2 locus in potato. From a mechanistic point of view these results are in accordance with a physical interaction of RanGAP2 with GPA2 and suggest that RBP-1 would rather bind the RanGAP2-GPA2 complex than the RanGAP2 protein alone.

  15. Structural characterization of recombinant IAV polymerase reveals a stable complex between viral PA-PB1 heterodimer and host RanBP5

    PubMed Central

    Swale, Christopher; Monod, Alexandre; Tengo, Laura; Labaronne, Alice; Garzoni, Frédéric; Bourhis, Jean-Marie; Cusack, Stephen; Schoehn, Guy; Berger, Imre; Ruigrok, Rob WH; Crépin, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    The genome of influenza A virus (IAV) comprises eight RNA segments (vRNA) which are transcribed and replicated by the heterotrimeric IAV RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). RdRp consists of three subunits (PA, PB1 and PB2) and binds both the highly conserved 3′- and 5′-ends of the vRNA segment. The IAV RdRp is an important antiviral target, but its structural mechanism has remained largely elusive to date. By applying a polyprotein strategy, we produced RdRp complexes and define a minimal human IAV RdRp core complex. We show that PA-PB1 forms a stable heterodimeric submodule that can strongly interact with 5′-vRNA. In contrast, 3′-vRNA recognition critically depends on the PB2 N-terminal domain. Moreover, we demonstrate that PA-PB1 forms a stable and stoichiometric complex with host nuclear import factor RanBP5 that can be modelled using SAXS and we show that the PA-PB1-RanPB5 complex is no longer capable of 5′-vRNA binding. Our results provide further evidence for a step-wise assembly of IAV structural components, regulated by nuclear transport mechanisms and host factor binding. PMID:27095520

  16. Chromosomal gain promotes formation of a steep RanGTP gradient that drives mitosis in aneuploid cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ryu, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Many mitotic factors were shown to be activated by Ran guanosine triphosphatase. Previous studies in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and in highly proliferative cells showed that mitotic chromosomes were surrounded by steep Ran guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentration gradients, indicating that RanGTP-activated factors promote spindle assembly around chromosomes. However, the mitotic role of Ran in normal differentiated cells is not known. In this paper, we show that although the steep mitotic RanGTP gradients were present in rapidly growing cell lines and were required for chromosome congression in mitotic HeLa cells, the gradients were strongly reduced in slow-growing primary cells, such as HFF-1 fibroblasts. The overexpression of RCC1, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ran, induced steeper mitotic RanGTP gradients in HFF-1 cells, showing the critical role of RCC1 levels in the regulation of mitosis by Ran. Remarkably, in vitro fusion of HFF-1 cells produced cells with steep mitotic RanGTP gradients comparable to HeLa cells, indicating that chromosomal gain can promote mitosis in aneuploid cancer cells via Ran. PMID:23319601

  17. The Nup358-RanGAP complex is required for efficient importin alpha/beta-dependent nuclear import.

    PubMed

    Hutten, Saskia; Flotho, Annette; Melchior, Frauke; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2008-05-01

    In vertebrate cells, the nucleoporin Nup358/RanBP2 is a major component of the filaments that emanate from the nuclear pore complex into the cytoplasm. Nup358 forms a complex with SUMOylated RanGAP1, the GTPase activating protein for Ran. RanGAP1 plays a pivotal role in the establishment of a RanGTP gradient across the nuclear envelope and, hence, in the majority of nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways. Here, we investigate the roles of the Nup358-RanGAP1 complex and of soluble RanGAP1 in nuclear protein transport, combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Depletion of Nup358 by RNA interference led to a clear reduction of importin alpha/beta-dependent nuclear import of various reporter proteins. In vitro, transport could be partially restored by the addition of importin beta, RanBP1, and/or RanGAP1 to the transport reaction. In intact Nup358-depleted cells, overexpression of importin beta strongly stimulated nuclear import, demonstrating that the transport receptor is the most rate-limiting factor at reduced Nup358-concentrations. As an alternative approach, we used antibody-inhibition experiments. Antibodies against RanGAP1 inhibited the enzymatic activity of soluble and nuclear pore-associated RanGAP1, as well as nuclear import and export. Although export could be fully restored by soluble RanGAP, import was only partially rescued. Together, these data suggest a dual function of the Nup358-RanGAP1 complex as a coordinator of importin beta recycling and reformation of novel import complexes.

  18. The regulation of post-germinative transition from the cotyledon- to vegetative-leaf stages by microRNA-targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN LIKE13 in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germination and early seedling development are critical for successful stand establishment of plants. Following germination, the cotyledons, which are derived from embryonic tissue, emerge from the seed. Arabidopsis seedlings at the post-germinative stages are supported mainly by the nutrition suppl...

  19. Middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiomonas sp. RAN5 strain for hydrogen sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryoki; Hirooka, Kayako; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the most toxic and offensively odorous gases and is generated in anaerobic bioreactors. A middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB), Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5, was isolated and applied for H2S removal from both artificial and anaerobically digested gas. When a bioreactor containing medium inoculated with RAN5 was aerated continuously with artificial gas (containing 100 ppm H2S) at 45 degrees C for 156 hr, the H2S concentration in the vented gas was reduced by 99%. This was not affected by the presence of other microbes in the bioreactor The H2S removal efficiency of the RAN5 bioreactor for anaerobically digested gas was greater than 99% at influent H2S concentrations ranging from 2 to 1800 ppm; the efficiency decreased to 90% at influent H2S concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 cannot survive at room temperature, and thus its leakage from a wastewater treatment plant would not damage sewage systems. These data suggest that Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 may be a useful microorganism for H2S removal.

  20. Model-Form Uncertainty Quantification in RANS Simulation of Wing-Body Junction Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinlong; Wang, Jianxun; Xiao, Heng

    2015-11-01

    Junction flow, known as one of the remaining challenges for computational aerodynamics, occurs when a boundary layer encounters an obstacle mounted on the surface. Previous studies have shown that the RANS models are not capable to provide satisfactory prediction. In this work, a novel open-box, physics-informed Bayesian framework is used to quantify the model-form uncertainties in RANS simulation of junction flow. The first objective is to correct the bias in RANS prediction, by utilizing several observation data. The second one is to quantify the model-form uncertainties, which can enable risk-informed decision-making. To begin with a standard RANS simulation, which is performed on a 3:2 elliptic nose and NACA0020 tail cylinder, uncertainties with empirical prior knowledge and physical constraints are directly injected into the Reynolds stresses term, and the unbiased knowledge from observation data is incorporated by an iterative ensemble Kalman method. Current results show that the bias in the quantities of interest (QoIs) of the RANS prediction, e.g., mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, etc, can be significantly corrected by this novel Bayesian framework. The probability density distributions of QoIs show that the model-form uncertainty can be quantified as well.

  1. Determination of Scaled Wind Turbine Rotor Characteristics from Three Dimensional RANS Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmester, S.; Gueydon, S.; Make, M.

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of 3D effects when calculating the performance characteristics of a scaled down turbine rotor [1-4]. In this paper the results of 3D RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) computations by Make and Vaz [1] are taken to calculate 2D lift and drag coefficients. These coefficients are assigned to FAST (Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) tool from NREL) as input parameters. Then, the rotor characteristics (power and thrust coefficients) are calculated using BEMT. This coupling of RANS and BEMT was previously applied by other parties and is termed here the RANS-BEMT coupled approach. Here the approach is compared to measurements carried out in a wave basin at MARIN applying Froude scaled wind, and the direct 3D RANS computation. The data of both a model and full scale wind turbine are used for the validation and verification. The flow around a turbine blade at full scale has a more 2D character than the flow properties around a turbine blade at model scale (Make and Vaz [1]). Since BEMT assumes 2D flow behaviour, the results of the RANS-BEMT coupled approach agree better with the results of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation at full- than at model-scale.

