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Sample records for arabidopsis sieve elements

  1. Soluble and filamentous proteins in Arabidopsis sieve elements.

    PubMed

    Batailler, Brigitte; Lemaître, Thomas; Vilaine, Françoise; Sanchez, Christian; Renard, Denis; Cayla, Thibaud; Beneteau, Julie; Dinant, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    Phloem sieve elements are highly differentiated cells involved in the long-distance transport of photoassimilates. These cells contain both aggregated phloem-proteins (P-proteins) and soluble proteins, which are also translocated by mass flow. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to carry out a proteomic survey of the phloem exudate of Arabidopsis thaliana, collected by the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-facilitated method. We identified 287 proteins, a large proportion of which were enzymes involved in the metabolic precursor generation and amino acid synthesis, suggesting that sieve tubes display high levels of metabolic activity. RNA-binding proteins, defence proteins and lectins were also found. No putative P-proteins were detected in the EDTA-exudate fraction, indicating a lack of long-distance translocation of such proteins in Arabidopsis. In parallel, we investigated the organization of P-proteins, by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and the localization of the phloem lectin PP2, a putative P-protein component, by immunolocalization with antibodies against PP2-A1. Transmission electron microscopy observations of P-proteins revealed bundles of filaments resembling strings of beads. PP2-A1 was found weakly associated with these structures in the sieve elements and bound to plastids. These observations suggest that PP2-A1 is anchored to P-proteins and organelles rather than being a structural component of P-proteins.

  2. Plant development. Arabidopsis NAC45/86 direct sieve element morphogenesis culminating in enucleation.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Kaori Miyashima; Yadav, Shri Ram; Lehesranta, Satu; Belevich, Ilya; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Heo, Jung-ok; Vatén, Anne; Lindgren, Ove; De Rybel, Bert; Van Isterdael, Gert; Somervuo, Panu; Lichtenberger, Raffael; Rocha, Raquel; Thitamadee, Siripong; Tähtiharju, Sari; Auvinen, Petri; Beeckman, Tom; Jokitalo, Eija; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-08-22

    Photoassimilates such as sugars are transported through phloem sieve element cells in plants. Adapted for effective transport, sieve elements develop as enucleated living cells. We used electron microscope imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction to follow sieve element morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. We show that sieve element differentiation involves enucleation, in which the nuclear contents are released and degraded in the cytoplasm at the same time as other organelles are rearranged and the cytosol is degraded. These cellular reorganizations are orchestrated by the genetically redundant NAC domain-containing transcription factors, NAC45 and NAC86 (NAC45/86). Among the NAC45/86 targets, we identified a family of genes required for enucleation that encode proteins with nuclease domains. Thus, sieve elements differentiate through a specialized autolysis mechanism.

  3. An early nodulin-like protein accumulates in the sieve element plasma membrane of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Junaid A; Wang, Qi; Sjölund, Richard D; Schulz, Alexander; Thompson, Gary A

    2007-04-01

    Membrane proteins within the sieve element-companion cell complex have essential roles in the physiological functioning of the phloem. The monoclonal antibody line RS6, selected from hybridomas raised against sieve elements isolated from California shield leaf (Streptanthus tortuosus; Brassicaceae) tissue cultures, recognizes an antigen in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia that is associated specifically with the plasma membrane of sieve elements, but not companion cells, and accumulates at the earliest stages of sieve element differentiation. The identity of the RS6 antigen was revealed by reverse transcription-PCR of Arabidopsis leaf RNA using degenerate primers to be an early nodulin (ENOD)-like protein that is encoded by the expressed gene At3g20570. Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins are encoded by a multigene family composed of several types of structurally related phytocyanins that have a similar overall domain structure of an amino-terminal signal peptide, plastocyanin-like copper-binding domain, proline/serine-rich domain, and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domain. The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of the 21.5-kD sieve element-specific ENOD are posttranslationally cleaved from the precursor protein, resulting in a mature peptide of approximately 15 kD that is attached to the sieve element plasma membrane via a carboxy-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. Many of the Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins accumulate in gametophytic tissues, whereas in both floral and vegetative tissues, the sieve element-specific ENOD is expressed only within the phloem. Members of the ENOD subfamily of the cupredoxin superfamily do not appear to bind copper and have unknown functions. Phenotypic analysis of homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for the gene At3g20570 shows minimal alteration in vegetative growth but a significant reduction in the overall reproductive potential.

  4. Live imaging of companion cells and sieve elements in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Cayla, Thibaud; Batailler, Brigitte; Le Hir, Rozenn; Revers, Frédéric; Anstead, James A; Thompson, Gary A; Grandjean, Olivier; Dinant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The phloem is a complex tissue composed of highly specialized cells with unique subcellular structures and a compact organization that is challenging to study in vivo at cellular resolution. We used confocal scanning laser microscopy and subcellular fluorescent markers in companion cells and sieve elements, for live imaging of the phloem in Arabidopsis leaves. This approach provided a simple framework for identifying phloem cell types unambiguously. It highlighted the compactness of the meshed network of organelles within companion cells. By contrast, within the sieve elements, unknown bodies were observed in association with the PP2-A1:GFP, GFP:RTM1 and RTM2:GFP markers at the cell periphery. The phloem lectin PP2-A1:GFP marker was found in the parietal ground matrix. Its location differed from that of the P-protein filaments, which were visualized with SEOR1:GFP and SEOR2:GFP. PP2-A1:GFP surrounded two types of bodies, one of which was identified as mitochondria. This location suggested that it was embedded within the sieve element clamps, specific structures that may fix the organelles to each another or to the plasma membrane in the sieve tubes. GFP:RTM1 was associated with a class of larger bodies, potentially corresponding to plastids. PP2-A1:GFP was soluble in the cytosol of immature sieve elements. The changes in its subcellular localization during differentiation provide an in vivo blueprint for monitoring this process. The subcellular features obtained with these companion cell and sieve element markers can be used as landmarks for exploring the organization and dynamics of phloem cells in vivo.

  5. Live Imaging of Companion Cells and Sieve Elements in Arabidopsis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Cayla, Thibaud; Batailler, Brigitte; Le Hir, Rozenn; Revers, Frédéric; Anstead, James A.; Thompson, Gary A.; Grandjean, Olivier; Dinant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The phloem is a complex tissue composed of highly specialized cells with unique subcellular structures and a compact organization that is challenging to study in vivo at cellular resolution. We used confocal scanning laser microscopy and subcellular fluorescent markers in companion cells and sieve elements, for live imaging of the phloem in Arabidopsis leaves. This approach provided a simple framework for identifying phloem cell types unambiguously. It highlighted the compactness of the meshed network of organelles within companion cells. By contrast, within the sieve elements, unknown bodies were observed in association with the PP2-A1:GFP, GFP:RTM1 and RTM2:GFP markers at the cell periphery. The phloem lectin PP2-A1:GFP marker was found in the parietal ground matrix. Its location differed from that of the P-protein filaments, which were visualized with SEOR1:GFP and SEOR2:GFP. PP2-A1:GFP surrounded two types of bodies, one of which was identified as mitochondria. This location suggested that it was embedded within the sieve element clamps, specific structures that may fix the organelles to each another or to the plasma membrane in the sieve tubes. GFP:RTM1 was associated with a class of larger bodies, potentially corresponding to plastids. PP2-A1:GFP was soluble in the cytosol of immature sieve elements. The changes in its subcellular localization during differentiation provide an in vivo blueprint for monitoring this process. The subcellular features obtained with these companion cell and sieve element markers can be used as landmarks for exploring the organization and dynamics of phloem cells in vivo. PMID:25714357

  6. Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Yuki; Nurani, Alif Meem; Saito, Chieko; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Saito, Masato; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a complex process involving multiple steps, from initial cell fate specification to final differentiation. Procambial/cambial cells, which act as vascular stem cells, differentiate into both xylem and phloem cells during vascular development. Recent studies have identified regulatory cascades for xylem differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying phloem differentiation is largely unexplored due to technical challenges. Here, we established an ectopic induction system for phloem differentiation named Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL). Our results verified similarities between VISUAL-induced Arabidopsis thaliana phloem cells and in vivo sieve elements. We performed network analysis using transcriptome data with VISUAL to dissect the processes underlying phloem differentiation, eventually identifying a factor involved in the regulation of the master transcription factor gene APL. Thus, our culture system opens up new avenues not only for genetic studies of phloem differentiation, but also for future investigations of multidirectional differentiation from vascular stem cells. PMID:27194709

  7. Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuki; Nurani, Alif Meem; Saito, Chieko; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Saito, Masato; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-06-01

    Cell differentiation is a complex process involving multiple steps, from initial cell fate specification to final differentiation. Procambial/cambial cells, which act as vascular stem cells, differentiate into both xylem and phloem cells during vascular development. Recent studies have identified regulatory cascades for xylem differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying phloem differentiation is largely unexplored due to technical challenges. Here, we established an ectopic induction system for phloem differentiation named Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL). Our results verified similarities between VISUAL-induced Arabidopsis thaliana phloem cells and in vivo sieve elements. We performed network analysis using transcriptome data with VISUAL to dissect the processes underlying phloem differentiation, eventually identifying a factor involved in the regulation of the master transcription factor gene APL Thus, our culture system opens up new avenues not only for genetic studies of phloem differentiation, but also for future investigations of multidirectional differentiation from vascular stem cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Looking inside phytoplasma-infected sieve elements: A combined microscopy approach using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Laura; Martini, Marta; Loschi, Alberto; Musetti, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhabiting plant pathogens that affect over one thousand plant species, representing a severe threat to agriculture. The absence of an effective curative strategy and the economic importance of many affected crops make a priority of studying how plants respond to phytoplasma infection. Nevertheless, the study of phytoplasmas has been hindered by the extreme difficulty of culturing them in vitro and by impediments to natural host plant surveys such as low phytoplasma titre, long plant life cycle and poor knowledge of natural host-plant biology. Stating correspondence between macroscopic symptoms of phytoplasma infected Arabidopsis thaliana and those observed in natural host plants, over the last decade some authors have started to use this plant as a model for studying phytoplasma-plant interactions. Nevertheless, the morphological and ultrastructural modifications occurring in A. thaliana tissues following phytoplasma infection have never been described in detail. In this work, we adopted a combined-microscopy approach to verify if A. thaliana can be considered a reliable model for the study of phytoplasma-plant interactions at the microscopical level. The consistent presence of phytoplasma in infected phloem allowed detailed study of the infection process and the relationship established by phytoplasmas with different components of the sieve elements. In infected A. thaliana, phytoplasmas induced strong disturbances of host plant development that were mainly due to phloem disorganization and impairment. Light microscopy showed collapse, necrosis and hyperplasia of phloem cells. TEM observations of sieve elements identified two common plant-responses to phytoplasma infection: phloem protein agglutination and callose deposition.

  9. A Plasma Membrane-Anchored Fluorescent Protein Fusion Illuminates Sieve Element Plasma Membranes in Arabidopsis and Tobacco1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew V.; Wolniak, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid acquisition of quantitative anatomical data from the sieve tubes of angiosperm phloem has been confounded by their small size, their distance from organ surfaces, and the time-consuming nature of traditional methods, such as transmission electron microscopy. To improve access to these cells, for which good anatomical data are critical, a monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (mCitrine) was N-terminally fused to a small (approximately 6 kD) membrane protein (AtRCI2A) and stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia-0 ecotype) and Nicotiana tabacum (‘Samsun’) under the control of a companion cell-specific promoter (AtSUC2p). The construct, called by its abbreviation SUmCR, yielded stable sieve element (SE) plasma membrane fluorescence labeling, even after plastic (methacrylate) embedding. In conjunction with wide-field fluorescence measurements of sieve pore number and position using aniline blue-stained callose, mCitrine-labeled material was used to calculate rough estimates of sieve tube-specific conductivity for both species. The SUmCR construct also revealed a hitherto unknown expression domain of the AtSUC2 Suc-H+ symporter in the epidermis of the cell division zone of developing root tips. The success of this construct in targeting plasma membrane-anchored fluorescent proteins to SEs could be attributable to the small size of AtRCI2A or to the presence of other signals innate to AtRCI2A that permit the protein to be trafficked to SEs. The construct provides a hitherto unique entrée into companion cell-to-SE protein targeting, as well as a new tool for studying whole-plant phloem anatomy and architecture. PMID:18223149

  10. P-proteins in Arabidopsis are heteromeric structures involved in rapid sieve tube sealing

    PubMed Central

    Jekat, Stephan B.; Ernst, Antonia M.; von Bohl, Andreas; Zielonka, Sascia; Twyman, Richard M.; Noll, Gundula A.; Prüfer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Structural phloem proteins (P-proteins) are characteristic components of the sieve elements in all dicotyledonous and many monocotyledonous angiosperms. Tobacco P-proteins were recently confirmed to be encoded by the widespread sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family, and tobacco SEO proteins were shown to be directly involved in sieve tube sealing thus preventing the loss of photosynthate. Analysis of the two Arabidopsis SEO proteins (AtSEOa and AtSEOb) indicated that the corresponding P-protein subunits do not act in a redundant manner. However, there are still pending questions regarding the interaction properties and specific functions of AtSEOa and AtSEOb as well as the general function of structural P-proteins in Arabidopsis. In this study, we characterized the Arabidopsis P-proteins in more detail. We used in planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the predicted heteromeric interactions between AtSEOa and AtSEOb. Arabidopsis mutants depleted for one or both AtSEO proteins lacked the typical P-protein structures normally found in sieve elements, underlining the identity of AtSEO proteins as P-proteins and furthermore providing the means to determine the role of Arabidopsis P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore developed an assay based on phloem exudation. Mutants with reduced AtSEO expression levels lost twice as much photosynthate following injury as comparable wild-type plants, confirming that Arabidopsis P-proteins are indeed involved in sieve tube sealing. PMID:23840197

  11. P-proteins in Arabidopsis are heteromeric structures involved in rapid sieve tube sealing.

    PubMed

    Jekat, Stephan B; Ernst, Antonia M; von Bohl, Andreas; Zielonka, Sascia; Twyman, Richard M; Noll, Gundula A; Prüfer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Structural phloem proteins (P-proteins) are characteristic components of the sieve elements in all dicotyledonous and many monocotyledonous angiosperms. Tobacco P-proteins were recently confirmed to be encoded by the widespread sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family, and tobacco SEO proteins were shown to be directly involved in sieve tube sealing thus preventing the loss of photosynthate. Analysis of the two Arabidopsis SEO proteins (AtSEOa and AtSEOb) indicated that the corresponding P-protein subunits do not act in a redundant manner. However, there are still pending questions regarding the interaction properties and specific functions of AtSEOa and AtSEOb as well as the general function of structural P-proteins in Arabidopsis. In this study, we characterized the Arabidopsis P-proteins in more detail. We used in planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the predicted heteromeric interactions between AtSEOa and AtSEOb. Arabidopsis mutants depleted for one or both AtSEO proteins lacked the typical P-protein structures normally found in sieve elements, underlining the identity of AtSEO proteins as P-proteins and furthermore providing the means to determine the role of Arabidopsis P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore developed an assay based on phloem exudation. Mutants with reduced AtSEO expression levels lost twice as much photosynthate following injury as comparable wild-type plants, confirming that Arabidopsis P-proteins are indeed involved in sieve tube sealing.

  12. Does aphid salivation affect phloem sieve element occlusion in vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J.

    2013-01-01

    To protect against loss of photo-assimilate-rich phloem sap, plants have evolved several mechanisms to plug phloem sieve tubes in response to damage. In many Fabaceae, each sieve element contains a discrete proteinaceous body called a forisome, which, in response to damage, rapidly transforms from a condensed configuration that does not impede the flow of sap to a dispersed configuration that plugs the sieve element. Aphids and other specialized phloem sap feeders can ingest phloem sap from a single sieve element for hours or days, and to do this, they must be able to suppress or reverse phloem plugging. A recent study provided in vitro evidence that aphid saliva can reverse forisome plugs. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by inducing forisome plugs which triggered aphids to switch behaviour from phloem sap ingestion to salivation into the sieve element. After salivating into the sieve element for various periods of time, the aphids were instantaneously cryofixed (freeze fixed) in situ on their leaf. The state of the forisome was then determined in the penetrated sieve element and in nearby non-penetrated sieve elements which served as controls for sieve elements not subjected to direct aphid salivation. Forisomes were almost always in close contact with the stylet tips and thus came into direct contact with the saliva. Nonetheless, forisome plugs in the penetrated sieve element did not revert back to a non-plugging state any faster than those in neighbouring sieve elements that were not subjected to direct aphid salivation. PMID:24127515

  13. Does aphid salivation affect phloem sieve element occlusion in vivo?

    PubMed

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, G P

    2013-12-01

    To protect against loss of photo-assimilate-rich phloem sap, plants have evolved several mechanisms to plug phloem sieve tubes in response to damage. In many Fabaceae, each sieve element contains a discrete proteinaceous body called a forisome, which, in response to damage, rapidly transforms from a condensed configuration that does not impede the flow of sap to a dispersed configuration that plugs the sieve element. Aphids and other specialized phloem sap feeders can ingest phloem sap from a single sieve element for hours or days, and to do this, they must be able to suppress or reverse phloem plugging. A recent study provided in vitro evidence that aphid saliva can reverse forisome plugs. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by inducing forisome plugs which triggered aphids to switch behaviour from phloem sap ingestion to salivation into the sieve element. After salivating into the sieve element for various periods of time, the aphids were instantaneously cryofixed (freeze fixed) in situ on their leaf. The state of the forisome was then determined in the penetrated sieve element and in nearby non-penetrated sieve elements which served as controls for sieve elements not subjected to direct aphid salivation. Forisomes were almost always in close contact with the stylet tips and thus came into direct contact with the saliva. Nonetheless, forisome plugs in the penetrated sieve element did not revert back to a non-plugging state any faster than those in neighbouring sieve elements that were not subjected to direct aphid salivation.

  14. TUBULAR AND FIBRILLAR COMPONENTS OF MATURE AND DIFFERENTIATING SIEVE ELEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Cronshaw, James; Esau, Katherine

    1967-01-01

    An ontogenetic study of the sieve element protoplast of Nicotiana tabacum L. by light and electron microscopy has shown that the P-protein component (slime) arises as small groups of tubules in the cytoplasm. These subsequently enlarge to form comparatively large compact masses of 231 ± 2.5 (SE)A (n = 121) tubules, the P-protein bodies. During subsequent differentiation of the sieve element, the P-protein body disaggregates and the tubules become dispersed throughout the cell. This disaggregation occurs at about the same stage of differentiation of the sieve elements as the breakdown of the tonoplast and nucleus. Later, the tubules of P-protein are reorganized into smaller striated 149 ± 4.5 (SE)A (n = 43) fibrils which are characteristic of the mature sieve elements. The tubular P-protein component has been designated P1-protein and the striated fibrillar component P2-protein. In fixed material, the sieve-plate pores of mature sieve elements are filled with proteinaceous material which frays out into the cytoplasm as striated fibrils of P2-protein. Our observations are compatible with the view that the contents of contiguous mature sieve elements, including the P-protein, are continuous through the sieve-plate pores and that fixing solutions denature the proteins in the pores. They are converted into the electron-opaque material filling the pores. PMID:6050947

  15. Interactions among tobacco sieve element occlusion (SEO) proteins.

    PubMed

    Jekat, Stephan B; Ernst, Antonia M; Zielonka, Sascia; Noll, Gundula A; Prüfer, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Angiosperms transport their photoassimilates through sieve tubes, which comprise longitudinally-connected sieve elements. In dicots and also some monocots, the sieve elements contain parietal structural proteins known as phloem proteins or P-proteins. Following injury, P proteins disperse and accumulate as viscous plugs at the sieve plates to prevent the loss of valuable transport sugars. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) P-proteins are multimeric complexes comprising subunits encoded by members of the SEO (sieve element occlusion) gene family. The existence of multiple subunits suggests that P-protein assembly involves interactions between SEO proteins, but this process is largely uncharacterized and it is unclear whether the different subunits perform unique roles or are redundant. We therefore extended our analysis of the tobacco P-proteins NtSEO1 and NtSEO2 to investigate potential interactions between them, and found that both proteins can form homomeric and heteromeric complexes in planta.

  16. Phloem ultrastructure and pressure flow: Sieve-Element-Occlusion-Related agglomerations do not affect translocation.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Daniel R; Mullendore, Daniel L; Jensen, Kåre H; Ross-Elliott, Tim J; Anstead, James A; Thompson, Gary A; Pélissier, Hélène C; Knoblauch, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Since the first ultrastructural investigations of sieve tubes in the early 1960s, their structure has been a matter of debate. Because sieve tube structure defines frictional interactions in the tube system, the presence of P protein obstructions shown in many transmission electron micrographs led to a discussion about the mode of phloem transport. At present, it is generally agreed that P protein agglomerations are preparation artifacts due to injury, the lumen of sieve tubes is free of obstructions, and phloem flow is driven by an osmotically generated pressure differential according to Münch's classical hypothesis. Here, we show that the phloem contains a distinctive network of protein filaments. Stable transgenic lines expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Sieve-Element-Occlusion-Related1 (SEOR1)-yellow fluorescent protein fusions show that At SEOR1 meshworks at the margins and clots in the lumen are a general feature of living sieve tubes. Live imaging of phloem flow and flow velocity measurements in individual tubes indicate that At SEOR1 agglomerations do not markedly affect or alter flow. A transmission electron microscopy preparation protocol has been generated showing sieve tube ultrastructure of unprecedented quality. A reconstruction of sieve tube ultrastructure served as basis for tube resistance calculations. The impact of agglomerations on phloem flow is discussed.

  17. SEORious business: structural proteins in sieve tubes and their involvement in sieve element occlusion.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Michael; Froelich, Daniel R; Pickard, William F; Peters, Winfried S

    2014-04-01

    The phloem provides a network of sieve tubes for long-distance translocation of photosynthates. For over a century, structural proteins in sieve tubes have presented a conundrum since they presumably increase the hydraulic resistance of the tubes while no potential function other than sieve tube or wound sealing in the case of injury has been suggested. Here we summarize and critically evaluate current speculations regarding the roles of these proteins. Our understanding suffers from the suggestive power of images; what looks like a sieve tube plug on micrographs may not actually impede translocation very much. Recent reports of an involvement of SEOR (sieve element occlusion-related) proteins, a class of P-proteins, in the sealing of injured sieve tubes are inconclusive; various lines of evidence suggest that, in neither intact nor injured plants, are SEORs determinative of translocation stoppage. Similarly, the popular notion that P-proteins serve in the defence against phloem sap-feeding insects is unsupported by empirical facts; it is conceivable that in functional sieve tubes, aphids actually could benefit from inducing a plug. The idea that rising cytosolic Ca(2+) generally triggers sieve tube blockage by P-proteins appears widely accepted, despite lacking experimental support. Even in forisomes, P-protein assemblages restricted to one single plant family and the only Ca(2+)-responsive P-proteins known, the available evidence does not unequivocally suggest that plug formation is the cause rather than a consequence of translocation stoppage. We conclude that the physiological roles of structural P-proteins remain elusive, and that in vivo studies of their dynamics in continuous sieve tube networks combined with flow velocity measurements will be required to (hopefully) resolve this scientific roadblock.

  18. The geometry of the forisome-sieve element-sieve plate complex in the phloem of Vicia faba L. leaflets.

    PubMed

    Peters, Winfried S; van Bel, Aart J E; Knoblauch, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Forisomes are contractile protein bodies that appear to control flux rates in the phloem of faboid legumes by reversibly plugging the sieve tubes. Plugging is triggered by Ca(2+) which induces an anisotropic deformation of forisomes, consisting of a longitudinal contraction and a radial expansion. By conventional light microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, the three-dimensional geometry of the forisome-sieve element-sieve plate complex in intact sieve tubes of leaflets of Vicia faba L. was reconstructed. Forisomes were mostly located close to sieve plates, and occasionally were observed drifting unrestrainedly along the sieve element, suggesting that they might be utilized as internal markers of flow direction. The diameter of forisomes in the resting state correlated with the diameter of their sieve elements, supporting the idea that radial expansion of forisomes is the geometric basis of reversible sieve tube plugging. Comparison of the present results regarding forisome geometry in situ with previously published data on forisome reactivity in vitro makes it questionable, however, whether forisomes are capable of completely sealing sieve tubes in V. faba leaves.

  19. Phloem Ultrastructure and Pressure Flow: Sieve-Element-Occlusion-Related Agglomerations Do Not Affect Translocation[W

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Daniel R.; Mullendore, Daniel L.; Jensen, Kåre H.; Ross-Elliott, Tim J.; Anstead, James A.; Thompson, Gary A.; Pélissier, Hélène C.; Knoblauch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Since the first ultrastructural investigations of sieve tubes in the early 1960s, their structure has been a matter of debate. Because sieve tube structure defines frictional interactions in the tube system, the presence of P protein obstructions shown in many transmission electron micrographs led to a discussion about the mode of phloem transport. At present, it is generally agreed that P protein agglomerations are preparation artifacts due to injury, the lumen of sieve tubes is free of obstructions, and phloem flow is driven by an osmotically generated pressure differential according to Münch’s classical hypothesis. Here, we show that the phloem contains a distinctive network of protein filaments. Stable transgenic lines expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Sieve-Element-Occlusion-Related1 (SEOR1)–yellow fluorescent protein fusions show that At SEOR1 meshworks at the margins and clots in the lumen are a general feature of living sieve tubes. Live imaging of phloem flow and flow velocity measurements in individual tubes indicate that At SEOR1 agglomerations do not markedly affect or alter flow. A transmission electron microscopy preparation protocol has been generated showing sieve tube ultrastructure of unprecedented quality. A reconstruction of sieve tube ultrastructure served as basis for tube resistance calculations. The impact of agglomerations on phloem flow is discussed. PMID:22198148

  20. GFP Tagging of Sieve Element Occlusion (SEO) Proteins Results in Green Fluorescent Forisomes

    PubMed Central

    Pélissier, Hélène C.; Peters, Winfried S.; Collier, Ray; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Knoblauch, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Forisomes are Ca2+-driven, ATP-independent contractile protein bodies that reversibly occlude sieve elements in faboid legumes. They apparently consist of at least three proteins; potential candidates have been described previously as ‘FOR’ proteins. We isolated three genes from Medicago truncatula that correspond to the putative forisome proteins and expressed their green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion products in Vicia faba and Glycine max using the composite plant methodology. In both species, expression of any of the constructs resulted in homogenously fluorescent forisomes that formed sieve tube plugs upon stimulation; no GFP fluorescence occurred elsewhere. Isolated fluorescent forisomes reacted to Ca2+ and chelators by contraction and expansion, respectively, and did not lose fluorescence in the process. Wild-type forisomes showed no affinity for free GFP in vitro. The three proteins shared numerous conserved motifs between themselves and with hypothetical proteins derived from the genomes of M. truncatula, Vitis vinifera and Arabidopsis thaliana. However, they showed neither significant similarities to proteins of known function nor canonical metal-binding motifs. We conclude that ‘FOR’-like proteins are components of forisomes that are encoded by a well-defined gene family with relatives in taxa that lack forisomes. Since the mnemonic FOR is already registered and in use for unrelated genes, we suggest the acronym SEO (sieve element occlusion) for this family. The absence of binding sites for divalent cations suggests that the Ca2+ binding responsible for forisome contraction is achieved either by as yet unidentified additional proteins, or by SEO proteins through a novel, uncharacterized mechanism. PMID:18784195

  1. Sieve element occlusion (SEO) genes encode structural phloem proteins involved in wound sealing of the phloem.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Antonia M; Jekat, Stephan B; Zielonka, Sascia; Müller, Boje; Neumann, Ulla; Rüping, Boris; Twyman, Richard M; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2012-07-10

    The sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family originally was delimited to genes encoding structural components of forisomes, which are specialized crystalloid phloem proteins found solely in the Fabaceae. More recently, SEO genes discovered in various non-Fabaceae plants were proposed to encode the common phloem proteins (P-proteins) that plug sieve plates after wounding. We carried out a comprehensive characterization of two tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SEO genes (NtSEO). Reporter genes controlled by the NtSEO promoters were expressed specifically in immature sieve elements, and GFP-SEO fusion proteins formed parietal agglomerates in intact sieve elements as well as sieve plate plugs after wounding. NtSEO proteins with and without fluorescent protein tags formed agglomerates similar in structure to native P-protein bodies when transiently coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and the analysis of these protein complexes by electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural features resembling those of native P-proteins. NtSEO-RNA interference lines were essentially devoid of P-protein structures and lost photoassimilates more rapidly after injury than control plants, thus confirming the role of P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore provide direct evidence that SEO genes in tobacco encode P-protein subunits that affect translocation. We also found that peptides recently identified in fascicular phloem P-protein plugs from squash (Cucurbita maxima) represent cucurbit members of the SEO family. Our results therefore suggest a common evolutionary origin for P-proteins found in the sieve elements of all dicotyledonous plants and demonstrate the exceptional status of extrafascicular P-proteins in cucurbits.

  2. Loading and source of sugars for the sieve elements in stems of willow.

    PubMed

    Peel, A J

    1983-08-01

    Uniformly labelled [(14)C]glucose was introduced into the xylem of segments of willow stem. Forty-eight hours later sieve-tube sucrose was collected via servered aphid stylets, and the distribution of radioactivity in the hexose moieties of this was compared with the distribution in those of sucrose extracted from the segment. Very little correlation was found between the two sets of values, indicating possible inversion during loading. This lack of correlation could not be attributed to contributions to the sieve-tube sucrose from pools of labelled hexoses in the segment. Further experiments, however, showed quite high degrees of correlation between sieve-tube sucrose and sucrose extracted from the wood, indicating that the latter tissue was a major source of sieve-tube sucrose. This conclusion was substantiated in experiments in which sieve-tube exudate, obtained from stem segments, was compared with exudate obtained from the isolated bark of the segment. In other experiments, stylets were established on stem segments, then on isolated pieces of bark obtained from these segments. Sucrose and potassium exudation rates fell by as much as 50% on removing the bark from the segment. It was not possible to formulate a precise figure for the contribution of the wood to stylet exudation owing to injury effects and the complexity of the experimental system. No firm evidence could be found in support of the view that sucrose is inverted during loading of sieve elements from the storage cells of the stem.

  3. The movement protein of cucumber mosaic virus traffics into sieve elements in minor veins of nicotiana clevelandii

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, LM; Boevink, P; Cruz, SS; Palukaitis, P; Oparka, KJ

    1998-01-01

    The location of the 3a movement protein (MP) of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by quantitative immunogold labeling of the wild-type 3a MP in leaves of Nicotiana clevelandii infected by CMV as well as by using a 3a-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion expressed from a potato virus X (PVX) vector. Whether expressed from CMV or PVX, the 3a MP targeted plasmodesmata and accumulated in the central cavity of the pore. Within minor veins, the most extensively labeled plasmodesmata were those connecting sieve elements and companion cells. In addition to targeting plasmodesmata, the 3a MP accumulated in the parietal layer of mature sieve elements. Confocal imaging of cells expressing the 3a-GFP fusion protein showed that the 3a MP assembled into elaborate fibrillar formations in the sieve element parietal layer. The ability of 3a-GFP, expressed from PVX rather than CMV, to enter sieve elements demonstrates that neither the CMV RNA nor the CMV coat protein is required for trafficking of the 3a MP into sieve elements. CMV virions were not detected in plasmodesmata from CMV-infected tissue, although large CMV aggregates were often found in the parietal layer of sieve elements and were usually surrounded by 3a MP. These data suggest that CMV traffics into minor vein sieve elements as a ribonucleoprotein complex that contains the viral RNA, coat protein, and 3a MP, with subsequent viral assembly occurring in the sieve element parietal layer. PMID:9548980

  4. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the sieve element occlusion gene family in Fabaceae and non-Fabaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Rüping, Boris; Ernst, Antonia M; Jekat, Stephan B; Nordzieke, Steffen; Reineke, Anna R; Müller, Boje; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2010-10-08

    The phloem of dicotyledonous plants contains specialized P-proteins (phloem proteins) that accumulate during sieve element differentiation and remain parietally associated with the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in mature sieve elements. Wounding causes P-protein filaments to accumulate at the sieve plates and block the translocation of photosynthate. Specialized, spindle-shaped P-proteins known as forisomes that undergo reversible calcium-dependent conformational changes have evolved exclusively in the Fabaceae. Recently, the molecular characterization of three genes encoding forisome components in the model legume Medicago truncatula (MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3; SEO = sieve element occlusion) was reported, but little is known about the molecular characteristics of P-proteins in non-Fabaceae. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide comparative analysis by screening the M. truncatula, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Solanum phureja genomes, and a Malus domestica EST library for homologs of MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3 and identified numerous novel SEO genes in Fabaceae and even non-Fabaceae plants, which do not possess forisomes. Even in Fabaceae some SEO genes appear to not encode forisome components. All SEO genes have a similar exon-intron structure and are expressed predominantly in the phloem. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of several subgroups with Fabaceae-specific subgroups containing all of the known as well as newly identified forisome component proteins. We constructed Hidden Markov Models that identified three conserved protein domains, which characterize SEO proteins when present in combination. In addition, one common and three subgroup specific protein motifs were found in the amino acid sequences of SEO proteins. SEO genes are organized in genomic clusters and the conserved synteny allowed us to identify several M. truncatula vs G. max orthologs as well as paralogs within the G. max genome. The unexpected

  5. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the sieve element occlusion gene family in Fabaceae and non-Fabaceae plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The phloem of dicotyledonous plants contains specialized P-proteins (phloem proteins) that accumulate during sieve element differentiation and remain parietally associated with the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in mature sieve elements. Wounding causes P-protein filaments to accumulate at the sieve plates and block the translocation of photosynthate. Specialized, spindle-shaped P-proteins known as forisomes that undergo reversible calcium-dependent conformational changes have evolved exclusively in the Fabaceae. Recently, the molecular characterization of three genes encoding forisome components in the model legume Medicago truncatula (MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3; SEO = sieve element occlusion) was reported, but little is known about the molecular characteristics of P-proteins in non-Fabaceae. Results We performed a comprehensive genome-wide comparative analysis by screening the M. truncatula, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Solanum phureja genomes, and a Malus domestica EST library for homologs of MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3 and identified numerous novel SEO genes in Fabaceae and even non-Fabaceae plants, which do not possess forisomes. Even in Fabaceae some SEO genes appear to not encode forisome components. All SEO genes have a similar exon-intron structure and are expressed predominantly in the phloem. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of several subgroups with Fabaceae-specific subgroups containing all of the known as well as newly identified forisome component proteins. We constructed Hidden Markov Models that identified three conserved protein domains, which characterize SEO proteins when present in combination. In addition, one common and three subgroup specific protein motifs were found in the amino acid sequences of SEO proteins. SEO genes are organized in genomic clusters and the conserved synteny allowed us to identify several M. truncatula vs G. max orthologs as well as paralogs within the G. max genome

  6. [Removal Characteristics of Elemental Mercury by Mn-Ce/molecular Sieve].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zeng-qiang; Niu, Guo-ping; Chen, Xiao-wen; An, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    The impregnation method was used to support molecular sieve with active manganese and cerium components to obtain a composite molecular sieve catalyst. The mercury removal performance of the catalyst was studied with a bench-scale setup. XPS analysis was used to characterize the sample before and after the modification in order to study the changes in the active components of the catalyst prepared. The results showed that the catalyst carrying manganese and cerium components had higher oxidation ability of elemental mercury in the temperature range of 300 degrees C - 450 degrees C, especially at 450 degrees C, the oxidation efficiency of elemental mercury was kept above 80%. The catalyst had more functional groups that were conducive to the oxidation of elemental mercury, and the mercury removal mainly depended on the chemical adsorption. The SO2 and NO in flue gas could inhibit the oxidation of elemental mercury to certain extent.

  7. Differential distribution of proteins expressed in companion cells in the sieve element-companion cell complex of rice plants.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Akari; Fujimaki, Syu; Mori, Tomoko; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishiyama, Keiki; Hayakawa, Toshihiko; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Fujiwara, Toru; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Hayashi, Hiroaki

    2005-11-01

    Sieve tubes are comprised of sieve elements, enucleated cells that are incapable of RNA and protein synthesis. The proteins in sieve elements are supplied from the neighboring companion cells through plasmodesmata. In rice plants, it was unclear whether or not all proteins produced in companion cells had the same distribution pattern in the sieve element-companion cell complex. In this study, the distribution pattern of four proteins, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), green fluorescent protein (GFP), thioredoxin h (TRXh) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were analyzed. The foreign proteins GUS and GFP were expressed in transgenic rice plants under the control of the TRXh gene promoter (PTRXh), a companion cell-specific promoter. Analysis of leaf cross-sections of PTRXh-GUS and PTRXh-GFP plants indicated high accumulation of GUS and GFP, respectively, in companion cells rather than in sieve elements. GUS and GFP were also detected in phloem sap collected from leaf sheaths of the transgenic rice plants, suggesting these proteins could enter sieve elements. Relative amounts of GFP and endogenous phloem proteins, TRXh and GST, in phloem sap and total leaf extracts were compared. Compared to TRXh and GST, GFP content was higher in total leaf extracts, but lower in phloem sap, suggesting that GFP accumulated mainly in companion cells rather than in sieve elements. On the other hand, TRXh and GST appeared to accumulate in sieve elements rather than in companion cells. These results indicate the evidence for differential distribution of proteins between sieve elements and companion cells in rice plants.

  8. A Tale of Three Cell Types: Alkaloid Biosynthesis Is Localized to Sieve Elements in Opium Poppy

    PubMed Central

    Bird, David A.; Franceschi, Vincent R.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Opium poppy produces a diverse array of pharmaceutical alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids of opium poppy accumulate in the cytoplasm, or latex, of specialized laticifers that accompany vascular tissues throughout the plant. However, immunofluorescence labeling using affinity-purified antibodies showed that three key enzymes, (S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3′-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), berberine bridge enzyme (BBE), and codeinone reductase (COR), involved in the biosynthesis of morphine and the related antimicrobial alkaloid sanguinarine, are restricted to the parietal region of sieve elements adjacent or proximal to laticifers. The localization of laticifers was demonstrated using antibodies specific to the major latex protein (MLP), which is characteristic of the cell type. In situ hybridization showed that CYP80B1, BBE, and COR gene transcripts were found in the companion cell paired with each sieve element, whereas MLP transcripts were restricted to laticifers. The biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids in opium poppy involves cell types not implicated previously in plant secondary metabolism and dramatically extends the function of sieve elements beyond the transport of solutes and information macromolecules in plants. PMID:14508000

  9. OHMS**: Phytoplasmas dictate changes in sieve-element ultrastructure to accommodate their requirements for nutrition, multiplication and translocation.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Rita; Pagliari, Laura; Buxa, Stefanie V; Degola, Francesca; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; van Bel, Aart J E

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are among the most recently discovered plant pathogenic microorganisms so, many traits of the interactions with host plants and insect vectors are still unclear and need to be investigated. At now, it is impossible to determine the precise sequences leading to the onset of the relationship with the plant host cell. It is still unclear how phytoplasmas, located in the phloem sieve elements, exploit host cell to draw nutrition for their metabolism, growth and multiplication. In this work, basing on microscopical observations, we give insight about the structural interactions established by phytoplasmas and the sieve element plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, sieve endoplasmic reticulum, speculating about a possible functional role.

  10. OHMS**: Phytoplasmas dictate changes in sieve-element ultrastructure to accommodate their requirements for nutrition, multiplication and translocation

    PubMed Central

    Musetti, Rita; Pagliari, Laura; Buxa, Stefanie V.; Degola, Francesca; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phytoplasmas are among the most recently discovered plant pathogenic microorganisms so, many traits of the interactions with host plants and insect vectors are still unclear and need to be investigated. At now, it is impossible to determine the precise sequences leading to the onset of the relationship with the plant host cell. It is still unclear how phytoplasmas, located in the phloem sieve elements, exploit host cell to draw nutrition for their metabolism, growth and multiplication. In this work, basing on microscopical observations, we give insight about the structural interactions established by phytoplasmas and the sieve element plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, sieve endoplasmic reticulum, speculating about a possible functional role. PMID:26795235

  11. Sieve element Ca2+ channels as relay stations between remote stimuli and sieve tube occlusion in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; van Bel, Aart J E; Fricker, Mark D; Felle, Hubert H; Fuchs, Maike; Hafke, Jens B

    2009-07-01

    Damage induces remote occlusion of sieve tubes in Vicia faba by forisome dispersion, triggered during the passage of an electropotential wave (EPW). This study addresses the role of Ca2+ channels and cytosolic Ca2+ elevation as a link between EPWs and forisome dispersion. Ca2+ channel antagonists affect the initial phase of the EPW as well as the prolonged plateau phase. Resting levels of sieve tube Ca2+ of approximately 50 nM were independently estimated using Ca2+-selective electrodes and a Ca2+-sensitive dye. Transient changes in cytosolic Ca2+ were observed in phloem tissue in response to remote stimuli and showed profiles similar to those of EPWs. The measured elevation of Ca2+ in sieve tubes was below the threshold necessary for forisome dispersion. Therefore, forisomes need to be associated with Ca2+ release sites. We found an association between forisomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at sieve plates and pore-plasmodesma units where high-affinity binding of a fluorescent Ca2+ channel blocker mapped an increased density of Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, propagation of EPWs in response to remote stimuli is linked to forisome dispersion through transiently high levels of parietal Ca2+, release of which depends on both plasma membrane and ER Ca2+ channels.

  12. A New Application of the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) for Acquiring and Measuring Electrical Signals in Phloem Sieve Elements.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Recatalà, Vicenta; Tjallingii, W Freddy

    2015-07-02

    Electrophysiological properties of cells are often studied in vitro, after dissociating them from their native environments. However, the study of electrical transmission between distant cells in an organism requires in vivo, artifact-free recordings of cells embedded within their native environment. The transmission of electrical signals from wounded to unwounded areas in a plant has since long piqued the interest of botanists. The phloem, the living part of the plant vasculature that is spread throughout the plant, has been postulated as a major tissue in electrical transmission in plants. The lack of suitable electrophysiological methods poses many challenges for the study of the electrical properties of the phloem cells in vivo. Here we present a novel approach for intracellular electrophysiology of sieve elements (SEs) that uses living aphids, or other phloem-feeding hemipteran insects, integrated in the electrical penetration graph (EPG) circuit. The versatility, robustness, and accuracy of this method made it possible to record and study in detail the wound-induced electrical signals in SEs of central veins of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana(1). Here we show that EPG-electrodes can be easily implemented for intracellular electrophysiological recordings of SEs in marginal veins, as well as to study the capacity of SEs to respond with electrical signals to several external stimuli. The EPG approach applied to intracellular electrophysiology of SEs can be implemented to a wide variety of plant species, in a large number of plant/insect combinations, and for many research aims.

  13. A New Application of the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) for Acquiring and Measuring Electrical Signals in Phloem Sieve Elements

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Recatalà, Vicenta; Tjallingii, W. Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological properties of cells are often studied in vitro, after dissociating them from their native environments. However, the study of electrical transmission between distant cells in an organism requires in vivo, artifact-free recordings of cells embedded within their native environment. The transmission of electrical signals from wounded to unwounded areas in a plant has since long piqued the interest of botanists. The phloem, the living part of the plant vasculature that is spread throughout the plant, has been postulated as a major tissue in electrical transmission in plants. The lack of suitable electrophysiological methods poses many challenges for the study of the electrical properties of the phloem cells in vivo. Here we present a novel approach for intracellular electrophysiology of sieve elements (SEs) that uses living aphids, or other phloem-feeding hemipteran insects, integrated in the electrical penetration graph (EPG) circuit. The versatility, robustness, and accuracy of this method made it possible to record and study in detail the wound-induced electrical signals in SEs of central veins of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana1. Here we show that EPG-electrodes can be easily implemented for intracellular electrophysiological recordings of SEs in marginal veins, as well as to study the capacity of SEs to respond with electrical signals to several external stimuli. The EPG approach applied to intracellular electrophysiology of SEs can be implemented to a wide variety of plant species, in a large number of plant/insect combinations, and for many research aims. PMID:26168018

  14. The role of phloem sieve elements and laticifers in the biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Samanani, Nailish; Alcantara, Joenel; Bourgault, Richard; Zulak, Katherine G; Facchini, Peter J

    2006-08-01

    The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids of opium poppy, including the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, accumulate in the multinucleate cytoplasm of specialized laticifers that accompany vascular tissues throughout the plant. In mature opium poppy plants, immunofluorescence labeling using specific antibodies showed that four alkaloid biosynthetic enzymes, (S)-norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase (6OMT), (S)-coclaurine N-methyltransferase (CNMT), (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine-4'-O-methyltransferase (4'OMT) and salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase (SAT) were restricted to sieve elements of the phloem adjacent or proximal to laticifers. The identity of sieve elements was confirmed by (i) the specific immunogold labeling of the characteristic cytoplasm of this cell type, (ii) the co-localization of a sieve element-specific H(+)-ATPase with all biosynthetic enzymes and (iii) the strict association of sieve plates with immunofluorescent cells. The localization of laticifers was demonstrated antibodies specific to major latex protein (MLP), which is characteristic of this cell type. In situ hybridization using antisense RNA probes for 6OMT, CNMT, 4'OMT and SAT showed that the corresponding gene transcripts were found in the companion cell paired with each sieve element. Seven benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic enzymes, (S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), berberine bridge enzyme, codeinone reductase, 6OMT, CNMT, 4'OMT and SAT were localized by immunofluorescence labeling to the sieve elements in the root and hypocotyl of opium poppy seedlings. The abundance of these enzymes increased rapidly between 1 and 3 days after seed germination. The localization of seven biosynthetic enzymes to the sieve elements provides strong support for the unique, cell type-specific biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the opium poppy.

  15. Morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy involves two cell types: sieve elements and laticifers.

    PubMed

    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type-specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  16. Morphine Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy Involves Two Cell Types: Sieve Elements and Laticifers[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M.; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F.; Schriemer, David C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type–specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy. PMID:24104569

  17. Phytoplasma infection in tomato is associated with re-organization of plasma membrane, ER stacks, and actin filaments in sieve elements.

    PubMed

    Buxa, Stefanie V; Degola, Francesca; Polizzotto, Rachele; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; van Bel, Aart J E; Musetti, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas, biotrophic wall-less prokaryotes, only reside in sieve elements of their host plants. The essentials of the intimate interaction between phytoplasmas and their hosts are poorly understood, which calls for research on potential ultrastructural modifications. We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,' the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease. Phytoplasma infection induces a drastic re-organization of sieve-element substructures including changes in plasma membrane surface and distortion of the sieve-element reticulum. Observations of healthy and stolbur-diseased plants provided evidence for the emergence of structural links between sieve-element plasma membrane and phytoplasmas. One-sided actin aggregates on the phytoplasma surface also inferred a connection between phytoplasma and sieve-element cytoskeleton. Actin filaments displaced from the sieve-element mictoplasm to the surface of the phytoplasmas in infected sieve elements. Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants. Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes.

  18. Phytoplasma infection in tomato is associated with re-organization of plasma membrane, ER stacks, and actin filaments in sieve elements

    PubMed Central

    Buxa, Stefanie V.; Degola, Francesca; Polizzotto, Rachele; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Musetti, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas, biotrophic wall-less prokaryotes, only reside in sieve elements of their host plants. The essentials of the intimate interaction between phytoplasmas and their hosts are poorly understood, which calls for research on potential ultrastructural modifications. We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,’ the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease. Phytoplasma infection induces a drastic re-organization of sieve-element substructures including changes in plasma membrane surface and distortion of the sieve-element reticulum. Observations of healthy and stolbur-diseased plants provided evidence for the emergence of structural links between sieve-element plasma membrane and phytoplasmas. One-sided actin aggregates on the phytoplasma surface also inferred a connection between phytoplasma and sieve-element cytoskeleton. Actin filaments displaced from the sieve-element mictoplasm to the surface of the phytoplasmas in infected sieve elements. Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants. Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes. PMID:26347766

  19. A New Subfamily of Sucrose Transporters, SUT4, with Low Affinity/High Capacity Localized in Enucleate Sieve Elements of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Andreas; Barker, Laurence; Kühn, Christina; Lalonde, Sylvie; Buschmann, Henrik; Frommer, Wolf B.; Ward, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A new subfamily of sucrose transporters from Arabidopsis (AtSUT4), tomato (LeSUT4), and potato (StSUT4) was isolated, demonstrating only 47% similarity to the previously characterized SUT1. SUT4 from two plant species conferred sucrose uptake activity when expressed in yeast. The Km for sucrose uptake by AtSUT4 of 11.6 ± 0.6 mM was ∼10-fold greater than for all other plant sucrose transporters characterized to date. An ortholog from potato had similar kinetic properties. Thus, SUT4 corresponds to the low-affinity/high-capacity saturable component of sucrose uptake found in leaves. In contrast to SUT1, SUT4 is expressed predominantly in minor veins in source leaves, where high-capacity sucrose transport is needed for phloem loading. In potato and tomato, SUT4 was immunolocalized specifically to enucleate sieve elements, indicating that like SUT1, macromolecular trafficking is required to transport the mRNA or the protein from companion cells through plasmodesmata into the sieve elements. PMID:10948254

  20. A new subfamily of sucrose transporters, SUT4, with low affinity/high capacity localized in enucleate sieve elements of plants.

    PubMed

    Weise, A; Barker, L; Kühn, C; Lalonde, S; Buschmann, H; Frommer, W B; Ward, J M

    2000-08-01

    A new subfamily of sucrose transporters from Arabidopsis (AtSUT4), tomato (LeSUT4), and potato (StSUT4) was isolated, demonstrating only 47% similarity to the previously characterized SUT1. SUT4 from two plant species conferred sucrose uptake activity when expressed in yeast. The K(m) for sucrose uptake by AtSUT4 of 11.6 +/- 0.6 mM was approximately 10-fold greater than for all other plant sucrose transporters characterized to date. An ortholog from potato had similar kinetic properties. Thus, SUT4 corresponds to the low-affinity/high-capacity saturable component of sucrose uptake found in leaves. In contrast to SUT1, SUT4 is expressed predominantly in minor veins in source leaves, where high-capacity sucrose transport is needed for phloem loading. In potato and tomato, SUT4 was immunolocalized specifically to enucleate sieve elements, indicating that like SUT1, macromolecular trafficking is required to transport the mRNA or the protein from companion cells through plasmodesmata into the sieve elements.

  1. Characterization of five subgroups of the sieve element occlusion gene family in Glycine max reveals genes encoding non-forisome P-proteins, forisomes and forisome tails.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Sascia; Ernst, Antonia M; Hawat, Susan; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2014-09-01

    P-proteins are structural phloem proteins discussed to be involved in the rapid sealing of injured sieve elements. P-proteins are found in all dicotyledonous and some monocotyledonous plants, but additional crystalloid P-proteins, known as forisomes, have evolved solely in the Fabaceae. Both types are encoded by members of the sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family, which comprises seven phylogenetic subgroups. The Fabaceae-specific subgroup 1 contains genes encoding forisome subunits in e.g. Medicago truncatula, Vicia faba, Dipteryx panamensis and Canavalia gladiata whereas basal subgroup 5 encodes P-proteins in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The function of remaining subgroups is still unknown. We chose Glycine max (soybean) as a model to investigate SEO proteins representing different subgroups in one species. We isolated native P-proteins to determine the SEO protein composition and analyzed the expression pattern, localization and structure of the G. max SEO proteins representing five of the subgroups. We found that subgroup 1 GmSEO genes encode forisome subunits, a member of subgroup 5 encodes a non-forisome P-protein and subgroup 2 GmSEO genes encode the components of forisome tails, which are present in a restricted selection of Fabaceaen species. We therefore present the first molecular characterization of a Fabaceae non-forisome P-protein and the first evidence that forisome tails are encoded by a phylogenetically-distinct branch of the SEO gene family.

  2. Involvement of the Sieve Element Cytoskeleton in Electrical Responses to Cold Shocks1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; Ehlers, Katrin; Föller, Jens; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Becker, Stefanie; van Bel, Aart J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study dealt with the visualization of the sieve element (SE) cytoskeleton and its involvement in electrical responses to local cold shocks, exemplifying the role of the cytoskeleton in Ca2+-triggered signal cascades in SEs. High-affinity fluorescent phalloidin as well as immunocytochemistry using anti-actin antibodies demonstrated a fully developed parietal actin meshwork in SEs. The involvement of the cytoskeleton in electrical responses and forisome conformation changes as indicators of Ca2+ influx was investigated by the application of cold shocks in the presence of diverse actin disruptors (latrunculin A and cytochalasin D). Under control conditions, cold shocks elicited a graded initial voltage transient, ΔV1, reduced by external La3+ in keeping with the involvement of Ca2+ channels, and a second voltage transient, ΔV2. Cytochalasin D had no effect on ΔV1, while ΔV1 was significantly reduced with 500 nm latrunculin A. Forisome dispersion was triggered by cold shocks of 4°C or greater, which was indicative of an all-or-none behavior. Forisome dispersion was suppressed by incubation with latrunculin A. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton controls cold shock-induced Ca2+ influx into SEs, leading to forisome dispersion and sieve plate occlusion in fava bean (Vicia faba). PMID:23624858

  3. Involvement of the sieve element cytoskeleton in electrical responses to cold shocks.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Ehlers, Katrin; Föller, Jens; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Becker, Stefanie; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-06-01

    This study dealt with the visualization of the sieve element (SE) cytoskeleton and its involvement in electrical responses to local cold shocks, exemplifying the role of the cytoskeleton in Ca(2+)-triggered signal cascades in SEs. High-affinity fluorescent phalloidin as well as immunocytochemistry using anti-actin antibodies demonstrated a fully developed parietal actin meshwork in SEs. The involvement of the cytoskeleton in electrical responses and forisome conformation changes as indicators of Ca(2+) influx was investigated by the application of cold shocks in the presence of diverse actin disruptors (latrunculin A and cytochalasin D). Under control conditions, cold shocks elicited a graded initial voltage transient, ΔV1, reduced by external La(3+) in keeping with the involvement of Ca(2+) channels, and a second voltage transient, ΔV2. Cytochalasin D had no effect on ΔV1, while ΔV1 was significantly reduced with 500 nm latrunculin A. Forisome dispersion was triggered by cold shocks of 4°C or greater, which was indicative of an all-or-none behavior. Forisome dispersion was suppressed by incubation with latrunculin A. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton controls cold shock-induced Ca(2+) influx into SEs, leading to forisome dispersion and sieve plate occlusion in fava bean (Vicia faba).

  4. Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance.

    PubMed

    Liesche, Johannes; Windt, Carel; Bohr, Tomas; Schulz, Alexander; Jensen, Kaare H

    2015-04-01

    In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Angiosperm and gymnosperm trees have a fundamentally different phloem anatomy with respect to cell size, shape and connectivity. Whether these differences have an effect on the physiology of carbohydrate transport, however, is not clear. A meta-analysis of the experimental data on phloem transport speed in trees yielded average speeds of 56 cm h(-1) for angiosperm trees and 22 cm h(-1) for gymnosperm trees. Similar values resulted from theoretical modeling using a simple transport resistance model. Analysis of the model parameters clearly identified sieve element (SE) anatomy as the main factor for the significantly slower carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem in gymnosperm compared with angiosperm trees. In order to investigate the influence of SE anatomy on the hydraulic resistance, anatomical data on SEs and sieve pores were collected by transmission electron microscopy analysis and from the literature for 18 tree species. Calculations showed that the hydraulic resistance is significantly higher in the gymnosperm than in angiosperm trees. The higher resistance is only partially offset by the considerably longer SEs of gymnosperms.

  5. Forisome performance in artificial sieve tubes.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Michael; Stubenrauch, Mike; van Bel, Aart J E; Peters, Winfried S

    2012-08-01

    In the legume phloem, sieve element occlusion (SEO) proteins assemble into Ca(2+)-dependent contractile bodies. These forisomes presumably control phloem transport by forming reversible sieve tube plugs. This function, however, has never been directly demonstrated, and appears questionable as forisomes were reported to be too small to plug sieve tubes, and failed to block flow efficiently in artificial microchannels. Moreover, plugs of SEO-related proteins in Arabidopsis sieve tubes do not affect phloem translocation. We improved existing procedures for forisome isolation and storage, and found that the degree of Ca(2+)-driven deformation that is possible in forisomes of Vicia faba, the standard object of earlier research, has been underestimated substantially. Forisomes deform particularly strongly under reducing conditions and high sugar concentrations, as typically found in sieve tubes. In contrast to our previous inference, Ca(2+)-inducible forisome swelling certainly seems sufficient to plug sieve tubes. This conclusion was supported by 3D-reconstructions of forisome plugs in Canavalia gladiata. For a direct test, we built microfluidics chips with artificial sieve tubes. Using fluorescent dyes to visualize flow, we demonstrated the complete blockage of these biomimetic microtubes by Ca(2+)-induced forisome plugs, and concluded by analogy that forisomes are capable of regulating phloem flow in vivo.

  6. Lack of incorporation of tritiated uridine by nuclei of mature sieve elements in Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Sequoiadendron giganteum.

    PubMed

    Hébant, C

    1975-01-01

    The majority of nuclei which persist in "mature" sieve elements of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu and Chen and Sequoiadendron giganteum Buchholz fail to incorporate tritiated uridine (10 μCi/ml; 7 hours incubation of stem fragments). This is interpreted as further evidence for the degenerated condition of these nuclei.

  7. Conserved thioredoxin fold is present in Pisum sativum L. sieve element occlusion-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra; Umate, Pavan; Tuteja, Renu

    2010-06-01

    Homology-based three-dimensional model for Pisum sativum sieve element occlusion 1 (Ps.SEO1) (forisomes) protein was constructed. A stretch of amino acids (residues 320 to 456) which is well conserved in all known members of forisomes proteins was used to model the 3D structure of Ps.SEO1. The structural prediction was done using Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (PHYRE) web server. Based on studies of local sequence alignment, the thioredoxin-fold containing protein [Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) code d1o73a_], a member of the glutathione peroxidase family was selected as a template for modeling the spatial structure of Ps.SEO1. Selection was based on comparison of primary sequence, higher match quality and alignment accuracy. Motif 1 (EVF) is conserved in Ps.SEO1, Vicia faba (Vf.For1) and Medicago truncatula (Mt.SEO3); motif 2 (KKED) is well conserved across all forisomes proteins and motif 3 (IGYIGNP) is conserved in Ps.SEO1 and Vf.For1.

  8. Ultrastructure of compatible and incompatible interactions in phloem sieve elements during the stylet penetration by cotton aphids in melon.

    PubMed

    Garzo, Elisa; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Morcillo, Cesar; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, M Luisa; Tjallingii, W Fred

    2017-02-18

    Resistance of the melon line TGR-1551 to the aphid Aphis gossypii is based on preventing aphids from ingesting phloem sap. In electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), this resistance has been characterized with A. gossypii showing unusually long phloem salivation periods (waveform E1) mostly followed by pathway activities (waveform C) or if followed by phloem ingestion (waveform E2), ingestion was not sustained for more than 10 minutes. Stylectomy with aphids on susceptible and resistant plants was performed during EPG recording while the stylet tips were phloem inserted. This was followed by dissection of the penetrated leaf section, plant tissue fixation, resin embedding, and ultra thin sectioning for transmission electron microscopic observation in order to study the resistance mechanism in the TGR. The most obvious aspect appeared to be the coagulation of phloem proteins inside the stylet canals and the punctured sieve elements. Stylets of five aphids per genotype were amputated during sieve element (SE) salivation (E1) and SE ingestion (E2). Cross-sections of stylet bundles in susceptible melon plants showed that the contents of the stylet canals were totally clear and also, no coagulated phloem proteins occurred in their punctured sieve elements. In contrast, electron-dense coagulations were found in both locations in the resistant plants. Due to calcium binding, aphid saliva has been hypothesized to play an essential role in preventing/suppressing such coagulations that cause occlusion of sieves plate and in the food canal of the aphid's stylets. Doubts about this role of E1 salivation are discussed on the basis of our results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple cis-regulatory elements are involved in the complex regulation of the sieve element-specific MtSEO-F1 promoter from Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Bucsenez, M; Rüping, B; Behrens, S; Twyman, R M; Noll, G A; Prüfer, D

    2012-09-01

    The sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family includes several members that are expressed specifically in immature sieve elements (SEs) in the developing phloem of dicotyledonous plants. To determine how this restricted expression profile is achieved, we analysed the SE-specific Medicago truncatula SEO-F1 promoter (PMtSEO-F1) by constructing deletion, substitution and hybrid constructs and testing them in transgenic tobacco plants using green fluorescent protein as a reporter. This revealed four promoter regions, each containing cis-regulatory elements that activate transcription in SEs. One of these segments also contained sufficient information to suppress PMtSEO-F1 transcription in the phloem companion cells (CCs). Subsequent in silico analysis revealed several candidate cis-regulatory elements that PMtSEO-F1 shares with other SEO promoters. These putative sieve element boxes (PSE boxes) are promising candidates for cis-regulatory elements controlling the SE-specific expression of PMtSEO-F1. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. OCTOPUS-LIKE 2, a novel player in Arabidopsis root and vascular development, reveals a key role for OCTOPUS family genes in root metaphloem sieve tube differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Sola, M Aguila; Coiro, Mario; Crivelli, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C; Schmidt Kjølner Hansen, Signe; Truernit, Elisabeth

    2017-09-06

    Protophloem and metaphloem sieve tubes are essential for transporting carbohydrates and signalling molecules towards sink tissues. OCTOPUS (OPS) was previously identified as an important regulator of protophloem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. Here, we investigated the role of OCTOPUS-LIKE 2 (OPL2), a gene homologous to OPS. OPL2 expression patterns were analysed, and functional equivalence of OPS and OPL2 was tested. Mutant and double mutant phenotypes were investigated. OPS and OPL2 displayed overlapping expression patterns and a high degree of functional overlap. A mutation in OPL2 revealed redundant functions of OPS and OPL2 in developmental processes in which OPS was known to play a role, notably cotyledon vascular patterning and protophloem development. Moreover, we also uncovered redundant roles for OPS and OPL2 in leaf vascular patterning and, most interestingly, metaphloem sieve tube differentiation. Our results reveal a novel OPS-like protein that, together with OPS, is an important regulator of vascular patterning, root growth and phloem development. OPS and OPL2 are the first genes identified that play a role in metaphloem sieve tube differentiation. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Genetic and epigenetic variation of transposable elements in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Charles J; Henderson, Ian R; Martienssen, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    Transposable elements are mobile genetic elements that are prevalent in plant genomes and are silenced by epigenetic modification. Different epigenetic modification pathways play distinct roles in the control of transposable element transcription, replication and recombination. The Arabidopsis genome contains families of all of the major transposable element classes, which are differentially enriched in particular genomic regions. Whole genome sequencing and DNA methylation profiling of hundreds of natural Arabidopsis accessions has revealed that transposable elements exhibit significant intraspecific genetic and epigenetic variation, and that genetic variation often underlies epigenetic variation. Together, epigenetic modification and the forces of selection define the scope within which transposable elements can contribute to, and control, genome evolution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (−130 mV to −110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. −100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to −55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie–Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis–Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2–1.8 mM, Km2 6.6–9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (−0.1 to −0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of Km values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved

  13. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H(+)-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: K m1 1.2-1.8 mM, K m2 6.6-9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, K m values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher K m values (EH: K m1 10 mM, K m2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) K m values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of K m values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose

  14. Localization of BEN1-LIKE protein and nuclear degradation during development of metaphloem sieve elements in Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jingtong; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhou, Zhuqing; Yang, Wenli; Liu, Yang; Mei, Fangzhu; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Likai

    2015-03-01

    Metaphloem sieve elements (MSEs) in the developing caryopsis of Triticum aestivum L. undergo a unique type of programmed cell death (PCD); cell organelles gradually degrade with the MSE differentiation while mature sieve elements keep active. This study focuses on locating BEN1-LIKE protein and nuclear degradation in differentiating MSEs of wheat. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that nuclei degraded in MSE development. First, the degradation started at 2-3 days after flowering (DAF). The degraded fragments were then swallowed by phagocytic vacuoles at 4 DAF. Finally, nuclei almost completely degraded at 5 DAF. We measured the BEN1-LIKE protein expression in differentiating MSEs. In situ hybridization showed that BEN1-LIKE mRNA was a more obvious hybridization signal at 3-4 DAF at the microscopic level. Immuno-electron microscopy further revealed that BEN1-LIKE protein was mainly localized in MSE nuclei. Furthermore, MSE differentiation was tested using a TSQ Zn2+ fluorescence probe which showed that the dynamic change of Zn2+ accumulation was similar to BEN1-LIKE protein expression. These results suggest that nucleus degradation in wheat MSEs is associated with BEN1-LIKE protein and that the expression of this protein may be regulated by Zn2+ accumulation variation.

  15. Purification and characterization of native and recombinant SaPIN2a, a plant sieve element-localized proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhaoyu; Wang, Fanghai; Li, Ning; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-01-01

    SaPIN2a encodes a proteinase inhibitor in nightshade (Solanum americanum), which is specifically localized to the enucleate sieve elements. It has been proposed to play an important role in phloem development by regulating proteolysis in sieve elements. In this study, we purified and characterized native SaPIN2a from nightshade stems and recombinant SaPIN2a expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified native SaPIN2a was found as a charge isomer family of homodimers, and was weakly glycosylated. Native SaPIN2a significantly inhibited serine proteinases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and subtilisin, with the most potent inhibitory activity on subtilisin. It did not inhibit cysteine proteinase papain and aspartic proteinase cathepsin D. Recombinant SaPIN2a had a strong inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin, but its inhibitory activities toward trypsin and especially toward subtilisin were greatly reduced. In addition, native SaPIN2a can effectively inhibit midgut trypsin-like activities from Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera litura larvae, suggesting a potential for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  16. Massively parallel mathematical sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Montry, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Sieve of Eratosthenes is a well-known algorithm for finding all prime numbers in a given subset of integers. A parallel version of the Sieve is described that produces computational speedups over 800 on a hypercube with 1,024 processing elements for problems of fixed size. Computational speedups as high as 980 are achieved when the problem size per processor is fixed. The method of parallelization generalizes to other sieves and will be efficient on any ensemble architecture. We investigate two highly parallel sieves using scattered decomposition and compare their performance on a hypercube multiprocessor. A comparison of different parallelization techniques for the sieve illustrates the trade-offs necessary in the design and implementation of massively parallel algorithms for large ensemble computers.

  17. Sieve Tubes in Action

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, M.; van Bel, A. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract A method was designed for in vivo observation of sieve element/companion complexes by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A leaf attached to an intact fava bean plant was mounted upside down on the stage of a confocal microscope. Two shallow paradermal cortical cuts were made in the major vein. The basal cortical window allowed us to observe the phloem intact. The apical window at 3 cm from the site of observation was used to apply phloem-mobile fluorochromes, which identified living sieve elements at the observation site. In intact sieve tubes, the sieve plates did not present a barrier to mass flow, because the translocation of fluorochromes appeared to be unhindered. Two major occlusion mechanisms were distinguished. In response to intense laser light, the parietal proteins detached from the plasma membrane and formed a network of minute strands and clustered material that aggregated and pressed against the sieve plate. In response to mechanical damage, the evenly distributed P plastids exploded, giving rise to the formation of a massive plug against the sieve plate. In case of mechanical damage, the parietal proteins transformed into elastic threads (strands) that extended throughout the sieve element lumen. Our observations cover the phenomena encountered in previous microscopic and electron microscopic studies and provide a temporal disentanglement of the events giving rise to the confusing mass of structures observed thus far.

  18. Height-related scaling of phloem anatomy and the evolution of sieve element end wall types in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Liesche, Johannes; Pace, Marcelo R; Xu, Qiyu; Li, Yongqing; Chen, Shaolin

    2017-04-01

    In the sieve elements (SEs) of the phloem, carbohydrates are transported throughout the whole plant from their site of production to sites of consumption or storage. SE structure, especially of the pore-rich end walls, has a direct effect on translocation efficiency. Differences in pore size and other features were interpreted as an evolutionary trend towards reduced hydraulic resistance. However, this has never been confirmed. Anatomical data of 447 species of woody angiosperms and gymnosperms were used for a phylogenetic analysis of end wall types, calculation of hydraulic resistance and correlation analysis with morphological and physiological variables. end wall types were defined according to pore arrangement: either grouped into a single area (simple) or into multiple areas along the end wall (compound). Convergent evolution of end wall types was demonstrated in woody angiosperms. In addition, an optimization of end wall resistance with plant height was discovered, but found to be independent of end wall type. While physiological factors also showed no correlation with end wall types, the number of sieve areas per end wall was found to scale with SE length. The results exclude the minimization of hydraulic resistance as evolutionary driver of different end wall types, contradicting this long-standing assumption. Instead, end wall type might depend on SE length.

  19. Evidence for functional heterogeneity of sieve element-companion cell complexes in minor vein phloem of Alonsoa meridionalis.

    PubMed

    Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V; Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Pakhomova, Marina V; Batashev, Denis R; Gamalei, Yuri V; Lohaus, Gertrud; Pawlowski, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Two modes of phloem loading have been proposed, apoplastic and symplastic, depending on the structure of sieve element-companion cell complexes (SE-CCCs) in minor vein phloem. Species are usually classified as either apoplastic or symplastic loaders although the cytology of SE-CCCs in minor veins of the majority of plants indicates that both mechanisms can be simultaneously involved in phloem loading. The functions of structurally different SE-CCCs in minor veins of the stachyose-translocating plant Alonsoa meridionalis were examined. A stachyose synthase gene, AmSTS1, was expressed in intermediary cells but not in the ordinary companion cell of the same vein. In contrast, sucrose transporter AmSUT1 protein was present in ordinary companion cells but not in the neighbouring intermediary cells. These data reveal the principles of phloem sap formation in A. meridionalis and, probably, in many other dicots. The two types of SE-CCCs within one and the same minor vein load different carbohydrates, using contrasting mechanisms for their delivery into the phloem. Lateral sieve pores in the minor vein phloem lead to mixing of the carbohydrates soon after loading. While symplastic and apoplastic pathways can function simultaneously during phloem loading, they are separated at the level of different SE-CCCs combined in phloem endings.

  20. Broadband antihole photon sieve telescope.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Geoff; Tullson, Drew

    2007-06-20

    A broadband-corrected optical telescope has been constructed from a photon sieve with five million holes. Through careful optimization of hole size, this "antihole" sieve has holes centered on the dark underlying Fresnel zones. The diffraction-limited performance of a 1 m focal-length, f/10 element is demonstrated with a view toward constructing large lightweight telescopes for space applications.

  1. To feed or not to feed: plant factors located in the epidermis, mesophyll, and sieve elements influence pea aphid's ability to feed on legume species.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Alexander; Rosenberger, Daniel; Niebergall, Martin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunert, Grit

    2013-01-01

    The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris), a legume specialist, encompasses at least 11 genetically distinct sympatric host races. Each host race shows a preference for a certain legume species. Six pea aphid clones from three host races were used to localize plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding behavior on four legume species. Aphid performance was tested by measuring survival and growth. The location of plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding was determined using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Every aphid clone performed best on the plant species from which it was originally collected, as well as on Vicia faba. On other plant species, clones showed intermediate or poor performance. The most important plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding behavior were localized in the epidermis and sieve elements. Repetitive puncturing of sieve elements might be relevant for establishing phloem feeding, since feeding periods appear nearly exclusively after these repetitive sieve element punctures. A combination of plant factors influences the behavior of pea aphid host races on different legume species and likely contributes to the maintenance of these races.

  2. Quantification of Plasmodesmatal Endoplasmic Reticulum Coupling between Sieve Elements and Companion Cells Using Fluorescence Redistribution after Photobleaching1[W

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Helle J.; Roberts, Alison G.; Oparka, Karl J.; Schulz, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was studied to localize the activity of phloem loading during development and to establish whether the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the companion cell (CC) and the sieve element (SE) reticulum is continuous by using a SUC2 promoter-green fluorescent protein (GFP) construct targeted to the CC-ER. Expression of GFP marked the collection phloem in source leaves and cotyledons as expected, but also the transport phloem in stems, petioles, midveins of sink leaves, nonphotosynthetic flower parts, roots, and newly germinated seedlings, suggesting that sucrose retrieval along the pathway is an integral component of phloem function. GFP fluorescence was limited to CCs where it was visualized as a well-developed ER network in close proximity to the plasma membrane. ER coupling between CC and SEs was tested in wild-type tobacco using an ER-specific fluorochrome and fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP), and showed that the ER is continuous via pore-plasmodesma units. ER coupling between CC and SE was quantified by determining the mobile fraction and half-life of fluorescence redistribution and compared with that of other cell types. In all tissues, fluorescence recovered slowly when it was rate limited by plasmodesmata, contrasting with fast intracellular FRAP. FRAP was unaffected by treatment with cytochalasin D. The highest degree of ER coupling was measured between CC and SE. Intimate ER coupling is consistent with a possible role for ER in membrane protein and signal exchange between CC and SE. However, a complete lack of GFP transfer between CC and SE indicated that the intraluminal pore-plasmodesma contact has a size exclusion limit below 27 kD. PMID:16905664

  3. Enrichment and distribution of 24 elements within the sub-sieve particle size distribution ranges of fly ash from wastes incinerator plants.

    PubMed

    Raclavská, Helena; Corsaro, Agnieszka; Hartmann-Koval, Silvie; Juchelková, Dagmar

    2017-04-04

    The management of an increasing amount of municipal waste via incineration has been gaining traction. Fly ash as a by-product of incineration of municipal solid waste is considered a hazardous waste due to the elevated content of various elements. The enrichment and distribution of 24 elements in fly ash from three wastes incinerators were evaluated. Two coarse (>100 μm and <100 μm) and five sub-sieve (12-16, 16-23, 23-34, 34-49, and 49-100 μm) particle size fractions separated on a cyclosizer system were analyzed. An enhancement in the enrichment factor was observed in all samples for the majority of elements in >100 μm range compared with <100 μm range. The enrichment factor of individual elements varied considerably within the samples as well as the sub-sieve particle size ranges. These variations were attributed primarily to: (i) the vaporization and condensation mechanisms, (ii) the different design of incineration plants, (iii) incineration properties, (iv) the type of material being incinerated, and (v) the affinity of elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus 50 kDa protein is targeted to plasmodesmata and accumulates in sieve elements in transgenic plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, N; Oogake, S; Terada, M; Miyabayashi, S; Ikeda, Y; Takahashi, T; Ogawa, K

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the in situ localization of the 50 kDa protein encoded by ORF2 of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) genome which is thought to be a movement protein. In immunogold electron microscopy of ACLSV-infected Chenopodium quinoa leaves, the 50 kDa protein was localized on plasmodesmata and nearby cytoplasm. Observation of transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis leaves expressing the 50 kDa protein fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) by fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that green fluorescence was observed as spots on the cell wall or strands passing through the cell wall of several cell types, i.e., epidermal, palisade and spongy mesophyll and collenchyma cells. In transverse and longitudinal sections of leaf veins of transgenic plants showed that the 50K-EGFP fusion accumulated in sieve elements and formed an extensive interconnecting network of threadlike structure. These results indicated that ACLSV 50 kDa protein can target plasmodesmata and traffic into sieve elements.

  5. The Sucrose Transporter StSUT1 Localizes to Sieve Elements in Potato Tuber Phloem and Influences Tuber Physiology and Development1[w

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Christina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Roessner-Tunali, Ute; Czechowski, Tomasz; Hirner, Brigitte; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2003-01-01

    The sucrose (Suc) H+-cotransporter StSUT1 from potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is essential for long-distance transport of Suc and assumed to play a role in phloem loading in mature leaves, was found to be expressed in sink tubers. To answer the question of whether SUT1 serves a function in phloem unloading in tubers, the promoter was fused to gusA and expression was analyzed in transgenic potato. SUT1 expression was unexpectedly detected not in tuber parenchyma but in the phloem of sink tubers. Immunolocalization demonstrated that StSUT1 protein was present only in sieve elements of sink tubers, cells normally involved in export of Suc from the phloem to supply developing tubers, raising the question of the role of SUT1 in tubers. SUT1 expression was inhibited by antisense in transgenic potato plants using a class I patatin promoter B33, which is primarily expressed in the phloem of developing tubers. Reduced SUT1 expression in tubers did not affect aboveground organs but led to reduced fresh weight accumulation during early stages of tuber development, indicating that in this phase SUT1 plays an important role for sugar transport. Changes in Suc- and starch-modifying enzyme activities and metabolite profiles are consistent with the developmental switch in unloading mechanisms. Altogether, the findings may suggest a role of SUT1 in retrieval of Suc from the apoplasm, thereby regulating the osmotic potential in the extracellular space, or a direct role in phloem unloading acting as a phloem exporter transferring Suc from the sieve elements into the apoplasm. PMID:12529519

  6. Multi-Element Bioimaging of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Salt, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of root function is central for the development of plants with more efficient nutrient uptake and translocation. We here present a method for multielement bioimaging at the cellular level in roots of the genetic model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using conventional protocols for microscopy, we observed that diffusible ions such as potassium and sodium were lost during sample dehydration. Thus, we developed a protocol that preserves ions in their native, cellular environment. Briefly, fresh roots are encapsulated in paraffin, cryo-sectioned, and freeze dried. Samples are finally analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, utilizing a specially designed internal standard procedure. The method can be further developed to maintain the native composition of proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA, making it attractive in combination with other omics techniques. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we analyzed a mutant of Arabidopsis unable to synthesize the metal chelator nicotianamine. The mutant accumulated substantially more zinc and manganese than the wild type in the tissues surrounding the vascular cylinder. For iron, the images looked completely different, with iron bound mainly in the epidermis of the wild-type plants but confined to the cortical cell walls of the mutant. The method offers the power of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to be fully employed, thereby providing a basis for detailed studies of ion transport in roots. Being applicable to Arabidopsis, the molecular and genetic approaches available in this system can now be fully exploited in order to gain a better mechanistic understanding of these processes. PMID:27566167

  7. Identification of a novel cis-acting element conferring sulfur deficiency response in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Maruyama-Nakashita, Akiko; Nakamura, Yumiko; Watanabe-Takahashi, Akiko; Inoue, Eri; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Hideki

    2005-05-01

    SULTR1;1 high-affinity sulfate transporter is highly regulated in the epidermis and cortex of Arabidopsis roots responding to sulfur deficiency (-S). We identified a novel cis-acting element involved in the -S-inducible expression of sulfur-responsive genes in Arabidopsis. The promoter region of SULTR1;1 was dissected for deletion and gain-of-function analysis using luciferase (LUC) reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis. The 16-bp sulfur-responsive element (SURE) from -2777 to -2762 of SULTR1;1 promoter was sufficient and necessary for the -S-responsive expression, which was reversed when supplied with cysteine and glutathione (GSH). The SURE sequence contained an auxin response factor (ARF) binding sequence (GAGACA). However, SURE was not responsive to naphthalene acetic acid, indicating its specific function in the sulfur response. The base substitution analysis indicated the significance of a 5-bp sequence (GAGAC) within the conserved ARF binding site as a core element for the -S response. Microarray analysis of early -S response in Arabidopsis roots indicated the presence of SURE core sequences in the promoter regions of -S-inducible genes on a full genome GeneChip array. It is suggested that SURE core sequences may commonly regulate the expression of a gene set required for adaptation to the -S environment.

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide important insights into the molecular basis of plant defense and susceptibility to aphids. The recent demonstration that expression of dsRNA in Arabidopsis can be used to silence expression of genes in GPA has further expanded the utility of Arabidopsis for evaluating the contribution of the aphid genome-encoded proteins to this interaction. PMID:22666177

  9. Photon Sieve Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; Dearborn, M.; Hcharg, G.

    2010-09-01

    We are investigating new technologies for creating ultra-large apertures (>20m) for space-based imagery. Our approach has been to create diffractive primaries in flat membranes deployed from compact payloads. These structures are attractive in that they are much simpler to fabricate, launch and deploy compared to conventional three-dimensional optics. In this case the flat focusing element is a photon sieve which consists of a large number of holes in an otherwise opaque substrate. A photon sieve is essentially a large number of holes located according to an underlying Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) geometry. The advantages over the FZP are that there are no support struts which lead to diffraction spikes in the far-field and non-uniform tension which can cause wrinkling of the substrate. Furthermore, with modifications in hole size and distribution we can achieve improved resolution and contrast over conventional optics. The trade-offs in using diffractive optics are the large amounts of dispersion and decreased efficiency. We present both theoretical and experimental results from small-scale prototypes. Several key solutions to issues of limited bandwidth and efficiency have been addressed. Along with these we have studied the materials aspects in order to optimize performance and achieve a scalable solution to an on-orbit demonstrator. Our current efforts are being directed towards an on-orbit 1m solar observatory demonstration deployed from a CubeSat bus.

  10. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  11. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell wall elements.

    PubMed

    Pradhan Mitra, Prajakta; Loqué, Dominique

    2014-05-13

    Arabidopsis thaliana is a model organism commonly used to understand and manipulate various cellular processes in plants, and it has been used extensively in the study of secondary cell wall formation. Secondary cell wall deposition occurs after the primary cell wall is laid down, a process carried out exclusively by specialized cells such as those forming vessel and fiber tissues. Most secondary cell walls are composed of cellulose (40-50%), hemicellulose (25-30%), and lignin (20-30%). Several mutations affecting secondary cell wall biosynthesis have been isolated, and the corresponding mutants may or may not exhibit obvious biochemical composition changes or visual phenotypes since these mutations could be masked by compensatory responses. Staining procedures have historically been used to show differences on a cellular basis. These methods are exclusively visual means of analysis; nevertheless their role in rapid and critical analysis is of great importance. Congo red and calcofluor white are stains used to detect polysaccharides, whereas Mäule and phloroglucinol are commonly used to determine differences in lignin, and toluidine blue O is used to differentially stain polysaccharides and lignin. The seemingly simple techniques of sectioning, staining, and imaging can be a challenge for beginners. Starting with sample preparation using the A. thaliana model, this study details the protocols of a variety of staining methodologies that can be easily implemented for observation of cell and tissue organization in secondary cell walls of plants.

  12. Arabidopsis and the Genetic Potential for the Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Cobbett, Christopher S.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In a process called phytoremediation, plants can be used to extract, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic pollutants from soil, water, and air. Phytoremediation may become an essential tool in cleaning the environment and reducing human and animal exposure to potential carcinogens and other toxins. Arabidopsis has provided useful information about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms behind phytoremediation, and it is an excellent model genetic organism to test foreign gene expression. This review focuses on Arabidopsis studies concerning: 1) the remediation of elemental pollutants; 2) the remediation of organic pollutants; and 3) the phytoremediation genome. Elemental pollutants include heavy metals and metalloids (e.g., mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic) that are immutable. The general goal of phytoremediation is to extract, detoxify, and hyperaccumulate elemental pollutants in above-ground plant tissues for later harvest. A few dozen Arabidopsis genes and proteins that play direct roles in the remediation of elemental pollutants are discussed. Organic pollutants include toxic chemicals such as benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, trinitrotoluene, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Phytoremediation of organic pollutants is focused on their complete mineralization to harmless products, however, less is known about the potential of plants to act on complex organic chemicals. A preliminary survey of the Arabidopsis genome suggests that as many as 700 genes encode proteins that have the capacity to act directly on environmental pollutants or could be modified to do so. The potential of the phytoremediation proteome to be used to reduce human exposure to toxic pollutants appears to be enormous and untapped. PMID:22303204

  13. Immunolocalization of plasma-membrane H+-ATPase and tonoplast-type pyrophosphatase in the plasma membrane of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the stem of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Langhans, M; Ratajczak, R; Lützelschwab, M; Michalke, W; Wächter, R; Fischer-Schliebs, E; Ullrich, C I

    2001-05-01

    Plasma-membrane-located primary pumps were investigated in the sieve element (SE)-companion cell complex in the transport phloem of 2-week-old stems of Ricinus communis L. and, for comparison, in stems of Cucurbita pepo L. and in the secondary phloem of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown galls as a typical sink tissue. The plasma-membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and the tonoplast-type pyrophosphatase (PPase) were immunolocalized by epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) upon single or double labeling with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Quantitative fluorescence evaluation by CLSM revealed both pumps in one membrane, the sieve-element PM. Different PM H+-ATPase antibody clones, raised against the PM H+-ATPase of Zea mays coleoptiles, induced in mouse and produced in mouse hybridoma cells, discriminated between different phloem cell types. Clones 30D5C4 and 44B8A1 labeled sieve elements and clone 46E5B11D5 labeled companion cells, indicating the existence of different phloem PM H+-ATPase isoforms. The results are discussed in terms of energization of SE transporters for retrieval of leaking sucrose, K+ and amino acids, as one of the unknown roles of ATP found in SEs. The function of the PPase could be related to phloem sucrose metabolism in support of ATP-requiring processes.

  14. New silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2000-11-01

    This patent application relates to an invention for a new silicotitanate molecular sieve ion exchange material for the capture and immobilization of divalent cations from aqueous and/or hydrocarbon solutions, including elements such as radioactive strontium or industrial RCRA metal cations. The invention also relates to the ability to either recycle the captured metal for future use or to encapsulate the cation through thermal treatment of the molecular sieve to a condensed phase.

  15. Argonautes team up to silence transposable elements in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Charles J; Martienssen, Robert A

    2015-03-04

    The de novo silencing of transposable elements in plants and animals is mediated in part by RNA-directed chromatin modification. In flowering plants, AGO4 has been seen as the key argonauteprotein in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway that links the plant-specific RNA polymerase V with the de novo DNA methyltransferase DRM2 (Zhong et al,2014). Two recent papers in The EMBO Journal strongly implicate a role for the AGO6 protein in the process of de novo silencing.

  16. Copper crystallite in carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.K.; Seshan, P.K.

    1993-06-15

    A copper modified carbon molecular sieve-sorbent having both sorptive and molecular sieving capabilities is described, comprising a carbon molecular sieve and finely divided particles of elemental copper uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the carbon molecular sieve, wherein the particles of elemental copper have an average crystallite size of from about 100 [angstrom] to about 400 [angstrom], wherein the finely divided elemental copper content of the molecular sieve-sorbent is from about 1 to about 40% by weight, and the carbon content thereof is from about 60 to about 99% by weight, and wherein the molecular sieve-sorbent has an effective pore size no greater than about 4.3 [angstrom].

  17. Sieve tube geometry in relation to phloem flow.

    PubMed

    Mullendore, Daniel L; Windt, Carel W; Van As, Henk; Knoblauch, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Sieve elements are one of the least understood cell types in plants. Translocation velocities and volume flow to supply sinks with photoassimilates greatly depend on the geometry of the microfluidic sieve tube system and especially on the anatomy of sieve plates and sieve plate pores. Several models for phloem translocation have been developed, but appropriate data on the geometry of pores, plates, sieve elements, and flow parameters are lacking. We developed a method to clear cells from cytoplasmic constituents to image cell walls by scanning electron microscopy. This method allows high-resolution measurements of sieve element and sieve plate geometries. Sieve tube-specific conductivity and its reduction by callose deposition after injury was calculated for green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), bamboo (Phyllostachys nuda), squash (Cucurbita maxima), castor bean (Ricinus communis), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Phloem sap velocity measurements by magnetic resonance imaging velocimetry indicate that higher conductivity is not accompanied by a higher velocity. Studies on the temporal development of callose show that small sieve plate pores might be occluded by callose within minutes, but plants containing sieve tubes with large pores need additional mechanisms.