  2. Assessment of the DNS Data Accuracy Using RANS-DNS Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenares F., Juan D.; Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Murman, Scott M.

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) provide the most accurate computational description of a turbulent flow field and its statistical characteristics. Therefore, results of simulations with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models are often evaluated against DNS data. The goal of our study is to determine a limit of RANS model performance in relation to existing DNS data. Since no model can outperform DNS, this limit can be determined by solving RANS equations with all unknown terms being represented by their DNS data (RANS-DNS simulations). In the presentation, results of RANS-DNS simulations conducted using transport equations for velocity moments of second, third, and fourth orders in incompressible planar wall-bounded flows are discussed. The results were obtained with two solvers: OpenFOAM and in-house code for fully-developed flows at different Reynolds numbers using different DNS databases. The material is in part based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A.

  3. The Contribution of Statistical Errors in DNS Data Quantified with RANS-DNS Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Jeyapaul, Elbert; Murman, Scott M.; Colmenares F., Juan D.

    2016-11-01

    In RANS-DNS simulations, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved, with all terms but molecular diffusion being represented by the data from direct numerical simulations (DNS). No turbulence modeling is involved in such simulations. Recently, we demonstrated the use of RANS-DNS simulations as a framework for uncertainty quantification in statistical data collected from DNS. In the current study, contribution of the statistical error in the DNS data uncertainty is investigated using RANS-DNS simulations. Simulations of the Reynolds stress transport were conducted in a planar fully-developed turbulent channel flow at Re = 392 (based on the friction velocity) using DNS data collected at seven averaging times. The open-source CFD software OpenFOAM was used in RANS simulations. Budgets for the Reynolds stresses were obtained from DNS performed using a pseudo-spectral (Fourier/Chebyshev-tau) method. The material is in part based upon work supported by NASA under Award NNX12AJ61A.

  4. The Arabidopsis Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    McClung, C. Robertson; Salomé, Patrice A.; Michael, Todd P.

    2002-01-01

    Rhythms with periods of approximately 24 hr are widespread in nature. Those that persist in constant conditions are termed circadian rhythms and reflect the activity of an endogenous biological clock. Plants, including Arabidopsis, are richly rhythmic. Expression analysis, most recently on a genomic scale, indicates that the Arabidopsis circadian clock regulates a number of key metabolic pathways and stress responses. A number of sensitive and high-throughput assays have been developed to monitor the Arabidopsis clock. These assays have facilitated the identification of components of plant circadian systems through genetic and molecular biological studies. Although much remains to be learned, the framework of the Arabidopsis circadian system is coming into focus. Dedication This review is dedicated to the memory of DeLill Nasser, a wonderful mentor and an unwavering advocate of both Arabidopsis and circadian rhythms research. PMID:22303209

  5. Ran GTPase protein promotes human pancreatic cancer proliferation by deregulating the expression of Survivin and cell cycle proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Lin; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaodi; Sun, Yi; Shi, Yongquan; Fan, Hongwei; Liu, Changhao; Zhou, Jinfeng; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Guo, Xuegang

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Overexpression of Ran in pancreatic cancer was correlated with histological grade. •Downregulation of Ran could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. •The effects were mediated by cell cycle proteins, Survivin and cleaved Caspase-3. -- Abstract: Ran, a member of the Ras GTPase family, has important roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Herein, we detected Ran expression in pancreatic cancer and explored its potential role on tumour progression. Overexpressed Ran in pancreatic cancer tissues was found highly correlated with the histological grade. Downregulation of Ran led to significant suppression of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase and induction of apoptosis. In vivo studies also validated that result. Further studies revealed that those effects were at least partly mediated by the downregulation of Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, phospho-Rb and Survivin proteins and up regulation of cleaved Caspase-3.

  6. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Compressible Mixing Layer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modem day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS/LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. The hybrid RANS/LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two-dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, indicated an initial vortex shedding followed by rapid transition to turbulence, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  7. LES, DNS and RANS for the analysis of high-speed turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Givi, Peyman

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), and Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods for the analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. In the first phase of this research, conducted within the past six months, focus was in three directions: RANS of turbulent reacting flows by Probability Density Function (PDF) methods, RANS of non-reacting turbulent flows by advanced turbulence closures, and LES of mixing dominated reacting flows by a dynamics subgrid closure. A summary of our efforts within the past six months of this research is provided in this semi-annual progress report.

  8. Molecular Characterization of the SUMO-1 Modification of RanGAP1 and Its Role in Nuclear Envelope Association

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rohit; Gerace, Larry; Melchior, Frauke

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase-activating protein RanGAP1 is the first example of a protein covalently linked to the ubiquitin-related protein SUMO-1. Here we used peptide mapping, mass spectroscopy analysis, and mutagenesis to identify the nature of the link between RanGAP1 and SUMO-1. SUMO-1 is linked to RanGAP1 via glycine 97, indicating that the last 4 amino acids of this 101– amino acid protein are proteolytically removed before its attachment to RanGAP1. Recombinant SUMO-1 lacking the last four amino acids is efficiently used for modification of RanGAP1 in vitro and of multiple unknown proteins in vivo. In contrast to most ubiquitinated proteins, only a single lysine residue (K526) in RanGAP1 can serve as the acceptor site for modification by SUMO-1. Modification of RanGAP1 with SUMO-1 leads to association of RanGAP1 with the nuclear envelope (NE), where it was previously shown to be required for nuclear protein import. Sufficient information for modification and targeting resides in a 25-kD domain of RanGAP1. RanGAP1–SUMO-1 remains stably associated with the NE during many cycles of in vitro import. This indicates that removal of RanGAP1 from the NE is not a required element of nuclear protein import and suggests that the reversible modification of RanGAP1 may have a regulatory role. PMID:9442102

  9. Numerical Study of High-Temperature Jet Flow Using RANS/LES and PANS Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa

    2005-01-01

    Two multi-scale-type turbulence models are implemented in the PAB3D solver. The models are based on modifying the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The first scheme is a hybrid RANS/LES model utilizing the two-equation (k(epsilon)) model with a RANS/LES transition function dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model, where the unresolved kinetic energy parameter (f(sub k)) is allowed to vary as a function of grid spacing and the turbulence length scale. This parameter is estimated based on a novel two-stage procedure to efficiently estimate the level of scale resolution possible for a given flow on a given grid for Partial Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS). It has been found that the prescribed scale resolution can play a major role in obtaining accurate flow solutions. The parameter f(sub k) varies between zero and one and equal to one in the viscous sub layer, and when the RANS turbulent viscosity becomes smaller than the LES viscosity. The formulation, usage methodology, and validation examples are presented to demonstrate the enhancement of PAB3D's time-accurate and turbulence modeling capabilities. The accurate simulations of flow and turbulent quantities will provide valuable tool for accurate jet noise predictions. Solutions from these models are compared to RANS results and experimental data for high-temperature jet flows. The current results show promise for the capability of hybrid RANS/LES and PANS in simulating such flow phenomena.

  10. Capturing Cyclic Variability in EGR Dilute SI Combustion using Multi-Cycle RANS

    SciTech Connect

    Scarcelli, Riccardo; Sevik, James; Wallner, Thomas; Richards, Keith; Pomraning, Eric; Senecal, Peter K.