  18. Sieve Tube Geometry in Relation to Phloem Flow

    PubMed Central

    Mullendore, Daniel L.; Windt, Carel W.; Van As, Henk; Knoblauch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sieve elements are one of the least understood cell types in plants. Translocation velocities and volume flow to supply sinks with photoassimilates greatly depend on the geometry of the microfluidic sieve tube system and especially on the anatomy of sieve plates and sieve plate pores. Several models for phloem translocation have been developed, but appropriate data on the geometry of pores, plates, sieve elements, and flow parameters are lacking. We developed a method to clear cells from cytoplasmic constituents to image cell walls by scanning electron microscopy. This method allows high-resolution measurements of sieve element and sieve plate geometries. Sieve tube–specific conductivity and its reduction by callose deposition after injury was calculated for green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), bamboo (Phyllostachys nuda), squash (Cucurbita maxima), castor bean (Ricinus communis), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Phloem sap velocity measurements by magnetic resonance imaging velocimetry indicate that higher conductivity is not accompanied by a higher velocity. Studies on the temporal development of callose show that small sieve plate pores might be occluded by callose within minutes, but plants containing sieve tubes with large pores need additional mechanisms. PMID:20354199

  19. Biodiversity of Mineral Nutrient and Trace Element Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ivan; Hermans, Christian; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Tikhonova, Marina; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Chao, Dai-yin; Salt, David E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to grow on soils that vary widely in chemical composition, plants have evolved mechanisms for regulating the elemental composition of their tissues to balance the mineral nutrient and trace element bioavailability in the soil with the requirements of the plant for growth and development. The biodiversity that exists within a species can be utilized to investigate how regulatory mechanisms of individual elements interact and to identify genes important for these processes. We analyzed the elemental composition (ionome) of a set of 96 wild accessions of the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in hydroponic culture and soil using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of 17–19 elements were analyzed in roots and leaves from plants grown hydroponically, and leaves and seeds from plants grown in artificial soil. Significant genetic effects were detected for almost every element analyzed. We observed very few correlations between the elemental composition of the leaves and either the roots or seeds. There were many pairs of elements that were significantly correlated with each other within a tissue, but almost none of these pairs were consistently correlated across tissues and growth conditions, a phenomenon observed in several previous studies. These results suggest that the ionome of a plant tissue is variable, yet tightly controlled by genes and gene×environment interactions. The dataset provides a valuable resource for mapping studies to identify genes regulating elemental accumulation. All of the ionomic data is available at www.ionomicshub.org. PMID:22558123

  20. Germinal and Somatic Activity of the Maize Element Activator (Ac) in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Keller, J.; Lim, E.; James-Jr., D. W.; Dooner, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the germinal and somatic activity of the maize Activator (Ac) element in Arabidopsis with the objective of developing an efficient transposon-based system for gene isolation in that plant. Transposition activity was assayed with a chimeric marker that consists of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a bacterial streptomycin phosphotransferase gene (SPT). Somatic activity was detected in seedlings germinated on plates containing streptomycin as green-resistant sectors against a background of white-sensitive cells. Germinal excisions resulted in fully green seedlings. The transposition frequency was extremely low when a single copy of the transposon was present, but appeared to increase with an increase in Ac copy number. Plants that were selected as variegated produced an increased number of green progeny. The methylation state of the Ac elements in lines with either low or high levels of excision was assessed by restriction analysis. No difference was found between these lines, indicating that the degree of methylation did not contribute to the level of Ac activity. Germinal excision events were analyzed molecularly and shown to carry reinserted transposons in about 50% of the cases. In several instances, streptomycin-resistant siblings carried the same transposed Ac element, indicating that excision had occurred prior to meiosis in the parent. We discuss parameters that need to be considered to optimize the use of Ac as a transposon tag in Arabidopsis. PMID:1322854

  1. Direct and residual effects of cadmium on the growth and elemental composition of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, T.J.; Tingey, D.; Rodecap, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the direct (first generation) and residual (second generation) phytotoxicity of a range of cadmium concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in double-container, vermiculite-hydroponic plot-culture systems. First generation plants were continuously exposed to nutrient solutions ranging from 0 to 100 micrometers CdCl/sub 2/. Biomass in the first generation plants decreased in response to nutrient solution containing increasing Cd concentrations. The 100 micrometers Cd treatment significantly reduced rosette, raceme and mature seed biomass. The progeny from the first-generation plants revealed no significant residual effects as far as growth and elemental composition are concerned.

  2. RELATION OF BEET YELLOWS VIRUS TO THE PHLOEM AND TO MOVEMENT IN THE SIEVE TUBE

    PubMed Central

    Esau, K.; Cronshaw, J.; Hoefert, L. L.

    1967-01-01

    In minor veins of leaves of Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet) yellows virus particles were found both in parenchyma cells and in mature sieve elements. In parenchyma cells the particles were usually confined to the cytoplasm, that is, they were absent from the vacuoles. In the sieve elements, which at maturity have no vacuoles, the particles were scattered throughout the cell. In dense aggregations the particles tended to assume an orderly arrangement in both parenchyma cells and sieve elements. Most of the sieve elements containing virus particles had mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane normal for mature sieve elements. Some sieve elements, however, showed evidence of degeneration. Virus particles were present also in the pores of the sieve plates, the plasmodesmata connecting the sieve elements with parenchyma cells, and the plasmodesmata between parenchyma cells. The distribution of the virus particles in the phloem of Beta is compatible with the concept that plant viruses move through the phloem in the sieve tubes and that this movement is a passive transport by mass flow. The observations also indicate that the beet yellows virus moves from cell to cell and in the sieve tube in the form of complete particles, and that this movement may occur through sieve-plate pores in the sieve tube and through plasmodesmata elsewhere. PMID:10976202

  3. Characterization and identification of cis-regulatory elements in Arabidopsis based on single-nucleotide polymorphism information.

    PubMed

    Korkuc, Paula; Schippers, Jos H M; Walther, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Identifying regulatory elements and revealing their role in gene expression regulation remains a central goal of plant genome research. We exploited the detailed genomic sequencing information of a large number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions to characterize known and to identify novel cis-regulatory elements in gene promoter regions of Arabidopsis by relying on conservation as the hallmark signal of functional relevance. Based on the genomic layout and the obtained density profiles of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sequence regions upstream of transcription start sites, the average length of promoter regions in Arabidopsis could be established at 500 bp. Genes associated with high degrees of variability of their respective upstream regions are preferentially involved in environmental response and signaling processes, while low levels of promoter SNP density are common among housekeeping genes. Known cis-elements were found to exhibit a decreased SNP density than sequence regions not associated with known motifs. For 15 known cis-element motifs, strong positional preferences relative to the transcription start site were detected based on their promoter SNP density profiles. Five novel candidate cis-element motifs were identified as consensus motifs of 17 sequence hexamers exhibiting increased sequence conservation combined with evidence of positional preferences, annotation information, and functional relevance for inducing correlated gene expression. Our study demonstrates that the currently available resolution of SNP data offers novel ways for the identification of functional genomic elements and the characterization of gene promoter sequences.

  4. Differential interactions of promoter elements in stress responses of the Arabidopsis Adh gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R; Jacobs, M; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1994-01-01

    The Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.1.) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. can be induced by dehydration and cold, as well as by hypoxia. A 1-kb promoter fragment (CADH: -964 to +53) is sufficient to confer the stress induction and tissue-specific developmental expression characteristics of the Adh gene to a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Deletion mapping of the 5' end and site-specific mutagenesis identified four regions of the promoter essential for expression under the three stress conditions. Some sequence elements are important for response to all three stress treatments, whereas others are stress specific. The most critical region essential for expression of the Arabidopsis Adh promoter under all three environmental stresses (region IV: -172 to -141) contains sequences homologous to the GT motif (-160 to -152) and the GC motif (-147 to -144) of the maize Adh1 anaerobic responsive element. Region III (-235 to -172) contains two regions shown by R.J. Ferl and B.H. Laughner ([1989] Plant Mol Biol 12: 357-366) to bind regulatory proteins; mutation of the G-box-1 region (5'-CCACGTGG-3', -216 to -209) does not affect expression under uninduced or hypoxic conditions, but significantly reduces induction by cold stress and, to a lesser extent, by dehydration stress. Mutation of the other G-box-like sequence (G-box-2: 5'-CCAAGTGG-3', -193 to -182) does not change hypoxic response and affects cold and dehydration stress only slightly. G-box-2 mutations also promote high levels of expression under uninduced conditions. Deletion of region I (-964 to -510) results in increased expression under uninduced and all stress conditions, suggesting that this region contains a repressor binding site. Region II (-510 to -384) contains a positive regulatory element and is necessary for high expression levels under all treatments. PMID:7972489

  5. Definition and interactions of a positive regulatory element of the Arabidopsis INNER NO OUTER promoter.

    PubMed

    Meister, Robert J; Williams, Luis A; Monfared, Mona M; Gallagher, Thomas L; Kraft, Edward A; Nelson, Christian G; Gasser, Charles S

    2004-02-01

    INNER NO OUTER (INO) expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the incipient and developing outer integument in Arabidopsis ovules. Using deletion analysis of the previously defined INO promoter (P-INO), at least three distinct regions that contribute to the endogenous INO expression pattern were identified. One such positive element, designated POS9, which comprises at least three distinct subelements, was found to include sufficient information to duplicate the INO expression pattern when four or more copies were used in conjunction with a heterologous minimal promoter. While known regulators of INO, including INO, SUPERMAN, BELL1, and AINTEGUMENTA, did not detectably interact with POS9 in yeast one-hybrid assays, two groups of proteins that interact specifically with POS9 were identified in one-hybrid library screens. Members of one group include C2H2 zinc finger motifs. Members of the second group contain a novel, conserved DNA-binding region and were designated the BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BPC) proteins on the basis of conserved features of this region. The BPC proteins are nuclear localized and specifically bind in vitro to GA dinucleotide repeats located within POS9. The widespread expression patterns of the BPCs and the large number of GA repeat potential target sequences in the Arabidopsis genome indicate that BPC proteins may affect expression of genes involved in a variety of plant processes.

  6. Elemental concentrations in the seed of mutants and natural variants of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under varying soil conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concentrations of mineral nutrients in seeds are critical to both the life cycle of plants as well as human nutrition. These concentrations are strongly influenced by soil conditions, as shown here by quantifying the concentration of 14 elements in seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown un...

  7. Epigenetic Regulation of Repetitive Elements Is Attenuated by Prolonged Heat Stress in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pecinka, Ales; Dinh, Huy Q.; Baubec, Tuncay; Rosa, Marisa; Lettner, Nicole; Scheid, Ortrun Mittelsten

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic factors determine responses to internal and external stimuli in eukaryotic organisms. Whether and how environmental conditions feed back to the epigenetic landscape is more a matter of suggestion than of substantiation. Plants are suitable organisms with which to address this question due to their sessile lifestyle and diversification of epigenetic regulators. We show that several repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana that are under epigenetic regulation by transcriptional gene silencing at ambient temperatures and upon short term heat exposure become activated by prolonged heat stress. Activation can occur without loss of DNA methylation and with only minor changes to histone modifications but is accompanied by loss of nucleosomes and by heterochromatin decondensation. Whereas decondensation persists, nucleosome loading and transcriptional silencing are restored upon recovery from heat stress but are delayed in mutants with impaired chromatin assembly functions. The results provide evidence that environmental conditions can override epigenetic regulation, at least transiently, which might open a window for more permanent epigenetic changes. PMID:20876829

  8. Cellular compartmentation of cadmium and zinc in relation to other elements in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Küpper, H; Lombi, E; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P

    2000-12-01

    The cellular compartmentation of elements was analysed in the Zn hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (=Cardaminopsis halleri) using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissues. Quantitative data were obtained using oxygen as an internal standard in the analyses of vacuoles, whereas a peak/background ratio method was used for quantification of elements in pollen and dehydrated trichomes. Arabidopsis halleri was found to hyperaccumulate not only Zn but also Cd in the shoot biomass. While large concentrations of Zn and Cd were found in the leaves and roots, flowers contained very little. In roots grown hydroponically, Zn and Cd accumulated in the cell wall of the rhizodermis (root epidermis), mainly due to precipitation of Zn/Cd phosphates. In leaves, the trichomes had by far the largest concentrations of Zn and Cd. Inside the trichomes there was a striking sub-cellular compartmentation, with almost all the Zn and Cd being accumulated in a narrow ring in the trichome base. This distribution pattern was very different from that for Ca and P. The epidermal cells other than trichomes were very small and contained lower concentrations of Zn and Cd than mesophyll cells. In particular, the concentrations of Cd and Zn in the mesophyll cells increased markedly in response to increasing Zn and Cd concentrations in the nutrient solution. This indicates that the mesophyll cells in the leaves of A. halleri are the major storage site for Zn and Cd, and play an important role in their hyperaccumulation.

  9. Photon Sieve Space Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    a two-year effort to test and construct a membrane photon sieve for deployment from a 3U CubeSat. With a 0.3m diameter and 1m focal length this...Photon Sieve Space Telescope Geoff Andersen, Mike Dearborn and Geoff McHarg 2354 Fairchild Dr, Ste 2A31 USAF Academy, CO 80840 Contact...geoff.andersen@usafa.edu, 719-333-2829 Introduction One approach for constructing ultra-large (>20m) next-generation, space-based telescopes is to use

  10. Microfluidic sieve valves

    DOEpatents

    Quake, Stephen R; Marcus, Joshua S; Hansen, Carl L

    2015-01-13

    Sieve valves for use in microfluidic device are provided. The valves are useful for impeding the flow of particles, such as chromatography beads or cells, in a microfluidic channel while allowing liquid solution to pass through the valve. The valves find particular use in making microfluidic chromatography modules.

  11. Membrane photon sieve telescopes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Geoff

    2010-11-20

    We present results of research into the design and construction of membrane photon sieves as primaries for next-generation lightweight space telescopes. We have created prototypes in electroformed nickel as well as diazo and CP-1 polymer films. In two such cases, diffraction-limited imaging performance was demonstrated over a narrow bandwidth.

  12. Copper crystallite in carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfurfuryl alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  13. Copper modified carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfunctional alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  14. Detection of active transposable elements in Arabidopsis thaliana using Oxford Nanopore Sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Debladis, Emilie; Llauro, Christel; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Mirouze, Marie; Panaud, Olivier

    2017-07-17

    Transposables elements (TEs) contribute to both structural and functional dynamics of most eukaryotic genomes. Because of their propensity to densely populate plant and animal genomes, the precise estimation of the impact of transposition on genomic diversity has been considered as one of the main challenges of today's genomics. The recent development of NGS (next generation sequencing) technologies has open new perspectives in population genomics by providing new methods for high throughput detection of Transposable Elements-associated Structural Variants (TEASV). However, these have relied on Illumina platform that generates short reads (up to 350 nucleotides). This limitation in size of sequence reads can cause high false discovery rate (FDR) and therefore limit the power of detection of TEASVs, especially in the case of large, complex genomes. The newest sequencing technologies, such as Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) can generate kilobases-long reads thus representing a promising tool for TEASV detection in plant and animals. We present the results of a pilot experiment for TEASV detection on the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana using ONT sequencing and show that it can be used efficiently to detect TE movements. We generated a ~0.8X genome coverage of a met1-derived epigenetic recombinant inbred line (epiRIL) using a MinIon device with R7 chemistry. We were able to detect nine new copies of the LTR-retrotransposon Evadé (EVD). We also evidenced the activity of the DNA transposon CACTA, CAC1. Even at a low sequence coverage (0.8X), ONT sequencing allowed us to reliably detect several TE insertions in Arabidopsis thaliana genome. The long read length allowed a precise and un-ambiguous mapping of the structural variations caused by the activity of TEs. This suggests that the trade-off between read length and genome coverage for TEASV detection may be in favor of the former. Should the technology be further improved both in terms of lower error rate

  15. Resolution enhancement of photon sieve based on apodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanxiao; Xing, Tingwen; Liao, Zhijie; Yang, Yong; Ma, Jianling

    2008-03-01

    Photon sieve is a novel diffractive optical element modulating either amplitude or phase which consists of a great number of pinholes distributed appropriately over the Fresnel zones for the focusing and imaging of light. Photon sieve has the advantages of the diameter of pinholes beyond the limitation of the corresponding Fresnel zone width and the minimum background in the focal plane. Furthermore, photon sieve can be fabricated on a single surface without any supporting struts required unlike the Fresnel zone plate. Photon sieve can be used as EUV telescope for solar orbiter, space-based surveillance telescope operating at visible light, or other imaging components. Photon sieve can also be used as one of the promising lithographic tools for nanoscale science and engineering to obtain the lower cost, higher flexibility and better resolution. The approaches to enhancing imaging resolution of photon sieve are presented in detail. According to Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory, the diffractive field of photon sieve is described by means of the discrete fast Fourier transform algorithm. The related contents include the calculation of point spread function, the suppression of side lobes, the imaging bandwidth, the physical limit of resolution, and the diffraction efficiency. Imaging properties of photon sieve are analyzed on the basis of precise test.

  16. The role of CAX1 and CAX3 in elemental distribution and abundance in Arabidopsis seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to alter nutrient partitioning within plant cells is poorly understood. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a family of endomembrane cation exchangers (CAXs) transports Ca(2+) and other cations. However, experiments have not focused on how the distribution and partitioning of calcium ...

  17. Expression of the Arabidopsis transposable element Tag1 is targeted to developing gametophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Mary; Theriault, Angie; Liu, Dong; Crawford, Nigel M

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis transposon Tag1 undergoes late excision during vegetative and germinal development in plants containing 35S-Tag1-GUS constructs. To determine if transcriptional regulation can account for the developmental control of Tag1 excision, the transcriptional activity of Tag1 promoter-GUS fusion constructs of various lengths was examined in transgenic plants. All constructs showed expression in the reproductive organs of developing flowers but no expression in leaves. Expression was restricted to developing gametophytes in both male and female lineages. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that Tag1 expression predominates in the reproductive organs of flower buds. These results are consistent with late germinal excision of Tag1, but they cannot explain the vegetative excision activity of Tag1 observed with 35S-Tag1-GUS constructs. To resolve this issue, Tag1 excision was reexamined using elements with no adjacent 35S promoter sequences. Tag1 excision in this context is restricted to germinal events with no detectable vegetative excision. If a 35S enhancer sequence is placed next to Tag1, vegetative excision is restored. These results indicate that the intrinsic activity of Tag1 is restricted to germinal excision due to targeted expression of the Tag1 transposase to developing gametophytes and that this activity is altered by the presence of adjacent enhancers or promoters. PMID:14704189

  18. Compilation of mRNA Polyadenylation Signals in Arabidopsis Revealed a New Signal Element and Potential Secondary Structures1[w

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Johnny C.; Stahlberg, Eric A.; Strenski, David G.; Haas, Brian J.; Wood, Paul Chris; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2005-01-01

    Using a novel program, SignalSleuth, and a database containing authenticated polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites, we analyzed the composition of mRNA poly(A) signals in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and reevaluated previously described cis-elements within the 3′-untranslated (UTR) regions, including near upstream elements and far upstream elements. As predicted, there are absences of high-consensus signal patterns. The AAUAAA signal topped the near upstream elements patterns and was found within the predicted location to only approximately 10% of 3′-UTRs. More importantly, we identified a new set, named cleavage elements, of poly(A) signals flanking both sides of the cleavage site. These cis-elements were not previously revealed by conventional mutagenesis and are contemplated as a cluster of signals for cleavage site recognition. Moreover, a single-nucleotide profile scan on the 3′-UTR regions unveiled a distinct arrangement of alternate stretches of U and A nucleotides, which led to a prediction of the formation of secondary structures. Using an RNA secondary structure prediction program, mFold, we identified three main types of secondary structures on the sequences analyzed. Surprisingly, these observed secondary structures were all interrupted in previously constructed mutations in these regions. These results will enable us to revise the current model of plant poly(A) signals and to develop tools to predict 3′-ends for gene annotation. PMID:15965016

  19. Identifying New Components Participating in the Secondary Cell Wall Formation of Vessel Elements in Zinnia and Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Satoshi; Pesquet, Edouard; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Gen; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Udagawa-Motose, Makiko; Kubo, Minoru; Fukuda, Hiroo; Demura, Taku

    2009-01-01

    Xylem vessel elements are hollow cellular units that assemble end-to-end to form a continuous vessel throughout the plant body; the xylem vessel is strengthened by the xylem elements' reinforced secondary cell walls (SCWs). This work aims to unravel the contribution of unknown actors in xylem vessel differentiation using the model in vitro cell culture system of Zinnia elegans differentiating cell cultures and the model in vivo system of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Tracheary Element Differentiation-Related6 (TED6) and TED7 were selected based on an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in the Zinnia system. RNAi reduction of TED6 and 7 delayed tracheary element (TE) differentiation and co-overexpression of TED6 and 7 increased TE differentiation in cultured Zinnia cells. Arabidopsis TED6 and 7 were expressed preferentially in differentiating vessel elements in seedlings. Aberrant SCW formation of root vessel elements was induced by transient RNAi of At TED7 alone and enhanced by inhibition of both TED6 and 7. Protein–protein interactions were demonstrated between TED6 and a subunit of the SCW-related cellulose synthase complex. Our strategy has succeeded in finding two novel components in SCW formation and has opened the door for in-depth analysis of their molecular functions. PMID:19383897

  20. Identifying new components participating in the secondary cell wall formation of vessel elements in zinnia and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Pesquet, Edouard; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Gen; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Udagawa-Motose, Makiko; Kubo, Minoru; Fukuda, Hiroo; Demura, Taku

    2009-04-01

    Xylem vessel elements are hollow cellular units that assemble end-to-end to form a continuous vessel throughout the plant body; the xylem vessel is strengthened by the xylem elements' reinforced secondary cell walls (SCWs). This work aims to unravel the contribution of unknown actors in xylem vessel differentiation using the model in vitro cell culture system of Zinnia elegans differentiating cell cultures and the model in vivo system of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Tracheary Element Differentiation-Related6 (TED6) and TED7 were selected based on an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in the Zinnia system. RNAi reduction of TED6 and 7 delayed tracheary element (TE) differentiation and co-overexpression of TED6 and 7 increased TE differentiation in cultured Zinnia cells. Arabidopsis TED6 and 7 were expressed preferentially in differentiating vessel elements in seedlings. Aberrant SCW formation of root vessel elements was induced by transient RNAi of At TED7 alone and enhanced by inhibition of both TED6 and 7. Protein-protein interactions were demonstrated between TED6 and a subunit of the SCW-related cellulose synthase complex. Our strategy has succeeded in finding two novel components in SCW formation and has opened the door for in-depth analysis of their molecular functions.

  1. The predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana experienced a recent reduction in transposable element abundance compared to its outcrossing relative Arabidopsis lyrata

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) are major contributors to genome evolution. One factor that influences their evolutionary dynamics is whether their host reproduces through selfing or through outcrossing. According to the recombinational spreading hypothesis, for instance, TEs can spread more easily in outcrossing species through recombination, and should thus be less abundant in selfing species. We here studied the distribution and evolutionary dynamics of TE families in the predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana and its close outcrossing relative Arabidopsis lyrata on a genome-wide scale. We characterized differences in TE abundance between them and asked which, if any, existing hypotheses about TE abundances may explain these differences. Results We identified 1,819 TE families representing all known classes of TEs in both species, and found three times more copies in the outcrossing A. lyrata than in the predominantly selfing A. thaliana, as well as ten times more TE families unique to A. lyrata. On average, elements in A. lyrata are younger than elements in A. thaliana. In particular, A. thaliana shows a marked decrease in element number that occurred during the most recent 10% of the time interval since A. thaliana split from A. lyrata. This most recent period in the evolution of A. thaliana started approximately 500,000 years ago, assuming a splitting time of 5 million years ago, and coincides with the time at which predominant selfing originated. Conclusions Our results indicate that the mating system may be important for determining TE copy number, and that selfing species are likely to have fewer TEs. PMID:22313744

  2. Identification of cis-acting promoter elements in cold- and dehydration-induced transcriptional pathways in Arabidopsis, rice, and soybean.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Todaka, Daisuke; Mizoi, Junya; Yoshida, Takuya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Matsukura, Satoko; Takasaki, Hironori; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Yoshiwara, Kyouko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2012-01-01

    The genomes of three plants, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and soybean (Glycine max), have been sequenced, and their many genes and promoters have been predicted. In Arabidopsis, cis-acting promoter elements involved in cold- and dehydration-responsive gene expression have been extensively analysed; however, the characteristics of such cis-acting promoter sequences in cold- and dehydration-inducible genes of rice and soybean remain to be clarified. In this study, we performed microarray analyses using the three species, and compared characteristics of identified cold- and dehydration-inducible genes. Transcription profiles of the cold- and dehydration-responsive genes were similar among these three species, showing representative upregulated (dehydrin/LEA) and downregulated (photosynthesis-related) genes. All (4(6) = 4096) hexamer sequences in the promoters of the three species were investigated, revealing the frequency of conserved sequences in cold- and dehydration-inducible promoters. A core sequence of the abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE) was the most conserved in dehydration-inducible promoters of all three species, suggesting that transcriptional regulation for dehydration-inducible genes is similar among these three species, with the ABRE-dependent transcriptional pathway. In contrast, for cold-inducible promoters, the conserved hexamer sequences were diversified among these three species, suggesting the existence of diverse transcriptional regulatory pathways for cold-inducible genes among the species.

  3. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-20

    We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions.

  4. Quantitative trait loci analysis of mineral element concentrations in an Arabidopsis halleri x Arabidopsis lyrata petraea F2 progeny grown on cadmium-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Willems, Glenda; Frérot, Hélène; Gennen, Jérôme; Salis, Pietro; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    This study describes the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) accumulation in the pseudometallophyte Arabidopsis halleri under conditions of Cd excess using an interspecific A. halleri x Arabidopsis lyrata F(2) population. *Our data provide evidence for the implication of one major QTL in Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri, and suggests that Cd tolerance and accumulation are not independent in A. halleri. Moreover, the major loci responsible for Zn hyperaccumulation in the absence of Cd appear to be the same when Cd is present at high concentrations. *More than twofold higher Fe concentrations were measured in A. halleri shoots than in A. lyrata, suggesting a different regulation of Fe accumulation in the hyperaccumulator. *With the exception of Ca, the accumulation of Cd was significantly correlated with the accumulation of all elements measured in the F(2) progeny, suggesting pleiotropic gene action. However, QTL analysis identified pleiotropic QTLs only for Cd, Zn and Fe. Mg accumulation was negatively correlated with Cd accumulation, as well as with dry shoot biomass, suggesting that it might indicate cellular damage.

  5. The Arabidopsis thaliana MHX gene includes an intronic element that boosts translation when localized in a 5' UTR intron.

    PubMed

    Akua, Tsofit; Shaul, Orit

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the ability of some introns to increase gene expression, a phenomenon called intron-mediated enhancement (IME), are not fully understood. It is also not known why introns localized in the 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) are considerably longer than downstream eukaryotic introns. It was hypothesized that this extra length results from the presence of some functional intronic elements. However, deletion analyses studies carried out thus far were unable to identify specific intronic regions necessary for IME. Using deletion analysis and a gain-of-function approach, an internal element that considerably increases translational efficiency, without affecting splicing, was identified in the 5' UTR intron of the Arabidopsis thaliana MHX gene. Moreover, the ability of this element to enhance translation was diminished by a minor downstream shift in the position of introns containing it from the 5' UTR into the coding sequence. These data suggest that some of the extra length of 5' UTR introns results from the presence of elements that enhance translation, and, moreover, from the ability of 5' UTR introns to provide preferable platforms for such elements over downstream introns. The impact of the identified intronic element on translational efficiency was augmented upon removal of neighbouring intronic elements. Interference between different intronic elements had not been reported thus far. This interference may support the bioinformatics-based idea that some of the extra sequence of 5' UTR introns is also necessary for separating different functional intronic elements.

  6. Identification of unique cis-element pattern on simulated microgravity treated Arabidopsis by in silico and gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Hyuncheol; Choi, Yongsang; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Yeo, Up-Dong; Han, Kyeongsik; Auh, Chungkyun; Lee, Sukchan

    2012-08-01

    Arabidopsis gene expression microarray (44 K) was used to detect genes highly induced under simulated microgravity stress (SMS). Ten SMS-inducible genes were selected from the microarray data and these 10 genes were found to be abundantly expressed in 3-week-old plants. Nine out of the 10 SMS-inducible genes were also expressed in response to the three abiotic stresses of drought, touch, and wounding in 3-week-old Arabidopsis plants respectively. However, WRKY46 was elevated only in response to SMS. Six other WRKY genes did not respond to SMS. To clarify the characteristics of the genes expressed at high levels in response to SMS, 20 cis-elements in the promoters of the 40 selected genes including the 10 SMS-inducible genes, the 6 WRKY genes, and abiotic stress-inducible genes were analyzed and their spatial positions on each promoter were determined. Four cis-elements (M/T-G-T-P from MYB1AT or TATABOX5, GT1CONSENSUS, TATABOX5, and POLASIG1) showed a unique spatial arrangement in most SMS-inducible genes including WRKY46. Therefore the M/T-G-T-P cis-element patterns identified in the promoter of WRKY46 may play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to SMS. The presences of the cis-element patterns suggest that the order or spatial positioning of certain groups of cis-elements is more important than the existence or numbers of specific cis-elements. Taken together, our data indicate that WRKY46 is a novel SMS inducible transcription factor and the unique spatial arrangement of cis-elements shown in WRKY46 promoter may play an important role for its response to SMS.

  7. The Role of CAX1 and CAX3 in Elemental Distribution and Abundance in Arabidopsis Seed1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Punshon, Tracy; Hirschi, Kendal; Yang, Jian; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Lai, Barry; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2012-01-01

    The ability to alter nutrient partitioning within plants cells is poorly understood. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a family of endomembrane cation exchangers (CAXs) transports Ca2+ and other cations. However, experiments have not focused on how the distribution and partitioning of calcium (Ca) and other elements within seeds are altered by perturbed CAX activity. Here, we investigate Ca distribution and abundance in Arabidopsis seed from cax1 and cax3 loss-of-function lines and lines expressing deregulated CAX1 using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We conducted 7- to 10-μm resolution in vivo x-ray microtomography on dry mature seed and 0.2-μm resolution x-ray microscopy on embryos from lines overexpressing deregulated CAX1 (35S-sCAX1) and cax1cax3 double mutants only. Tomograms showed an increased concentration of Ca in both the seed coat and the embryo in cax1, cax3, and cax1cax3 lines compared with the wild type. High-resolution elemental images of the mutants showed that perturbed CAX activity altered Ca partitioning within cells, reducing Ca partitioning into organelles and/or increasing Ca in the cytosol and abolishing tissue-level Ca gradients. In comparison with traditional volume-averaged metal analysis, which confirmed subtle changes in seed elemental composition, the collection of spatially resolved data at varying resolutions provides insight into the impact of altered CAX activity on seed metal distribution and indicates a cell type-specific function of CAX1 and CAX3 in partitioning Ca into organelles. This work highlights a powerful technology for inferring transport function and quantifying nutrient changes. PMID:22086421

  8. The Heat-Shock Element Is a Functional Component of the Arabidopsis APX1 Gene Promoter1

    PubMed Central

    Storozhenko, Sergei; De Pauw, Pascal; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Kushnir, Sergei

    1998-01-01

    Ascorbate peroxidases are important enzymes that detoxify hydrogen peroxide within the cytosol and chloroplasts of plant cells. To better understand their role in oxidative stress tolerance, the transcriptional regulation of the apx1 gene from Arabidopsis was studied. The apx1 gene was expressed in all tested organs of Arabidopsis; mRNA levels were low in roots, leaves, and stems and high in flowers. Steady-state mRNA levels in leaves or cell suspensions increased after treatment with methyl viologen, ethephon, high temperature, and illumination of etiolated seedlings. A putative heat-shock cis element found in the apx1 promoter was shown to be recognized by the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) heat-shock factor in vitro and to be responsible for the in vivo heat-shock induction of the gene. The heat-shock cis element also contributed partially to the induction of the gene by oxidative stress. By using in vivo dimethyl sulfate footprinting, we showed that proteins interacted with a G/C-rich element found in the apx1 promoter. PMID:9808745

  9. Space station molecular sieve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

    1986-01-01

    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  10. Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L. ); Naruse, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    A Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS) was added to the existing Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT) within the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Department of Energy (DOE) no longer allows inventory by difference'' for radioactive wastes that are to be buried. The MSRS was designed and built to comply with this requirement. Within the TWT, water is generated by the catalytic conversion of hydrogen isotopes and removed by molecular sieve trapping prior to release to the environment. Molecular sieve regeneration is required to remove the trapped water and to rejuvenate the beds. The MSRS permits the collection and direct tritium assay of regenerated tritiated water from molecular sieve beds. This paper describes the MSRS in detail and how it is interfaced with the TWT.

  11. Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L.; Naruse, Y.

    1992-03-01

    A Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS) was added to the existing Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT) within the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Department of Energy (DOE) no longer allows ``inventory by difference`` for radioactive wastes that are to be buried. The MSRS was designed and built to comply with this requirement. Within the TWT, water is generated by the catalytic conversion of hydrogen isotopes and removed by molecular sieve trapping prior to release to the environment. Molecular sieve regeneration is required to remove the trapped water and to rejuvenate the beds. The MSRS permits the collection and direct tritium assay of regenerated tritiated water from molecular sieve beds. This paper describes the MSRS in detail and how it is interfaced with the TWT.

  12. Callose Synthase GSL7 Is Necessary for Normal Phloem Transport and Inflorescence Growth in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, D.H. Paul; Kölling, Katharina; Graf, Alexander; Pike, Marilyn; Calder, Grant; Findlay, Kim; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Smith, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One isoform of callose synthase, Glucan Synthase-Like7 (GSL7), is tightly coexpressed with two isoforms of sucrose synthase (SUS5 and SUS6) known to be confined to phloem sieve elements in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Investigation of the phenotype of gsl7 mutants of Arabidopsis revealed that the sieve plate pores of stems and roots lack the callose lining seen in wild-type plants. Callose synthesis in other tissues of the plant appears to be unaffected. Although gsl7 plants show only minor phenotypic alterations during vegetative growth, flowering stems are reduced in height and all floral parts are smaller than those of wild-type plants. Several lines of evidence suggest that the reduced growth of the inflorescence is a result of carbohydrate starvation. Levels of sucrose, hexoses, and starch are lower in the terminal bud clusters of gsl7 than in those of wild-type plants. Transcript levels of “starvation” genes expressed in response to low sugars are elevated in the terminal bud clusters of gsl7 plants, at the end of the night, and during an extended night. Pulse-chase experiments with 14CO2 show that transport of assimilate in the flowering stem is much slower in gsl7 mutants than in wild-type plants. We suggest that the callose lining of sieve plate pores is essential for normal phloem transport because it confers favorable flow characteristics on the pores. PMID:21098675

  13. A Transposable Element within the Non-canonical Telomerase RNA of Arabidopsis thaliana Modulates Telomerase in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengyi; Nelson, Andrew D. L.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical factors in many biological processes, but little is known about how their regulatory functions evolved. One of the best-studied lncRNAs is TER, the essential RNA template for telomerase reverse transcriptase. We previously showed that Arabidopsis thaliana harbors three TER isoforms: TER1, TER2 and TER2S. TER1 serves as a canonical telomere template, while TER2 is a novel negative regulator of telomerase activity, induced in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs). TER2 contains a 529 nt intervening sequence that is removed along with 36 nt at the RNA 3’ terminus to generate TER2S, an RNA of unknown function. Here we investigate how A. thaliana TER2 acquired its regulatory function. Using data from the 1,001 Arabidopsis genomes project, we report that the intervening sequence within TER2 is derived from a transposable element termed DSB responsive element (DRE). DRE is found in the TER2 loci of most but not all A. thaliana accessions. By analyzing accessions with (TER2) and without DRE (TER2Δ) we demonstrate that this element is responsible for many of the unique properties of TER2, including its enhanced binding to TERT and telomerase inhibitory function. We show that DRE destabilizes TER2, and further that TER2 induction by DNA damage reflects increased RNA stability and not increased transcription. DRE-mediated changes in TER2 stability thus provide a rapid and sensitive switch to fine-tune telomerase enzyme activity. Altogether, our data shows that invasion of the TER2 locus by a small transposon converted this lncRNA into a DNA damage sensor that modulates telomerase enzyme activity in response to genome assault. PMID:26075395

  14. Analysis of changes in relative elemental growth rate patterns in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots upon gravistimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Although Arabidopsis is an important system for studying root physiology, the localized growth patterns of its roots have not been well defined, particularly during tropic responses. In order to characterize growth rate profiles along the apex of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Columbia) we applied small charcoal particles to the root surface and analyzed their displacement during growth using an automated video digitizer system with custom software for tracking the markers. When growing vertically, the maximum elongation rate occurred 481 +/- 50 microns back from the extreme tip of the root (tip of root cap), and the elongation zone extended back to 912 +/- 137 microns. The distal elongation zone (DEZ) has previously been described as the apical region of the elongation zone in which the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) is < or = 30% of the peak rate in the central elongation zone. By this definition, our data indicate that the basal limit of the DEZ was located 248 +/- 30 microns from the root tip. However, after gravistimulation, the growth patterns of the root changed. Within the first hour of graviresponse, the basal limit of the DEZ and the position of peak REGR shifted apically on the upper flank of the root. This was due to a combination of increased growth in the DEZ and growth inhibition in the central elongation zone. On the lower flank, the basal limit of the DEZ shifted basipetally as the REGR decreased. These factors set up the gradient of growth rate across the root, which drives curvature.

  15. Analysis of changes in relative elemental growth rate patterns in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots upon gravistimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Although Arabidopsis is an important system for studying root physiology, the localized growth patterns of its roots have not been well defined, particularly during tropic responses. In order to characterize growth rate profiles along the apex of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Columbia) we applied small charcoal particles to the root surface and analyzed their displacement during growth using an automated video digitizer system with custom software for tracking the markers. When growing vertically, the maximum elongation rate occurred 481 +/- 50 microns back from the extreme tip of the root (tip of root cap), and the elongation zone extended back to 912 +/- 137 microns. The distal elongation zone (DEZ) has previously been described as the apical region of the elongation zone in which the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) is < or = 30% of the peak rate in the central elongation zone. By this definition, our data indicate that the basal limit of the DEZ was located 248 +/- 30 microns from the root tip. However, after gravistimulation, the growth patterns of the root changed. Within the first hour of graviresponse, the basal limit of the DEZ and the position of peak REGR shifted apically on the upper flank of the root. This was due to a combination of increased growth in the DEZ and growth inhibition in the central elongation zone. On the lower flank, the basal limit of the DEZ shifted basipetally as the REGR decreased. These factors set up the gradient of growth rate across the root, which drives curvature.

  16. Ultra-broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Hu, Jingpei; Lin, Yu; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaojun; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the strong wavelength-dependent nature in diffraction phenomena, and therefore, diffractive elements can work only at a single designed wavelength, which significantly limits the applications of diffractive elements in imaging. Here, we report on a demonstration of a wavefront coded broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves. The broadband diffraction imaging is implemented with a wavefront coded pinhole pattern that generates equal focusing power for a wide range of operating wavelength in a single thin-film element without complicated auxiliary optical system. Experimental validation was performed using an UV-lithography fabricated wavefront coded photon sieves. Results show that the working bandwidth of the wavefront coded photon sieves reaches 28 nm compared with 0.32 nm of the conventional one. Further demonstration of the achromatic imaging with a bandwidth of 300 nm is also performed with a wavefront coded photon sieves integrated with a refractive element. PMID:27328713

  17. Ultra-broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Hu, Jingpei; Lin, Yu; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaojun; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-06-01

    Diffractive optical elements suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the strong wavelength-dependent nature in diffraction phenomena, and therefore, diffractive elements can work only at a single designed wavelength, which significantly limits the applications of diffractive elements in imaging. Here, we report on a demonstration of a wavefront coded broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves. The broadband diffraction imaging is implemented with a wavefront coded pinhole pattern that generates equal focusing power for a wide range of operating wavelength in a single thin-film element without complicated auxiliary optical system. Experimental validation was performed using an UV-lithography fabricated wavefront coded photon sieves. Results show that the working bandwidth of the wavefront coded photon sieves reaches 28 nm compared with 0.32 nm of the conventional one. Further demonstration of the achromatic imaging with a bandwidth of 300 nm is also performed with a wavefront coded photon sieves integrated with a refractive element.

  18. Tomato ovary-to-fruit transition is characterized by a spatial shift of mRNAs for cell wall invertase and its inhibitor with the encoded proteins localized to sieve elements.

    PubMed

    Palmer, William M; Ru, Lei; Jin, Ye; Patrick, John W; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Central to understanding fruit development is to elucidate the processes mediating a successful transition from pre-pollination ovaries to newly set fruit, a key step in establishing fruit yield potential. In tomato, cell wall invertase (CWIN) LIN5 and its inhibitor INH1 are essential for fruit growth. However, the molecular and cellular basis by which they exert their roles in ovary-to-fruit transition remains unknown. To address this issue, we conducted a study focusing on ovaries and fruitlets at 2 days before and 2 days after anthesis, respectively. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that LIN5 and INH1 exhibited a dispersed expression in ovaries compared with their phloem-specific expression in fruitlets. Remarkably, LIN5 and INH1 proteins were immunologically co-localized to cell walls of sieve elements (SEs) in ovaries immediately prior to anthesis and in young fruitlets, but were undetectable in provascular bundles of younger ovaries. A burst in CWIN activity occurred during ovary-to-fruit transition. Interestingly, the ovaries, but not the fruitlets, exhibited high expression of a defective invertase, SldeCWIN1, an ortholog of which is known to enhance inhibition of INH on CWIN activity in tobacco. Imaging of a fluorescent symplasmic tracer indicated an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway operated in ovaries, contrary to the previously observed symplasmic unloading pathway in fruit pericarp. These new data indicate that (1) a phloem-specific patterning of the CWIN and INH mRNAs is induced during ovary-to-fruit transition, and (2) LIN5 protein functions specifically in walls of SEs and increases its activity during ovary-to-fruit transition, probably to facilitate phloem unloading and to generate a glucose signal positively regulating cell division, hence fruit set.

  19. Whorl-specific expression of the SUPERMAN gene of Arabidopsis is mediated by cis elements in the transcribed region.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiro; Sakai, Hajime; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2003-09-02

    The SUPERMAN (SUP) gene of Arabidopsis is involved in controlling cell proliferation in stamen and carpel primordia and in ovules during flower development. The SUP gene encodes a transcription factor with a C2H2-type zinc finger motif, a serine/proline-rich domain, a basic domain, and a leucine-zipper-like domain and is expressed in a very limited region in stamen primordia and in the developing ovary during flower development. The SUP gene is susceptible to methylation, resulting in epigenetic gene silencing. To understand how the SUP gene is expressed spatially and temporally in its restricted domain, and why methylation of the transcribed region affects early-stage SUP expression, we have identified the SUP cis regulatory elements by characterizing SUP gene fusions. These studies show that the SUP gene has discrete upstream promoter elements required for expression in stamen primordia in early stages and in the ovary in later stages. The promoter activity for stamen primordia is modulated by several positive and negative elements located in the transcribed and translated regions. Several regulatory elements in the transcribed region correlate with the areas of the gene that are heavily methylated in epigenetic alleles; these data provide a possible explanation of how methylation of the transcribed region represses transcription.

  20. Mesh Algorithms for PDE with Sieve I: Mesh Distribution

    DOE PAGES

    Knepley, Matthew G.; Karpeev, Dmitry A.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new programming framework, called Sieve, to support parallel numerical partial differential equation(s) (PDE) algorithms operating over distributed meshes. We have also developed a reference implementation of Sieve in C++ as a library of generic algorithms operating on distributed containers conforming to the Sieve interface. Sieve makes instances of the incidence relation, or arrows, the conceptual first-class objects represented in the containers. Further, generic algorithms acting on this arrow container are systematically used to provide natural geometric operations on the topology and also, through duality, on the data. Finally, coverings and duality are used to encode notmore » only individual meshes, but all types of hierarchies underlying PDE data structures, including multigrid and mesh partitions. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we show how the mesh partition data can be represented and manipulated using the same fundamental mechanisms used to represent meshes. We present the complete description of an algorithm to encode a mesh partition and then distribute a mesh, which is independent of the mesh dimension, element shape, or embedding. Moreover, data associated with the mesh can be similarly distributed with exactly the same algorithm. The use of a high level of abstraction within the Sieve leads to several benefits in terms of code reuse, simplicity, and extensibility. We discuss these benefits and compare our approach to other existing mesh libraries.« less

  1. Probing Graphene χ((2)) Using a Gold Photon Sieve.

    PubMed

    Lobet, Michaël; Sarrazin, Michaël; Cecchet, Francesca; Reckinger, Nicolas; Vlad, Alexandru; Colomer, Jean-François; Lis, Dan

    2016-01-13

    Nonlinear second harmonic optical activity of graphene covering a gold photon sieve was determined for different polarizations. The photon sieve consists of a subwavelength gold nanohole array placed on glass. It combines the benefits of efficient light trapping and surface plasmon propagation to unravel different elements of graphene second-order susceptibility χ((2)). Those elements efficiently contribute to second harmonic generation. In fact, the graphene-coated photon sieve produces a second harmonic intensity at least two orders of magnitude higher compared with a bare, flat gold layer and an order of magnitude coming from the plasmonic effect of the photon sieve; the remaining enhancement arises from the graphene layer itself. The measured second harmonic generation yield, supplemented by semianalytical computations, provides an original method to constrain the graphene χ((2)) elements. The values obtained are |d31 + d33| ≤ 8.1 × 10(3) pm(2)/V and |d15| ≤ 1.4 × 10(6) pm(2)/V for a second harmonic signal at 780 nm. This original method can be applied to any kind of 2D materials covering such a plasmonic structure.

  2. Too Big for the Sieve

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-11

    In this image, the scoop on NASA Curiosity rover shows the larger soil particles that were too big to filter through a sample-processing sieve that is porous only to particles less than 0.006 inches 150 microns across.

  3. The gelatinous extracellular matrix facilitates transport studies in kelp: visualization of pressure-induced flow reversal across sieve plates

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, Jan; Peters, Winfried S.; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims In vascular plants, important questions regarding phloem function remain unanswered due to problems with invasive experimental procedures in this highly sensitive tissue. Certain brown algae (kelps; Laminariales) also possess sieve tubes for photoassimilate transport, but these are embedded in large volumes of a gelatinous extracellular matrix which isolates them from neighbouring cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that kelp sieve tubes might tolerate invasive experimentation better than their analogues in higher plants, and sought to establish Nereocystis luetkeana as an experimental system. Methods The predominant localization of cellulose and the gelatinous extracellular matrix in N. luetkeana was verified using specific fluorescent markers and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sieve tubes in intact specimens were loaded with fluorescent dyes, either passively (carboxyfluorescein diacetate; CFDA) or by microinjection (rhodamine B), and the movement of the dyes was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Key Results Application of CFDA demonstrated source to sink bulk flow in N. luetkeana sieve tubes, and revealed the complexity of sieve tube structure, with branches, junctions and lateral connections. Microinjection into sieve elements proved comparatively easy. Pulsed rhodamine B injection enabled the determination of flow velocity in individual sieve elements, and the direct visualization of pressure-induced reversals of flow direction across sieve plates. Conclusions The reversal of flow direction across sieve plates by pressurizing the downstream sieve element conclusively demonstrates that a critical requirement of the Münch theory is satisfied in kelp; no such evidence exists for tracheophytes. Because of the high tolerance of its sieve elements to experimental manipulation, N. luetkeana is a promising alternative to vascular plants for studying the fluid mechanics of sieve tube networks. PMID:26929203

  4. Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2006-10-17

    Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves having significant activity for multivalent cations and a method for synthesizing such sieves are disclosed. The sieves have a net negatively charged octahedral framework, comprising niobium, oxygen, and octahedrally coordinated lower valence transition metals. The framework can be charge balanced by the occluded alkali cation from the synthesis method. The alkali cation can be exchanged for other contaminant metal ions. The ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be backexchanged in acidic solutions to yield a solution concentrated in the contaminant metal. Alternatively, the ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be thermally converted to a durable perovskite phase waste form.

  5. Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2003-07-22

    Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves having significant activity for multivalent cations and a method for synthesizing such sieves are disclosed. The sieves have a net negatively charged octahedral framework, comprising niobium, oxygen, and octahedrally coordinated lower valence transition metals. The framework can be charge balanced by the occluded alkali cation from the synthesis method. The alkali cation can be exchanged for other contaminant metal ions. The ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be backexchanged in acidic solutions to yield a solution concentrated in the contaminant metal. Alternatively, the ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be thermally converted to a durable perovskite phase waste form.

  6. Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kun; Liu, Hong; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.; Hong, Minghui; Luk'yanchuk, Boris; Teng, Jinghua; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Miniaturization of optical structures makes it possible to control light at the nanoscale, but on the other hand it imposes a challenge of accurately handling numerous unit elements in a miniaturized device with aperiodic and random arrangements. Here, we report both the new analytical model and experimental demonstration of the photon sieves with ultrahigh-capacity of subwavelength holes (over 34 thousands) arranged in two different structural orders of randomness and aperiodicity. The random photon sieve produces a uniform optical hologram with high diffraction efficiency and free from twin images that are usually seen in conventional holography, while the aperiodic photon sieve manifests sub-diffraction-limit focusing in air. A hybrid approach is developed to make the design of random and aperiodic photon sieve viable for high-accuracy control of the amplitude, phase and polarization of visible light. The polarization independence of the photon sieve will also greatly benefit its applications in optical imaging and spectroscopy.

  7. Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Liu, Hong; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J; Hong, Minghui; Luk'yanchuk, Boris; Teng, Jinghua; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-05-05

    Miniaturization of optical structures makes it possible to control light at the nanoscale, but on the other hand it imposes a challenge of accurately handling numerous unit elements in a miniaturized device with aperiodic and random arrangements. Here, we report both the new analytical model and experimental demonstration of the photon sieves with ultrahigh-capacity of subwavelength holes (over 34 thousands) arranged in two different structural orders of randomness and aperiodicity. The random photon sieve produces a uniform optical hologram with high diffraction efficiency and free from twin images that are usually seen in conventional holography, while the aperiodic photon sieve manifests sub-diffraction-limit focusing in air. A hybrid approach is developed to make the design of random and aperiodic photon sieve viable for high-accuracy control of the amplitude, phase and polarization of visible light. The polarization independence of the photon sieve will also greatly benefit its applications in optical imaging and spectroscopy.

  8. Fluid dynamics on sieve trays

    SciTech Connect

    Hag, M.A.

    1982-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of fluid properties on the hydrodynamics of sieve tray columns. The study showed that changes in liquid viscosity influenced froth height, while changes in liquid surface tension and density influenced total pressure drop across the trays. Liquid holdup was independent of these solution properties. The liquid systems used for the study were: water/glycerol for viscosity, water/ethanol for surface tension and methanol/chloroform for density.

  9. An in silico strategy identified the target gene candidates regulated by dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) in Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shichen; Yang, Shuo; Yin, Yuejia; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Shan; Hao, Dongyun

    2009-01-01

    Identification of downstream target genes of stress-relating transcription factors (TFs) is desirable in understanding cellular responses to various environmental stimuli. However, this has long been a difficult work for both experimental and computational practices. In this research, we presented a novel computational strategy which combined the analysis of the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) contexts and machine learning approach. Using this strategy, we conducted a genome-wide investigation into novel direct target genes of dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs), the members of AP2-EREBPs transcription factor super family which is reported to be responsive to various abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. The genome-wide searching yielded in total 474 target gene candidates. With reference to the microarray data for abiotic stresses-inducible gene expression profile, 268 target gene candidates out of the total 474 genes predicted, were induced during the 24-h exposure to abiotic stresses. This takes about 57% of total predicted targets. Furthermore, GO annotations revealed that these target genes are likely involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation, protein binding and Endomembrane sorting system. The results suggested that the predicted target gene candidates were adequate to meet the essential biological principle of stress-resistance in plants.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Microtubule Interacting Proteins over the Course of Xylem Tracheary Element Formation in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Henrik; Lloyd, Clive W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant vascular cells, or tracheary elements (TEs), rely on circumferential secondary cell wall thickenings to maintain sap flow. The patterns in which TE thickenings are organized vary according to the underlying microtubule bundles that guide wall deposition. To identify microtubule interacting proteins present at defined stages of TE differentiation, we exploited the synchronous differentiation of TEs in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cultures. Quantitative proteomic analysis of microtubule pull-downs, using ratiometric 14N/15N labeling, revealed 605 proteins exhibiting differential accumulation during TE differentiation. Microtubule interacting proteins associated with membrane trafficking, protein synthesis, DNA/RNA binding, and signal transduction peaked during secondary cell wall formation, while proteins associated with stress peaked when approaching TE cell death. In particular, CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-INTERACTING PROTEIN1, already associated with primary wall synthesis, was enriched during secondary cell wall formation. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding several of the identified proteins showed that secondary wall formation depends on the coordinated presence of microtubule interacting proteins with nonoverlapping functions: cell wall thickness, cell wall homogeneity, and the pattern and cortical location of the wall are dependent on different proteins. Altogether, proteins linking microtubules to a range of metabolic compartments vary specifically during TE differentiation and regulate different aspects of wall patterning. PMID:26432860

  11. Multiprocessing the Sieve of Eratosthenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhari, S.H.

    1987-04-01

    More than two thousand years ago, Eratosthenes of Cyrene described a procedure for finding all prime numbers in a given range. This straightforward algorithm, known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, is to this day the only procedure for finding prime numbers. In recent years it has been of interest to computer scientists and engineers because it serves as a convenient benchmark against which to measure some aspects of a computer's performance. Specifically, the Sieve tests the power of a machine (or of a compiler) to access a very large array in memory rapidly and repeatedly. This power is clearly influenced by memory access time, the speed at which indexing is done, and the overhead of looping. The parallel version of the Sieve is very useful as a test of some of the capabilities of a parallel machine. The parallel algorithm is straightforward, and so is the process for checking the final results. However, the efficient implementation of the algorithm on a real parallel machine, especially in the dynamic load-balancing case, requires thoughtful design.

  12. Computational analysis of auxin responsive elements in the Arabidopsis thaliana L. genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Auxin responsive elements (AuxRE) were found in upstream regions of target genes for ARFs (Auxin response factors). While Chip-seq data for most of ARFs are still unavailable, prediction of potential AuxRE is restricted by consensus models that detect too many false positive sites. Using sequence analysis of experimentally proven AuxREs, we revealed both an extended nucleotide context pattern for AuxRE itself and three distinct types of its coupling motifs (Y-patch, AuxRE-like, and ABRE-like), which together with AuxRE may form the composite elements. Computational analysis of the genome-wide distribution of the predicted AuxREs and their impact on auxin responsive gene expression allowed us to conclude that: (1) AuxREs are enriched around the transcription start site with the maximum density in 5'UTR; (2) AuxREs mediate auxin responsive up-regulation, not down-regulation. (3) Directly oriented single AuxREs and reverse multiple AuxREs are mostly associated with auxin responsiveness. In the composite AuxRE elements associated with auxin response, ABRE-like and Y-patch are 5'-flanking or overlapping AuxRE, whereas AuxRE-like motif is 3'-flanking. The specificity in location and orientation of the coupling elements suggests them as potential binding sites for ARFs partners. PMID:25563792

  13. Components of the Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor cold-response pathway are conserved in Brassica napus and other plant species.

    PubMed

    Jaglo, K R; Kleff, S; Amundsen, K L; Zhang, X; Haake, V; Zhang, J Z; Deits, T; Thomashow, M F

    2001-11-01

    Many plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Cold acclimation in Arabidopsis involves rapid cold-induced expression of the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) transcriptional activators followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes that increase freezing tolerance. Here, we present evidence for a CBF cold-response pathway in Brassica napus. We show that B. napus encodes CBF-like genes and that transcripts for these genes accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature followed closely by expression of the cold-regulated Bn115 gene, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis CBF-targeted COR15a gene. Moreover, we show that constitutive overexpression of the Arabidopsis CBF genes in transgenic B. napus plants induces expression of orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF-targeted genes and increases the freezing tolerance of both nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants. Transcripts encoding CBF-like proteins were also found to accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Norstar) and rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma), which cold acclimate, as well as in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Bonny Best, Castle Mart, Micro-Tom, and D Huang), a freezing-sensitive plant that does not cold acclimate. An alignment of the CBF proteins from Arabidopsis, B. napus, wheat, rye, and tomato revealed the presence of conserved amino acid sequences, PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP and DSAWR, that bracket the AP2/EREBP DNA binding domains of the proteins and distinguish them from other members of the AP2/EREBP protein family. We conclude that components of the CBF cold-response pathway are highly conserved in flowering plants and not limited to those that cold acclimate.

  14. Components of the Arabidopsis C-Repeat/Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding Factor Cold-Response Pathway Are Conserved in Brassica napus and Other Plant Species1

    PubMed Central

    Jaglo, Kirsten R.; Kleff, Susanne; Amundsen, Keenan L.; Zhang, Xin; Haake, Volker; Zhang, James Z.; Deits, Thomas; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Many plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Cold acclimation in Arabidopsis involves rapid cold-induced expression of the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) transcriptional activators followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes that increase freezing tolerance. Here, we present evidence for a CBF cold-response pathway in Brassica napus. We show that B. napus encodes CBF-like genes and that transcripts for these genes accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature followed closely by expression of the cold-regulated Bn115 gene, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis CBF-targeted COR15a gene. Moreover, we show that constitutive overexpression of the Arabidopsis CBF genes in transgenic B. napus plants induces expression of orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF-targeted genes and increases the freezing tolerance of both nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants. Transcripts encoding CBF-like proteins were also found to accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Norstar) and rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma), which cold acclimate, as well as in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Bonny Best, Castle Mart, Micro-Tom, and D Huang), a freezing-sensitive plant that does not cold acclimate. An alignment of the CBF proteins from Arabidopsis, B. napus, wheat, rye, and tomato revealed the presence of conserved amino acid sequences, PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP and DSAWR, that bracket the AP2/EREBP DNA binding domains of the proteins and distinguish them from other members of the AP2/EREBP protein family. We conclude that components of the CBF cold-response pathway are highly conserved in flowering plants and not limited to those that cold acclimate. PMID:11706173

  15. Imaging properties of photon sieve with a large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhong; Luo, Xiangang; Ma, Junxian; Fu, Yongqi; Du, Chunlei

    2008-06-01

    We report the optimization design and experimental results for the imaging properties of a photon sieve, which is formed on a layer of metal film supported by a thin glass substrate. As an example, we considered a micro-optical element with parameters of diameter D=50 mm, 3,564,290 hole number, and 10 μm minimum micro-hole diameter, which was designed and fabricated by means of surface machining technique in the lab. To evaluate its imaging performance, both on-axis and off-axis imaging experiments were carried out using the element. Compared to a Fresnel zone plate lens with the same feature size, the photon sieve has super imaging performance. Some quantitative analyses and initial qualitative explanations were given for the imaging characteristics.

  16. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Hafke, Jens B; Schulz, Alexander; van Bel, Aart J E

    2007-01-01

    According to an established concept, injury of the phloem triggers local sieve plate occlusion including callose-mediated constriction and, possibly, protein plugging of the sieve pores. Sieve plate occlusion can also be achieved by distant stimuli, depends on the passage of electropotential waves (EPWs), and is reversible in intact plants. The time-course of the wound response was studied in sieve elements of main veins of intact Vicia faba plants using confocal and multiphoton microscopy. Only 15-45 s after burning a leaf tip, forisomes (giant protein bodies specific for legume sieve tubes) suddenly dispersed, as observed at 3-4 cm from the stimulus site. The dispersion was reversible; the forisomes had fully re-contracted 7-15 min after burning. Meanwhile, callose appeared at the sieve pores in response to the heat shock. Callose production reached a maximum after approximately 20 min and was also reversible; callose degraded over the subsequent 1-2 h. The heat induction of both modes of occlusion coincided with the passage of an EPW visualized by electrophysiology or the potential-sensitive dye RH-414. In contrast to burning, cutting of the leaf tip induced neither an EPW nor callose deposition. The data are consistent with a remote-controlled occlusion of sieve plates depending on the longitudinal propagation of an EPW releasing Ca(2+) into the sieve element lumen. It is hypothesized that forisome plugs and callose constriction are removed once the cytosolic calcium level has returned to the initial level in those sieve tubes.

  17. New BAR tools for mining expression data and exploring Cis-elements in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan S; Hiu, Shu; Waese, Jamie; Ierullo, Matthew; Pasha, Asher; Wang, Ting Ting; Fan, Jim; Foong, Curtis; Breit, Robert; Desveaux, Darrell; Moses, Alan; Provart, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Identifying sets of genes that are specifically expressed in certain tissues or in response to an environmental stimulus is useful for designing reporter constructs, generating gene expression markers, or for understanding gene regulatory networks. We have developed an easy-to-use online tool for defining a desired expression profile (a modification of our Expression Angler program), which can then be used to identify genes exhibiting patterns of expression that match this profile as closely as possible. Further, we have developed another online tool, Cistome, for predicting or exploring cis-elements in the promoters of sets of co-expressed genes identified by such a method, or by other methods. We present two use cases for these tools, which are freely available on the Bio-Analytic Resource at http://BAR.utoronto.ca. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. CHOLINE TRANSPORTER-LIKE1 is required for sieve plate development to mediate long-distance cell-to-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Jan; Ursache, Robertas; Campilho, Ana; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Belevich, Ilya; O'Regan, Seana; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Yadav, Shri Ram; Lanz, Christa; Beverina, Luca; Papagni, Antonio; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Weigel, Detlef; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Moritz, Thomas; Knoblauch, Michael; Jokitalo, Eija; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-07-10

    Phloem, a plant tissue responsible for long-distance molecular transport, harbours specific junctions, sieve areas, between the conducting cells. To date, little is known about the molecular framework related to the biogenesis of these sieve areas. Here we identify mutations at the CHER1/AtCTL1 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutations cause several phenotypic abnormalities, including reduced pore density and altered pore structure in the sieve areas associated with impaired phloem function. CHER1 encodes a member of a poorly characterized choline transporter-like protein family in plants and animals. We show that CHER1 facilitates choline transport, localizes to the trans-Golgi network, and during cytokinesis is associated with the phragmoplast. Consistent with its function in the elaboration of the sieve areas, CHER1 has a sustained, polar localization in the forming sieve plates. Our results indicate that the regulation of choline levels is crucial for phloem development and conductivity in plants.

  19. Preparation of amorphous sulfide sieves

    DOEpatents

    Siadati, Mohammad H.; Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2006-11-07

    The present invention involves methods and compositions for synthesizing catalysts/porous materials. In some embodiments, the resulting materials are amorphous sulfide sieves that can be mass-produced for a variety of uses. In some embodiments, methods of the invention concern any suitable precursor (such as thiomolybdate salt) that is exposed to a high pressure pre-compaction, if need be. For instance, in some cases the final bulk shape (but highly porous) may be same as the original bulk shape. The compacted/uncompacted precursor is then subjected to an open-flow hot isostatic pressing, which causes the precursor to decompose and convert to a highly porous material/catalyst.

  20. Multiprocessing the Sieve of Eratosthenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Sieve of Eratosthenes for finding prime numbers in recent years has seen much use as a benchmark algorithm for serial computers while its intrinsically parallel nature has gone largely unnoticed. The implementation of a parallel version of this algorithm for a real parallel computer, the Flex/32, is described and its performance discussed. It is shown that the algorithm is sensitive to several fundamental performance parameters of parallel machines, such as spawning time, signaling time, memory access, and overhead of process switching. Because of the nature of the algorithm, it is impossible to get any speedup beyond 4 or 5 processors unless some form of dynamic load balancing is employed. We describe the performance of our algorithm with and without load balancing and compare it with theoretical lower bounds and simulated results. It is straightforward to understand this algorithm and to check the final results. However, its efficient implementation on a real parallel machine requires thoughtful design, especially if dynamic load balancing is desired. The fundamental operations required by the algorithm are very simple: this means that the slightest overhead appears prominently in performance data. The Sieve thus serves not only as a very severe test of the capabilities of a parallel processor but is also an interesting challenge for the programmer.

  1. Sieving hydrogen based on its high compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hangyan; Sun, Deyan; Gong, Xingao; Liu, Zhifeng

    2011-03-01

    Based on carbon nanotube intramolecular junction and a C60, a molecular sieve for hydrogen is presented. The small interspace between C60 and junction provides a size changeable channel for the permselectivity of hydrogen while blocking Ne and Ar. The sieving mechanism is due to the high compressibility of hydrogen.

  2. Unplugging the callose plug from sieve pores.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Hong, Zonglie

    2011-04-01

    The presence of callose in sieve plates has been known for a long time, but how this polysaccharide plug is synthesized has remained unsolved. Two independent laboratories have recently reported the identification of callose synthase 7 (CalS7), also known as glucan synthase-like 7 (GSL7), as the enzyme responsible for callose deposition in sieve plates. Mutant plants defective in this enzyme failed to synthesize callose in developing sieve plates during phloem formation and were unable to accumulate callose in sieve pores in response to stress treatments. The mutant plants developed less open pores per sieve plate and the pores were smaller in diameter. As a result, phloem conductivity was reduced significantly and the mutant plants were shorter and set fewer seeds.

  3. An artificial compound eye of photon Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenbo; Hu, Song; He, Yu; Bu, Yun

    2015-11-01

    The compound eye of insects has numerous extraordinary optical performances, such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view, and high sensitivity to the incidence light. Inspired by these unique performances, we present a novel artificial compound eye of photon sieves in this paper, where the photon sieves play the roles of insects' ommatidia. These photon sieves have the same focal length. The incidence light can be focused into the same focal plane and produce the superposition effect, the utilization ratio of energy can be largely improved. Through the numerical simulation, the results show that this novel structure has similar focusing performance with the conventional photon sieves, but has higher utilization ratio of energy and wider angle field of view than that of the conventional photon sieves. Our findings provide a new direction for optics and biology researchers, which will be beneficial for medical imaging, astronomy, etc.

  4. Unplugging the callose plug from sieve pores

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The presence of callose in sieve plates has been known for a long time, but how this polysaccharide plug is synthesized has remained unsolved. Two independent laboratories have recently reported the identification of callose synthase 7 (CalS7), also known as glucan synthase-like 7 (GSL7), as the enzyme responsible for callose deposition in sieve plates. Mutant plants defective in this enzyme failed to synthesize callose in developing sieve plates during phloem formation and were unable to accumulate callose in sieve pores in response to stress treatments. The mutant plants developed less open pores per sieve plate and the pores were smaller in diameter. As a result, phloem conductivity was reduced significantly and the mutant plants were shorter and set fewer seeds. PMID:21386663

  5. cis-Element- and Transcriptome-Based Screening of Root Hair-Specific Genes and Their Functional Characterization in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Won, Su-Kyung; Lee, Yong-Ju; Lee, Ha-Yeon; Heo, Yoon-Kyung; Cho, Misuk; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the cellular differentiation of multicellular organisms requires the characterization of genes whose expression is modulated in a cell type-specific manner. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root hair cell is one model for studying cellular differentiation. In this study, root hair cell-specific genes were screened by a series of in silico and experimental filtration procedures. This process included genome-wide screening for genes with a root hair-specific cis-element in their promoters, filtering root-specific genes from the root hair-specific cis-element-containing genes, further filtering of genes that were suppressed in root hair-defective plant lines, and experimental confirmation by promoter assay. These procedures revealed 19 root hair-specific genes, including many protein kinases and cell wall-related genes, most of which have not been characterized thus far. Functional analyses of these root hair-specific genes with loss-of-function mutants and overexpressing transformants revealed that they play roles in hair growth and morphogenesis. This study demonstrates that a defined cis-element can serve as a filter to screen certain cell type-specific genes and implicates many new root hair-specific genes in root hair development. PMID:19448035

  6. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP6 localizes in the phloem and affects jasmonate composition.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi-Wei; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Hu, Tai-Hua; Chen, Qin-Fang; Suen, Yung-Lee; Wang, Mingfu; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Yeung, Edward; Chye, Mee-Len

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN6 (AtACBP6) encodes a cytosolic 10-kDa AtACBP. It confers freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, possibly by its interaction with lipids as indicated by the binding of acyl-CoA esters and phosphatidylcholine to recombinant AtACBP6. Herein, transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP6 promoter-driven β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct exhibited strong GUS activity in the vascular tissues. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-AtACBP6 antibodies showed AtACBP6 localization in the phloem especially in the companion cells and sieve elements. Also, the presence of gold grains in the plasmodesmata indicated its potential role in systemic trafficking. The AtACBP6 protein, but not its mRNA, was found in phloem exudate of wild-type Arabidopsis. Fatty acid profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed an increase in the jasmonic acid (JA) precursor, 12-oxo-cis,cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and a reduction in JA and/or its derivatives in acbp6 phloem exudates in comparison to the wild type. Quantitative real-time PCR showed down-regulation of COMATOSE (CTS) in acbp6 rosettes suggesting that AtACBP6 affects CTS function. AtACBP6 appeared to affect the content of JA and/or its derivatives in the sieve tubes, which is consistent with its role in pathogen-defense and in its wound-inducibility of AtACBP6pro::GUS. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of AtACBP6 in JA-biosynthesis in Arabidopsis phloem tissues.

  7. Mission Concepts for High-Resolution Solar Imaging with a Photon Sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Douglas M.; Davila, Joseph; Daw, Adrian N.; Denis, Kevin L.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Shah, Neerav; Widmyer, Thomas R.

    2017-08-01

    The best EUV coronal imagers are unable to probe the expected energy dissipation scales of the solar corona (<100 km) because conventional optics cannot be figured to near diffraction-limited accuracy at these wavelengths. Davila (2011) has proposed that a photon sieve, a diffractive imaging element similar to a Fresnel zone plate, provides a technically feasible path to the required angular resolution. We have produced photon sieves as large as 80 mm clear aperture. We discuss laboratory measurements of these devices and the path to larger apertures. The focal length of a sieve with high EUV resolution is at least 10 m. Options for solar imaging with such a sieve include a sounding rocket, a single spacecraft with a deployed boom, and two spacecraft flying in precise formation.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of UTD-1, a novel zeolite molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Balkus, K.J. Jr.; Gabrielov, A.G.; Zones, S.I.

    1995-12-01

    The application of metal complexes as templates during the crystallization of zeolite molecular sieves is a relatively unexplored field and will be briefly reviewed. This work includes our discovery that bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)cobalt(III) hydroxide, CP*{sub 2}CoOH can function as a structure directing agent. This complex has been used to prepared several new phases including the novel zeolite UTD-1. This high silica molecular sieve has been characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis as well as elemental analysis. Preliminary, adsorption experiments (Ar, N{sub 2}) are consistent with a large pore, probably 12 ring or greater, channel type molecular sieve. UTD-1 is stable to calcination 500{degrees}C while the intrazeolite metal complex decomposes ({approximately}350{degrees}C) to presumably form occluded cobalt oxide. Methanol can be converted to hexamethylbenzene among other hydrocarbons, indicating the presence of acid sites. These results are also consistent with a large pore molecular sieve.

  9. Phytoplasma-triggered Ca(2+) influx is involved in sieve-tube blockage.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Rita; Buxa, Stefanie V; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Polizzotto, Rachele; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-04-01

    Phytoplasmas are obligate, phloem-restricted phytopathogens that are disseminated by phloem-sap-sucking insects. Phytoplasma infection severely impairs assimilate translocation in host plants and might be responsible for massive changes in phloem physiology. Methods to study phytoplasma- induced changes thus far provoked massive, native occlusion artifacts in sieve tubes. Hence, phytoplasma-phloem relationships were investigated here in intact Vicia faba host plants using a set of vital fluorescent probes and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We focused on the effects of phytoplasma infection on phloem mass-flow performance and evaluated whether phytoplasmas induce sieve-plate occlusion. Apparently, phytoplasma infection brings about Ca(2+) influx into sieve tubes, leading to sieve-plate occlusion by callose deposition or protein plugging. In addition, Ca(2+) influx may confer cell wall thickening of conducting elements. In conclusion, phytoplasma effectors may cause gating of sieve-element Ca(2+) channels leading to sieve-tube occlusion with presumptive dramatic effects on phytoplasma spread and photoassimilate distribution.

  10. Aphid salivary proteases are capable of degrading sieve-tube proteins.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; van Bel, Aart J E; Will, Torsten

    2015-02-01

    Sieve tubes serve as transport conduits for photo-assimilates and other resources in angiosperms and are profitable targets for piercing-sucking insects such as aphids. Sieve-tube sap also contains significant amounts of proteins with diverse functions, for example in signalling, metabolism, and defence. The identification of salivary proteases in Acyrthosiphon pisum led to the hypothesis that aphids might be able to digest these proteins and by doing so suppress plant defence and access additional nitrogen sources. Here, the scarce knowledge of proteases in aphid saliva is briefly reviewed. In order to provide a better platform for discussion, we conducted a few tests on in vitro protease activity and degradation of sieve-tube sap proteins of Cucurbita maxima by watery saliva. Inhibition of protein degradation by EDTA indicates the presence of different types of proteases (e.g. metalloproteses) in saliva of A. pisum. Proteases in the watery saliva from Macrosiphum euphorbiae and A. pisum were able to degrade the most abundant phloem protein, which is phloem protein 1. Our results provide support for the breakdown of sieve-element proteins by aphid saliva in order to suppress/neutralize the defence responses of the plant and to make proteins of sieve-tube sap accessible as a nitrogen source, as is discussed in detail. Finally, we discuss whether glycosylation of sieve-element proteins and the presence of protease inhibitors may confer partial protection against the proteolytic activity of aphid saliva.

  11. Arabidopsis thaliana—Myzus persicae interaction: shaping the understanding of plant defense against phloem-feeding aphids

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joe; Shah, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    The phloem provides a unique niche for several organisms. Aphids are a large group of Hemipteran insects that utilize stylets present in their mouthparts to pierce sieve elements and drink large volumes of phloem sap. In addition, many aphids also vector viral diseases. Myzus persicae, commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), is an important pest of a large variety of plants that includes Arabidopsis thaliana. This review summarizes recent studies that have exploited the compatible interaction between Arabidopsis and GPA to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms utilized by plants to control aphid infestation, as well as genes and mechanisms that contribute to susceptibility. In addition, recent efforts to identify aphid-delivered elicitors of plant defenses and novel aphid salivary components that facilitate infestation are also discussed. PMID:23847627

  12. The Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE2 Protein Is a Phototropin Signaling Element That Regulates Leaf Flattening and Leaf Positioning1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    de Carbonnel, Matthieu; Davis, Phillip; Roelfsema, M. Rob G.; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Schepens, Isabelle; Lariguet, Patricia; Geisler, Markus; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro; Hangarter, Roger; Fankhauser, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the blue light photoreceptor phototropins (phot1 and phot2) fine-tune the photosynthetic status of the plant by controlling several important adaptive processes in response to environmental light variations. These processes include stem and petiole phototropism (leaf positioning), leaf flattening, stomatal opening, and chloroplast movements. The PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE (PKS) protein family comprises four members in Arabidopsis (PKS1–PKS4). PKS1 is a novel phot1 signaling element during phototropism, as it interacts with phot1 and the important signaling element NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL3 (NPH3) and is required for normal phot1-mediated phototropism. In this study, we have analyzed more globally the role of three PKS members (PKS1, PKS2, and PKS4). Systematic analysis of mutants reveals that PKS2 (and to a lesser extent PKS1) act in the same subset of phototropin-controlled responses as NPH3, namely leaf flattening and positioning. PKS1, PKS2, and NPH3 coimmunoprecipitate with both phot1-green fluorescent protein and phot2-green fluorescent protein in leaf extracts. Genetic experiments position PKS2 within phot1 and phot2 pathways controlling leaf positioning and leaf flattening, respectively. NPH3 can act in both phot1 and phot2 pathways, and synergistic interactions observed between pks2 and nph3 mutants suggest complementary roles of PKS2 and NPH3 during phototropin signaling. Finally, several observations further suggest that PKS2 may regulate leaf flattening and positioning by controlling auxin homeostasis. Together with previous findings, our results indicate that the PKS proteins represent an important family of phototropin signaling proteins. PMID:20071603

  13. Genome-wide analysis of ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif-containing transcriptional regulators in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kagale, Sateesh; Links, Matthew G; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    The ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif is a transcriptional regulatory motif identified in members of the ethylene-responsive element binding factor, C2H2, and auxin/indole-3-acetic acid families of transcriptional regulators. Sequence comparison of the core EAR motif sites from these proteins revealed two distinct conservation patterns: LxLxL and DLNxxP. Proteins containing these motifs play key roles in diverse biological functions by negatively regulating genes involved in developmental, hormonal, and stress signaling pathways. Through a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis, we have identified the complete repertoire of the EAR repressome in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) comprising 219 proteins belonging to 21 different transcriptional regulator families. Approximately 72% of these proteins contain a LxLxL type of EAR motif, 22% contain a DLNxxP type of EAR motif, and the remaining 6% have a motif where LxLxL and DLNxxP are overlapping. Published in vitro and in planta investigations support approximately 40% of these proteins functioning as negative regulators of gene expression. Comparative sequence analysis of EAR motif sites and adjoining regions has identified additional preferred residues and potential posttranslational modification sites that may influence the functionality of the EAR motif. Homology searches against protein databases of poplar (Populus trichocarpa), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) revealed that the EAR motif is conserved across these diverse plant species. This genome-wide analysis represents the most extensive survey of EAR motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis to date and provides a resource enabling investigations into their biological roles and the mechanism of EAR motif-mediated transcriptional regulation.

  14. Evidence that a family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome has arisen from a pogo-like DNA transposon.

    PubMed

    Feschotte, C; Mouchès, C

    2000-05-01

    Sequence similarities exist between terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of some miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) families isolated from a wide range of organisms, including plants, insects, and humans, and TIRs of DNA transposons from the pogo family. We present here evidence that one of these MITE families, previously described for Arabidopsis thaliana, is derived from a larger element encoding a putative transposase. We have named this novel class II transposon Lemi1. We show that its putative product is related to transposases of the Tc1/mariner superfamily, being closer to the pogo family. A similar truncated element was found in a tomato DNA sequence, indicating an ancient origin and/or horizontal transfer for this family of elements. These results are reminiscent of those recently reported for the human genome, where other members of the pogo family, named Tiggers, are believed to be responsible for the generation of abundant MITE-like elements in an early primate ancestor. These results further suggest that some MITE families, which are highly reiterated in plant, insect, and human genomes, could have arisen from a similar mechanism, implicating pogo-like elements.

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana is a susceptible host plant for the holoparasite Cuscuta spec.

    PubMed

    Birschwilks, Mandy; Sauer, Norbert; Scheel, Dierk; Neumann, Stefanie

    2007-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta spec. represent a compatible host-parasite combination. Cuscuta produces a haustorium that penetrates the host tissue. In early stages of development the searching hyphae on the tip of the haustorial cone are connected to the host tissue by interspecific plasmodesmata. Ten days after infection, translocation of the fluorescent dyes, Texas Red (TR) and 5,6-carboxyfluorescein (CF), demonstrates the existence of a continuous connection between xylem and phloem of the host and parasite. Cuscuta becomes the dominant sink in this host-parasite system. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing genes encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP; 27 kDa) or a GFP-ubiquitin fusion (36 kDa), respectively, under the companion cell (CC)-specific AtSUC2 promoter were used to monitor the transfer of these proteins from the host sieve elements to those of Cuscuta. Although GFP is transferred unimpedly to the parasite, the GFP-ubiquitin fusion could not be detected in Cuscuta. A translocation of the GFP-ubiquitin fusion protein was found to be restricted to the phloem of the host, although a functional symplastic pathway exists between the host and parasite, as demonstrated by the transport of CF. These results indicate a peripheral size exclusion limit (SEL) between 27 and 36 kDa for the symplastic connections between host and Cuscuta sieve elements. Forty-six accessions of A. thaliana covering the entire range of its genetic diversity, as well as Arabidopsis halleri, were found to be susceptible towards Cuscuta reflexa.

  16. Aphid watery saliva counteracts sieve-tube occlusion: a universal phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Will, Torsten; Kornemann, Sarah R; Furch, Alexandra C U; Tjallingii, W Fred; van Bel, Aart J E

    2009-10-01

    Ca2+-binding proteins in the watery saliva of Megoura viciae counteract Ca2+-dependent occlusion of sieve plates in Vicia faba and so prevent the shut-down of food supply in response to stylet penetration. The question arises whether this interaction between aphid saliva and sieve-element proteins is a universal phenomenon as inferred by the coincidence between sieve-tube occlusion and salivation. For this purpose, leaf tips were burnt in a number of plant species from four different families to induce remote sieve-plate occlusion. Resultant sieve-plate occlusion in these plant species was counteracted by an abrupt switch of aphid behaviour. Each of the seven aphid species tested interrupted its feeding behaviour and started secreting watery saliva. The protein composition of watery saliva appeared strikingly different between aphid species with less than 50% overlap. Secretion of watery saliva seems to be a universal means to suppress sieve-plate occlusion, although the protein composition of watery saliva seems to diverge between species.

  17. APL regulates vascular tissue identity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bonke, Martin; Thitamadee, Siripong; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Helariutta, Ykä

    2003-11-13

    Vascular plants have a long-distance transport system consisting of two tissue types with elongated cell files, phloem and xylem. Phloem has two basic cell types, enucleate sieve elements and companion cells. Xylem has various lignified cell types, such as tracheary elements, the differentiation of which involves deposition of elaborate cell wall thickenings and programmed cell death. Until now, little has been known about the genetic control of phloem-xylem patterning. Here we identify the ALTERED PHLOEM DEVELOPMENT (APL) gene, which encodes a MYB coiled-coil-type transcription factor that is required for phloem identity in Arabidopsis. Phloem is established through asymmetric cell divisions and subsequent differentiation. We show that both processes are impaired by a recessive apl mutation. This is associated with the formation of cells that have xylem characteristics in the position of phloem. The APL expression profile is consistent with a key role in phloem development. Ectopic APL expression in the vascular bundle inhibits xylem development. Our studies suggest that APL has a dual role both in promoting phloem differentiation and in repressing xylem differentiation during vascular development.

  18. Enhanced Molecular Sieve CO2 Removal Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Susan; ElSherif, Dina; MacKnight, Allen

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively characterize the performance of two major types of molecular sieves for two-bed regenerative carbon dioxide removal at the conditions compatible with both a spacesuit and station application. One sorbent is a zeolite-based molecular sieve that has been substantially improved over the materials used in Skylab. The second sorbent is a recently developed carbon-based molecular sieve. Both molecular sieves offer the potential of high payoff for future manned missions by reducing system complexity, weight (including consumables), and power consumption in comparison with competing concepts. The research reported here provides the technical data required to improve CO2 removal systems for regenerative life support systems for future IVA and EVA missions.

  19. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R.; Williams, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    The removal of CO{sub 2} is of significance in several energy applications. The combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, releases large volumes of CO{sub 2} to the environment. Several options exist to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, including substitution of nuclear power for fossil fuels, increasing the efficiency of fossil plants and capturing the CO{sub 2} prior to emission to the environment. All of these techniques have the attractive feature of limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted to the atmosphere, but each has economic, technical, or societal limitations. In the production of natural gas, the feed stream from the well frequently contains contaminants and diluents which must be removed before the gas can enter the pipeline distribution system. Notable amongst these diluent gasses is CO{sub 2}, which has no calorific value. Currently, the pipeline specification calls for <2 mol % CO{sub 2} in the gas. Gas separation is thus a relevant technology in the field of energy production. A novel separation system based on a parametric swing process has been developed that utilizes the unique combination of properties exhibited by our carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS).

  20. Modeling the Hydrodynamics of Phloem Sieve Plates

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele; Bohr, Tomas; Knoblauch, Michael; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway. PMID:22811681

  1. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele; Bohr, Tomas; Knoblauch, Michael; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON2 Involves RLE, a cis-Element That Regulates Trimethylation of Histone H3 at Lysine-27[W

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Nathalie; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Roudier, François; Dubos, Christian; Lepiniec, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) is a master regulator of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In vegetative organs, LEC2 expression is negatively regulated by Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) that catalyzes histone H3 Lys 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and plays a crucial role in developmental phase transitions. To characterize the cis-regulatory elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of LEC2, molecular dissections and functional analyses of the promoter region were performed in vitro, both in yeast and in planta. Two cis-activating elements and a cis-repressing element (RLE) that is required for H3K27me3 marking were characterized. Remarkably, insertion of the RLE cis-element into pF3H, an unrelated promoter, is sufficient for repressing its transcriptional activity in different tissues. Besides improving our understanding of LEC2 regulation, this study provides important new insights into the mechanisms underlying H3K27me3 deposition and PRC2 recruitment at a specific locus in plants. PMID:22080598

  3. Catalytic cracking catalysts using silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Pellet, R.J.; Coughlin, P.K.; Staniulis, M.T.; Long, G.N.; Rabo, J.A.

    1987-05-19

    A cracking catalyst is described comprising: a silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve of U.S. Pat. No. 4,440,871 characterized in its calcined form by an adsorption of isobutane of at least 2 percent by weight at a pressure of 500 torr and a temperature of 20/sup 0/C and having an effective amount of the cations associated with the silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve selected from the group consisting of H+, ammonium, Group IIA, groups IIIB to VIIB, cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, and promethium.

  4. In-situ preparation of functionalized molecular sieve material and a methodology to remove template

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rekha; Ahmed, Maqsood; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Sakthivel, Ayyamperumal

    2016-01-01

    A series of diaminosilane-functionalized silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve (SAPO-37) was prepared by in-situ synthesis, and a novel method was developed for the selective removal of structure directing agent (SDA)/template from the functionalized SAPO-37.The complete removal of the SDA was evident according to FT-IR, TGA, 13C MAS-NMR and elemental analysis. The developed method was found to be efficient for removal of template from microporous molecular sieve viz., SAPO-37 and can be applied for other microporous molecular sieves such as SAPO-5, SAPO-40, etc. The powder XRD pattern of the template-removed samples showed a highly crystalline SAPO-37 phase. Argentometric titration revealed that more than 90% of diamine functionality exposed on the surface was accessible for catalytic applications. The resultant materials showed promising activity for ring opening of epoxide with aniline to yield β-amino-alcohol. PMID:26960707

  5. In-situ preparation of functionalized molecular sieve material and a methodology to remove template.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rekha; Ahmed, Maqsood; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Sakthivel, Ayyamperumal

    2016-03-10

    A series of diaminosilane-functionalized silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve (SAPO-37) was prepared by in-situ synthesis, and a novel method was developed for the selective removal of structure directing agent (SDA)/template from the functionalized SAPO-37.The complete removal of the SDA was evident according to FT-IR, TGA, (13)C MAS-NMR and elemental analysis. The developed method was found to be efficient for removal of template from microporous molecular sieve viz., SAPO-37 and can be applied for other microporous molecular sieves such as SAPO-5, SAPO-40, etc. The powder XRD pattern of the template-removed samples showed a highly crystalline SAPO-37 phase. Argentometric titration revealed that more than 90% of diamine functionality exposed on the surface was accessible for catalytic applications. The resultant materials showed promising activity for ring opening of epoxide with aniline to yield β-amino-alcohol.

  6. In-situ preparation of functionalized molecular sieve material and a methodology to remove template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rekha; Ahmed, Maqsood; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Sakthivel, Ayyamperumal

    2016-03-01

    A series of diaminosilane-functionalized silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve (SAPO-37) was prepared by in-situ synthesis, and a novel method was developed for the selective removal of structure directing agent (SDA)/template from the functionalized SAPO-37.The complete removal of the SDA was evident according to FT-IR, TGA, 13C MAS-NMR and elemental analysis. The developed method was found to be efficient for removal of template from microporous molecular sieve viz., SAPO-37 and can be applied for other microporous molecular sieves such as SAPO-5, SAPO-40, etc. The powder XRD pattern of the template-removed samples showed a highly crystalline SAPO-37 phase. Argentometric titration revealed that more than 90% of diamine functionality exposed on the surface was accessible for catalytic applications. The resultant materials showed promising activity for ring opening of epoxide with aniline to yield β-amino-alcohol.

  7. Heterology Expression of the Arabidopsis C-Repeat/Dehydration Response Element Binding Factor 1 Gene Confers Elevated Tolerance to Chilling and Oxidative Stresses in Transgenic Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tsai-Hung; Lee, Jent-Turn; Yang, Pei-Tzu; Chiu, Li-Hui; Charng, Yee-yung; Wang, Yu-Chie; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants, an expression vector containing an Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration responsive element binding factor 1 (CBF1) cDNA driven by a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was transferred into tomato plants. Transgenic expression of CBF1 was proved by northern- and western-blot analyses. The degree of chilling tolerance of transgenic T1 and T2 plants was found to be significantly greater than that of wild-type tomato plants as measured by survival rate, chlorophyll fluorescence value, and radical elongation. The transgenic tomato plants exhibited patterns of growth retardation; however, they resumed normal growth after GA3 (gibberellic acid) treatment. More importantly, GA3-treated transgenic plants still exhibited a greater degree of chilling tolerance compared with wild-type plants. Subtractive hybridization was performed to isolate the responsive genes of heterologous Arabidopsis CBF1 in transgenic tomato plants. CATALASE1 (CAT1) was obtained and showed activation in transgenic tomato plants. The CAT1 gene and catalase activity were also highly induced in the transgenic tomato plants. The level of H2O2 in the transgenic plants was lower than that in the wild-type plants under either normal or cold conditions. The transgenic plants also exhibited considerable tolerance against oxidative damage induced by methyl viologen. Results from the current study suggest that heterologous CBF1 expression in transgenic tomato plants may induce several oxidative-stress responsive genes to protect from chilling stress. PMID:12114563

  8. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs), also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF) families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs) or Myb Response Elements (MREs), respectively. Results Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Oryza sativa) model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE) and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Conclusions Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation. PMID:22852874

  9. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Berendzen, Kenneth W; Weiste, Christoph; Wanke, Dierk; Kilian, Joachim; Harter, Klaus; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs), also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF) families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs) or Myb Response Elements (MREs), respectively. Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Oryza sativa) model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE) and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation.

  10. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....3 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 55/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.7 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 6/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.7...

  11. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....3 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 55/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.7 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 6/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.7...

  12. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....3 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 55/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.7 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 6/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.7...