    2015-11-08

    Dilute combustion is an effective approach to increase the thermal efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion engines (ICEs). However, high dilution levels typically result in large cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) and poor combustion stability, therefore limiting the efficiency improvement. In order to extend the dilution tolerance of SI engines, advanced ignition systems are the subject of extensive research. When simulating the effect of the ignition characteristics on CCV, providing a numerical result matching the measured average in-cylinder pressure trace does not deliver useful information regarding combustion stability. Typically Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are performed to simulate cyclic engine variations, since Reynold-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling is expected to deliver an ensemble-averaged result. In this paper it is shown that, when using RANS, the cyclic perturbations coming from different initial conditions at each cycle are not damped out even after many simulated cycles. As a result, multi-cycle RANS results feature cyclic variability. This allows evaluating the effect of advanced ignition sources on combustion stability but requires validation against the entire cycle-resolved experimental dataset. A single-cylinder GDI research engine is simulated using RANS and the numerical results for 20 consecutive engine cycles are evaluated for several operating conditions, including stoichiometric as well as EGR dilute operation. The effect of the ignition characteristics on CCV is also evaluated. Results show not only that multi-cycle RANS simulations can capture cyclic variability and deliver similar trends as the experimental data, but more importantly that RANS might be an effective, lower-cost alternative to LES for the evaluation of ignition strategies for combustion systems that operate close to the stability limit.

  11. Integrated RANS-LES Computations of Turbomachinery Components: Generic Compressor/Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlueter, J. U.; Wu, X.; Kim, S.; Alonso, J. J.; Pitsch, H.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to apply the coupled RANS-LES approach to a compressor-diffuser geometry of a gas turbine. This flow configuration is important, since the outflow of the compressor alters the flow field in the subsequent diffuser. A detailed knowledge of the flow field in this section allows to optimize the difuser design in order to to achieve a decrease of pressure loss. Here, the NASA stage 35 compressor is coupled with a generic diffuser in order to assess the integrated RANS-LES approach.

  12. Model-Invariant Hybrid LES-RANS Computation of Separated Flow Past Periodic Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The requirement that physical quantities not vary with a hybrid LESRANS model's blending parameter imposes conditions on the computation that lead to better results across LES-RANS transitions. This promises to allow placement of those transitions so that LES is performed only where required by the physics, improving computational efficiency. The approach is applied to separated flow past periodic hills, where good predictions of separation-bubble size are seen due to the gradual, controlled, LES-RANS transition and the resulting enhanced near-wall eddy viscosity.

  13. Development of Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) in Simultaneous Kannada-English Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddaiah, Anand; Saldanha, Marita; Venkatesh, Shyamala K.; Ramachandra, Nallur B.; Padakannaya, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    RAN tests were administered to 600 typically developing children, 60 each from grade level one through grade ten (30 boys and 30 girls), who learn two distinct languages, English and Kannada simultaneously from the very first grade. The overall results were in accordance with similar previous studies in English and other European languages. The…

  14. Analysis of vegetation effect on waves using a vertical 2-D RANS model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A vertical two-dimensional (2-D) model has been applied in the simulation of wave propagation through vegetated water bodies. The model is based on an existing model SOLA-VOF which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the finite difference method on a staggered rectangula...

  15. Interface Conditions for Hybrid RANS/LES Simulations of Complex and Compressible Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    separated into a resolved (large-scale) and a subgrid (small-scale) field, by a spatial filtering operation. In the unsteady RANS ( URANS ) approach, on...governing equations for LES and URANS have the same form: (fTi, + t)a, dxt dxi 0 . d2u, dxjdxj da-j 1 dp P Ox, (1) (2) In these equations, an

  16. Hybrid LES/RANS Simulation of Transverse Sonic Injection into a Mach 2 Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boles, John A.; Edwards, Jack R.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    A computational study of transverse sonic injection of air and helium into a Mach 1.98 cross-flow is presented. A hybrid large-eddy simulation / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) turbulence model is used, with the two-equation Menter baseline (Menter-BSL) closure for the RANS part of the flow and a Smagorinsky-type model for the LES part of the flow. A time-dependent blending function, dependent on modeled turbulence variables, is used to shift the closure from RANS to LES. Turbulent structures are initiated and sustained through the use of a recycling / rescaling technique. Two higher-order discretizations, the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) of Colella and Woodward, and the SONIC-A ENO scheme of Suresh and Huyhn are used in the study. The results using the hybrid model show reasonably good agreement with time-averaged Mie scattering data and with experimental surface pressure distributions, even though the penetration of the jet into the cross-flow is slightly over-predicted. The LES/RANS results are used to examine the validity of commonly-used assumptions of constant Schmidt and Prandtl numbers in the intense mixing zone downstream of the injection location.

  17. Machine Learning Models for Detection of Regions of High Model Form Uncertainty in RANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Julia; Templeton, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models are widely used because of their computational efficiency and ease-of-implementation. However, because they rely on inexact turbulence closures, they suffer from significant model form uncertainty in many flows. Many RANS models make use of the Boussinesq hypothesis, which assumes a non-negative, scalar eddy viscosity that provides a linear relation between the Reynolds stresses and the mean strain rate. In many flows of engineering relevance, this eddy viscosity assumption is violated, leading to inaccuracies in the RANS predictions. For example, in near wall regions, the Boussinesq hypothesis fails to capture the correct Reynolds stress anisotropy. In regions of flow curvature, the linear relation between Reynolds stresses and mean strain rate may be inaccurate. This model form uncertainty cannot be quantified by simply varying the model parameters, as it is rooted in the model structure itself. Machine learning models were developed to detect regions of high model form uncertainty. These machine learning models consisted of binary classifiers that predicted, on a point-by-point basis, whether or not key RANS assumptions were violated. These classifiers were trained and evaluated for their sensitivity, specificity, and generalizability on a database of canonical flows.

  18. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Ran expression during simulated and real microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kriegs, B; Theisen, R; Schnabl, H

    2006-12-01

    In order to gain further insight into the signal transduction pathway concerning gravitropism, we studied the expression profiles of mRNA in etiolated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Differential-display reverse transcriptase PCR product assayed by capillary electrophoresis revealed the small GTPase Ran, regulating nuclear import and export of proteins. Parallel analysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) release by a highly advanced system of metal-dye detection combined with high-performance liquid chromatography provided evidence that the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 is modulated by changes of the gravity vector. Investigations by fast clinorotation and sounding rockets established a positive correlation between the Ins(1,4,5)P3 level and the expression rate of Ran mRNA during simulated and real microgravity. Since an asymmetric distribution of auxin during graviresponse is suggested to induce differential cell elongation, additional information on the perception and transduction pathways was achieved by auxin stimulation experiments. While we were able to demonstrate an auxin-dependent production of Ins(1,4,5)P3, the expression of Ran mRNA was not affected by auxin. Finally, besides the phosphoinositide system as one element of the signal transduction chain linking graviperception to graviresponse, a Ran-mediated interaction model of extracellular microgravity signal perception and intercellular transduction pathway is proposed.