  13. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....3 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 55/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.7 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 6/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.7...

  14. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....3 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 55/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.5 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley ±0.7 percent, mean deviation from standard sieve using barley 6/64×3/4 inch slotted ±0.7...

  15. Inferring the Geometry of Fourth-Period Metallic Elements in Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds using Synchrotron-Based Multi-Angle X-ray Fluorescence Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Lester; Westcott, Neil; Christensen, Colleen; Terry, Jeff; Lydiate, Derek; Reaney, Martin

    2008-06-16

    Improving our knowledge of plant metal metabolism is facilitated by the use of analytical techniques to map the distribution of elements in tissues. One such technique is X-ray fluorescence (XRF), which has been used previously to map metal distribution in both two and three dimensions. One of the difficulties of mapping metal distribution in two dimensions is that it can be difficult to normalize for tissue thickness. When mapping metal distribution in three dimensions, the time required to collect the data can become a major constraint. In this article a compromise is suggested between two- and three-dimensional mapping using multi-angle XRF imaging. A synchrotron-based XRF microprobe was used to map the distribution of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in whole Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. Relative concentrations of each element were determined by measuring fluorescence emitted from a 10 {micro}m excitation beam at 13 keV. XRF spectra were collected from an array of points with 25 or 30 {micro}m steps. Maps were recorded at 0 and 90{sup o}, or at 0, 60 and 120{sup o} for each seed. Using these data, circular or ellipsoidal cross-sections were modelled, and from these an apparent pathlength for the excitation beam was calculated to normalize the data. Elemental distribution was mapped in seeds from ecotype Columbia-4 plants, as well as the metal accumulation mutants manganese accumulator 1 (man1) and nicotianamine synthetase (nasx). Multi-angle XRF imaging will be useful for mapping elemental distribution in plant tissues. It offers a compromise between two- and three-dimensional XRF mapping, as far as collection times, image resolution and ease of visualization. It is also complementary to other metal-mapping techniques. Mn, Fe and Cu had tissue-specific accumulation patterns. Metal accumulation patterns were different between seeds of the Col-4, man1 and nasx genotypes.

  16. Recent Improvements To the Sieve of Eratosthenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesada, Antonio R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents recently developed generalizations to the sieve of Eratosthenes, showing the principles underlying these improvements, which increase its efficiency without changing too much of its simplicity. Offers several possibilities to propose good investigations for students to explore, find patterns, and make generalizations. (JRH)

  17. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  18. Recent Improvements To the Sieve of Eratosthenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesada, Antonio R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents recently developed generalizations to the sieve of Eratosthenes, showing the principles underlying these improvements, which increase its efficiency without changing too much of its simplicity. Offers several possibilities to propose good investigations for students to explore, find patterns, and make generalizations. (JRH)

  19. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  20. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, N.K.; Brinker, C.J.

    1999-08-10

    A process is described for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film. 11 figs.

  1. An exceptional kinetic quantum sieving separation effect of hydrogen isotopes on commercially available carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yanlong; Cai, Jinjun; Li, Liangjun; Yang, Menglong; Zhao, Xuebo

    2014-08-14

    The quantum sieving effect of H2/D2 at 77 K on commercially available carbon molecular sieves (1.5GN-H and 3KT-172) was studied. An exceptional reverse kinetic quantum effect is observed on 1.5GN-H where D2 diffuses much faster than H2 with a ratio of up to 5.83 at low pressure, and the difference is still very evident even as the pressure increases up to 1 bar. D2 also diffuses faster than H2 on 3KT-172 with a ratio of up to 1.86. However, the reverse kinetic sieving disappears in a polymer-based carbon (PC). The present kinetic quantum sieving effect of H2 and D2 at 77 K on 1.5GN-H is the highest to date.

  2. The Responses of Arabidopsis Early Light-Induced Protein2 to Ultraviolet B, High Light, and Cold Stress Are Regulated by a Transcriptional Regulatory Unit Composed of Two Elements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hayami, Natsuki; Sakai, Yusaku; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tatsunori; Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kurihara, Yukio; Matsui, Minami; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Early Light-Induced Protein (ELIP) is thought to act as a photoprotectant, reducing the damaging effects of high light (HL). Expression of ELIP2 is activated by multiple environmental stresses related to photoinhibition. We have identified putative regulatory elements in an ELIP2 promoter using an octamer-based frequency comparison method, analyzed the role of these elements using synthetic promoters, and revealed a key transcriptional regulatory unit for ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation, HL, and cold stress responses. The unit is composed of two elements, designated as Elements A (TACACACC) and B (GGCCACGCCA), and shows functionality only when paired. Our genome-wide correlation analysis between possession of these elements in the promoter region and expression profiles in response to UV-B, HL, and cold suggests that Element B receives and integrates these multiple stress signals. In vitro protein-DNA binding assays revealed that LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), a basic domain-Leucine zipper transcription factor, directly binds to Element B. In addition, mutant analysis of HY5 showed partial involvement in the UV-B and HL responses but not in the cold stress response. These results suggest that signals for UV-B, HL, and cold stress join at Element B, which recognizes the signals of multiple transcription factors, including HY5. PMID:26175515

  3. Computational image formation with photon sieves for milli-arcsecond solar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktem, Figen S.; Kamalabadi, Farzad; Davila, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    A photon sieve is a modification of a Fresnel zone plate in which open zones are replaced by a large number of circular holes. This diffractive imaging element is specially suited to observations at UV and x-ray wavelengths where refractive lenses are not available due to strong absorption of materials, and reflective mirrors are difficult to manufacture with sufficient surface figure accuracy to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. On the other hand, photon sieves enable diffraction-limited imaging with much more relaxed tolerances than conventional imaging technology. In this presentation, we present the capabilities of an instrument concept that is based on computational image formation with photon sieves. The instrument enables high-resolution spectral imaging by distributing the imaging task between a photon sieve system and a computational method. A photon sieve coupled with a moving detector provides measurements from multiple planes. Then computational image formation, which involves deconvolution, is performed in a Bayesian estimation framework to reconstruct the multi-spectral images from these measurements. In addition to diffraction-limited high spatial resolution enabled by photon sieves, this instrument can also achieve higher spectral resolution than the conventional spectral imagers, since the technique offers the possibility of separating nearby spectral components that would not otherwise be possible using wavelength filters. Here, the promising capabilities and the imaging performance are shown for imaging the solar corona at EUV wavelengths. The effectiveness of various potential observing scenarios, the effects of interfering emission lines, and the appropriate form of the cost function for image deconvolution are examined.

  4. Thermodynamic Battle for Photosynthate Acquisition between Sieve Tubes and Adjoining Parenchyma in Transport Phloem1

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; van Amerongen, Jan-Kees; Kelling, Frits; Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Gaupels, Frank; van Bel, Aart J.E.

    2005-01-01

    In transport phloem, photoassimilates escaping from the sieve tubes are released into the apoplasmic space between sieve element (SE)/companion cell (CC) complexes (SE/CCs) and phloem parenchyma cells (PPCs). For uptake respective retrieval, PPCs and SE/CCs make use of plasma membrane translocators energized by the proton motive force (PMF). Their mutual competitiveness, which essentially determines the amount of photoassimilates translocated through the sieve tubes, therefore depends on the respective PMFs. We measured the components of the PMF, membrane potential and ΔpH, of SE/CCs and PPCs in transport phloem. Membrane potentials of SE/CCs and PPCs in tissue slices as well as in intact plants fell into two categories. In the first group including apoplasmically phloem-loading species (e.g. Vicia, Solanum), the membrane potentials of the SEs are more negative than those of the PPCs. In the second group including symplasmically phloem-loading species (e.g. Cucurbita, Ocimum), membrane potentials of SEs are equal to or slightly more positive than those of PPCs. Pure sieve tube sap collected from cut aphid stylets was measured with H+-selective microelectrodes. Under our experimental conditions, pH of the sieve tube saps was around 7.5, which is comparable to the pH of cytoplasmic compartments in parenchymatous cells. In conclusion, only the membrane potential appears to be relevant for the PMF-determined competition between SE/CCs and PPCs. The findings may imply that the axial sinks along the pathway withdraw more photoassimilates from the sieve tubes in symplasmically loading species than in apoplasmically loading species. PMID:15980202

  5. In situ microscopy reveals reversible cell wall swelling in kelp sieve tubes: one mechanism for turgor generation and flow control?

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Jan; Tepler Drobnitch, Sarah; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Kelps, brown algae (Phaeophyceae) of the order Laminariales, possess sieve tubes for the symplasmic long-distance transport of photoassimilates that are evolutionarily unrelated but structurally similar to the tubes in the phloem of vascular plants. We visualized sieve tube structure and wound responses in fully functional, intact Bull Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana [K. Mertens] Postels & Ruprecht 1840). In injured tubes, apparent slime plugs formed but were unlikely to cause sieve tube occlusion as they assembled at the downstream side of sieve plates. Cell walls expanded massively in the radial direction, reducing the volume of the wounded sieve elements by up to 90%. Ultrastructural examination showed that a layer of the immediate cell wall characterized by circumferential cellulose fibrils was responsible for swelling and suggested that alginates, abundant gelatinous polymers of the cell wall matrix, were involved. Wall swelling was rapid, reversible and depended on intracellular pressure, as demonstrated by pressure-injection of silicon oil. Our results revive the concept of turgor generation and buffering by swelling cell walls, which had fallen into oblivion over the last century. Because sieve tube transport is pressure-driven and controlled physically by tube diameter, a regulatory role of wall swelling in photoassimilate distribution is implied in kelps.

  6. SlDREB2, a tomato dehydration-responsive element-binding 2 transcription factor, mediates salt stress tolerance in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Clippe, André; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    To counter environmental cues, cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has evolved adaptive mechanisms requiring regulation of downstream genes. The dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2 (DREB2) transcription factors regulate abiotic stresses responses in plants. Herein, we isolated a novel DREB2-type regulator involved in salinity response, named SlDREB2. Spatio-temporal expression profile together with investigation of its promoter activity indicated that SlDREB2 is expressed during early stages of seedling establishment and in various vegetative and reproductive organs of adult plants. SlDREB2 is up-regulated in roots and young leaves following exposure to NaCl, but is also induced by KCl and drought. Its overexpression in WT Arabidopsis and atdreb2a mutants improved seed germination and plant growth in presence of different osmotica. In tomato, SlDREB2 affected vegetative and reproductive organs development and the intronic sequence present in the 5' UTR drives its expression. Physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic analyses showed that SlDREB2 enhanced plant tolerance to salinity by improvement of K(+) /Na(+) ratio, and proline and polyamines biosynthesis. Exogenous hormonal treatments (abscisic acid, auxin and cytokinins) and analysis of WT and 35S::SlDREB2 tomatoes hormonal contents highlighted SlDREB2 involvement in abscisic acid biosynthesis/signalling. Altogether, our results provide an overview of SlDREB2 mode of action during early salt stress response. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Toward two-dimensional nanometer resolution hard X-ray differential-interference-contrast imaging using modified photon sieves.

    PubMed

    Xie, Changqing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Hailiang; Shi, Lina; Hua, Yilei; Liu, Ming

    2012-02-15

    In this Letter, we report a significant step forward in the design of single-optical-element optics for two-dimensional (2D) hard X-ray differential-interference-contrast (DIC) imaging based on modified photon sieves (MPSs). MPSs were obtained by a modified optic, i.e., combining two overlaid binary gratings and a photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The superior performance of MPSs was demonstrated. Compared to Fresnel zone plates-based DIC diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which help to improve contrast only in one direction, MPSs can provide better resolution and 2D DIC imaging. Compared to normal photon sieves, MPSs are capable of imaging at a significantly higher image contrast. We anticipate that MPSs can provide a complementary and versatile high-resolution nondestructive imaging tool for ultra-large-scale integrated circuits at 45 nm node and below.

  8. Dermally adhered soil: 2. Reconstruction of dry-sieve particle-size distributions from wet-sieve data.

    PubMed

    Choate, LaDonna M; Ranville, James F; Bunge, Annette L; Macalady, Donald L

    2006-10-01

    In the evaluation of soil particle-size effects on environmental processes, particle-size distributions are measured by either wet or dry sieving. Commonly, size distributions determined by wet and dry sieving differ because some particles disaggregate in water. Whereas the dry-sieve distributions are most relevant to the study of soil adherence to skin, soil can be recovered from skin only by washing with the potential for disaggregation whether or not it is subsequently wet or dry sieved. Thus, the possibility exists that wet-sieving measurements of the particle sizes that adhered to the skin could be skewed toward the smaller fractions. This paper provides a method by which dry-sieve particle-size distributions can be reconstructed from wet-sieve particle-size distributions for the same soil. The approach combines mass balances with a series of experiments in which wet sieving was applied to dry-sieve fractions from the original soil. Unless the soil moisture content is high (i.e., greater than or equal to the water content after equilibration with water-saturated air), only the soil particles of diameters less than about 63 microm adhere to the skin. Because of this, the adhering particle-size distribution calculated using the reconstruction method was not significantly different from the wet-sieving determinations.

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana CBF1 encodes an AP2 domain-containing transcriptional activator that binds to the C-repeat/DRE, a cis-acting DNA regulatory element that stimulates transcription in response to low temperature and water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Stockinger, Eric J.; Gilmour, Sarah J.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    1997-01-01

    Recent efforts have defined a cis-acting DNA regulatory element in plants, the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (DRE), that stimulates transcription in response to low temperature and water deficit. Here we report the isolation of an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA that encodes a C-repeat/DRE binding factor, CBF1 (C-repeat/DRE Binding Factor 1). Analysis of the deduced CBF1 amino acid sequence indicates that the protein has a molecular mass of 24 kDa, a potential nuclear localization sequence, and a possible acidic activation domain. CBF1 also has an AP2 domain, which is a DNA-binding motif of about 60 aa present in the Arabidopsis proteins APETALA2, AINTEGUMENTA, and TINY; the tobacco ethylene response element binding proteins; and numerous other plant proteins of unknown function. The transcript levels for CBF1, which appears to be a single or low copy number gene, did not change appreciably in plants exposed to low temperature or in detached leaves subjected to water deficit. Binding of CBF1 to the C-repeat/DRE was demonstrated in gel shift assays using recombinant CBF1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Moreover, expression of CBF1 in yeast was found to activate transcription of reporter genes containing the C-repeat/DRE as an upstream activator sequence but not mutant versions of the DNA element. We conclude that CBF1 can function as a transcriptional activator that binds to the C-repeat/DRE DNA regulatory element and, thus, is likely to have a role in cold- and dehydration-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:9023378

  10. Immunoproteomic and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis of Arabidopsis dehydration response element-binding protein 1A (DREB1A)-transgenic potato.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Rika; Satoh, Rie; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Shimazaki, Takayoshi; Kasuga, Mie; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Kikuchi, Akira; Watanabe, Kazuo N; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    To produce crops that are more tolerant to stresses such as heat, cold, and salt, transgenic plants have been produced those express stress-associated proteins. In this study, we used immunoproteomic and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) methods to investigate the allergenicity of transgenic potatoes expressing Arabidopsis DREB1A (dehydration responsive element-binding protein 1A), driven by the rd29A promoter or the 35S promoter. Immunoproteomic analysis using sera from potato-allergic patients revealed several immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding protein spots. The patterns of protein binding were almost the same between transgenic and non-transgenic potatoes. The IgE-binding proteins in potato were identified as patatin precursors, a segment of serine protease inhibitor 2, and proteinase inhibitor II by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS/MS. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed several differences in protein expression between non-transgenic potato and transgenic potato; those showing increased expression in transgenic potatoes were identified as precursors of patatin, a major potato allergen, and those showing decreased expression in transgenic potatoes were identified as lipoxygenase and glycogen (starch) synthase. These results suggested that transgenic potatoes may express slightly higher levels of allergens, but their IgE-binding patterns were almost the same as those of control potatoes. Further research on changes in protein expressions in response to environmental factors is required to confirm whether the differences observed in this study are due to gene transfection, rather than environmental factors.

  11. Effective carbon partitioning driven by exotic phloem-specific regulatory elements fused to the Arabidopsis thaliana AtSUC2 sucrose-proton symporter gene.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Avinash C; Ganesan, Savita; Ismail, Ihab O; Ayre, Brian G

    2009-01-20

    AtSUC2 (At1g22710) from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a phloem-localized sucrose/proton symporter required for efficient photoassimilate transport from source tissues to sink tissues. AtSUC2 plays a key role in coordinating the demands of sink tissues with the output capacity of source leaves, and in maintaining phloem hydrostatic pressure during changes in plant-water balance. Expression and activity are regulated, both positively and negatively, by developmental (sink to source transition) and environmental cues, including light, diurnal changes, photoassimilate levels, turgor pressure, drought and osmotic stress, and hormones. To assess the importance of this regulation to whole-plant growth and carbon partitioning, AtSUC2 cDNA was expressed from two exotic, phloem-specific promoters in a mutant background debilitated for AtSUC2 function. The first was a promoter element from Commelina Yellow Mottle Virus (CoYMV), and the second was the rolC promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. CoYMVp::AtSUC2 cDNA restored growth and carbon partitioning to near wild-type levels, whereas plants harboring rolCp::AtSUC2 cDNA showed only partial complementation. Expressing AtSUC2 cDNA from exotic, phloem-specific promoters argues that strong, phloem-localized expression is sufficient for efficient transport. Expressing AtSUC2 from promoters that foster efficient phloem transport but are subject to regulatory cascades different from the endogenous sucrose/proton symporter genes has implications for biotechnology.

  12. Arabidopsis Acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP2 interacts with an ethylene-responsive element-binding protein, AtEBP, via its ankyrin repeats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Ye; Chye, Mee-Len

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBP) bind long-chain acyl-CoAs and act as intracellular acyl-CoA transporters and maintain acyl-CoA pools. Arabidopsis thaliana ACBP2 shows conservation at the acyl-CoA-binding domain to cytosolic ACBPs but is distinct by the presence of an N-terminal transmembrane domain and C-terminal ankyrin repeats. The function of the acyl-CoA-binding domain in ACBP2 has been confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and four conserved residues crucial for palmitoyl-CoA binding have been identified. Results from ACBP2:GFP fusions transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells have demonstrated that the transmembrane domain functions in plasma membrane targeting, suggesting that ACBP2 transfers acyl-CoA esters to this membrane. In this study, we investigated the significance of its ankyrin repeats in mediating protein-protein interactions by yeast two-hybrid analysis and in vitro protein-binding assays; we showed that ACBP2 interacts with the A. thaliana ethylene-responsive element-binding protein AtEBP via its ankyrin repeats. This interaction was lacking in yeast two-hybrid analysis upon removal of the ankyrin repeats. When the subcellular localizations of ACBP2 and AtEBP were further investigated using autofluorescent protein fusions in transient expression by agroinfiltration of tobacco leaves, the DsRed:ACBP2 fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane while the GFP:AtEBP fusion protein was targeted to the nucleus and plasma membrane. Co-expression of DsRed:ACBP2 and GFP:AtEBP showed a common localization of both proteins at the plasma membrane, suggesting that ACBP2 likely interacts with AtEBP at the plasma membrane.

  13. Speciation as a sieve for ancestral polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Rafael F; Hahn, Matthew W

    2017-08-09

    Because they are considered rare, balanced polymorphisms are often discounted as crucial constituents of genome-wide variation in sequence diversity. Despite its perceived rarity, however, long-term balancing selection can elevate genetic diversity and significantly affect observed divergence between species. Here, we discuss how ancestral balanced polymorphisms can be "sieved" by the speciation process, which sorts them unequally across descendant lineages. After speciation, ancestral balancing selection is revealed by genomic regions of high divergence between species. This signature, which resembles that of other evolutionary processes, can potentially confound genomic studies of population divergence and inferences of "islands of speciation." © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Deep Investigation of Arabidopsis thaliana Junk DNA Reveals a Continuum between Repetitive Elements and Genomic Dark Matter

    PubMed Central

    Maumus, Florian; Quesneville, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain highly variable amounts of DNA with no apparent function. This so-called junk DNA is composed of two components: repeated and repeat-derived sequences (together referred to as the repeatome), and non-annotated sequences also known as genomic dark matter. Because of their high duplication rates as compared to other genomic features, transposable elements are predominant contributors to the repeatome and the products of their decay is thought to be a major source of genomic dark matter. Determining the origin and composition of junk DNA is thus important to help understanding genome evolution as well as host biology. In this study, we have used a combination of tools enabling to show that the repeatome from the small and reducing A. thaliana genome is significantly larger than previously thought. Furthermore, we present the concepts and results from a series of innovative approaches suggesting that a significant amount of the A. thaliana dark matter is of repetitive origin. As a tentative standard for the community, we propose a deep compendium annotation of the A. thaliana repeatome that may help addressing farther genome evolution as well as transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in this model plant. PMID:24709859

  15. Deep investigation of Arabidopsis thaliana junk DNA reveals a continuum between repetitive elements and genomic dark matter.

    PubMed

    Maumus, Florian; Quesneville, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain highly variable amounts of DNA with no apparent function. This so-called junk DNA is composed of two components: repeated and repeat-derived sequences (together referred to as the repeatome), and non-annotated sequences also known as genomic dark matter. Because of their high duplication rates as compared to other genomic features, transposable elements are predominant contributors to the repeatome and the products of their decay is thought to be a major source of genomic dark matter. Determining the origin and composition of junk DNA is thus important to help understanding genome evolution as well as host biology. In this study, we have used a combination of tools enabling to show that the repeatome from the small and reducing A. thaliana genome is significantly larger than previously thought. Furthermore, we present the concepts and results from a series of innovative approaches suggesting that a significant amount of the A. thaliana dark matter is of repetitive origin. As a tentative standard for the community, we propose a deep compendium annotation of the A. thaliana repeatome that may help addressing farther genome evolution as well as transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in this model plant.

  16. Adsorption of gases on carbon molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vijayalakshmi, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Ganesh, K.S. )

    1994-12-01

    Adsorption on carbon molecular sieves (CMS) prepared by coke deposition has become an interesting area of adsorption due to its microporous nature and favorable separation factor on size and shape selectivity basis for many gaseous systems. In the present work CMS was synthesized from coconut shell through three major steps, namely, carbonization, activation, and coke deposition by hydrocarbon cracking. The crushed, washed, and sieved granules of coconut shell (particle size 2--3 mm) were pretreated with sodium silicate solution and oven-dried at 150 C to create the inorganic sites necessary for coke deposition. Carbonization and activation of the dried granules were carried out at 800 C, for 30 min each. The activated char thus produced was subjected to hydrocarbon cracking at 600 C for periods varying from 30 to 180 min. The product samples were characterized in terms of adsorption isotherm, kinetic adsorption curve, surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and characteristic energy for adsorption by using O[sub 2], N[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], C[sub 3]H[sub 6], and CH[sub 4].

  17. Local microstructural organization in carbogenic molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.S.; Foley, H.C.

    1996-12-31

    The microstructure of nanoporous, carbogenic molecular sieves (CMS) was studied using high resolution electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. The narrow range of pore sizes observed in these complex materials suggests that although these materials are globally amorphous, the local microstructural features are more organized. This work, focused on poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived CMS, is aimed at characterizing the evolution of this microstructure. Microscopy results show that materials synthesized at low temperature have some degree of organization but that the microstructure is featureless and symmetric at longer length scales. This symmetry is broken at higher synthesis temperatures as thermodynamic driving forces lead to further organization of the carbon atoms into more ordered structures but the length scales remain short. Micrographs of high temperature CMS show a high degree of curvature and features reminiscent of fullerene. The connectivity of the carbon atoms in the CMS has been probed using powder neutron diffraction. This data suggests that the atoms in the CMS form ordered structures on the length scale of 15{angstrom} which are distinctly different from the structure of graphite. These observed changes in the microstructure directly impact the adsorptive and molecular sieving characteristics of the CMS as illustrated by the marked differences between the diffusivities of oxygen and nitrogen. This property is crucial for the very demanding separation of nitrogen from oxygen in air.

  18. Reassessing molecular sieving by kinked carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Wang, Lei; Ding, Jianning; Wang, Jinbao; Zheng, Yonggang; Ye, Hongfei; Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Guanggui; Ling, Zhiyong

    2011-12-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations for the transport of pure nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and their mixture in kinked single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), molecular sieving by the kinked model of SWCNTs is presented. The influences of gas pressure, temperature and the component ratio of N2 in the mixture on gas separation are investigated. Considering the tradeoff between the permeability and the purity of O2, the results show that a large gas pressure, 300-500 K of gas temperature and a low component ratio of N2 in the N2-O2 mixture can be advantageous to the efficiency of gas separation. The purity of O2 can be kept higher than 80% when the component ratio of N2 is lower than 3/4, which will be advantageous to the design of multi-level gas separation mechanisms. The findings may provide theoretical references for the design and manufacture of molecular sieving devices in engineering applications.

  19. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns. (b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in contact with food. (c) Molecular sieve resins are used as the gel filtration media in the final purification of partially delactosed whey. The gel...

  20. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gram of dry resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns. (b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in contact with food. (c) Molecular sieve resins are used as the gel filtration media in the...

  1. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gram of dry resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns. (b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in contact with food. (c) Molecular sieve resins are used as the gel filtration media in the...

  2. Production of carbon molecular sieves from illinois coals. An assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, Anthony A.; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    1991-01-01

    Chars were produced from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal under various pyrolysis and activation conditions and tested for their molecular sieve properties. The amount of N2 compared to the amount of CO2 adsorbed by each char was used as a preliminary indicator of its molecular sieve properties. This relatively simple, but apparently useful test was confirmed by successfully characterizing the well-known molecular sieve properties of a commercial zeolite and molecular sieve carbon. In addition, coal chars having relatively high surface areas (800-1800 m2/g) were produced and tested for their molecular sieving capabilities. These carbon materials, which have high adsorption capacities and relatively narrow pore size distributions, should be ideal candidates for the commercial production of CMS.

  3. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2010-04-20

    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  4. Silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2002-01-01

    A new microporous crystalline molecular sieve material having the formula Cs.sub.3 TiSi.sub.3 O.sub.95.cndot.3H.sub.2 O and its hydrothermally condensed phase, Cs.sub.2 TiSi.sub.6 O.sub.15, are disclosed. The microporous material can adsorb divalent ions of radionuclides or other industrial metals such as chromium, nickel, lead, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, barium, and mercury, from aqueous or hydrocarbon solutions. The adsorbed metal ions can be leached out for recovery purposes or the microporous material can be hydrothermally condensed to a radiation resistant, structurally and chemically stable phase which can serve as a storage waste form for radionuclides.

  5. The angiosperm phloem sieve tube system: a role in mediating traits important to modern agriculture.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Lucas, William J

    2014-04-01

    The plant vascular system serves a vital function by distributing water, nutrients and hormones essential for growth and development to the various organs of the plant. In this review, attention is focused on the role played by the phloem as the conduit for delivery of both photosynthate and information macromolecules, especially from the context of its mediation in traits that are important to modern agriculture. Resource allocation of sugars and amino acids, by the phloem, to specific sink tissues is of importance to crop yield and global food security. Current findings are discussed in the context of a hierarchical control network that operates to integrate resource allocation to competing sinks. The role of plasmodesmata that connect companion cells to neighbouring sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells is evaluated in terms of their function as valves, connecting the sieve tube pressure manifold system to the various plant tissues. Recent studies have also revealed that plasmodesmata and the phloem sieve tube system function cooperatively to mediate the long-distance delivery of proteins and a diverse array of RNA species. Delivery of these information macromolecules is discussed in terms of their roles in control over the vegetative-to-floral transition, tuberization in potato, stress-related signalling involving miRNAs, and genetic reprogramming through the delivery of 24-nucleotide small RNAs that function in transcriptional gene silencing in recipient sink organs. Finally, we discuss important future research areas that could contribute to developing agricultural crops with engineered performance characteristics for enhance yield potential.

  6. Focusing of a neutral helium beam with a photon-sieve structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, S. D.; Guo, X.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Greve, M. M.; Kalläne, M.; Kipp, L.; Holst, B.

    2015-04-01

    The manipulation of low-energy beams of neutral atoms and molecules via their de Broglie wavelength is a branch of atom optics often referred to as de Broglie matter wave optics. The application areas include fundamental quantum mechanics, atom interferometry, and the development of new microscopy instrumentation. The focusing of de Broglie matter waves with a Fresnel zone plate was used to demonstrate the first neutral helium microscopy imaging. The ultimate resolution of such a microscope is limited by the width of the outermost zone. Because a Fresnel zone plate for atoms cannot be fabricated on a substrate (the low-energy atom beams would not be able to penetrate the substrate material), this gives a fabrication determined limit for the first-order focus of around 30-50 nm. Therefore, it is important to search for alternative optical elements that enable higher resolution. Photon sieves consist of a large number of pinholes, arranged suitably relative to the Fresnel zones. The great advantages are that the width of the pinholes can be larger than the respective Fresnel zones and a free-standing pinhole is much easier to fabricate than a free-standing zone. Thus, with a photon-sieve structure applied for de Broglie matter wave manipulation, the fabrication limit for focusing is reduced to potentially around 3-5 nm. Here we present a realization of such an "atom sieve," which we fabricated out of a silicon nitride (SiN) membrane, using electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Our atom sieve is 178 μ m in diameter and has 31 991 holes. The diameter of the holes varies from 1840 to 150 nm. Using a beam of neutral, ground-state helium atoms with an average wavelength of 0.055 nm, we demonstrate helium atom focusing down to a spot size of less than 4 μ m . The focus size is limited by the intrinsic velocity spread of the helium beam.

  7. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contact with food. (c) Molecular sieve resins are used as the gel filtration media in the final purification of partially delactosed whey. The gel bed shall be maintained in a sanitary manner in...

  8. Porous Organic Cage Thin Films and Molecular-Sieving Membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Qilei; Jiang, Shan; Hasell, Tom; Liu, Ming; Sun, Shijing; Cheetham, Anthony K; Sivaniah, Easan; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-04-06

    Porous organic cage molecules are fabricated into thin films and molecular-sieving membranes. Cage molecules are solution cast on various substrates to form amorphous thin films, with the structures tuned by tailoring the cage chemistry and processing conditions. For the first time, uniform and pinhole-free microporous cage thin films are formed and demonstrated as molecular-sieving membranes for selective gas separation.

  9. Tritiated Water on Molecular Sieve without Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.T.

    2001-09-10

    Several molecular sieve beds loaded with tritiated water failed to generate hydrogen gas from tritium self-radiolysis at the expected rate. Preliminary gamma-ray irradiation experiments of 4A molecular sieve with varying amounts of oxygen in the over-gas evoke a quenching mechanism. The data suggest that the gas phase rate constant for the production of hydrogen gas is several orders of magnitude smaller than the third order rate constant for scavenging of radical fragments by oxygen.

  10. Selective molecular sieving through porous graphene.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Steven P; Wang, Luda; Pellegrino, John; Bunch, J Scott

    2012-11-01

    Membranes act as selective barriers and play an important role in processes such as cellular compartmentalization and industrial-scale chemical and gas purification. The ideal membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize flux, mechanically robust to prevent fracture, and have well-defined pore sizes to increase selectivity. Graphene is an excellent starting point for developing size-selective membranes because of its atomic thickness, high mechanical strength, relative inertness and impermeability to all standard gases. However, pores that can exclude larger molecules but allow smaller molecules to pass through would have to be introduced into the material. Here, we show that ultraviolet-induced oxidative etching can create pores in micrometre-sized graphene membranes, and the resulting membranes can be used as molecular sieves. A pressurized blister test and mechanical resonance are used to measure the transport of a range of gases (H(2), CO(2), Ar, N(2), CH(4) and SF(6)) through the pores. The experimentally measured leak rate, separation factors and Raman spectrum agree well with models based on effusion through a small number of ångstrom-sized pores.

  11. Wall ingrowth deposition in phloem parenchyma transfer cells in Arabidopsis: Heteroblastic variations and a potential role in pathogen defence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Suong T T; McCurdy, David W

    2017-06-03

    Transfer cell (TCs) develop unique wall ingrowth networks which amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus maximize nutrient transporter density at key anatomic sites for nutrient exchange within plants and their external environment. These sites fall into 4 main groups corresponding to 4 categories of trans-membrane flux: absorption/secretion of solutes from or to the external environment, and absorption/secretion of solutes from or to internal, extra-cytoplasmic compartments. Research on TC biology over recent decades has demonstrated correlations between wall ingrowth deposition in TCs and enhanced transport capacity in many major agricultural species such as pea, fava bean, cotton and maize. Consequently, there is general consensus that the existence of wall ingrowth morphology implies an augmentation in membrane transport capacity. However, this may not be entirely applicable for phloem parenchyma (PP) TCs in Arabidopsis. Our recent survey of PP TC abundance and distribution in Arabidopsis veins indicated that PP TC development reflects heteroblastic status. A consequence of this observation is the suggestion that PP TCs, or at least wall ingrowth deposition in these cells, potentially act as a physical barrier to defend access of invading pathogens to sugar-rich sieve elements rather than solely in facilitating the export of photoassimilate from collection phloem in leaves.

  12. A 99 percent purity molecular sieve oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular sieve oxygen generating systems (MSOGS) have become the accepted method for the production of breathable oxygen on military aircraft. These systems separate oxygen for aircraft engine bleed air by application of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology. Oxygen is concentrated by preferential adsorption in nitrogen in a zeolite molecular sieve. However, the inability of current zeolite molecular sieves to discriminate between oxygen and argon results in an oxygen purity limitations of 93-95 percent (both oxygen and argon concentrate). The goal was to develop a new PSA process capable of exceeding the present oxygen purity limitations. A novel molecular sieve oxygen concentrator was developed which is capable of generating oxygen concentrations of up to 99.7 percent directly from air. The process is comprised of four absorbent beds, two containing a zeolite molecular sieve and two containing a carbon molecular sieve. This new process may find use in aircraft and medical breathing systems, and industrial air separation systems. The commercial potential of the process is currently being evaluated.

  13. Mineral oil regeneration using selective molecular sieves as sorbents.

    PubMed

    Majano, Gerardo; Mintova, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Microporous molecular sieves are investigated as effective, environmentally safe and cost effective materials for purification of lubricants in late stages of oxidation and also as an alternative to traditional anti-oxidant additives. Molecular sieve crystals with LTL- and BEA-type structures with variable morphology and silica content are used to trap oxidation by-products. It has been found that the aluminum content and the type of charge balancing cations in the molecular sieves play an important role on the amount of organic adsorbed due to a higher affinity of strong Brønsted acid sites and surface cations to hydrocarbons and carbonyl moieties. High selectivity of the molecular sieves towards oxidation products was achieved without influencing additive compounds in the oxidized oil, and thus results in high degrees in oil purification up to 90% depending on the oil formulation. The influence of treatment factors such as temperature, treatment time, solid content and type of oil were investigated. The sorption properties of two different molecular sieves capable of removing selectively the oxidation products, and thus effectively leading to purification in the early and late stages of oxidation, but also to slow down the oxidation process of oils are demonstrated. The considered molecular sieve materials are environmentally safe, cost effective, and due to their high thermal stability are adequate for recovery and multi-cycle reuse. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures.

  15. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes

    PubMed Central

    van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes—fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  16. The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 Regulates Abiotic Stress-Responsive Gene Expression by Binding to Different cis-Acting Elements in Response to Different Stress Signals1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mei-Chun; Liao, Po-Ming; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2013-01-01

    ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) is an upstream component in both jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling and is involved in pathogen resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that ERF1 might be related to the salt stress response through ethylene signaling. However, the specific role of ERF1 in abiotic stress and the molecular mechanism underlying the signaling cross talk still need to be elucidated. Here, we report that ERF1 was highly induced by high salinity and drought stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The salt stress induction required both JA and ET signaling but was inhibited by abscisic acid. ERF1-overexpressing lines (35S:ERF1) were more tolerant to drought and salt stress. They also displayed constitutively smaller stomatal aperture and less transpirational water loss. Surprisingly, 35S:ERF1 also showed enhanced heat tolerance and up-regulation of heat tolerance genes compared with the wild type. Several suites of genes activated by JA, drought, salt, and heat were found in microarray analysis of 35S:ERF1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays found that ERF1 up-regulates specific suites of genes in response to different abiotic stresses by stress-specific binding to GCC or DRE/CRT. In response to biotic stress, ERF1 bound to GCC boxes but not DRE elements; conversely, under abiotic stress, we observed specific binding of ERF1 to DRE elements. Furthermore, ERF1 bound preferentially to only one among several GCC box or DRE/CRT elements in the promoter region of its target genes. ERF1 plays a positive role in salt, drought, and heat stress tolerance by stress-specific gene regulation, which integrates JA, ET, and abscisic acid signals. PMID:23719892

  17. Molecular Sieve Bench Testing and Computer Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamadinejad, Habib; DaLee, Robert C.; Blackmon, James B.

    1995-01-01

    The design of an efficient four-bed molecular sieve (4BMS) CO2 removal system for the International Space Station depends on many mission parameters, such as duration, crew size, cost of power, volume, fluid interface properties, etc. A need for space vehicle CO2 removal system models capable of accurately performing extrapolated hardware predictions is inevitable due to the change of the parameters which influences the CO2 removal system capacity. The purpose is to investigate the mathematical techniques required for a model capable of accurate extrapolated performance predictions and to obtain test data required to estimate mass transfer coefficients and verify the computer model. Models have been developed to demonstrate that the finite difference technique can be successfully applied to sorbents and conditions used in spacecraft CO2 removal systems. The nonisothermal, axially dispersed, plug flow model with linear driving force for 5X sorbent and pore diffusion for silica gel are then applied to test data. A more complex model, a non-darcian model (two dimensional), has also been developed for simulation of the test data. This model takes into account the channeling effect on column breakthrough. Four FORTRAN computer programs are presented: a two-dimensional model of flow adsorption/desorption in a packed bed; a one-dimensional model of flow adsorption/desorption in a packed bed; a model of thermal vacuum desorption; and a model of a tri-sectional packed bed with two different sorbent materials. The programs are capable of simulating up to four gas constituents for each process, which can be increased with a few minor changes.

  18. Effects of Mesh Size on Sieved Samples of Corophium volutator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crewe, Tara L.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Diamond, Antony W.

    2001-08-01

    Corophium volutator (Pallas), gammaridean amphipods found on intertidal mudflats, are frequently collected in mud samples sieved on mesh screens. However, mesh sizes used vary greatly among studies, raising the possibility that sampling methods bias results. The effect of using different mesh sizes on the resulting size-frequency distributions of Corophium was tested by collecting Corophium from mud samples with 0·5 and 0·25 mm sieves. More than 90% of Corophium less than 2 mm long passed through the larger sieve. A significantly smaller, but still substantial, proportion of 2-2·9 mm Corophium (30%) was also lost. Larger size classes were unaffected by mesh size. Mesh size significantly changed the observed size-frequency distribution of Corophium, and effects varied with sampling date. It is concluded that a 0·5 mm sieve is suitable for studies concentrating on adults, but to accurately estimate Corophium density and size-frequency distributions, a 0·25 mm sieve must be used.

  19. Polysulfide treated molecular sieves and use thereof to remove mercury from liquefied hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes a process for preparing a molecular sieve absorbent. It comprises: drying a molecular sieve at a temperature of between about 350{degrees} and about 450{degrees} C in an anhydrous nonreactive atmosphere; contacting the molecular sieve with an aqueous solution of water soluble alkali polysulfide until the molecular sieve is saturated with the aqueous solution; and drying the saturated molecular sieve at a temperature between bout 10{degrees} and about 75{degrees} C and a pressure of less than about 500 millimeters of mercury to deposit the water soluble alkali polysulfide onto the molecular sieve without decomposing the water soluble alkali polysulfide.

  20. Minor loading vein acclimation for three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes in response to growth under different temperature and light regimes

    PubMed Central

    Cohu, Christopher M.; Muller, Onno; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the important role of foliar phloem as the nexus between energy acquisition through photosynthesis and distribution of the products of photosynthesis to the rest of the plant, as well as communication between the whole plant and its leaves, we examined whether foliar minor loading veins in three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes undergo acclimation to the growth environment. As a winter annual exhibiting higher rates of photosynthesis in response to cooler vs. warmer temperatures, this species might be expected to adjust the structure of its phloem to accommodate greater fluxes of sugars in response to growth at low temperature. Minor (fourth- and third-order) veins had 14 or fewer sieve elements and phloem tissue comprised 50% or more of the cross-sectional area. The number of phloem cells per minor loading vein was greater in leaves grown under cool temperature and high light vs. warm temperature and moderate light. This effect was greatest in an ecotype from Sweden, in which growth under cool temperature and high light resulted in minor veins with an even greater emphasis on phloem (50% more phloem cells with more than 100% greater cross-sectional area of phloem) compared to growth under warm temperature and moderate light. Likewise, the number of sieve elements per minor vein increased linearly with growth temperature under moderate light, almost doubling over a 27°C temperature range (21°C leaf temperature range) in the Swedish ecotype. Increased emphasis on cells involved in sugar loading and transport may be critical for maintaining sugar export from leaves of an overwintering annual such as A. thaliana, and particularly for the ecotype from the northern-most population experiencing the lowest temperatures. PMID:23847643

  1. Double rotation NMR studies of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Jelinek, Raz

    1993-07-01

    Goal is to study the organization and structures of guest atoms and molecules and their reactions on internal surfaces within pores of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves. 27Al and 23Na double rotation NMR (DOR) is used since it removes the anisotropic broadening in NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei, thus increasing resolution. This work concentrates on probing aluminum framework atoms in aluminophosphate molecular sieves and sodium extra framework cations in porous aluminosilicates. In aluminophosphates, ordering and electronic environments of the framework 27Al nuclei are modified upon adsorption of water molecules within the channels; a relation is sought between the sieve channel topology and the organization of adsorbed water, as well as the interaction between the Al nuclei and the water molecules. Extra framework Na+ cations are directly involved in adsorption processes and reactions in zeolite cavities.

  2. Super-resolving random-Gaussian apodized photon sieve.

    PubMed

    Sabatyan, Arash; Roshaninejad, Parisa

    2012-09-10

    A novel apodized photon sieve is presented in which random dense Gaussian distribution is implemented to modulate the pinhole density in each zone. The random distribution in dense Gaussian distribution causes intrazone discontinuities. Also, the dense Gaussian distribution generates a substantial number of pinholes in order to form a large degree of overlap between the holes in a few innermost zones of the photon sieve; thereby, clear zones are formed. The role of the discontinuities on the focusing properties of the photon sieve is examined as well. Analysis shows that secondary maxima have evidently been suppressed, transmission has increased enormously, and the central maxima width is approximately unchanged in comparison to the dense Gaussian distribution. Theoretical results have been completely verified by experiment.

  3. MEMBRANES FOR ULTRAFILTRATION, OF GRADUATED FINENESS DOWN TO MOLECULAR SIEVES

    PubMed Central

    McBain, J. W.; Kistler, S. S.

    1928-01-01

    The use of cellophane in ultrafiltration is recommended. It is shown that after it has been swollen in water it does not hold back molecules such as sucrose but that it holds back all but the finest colloidal particles. Two methods are given for progressively decreasing the size of the pores until the cellophane becomes a very fine molecular sieve. A sieve structure as the chief factor seems most in accordance with our experience of this and other ultrafilters. Collodion membranes may also be used as molecular sieves but their properties are inconstant. Bedicher is a very fine and rapid filtering ultrafilter and pig's bladder holds back a fair proportion of such molecules as sucrose and potassium chloride. Notes are made on the behavior of cellophane in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. It is emphasized that ultrafiltration is distinctive and has but little relation to diffusion, dialysis, osmosis, electroosmosis or thermodynamics. PMID:19872450

  4. Visualization of Uptake of Mineral Elements and the Dynamics of Photosynthates in Arabidopsis by a Newly Developed Real-Time Radioisotope Imaging System (RRIS).

    PubMed

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Iwata, Ren; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2016-04-01

    Minerals and photosynthates are essential for many plant processes, but their imaging in live plants is difficult. We have developed a method for their live imaging in Arabidopsis using a real-time radioisotope imaging system. When each radioisotope,(22)Na,(28)Mg,(32)P-phosphate,(35)S-sulfate,(42)K,(45)Ca,(54)Mn and(137)Cs, was employed as an ion tracer, ion movement from root to shoot over 24 h was clearly observed. The movements of(22)Na,(42)K,(32)P,(35)S and(137)Cs were fast so that they spread to the tip of stems. In contrast, high accumulation of(28)Mg,(45)Ca and(54)Mn was found in the basal part of the main stem. Based on this time-course analysis, the velocity of ion movement in the main stem was calculated, and found to be fastest for S and K among the ions we tested in this study. Furthermore, application of a heat-girdling treatment allowed determination of individual ion movement via xylem flow alone, excluding phloem flow, within the main stem of 43-day-old Arabidopsis inflorescences. We also successfully developed a new system for visualizing photosynthates using labeled carbon dioxide,(14)CO2 Using this system, the switching of source/sink organs and phloem flow direction could be monitored in parts of whole shoots and over time. In roots,(14)C photosynthates accumulated intensively in the growing root tip area, 200-800 µm behind the meristem. These results show that this real-time radioisotope imaging system allows visualization of many nuclides over a long time-course and thus constitutes a powerful tool for the analysis of various physiological phenomena.

  5. Visualization of Uptake of Mineral Elements and the Dynamics of Photosynthates in Arabidopsis by a Newly Developed Real-Time Radioisotope Imaging System (RRIS)

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Iwata, Ren; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2016-01-01

    Minerals and photosynthates are essential for many plant processes, but their imaging in live plants is difficult. We have developed a method for their live imaging in Arabidopsis using a real-time radioisotope imaging system. When each radioisotope, 22Na, 28Mg, 32P-phosphate, 35S-sulfate, 42K, 45Ca, 54Mn and 137Cs, was employed as an ion tracer, ion movement from root to shoot over 24 h was clearly observed. The movements of 22Na, 42K, 32P, 35S and 137Cs were fast so that they spread to the tip of stems. In contrast, high accumulation of 28Mg, 45Ca and 54Mn was found in the basal part of the main stem. Based on this time-course analysis, the velocity of ion movement in the main stem was calculated, and found to be fastest for S and K among the ions we tested in this study. Furthermore, application of a heat-girdling treatment allowed determination of individual ion movement via xylem flow alone, excluding phloem flow, within the main stem of 43-day-old Arabidopsis inflorescences. We also successfully developed a new system for visualizing photosynthates using labeled carbon dioxide, 14CO2. Using this system, the switching of source/sink organs and phloem flow direction could be monitored in parts of whole shoots and over time. In roots, 14C photosynthates accumulated intensively in the growing root tip area, 200–800 µm behind the meristem. These results show that this real-time radioisotope imaging system allows visualization of many nuclides over a long time-course and thus constitutes a powerful tool for the analysis of various physiological phenomena. PMID:27016100

  6. FalconSAT-7: A Photon Sieve Solar Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    technology has only incrementally improved in areal mass since the beginning of space -based imagery. For example, the Hubble Space Telescope has a mirror... space -based photon sieve telescope from a CubeSat platform. Fig. 1: Solid Works picture of Peregrine, a 0.2m photon sieve deployed from a 3U...with 180 kg/m2 while the James Webb Space Telescope has reduced this to just 25 kg/m2 over a quarter of a century later. Not only is size an issue

  7. Evaluation and testing of fine mesh sieve technologies for primary treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rusten, B; ødegaard, H

    2006-01-01

    Fine mesh sieve technologies were tested in full scale at several municipal wastewater treatment plants. A screening test was used to characterize wastewater and establish the design criteria for the sieves. To achieve high removal efficiencies it was crucial to operate the sieves with a filter mat. Rotating belt sieves performed best in the full-scale tests. A small dose of cationic polymer and a static flocculator ahead of a rotating belt sieve achieved excellent results on a wastewater that was originally found unsuitable for primary treatment with fine mesh sieves. Simple screw presses dewatered the sludge from the sieves to typically 25-30% total solids. Using fine mesh sieves with <500 microns openings was found to normally be the most economical process for primary treatment.

  8. Tunable sieving of ions using graphene oxide membranes.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jijo; Vasu, Kalangi S; Williams, Christopher D; Gopinadhan, Kalon; Su, Yang; Cherian, Christie T; Dix, James; Prestat, Eric; Haigh, Sarah J; Grigorieva, Irina V; Carbone, Paola; Geim, Andre K; Nair, Rahul R

    2017-04-03

    Graphene oxide membranes show exceptional molecular permeation properties, with promise for many applications. However, their use in ion sieving and desalination technologies is limited by a permeation cutoff of ∼9 Å (ref. 4), which is larger than the diameters of hydrated ions of common salts. The cutoff is determined by the interlayer spacing (d) of ∼13.5 Å, typical for graphene oxide laminates that swell in water. Achieving smaller d for the laminates immersed in water has proved to be a challenge. Here, we describe how to control d by physical confinement and achieve accurate and tunable ion sieving. Membranes with d from ∼9.8 Å to 6.4 Å are demonstrated, providing a sieve size smaller than the diameters of hydrated ions. In this regime, ion permeation is found to be thermally activated with energy barriers of ∼10-100 kJ mol(-1) depending on d. Importantly, permeation rates decrease exponentially with decreasing sieve size but water transport is weakly affected (by a factor of <2). The latter is attributed to a low barrier for the entry of water molecules and large slip lengths inside graphene capillaries. Building on these findings, we demonstrate a simple scalable method to obtain graphene-based membranes with limited swelling, which exhibit 97% rejection for NaCl.

  9. A low cost route to hexagonal mesostructured carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Pinnavaia, T J

    2001-12-07

    A mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with a hexagonal framework structure (denoted C-MSU-H) has been prepared using a MSU-H silica template that can be assembled from a low cost soluble silicate precursor at near-neutral pH conditions.

  10. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gram of dry resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns. (b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in... purification of partially delactosed whey. The gel bed shall be maintained in a sanitary manner in...

  11. Tunable sieving of ions using graphene oxide membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jijo; Vasu, Kalangi S.; Williams, Christopher D.; Gopinadhan, Kalon; Su, Yang; Cherian, Christie T.; Dix, James; Prestat, Eric; Haigh, Sarah J.; Grigorieva, Irina V.; Carbone, Paola; Geim, Andre K.; Nair, Rahul R.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide membranes show exceptional molecular permeation properties, with promise for many applications. However, their use in ion sieving and desalination technologies is limited by a permeation cutoff of ˜9 Å (ref. 4), which is larger than the diameters of hydrated ions of common salts. The cutoff is determined by the interlayer spacing (d) of ˜13.5 Å, typical for graphene oxide laminates that swell in water. Achieving smaller d for the laminates immersed in water has proved to be a challenge. Here, we describe how to control d by physical confinement and achieve accurate and tunable ion sieving. Membranes with d from ˜9.8 Å to 6.4 Å are demonstrated, providing a sieve size smaller than the diameters of hydrated ions. In this regime, ion permeation is found to be thermally activated with energy barriers of ˜10-100 kJ mol-1 depending on d. Importantly, permeation rates decrease exponentially with decreasing sieve size but water transport is weakly affected (by a factor of <2). The latter is attributed to a low barrier for the entry of water molecules and large slip lengths inside graphene capillaries. Building on these findings, we demonstrate a simple scalable method to obtain graphene-based membranes with limited swelling, which exhibit 97% rejection for NaCl.

  12. Decolorization / deodorization of zein via activated carbons and molecular sieves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective is to evaluate a series of granular media consisting of activated carbons and molecular sieves in a batch process for the purpose of clarifying and removal of color and odor components from yellow zein dispersed in an aqueous alcohol medium. The major contributors of yellow zein is du...

  13. High-Flux Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes for Gas Separation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hannes; Voss, Hartwig; Kaltenborn, Nadine; Kämnitz, Susanne; Wollbrink, Alexander; Feldhoff, Armin; Caro, Jürgen; Roitsch, Stefan; Voigt, Ingolf

    2017-06-26

    Carbon membranes have great potential for highly selective and cost-efficient gas separation. Carbon is chemically stable and it is relative cheap. The controlled carbonization of a polymer coating on a porous ceramic support provides a 3D carbon material with molecular sieving permeation performance. The carbonization of the polymer blend gives turbostratic carbon domains of randomly stacked together sp(2) hybridized carbon sheets as well as sp(3) hybridized amorphous carbon. In the evaluation of the carbon molecular sieve membrane, hydrogen could be separated from propane with a selectivity of 10 000 with a hydrogen permeance of 5 m(3) (STP)/(m(2) hbar). Furthermore, by a post-synthesis oxidative treatment, the permeation fluxes are increased by widening the pores, and the molecular sieve carbon membrane is transformed from a molecular sieve carbon into a selective surface flow carbon membrane with adsorption controlled performance and becomes selective for carbon dioxide. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Demonstration of radon removal from SF6 using molecular sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezeribe, A. C.; Lynch, W.; Gregorio, R. R. Marcelo; Mckeand, J.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.

    2017-09-01

    The gas SF6 has become of interest as a negative ion drift gas for use in directional dark matter searches. However, as for other targets in such searches, it is important that radon contamination can be removed as this provides a source of unwanted background events. In this work we demonstrate for the first time filtration of radon from SF6 gas by using a molecular sieve. Four types of sieves from Sigma-Aldrich were investigated, namely 3Å, 4Å, 5Å and 13X. A manufactured radon source was used for the tests. This was attached to a closed loop system in which gas was flowed through the filters and a specially adapted Durridge RAD7 radon detector. In these measurements, it was found that only the 5Å type was able to significantly reduce the radon concentration without absorbing the SF6 gas. The sieve was able to reduce the initial radon concentration of 3875 ± 13 Bqm‑3 in SF6 gas by 87% when cooled with dry ice. The ability of the cooled 5Å molecular sieve filter to significantly reduce radon concentration from SF6 provides a promising foundation for the construction of a radon filtration setup for future ultra-sensitive SF6 gas rare-event physics experiments.

  15. Lost in transit: long-distance trafficking and phloem unloading of protein signals in Arabidopsis homografts.

    PubMed

    Paultre, Danae Simone Genevieve; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Molnar, Attila; Oparka, Karl J

    2016-09-06

    In addition to moving sugars, and nutrients, the phloem transports many macromolecules. While grafting and aphid stylectomy experiments have identified many macromolecules that move in the phloem, the functional significance of phloem transport of these remains unclear. To gain insight into protein trafficking, we micrografted Arabidopsis thaliana scions expressing GFP-tagged chloroplast transit peptides under the 35S promoter onto non-transgenic rootstocks. We found that plastids in the root tip became fluorescent 10 days after grafting. We obtained identical results with the companion-cell specific promoter, SUC2 and with signals that target proteins to peroxisomes, actin, and the nucleus. We were unable to detect the respective mRNAs in the rootstock, indicating extensive movement of proteins in the phloem. Outward movement from the root protophloem was restricted to the pericycle-endodermis boundary, identifying plasmodesmata at this interface as control points in the exchange of macromolecules between stele and cortex. Intriguingly, signals directing proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus from membrane-bound ribosomes were not translocated to the root. It appears that many organelle-targeting sequences are insufficient to prevent the loss of their proteins into the translocation stream. Thus, non-specific loss of proteins from companion cells to sieve elements may explain the plethora of macromolecules identified in phloem sap.

  16. Arabidopsis Flower and Embryo Developmental Genes are Repressed in Seedlings by Different Combinations of Polycomb Group Proteins in Association with Distinct Sets of Cis-regulatory Elements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Lei; He, Chongsheng; Shen, Wen-Hui; Jin, Hong; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yijing

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) play crucial roles in transcriptional repression and developmental regulation in both plants and animals. In plants, depletion of different members of PRCs causes both overlapping and unique phenotypic defects. However, the underlying molecular mechanism determining the target specificity and functional diversity is not sufficiently characterized. Here, we quantitatively compared changes of tri-methylation at H3K27 in Arabidopsis mutants deprived of various key PRC components. We show that CURLY LEAF (CLF), a major catalytic subunit of PRC2, coordinates with different members of PRC1 in suppression of distinct plant developmental programs. We found that expression of flower development genes is repressed in seedlings preferentially via non-redundant role of CLF, which specifically associated with LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1). In contrast, expression of embryo development genes is repressed by PRC1-catalytic core subunits AtBMI1 and AtRING1 in common with PRC2-catalytic enzymes CLF or SWINGER (SWN). This context-dependent role of CLF corresponds well with the change in H3K27me3 profiles, and is remarkably associated with differential co-occupancy of binding motifs of transcription factors (TFs), including MADS box and ABA-related factors. We propose that different combinations of PRC members distinctively regulate different developmental programs, and their target specificity is modulated by specific TFs. PMID:26760036

  17. Arabidopsis Flower and Embryo Developmental Genes are Repressed in Seedlings by Different Combinations of Polycomb Group Proteins in Association with Distinct Sets of Cis-regulatory Elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Chunmei; Cheng, Jingfei; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Lei; He, Chongsheng; Shen, Wen-Hui; Jin, Hong; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yijing

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) play crucial roles in transcriptional repression and developmental regulation in both plants and animals. In plants, depletion of different members of PRCs causes both overlapping and unique phenotypic defects. However, the underlying molecular mechanism determining the target specificity and functional diversity is not sufficiently characterized. Here, we quantitatively compared changes of tri-methylation at H3K27 in Arabidopsis mutants deprived of various key PRC components. We show that CURLY LEAF (CLF), a major catalytic subunit of PRC2, coordinates with different members of PRC1 in suppression of distinct plant developmental programs. We found that expression of flower development genes is repressed in seedlings preferentially via non-redundant role of CLF, which specifically associated with LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1). In contrast, expression of embryo development genes is repressed by PRC1-catalytic core subunits AtBMI1 and AtRING1 in common with PRC2-catalytic enzymes CLF or SWINGER (SWN). This context-dependent role of CLF corresponds well with the change in H3K27me3 profiles, and is remarkably associated with differential co-occupancy of binding motifs of transcription factors (TFs), including MADS box and ABA-related factors. We propose that different combinations of PRC members distinctively regulate different developmental programs, and their target specificity is modulated by specific TFs.

  18. Cold induction of Arabidopsis CBF genes involves multiple ICE (inducer of CBF expression) promoter elements and a cold-regulatory circuit that is desensitized by low temperature.

    PubMed

    Zarka, Daniel G; Vogel, Jonathan T; Cook, Daniel; Thomashow, Michael F

    2003-10-01

    The Arabidopsis CBF1, 2, and 3 genes (also known as DREB1b, c, and a, respectively) encode transcriptional activators that have a central role in cold tolerance. CBF1-3 are rapidly induced upon exposing plants to low temperature, followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes, the CBF regulon, resulting in an increase in plant freezing tolerance. At present, little is known about the cold-sensing mechanism that controls CBF expression. Results presented here indicate that this mechanism does not require a cold shock to bring about the accumulation of CBF transcripts, but instead, absolute temperature is monitored with a greater degree of input, i.e. lower temperature, resulting in a greater output, i.e. higher levels of CBF transcripts. Temperature-shift experiments also indicate that the cold-sensing mechanism becomes desensitized to a given low temperature, such as 4 degrees C, and that resensitization to that temperature requires between 8 and 24 h at warm temperature. Gene fusion experiments identified a 125-bp section of the CBF2 promoter that is sufficient to impart cold-responsive gene expression. Mutational analysis of this cold-responsive region identified two promoter segments that work in concert to impart robust cold-regulated gene expression. These sequences, designated ICEr1 and ICEr2 (induction of CBF expression region 1 or 2), were also shown to stimulate transcription in response to mechanical agitation and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide.

  19. Performance evaluation of auxetic molecular sieves with re-entrant structures.

    PubMed

    Lim, Teik-Cheng; Acharya, Rajendra U

    2010-12-01

    This paper explores the comparative advantage of auxetic membranes over non-auxetic ones by geometrical analysis. It is herein demonstrated that, unlike non-auxetic sieves, the auxetic sieve exhibits an almost linear correlation with the applied strain, thereby demonstrating the higher tunability of auxetic sieves. Further investigation on the performance of auxetic sieves by varying the initial inclination angle shows that the sieving sensitivity is inversely proportional to the initial inclination angle. Finally a calculation based on (1,4)-reflexyne as a molecular auxetic sieve reveals that such as filter can block out impurities of sub-nanoscale size, while enabling the transport of biochemicals. The obtained results suggest the use of auxetic molecular sieves as high performance bandage, filters and other devices that require ultra-clean environment with biochemical permeability.

  20. High-Resolution Solar Imaging With Photon Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktem, F. S.; Kamalabadi, F.; Davila, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    A photon sieve is a modification of a Fresnel zone plate in which open zones are replaced by a large number of circular holes. This lightweight optical device offers a superior image forming capability compared with the Fresnel zone plate, and is specially suited to observations at UV and x-ray wavelengths where refractive lenses are not available due to strong absorption of materials, and reflective mirrors are difficult to manufacture to achieve near diffraction-limited resolution. At these shorter wavelengths, photon sieves enable diffraction-limited imaging performance with relaxed manufacturing tolerances, and simple and low-cost fabrication. In this work, we present a new photon sieve imaging modality that, unlike previous designs, takes advantage of chromatic aberration. The fact that different wavelengths are focused at different distances from photon sieve is exploited to develop a novel multi-spectral imaging technique. The idea is to use a photon sieve imaging system with a moving detector which records images at different planes. Each measurement consists of superimposed images of different wavelengths, with each individual image being either in focus or out of focus. For spatially incoherent illumination, we study the problem of recovering the individual images from these superimposed measurements. We first formulate the discrete forward problem using the closed-form Fresnel imaging formulas. The inverse problem is then a multi-frame deconvolution problem involving multiple objects, and is formulated as a maximum posterior estimation problem. The resulting nonlinear optimization problem is solved using a fixed-point iterative algorithm. In contrast to traditional spectral imagers employing a series of wavelength filters, the proposed technique relies on a simple optical system, but incorporates powerful image processing methods to form spectral images computationally. In addition to diffraction-limited high spatial resolution enabled by photon sieves

  1. [Synergetic effects of silicon carbide and molecular sieve loaded catalyst on microwave assisted catalytic oxidation of toluene].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Bo, Long-Li; Liu, Hai-Nan; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Jian-Yu; Yang, Li; Cai, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Molecular sieve loaded catalyst was prepared by impregnation method, microwave-absorbing material silicon carbide and the catalyst were investigated for catalytic oxidation of toluene by microwave irradiation. Research work examined effects of silicon carbide and molecular sieve loading Cu-V catalyst's mixture ratio as well as mixed approach changes on degradation of toluene, and characteristics of catalyst were measured through scanning electron microscope, specific surface area test and X-ray diffraction analysis. The result showed that the fixed bed reactor had advantages of both thermal storage property and low-temperature catalytic oxidation when 20% silicon carbide was filled at the bottom of the reactor, and this could effectively improve the utilization of microwave energy as well as catalytic oxidation efficiency of toluene. Under microwave power of 75 W and 47 W, complete-combustion temperatures of molecular sieve loaded Cu-V catalyst and Cu-V-Ce catalyst to toluene were 325 degrees C and 160 degrees C, respectively. Characteristics of the catalysts showed that mixture of rare-earth element Ce increased the dispersion of active components in the surface of catalyst, micropore structure of catalyst effectively guaranteed high adsorption capacity for toluene, while amorphous phase of Cu and V oxides increased the activity of catalyst greatly.

  2. Photoassimilation, assimilate translocation and plasmodesmal biogenesis in the source leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under an increased atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhongrui; Homma, Ayumi; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Kaneko, Yasuko; Fujiki, Yuki; Nishida, Ikuo

    2014-02-01

    Using 18-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown under increased (780 p.p.m., experimental plants) or ambient (390 p.p.m., control plants) CO2 conditions, we evaluated (14)CO2 photoassimilation in and translocation from representative source leaves. The total (14)CO2 photoassimilation amounts increased in the third leaves of the experimental plants in comparison with that found for the third leaves of the control plants, but the rates were comparable for the first leaves of the two groups. In contrast, translocation of labeled assimilates doubled in the first leaves of the experimental group, whereas translocation was, at best, passively enhanced even though photoassimilation increased in their third leaves. The transcript levels of the companion cell-specific sucrose:H(+) symporter gene SUC2 were not significantly affected in the two groups of plants, whereas those of the sucrose effluxer gene SWEET12 and the sieve element-targeted sucrose:H(+) symporter gene SUT4 were up-regulated in the experimental plants, suggesting up-regulation of SUT4-dependent apoplastic phloem loading. Compared with SUC2, SUT4 is a minor component that is expressed in companion cells but functions in sieve elements after transfer through plasmodesmata. The number of aniline blue-stained spots for plasmodesma-associated callose in the midrib wall increased in the first leaf of the experimental plants but was comparable in the third leaf between the experimental and control plants. These results suggest that A. thaliana responds to greater than normal concentrations of CO2 differentially in the first and third leaves in regards to photoassimilation, assimilate translocation and plasmodesmal biogenesis.

  3. Flux of granular particles through a shaken sieve plate

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Pingping; Zheng, Ning; Nian, Junwei; Li, Liangsheng; Shi, Qingfan

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally investigate a discharging flux of granular particles through a sieve plate subject to vertical vibrations. The mean mass flux shows a non-monotonic relation with the vibration strength. High-speed photography reveals that two stages, the free flight of the particles’ bulk over the plate and the adhesion of the particles’ bulk with the plate, alternately appear, where only the adhesion stage contributes to the flow. With two independent methods, we then measure the adhesion time under different vibration conditions, and define an adhesion flux. The adhesion flux monotonically increases with increasing vibration strength. By rescaling the adhesion flux, we find that the adhesion flux is approximately determined by the peak vibration velocity of the shaker. The conclusion is examined with other sieve geometries. PMID:26056080

  4. Focusing properties of phase-only generalized Fibonacci photon sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new algorithm to extend the standard Fibonacci photon sieve to the phase-only generalized Fibonacci photon sieve (GFiPS) and find that the focusing properties of the phase-only GFiPS are only relevant to the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones on the basis of the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable bifocal lengths, but also give their corresponding analytic expressions. Besides, we investigate a special phase-only GFiPS, a spiral-phase GFiPS, which can present twin vortices along the axial coordinate. Compared with the single focusing system, bifocal system can be exploited to enhance the processing speed, and offer a broad range of applications, such as direct laser writing, optical tweezers or atom trapping and paralleled fluorescence microscope.

  5. Flux of granular particles through a shaken sieve plate.

    PubMed

    Wen, Pingping; Zheng, Ning; Nian, Junwei; Li, Liangsheng; Shi, Qingfan

    2015-06-09

    We experimentally investigate a discharging flux of granular particles through a sieve plate subject to vertical vibrations. The mean mass flux shows a non-monotonic relation with the vibration strength. High-speed photography reveals that two stages, the free flight of the particles' bulk over the plate and the adhesion of the particles' bulk with the plate, alternately appear, where only the adhesion stage contributes to the flow. With two independent methods, we then measure the adhesion time under different vibration conditions, and define an adhesion flux. The adhesion flux monotonically increases with increasing vibration strength. By rescaling the adhesion flux, we find that the adhesion flux is approximately determined by the peak vibration velocity of the shaker. The conclusion is examined with other sieve geometries.

  6. Diffractive performance of a photon-sieve-based axilens.

    PubMed

    Sabatyan, A; Hoseini, S A

    2014-11-01

    An axilens is a combination of an axicon and a Fresnel zone plate to provide a long focal diffractive lens. However, the photon sieve has been known as a high-resolution version of the Fresnel zone plate. Therefore, construction of an axilens on the basis of a photon sieve may yield a high-resolution axilens. To this end, circular zones of an axilens were replaced by a given distribution of pinholes. It is shown that lateral resolution of the axilens is increased due to the replacement. The impact of different distributions of pinholes on the focusing properties of the axilens were also examined. Results indicate that by implementing different distributions of pinholes resolution and focal depth are changed and hence, are manageable. Theoretical results are verified by experimental work.

  7. Quadratic grating apodized photon sieves for simultaneous multiplane microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yiguang; Zhu, Jiangping; He, Yu; Tang, Yan; Hu, Song; Zhao, Lixin

    2017-10-01

    We present a new type of imaging device, named quadratic grating apodized photon sieve (QGPS), used as the objective for simultaneous multiplane imaging in X-rays. The proposed QGPS is structured based on the combination of two concepts: photon sieves and quadratic gratings. Its design principles are also expounded in detail. Analysis of imaging properties of QGPS in terms of point-spread function shows that QGPS can image multiple layers within an object field onto a single image plane. Simulated and experimental results in visible light both demonstrate the feasibility of QGPS for simultaneous multiplane imaging, which is extremely promising to detect dynamic specimens by X-ray microscopy in the physical and life sciences.

  8. Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Qilei; Cao, Shuai; Zavala-Rivera, Paul; Lu, Li Ping; Li, Wei; Ji, Yan; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A; Cheetham, Anthony K; Sivaniah, Easan

    2013-01-01

    High-performance membranes are attractive for molecular-level separations in industrial-scale chemical, energy and environmental processes. The next-generation membranes for these processes are based on molecular sieving materials to simultaneously achieve high throughput and selectivity. Membranes made from polymeric molecular sieves such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity (pore size<2 nm) are especially interesting in being solution processable and highly permeable but currently have modest selectivity. Here we report photo-oxidative surface modification of membranes made of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity. The ultraviolet light field, localized to a near-surface domain, induces reactive ozone that collapses the microporous polymer framework. The rapid, near-surface densification results in asymmetric membranes with a superior selectivity in gas separation while maintaining an apparent permeability that is two orders of magnitude greater than commercially available polymeric membranes. The oxidative chain scission induced by ultraviolet irradiation also indicates the potential application of the polymer in photolithography technology.

  9. Sulfur-Responsive Elements in the 3′-Nontranscribed Intergenic Region Are Essential for the Induction of SULFATE TRANSPORTER 2;1 Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Roots under Sulfur Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama-Nakashita, Akiko; Watanabe-Takahashi, Akiko; Inoue, Eri; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Saito, Kazuki; Takahashi, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Under sulfur deficiency (−S), plants induce expression of the sulfate transport systems in roots to increase uptake and root-to-shoot transport of sulfate. The low-affinity sulfate transporter SULTR2;1 is predominantly expressed in xylem parenchyma and pericycle cells in Arabidopsis thaliana roots under –S. The mechanisms underlying –S-inducible expression of SULTR2;1 in roots have remained unclear, despite the possible significance of SULTR2;1 for acclimation to low-sulfur conditions. In this investigation, examination of deletions and base substitutions in the 3′-intergenic region of SULTR2;1 revealed novel sulfur-responsive elements, SURE21A (5′-CAATGTATC-3′) and SURE21B (5′-CTAGTAC-3′), located downstream of the SULTR2;1 3′-untranslated region. SURE21A and SULTR21B effectively induced reporter gene expression from fusion constructs under –S in combination with minimal promoters or promoters not inducible by –S, suggesting their versatility in controlling transcription. T-DNA insertions near SURE21A and SULTR21B abolished −S-inducible expression of SULTR2;1 in roots and reduced the uptake and root-to-shoot transport of sulfate. In addition, these mutations partially suppressed SULTR2;1 expression in shoots, without changing its –S-responsive expression. These findings indicate that SULTR2;1 contributes to the increase in uptake and internal translocation of sulfate driven by gene expression induced under the control of sulfur-responsive elements in the 3′-nontranscribed intergenic region of SULTR2;1. PMID:25855406

  10. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Kirk A.; Burchell, Timothy D.; Judkins, Roddie R.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply airstream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium.

  11. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, K.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Judkins, R.R.

    1998-10-27

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply air stream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium. 3 figs.

  12. A differential delay equation arising from the sieve of Eratosthenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheer, A. Y.; Goldston, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the differential delay equation introduced by Buchstab (1937) in connection with an asymptotic formula for the uncanceled terms in the sieve of Eratosthenes. Maier (1985) used this result to show there is unexpected irreqularity in the distribution of primes in short intervals. The function omega(u) is studied in this paper using numerical and analytical techniques. The results are applied to give some numerical constants in Maier's theorem.

  13. A differential delay equation arising from the sieve of Eratosthenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheer, A. Y.; Goldston, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the differential delay equation introduced by Buchstab (1937) in connection with an asymptotic formula for the uncanceled terms in the sieve of Eratosthenes. Maier (1985) used this result to show there is unexpected irreqularity in the distribution of primes in short intervals. The function omega(u) is studied in this paper using numerical and analytical techniques. The results are applied to give some numerical constants in Maier's theorem.

  14. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks for Efficient Nano Sieving

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Badhe, Dhanashree Kamlesh; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    The small size of Na+ and Cl− ions provides a bottleneck in desalination and is a challenge in providing alternatives for continuously depleting fresh water resources. Graphene by virtue of its structural properties has the potential to address this issue. Studies have indicated that use of monolayer graphene can be used to filter micro volumes of saline solution. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult, resource intensive and almost impractical with current technology to fabricate operational devices using mono-layered graphene. Nevertheless, graphene based devices still hold the key to solve this problem due to its nano-sieving ability. Here we report synthesis of oxidized graphene frameworks and demonstrate a functional device to desalinate and purify seawater from contaminants including Na+ and Cl− ions, dyes and other microbial pollutants. Micro-channels in these frameworks help in immobilizing larger suspended solids including bacteria, while nano-sieving through graphene enables the removal of dissolved ions (e.g. Cl−). Nano-sieving incorporated with larger frameworks has been used in filtering Na+ and Cl− ions in functional devices. PMID:26892277

  15. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks for Efficient Nano Sieving.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Badhe, Dhanashree Kamlesh; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-02-19

    The small size of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions provides a bottleneck in desalination and is a challenge in providing alternatives for continuously depleting fresh water resources. Graphene by virtue of its structural properties has the potential to address this issue. Studies have indicated that use of monolayer graphene can be used to filter micro volumes of saline solution. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult, resource intensive and almost impractical with current technology to fabricate operational devices using mono-layered graphene. Nevertheless, graphene based devices still hold the key to solve this problem due to its nano-sieving ability. Here we report synthesis of oxidized graphene frameworks and demonstrate a functional device to desalinate and purify seawater from contaminants including Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, dyes and other microbial pollutants. Micro-channels in these frameworks help in immobilizing larger suspended solids including bacteria, while nano-sieving through graphene enables the removal of dissolved ions (e.g. Cl(-)). Nano-sieving incorporated with larger frameworks has been used in filtering Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in functional devices.

  16. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks for Efficient Nano Sieving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Badhe, Dhanashree Kamlesh; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-02-01

    The small size of Na+ and Cl- ions provides a bottleneck in desalination and is a challenge in providing alternatives for continuously depleting fresh water resources. Graphene by virtue of its structural properties has the potential to address this issue. Studies have indicated that use of monolayer graphene can be used to filter micro volumes of saline solution. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult, resource intensive and almost impractical with current technology to fabricate operational devices using mono-layered graphene. Nevertheless, graphene based devices still hold the key to solve this problem due to its nano-sieving ability. Here we report synthesis of oxidized graphene frameworks and demonstrate a functional device to desalinate and purify seawater from contaminants including Na+ and Cl- ions, dyes and other microbial pollutants. Micro-channels in these frameworks help in immobilizing larger suspended solids including bacteria, while nano-sieving through graphene enables the removal of dissolved ions (e.g. Cl-). Nano-sieving incorporated with larger frameworks has been used in filtering Na+ and Cl- ions in functional devices.

  17. Predictability sieve, pointer states, and the classicality of quantum trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Dalvit, D. A. R.; Zurek, W. H.; Dziarmaga, J.

    2005-12-15

    We study various measures of classicality of the states of open quantum systems subject to decoherence. Classical states are expected to be stable in spite of decoherence, and are thought to leave conspicuous imprints on the environment. Here these expected features of environment-induced superselection are quantified using four different criteria: predictability sieve (which selects states that produce least entropy), purification time (which looks for states that are the easiest to find out from the imprint they leave on the environment), efficiency threshold (which finds states that can be deduced from measurements on a smallest fraction of the environment), and purity loss time (that looks for states for which it takes the longest to lose a set fraction of their initial purity). We show that when pointer states--the most predictable states of an open quantum system selected by the predictability sieve--are well defined, all four criteria agree that they are indeed the most classical states. We illustrate this with two examples: an underdamped harmonic oscillator, for which coherent states are unanimously chosen by all criteria, and a free particle undergoing quantum Brownian motion, for which most criteria select almost identical Gaussian states (although, in this case, the predictability sieve does not select well defined pointer states)

  18. Tritiated Water on Molecular Sieve: Water Dynamics and Pressure Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.T.

    1999-04-23

    The production of fusion energy in a Tokamak using deuterium and tritium requires the safe handling and processing of exhaust gases that contain various amounts of tritium. Initial operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, oxidized exhaust gases for tritium recovery or long-term storage. One of the most efficient and safest ways to contain tritiated water is to sorb it onto a pelletized 4A molecular sieve. A Disposable Molecular Sieve Bed (DMSB) was designed as a pressure vessel because of the possibility of pressure generation from the radiolysis of tritiated water on molecular sieve. Hydrogen production contributes to the complexity of the containers used to transport and store tritiated water, and increases the fabrication costs. Two months after removing a DMSB from the process at TFTR, a pressure in excess of that predicted from self-radiolysis was observed. Interestingly, pressure measurements at longer times (up to 2.5 years) showed less pressure than expected. Pressure was not being generated in the DMSBs at the predicted rate. This was unexpected and prompted an investigation into the mechanism responsible for the anomalous pressure measurements.

  19. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for application in the separation of gas molecules that vary in size and shape. A study is in progress at the Illinois State Geological Survey to determine whether Illinois basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate their potential application in gas separation processes of commercial importance. Chars were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of heat treatment and activation conditions. The effects of various coal/char pretreatments, including coal demineralization, preoxidation, char activation, and carbon deposition, on the molecular sieve properties of the chars were also investigated. Chars with commercially significant BET surface areas of 1500 m2/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide as the activant. These high-surface-area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial carbon and zeolite molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N2, O2, CO2, CH4, CO and H2, on these chars at 25??C was measured. The O2/N2 molecular sieve properties of one char prepared without chemical activation were similar to those of a commercial CMS. On the other hand, the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon, i.e., essentially unity. Carbon deposition, using methane as the cracking gas, increased the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char, but significantly decreased its adsorption capacity. Several chars showed good potential for efficient CO2/CH4 separation; both a relatively high CO2 adsorption capacity and CO2/CH4 selectivity were achieved. The micropore size distribution of selected chars was estimated by equilibrium adsorption of carbon dioxide, n-butane and iso-butane at O??C. The extent of adsorption of each gas corresponded to the effective surface area contained in pores with diameters greater than 3

  20. SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING

    SciTech Connect

    DAMON, CLICK

    2005-02-07

    A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The

  1. Lost in Transit: Long-Distance Trafficking and Phloem Unloading of Protein Signals in Arabidopsis Homografts[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, Marie-Paule; Molnar, Attila; Oparka, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to moving sugars and nutrients, the phloem transports many macromolecules. While grafting and aphid stylectomy experiments have identified many macromolecules that move in the phloem, the functional significance of phloem transport of these remains unclear. To gain insight into protein trafficking, we micrografted Arabidopsis thaliana scions expressing GFP-tagged chloroplast transit peptides under the 35S promoter onto nontransgenic rootstocks. We found that plastids in the root tip became fluorescent 10 d after grafting. We obtained identical results with the companion cell-specific promoter SUC2 and with signals that target proteins to peroxisomes, actin, and the nucleus. We were unable to detect the respective mRNAs in the rootstock, indicating extensive movement of proteins in the phloem. Outward movement from the root protophloem was restricted to the pericycle-endodermis boundary, identifying plasmodesmata at this interface as control points in the exchange of macromolecules between stele and cortex. Intriguingly, signals directing proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus from membrane-bound ribosomes were not translocated to the root. It appears that many organelle-targeting sequences are insufficient to prevent the loss of their proteins into the translocation stream. Thus, nonspecific loss of proteins from companion cells to sieve elements may explain the plethora of macromolecules identified in phloem sap. PMID:27600534

  2. Transcript residency on ribosomes reveals a key role for the Arabidopsis thaliana bundle sheath in sulfur and glucosinolate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Sylvain; Smith-Unna, Richard D; Boursnell, Chris M; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hibberd, Julian M

    2014-05-01

    Leaves of angiosperms are made up of multiple distinct cell types. While the function of mesophyll cells, guard cells, phloem companion cells and sieve elements are clearly described, this is not the case for the bundle sheath (BS). To provide insight into the role of the BS in the C3 species Arabidopsis thaliana, we labelled ribosomes in this cell type with a FLAG tag. We then used immunocapture to isolate these ribosomes, followed by sequencing of resident mRNAs. This showed that 5% of genes showed specific splice forms in the BS, and that 15% of genes were preferentially expressed in these cells. The BS translatome strongly implies that the BS plays specific roles in sulfur transport and metabolism, glucosinolate biosynthesis and trehalose metabolism. Much of the C4 cycle is differentially expressed between the C3 BS and the rest of the leaf. Furthermore, the global patterns of transcript residency on BS ribosomes overlap to a greater extent with cells of the root pericycle than any other cell type. This analysis provides the first insight into the molecular function of this cell type in C3 species, and also identifies characteristics of BS cells that are probably ancestral to both C3 and C4 plants.

  3. Light signalling mediated by phytochrome plays an important role in cold-induced gene expression through the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (C/DRE) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun-Joung; Kim, Yun-Kyoung; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Jungmook

    2002-03-01

    Low temperature induces a number of genes that encode the proteins promoting tolerance to freezing, mediated by ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways in plants. The cis-acting element called C/DRE is known to respond to low temperature independently of ABA action. To investigate the signalling and network of ABA-independent pathways, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated containing several copies of the C/DRE derived from cor15a gene with a minimal promoter fused to a GUS reporter gene. The transgenic plants containing four copies of the C/DRE (4C/DRE-GUS) showed responsiveness to cold and drought treatments and were used for characterization of cold signalling and cross-talk. Cold-induced GUS expression was inhibited by okadaic acid at 1 nM, indicating that protein phosphatase 2A might act as a positive regulator. Light was shown to activate cold- and drought-induced GUS expression. Photo-reversibility of the GUS mRNA by red and far-red light with concomitant cold treatment suggests a role of phytochrome as a photoreceptor in mediating light signalling to activate the cold-induced gene expression through the C/DRE. Furthermore, GUS expression analysis in phyA or phyB or phyAphyB mutant backgrounds showed that phytochrome B is a primary photoreceptor responsible for the activation of cold-stress signalling in response to light. Light enhanced the induction kinetics of CBF1, 2, and 3 encoding the cognate transcription factors, and cor15a, in a consecutive manner compared to the dark condition in the cold, suggesting that the connection point between cold and light signalling mediated by phytochrome is at a higher step than the expression of CBF genes.

  4. Minimal framework density molecular sieves for natural gas storage. Final report, January 1992-April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Szostak, R.

    1993-02-10

    A study of the ability of the aluminophosphate family of molecular sieves to adsorb methane is summarized. The work examines the sieves chosen for their lowest framework density and smallest pore diameter system. These materials represent a possible improvement in systems for on-board storage of natural gas as their physical properties can improve methane capacity inside the cavities and maximize framework-adsorbate interaction. The study details the topology of the aluminophospate molecular sieves and compares them to the aluminosilicate zeolites. Experimental procedures for synthesizing the sieves are described.

  5. Interfacing peripheral nerve with macro-sieve electrodes following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Birenbaum, Nathan K; MacEwan, Matthew R; Ray, Wilson Z

    2017-06-01

    Macro-sieve electrodes were implanted in the sciatic nerve of five adult male Lewis rats following spinal cord injury to assess the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface regenerated peripheral nerve fibers post-spinal cord injury. Each spinal cord injury was performed via right lateral hemisection of the cord at the T9-10 site. Five months post-implantation, the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface the regenerated nerve was assessed by stimulating through the macro-sieve electrode and recording both electromyography signals and evoked muscle force from distal musculature. Electromyography measurements were recorded from the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles, while evoked muscle force measurements were recorded from the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius muscles. The macro-sieve electrode and regenerated sciatic nerve were then explanted for histological evaluation. Successful sciatic nerve regeneration across the macro-sieve electrode interface following spinal cord injury was seen in all five animals. Recorded electromyography signals and muscle force recordings obtained through macro-sieve electrode stimulation confirm the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to successfully recruit distal musculature in this injury model. Taken together, these results demonstrate the macro-sieve electrode as a viable interface for peripheral nerve stimulation in the context of spinal cord injury.

  6. Design of control system of combine harvester louver sieve angle based on ARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Cai, Yangyang; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Xuelei; Wang, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    In view of the disadvantages of the traditional control methods of combine harvester louver sieve, an electronic control system of louver sieve is designed to replace the traditional mechanical regulation structure, and it changes the old way of manipulating louver sieve. In order to achieve the goal control effect more accurately and quickly, the fuzzy adaptive PID control method and the key control design method based on the finite state machine is proposed during the control process. The tests show that the control system can reach louver sieve electric control goals, and can obtain accurate and stable control effect.

  7. Analysis of Unfolded Protein Response in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yani; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is fundamental for development and adaption in eukaryotic cells. Arabidopsis has become one of the best model systems to uncover conserved mechanisms of the UPR in multicellular eukaryotes as well as organism-specific regulation of the UPR in plants. Monitoring the UPR in planta is an elemental approach to identifying regulatory components and to revealing molecular mechanisms of the plant UPR. In this chapter, we provide protocols for the induction and analyses of plant UPR at a molecular level in Arabidopsis. Three kinds of ER stress treatment methods and quantitation of the plant UPR activation are described here. PMID:23913037

  8. Centrifugal Size-Separation Sieve for Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis (Inventor); Dreyer, Christopher (Inventor); Riedel, Edward (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal sieve and method utilizes centrifugal force in rapidly-rotated cylindrical or conical screens as the primary body force contributing to size segregation. Within the centrifugal acceleration field, vibration and/or shearing flows are induced to facilitate size segregation and eventual separation of the fines from the coarse material. Inside a rotating cylindrical or conical screen, a separately-rotated screw auger blade can be used to transport material along the rotating cylinder or conical wall and to induce shearing in the material.

  9. Nickel phosphate molecular sieve as electrochemical capacitors material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-He; Tan, Juan; Ma, Ding

    2014-08-01

    The nickel phosphate molecular sieve VSB-5 as an electrode material for supercapacitors is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry in alkaline media. The VSB-5 shows high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability. The specific capacitance of VSB-5 is 2740 F g-1 at a current density of 3 A g-1 and there is no significant reduction in Coulombic efficiency after 3000 cycles at 30 A g-1. In comparison with mesoporous nickel phosphate NiPO, porous nickel hydroxide and mesoporous nickel oxide, this remarkable electrochemical performance of VSB-5 will make nickel phosphate material a promising new electrode material for high performance supercapacitors.

  10. Solid-Phase S-Alkylation Promoted by Molecular Sieves.

    PubMed

    Calce, Enrica; Leone, Marilisa; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Monfregola, Luca; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-11-20

    A solid-phase S-alkylation procedure to introduce chemical modification on the cysteine sulfhydryl group of a peptidyl resin is reported. The reaction is promoted by activated molecular sieves and consists of a solid-solid process, since both the catalyst and the substrate are in a solid state. The procedure was revealed to be efficient and versatile, particularly when used in combination with the solution S-alkylation approach, allowing for the introduction of different molecular diversities on the same peptide molecule.