  19. Western Culture in Japanese Film: Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood" and "Ran."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    Akira Kurosawa, the most popular Asian film maker with audiences in the United States, has found in William Shakespeare's plays themes and plots that resonate within Japanese culture. While the translations of "Macbeth" into "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" into "Ran" are quite direct and literal with only…

  20. A new role for Ran in ensuring precise duplication of chromosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Blow, J. Julian

    2013-01-01

    To prevent re-replication of DNA, the licensing of replication origins is inhibited in S phase and G2. New work shows that the small GTPase Ran can directly inhibit licensing inside nuclei once CDKs are active late in the cell cycle. PMID:12679026

  1. Development of Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) in Simultaneous Kannada-English Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddaiah, Anand; Saldanha, Marita; Venkatesh, Shyamala K.; Ramachandra, Nallur B.; Padakannaya, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    RAN tests were administered to 600 typically developing children, 60 each from grade level one through grade ten (30 boys and 30 girls), who learn two distinct languages, English and Kannada simultaneously from the very first grade. The overall results were in accordance with similar previous studies in English and other European languages. The…

  2. Western Culture in Japanese Film: Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood" and "Ran."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    Akira Kurosawa, the most popular Asian film maker with audiences in the United States, has found in William Shakespeare's plays themes and plots that resonate within Japanese culture. While the translations of "Macbeth" into "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" into "Ran" are quite direct and literal with only…

  3. Host MicroRNA miR-197 Plays a Negative Regulatory Role in the Enterovirus 71 Infectious Cycle by Targeting the RAN Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wen-Fang; Huang, Ru-Ting; Chien, Kun-Yi; Huang, Jo-Yun; Lau, Kean-Seng; Jheng, Jia-Rong; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Chung-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of Picornaviridae, is associated with severe central nervous system complications. In this study, we identified a cellular microRNA (miRNA), miR-197, whose expression was downregulated by viral infection in a time-dependent manner. In miR-197 mimic-transfected cells, EV71 replication was inhibited, whereas the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity was decreased in EV71 strains with or without predicted miR-197 target sites, indicating that miR-197 targets host proteins to modulate viral replication. We thus used a quantitative proteomics approach, aided by the TargetScan algorithm, to identify putative target genes of miR-197. Among them, RAN was selected and validated as a genuine target in a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) reporter assay. Reduced production of RAN by RNA interference markedly reduced the synthesis of EV71-encoded viral proteins and virus titers. Furthermore, reintroduction of nondegradable RAN into these knockdown cells rescued viral protein synthesis. miR-197 levels were modulated by EV71 to maintain RAN mRNA translatability at late times postinfection since we demonstrated that cap-independent translation exerted by its intrinsic IRES activity was occurring at times when translation attenuation was induced by EV71. EV71-induced downregulation of miR-197 expression increased the expression of RAN, which supported the nuclear transport of the essential viral proteins 3D/3CD and host protein hnRNP K for viral replication. Our data suggest that downregulation of cellular miRNAs may constitute a newly identified mechanism that sustains the expression of host proteins to facilitate viral replication. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a picornavirus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA that globally inhibits the cellular translational system, mainly by cleaving cellular eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), which inhibits the association of the

  4. Unraveling the circadian clock in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Ligeng

    2013-02-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous timing system responsible for coordinating an organism's biological processes with its environment. Interlocked transcriptional feedback loops constitute the fundamental architecture of the circadian clock. In Arabidopsis, three feedback loops, the core loop, morning loop and evening loop, comprise a network that is the basis of the circadian clock. The components of these three loops are regulated in distinct ways, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. The discovery of the DNA-binding and repressive activities of TOC1 has overturned our initial concept of its function in the circadian clock. The alternative splicing of circadian clock-related genes plays an essential role in normal functioning of the clock and enables organisms to sense environmental changes. In this review, we describe the regulatory mechanisms of the circadian clock that have been identified in Arabidopsis.

  5. Preprophase band formation and cortical division zone establishment: RanGAP behaves differently from microtubules during their band formation.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Takatoshi; Nakai, Tomonori; Sonobe, Seiji; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Correct positioning of the division plane is a prerequisite for plant morphogenesis. The preprophase band (PPB) is a key intracellular structure of division site determination. PPB forms in G2 phase as a broad band of microtubules (MTs) that narrows in prophase and specializes few-micrometer-wide cortical belt region, named the cortical division zone (CDZ), in late prophase. The PPB comprises several molecules, some of which act as MT band organization and others remain in the CDZ marking the correct insertion of the cell plate in telophase. Ran GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) is accumulated in the CDZ and forms a RanGAP band in prophase. However, little is known about when and how RanGAPs gather in the CDZ, and especially with regard to their relationships to MT band formation. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal distribution of RanGAPs and MTs in the preprophase of onion root tip cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed that the RanGAP band appeared in mid-prophase as the width of MT band was reduced to nearly 7 µm. Treatments with cytoskeletal inhibitors for 15 min caused thinning or broadening of the MT band but had little effects on RanGAP band in mid-prophase and most of late prophase cells. Detailed image analyses of the spatial distribution of RanGAP band and MT band showed that the RanGAP band positioned slightly beneath the MT band in mid-prophase. These results raise a possibility that RanGAP behaves differently from MTs during their band formation.

  6. Preprophase band formation and cortical division zone establishment: RanGAP behaves differently from microtubules during their band formation

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Takatoshi; Nakai, Tomonori; Sonobe, Seiji; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Correct positioning of the division plane is a prerequisite for plant morphogenesis. The preprophase band (PPB) is a key intracellular structure of division site determination. PPB forms in G2 phase as a broad band of microtubules (MTs) that narrows in prophase and specializes few-micrometer-wide cortical belt region, named the cortical division zone (CDZ), in late prophase. The PPB comprises several molecules, some of which act as MT band organization and others remain in the CDZ marking the correct insertion of the cell plate in telophase. Ran GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) is accumulated in the CDZ and forms a RanGAP band in prophase. However, little is known about when and how RanGAPs gather in the CDZ, and especially with regard to their relationships to MT band formation. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal distribution of RanGAPs and MTs in the preprophase of onion root tip cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed that the RanGAP band appeared in mid-prophase as the width of MT band was reduced to nearly 7 µm. Treatments with cytoskeletal inhibitors for 15 min caused thinning or broadening of the MT band but had little effects on RanGAP band in mid-prophase and most of late prophase cells. Detailed image analyses of the spatial distribution of RanGAP band and MT band showed that the RanGAP band positioned slightly beneath the MT band in mid-prophase. These results raise a possibility that RanGAP behaves differently from MTs during their band formation. PMID:26237087

  7. Clickable and Antifouling Platform of Poly[(propargyl methacrylate)-ran-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)] for Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Wiarachai, Oraphan; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Hoven, Voravee P

    2016-02-02

    A functional copolymer platform, namely, poly[(propargyl methacrylate)-ran-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)] (PPgMAMPC), was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. In principle, the alkyne moiety of propargyl methacrylate (PgMA) should serve as an active site for binding azide-containing molecules via a click reaction, i.e., Cu-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), the hydrophilic monomeric unit, should enable the copolymer to suppress nonspecific adsorption. The copolymers were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. Thiol-terminated, PPgMAMPC-SH, obtained by aminolysis of PPgMAMPC, was immobilized on a gold-coated substrate using a "grafting to" approach via self-assembly. Azide-containing species, namely, biotin and peptide nucleic acid (PNA), were then immobilized on the alkyne-containing copolymeric platform via CuAAC. The potential use of surface-attached PPgMAMPC in biosensing applications was shown by detection of specific target molecules, i.e., streptavidin (SA) and DNA, by the developed sensing platform using a surface plasmon resonance technique. The copolymer composition strongly influenced the performance of the developed sensing platform in terms of signal-to-noise ratio in the case of the biotin-SA system and hybridization efficiency and mismatch discrimination for the PNA-DNA system.

  8. The Ran GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP1) is critically involved in smooth muscle cell differentiation, proliferation and migration following vascular injury: implications for neointima formation and restenosis.

    PubMed

    Vorpahl, Marc; Schönhofer-Merl, Sabine; Michaelis, Cornelia; Flotho, Annette; Melchior, Frauke; Wessely, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation and dedifferentiation, accompanied by proliferation play a pivotal role for the phenotypic development of vascular proliferative diseases (VPD), such as restenosis. Increasing evidence points to an essential role of regulated nucleoporin expression in the choice between differentiation and proliferation. However, whether components of the Ran GTPase cycle, which is of pivotal importance for both nucleocytoplasmic transport and for mitotic progression, are subject to similar regulation in VPD is currently unknown. Here, we show that differentiation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cell (CASMC) to a contractile phenotype by stepwise serum depletion leads to significant reduction of RanGAP1 protein levels. The inverse event, dedifferentiation of cells, was assessed in the rat carotid artery balloon injury model, a well-accepted model for neointima formation and restenosis. As revealed by temporospatial analysis of RanGAP1 expression, neointima formation in rat carotid arteries was associated with a significant upregulation of RanGAP1 expression at 3 and 7 days after balloon injury. Of note, neointimal cells located at the luminal surface revealed persistent RanGAP1 expression, as opposed to cells in deeper layers of the neointima where RanGAP1 expression was less or not detectable at all. To gain first evidence for a direct influence of RanGAP1 levels on differentiation, we reduced RanGAP1 in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells by siRNA. Indeed, downregulation of the essential RanGAP1 protein by 50% induced a differentiated, spindle-like smooth muscle cell phenotype, accompanied by an upregulation of the differentiation marker desmin. Reduction of RanGAP1 levels also resulted in a reduction of mitogen induced cellular migration and proliferation as well as a significant upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1, without evidence for cellular necrosis. These findings suggest that RanGAP1 plays a critical role in smooth

  9. The RanGEF Bj1 promotes Prospero nuclear export and neuroblast self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Tasha; Hirono, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila larval neuroblasts are a model system for studying stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Here we report a novel role for the Drosophila gene Bj1 in promoting larval neuroblast self-renewal. Bj1 is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Ran GTPase, which regulates nuclear import/export. Bj1 transcripts are highly enriched in larval brain neuroblasts (in both central brain and optic lobe), while Bj1 protein is detected in both neuroblasts and their neuronal progeny. Loss of Bj1 using both mutants or RNAi causes a progressive loss of larval neuroblasts, showing that Bj1 is required to maintain neuroblast numbers. Loss of Bj1 does not result in neuroblast apoptosis, but rather leads to abnormal nuclear accumulation of the differentiation factor Prospero, and premature neuroblast differentiation. We conclude that the Bj1 RanGEF promotes Prospero nuclear export and neuroblast self-renewal. PMID:25312250

  10. The RanGEF Bj1 promotes prospero nuclear export and neuroblast self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Joy, Tasha; Hirono, Keiko; Doe, Chris Q

    2015-05-01

    Drosophila larval neuroblasts are a model system for studying stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Here, we report a novel role for the Drosophila gene Bj1 in promoting larval neuroblast self-renewal. Bj1 is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Ran GTPase, which regulates nuclear import/export. Bj1 transcripts are highly enriched in larval brain neuroblasts (in both central brain and optic lobe), while Bj1 protein is detected in both neuroblasts and their neuronal progeny. Loss of Bj1 using both mutants or RNAi causes a progressive loss of larval neuroblasts, showing that Bj1 is required to maintain neuroblast numbers. Loss of Bj1 does not result in neuroblast apoptosis, but rather leads to abnormal nuclear accumulation of the differentiation factor Prospero, and premature neuroblast differentiation. We conclude that the Bj1 RanGEF promotes Prospero nuclear export and neuroblast self-renewal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The calculations of propeller induced velocity by RANS and momentum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiuxin; Jin, Wei; Vassalos, Dracos

    2012-06-01

    In order to provide instructions for the calculation of the propeller induced velocity in the study of the hull-propeller interaction using the body force approach, three methods were used to calculate the propeller induced velocity: 1) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of the self-propulsion test, 2) RANS simulation of the propeller open water test, and 3) momentum theory of the propeller. The results from the first two methods were validated against experimental data to assess the accuracy of the computed flow field. The thrust identity method was adopted to obtain the advance velocity, which was then used to derive the propeller induced velocity from the total velocity field. The results computed by the first two approaches were close, while those from the momentum theory were significantly overestimated. The presented results could prove to be useful for further calculations of self-propulsion using the body force approach.

  12. RANS/PDF and LES/FDF for prediction of turbulent premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Server Levent

    Probability density function (PDF) and filtered density function (FDF) methodologies are developed and implemented, respectively, for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent premixed flames. RANS predictions are made of a lean premixed bluff-body flame via the joint velocity-scalar-frequency PDF model. LES of a premixed Bunsen-burner flame is conducted via the scalar FDF methodology. Both simulations employ finite rate kinetics via a reduced methane chemistry mechanism to account for combustion. Prediction results are compared with experimental data, and are shown to capture some of the intricate physics of turbulent premixed combustion. Keywords. large eddy simulation, filtered density function, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes, probability density function, turbulent reacting flows, lean premixed combustion.

  13. The design of Förster (fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based molecular sensors for Ran GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Kalab, Petr; Soderholm, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The application of FRET-based molecular bio-sensors provided confirmation of the central model of Ran GTPase function and led to important new insights into its physiological role. In many fields of cell biology, methods employing FRET are a standard approach that is becoming increasingly accessible due to advances in instrumentation and available fluorophores. However, the optimal design of a FRET sensor remains to be the cornerstone of any successful FRET application. Utilizing the recent literature on FRET applications and our studies on Ran, we outline the basic considerations involved in designing molecular FRET sensors. We point to several broadly applicable principles that were used in many different FRET sensors that can detect a wide range of molecular events. Using the FRET sensors for Ran that we created as examples, we then focus on the practical aspects of FRET assays. We describe the preparation of a bipartite FRET sensor consisting of ECFP-Ran and EYFP-importin β and its validation as a reporter for FRET-based high throughput screening in small molecule libraries. Finally, we review the design and optimization of monomolecular FRET sensors that monitor the RanGTP-RanBP1 interaction, and of sensors detecting the RanGTP-regulated importin β cargo release. PMID:20096786

  14. Computing the flow past Vortex Generators: Comparison between RANS Simulations and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolesos, M.; Sørensen, N. N.; Troldborg, N.; Florentie, L.; Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.

    2016-09-01

    The flow around a wind turbine airfoil equipped with Vortex Generators (VGs) is examined. Predictions from three different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers with two different turbulence models and two different VG modelling approaches are compared between them and with experimental data. The best results are obtained with the more expensive fully resolved VG approach. The cost efficient BAY model can also provide acceptable results, if grid related numerical diffusion is minimized and only force coefficient polars are considered.

  15. Variation in the Dicer and RAN Genes Are Associated with Survival in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Jung Oh; Lee, Seung Min; Park, Hana; Lee, Ju Ho; Rim, Kyu Sung; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Kim, Nam Keun

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA machinery genes might affect microRNA processing and subsequently impact tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between SNPs in microRNA machinery genes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a Korean population. Genotyping of six SNPs in microRNA machinery genes was performed using blood samples from 147 patients with HCC and 209 healthy control subjects. None of the six SNPs in microRNA machinery genes were significantly associated with HCC development. However, among the models for six polymorphic loci—DICER (rs3742330 and rs13078), DROSHA (rs10719 and rs6877842), RAN (rs14035) and XPO5 (rs11077)—one allele combination (A-A-T-C-C-C) showed synergistic effects in terms of an increased risk of HCC development (odds ratio = 8.881, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.889–41.750; P = 0.002). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed a significant survival benefit for the DICER rs3742330 GG compared with the AA type (hazard ratio [HR], 0.314; 95% CI, 0.135–0.730; P = 0.007) and for the RAN rs14035 CT compared with the CC genotype (HR, 0.587; 95% CI, 0.349–0.987; P = 0.044). Although we found no direct association between DICER (rs3742330 and rs13078), DROSHA (rs10719 and rs6877842), RAN (rs14035) or XPO5 (rs11077) polymorphisms and HCC risk, we demonstrated that DICER (rs3742330) and RAN (rs14035) were associated with the survival of HCC patients. Future studies with larger samples are needed to determine associations of SNPs in microRNA machinery genes with HCC risk and prognosis. PMID:27611467

  16. Vascular development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zheng-Hua; Freshour, Glenn; Hahn, Michael G; Burk, David H; Zhong, Ruiqin

    2002-01-01

    Vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, form a continuous network throughout the plant body for transport of water, minerals, and food. Characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in various aspects of vascular formation has demonstrated that Arabidopsis is an ideal system for investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling vascular development. The processes affected in these mutants include initiation or division of procambium or vascular cambium, formation of continuous vascular cell files, differentiation of procambium or vascular cambium into vascular tissues, cell elongation, patterned secondary wall thickening, and biosynthesis of secondary walls. Identification of the genes affected by some of these mutations has revealed essential roles in vascular development for a cytokinin receptor and several factors mediating auxin transport or signaling. Mutational studies have also identified a number of Arabidopsis mutants defective in leaf venation pattern or vascular tissue organization in stems. Genetic evidence suggests that the vascular tissue organization is regulated by the same positional information that determines organ polarity.