  11. An aluminophosphate molecular sieve with 36 crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Kyu; Turrina, Alessandro; Zhu, Liangkui; Seo, Seungwan; Zhang, Daliang; Cox, Paul A; Wright, Paul A; Qiu, Shilun; Hong, Suk Bong

    2014-07-14

    The structure of the new medium-pore aluminophosphate molecular sieve PST-6 is determined by the combined use of rotation electron diffraction tomography, synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, and computer modeling. PST-6 was prepared by calcination of another new aluminophosphate material with an unknown structure synthesized using diethylamine as a structure-directing agent, which is thought to contain bridging hydroxy groups. PST-6 has 36 crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites in the asymmetric unit and is thus crystallographically the most complex zeolitic structure ever solved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Arabidopsis miR171-Targeted Scarecrow-Like Proteins Bind to GT cis-Elements and Mediate Gibberellin-Regulated Chlorophyll Biosynthesis under Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhaoxue; Hu, Xupeng; Cai, Wenjuan; Huang, Weihua; Zhou, Xin; Luo, Qian; Yang, Hongquan; Wang, Jiawei; Huang, Jirong

    2014-01-01

    An extraordinarily precise regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis is essential for plant growth and development. However, our knowledge on the complex regulatory mechanisms of chlorophyll biosynthesis is very limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR171-targeted scarecrow-like proteins (SCL6/22/27) negatively regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis via an unknown mechanism. Here we showed that SCLs inhibit the expression of the key gene encoding protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) in light-grown plants, but have no significant effect on protochlorophyllide biosynthesis in etiolated seedlings. Histochemical analysis of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in transgenic plants expressing pSCL27::rSCL27-GUS revealed that SCL27-GUS accumulates at high levels and suppresses chlorophyll biosynthesis at the leaf basal proliferation region during leaf development. Transient gene expression assays showed that the promoter activity of PORC is indeed regulated by SCL27. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR assays showed that SCL27 binds to the promoter region of PORC in vivo. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that SCL27 is directly interacted with G(A/G)(A/T)AA(A/T)GT cis-elements of the PORC promoter. Furthermore, genetic analysis showed that gibberellin (GA)-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis is mediated, at least in part, by SCLs. We demonstrated that SCL27 interacts with DELLA proteins in vitro and in vivo by yeast-two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analysis and found that their interaction reduces the binding activity of SCL27 to the PORC promoter. Additionally, we showed that SCL27 activates MIR171 gene expression, forming a feedback regulatory loop. Taken together, our data suggest that the miR171-SCL module is critical for mediating GA-DELLA signaling in the coordinate regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and leaf growth in light. PMID:25101599

  13. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes

    PubMed Central

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation. PMID:21825128

  14. Medical sieve: a cognitive assistant for radiologists and cardiologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syeda-Mahmood, T.; Walach, E.; Beymer, D.; Gilboa-Solomon, F.; Moradi, M.; Kisilev, P.; Kakrania, D.; Compas, C.; Wang, H.; Negahdar, R.; Cao, Y.; Baldwin, T.; Guo, Y.; Gur, Y.; Rajan, D.; Zlotnick, A.; Rabinovici-Cohen, S.; Ben-Ari, R.; Guy, Amit; Prasanna, P.; Morey, J.; Boyko, O.; Hashoul, S.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists and cardiologists today have to view large amounts of imaging data relatively quickly leading to eye fatigue. Further, they have only limited access to clinical information relying mostly on their visual interpretation of imaging studies for their diagnostic decisions. In this paper, we present Medical Sieve, an automated cognitive assistant for radiologists and cardiologists designed to help in their clinical decision-making. The sieve is a clinical informatics system that collects clinical, textual and imaging data of patients from electronic health records systems. It then analyzes multimodal content to detect anomalies if any, and summarizes the patient record collecting all relevant information pertinent to a chief complaint. The results of anomaly detection are then fed into a reasoning engine which uses evidence from both patient-independent clinical knowledge and large-scale patient-driven similar patient statistics to arrive at potential differential diagnosis to help in clinical decision making. In compactly summarizing all relevant information to the clinician per chief complaint, the system still retains links to the raw data for detailed review providing holistic summaries of patient conditions. Results of clinical studies in the domains of cardiology and breast radiology have already shown the promise of the system in differential diagnosis and imaging studies summarization.

  15. Sieving polymer synthesis by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Nai, Yi Heng; Jones, Roderick C; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-12-01

    Replaceable sieving polymers are the fundamental component for high resolution nucleic acids separation in CE. The choice of polymer and its physical properties play significant roles in influencing separation performance. Recently, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization has been shown to be a versatile polymerization technique capable of yielding well defined polymers previously unattainable by conventional free radical polymerization. In this study, a high molecular weight PDMA at 765 000 gmol-1 with a PDI of 1.55 was successfully synthesized with the use of chain transfer agent - 2-propionic acidyl butyl trithiocarbonate (PABTC) in a multi-step sequential RAFT polymerization approach. This study represents the first demonstration of RAFT polymerization for synthesizing polymers with the molecular weight range suitable for high resolution DNA separation in sieving electrophoresis. Adjustment of pH in the reaction was found to be crucial for the successful RAFT polymerization of high molecular weight polymer as the buffered condition minimizes the effect of hydrolysis and aminolysis commonly associated with trithiocarbonate chain transfer agents. The separation efficiency of PABTC-PDMA was found to have marginally superior separation performance compared to a commercial PDMA formulation, POP™-CAP, of similar molecular weight range.

  16. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Stewart, Thomas Austin

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with Pleasanton Ridge Research Company (PRRC) to determine whether Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) and modified SOMs materials can be synthesized in large batches and produced in granular form. Sandia National Laboratories tested these SOMS and its variants based in aqueous chemical environments for an application-based evaluation of material performance as a sorbent. Testing focused primarily on determining the distribution coefficients (K d ) and chemical selectivity SOMs for alkali earth (Sr) ions in aqueous and dilute seawater solutions. In general the well-crystallized SOMS materials tested exhibited very high K d values (>10 6 ) in distilled water but K d values dropped substantially (%7E10 2 -10 3 ) in the dilute seawater (3%). However, one set of SOMS samples (1.4.2 and 1.4.6) provided by PRRC yielded relatively high K d (approaching 10 4 ) in dilute seawater. Further examination of these samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of at least two phases at least one of which may be accounting for the improved K d values in dilute seawater. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) January 20, 2016

  17. A controllable molecular sieve for Na+ and K+ ions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jichen; Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Hui

    2010-02-17

    The selective rate of specific ion transport across nanoporous material is critical to biological and nanofluidic systems. Molecular sieves for ions can be achieved by steric and electrical effects. However, the radii of Na(+) and K(+) are quite similar; they both carry a positive charge, making them difficult to separate. Biological ionic channels contain precisely arranged arrays of amino acids that can efficiently recognize and guide the passage of K(+) or Na(+) across the cell membrane. However, the design of inorganic channels with novel recognition mechanisms that control the ionic selectivity remains a challenge. We present here a design for a controllable ion-selective nanopore (molecular sieve) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube with specially arranged carbonyl oxygen atoms modified inside the nanopore, which was inspired by the structure of potassium channels in membrane spanning proteins (e.g., KcsA). Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the remarkable selectivity is attributed to the hydration structure of Na(+) or K(+) confined in the nanochannels, which can be precisely tuned by different patterns of the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The results also suggest that a confined environment plays a dominant role in the selectivity process. These studies provide a better understanding of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in the KcsA channel and possible technical applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology, including serving as a laboratory-in-nanotube for special chemical interactions and as a high-efficiency nanodevice for purification or desalination of sea and brackish water.

  18. Reemission of Tritium from Tritium-Sorbed Molecular Sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Xiaohua; Cheng Guijun

    2005-07-15

    In handling of tritium-containing waste gas, tritium is oxidized to tritiated water and immobilized in a molecular sieve (MS), which is then disposed of as solid radioactive waste. So reemission of tritium from tritium-sorbed molecular sieve is concerned for tritium waste disposal. 4A, 5A and 10X MS were chosen for the tritium reemission test. The tritium-containing MS samples with specific activity of 3 GBq/g were prepared and the reemission coefficients of tritium from the three types of MS were determined. The effects of storage conditions of the MS on the reemission of tritium were examined. The results show that during two months of storage period, the reemission coefficients of 4A, 5A and 10X MS are (1.9{approx}5.5) x 10{sup -6} d{sup -1}.g{sup -1}. Among them, 5A MS has the largest reemission coefficient and 4A MS the smallest. The tritium released from tritium-sorbed MS is mostly in the form of HTO, only less than 1.2% of the tritium is in the form of HT. The atmosphere for storing tritium-sorbed MS has rather effect on reemission of tritium. The reemission coefficient in argon is lower than that in Ar+2%H{sub 2}.

  19. A method to engineer phase-encoded photon sieve for intensity pattern generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Ma, Li; Gao, Yaru; Liu, Chunxiang; Xu, Shicai; Zhang, Meina; Cheng, Chuanfu

    2015-11-01

    We propose a novel type of photon sieve where phases of its sieved waves are encoded as radial positions of the pinholes and use such phase-encoded sieves for generating designed intensity patterns in Fresnel domain. The sieve pinholes are arranged around Fresnel-rings to eliminate the quadratic Fresnel phase factor of diffraction of the sieved waves, leading the wave propagation to be equivalent to Fraunhofer diffraction. The pinholes take constant size in this paper and realize equal amplitude in the multiple sieved waves. Their positions are adjusted radially from corresponding rings to encode wave phases, taking effect by resulting in different optical paths from them to the observation plane origin. Then along with wave propagation, the encoded phases are decoded and the required phase differences are obtained in the discrete waves. We first conduct numerical simulations to show satisfactory performance of such phase-encoded photon sieves in generating arbitrarily designed intensity patterns and describe the quality of the reconstructed patterns. Then for qualitatively verifying the phase-encoding method, we experimentally fabricate three such sieves with relatively small pinhole number and obtain the designed patterns.

  20. A top-down approach to prepare silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve nanocrystals with improved catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miao; Tian, Peng; Wang, Chan; Yuan, Yangyang; Yang, Yue; Xu, Shutao; He, Yanli; Liu, Zhongmin

    2014-02-21

    Silicoaluminophosphate SAPO-34 molecular sieve nanocrystals have been prepared by a post-synthesis milling and recrystallization method, which is further proven to be universally applicable to other SAPO molecular sieves. The obtained SAPO-34 with reduced Si enrichment on the external surface shows considerably improved catalytic performance in the MTO reaction.

  1. Molecular sieves control contamination and and insulate in thermal regenerators - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, M. G.

    1970-01-01

    Zeolitic molecular sieves prolong the lives of cryogenic engines by preventing contamination of the thermal regenerators on the cold ends of closed-cycle engines. Sieves also serve as thermal insulators by preventing conduction of heat along regenerators through contiguous disks of mesh.

  2. Investigation of Y/SBA Composite Molecular Sieves Morphology Control and Catalytic Performance for n-Pentane Aromatization

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Li, Shuai; Bian, Xue; Zhao, Shan-lin; Pei, Ming-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Using Y molecular sieve as the core, Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieves were prepared by different crystallization methods in the paper. The growth process and morphologies of the composite molecular sieves were controlled by adjusting the synthesis factors. The structures and acidity of two kinds of composite molecular sieves were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and NH3-TPD. The catalysis performances of the composite molecular sieves were investigated in the aromatization reaction of n-pentane. The results indicated that the desired core-shell composite molecular sieves were obtained when the crystallization conditions were 36 hours, 100 °C and secondary crystallization. The aromatization results showed that core-shell composite molecular sieves had better selectivity for producing high application value xylenes compared to mixed-crystal composite molecular sieves. PMID:27029526

  3. Investigation of Y/SBA Composite Molecular Sieves Morphology Control and Catalytic Performance for n-Pentane Aromatization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Li, Shuai; Bian, Xue; Zhao, Shan-Lin; Pei, Ming-Yuan

    2016-03-31

    Using Y molecular sieve as the core, Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieves were prepared by different crystallization methods in the paper. The growth process and morphologies of the composite molecular sieves were controlled by adjusting the synthesis factors. The structures and acidity of two kinds of composite molecular sieves were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and NH3-TPD. The catalysis performances of the composite molecular sieves were investigated in the aromatization reaction of n-pentane. The results indicated that the desired core-shell composite molecular sieves were obtained when the crystallization conditions were 36 hours, 100 °C and secondary crystallization. The aromatization results showed that core-shell composite molecular sieves had better selectivity for producing high application value xylenes compared to mixed-crystal composite molecular sieves.

  4. Investigation of Y/SBA Composite Molecular Sieves Morphology Control and Catalytic Performance for n-Pentane Aromatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Li, Shuai; Bian, Xue; Zhao, Shan-Lin; Pei, Ming-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Using Y molecular sieve as the core, Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieves were prepared by different crystallization methods in the paper. The growth process and morphologies of the composite molecular sieves were controlled by adjusting the synthesis factors. The structures and acidity of two kinds of composite molecular sieves were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and NH3-TPD. The catalysis performances of the composite molecular sieves were investigated in the aromatization reaction of n-pentane. The results indicated that the desired core-shell composite molecular sieves were obtained when the crystallization conditions were 36 hours, 100 °C and secondary crystallization. The aromatization results showed that core-shell composite molecular sieves had better selectivity for producing high application value xylenes compared to mixed-crystal composite molecular sieves.

  5. Multiregion apodized photon sieve with enhanced efficiency and enlarged pinhole sizes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lingjie; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Jizhen; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-08-20

    A novel multiregion structure apodized photon sieve is proposed. The number of regions, the apodization window values, and pinhole sizes of each pinhole ring are all optimized to enhance the energy efficiency and enlarge the pinhole sizes. The design theory and principle are thoroughly proposed and discussed. Two numerically designed apodized photon sieves with the same diameter are given as examples. Comparisons have shown that the multiregion apodized photon sieve has a 25.5% higher energy efficiency and the minimum pinhole size is enlarged by 27.5%. Meanwhile, the two apodized photon sieves have the same form of normalized intensity distribution at the focal plane. This method could improve the flexibility of the design and the fabrication the apodized photon sieve.

  6. The Arabidopsis Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    McClung, C. Robertson; Salomé, Patrice A.; Michael, Todd P.

    2002-01-01

    Rhythms with periods of approximately 24 hr are widespread in nature. Those that persist in constant conditions are termed circadian rhythms and reflect the activity of an endogenous biological clock. Plants, including Arabidopsis, are richly rhythmic. Expression analysis, most recently on a genomic scale, indicates that the Arabidopsis circadian clock regulates a number of key metabolic pathways and stress responses. A number of sensitive and high-throughput assays have been developed to monitor the Arabidopsis clock. These assays have facilitated the identification of components of plant circadian systems through genetic and molecular biological studies. Although much remains to be learned, the framework of the Arabidopsis circadian system is coming into focus. Dedication This review is dedicated to the memory of DeLill Nasser, a wonderful mentor and an unwavering advocate of both Arabidopsis and circadian rhythms research. PMID:22303209

  7. Molecular Sieving Using Nanofilters: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jongyoon; Fu, Jianping; Schoch, Reto B.

    2008-01-01

    Filtration of molecules by nanometer-sized structures is ubiquitous in our everyday life, but our understanding of such molecular filtration processes is far less than desired. Until recently, one of the main reasons was the lack of experimental methods that can help provide detailed, microscopic pictures of molecule-nanostructure interactions. Several innovations in experimental methods, such as nuclear track-etched membranes develeoped in the 70s, and more recent development of nanofluidic molecular filters, played pivotal roles in advancing our understanding. With the ability to make truly molecular-scale filters and pores with well-defined sizes, shapes, and surface properties, now we are well positioned to engineer better functionality in molecular sieving, separation and other membrane applications. Reviewing past theoretical developments (often scattered across different fields) and connecting them to the most recent advances in the field would be essential to get a full, unified view on this important engineering question. PMID:18094759

  8. A heterogeneous model for gas transport in carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Ding, L P; Yuan, Y X; Farooq, S; Bhatia, S K

    2005-01-18

    A dual resistance model with distribution of either barrier or pore diffusional activation energy is proposed in this work for gas transport in carbon molecular sieve (CMS) micropores. This is a novel approach in which the equilibrium is homogeneous, but the kinetics is heterogeneous. The model seems to provide a possible explanation for the concentration dependence of the thermodynamically corrected barrier and pore diffusion coefficients observed in previous studies from this laboratory on gas diffusion in CMS. The energy distribution is assumed to follow the gamma distribution function. It is shown that the energy distribution model can fully capture the behavior described by the empirical model established in earlier studies to account for the concentration dependence of thermodynamically corrected barrier and pore diffusion coefficients. A methodology is proposed for extracting energy distribution parameters, and it is further shown that the extracted energy distribution parameters can effectively predict integral uptake and column breakthrough profiles over a wide range of operating pressures.

  9. Carbon dioxide sorption in a nanoporous octahedral molecular sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Izaak; Nelson, Eric B.; Li, Lan

    2015-08-01

    We have performed first-principles density functional theory calculations, incorporated with van der Waals interactions, to study CO2 adsorption and diffusion in nanoporous solid—OMS-2 (Octahedral Molecular Sieve). We found the charge, type, and mobility of a cation, accommodated in a porous OMS-2 material for structural stability, can affect not only the OMS-2 structural features but also CO2 sorption performance. This paper targets K+, Na+, and Ba2+ cations. First-principles energetics and electronic structure calculations indicate that Ba2+ has the strongest interaction with the OMS-2 porous surface due to valence electrons donation to the OMS-2 and molecular orbital hybridization. However, the Ba-doped OMS-2 has the worst CO2 uptake capacity. We also found evidence of sorption hysteresis in the K- and Na-doped OMS-2 materials.

  10. Sieve estimation of Cox models with latent structures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongxiu; Huang, Jian; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xingqiu

    2016-12-01

    This article considers sieve estimation in the Cox model with an unknown regression structure based on right-censored data. We propose a semiparametric pursuit method to simultaneously identify and estimate linear and nonparametric covariate effects based on B-spline expansions through a penalized group selection method with concave penalties. We show that the estimators of the linear effects and the nonparametric component are consistent. Furthermore, we establish the asymptotic normality of the estimator of the linear effects. To compute the proposed estimators, we develop a modified blockwise majorization descent algorithm that is efficient and easy to implement. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in finite sample situations. We also use the primary biliary cirrhosis data to illustrate its application.

  11. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively. PMID:27090597

  12. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOEpatents

    Burkholder, H.R.; Fanslow, G.E.

    1983-12-20

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed. 8 figs.

  13. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOEpatents

    Burkholder, Harvey R.; Fanslow, Glenn E.

    1983-01-01

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed.

  14. A Sieving ANN for Emotion-Based Movie Clip Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanapa, Saowaluk C.; Thipakorn, Bundit; Charoenkitkarn, Nipon

    Effective classification and analysis of semantic contents are very important for the content-based indexing and retrieval of video database. Our research attempts to classify movie clips into three groups of commonly elicited emotions, namely excitement, joy and sadness, based on a set of abstract-level semantic features extracted from the film sequence. In particular, these features consist of six visual and audio measures grounded on the artistic film theories. A unique sieving-structured neural network is proposed to be the classifying model due to its robustness. The performance of the proposed model is tested with 101 movie clips excerpted from 24 award-winning and well-known Hollywood feature films. The experimental result of 97.8% correct classification rate, measured against the collected human-judges, indicates the great potential of using abstract-level semantic features as an engineered tool for the application of video-content retrieval/indexing.

  15. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-04-01

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  16. Mesoporous Silica Molecular Sieve based Nanocarriers: Transpiring Drug Dissolution Research.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Pathak, Kamla

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of oral bioavailability through enhancement of dissolution for poorly soluble drugs has been a very promising approach. Recently, mesoporous silica based molecular sieves have demonstrated excellent properties to enhance the dissolution velocity of poorly water-soluble drugs. Current research in this area is focused on investigating the factors influencing the drug release from these carriers, the kinetics of drug release and manufacturing approaches to scale-up production for commercial manufacture. This comprehensive review provides an overview of different methods adopted for synthesis of mesoporous materials, influence of processing factors on properties of these materials and drug loading methods. The drug release kinetics from mesoporous silica systems, the manufacturability and stability of these formulations are reviewed. Finally, the safety and biocompatibility issues related to these silica based materials are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. An efficient polymer molecular sieve for membrane gas separations.

    PubMed

    Carta, Mariolino; Malpass-Evans, Richard; Croad, Matthew; Rogan, Yulia; Jansen, Johannes C; Bernardo, Paola; Bazzarelli, Fabio; McKeown, Neil B

    2013-01-18

    Microporous polymers of extreme rigidity are required for gas-separation membranes that combine high permeability with selectivity. We report a shape-persistent ladder polymer consisting of benzene rings fused together by inflexible bridged bicyclic units. The polymer's contorted shape ensures both microporosity-with an internal surface area greater than 1000 square meters per gram-and solubility so that it is readily cast from solution into robust films. These films demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and good selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as hydrogen and oxygen, over larger molecules, such as nitrogen and methane. Hence, this polymer has excellent potential for making membranes suitable for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance.

  18. Overexpression of IRM1 enhances resistance to aphids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhao; Visser, Richard G F; Broekgaarden, Colette; Vosman, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Aphids are insects that cause direct damage to crops by the removal of phloem sap, but more importantly they spread devastating viruses. Aphids use their sophisticated mouthpart (i.e. stylet) to feed from the phloem sieve elements of the host plant. To identify genes that affect host plant resistance to aphids, we previously screened an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag mutant collection. In such mutants, tagged genes are overexpressed by a strong 35S enhancer adjacent to the natural promoter, resulting in a dominant gain-of-function phenotype. We previously identified several of these mutants on which the aphid Myzus persicae showed a reduced population development compared with wild type. In the present study we show that the gene responsible for the phenotype of one of the mutants is At5g65040 and named this gene Increased Resistance to Myzus persicae 1 (IRM1). Overexpression of the cloned IRM1 gene conferred a phenotype identical to that of the original mutant. Conversely, an IRM1 knockout mutant promoted aphid population development compared to the wild type. We performed Electrical Penetration Graph analysis to investigate how probing and feeding behaviour of aphids was affected on plants that either overexpressed IRM1 or contained a knockout mutation in this gene. The EPG results indicated that the aphids encounter resistance factors while reaching for the phloem on the overexpressing line. This resistance mechanism also affected other aphid species and is suggested to be of mechanical nature. Interestingly, genetic variation for IRM1 expression in response to aphid attack was observed. Upon aphid attack the expression of IRM1 was initially (after 6 hours) induced in ecotype Wassilewskija followed by suppression. In Columbia-0, IRM1 expression was already suppressed six hours after the start of the infestation. The resistance conferred by the overexpression of IRM1 in A. thaliana trades off with plant growth.

  19. Biofuel manufacturing from woody biomass: effects of sieve size used in biomass size reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Song, Xiaoxu; Deines, T W; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2012-01-01

    Size reduction is the first step for manufacturing biofuels from woody biomass. It is usually performed using milling machines and the particle size is controlled by the size of the sieve installed on a milling machine. There are reported studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in milling of woody biomass. These studies show that energy consumption increased dramatically as sieve size became smaller. However, in these studies, the sugar yield (proportional to biofuel yield) in hydrolysis of the milled woody biomass was not measured. The lack of comprehensive studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in biomass milling and sugar yield in hydrolysis process makes it difficult to decide which sieve size should be selected in order to minimize the energy consumption in size reduction and maximize the sugar yield in hydrolysis. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature. In this paper, knife milling of poplar wood was conducted using sieves of three sizes (1, 2, and 4 mm). Results show that, as sieve size increased, energy consumption in knife milling decreased and sugar yield in hydrolysis increased in the tested range of particle sizes.

  20. Clast-contact conglomerates in submarine canyons: possible subaqueous sieve deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    Thick, coarse, clast-contact conglomerates in submarine canyon fill have previously been attributed to rock-fall, grain-flow, or winnowing processes. However, these processes do not adequately explain some thick conglomeratic sequences. The proposed process of subaqueous sieve deposition could account for these clast-contact conglomerates. Subaerial sieve deposition has been documented on small-scale fan models and on alluvial fans. A subaerial sieve deposit begins as a debris flow which at some point freezes up. The matrix is then lost by subsequent filtration or outflow, and the emplacement of a clast-contact gravel ensues. A subaqueous sieve deposit would be slightly modified in that the matrix would not be lost by filtration into the submarine canyon floor, but rather by outflow at the terminus of the lobe immediately after deposition, or possibly from the top and/or sides of the freezing flow mass during transport. Besides forming in submarine canyons, subaqueous sieve deposits might also occur in paralic, submarine fan channel, and base-of-the-slope settings. In substantiating the existence of subaqueous sieve deposits, the sedimentary structures and grain-size data from recent sieve deposits on alluvial fans are compared to those of ancient submarine canyon deposits. Numerous similarities are found supporting this new method of deposition. Some discrepancies are encountered, but these are expected due to modifications caused by an aqueous medium.

  1. Biofuel Manufacturing from Woody Biomass: Effects of Sieve Size Used in Biomass Size Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Song, Xiaoxu; Deines, T. W.; Pei, Z. J.; Wang, Donghai

    2012-01-01

    Size reduction is the first step for manufacturing biofuels from woody biomass. It is usually performed using milling machines and the particle size is controlled by the size of the sieve installed on a milling machine. There are reported studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in milling of woody biomass. These studies show that energy consumption increased dramatically as sieve size became smaller. However, in these studies, the sugar yield (proportional to biofuel yield) in hydrolysis of the milled woody biomass was not measured. The lack of comprehensive studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in biomass milling and sugar yield in hydrolysis process makes it difficult to decide which sieve size should be selected in order to minimize the energy consumption in size reduction and maximize the sugar yield in hydrolysis. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature. In this paper, knife milling of poplar wood was conducted using sieves of three sizes (1, 2, and 4 mm). Results show that, as sieve size increased, energy consumption in knife milling decreased and sugar yield in hydrolysis increased in the tested range of particle sizes. PMID:22665985

  2. Arabidopsis type I proton-pumping pyrophosphatase expresses strongly in phloem, where it is required for pyrophosphate metabolism and photosynthate partitioning.

    PubMed

    Pizzio, Gaston A; Paez-Valencia, Julio; Khadilkar, Aswad S; Regmi, Kamesh; Patron-Soberano, Araceli; Zhang, Shangji; Sanchez-Lares, Jonathan; Furstenau, Tara; Li, Jisheng; Sanchez-Gomez, Concepcion; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro; Yadav, Umesh P; Ayre, Brian G; Gaxiola, Roberto A

    2015-04-01

    Phloem loading is a critical process in plant physiology. The potential of regulating the translocation of photoassimilates from source to sink tissues represents an opportunity to increase crop yield. Pyrophosphate homeostasis is crucial for normal phloem function in apoplasmic loaders. The involvement of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) type I proton-pumping pyrophosphatase (AVP1) in phloem loading was analyzed at genetic, histochemical, and physiological levels. A transcriptional AVP1 promoter::GUS fusion revealed phloem activity in source leaves. Ubiquitous AVP1 overexpression (35S::AVP1 cassette) enhanced shoot biomass, photoassimilate production and transport, rhizosphere acidification, and expression of sugar-induced root ion transporter genes (POTASSIUM TRANSPORTER2 [KUP2], NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 [NRT2.1], NRT2.4, and PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1.4 [PHT1.4]). Phloem-specific AVP1 overexpression (Commelina Yellow Mottle Virus promoter [pCOYMV]::AVP1) elicited similar phenotypes. By contrast, phloem-specific AVP1 knockdown (pCoYMV::RNAiAVP1) resulted in stunted seedlings in sucrose-deprived medium. We also present a promoter mutant avp1-2 (SALK046492) with a 70% reduction of expression that did not show severe growth impairment. Interestingly, AVP1 protein in this mutant is prominent in the phloem. Moreover, expression of an Escherichia coli-soluble pyrophosphatase in the phloem (pCoYMV::pyrophosphatase) of avp1-2 plants resulted in severe dwarf phenotype and abnormal leaf morphology. We conclude that the Proton-Pumping Pyrophosphatase AVP1 localized at the plasma membrane of the sieve element-companion cell complexes functions as a synthase, and that this activity is critical for the maintenance of pyrophosphate homeostasis required for phloem function.

  3. Arabidopsis Type I Proton-Pumping Pyrophosphatase Expresses Strongly in Phloem, Where It Is Required for Pyrophosphate Metabolism and Photosynthate Partitioning1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pizzio, Gaston A.; Paez-Valencia, Julio; Khadilkar, Aswad S.; Regmi, Kamesh; Patron-Soberano, Araceli; Zhang, Shangji; Sanchez-Lares, Jonathan; Furstenau, Tara; Li, Jisheng; Sanchez-Gomez, Concepcion; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro; Yadav, Umesh P.; Ayre, Brian G.; Gaxiola, Roberto A.

    2015-01-01

    Phloem loading is a critical process in plant physiology. The potential of regulating the translocation of photoassimilates from source to sink tissues represents an opportunity to increase crop yield. Pyrophosphate homeostasis is crucial for normal phloem function in apoplasmic loaders. The involvement of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) type I proton-pumping pyrophosphatase (AVP1) in phloem loading was analyzed at genetic, histochemical, and physiological levels. A transcriptional AVP1 promoter::GUS fusion revealed phloem activity in source leaves. Ubiquitous AVP1 overexpression (35S::AVP1 cassette) enhanced shoot biomass, photoassimilate production and transport, rhizosphere acidification, and expression of sugar-induced root ion transporter genes (POTASSIUM TRANSPORTER2 [KUP2], NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 [NRT2.1], NRT2.4, and PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1.4 [PHT1.4]). Phloem-specific AVP1 overexpression (Commelina Yellow Mottle Virus promoter [pCOYMV]::AVP1) elicited similar phenotypes. By contrast, phloem-specific AVP1 knockdown (pCoYMV::RNAiAVP1) resulted in stunted seedlings in sucrose-deprived medium. We also present a promoter mutant avp1-2 (SALK046492) with a 70% reduction of expression that did not show severe growth impairment. Interestingly, AVP1 protein in this mutant is prominent in the phloem. Moreover, expression of an Escherichia coli-soluble pyrophosphatase in the phloem (pCoYMV::pyrophosphatase) of avp1-2 plants resulted in severe dwarf phenotype and abnormal leaf morphology. We conclude that the Proton-Pumping Pyrophosphatase AVP1 localized at the plasma membrane of the sieve element-companion cell complexes functions as a synthase, and that this activity is critical for the maintenance of pyrophosphate homeostasis required for phloem function. PMID:25681328

  4. Association between minor loading vein architecture and light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from different latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Cohu, Christopher M.; Muller, Onno; Stewart, Jared J.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Through microscopic analysis of veins and assessment of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, we investigated the relationship between minor loading vein anatomy and photosynthesis of mature leaves in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under four different combinations of temperature and photon flux density (PFD). All three ecotypes exhibited greater numbers and cross-sectional area of phloem cells as well as higher photosynthesis rates in response to higher PFD and especially lower temperature. The Swedish ecotype exhibited the strongest response to these conditions, the Italian ecotype the weakest response, and the Col-0 ecotype exhibited an intermediate response. Among all three ecotypes, strong linear relationships were found between light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the number and area of either sieve elements or of companion and phloem parenchyma cells in foliar minor loading veins, with the Swedish ecotype showing the highest number of cells in minor loading veins (and largest minor veins) coupled with unprecedented high rates of photosynthesis. Linear, albeit less significant, relationships were also observed between number and cross-sectional area of tracheids per minor loading vein versus light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We suggest that sugar distribution infrastructure in the phloem is co-regulated with other features that set the upper limit for photosynthesis. The apparent genetic differences among Arabidopsis ecotypes should allow for future identification of the gene(s) involved in augmenting sugar-loading and -transporting phloem cells and maximal rates of photosynthesis. PMID:23898338

  5. Nanofluidic transport in branching nanochannels: a molecular sieve based on Y-junction nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Chen, Xi

    2009-05-07

    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we study the fundamental partitioning and screening behaviors of nanofluids confined in Y-junction nanochannels, and demonstrate their feasibility as efficient molecular sieves. A flow of gas or liquid molecules is partitioned at the junction and separated into the two side branches with different volume fractions. The opening gaps of the side branches are manipulated, and the sieve characteristics are explored as the gas phase, mixture composition/ratio, and opening dimensions are varied. The studies provide design principles for a molecular sieve with maximum probability passing one type of molecule into a screening branch, and meanwhile maximizing the rejection rate of other types of molecules.

  6. Design, in vitro and in vivo assessment of a multi-channel sieve electrode with integrated multiplexer.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Anup; Schuettler, Martin; Lago, Natalia; Doerge, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Navarro, Xavier; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports on the design, in vitro and in vivo investigation of a flexible, lightweight, polyimide based implantable sieve electrode with a hybrid assembly of multiplexers and polymer encapsulation. The integration of multiplexers enables us to connect a large number of electrodes on the sieve using few input connections. The implant assembly of the sieve electrode with the electronic circuitry was verified by impedance measurement. The 27 platinum electrodes of the sieve were coated with platinum black to reduce the electrode impedance. The impedance magnitude of the electrode sites on the sieve (geometric surface area 2,200 microm(2)) was |Z(f=1kHz)| = 5.7 kOmega. The sieve electrodes, encased in silicone, have been implanted in the transected sciatic nerve of rats. Initial experiments showed that axons regenerated through the holes of the sieve and reinnervated distal target organs. Nerve signals were recorded in preliminary tests after 3-7 months post-implantation.

  7. H+-PPase AVP1 is necessary for phloem development in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of a plasma membrane (PM) localized type I H+-PPase in sieve elements of Ricinus communis was documented years ago. Unfortunately, the physiological and developmental relevance of these findings remained obscure due to the lack of genetic and molecular reagents to study Ricinus communis...

  8. Tunable ionic-conductivity of collapsed Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01

    This proposal focuses on the synthesis and characterization of ''tunable'' perovskite ceramics with resulting controlled strength and temperature of dielectric constants and/or with ionic conductivity. Traditional methods of synthesis involve high temperature oxide mixing and baking. We developed a new methodology of synthesis involving the (1) low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of metastable porous phases with ''tuned'' stoichiometry, and element types, and then (2) low temperature heat treatment to build exact stoichiometry perovskites, with the desired vacancy concentrations. This flexible pathway can lead to compositions and structures not attainable by conventional methods. During the course of this program, a series of Na-Nb perovskites were synthesized by calcining and collapsing microporous Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieve (SOMS) phases. These materials were studied by various characterization techniques and conductivity measurements to better delineate stability and stoichiometry/bulk conductivity relationships. The conductivity can be altered by changing the concentration and type of the substituting framework cation(s) or by ion exchange of sodium. To date, the Na{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} shows the best conductivity.

  9. Covalent Anchoring of Chloroperoxidase and Glucose Oxidase on the Mesoporous Molecular Sieve SBA-15

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dirk; Streb, Carsten; Hartmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Functionalization of porous solids plays an important role in many areas, including heterogeneous catalysis and enzyme immobilization. In this study, large-pore ordered mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieves were synthesized with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of the non-ionic triblock co-polymer Pluronic P123 under acidic conditions. These materials were grafted with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (ATS), 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GTS) and with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde (GA-ATS) in order to provide covalent anchoring points for enzymes. The samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy. The obtained grafted materials were then used for the immobilization of chloroperoxidase (CPO) and glucose oxidase (GOx) and the resulting biocatalysts were tested in the oxidation of indole. It is found that enzymes anchored to the mesoporous host by the organic moieties can be stored for weeks without losing their activity. Furthermore, the covalently linked enzymes are shown to be less prone to leaching than the physically adsorbed enzymes, as tested in a fixed-bed reactor under continuous operation conditions. PMID:20386667

  10. Use of Carbon Fiber Composite Molecular Sieves for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Frederick S; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Burchell, Timothy D

    2005-09-01

    A novel adsorbent material, 'carbon fiber composite molecular sieve' (CFCMS), has been developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Its features include high surface area, large pore volume, and a rigid, permeable carbon structure that exhibits significant electrical conductivity. The unique combination of high adsorptive capacity, permeability, good mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity represents an enabling technology for the development of novel gas separation and purification systems. In this context, it is proposed that a fast-cycle air separation process that exploits a kinetic separation of oxygen and nitrogen should be possible using a CFCMS material coupled with electrical swing adsorption (ESA). The adsorption of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} on activated carbon fibers was investigated using static and dynamic techniques. Molecular sieving effects in the activated carbon fiber were highlighted by the adsorption of CO{sub 2}, a more sensitive probe molecule for the presence of microporosity in adsorbents. The kinetic studies revealed that O2 was more rapidly adsorbed on the carbon fiber than N{sub 2}, and with higher uptake under equilibrium conditions, providing the fiber contained a high proportion of very narrow micropores. The work indicated that CFCMS is capable of separating O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from air on the basis of the different diffusion rates of the two molecules in the micropore network of the activated carbon fibers comprising the composite material. In response to recent enquires from several potential users of CFCMS materials, attention has been given to the development of a viable continuous process for the commercial production of CFCMS material. As part of this effort, work was implemented on characterizing the performance of lignin-based activated carbon fiber, a potentially lower cost fiber than the pitch-based fibers used for CFCMS production to date. Similarly, to address engineering issues, measurements were

  11. Dr. Grant Heikan examines lunar material in sieve from sample container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Grant Heikan, Manned Spacecraft Center and a Lunar Sample preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory.

  12. Centrifugal Sieve for Gravity-Level-Independent Size Segregation of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.; Dreyer, Christopher; Riedel, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Conventional size segregation or screening in batch mode, using stacked vibrated screens, is often a time-consuming process. Utilization of centrifugal force instead of gravity as the primary body force can significantly shorten the time to segregate feedstock into a set of different-sized fractions. Likewise, under reduced gravity or microgravity, a centrifugal sieve system would function as well as it does terrestrially. When vibratory and mechanical blade sieving screens designed for terrestrial conditions were tested under lunar gravity conditions, they did not function well. The centrifugal sieving design of this technology overcomes the issues that prevented sieves designed for terrestrial conditions from functioning under reduced gravity. These sieves feature a rotating outer (cylindrical or conical) screen wall, rotating fast enough for the centrifugal forces near the wall to hold granular material against the rotating screen. Conventional centrifugal sieves have a stationary screen and rapidly rotating blades that shear the granular solid near the stationary screen, and effect the sieving process assisted by the airflow inside the unit. The centrifugal sieves of this new design may (or may not) have an inner blade or blades, moving relative to the rotating wall screen. Some continuous flow embodiments would have no inner auger or blades, but achieve axial motion through vibration. In all cases, the shearing action is gentler than conventional centrifugal sieves, which have very high velocity differences between the stationary outer screen and the rapidly rotating blades. The new design does not depend on airflow in the sieving unit, so it will function just as well in vacuum as in air. One advantage of the innovation for batch sieving is that a batch-mode centrifugal sieve may accomplish the same sieving operation in much less time than a conventional stacked set of vibrated screens (which utilize gravity as the primary driving force for size separation

  13. Solid-phase reversible trap for [11C]carbon dioxide using carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Mock, B H; Vavrek, M T; Mulholland, G K

    1995-07-01

    A simple, maintenance-free trapping technique which concentrates and purifies no-carrier-added 11CO2 from gas targets is described. The trap requires no liquid nitrogen cooling and has no moving parts besides solenoid valves. It employs carbon molecular sieves to adsorb 11CO2 selectively from gas targets at room temperature. Nitrogen, O2, CO, NO and moisture in the target gas which could interfere with subsequent radiochemical steps are not retained. Trapping efficiency of 1 g of sieve for 11CO2 from a 240 cm3 target gas dump and helium flush cycle is > 99%, and the adsorbed 11CO2 is recovered quantitatively as a small concentrated bolus from the carbon sieve trap by thermal desorption. This durable trap has performed reliably for more than 1 y with a single charge of carbon sieve. It has simplified the production, and improved the yields of several 11C-radiochemicals at this laboratory.

  14. Dr. Grant Heikan examines lunar material in sieve from sample container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Grant Heikan, Manned Spacecraft Center and a Lunar Sample preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory.

  15. Absolute molecular sieve separation of ethylene/ethane mixtures with silver zeolite A.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Sonia; Bergeret, Gérard; Daniel, Cecile; Farrusseng, David

    2012-09-12

    Absolute ethylene/ethane separation is achieved by ethane exclusion on silver-exchanged zeolite A adsorbent. This molecular sieving type separation is attributed to the pore size of the adsorbent, which falls between ethylene and ethane kinetic diameters.

  16. Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canlas, Christian P.; Lu, Junling; Ray, Natalie A.; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolas A.; Lee, Sungsik; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Winans, Randall E.; van Duyne, Richard P.; Stair, Peter C.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2012-12-01

    New porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and mesostructured oxides are of immense practical utility for gas storage, separations and heterogeneous catalysis. Their extended pore structures enable selective uptake of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites contained within. However, diffusion within pores can be problematic for biomass and fine chemicals, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present a novel approach that adds reactant selectivity to existing, non-porous oxide catalysts by first grafting the catalyst particles with single-molecule sacrificial templates, then partially overcoating the catalyst with a second oxide through atomic layer deposition. This technique is used to create sieving layers of Al2O3 (thickness, 0.4-0.7 nm) with ‘nanocavities’ (<2 nm in diameter) on a TiO2 photocatalyst. The additional layers result in selectivity (up to 9:1) towards less hindered reactants in otherwise unselective, competitive photocatalytic oxidations and transfer hydrogenations.

  17. Electronic and Magnetic Structure of Octahedral Molecular Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey-Oppenheim, Aimee M.

    The major part of this research consists of magnetic and electronic studies of metal doped cryptomelane-type manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (KOMS-2). The second part of this study involves the magnetic characterization of cobalt doped MCM-41 before and after use in the synthesis of single walled carbon nanotubes. Manganese oxides have been used widely as bulk materials in catalysis, chemical sensors, and batteries due to the wide range of possible stable oxidation states. The catalytic function of manganese oxides is further tuned by doping the material with numerous transition metals. It is of particular interest the oxidation states of Mn present after doping. New titrations to determine the oxidation state of Mn were investigated. To further examine the structure of KOMS-2, the magnetic contribution of dopant metals was also examined. The KOMS-2 structure having both diamagnetic and paramagnetic metal ions substitutions was studied. MCM-41 with the incorporation of cobalt into the structure was analyzed for its magnetic properties. The material undergoes significant structural change during the synthesis of single walled carbon nanotubes. It was the focus of this portion of the research to do a complete magnetic profile of both the before and after reaction material.

  18. Sieve of Eratosthenes benchmarks for the Z8 FORTH microcontroller

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents benchmarks for the Z8 FORTH microcontroller system that ORNL uses extensively in proving concepts and developing prototype test equipment for the Smart House Project. The results are based on the sieve of Eratosthenes algorithm, a calculation used extensively to rate computer systems and programming languages. Three benchmark refinements are presented,each showing how the execution speed of a FORTH program can be improved by use of a particular optimization technique. The last version of the FORTH benchmark shows that optimization is worth the effort: It executes 20 times faster than the Gilbreaths' widely-published FORTH benchmark program. The National Association of Home Builders Smart House Project is a cooperative research and development effort being undertaken by American home builders and a number of major corporations serving the home building industry. The major goal of the project is to help the participating organizations incorporate advanced technology in communications,energy distribution, and appliance control products for American homes. This information is provided to help project participants use the Z8 FORTH prototyping microcontroller in developing Smart House concepts and equipment. The discussion is technical in nature and assumes some experience with microcontroller devices and the techniques used to develop software for them. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Application of capillary nongel sieving electrophoresis for gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Xu, Q; Han, F; Ding, K; Song, F; Fan, Y; Zhu, N; Wu, G; Lin, B

    1999-07-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has proved to be a strong tool for DNA analysis and has found abundant applications in the fields of restriction fragment sizing, mutation screening, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product characterizing and forensic identifying. CE may be the main alternative to slab gel electrophoresis. Capillary nongel electrophoresis is the most favorable mode when aiming for this purpose because of its advantages of long lifetime, easy operation, good reproducibility, and low expense. In this paper, a new kind of sieving matrix, with mannitol as the additive for capillary electrophoresis, as well as related methods and their application for gene analysis were reported. Nine DNA fragments amplified by multiplex PCR from a normal dystrophin gene were well separated by this system. Three different deletions were found in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. Three to four copies of the sex-determination region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene, as well as the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, could be detected in mixed samples. The frequencies of short tandem repeats (STR) in PAH genes was analyzed in 61 normal Chinese individuals and 6 phenylketonuria families. One case of prenatal gene diagnosis was performed. By using this matrix, CE coupled with reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), the analysis of the alternative splicing expression pattern of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene in adult lung tissue was achieved.

  20. Use of silica sols in inorganic molecular sieving membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, R.; Brinker, C.J.; Huling, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Polymeric silica sols, were deposited on commercial {gamma}-alumina supports to prepare gas separation membranes. Optimization of the sol fractal dimension and radius of gyration and minimization of condensation rate led to formation of a discrete film with pores of molecular dimensions. Two coatings of this sol (A2{sup **}) led to a membrane with ideal separation factor of 7 for helium versus nitrogen after calcination to 400C (helium permeance 0.002 cm{sup 3}/cm{sup 2}-s-cm Hg). Partial sintering of these membranes resulted in a further reduction in pore size or narrowing of pore size distribution as evidenced by larger separation factors e.g. 9 for helium versus nitrogen (helium permeance 0.0028 cm{sup 3}/cm{sup 2}-s-cm Hg) with only one A2{sup **} coating. Single gas measurements also showed high ideal separation factors for helium versus methane, propylene, sulfur hexafluoride and carbon dioxide. The deposited A2{sup **} membrane was reacted with titanium isopropoxide (Ti(O i-Pr){sub 4}) to improve both its thermal and chemical stability and modify its pore size. This reaction led to an increase in the membrane selectivity to >300 for He versus N{sub 2} below to 120C, and CO{sub 2} versus CH{sub 4}, when measured below 200C. A2{sup **} was also used as a host matrix for preparing imogolite composite membranes that showed molecular sieving behavior.