  17. A biodegradable, injectable, gel system based on MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymers with an adjustable therapeutic window.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun Mi; Lee, Sang Hyo; Lee, Ju Young; Son, Jin Soo; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Bong; Chun, Heung Jae; Min, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Moon Suk

    2010-03-01

    In situ-forming gel systems have drawn increasing attention for their potential use in a variety of biomedical applications. Here, we examined an in situ-forming gel system comprised of MPEG-b-PCL and MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymers with different PLLA contents (0-10 mol%) in the PCL segment. The crystalline region of the PCL-ran-PLLA segment decreased with increasing PLLA content. The MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer solutions were liquid at room temperature and only MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer solutions with a PLLA content < or = 5 mol% in the PCL segment showed a sol-to-gel transition as the temperature was increased. The viscosity change associated with sol-to-gel phase transition depended on the PLLA content in the PCL segment. A MPEG-b-PCL diblock copolymer solution incubated in vitro showed increasing viscosity without degradation, whereas the viscosity of MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer solutions continuously and sharply decreased with increasing PLLA content in the PCL segment. As the amount of PLLA increased, the size of in vivo-formed MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) gels after initial injection tended to gradually decrease because of hydrolytic degradation of the PLLA in the PCL-ran-PLLA segment. An immunohistochemical examination showed that in vivo MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer gels provoked only a modest inflammatory response. Collectively, our results show that the MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer gel described here could serve as a minimally invasive, therapeutic, in situ-forming gel system that offers an experimental window adjustable from a few weeks to a few months. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical Inference of a RANS closure for a Jet-in-Crossflow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, Jan; Edeling, Wouter; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    The jet-in-crossflow is found in several engineering applications, such as discrete film cooling for turbine blades, where a coolant injected through hols in the blade's surface protects the component from the hot gases leaving the combustion chamber. Experimental measurements using MRI techniques have been completed for a single hole injection into a turbulent crossflow, providing full 3D averaged velocity field. For such flows of engineering interest, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence closure models are often the only viable computational option. However, RANS models are known to provide poor predictions in the region close to the injection point. Since these models are calibrated on simple canonical flow problems, the obtained closure coefficient estimates are unlikely to extrapolate well to more complex flows. We will therefore calibrate the parameters of a RANS model using statistical inference techniques informed by the experimental jet-in-crossflow data. The obtained probabilistic parameter estimates can in turn be used to compute flow fields with quantified uncertainty. Stanford Graduate Fellowship in Science and Engineering.

  19. Accurate load prediction by BEM with airfoil data from 3D RANS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Marc S.; Nitzsche, Jens; Hennings, Holger

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two methods for the extraction of airfoil coefficients from 3D CFD simulations of a wind turbine rotor are investigated, and these coefficients are used to improve the load prediction of a BEM code. The coefficients are extracted from a number of steady RANS simulations, using either averaging of velocities in annular sections, or an inverse BEM approach for determination of the induction factors in the rotor plane. It is shown that these 3D rotor polars are able to capture the rotational augmentation at the inner part of the blade as well as the load reduction by 3D effects close to the blade tip. They are used as input to a simple BEM code and the results of this BEM with 3D rotor polars are compared to the predictions of BEM with 2D airfoil coefficients plus common empirical corrections for stall delay and tip loss. While BEM with 2D airfoil coefficients produces a very different radial distribution of loads than the RANS simulation, the BEM with 3D rotor polars manages to reproduce the loads from RANS very accurately for a variety of load cases, as long as the blade pitch angle is not too different from the cases from which the polars were extracted.

  20. Towards Model Inadequacy Representations for Flamelet-Based RANS Combustion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Todd; Lee, M. K.; Sondak, David; Simmons, Chris; Moser, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Flamelet-based RANS simulations are commonly used in combustion engineering. In such simulations, chemical reactions are represented by a "flamelet-library" of laminar diffusion flame solutions generated with some chemical mechanism, and turbulence is represented using typical eddy-viscosity-based RANS closures. Modeling errors are introduced through both of these models as well as their interaction. In this work, we formulate and apply physics-based stochastic model inadequacy representations to capture the effects of possible modeling errors, allowing their impact on quantities of interest to be estimated. Specifically, the uncertainty introduced by inadequacy of the chemical mechanism is represented using a recently developed stochastic operator approach, which is extended to the diffusion flame here, leading to a stochastic diffusion flame library. A Karhunen-Loeve decomposition applied to these random fields enables low-dimensional representation of this uncertainty. A stochastic extension of typical eddy-viscosity-based RANS models is developed to represent inadequacy in the turbulence closures. The full stochastic model is demonstrated on simulations of a planar jet flame.

  1. Advanced Signal Processing for Integrated LES-RANS Simulations: Anti-aliasing Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlueter, J. U.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, a wide variety of flow phenomena are addressed with numerical simulations. Many flow solvers are optimized to simulate a limited spectrum of flow effects effectively, such as single parts of a flow system, but are either inadequate or too expensive to be applied to a very complex problem. As an example, the flow through a gas turbine can be considered. In the compressor and the turbine section, the flow solver has to be able to handle the moving blades, model the wall turbulence, and predict the pressure and density distribution properly. This can be done by a flow solver based on the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. On the other hand, the flow in the combustion chamber is governed by large scale turbulence, chemical reactions, and the presence of fuel spray. Experience shows that these phenomena require an unsteady approach. Hence, for the combustor, the use of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) flow solver is desirable. While many design problems of a single flow passage can be addressed by separate computations, only the simultaneous computation of all parts can guarantee the proper prediction of multi-component phenomena, such as compressor/combustor instability and combustor/turbine hot-streak migration. Therefore, a promising strategy to perform full aero-thermal simulations of gas-turbine engines is the use of a RANS flow solver for the compressor sections, an LES flow solver for the combustor, and again a RANS flow solver for the turbine section.

  2. Defining boundary conditions for RANS predictions of urban flows using mesoscale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Sanchez, Clara; Gorle, Catherine; van Beeck, Jeroen

    2015-11-01

    Pollutant dispersion and wind flows in urban canopies are major concerns for human health and energy, and the complex nature of the flow and transport processes remains a challenge when using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict wind flows. The definition of the inflow boundary condition in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (RANS) is one of the uncertainties that will strongly influence the prediction of the flow field, and thus, the dispersion pattern. The goal of the work presented is to define a methodology that improves the level of realism in the inflow condition for RANS simulations by accounting for larger mesoscale effects. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used to forecast mesoscale flow patterns, and two different approaches are used to define inflow conditions for the RANS simulations performed with OpenFOAM: 1) WRF variables such as local velocity magnitude, ABL height and friction velocity are directly interpolated onto the boundaries of the CFD domain; 2) WRF predictions for the geostrophic wind and friction velocity are applied as a forcing boundary condition. Simulations of the Joint Urban 2003 experimental campaign in Oklahoma City have been performed using both approaches and a comparison of the results will be presented.

  3. RAN GTPase is a RASSF1A effector involved in controlling microtubule organization.

    PubMed

    Dallol, Ashraf; Hesson, Luke B; Matallanas, David; Cooper, Wendy N; O'Neill, Eric; Maher, Eamonn R; Kolch, Walter; Latif, Farida

    2009-07-28

    RASSF1A is a tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated by hypermethylation of its promoter region in most types of human cancers. The incidence of spontaneous or induced tumors is significantly higher in Rassf1a(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice, confirming the tumor suppressor function of RASSF1A. RASSF1A promotes apoptosis mainly through its interaction with the proapoptotic serine/threonine STE20-like kinases MST1 and 2. However, Rassf1a(-/-) mice do not show overt signs of deregulated apoptosis, suggesting that other RASSF1A effectors are also critical for tumor suppression. In a proteomics screen, we identified RAN GTPase, MST1 and 2 kinases, and alpha- and gamma-tubulin as RASSF1A-interacting proteins. We show that RASSF1A-induced microtubule hyperstability, a hallmark of RASSF1A expression, is RAN-GTP dependent. RASSF1A promotes the accumulation of the GTP-bound form of RAN via the MST2-induced phosphorylation of RCC1. Depletion of RASSF1A results in mislocalization of RCC1 to the mitotic spindle and spindle poles, leading to mitotic spindle abnormalities and prometaphase block. A similar mitotic delay is also observed with MST2 depletion. These findings reveal a mechanism for how RASSF1A controls microtubule stability and for how its loss compromises the integrity of the mitotic spindle, leading to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis.

  4. Unsteady Three-Dimensional Simulation of a Shear Coaxial GO2/GH2 Rocket Injector with RANS and Hybrid-RAN-LES/DES Using Flamelet Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Doug G.; West, Jeffrey S.; Richardson, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the analysis and design of liquid rocket engines (LREs) has relied on full-scale testing and one-dimensional empirical tools. The testing is extremely expensive and the one-dimensional tools are not designed to capture the highly complex, and multi-dimensional features that are inherent to LREs. Recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools have made it possible to predict liquid rocket engine performance, stability, to assess the effect of complex flow features, and to evaluate injector-driven thermal environments, to mitigate the cost of testing. Extensive efforts to verify and validate these CFD tools have been conducted, to provide confidence for using them during the design cycle. Previous validation efforts have documented comparisons of predicted heat flux thermal environments with test data for a single element gaseous oxygen (GO2) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) injector. The most notable validation effort was a comprehensive validation effort conducted by Tucker et al. [1], in which a number of different groups modeled a GO2/GH2 single element configuration by Pal et al [2]. The tools used for this validation comparison employed a range of algorithms, from both steady and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (U/RANS) calculations, large-eddy simulations (LES), detached eddy simulations (DES), and various combinations. A more recent effort by Thakur et al. [3] focused on using a state-of-the-art CFD simulation tool, Loci/STREAM, on a two-dimensional grid. Loci/STREAM was chosen because it has a unique, very efficient flamelet parameterization of combustion reactions that are too computationally expensive to simulate with conventional finite-rate chemistry calculations. The current effort focuses on further advancement of validation efforts, again using the Loci/STREAM tool with the flamelet parameterization, but this time with a three-dimensional grid. Comparisons to the Pal et al. heat flux data will be made for both RANS and

  5. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Wang, Xuelu; Chory, Joanne

    2006-12-05

    Plants control their size through the action of several phytohormones. One class of growth-promoting hormones is the brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants. Here, we present the Arabidopsis-specific proteins that are the founding members of key BR signaling pathway components found in all plants. The genetic studies that identified these components are unique to Arabidopsis owing to its rapid generation time, sophisticated genetics, and facile transformation protocols, thereby highlighting the importance of a reference plant for understanding fundamental processes in all land plants.

  6. Metallochaperone-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tehseen, Muhammad; Cairns, Narelle; Sherson, Sarah; Cobbett, Christopher S

    2010-08-01

    A complete inventory of metallochaperone-like proteins containing a predicted HMA domain in Arabidopsis revealed a large family of 67 proteins. 45 proteins, the HIPPs, have a predicted isoprenylation site while 22 proteins, the HPPs, do not. Sequence comparisons divided the proteins into seven major clusters (I-VII). Cluster IV is notable for the presence of a conserved Asp residue before the CysXXCys, metal binding motif, analogous to the Zn binding motif in E. coli ZntA. HIPP20, HIPP21, HIPP22, HIPP26 and HIPP27 in Cluster IV were studied in more detail. All but HIPP21 could rescue the Cd-sensitive, ycf1 yeast mutant but failed to rescue the growth of zrt1zrt2, zrc1cot1 and atx1 mutants. In Arabidopsis, single and double mutants did not show a phenotype but the hipp20/21/22 triple mutant was more sensitive to Cd and accumulated less Cd than the wild-type suggesting the HIPPs can have a role in Cd-detoxification, possibly by binding Cd. Promoter-GUS reporter expression studies indicated variable expression of these HIPPs. For example, in roots, HIPP22 and HIPP26 are only expressed in lateral root tips while HIPP20 and HIPP25 show strong expression in the root vasculature.

  7. Antagonistic regulation of growth and immunity by the Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor homolog of brassinosteroid enhanced expression2 interacting with increased leaf inclination1 binding bHLH1.

    PubMed

    Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Batoux, Martine; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Youn, Ji Hyun; Stransfeld, Lena; Win, Joe; Kim, Seong-Ki; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-01

    Plants need to finely balance resources allocated to growth and immunity to achieve optimal fitness. A tradeoff between pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated growth was recently reported, but more information about the underlying mechanisms is needed. Here, we identify the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor homolog of brassinosteroid enhanced expression2 interacting with IBH1 (HBI1) as a negative regulator of PTI signaling in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). HBI1 expression is down-regulated in response to different PAMPs. HBI1 overexpression leads to reduced PAMP-triggered responses. This inhibition correlates with reduced steady-state expression of immune marker genes, leading to increased susceptibility to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. Overexpression of the HBI1-related bHLHs brassinosteroid enhanced expression2 (BEE2) and cryptochrome-interacting bHLH (CIB1) partially inhibits immunity, indicating that BEE2 and CIB1 may act redundantly with HBI1. In contrast to its expression pattern upon PAMP treatment, HBI1 expression is enhanced by BR treatment. Also, HBI1-overexpressing plants are hyperresponsive to BR and more resistant to the BR biosynthetic inhibitor brassinazole. HBI1 is nucleus localized, and a mutation in a conserved leucine residue within the first helix of the protein interaction domain impairs its function in BR signaling. Interestingly, HBI1 interacts with several inhibitory atypical bHLHs, which likely keep HBI1 under negative control. Hence, HBI1 is a positive regulator of BR-triggered responses, and the negative effect of PTI is likely due to the antagonism between BR and PTI signaling. This study identifies a novel component involved in the complex tradeoff between innate immunity and BR-regulated growth.

  8. Combining dehydration, construct optimization and improved data collection to solve the crystal structure of a CRM1-RanGTP-SPN1-Nup214 quaternary nuclear export complex.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Thomas; Dickmanns, Achim; Weiss, Manfred S; Port, Sarah A; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Ficner, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    High conformational flexibility is an intrinsic and indispensable property of nuclear transport receptors, which makes crystallization and structure determination of macromolecular complexes containing exportins or importins particularly challenging. Here, the crystallization and structure determination of a quaternary nuclear export complex consisting of the exportin CRM1, the small GTPase Ran in its GTP-bound form, the export cargo SPN1 and an FG repeat-containing fragment of the nuclear pore complex component nucleoporin Nup214 fused to maltose-binding protein is reported. Optimization of constructs, seeding and the development of a sophisticated protocol including successive PEG-mediated crystal dehydration as well as additional post-mounting steps were essential to obtain well diffracting crystals.

  9. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  10. Importin-β modulates the permeability of the nuclear pore complex in a Ran-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Alan R; Tang, Jeffrey H; Yassif, Jaime; Graf, Michael; Huang, William YC; Groves, Jay T; Weis, Karsten; Liphardt, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    Soluble karyopherins of the importin-β (impβ) family use RanGTP to transport cargos directionally through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Whether impβ or RanGTP regulate the permeability of the NPC itself has been unknown. In this study, we identify a stable pool of impβ at the NPC. A subpopulation of this pool is rapidly turned-over by RanGTP, likely at Nup153. Impβ, but not transportin-1 (TRN1), alters the pore's permeability in a Ran-dependent manner, suggesting that impβ is a functional component of the NPC. Upon reduction of Nup153 levels, inert cargos more readily equilibrate across the NPC yet active transport is impaired. When purified impβ or TRN1 are mixed with Nup153 in vitro, higher-order, multivalent complexes form. RanGTP dissolves the impβ•Nup153 complexes but not those of TRN1•Nup153. We propose that impβ and Nup153 interact at the NPC's nuclear face to form a Ran-regulated mesh that modulates NPC permeability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04052.001 PMID:25748139

  11. Ran GTPase Cycle and Importins α and β Are Essential for Spindle Formation and Nuclear Envelope Assembly in Living Caenorhabditis elegans EmbryosV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Askjaer, Peter; Galy, Vincent; Hannak, Eva; Mattaj, Iain W.

    2002-01-01

    The small GTPase Ran has been found to play pivotal roles in several aspects of cell function. We have investigated the role of the Ran GTPase cycle in spindle formation and nuclear envelope assembly in dividing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos in real time. We found that Ran and its cofactors RanBP2, RanGAP, and RCC1 are all essential for reformation of the nuclear envelope after cell division. Reducing the expression of any of these components of the Ran GTPase cycle by RNAi leads to strong extranuclear clustering of integral nuclear envelope proteins and nucleoporins. Ran, RanBP2, and RanGAP are also required for building a mitotic spindle, whereas astral microtubules are normal in the absence of these proteins. RCC1(RNAi) embryos have similar abnormalities in the initial phase of spindle formation but eventually recover to form a bipolar spindle. Irregular chromatin structures and chromatin bridges due to spindle failure were frequently observed in embryos where the Ran cycle was perturbed. In addition, connection between the centrosomes and the male pronucleus, and thus centrosome positioning, depends upon the Ran cycle components. Finally, we have demonstrated that both IMA-2 and IMB-1, the homologues of vertebrate importin α and β, are essential for both spindle assembly and nuclear formation in early embryos. PMID:12475958

  12. RANS Analyses of Turbofan Nozzles with Internal Wedge Deflectors for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the flow field and thrust performance of a promising concept for reducing the noise at take-off of dual-stream turbofan nozzles. The concept, offset stream technology, reduces the jet noise observed on the ground by diverting (offsetting) a portion of the fan flow below the core flow, thickening and lengthening this layer between the high-velocity core flow and the ground observers. In this study a wedge placed in the internal fan stream is used as the diverter. Wind, a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code, was used to analyze the flow field of the exhaust plume and to calculate nozzle performance. Results showed that the wedge diverts all of the fan flow to the lower side of the nozzle, and the turbulent kinetic energy on the observer side of the nozzle is reduced. This reduction in turbulent kinetic energy should correspond to a reduction in noise. However, because all of the fan flow is diverted, the upper portion of the core flow is exposed to the freestream, and the turbulent kinetic energy on the upper side of the nozzle is increased, creating an unintended noise source. The blockage due to the wedge reduces the fan mass flow proportional to its blockage, and the overall thrust is consequently reduced. The CFD predictions are in very good agreement with experimental flow field data, demonstrating that RANS CFD can accurately predict the velocity and turbulent kinetic energy fields. While this initial design of a large scale wedge nozzle did not meet noise reduction or thrust goals, this study identified areas for improvement and demonstrated that RANS CFD can be used to improve the concept.

  13. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai-Long; Wan, Pin-Jun; Wang, Wei-Xia; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Ran (RanGTPase) in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan) was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1) Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2) The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  14. LES, DNS and RANS for the analysis of high-speed turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Colucci, P. J.; Taulbee, D. B.; Givi, P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in large eddy simulation (LES), direct numerical simulation (DNS), and Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods for the computational analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. In the second phase of this work, covering the period 1 Aug. 1994 - 31 Jul. 1995, we have focused our efforts on two programs: (1) developments of explicit algebraic moment closures for statistical descriptions of compressible reacting flows and (2) development of Monte Carlo numerical methods for LES of chemically reacting flows.

  15. A Unified LES/RANS Approach Using the CE/SE Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.; Chang, Sin-Chung (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the proposed research is to develop advanced large eddy simulations (LES) and Reynolds average Navier-Stokes (RANS) capabilities for complex problems using the conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. This proposed use of the CE/SE method is justified by the many demonstrated advantages of the CE/SE method over the traditional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The proposed research will produce improved engineering modeling for near-term applications for focus programs as well as long-term impacts on the fundamental understanding of turbulence.

  16. Assessment of Higher-Order RANS Closures in a Decelerated Planar Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeyapaul, Elbert; Coleman, Gary N.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    A reference DNS database is presented, which includes third- and fourth-order moment budgets for unstrained and strained planar channel flow. Existing RANS closure models for third- and fourth-order terms are surveyed, and new model ideas are introduced. The various models are then compared with the DNS data term by term using a priori testing of the higher-order budgets of turbulence transport, velocity-pressure-gradient, and dissipation for both the unstrained and strained databases. Generally, the models for the velocity-pressure-gradient terms are most in need of improvement.

  17. AtMRP6/AtABCC6, an ATP-Binding Cassette transporter gene expressed during early steps of seedling development and up-regulated by cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Stéphane; Jacquet, Hélène; Vavasseur, Alain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Forestier, Cyrille

    2008-01-01

    Background ABC proteins constitute one of the largest families of transporters found in all living organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 120 genes encoding ABC transporters have been identified. Here, the characterization of one member of the MRP subclass, AtMRP6, is described. Results This gene, located on chromosome 3, is bordered by AtMRP3 and AtMRP7. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR) and the GUS reporter gene, we found that this gene is essentially expressed during early seedling development, in the apical meristem and at initiation point of secondary roots, especially in xylem-opposite pericycle cells where lateral roots initiate. The level of expression of AtMRP6 in response to various stresses was explored and a significant up-regulation after cadmium (Cd) treatment was detected. Among the three T-DNA insertion lines available from the Salk Institute library, two knock-out mutants, Atmrp6.1 and Atmrp6.2 were invalidated for the AtMRP6 gene. In the presence of Cd, development of leaves was more affected in the mutants than wild-type plants, whereas root elongation and ramification was comparable. Conclusion The position of AtMRP6 on chromosome 3, flanked by two other MRP genes, (all of which being induced by Cd) suggests that AtMRP6 is part of a cluster involved in metal tolerance, although additional functions in planta cannot be discarded. PMID:18307782

  18. AtMRP6/AtABCC6, an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expressed during early steps of seedling development and up-regulated by cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Stéphane; Jacquet, Hélène; Vavasseur, Alain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Forestier, Cyrille

    2008-02-28

    ABC proteins co