  1. Continuous-Flow Bioseparation Using Microfabricated Anisotropic Nanofluidic Sieving Structures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianping; Mao, Pan; Han, Jongyoon

    2010-01-01

    The anisotropic nanofluidic filter (nanofilter) array (ANA) is a unique molecular sieving structure for separating biomolecules. Here we describe fabrication of planar and vertical ANA chips and how to perform continuous-flow bioseparation using them. This protocol is most useful for bioengineers that are interested in developing automated multistep chip-based bioanalysis systems and assumes prior cleanroom microfabrication knowledge. The ANA consists of a two-dimensional periodic nanofilter array, and the designed structural anisotropy of the ANA causes different sized- or charged-biomolecules to follow distinct trajectories under applied electric fields, leading to efficient continuous-flow separation. Using microfluidic channels surrounding the ANA, the fractionated biomolecule streams are collected and routed to different fluid channels or reservoirs for convenient sample recovery and downstream bioanalysis. The ANA is physically robust and can be reused repeatedly. Compared to conventional gel-based separation techniques, the ANA offers the potential for faster separation, higher throughput, and more convenient sample recovery. PMID:19876028

  2. Comparison of radioactive transmission and mechanical properties of Portland cement and a modified cement with trommel sieve waste

    SciTech Connect

    Boncukcuoglu, Recep . E-mail: rboncuk@yahoo.com; Icelli, Orhan; Erzeneoglu, Salih; Muhtar Kocakerim, M.

    2005-06-01

    In this study, it was aimed to stabilize trommel sieve waste (TSW) occurring during manufacture of borax from tincal. The effects of TSW added on the mechanical properties and radioactive transmission of modified cement prepared by adding TSW to clinker was investigated. The properties which TSW as additive caused the cement to gain were tested and compared with normal Portland cement. Measurements have been made to determine variation of mass attenuation coefficients of TSW and cement by using an extremely narrow-collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range 15.746-40.930 keV with X-ray transmission method. The characteristic K{alpha} and K{beta} X-rays of the different elements (Zr, Mo, Ag, In, Sb, Ba and Pr) passed through TSW and cement were detected with a high-resolution Si(Li) detector. Results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  3. Effects of sieving, drying and rewetting upon soil bacterial community structure and respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Bruce C; Ostle, Nick J; McNamara, Niall P; Whiteley, Andrew S; Griffiths, Robert I

    2010-10-01

    Soil microcosm studies often require some form of soil homogenisation, such as sieving, to provide a representative sample. Frequently, soils are also homogenised following drying and are then rewetted, yet little research has been done to understand how these methods impact upon microbial communities. Here we compared the molecular diversity and functional responses of intact cores from a Scottish grassland soil with homogenised samples prepared by drying, sieving and rewetting or freshly sieving wet soils. Results showed that there was no significant difference in total soil CO(2)-C efflux between the freshly sieved and intact core treatments, however, respiration was significantly higher in the dried and rewetted microcosms. Molecular fingerprinting (T-RFLP) of bacterial communities at two different time-points showed that both homogenisation methods significantly altered bacterial community structure with the largest differences being observed after drying and rewetting. Assessments of responsive taxa in each treatment showed that intact cores were dominated by Acidobacterial peaks whereas an increased relative abundance of Alphaproteobacterial terminal restriction fragments were apparent in both homogenised treatments. However, the shift in community structure was not as large in the freshly sieved soil. Our findings suggest that if soil homogenisation must be performed, then fresh sieving of wet soil is preferable to drying and rewetting in approximating the bacterial diversity and functioning of intact cores.

  4. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; ...

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that themore » GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.« less

  5. Sieve efficiency in benthic sampling as related to chironomid head capsule width

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Adams, Jean V.

    1998-01-01

    The width of the head capsule in chironomid larvae is the most important morphometric character controlling retention of specimens in sieving devices. Knowledge of the range in size of these widths within any chironomid community is fundamental to sampling and interpreting the resulting data. We present the head capsule widths of 30 species of chironomids and relate their size distribution to loss or retention in several experiments using graded sieve sizes. Based on our measurements and those found in the literature we found the head capsule width of fourth instars in half the chironomids species to be less than 350 I?m. Many species may never be collected with the commonly used U.S. Standard No. 30 sieve (589 I?m), and the No. 60 (246 I?m) screen appears to retain most species only qualitatively. We found 70 to 90% of the chironomid larvae and 19 to 34% of their biomass can pass through a No. 80 sieve (177 I?m). The implications of sieve loss and other factors affecting sieving efficiency are discussed.

  6. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that the GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.

  7. Hydrogen isotope separation using molecular sieve of synthetic zeolite 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Kotoh, K.; Kimura, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kudo, K.

    2008-07-15

    It is known that hydrogen isotope molecules can be adsorbed easily onto synthetic zeolite 4A, 5A, and 13X at the liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77.4 K. We show here that hydrogen and deuterium are not adsorptive onto zeolite 3A at the same temperature. This phenomenon is explained by assuming the molecular sieve function in zeolite-3A-crystalline lattice structure. From a series of pseudo-isobaric experiments, it is also shown that the sieving phenomenon appears in a range above 77.4 K. This behavior is interpreted as resulting on the dependence of sieve's mesh size on temperature, where the sieving effect is considered to appear at a certain temperature. In this interpretation, an isotopic difference between hydrogen and deuterium is suggested to exist in the sieving effect appearance temperatures. This is endorsed in the result of pseudo-isobaric experiments. This temperature deference is very significant because that indicates the possibility of an effective method of hydrogen isotope separation. This possibility is verified through an experimental series of adsorption-desorption with a mixture of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, where the gas samples adsorbed through the sieve operated at intentionally selected temperatures are isolated and then analyzed. The result demonstrates remarkable values of isotope separation factor. (authors)

  8. Peculiarities in formation of Arabidopsis Thaliana (L.) Heynh, generative organs under space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordyum, Y. L.; Chernyayeva, I. I.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities in the formation of the andrecium and gynecium elements are described for Arabidopsis plants grown from the stages of two cotyledonous leaves in the Svitoblok-1 device on board the Salyut 6 orbital research station and in the laboratory. It is established that flower buds and flowers, normally formed in habitus, contain sterile elements of andrecium and gynecium whose degeneration occurs at different developmental stages of the Arabidopsis plants in the experiment under conditions of weightlessness.

  9. Detergency and Its Implications for Oil Emulsion Sieving and Separation.

    PubMed

    Schutzius, Thomas M; Walker, Christopher; Maitra, Tanmoy; Schönherr, Romy; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Jung, Stefan; Antonini, Carlo; Eghlidi, Hadi; Fife, Julie L; Patera, Alessandra; Derome, Dominique; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2017-05-02

    Separating petroleum hydrocarbons from water is an important problem to address in order to mitigate the disastrous effects of hydrocarbons on aquatic ecosystems. A rational approach to address the problem of marine oil-water separation is to disperse the oil with the aid of surfactants in order to minimize the formation of large slicks at the water surface and to maximize the oil-water interfacial area. Here we investigate the fundamental wetting and transport behavior of such surfactant-stabilized droplets and the flow conditions necessary to perform sieving and separation of these stabilized emulsions. We show that, for water-soluble surfactants, such droplets are completely repelled by a range of materials (intrinsically underwater superoleophobic) due to the detergency effect; therefore, there is no need for surface micro-/nanotexturing or chemical treatment to repel the oil and prevent fouling of the filter. We then simulate and experimentally investigate the effect of emulsion flow rate on the transport and impact behavior of such droplets on rigid meshes to identify the minimum pore opening (w) necessary to filter a droplet with a given diameter (d) in order to minimize the pressure drop across the mesh-and therefore maximize the filtering efficiency, which is strongly dependent on w. We define a range of flow conditions and droplet sizes where minimum droplet deformation is to be expected and therefore find that the condition of w ≈ d is sufficient for efficient separation. With this new understanding, we demonstrate the use of a commercially available filter-without any additional surface engineering or functionalization-to separate oil droplets (d < 100 μm) from a surfactant-stabilized emulsion with a flux of ∼11,000 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). We believe these findings can inform the design of future oil separation materials.

  10. Vascular development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zheng-Hua; Freshour, Glenn; Hahn, Michael G; Burk, David H; Zhong, Ruiqin

    2002-01-01

    Vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, form a continuous network throughout the plant body for transport of water, minerals, and food. Characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in various aspects of vascular formation has demonstrated that Arabidopsis is an ideal system for investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling vascular development. The processes affected in these mutants include initiation or division of procambium or vascular cambium, formation of continuous vascular cell files, differentiation of procambium or vascular cambium into vascular tissues, cell elongation, patterned secondary wall thickening, and biosynthesis of secondary walls. Identification of the genes affected by some of these mutations has revealed essential roles in vascular development for a cytokinin receptor and several factors mediating auxin transport or signaling. Mutational studies have also identified a number of Arabidopsis mutants defective in leaf venation pattern or vascular tissue organization in stems. Genetic evidence suggests that the vascular tissue organization is regulated by the same positional information that determines organ polarity.

  11. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Wang, Xuelu; Chory, Joanne

    2006-12-05

    Plants control their size through the action of several phytohormones. One class of growth-promoting hormones is the brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants. Here, we present the Arabidopsis-specific proteins that are the founding members of key BR signaling pathway components found in all plants. The genetic studies that identified these components are unique to Arabidopsis owing to its rapid generation time, sophisticated genetics, and facile transformation protocols, thereby highlighting the importance of a reference plant for understanding fundamental processes in all land plants.

  12. Paramedic Application of a Triage Sieve: A Paper-Based Exercise.

    PubMed

    Cuttance, Glen; Dansie, Kathryn; Rayner, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Triage is the systematic prioritization of casualties when there is an imbalance between the needs of these casualties and resource availability. The triage sieve is a recognized process for prioritizing casualties for treatment during mass-casualty incidents (MCIs). While the application of a triage sieve generally is well-accepted, the measurement of its accuracy has been somewhat limited. Obtaining reliable measures for triage sieve accuracy rates is viewed as a necessity for future development in this area. The goal of this study was to investigate how theoretical knowledge acquisition and the practical application of an aide-memoir impacted triage sieve accuracy rates. Two hundred and ninety-two paramedics were allocated randomly to one of four separate sub-groups, a non-intervention control group, and three intervention groups, which involved them receiving either an educational review session and/or an aide-memoir. Participants were asked to triage sieve 20 casualties using a previously trialed questionnaire. The study showed the non-intervention control group had a correct accuracy rate of 47%, a similar proportion of casualties found to be under-triaged (37%), but a significantly lower number of casualties were over-triaged (16%). The provision of either an educational review or aide-memoir significantly increased the correct triage sieve accuracy rate to 77% and 90%, respectively. Participants who received both the educational review and aide-memoir had an overall accuracy rate of 89%. Over-triaged rates were found not to differ significantly across any of the study groups. This study supports the use of an aide-memoir for maximizing MCI triage accuracy rates. A "just-in-time" educational refresher provided comparable benefits, however its practical application to the MCI setting has significant operational limitations. In addition, this study provides some guidance on triage sieve accuracy rate measures that can be applied to define

  13. Size-sieved subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells from intervascular and perivascular equine umbilical cord matrix.

    PubMed

    Corradetti, B; Lange-Consiglio, A; Barucca, M; Cremonesi, F; Bizzaro, D

    2011-08-01

    Umbilical cord matrix (UCM) has been recently proposed as an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize presumptive stem cells from intervascular and perivascular equine UCM and to obtain homogeneous subpopulations from both sites. Umbilical cords were processed for retrieval of MSCs. Unsieved cells from intervascular and perivascular portions were evaluated for cell cycle analysis and for immunophenotyping by flow cytometry. Cells from each site were separated into larger and smaller sieved populations using multi-dishes with 8-μm pore transwell inserts. Each cell population was characterized in terms of renewal capability, specific marker expression and differentiation potential. Cryopreservation was performed on sieved cells only. Cells from both areas expressed MSC and pluripotential specific markers and were able to differentiate into mesodermic and ectodermic lineages. The sieving procedure yielded two relatively homogeneous subpopulations with comparable characteristics. Surprisingly, after sieving, large intervascular and small perivascular cells were the most rapidly replicating cells [20.53 and 19.49 cell population doublings (PD) after 31 days respectively] and also showed higher fibroblast colony forming unit frequency. Unsieved cell populations were used as controls, and showed PD of 9.42(intervascular cells) and 8.54 (perivascular cells) after 31 days. Here, cells from UCM represented an intermediate stage between pluripotent embryonic and adult stem cells. Size-sieving can be used to isolate more rapidly proliferating cell populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  15. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol-water system in the presence of molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Abu Al-Rub, F.A.; Banat, F.A.; Jumah, R.

    1999-09-01

    Adsorptive distillation is a new process to separate liquid mixtures in a packed distillation column. It depends on using active packing material instead of inert packing material in a packed distillation column. The active packing material can affect the intermolecular forces among the system components and thus alter its vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). The VLE of the ethanol-water system at 1 atm was studied using a circulation still in the absence and in the presence of different amounts of 4 {angstrom} molecular sieves. The results obtained showed that the VLE of the system was altered in the presence of the molecular sieves, the azeotropic point of the system (at 89.7 mol% ethanol in the normal case) was eliminated and considerable separation was achieved for a mixture of azeotropic composition, and the alteration in the VLE of a given binary mixture is a function of the pore size and the amount of the molecular sieves.

  16. A systematic investigation of the preparation and properties of composite carbon molecular sieves containing inorganic oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Henry C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to define the methodology for the preparation and characterization of new carbon-based molecular sieves with composite structures. Carbon molecular sieves have found increasing application in the field of separation and purification of gases. These materials are relatively easy to prepare and their surfaces can be modified to some extent. It is expected that by combining inorganic oxides with the carbonaceous structure one can begin to design composite materials with a wider range of possible chemical and physical properties. In this way, the IOM-CMS materials may confer distinct advantages over pure carbon molecular sieves, not just for separation, but also for catalysis. The most recent results in the design and characterization of these IOM-CMS materials are reviewed and summarized. Directions for further research are also presented.

  17. Sieving of H2 and D2 Through End-to-End Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devagnik, Dasgupta; Debra, J. Searles; Lamberto, Rondoni; Stefano, Bernardi

    2014-10-01

    We study the quantum molecular sieving of H2 and D2 through two nanotubes placed end-to-end. An analytic treatment, assuming that the particles have classical motion along the axis of the nanotube and are confined in a potential well in the radial direction, is considered. Using this idealistic model, and under certain conditions, it is found that this device can act as a complete sieve, allowing chemically pure deuterium to be isolated from an isotope mixture. We also consider a more realistic model of two carbon nanotubes and carry out molecular dynamics simulations using a Feynman—Hibbs potential to model the quantum effects on the dynamics of H2 and D2. Sieving is also observed in this case, but is caused by a different process.

  18. Utility of 5A molecular sieves to measure carbon isotope ratios in lipid biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Imma; Ogrinc, Nives

    2007-09-21

    A procedure using 5A zeolite sorption to separate cyclic/branched organic compounds from the linear ones was developed and carbon isotopic fractionation effects were investigated in different families of compounds, e.g. within the hydrocarbon and alcohol compounds. The 5A sieve has a pore size such that only linear components can be incorporated into the pores whereas the cyclic/branched compounds are remaining free in the organic solution. The sorbed compounds were released from the molecular sieve with HF and solvent extracted with hexane. The method enables the isolation of linear saturated classes, such as n-alkanes and n-fatty alcohols from branched/cyclic compounds without isotopic fractionation for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of delta(13)C. However, alkene hydrocarbons, sterols and some aromatics were completely or partly degraded with the molecular sieve.

  19. Laser Diffraction Techniques Replace Sieving for Lunar Soil Particle Size Distribution Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McKay, D. S.; Fruland, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Sieving was used extensively until 1999 to determine the particle size distribution of lunar samples. This method is time-consuming, and requires more than a gram of material in order to obtain a result in which one may have confidence. This is demonstrated by the difference in geometric mean and median for samples measured by [1], in which a 14-gram sample produced a geometric mean of approx.52 micrometers, whereas two other samples of 1.5 grams resulted in gave means of approx.63 and approx.69 micrometers. Sample allocations for sieving are typically much smaller than a gram, and many of the sample allocations received by our lab are 0.5 to 0.25 grams in mass. Basu [2] has described how the finest fraction of the soil is easily lost in the sieving process, and this effect is compounded when sample sizes are small.

  20. Use of thermal sieve to allow optical testing of cryogenic optical systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Wook; Cai, Wenrui; Burge, James H

    2012-05-21

    Full aperture testing of large cryogenic optical systems has been impractical due to the difficulty of operating a large collimator at cryogenic temperatures. The Thermal Sieve solves this problem by acting as a thermal barrier between an ambient temperature collimator and the cryogenic system under test. The Thermal Sieve uses a set of thermally controlled baffles with array of holes that are lined up to pass the light from the collimator without degrading the wavefront, while attenuating the thermal background by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. This paper provides the theory behind the Thermal Sieve system, evaluates the optimization for its optical and thermal performance, and presents the design and analysis for a specific system.

  1. Loss-of-heterozygosity facilitates passage through Haldane's sieve for Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoing adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gerstein, A C; Kuzmin, A; Otto, S P

    2014-05-07

    Haldane's sieve posits that the majority of beneficial mutations that contribute to adaptation should be dominant, as these are the mutations most likely to establish and spread when rare. It has been argued, however, that if the dominance of mutations in their current and previous environments are correlated, Haldane's sieve could be eliminated. We constructed heterozygous lines of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing single adaptive mutations obtained during exposure to the fungicide nystatin. Here we show that no clear dominance relationship exists across environments: mutations exhibited a range of dominance levels in a rich medium, yet were exclusively recessive under nystatin stress. Surprisingly, heterozygous replicates exhibited variable-onset rapid growth when exposed to nystatin. Targeted Sanger sequencing demonstrated that loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) accounted for these growth patterns. Our experiments demonstrate that recessive beneficial mutations can avoid Haldane's sieve in clonal organisms through rapid LOH and thus contribute to rapid evolutionary adaptation.

  2. A systematic investigation of the preparation and properties of composite carbon molecular sieves containing inorganic oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Henry C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to define the methodology for the preparation and characterization of new carbon-based molecular sieves with composite structures. Carbon molecular sieves have found increasing application in the field of separation and purification of gases. These materials are relatively easy to prepare and their surfaces can be modified to some extent. It is expected that by combining inorganic oxides with the carbonaceous structure one can begin to design composite materials with a wider range of possible chemical and physical properties. In this way, the IOM-CMS materials may confer distinct advantages over pure carbon molecular sieves, not just for separation, but also for catalysis. The most recent results in the design and characterization of these IOM-CMS materials are reviewed and summarized. Directions for further research are also presented.

  3. Effect of soil sieving on respiration induced by low-molecular-weight substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Rahul; Vranová, Valerie; Pavelka, Marian; Rejšek, Klement; Formánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The mesh size of sieves has a significant impact upon soil disturbance, affecting pore structure, fungal hyphae, proportion of fungi to bacteria, and organic matter fractions. The effects are dependent upon soil type and plant coverage. Sieving through a 2 mm mesh increases mineralization of exogenously supplied carbohydrates and phenolics compared to a 5 mm mesh and the effect is significant (p<0.05), especially in organic horizons, due to increased microbial metabolism and alteration of other soil properties. Finer mesh size particularly increases arabinose, mannose, galactose, ferulic and pthalic acid metabolism, whereas maltose mineralization is less affected. Sieving through a 5 mm mesh size is suggested for all type of experiments where enhanced mineralization of low-molecular-weight organic compounds needs to be minimalized.

  4. Genetic definition and sequence analysis of Arabidopsis centromeres.

    PubMed

    Copenhaver, G P; Nickel, K; Kuromori, T; Benito, M I; Kaul, S; Lin, X; Bevan, M; Murphy, G; Harris, B; Parnell, L D; McCombie, W R; Martienssen, R A; Marra, M; Preuss, D

    1999-12-24

    High-precision genetic mapping was used to define the regions that contain centromere functions on each natural chromosome in Arabidopsis thaliana. These regions exhibited dramatic recombinational repression and contained complex DNA surrounding large arrays of 180-base pair repeats. Unexpectedly, the DNA within the centromeres was not merely structural but also encoded several expressed genes. The regions flanking the centromeres were densely populated by repetitive elements yet experienced normal levels of recombination. The genetically defined centromeres were well conserved among Arabidopsis ecotypes but displayed limited sequence homology between different chromosomes, excluding repetitive DNA. This investigation provides a platform for dissecting the role of individual sequences in centromeres in higher eukaryotes.

  5. Update on N2O4 Molecular Sieving with 3A Material at NASA/KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Chuck; Dorn, Claudia

    2000-01-01

    During its operational life, the Shuttle Program has experienced numerous failures in the Nitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4) portion of Reaction Control System (RCS), many of which were attributed to iron-nitrate contamination. Since the mid-1980's, N2O4 has been processed through a molecular sieve at the N2O4 manufacturer's facility which results in an iron content typically less than 0.5 parts-per-million-by-weight (ppmw). In February 1995, a Tiger Team was formed to attempt to resolve the iron nitrate problem. Eighteen specific actions were recommended as possibly reducing system failures. Those recommended actions include additional N2O4 molecular sieving at the Shuttle launch site. Testing at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) determined an alternative molecular sieve material could also reduce the water-equivalent content (free water and HNO3) and thereby further reduce the natural production of iron nitrate in N2O4 while stored in iron-alloy storage tanks. Since April '96, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been processing N2O4 through the alternative molecular sieve material prior to delivery to Shuttle launch pad N2O4 storage tanks. A new, much larger capacity molecular sieve unit has also been used. This paper will evaluate the effectiveness of N2O4 molecular sieving on a large-scale basis and attempt to determine if the resultant lower-iron and lower-water content N2O4 maintains this new purity level in pad storage tanks and shuttle flight systems.

  6. Update on N2O4 Molecular Sieving with 3A Material at NASA/KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Chuck; Dorn, Claudia

    2000-01-01

    During its operational life, the Shuttle Program has experienced numerous failures in the Nitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4) portion of Reaction Control System (RCS), many of which were attributed to iron-nitrate contamination. Since the mid-1980's, N2O4 has been processed through a molecular sieve at the N2O4 manufacturer's facility which results in an iron content typically less than 0.5 parts-per-million-by-weight (ppmw). In February 1995, a Tiger Team was formed to attempt to resolve the iron nitrate problem. Eighteen specific actions were recommended as possibly reducing system failures. Those recommended actions include additional N2O4 molecular sieving at the Shuttle launch site. Testing at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) determined an alternative molecular sieve material could also reduce the water-equivalent content (free water and HNO3) and thereby further reduce the natural production of iron nitrate in N2O4 while stored in iron-alloy storage tanks. Since April '96, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been processing N2O4 through the alternative molecular sieve material prior to delivery to Shuttle launch pad N2O4 storage tanks. A new, much larger capacity molecular sieve unit has also been used. This paper will evaluate the effectiveness of N2O4 molecular sieving on a large-scale basis and attempt to determine if the resultant lower-iron and lower-water content N2O4 maintains this new purity level in pad storage tanks and shuttle flight systems.

  7. Development of design information for molecular-sieve type regenerative CO2-removal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. M.; Ruder, J. M.; Dunn, V. B.; Hwang, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and analytic studies were conducted with molecular sieve sorbents to provide basic design information, and to develop a system design technique for regenerable CO2-removal systems for manned spacecraft. Single sorbate equilibrium data were obtained over a wide range of conditions for CO2, water, nitrogen, and oxygen on several molecular sieve and silica gel sorbents. The coadsorption of CO2 with water preloads, and with oxygen and nitrogen was experimentally evaluated. Mass-transfer, and some limited heat-transfer performance evaluations were accomplished under representative operating conditions, including the coadsorption of CO2 and water. CO2-removal system performance prediction capability was derived.

  8. Microscopic observation of kinetic molecular sieving of hydrogen isotopes in a nanoporous material.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T X; Jobic, H; Bhatia, S K

    2010-08-20

    We report quasielastic neutron scattering studies of H2-D2 diffusion in a carbon molecular sieve, demonstrating remarkable quantum effects, with the heavier isotope diffusing faster below 100 K, confirming our recent predictions. Our transition state theory and molecular dynamics calculations show that while it is critical for this effect to have narrow windows of size comparable to the de Broglie wavelength, high flux requires that the energy barrier be reduced through small cages. Such materials will enable novel processes for kinetic molecular sieving of hydrogen isotopes.

  9. Microscopic Observation of Kinetic Molecular Sieving of Hydrogen Isotopes in a Nanoporous Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. X.; Jobic, H.; Bhatia, S. K.

    2010-08-01

    We report quasielastic neutron scattering studies of H2-D2 diffusion in a carbon molecular sieve, demonstrating remarkable quantum effects, with the heavier isotope diffusing faster below 100 K, confirming our recent predictions. Our transition state theory and molecular dynamics calculations show that while it is critical for this effect to have narrow windows of size comparable to the de Broglie wavelength, high flux requires that the energy barrier be reduced through small cages. Such materials will enable novel processes for kinetic molecular sieving of hydrogen isotopes.

  10. Chronic recording of regenerating VIIIth nerve axons with a sieve electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mensinger, A. F.; Anderson, D. J.; Buchko, C. J.; Johnson, M. A.; Martin, D. C.; Tresco, P. A.; Silver, R. B.; Highstein, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachined silicon substrate sieve electrode was implanted within transected toadfish (Opsanus tau) otolith nerves. High fidelity, single unit neural activity was recorded from seven alert and unrestrained fish 30 to 60 days after implantation. Fibrous coatings of genetically engineered bioactive protein polymers and nerve guide tubes increased the number of axons regenerating through the electrode pores when compared with controls. Sieve electrodes have potential as permanent interfaces to the nervous system and to bridge missing connections between severed or damaged nerves and muscles. Recorded impulses might also be amplified and used to control prosthetic devices.

  11. Fast and accurate focusing analysis of large photon sieve using pinhole ring diffraction model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lingjie; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Jizhen; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we developed a pinhole ring diffraction model for the focusing analysis of a large photon sieve. Instead of analyzing individual pinholes, we discuss the focusing of all of the pinholes in a single ring. An explicit equation for the diffracted field of individual pinhole ring has been proposed. We investigated the validity range of this generalized model and analytically describe the sufficient conditions for the validity of this pinhole ring diffraction model. A practical example and investigation reveals the high accuracy of the pinhole ring diffraction model. This simulation method could be used for fast and accurate focusing analysis of a large photon sieve.

  12. CTR Fuel recovery system using regeneration of a molecular sieve drying bed

    DOEpatents

    Folkers, Charles L.

    1981-01-01

    A primary molecular sieve drying bed is regenerated by circulating a hot inert gas through the heated primary bed to desorb water held on the bed. The inert gas plus water vapor is then cooled and passed through an auxiliary molecular sieve bed which adsorbs the water originally desorbed from the primary bed. The main advantage of the regeneration technique is that the partial pressure of water can be reduced to the 10.sup.-9 atm. range. This is significant in certain CTR applications where tritiated water (T.sub.2 O, HTO) must be collected and kept at very low partial pressure.

  13. Microfluidic sieve using intertwined, free-standing carbon nanotube mesh as active medium

    DOEpatents

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr

    2007-11-06

    A microfluidic sieve having a substrate with a microfluidic channel, and a carbon nanotube mesh. The carbon nanotube mesh is formed from a plurality of intertwined free-standing carbon nanotubes which are fixedly attached within the channel for separating, concentrating, and/or filtering molecules flowed through the channel. In one embodiment, the microfluidic sieve is fabricated by providing a substrate having a microfluidic channel, and growing the intertwined free-standing carbon nanotubes from within the channel to produce the carbon nanotube mesh attached within the channel.

  14. Chronic recording of regenerating VIIIth nerve axons with a sieve electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mensinger, A. F.; Anderson, D. J.; Buchko, C. J.; Johnson, M. A.; Martin, D. C.; Tresco, P. A.; Silver, R. B.; Highstein, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachined silicon substrate sieve electrode was implanted within transected toadfish (Opsanus tau) otolith nerves. High fidelity, single unit neural activity was recorded from seven alert and unrestrained fish 30 to 60 days after implantation. Fibrous coatings of genetically engineered bioactive protein polymers and nerve guide tubes increased the number of axons regenerating through the electrode pores when compared with controls. Sieve electrodes have potential as permanent interfaces to the nervous system and to bridge missing connections between severed or damaged nerves and muscles. Recorded impulses might also be amplified and used to control prosthetic devices.

  15. Microscopic Observation of Kinetic Molecular Sieving of Hydrogen Isotopes in a Nanoporous Material

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T. X.; Bhatia, S. K.; Jobic, H.

    2010-08-20

    We report quasielastic neutron scattering studies of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} diffusion in a carbon molecular sieve, demonstrating remarkable quantum effects, with the heavier isotope diffusing faster below 100 K, confirming our recent predictions. Our transition state theory and molecular dynamics calculations show that while it is critical for this effect to have narrow windows of size comparable to the de Broglie wavelength, high flux requires that the energy barrier be reduced through small cages. Such materials will enable novel processes for kinetic molecular sieving of hydrogen isotopes.

  16. Application of 3A molecular sieve layer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yuan; Wang, Jinzhong E-mail: qingjiang.yu@hit.edu.cn; Yu, Qingjiang E-mail: qingjiang.yu@hit.edu.cn; Huang, Yuewu; Chang, Quanhong; Hao, Chunlei; Jiao, Shujie; Gao, Shiyong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Dongbo

    2014-08-25

    3A molecular sieve layer was used as dehydration and electronic-insulation layer on the TiO{sub 2} electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. This layer diminished the effect of water in electrolyte efficiently and enhanced the performance of cells. The conversion efficiency increased from 9.58% to 10.2%. The good moisture resistance of cells was attributed to the three-dimensional interconnecting structure of 3A molecular sieve with strong adsorption of water molecule. While the performance enhancement benefited from the suppression of the charge recombination of electronic-insulation layer and scattering effect of large particles.

  17. Building an efficient curation workflow for the Arabidopsis literature corpus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Muller, Robert J.; Huala, Eva

    2012-01-01

    TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource) is the model organism database (MOD) for Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with a literature corpus of about 39 000 articles in PubMed, with over 4300 new articles added in 2011. We have developed a literature curation workflow incorporating both automated and manual elements to cope with this flood of new research articles. The current workflow can be divided into two phases: article selection and curation. Structured controlled vocabularies, such as the Gene Ontology and Plant Ontology are used to capture free text information in the literature as succinct ontology-based annotations suitable for the application of computational analysis methods. We also describe our curation platform and the use of text mining tools in our workflow. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org PMID:23221298

  18. Building an efficient curation workflow for the Arabidopsis literature corpus.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghui; Berardini, Tanya Z; Muller, Robert J; Huala, Eva

    2012-01-01

    TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource) is the model organism database (MOD) for Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with a literature corpus of about 39 000 articles in PubMed, with over 4300 new articles added in 2011. We have developed a literature curation workflow incorporating both automated and manual elements to cope with this flood of new research articles. The current workflow can be divided into two phases: article selection and curation. Structured controlled vocabularies, such as the Gene Ontology and Plant Ontology are used to capture free text information in the literature as succinct ontology-based annotations suitable for the application of computational analysis methods. We also describe our curation platform and the use of text mining tools in our workflow. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org

  19. Arabidopsis assay for mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Gichner, T; Badayev, S A; Demchenko, S I; Relichová, J; Sandhu, S S; Usmanov, P D; Usmanova, O; Velemínský, J

    1994-10-16

    Four laboratories, two in the Czech Republic (Brno and Prague) and two in the CIS (Moscow and Duschanbe), participated in the International Programme on Chemical Safety's (IPCS) collaborative study to evaluate the utility of the most commonly used plant test systems, including the Arabidopsis thaliana assay, for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents. Out of the five compounds evaluated in the Arabidopsis assay, three compounds, i.e., ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and azidoglycerol, were reported to be mutagenic by all four participating laboratories. Sodium azide (NaN3) demonstrated a negative response in all four laboratories, whereas maleic hydrazide was reported to be weakly mutagenic by one laboratory and nonmutagenic by the other three laboratories.

  20. Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory that Illustrate the Size-Exclusion Properties of Zeolite Molecular Sieves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments are presented that demonstrate the size-exclusion properties of zeolites and reveal the reason for naming zeolites "molecular sieves". If an IR spectrometer is available, the adsorption or exclusion of alcohols of varying sizes from dichloromethane or chloroform solutions can be readily demonstrated by monitoring changes in the…

  1. Regenerated Sciatic Nerve Axons Stimulated through a Chronically Implanted Macro-Sieve Electrode

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, Matthew R.; Zellmer, Erik R.; Wheeler, Jesse J.; Burton, Harold; Moran, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Sieve electrodes provide a chronic interface for stimulating peripheral nerve axons. Yet, successful utilization requires robust axonal regeneration through the implanted electrode. The present study determined the effect of large transit zones in enhancing axonal regeneration and revealed an intimate neural interface with an implanted sieve electrode. Fabrication of the polyimide sieve electrodes employed sacrificial photolithography. The manufactured macro-sieve electrode (MSE) contained nine large transit zones with areas of ~0.285 mm2 surrounded by eight Pt-Ir metallized electrode sites. Prior to implantation, saline, or glial derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) was injected into nerve guidance silicone-conduits with or without a MSE. The MSE assembly or a nerve guidance conduit was implanted between transected ends of the sciatic nerve in adult male Lewis rats. At 3 months post-operation, fiber counts were similar through both implant types. Likewise, stimulation of nerves regenerated through a MSE or an open silicone conduit evoked comparable muscle forces. These results showed that nerve regeneration was comparable through MSE transit zones and an open conduit. GDNF had a minimal positive effect on the quality and morphology of fibers regenerating through the MSE; thus, the MSE may reduce reliance on GDNF to augment axonal regeneration. Selective stimulation of several individual muscles was achieved through monopolar stimulation of individual electrodes sites suggesting that the MSE might be an optimal platform for functional neuromuscular stimulation. PMID:28008303

  2. Rotating belt sieves for primary treatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment and secondary solids separation.

    PubMed

    Rusten, B; Rathnaweera, S S; Rismyhr, E; Sahu, A K; Ntiako, J

    2017-06-01

    Fine mesh rotating belt sieves (RBS) offer a very compact solution for removal of particles from wastewater. This paper shows examples from pilot-scale testing of primary treatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) and secondary solids separation of biofilm solids from moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Primary treatment using a 350 microns belt showed more than 40% removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and 30% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at sieve rates as high as 160 m³/m²-h. Maximum sieve rate tested was 288 m³/m²-h and maximum particle load was 80 kg TSS/m²-h. When the filter mat on the belt increased from 10 to 55 g TSS/m², the removal efficiency for TSS increased from about 35 to 60%. CEPT is a simple and effective way of increasing the removal efficiency of RBS. Adding about 1 mg/L of cationic polymer and about 2 min of flocculation time, the removal of TSS typically increased from 40-50% without polymer to 60-70% with polymer. Using coagulation and flocculation ahead of the RBS, separation of biofilm solids was successful. Removal efficiencies of 90% TSS, 83% total P and 84% total COD were achieved with a 90 microns belt at a sieve rate of 41 m³/m²-h.

  3. Nanoporous carbon sorbent for molecular-sieve chromatography of lipoprotein complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerimkulova, A. R.; Mansurova, B. B.; Gil'manov, M. K.; Mansurov, Z. A.

    2012-06-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of carbon sorbents are investigated. Electron microscopy data for the sorbent and separated lipoprotein complex are presented. It is found that the obtained carbon sorbent possess high porosity. Nanoporous carbon sorbents for the chromatography of molecular-sieve markers are obtained and tested. The applicability of nanoporous carbon sorbents for separation of lipoprotein complexes (LPC) is investigated.

  4. Molecular sieve generation of aviator's oxygen: Performance of a prototype system under simulated flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Ikels, K G; Lamb, M J; Boscola, E J; Ferguson, R H

    1980-07-01

    The molecular sieve method of generating an enriched-oxygen breathing gas is one of several candidate onboard oxygen generation (OBOG) systems under joint Army-Navy-Air Force development for application in tactical aircraft. The performance of a nominal two-man-capacity molecular sieve oxygen generation system was characterized under simulated flight conditions. Data are given on the composition of the molecular sieve-generated breathing gas (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon) as a function of inlet air pressure, altitude, breathing gas flow rate, and ambient temperature. The maximum oxygen concentration observed was 95%, with the balance argon. At low demand flow rates and certain conditions of pressure and altitude, the argon enrichment factor exceeded that of oxygen giving a maximum argon concentration of 6.6% with the balance oxygen. The structural integrity of the unit was verified by vibration and centrifuge testing. The performance of the molecular sieve unit is discussed in the context of aircraft operating envelopes using both diluter-demand and 100% delivery subsystems.

  5. Alternative sieving method for extraction of light filth from cheeses: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on an alternative sieving method for the extraction of light filth from cheeses. The alternative method was developed that is applicable to broad variety of cheeses. A 225 g test portion is dispersed in a solution of 5.7% HCl, Igepal CO-730, and Igepal DM-710. Digested cheese is wet-sieved on a No. 230 sieve. The residue is treated with Tergitol Anionic 4, transferred to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate solution, heated, and maintained at 65 degrees-75 degrees C for 10 min. The residue is washed with these 2 surfactants a maximum of 4 times until it is reduced to an amount that is filterable. The residue is filtered and the filter papers are examined microscopically at a magnification of ca 30x. Average recoveries by 9 collaborators for 3 spike levels of rat hairs (5, 10, and 15) were 80, 68, and 81%, respectively; for insect fragments (5, 15, and 30) recoveries were 97, 90, and 92%, respectively. The alternative sieving method for extraction of light filth from cheeses has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  6. Importance of neutralization sieve analyses when seeking correlates of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Montefiori, David C

    2014-01-01

    This commentary describes a rationale for the use of breakthrough viruses from clinical trial participants to assess neutralizing antibodies as a correlate of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy. The rationale is based on principles of a genetic sieve analysis, where the 2 analyses may be cooperative for delineating neutralizing antibodies as a mechanistic correlate of protection.

  7. Regenerated Sciatic Nerve Axons Stimulated through a Chronically Implanted Macro-Sieve Electrode.

    PubMed

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Zellmer, Erik R; Wheeler, Jesse J; Burton, Harold; Moran, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Sieve electrodes provide a chronic interface for stimulating peripheral nerve axons. Yet, successful utilization requires robust axonal regeneration through the implanted electrode. The present study determined the effect of large transit zones in enhancing axonal regeneration and revealed an intimate neural interface with an implanted sieve electrode. Fabrication of the polyimide sieve electrodes employed sacrificial photolithography. The manufactured macro-sieve electrode (MSE) contained nine large transit zones with areas of ~0.285 mm(2) surrounded by eight Pt-Ir metallized electrode sites. Prior to implantation, saline, or glial derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) was injected into nerve guidance silicone-conduits with or without a MSE. The MSE assembly or a nerve guidance conduit was implanted between transected ends of the sciatic nerve in adult male Lewis rats. At 3 months post-operation, fiber counts were similar through both implant types. Likewise, stimulation of nerves regenerated through a MSE or an open silicone conduit evoked comparable muscle forces. These results showed that nerve regeneration was comparable through MSE transit zones and an open conduit. GDNF had a minimal positive effect on the quality and morphology of fibers regenerating through the MSE; thus, the MSE may reduce reliance on GDNF to augment axonal regeneration. Selective stimulation of several individual muscles was achieved through monopolar stimulation of individual electrodes sites suggesting that the MSE might be an optimal platform for functional neuromuscular stimulation.

  8. Low Temperature VOC Combustion Over Manganese, Cobalt and Zinc AlPO{sub 4} Molecular Sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Szostak, R.

    1997-03-31

    The objective of this project is to prepare manganese, cobalt and zinc containing AlPO{sub 4} molecular sieves and evaluate their catalytic activities for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. This report highlights our research activities for period October 1,1996 to March 31, 1997.

  9. Drying R-407C and R-410A refrigerant blends with molecular sieve desiccants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.P.; Tucker, D.M.

    1998-10-01

    The hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) R-32 (CF{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is a component of refrigerant blends in the 407 and 410 series being tested and commercialized for use as replacements for R-502 and the hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) R-22. The molecular sieve desiccants used with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and HCFC mineral oil systems in the past have achieved high water capacity by excluding the refrigerant and adsorbing only the water. Unfortunately, R-32 is adsorbed on commercial type 3A molecular sieve desiccant products. The result of this adsorption is a loss of water capacity when drying R-32 compared to drying R-22 or R-502 and a reduced level of chemical compatibility of the desiccant with the refrigerant. Some compressor manufacturers are seeking a water concentration as low as 10 mg/kg (ppm[wt]) in the circulating refrigerant of polyolester-lubricated refrigerating equipment using these HFC blends. This paper compares unmodified commercial type 3A molecular sieve desiccants with a recently developed, modified 3A molecular sieve that excludes R-32. The modified 3A has better chemical compatibility with R-32 and high water capacity in liquid R-407C and R-410A. The drying rates of the two desiccants in R-407C and R-410A are similar. Data and test methods are reported on refrigerant adsorption, water capacity, drying rate, and chemical compatibility.

  10. Chemical synthesis of oriented ferromagnetic LaSr-2 × 4 manganese oxide molecular sieve nanowires.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gazquez, Jaume; Magén, César; Varela, María; Ferain, Etienne; Puig, Teresa; Mestres, Narcís; Obradors, Xavier

    2012-06-25

    We report a chemical solution based method using nanoporous track-etched polymer templates for producing long and oriented LaSr-2 × 4 manganese oxide molecular sieve nanowires. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy analyses show that the nanowires are ferromagnetic at room temperature, single crystalline, epitaxially grown and self-aligned.

  11. Chemical synthesis of oriented ferromagnetic LaSr-2 × 4 manganese oxide molecular sieve nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gazquez, Jaume; Magen, Cesar; Varela, Maria; Ferain, Etienne; Puig, Teresa; Mestres, Narcis; Obradors, Xavier

    2012-04-25

    Here we report a chemical solution based method using nanoporous track-etched polymer templates for producing long and oriented LaSr-2 × 4 manganese oxide molecular sieve nanowires. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy analyses show that the nanowires are ferromagnetic at room temperature, single crystalline, epitaxially grown and self-aligned.

  12. A reconstruction strategy to synthesize mesoporous SAPO molecular sieve single crystals with high MTO catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chan; Yang, Miao; Li, Mingrun; Xu, Shutao; Yang, Yue; Tian, Peng; Liu, Zhongmin

    2016-05-11

    Mesoporous SAPO-34 single crystals with tunable porosity and Si content have been fast synthesized within 4 hours by a reconstruction strategy, which show excellent hydrothermal stability and MTO catalytic activity. This new strategy is further proven to be applicable to prepare other mesoporous SAPO molecular sieve single crystals.

  13. Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory that Illustrate the Size-Exclusion Properties of Zeolite Molecular Sieves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments are presented that demonstrate the size-exclusion properties of zeolites and reveal the reason for naming zeolites "molecular sieves". If an IR spectrometer is available, the adsorption or exclusion of alcohols of varying sizes from dichloromethane or chloroform solutions can be readily demonstrated by monitoring changes in the…

  14. Habitat Temperature and Precipitation of Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Determine the Response of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, and Transpiration to Growth Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Adams, William W.; Stewart, Jared J.; Cohu, Christopher M.; Muller, Onno; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish) were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high) exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 and Swedish ecotypes, of phloem per minor vein in plants grown at the low temperature. In contrast, vein density and minor vein tracheary to sieve element ratio increased with increasing growth temperature – most strongly in Col-0 and least strongly in the Italian ecotype – and transpirational water loss correlated with vein density and number of tracheary elements per minor vein. Plotting of these vascular features as functions of climatic conditions in the habitat of origin suggested that temperatures during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined acclimatory responses of the foliar phloem and photosynthesis to temperature in this winter annual that upregulates photosynthesis in response to lower temperature, whereas the precipitation experienced during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined adjustment of foliar vein density, xylem, and transpiration to temperature. In particular, whereas photosynthetic capacity, leaf thickness, and foliar minor vein phloem features increased linearly with increasing latitude and decreasing temperature of the habitats of origin in response to experimental growth at low temperature, transpiration rate, foliar vein density, and minor vein tracheary element numbers and cross

  15. Habitat Temperature and Precipitation of Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Determine the Response of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, and Transpiration to Growth Temperature.

    PubMed

    Adams, William W; Stewart, Jared J; Cohu, Christopher M; Muller, Onno; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish) were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high) exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 and Swedish ecotypes, of phloem per minor vein in plants grown at the low temperature. In contrast, vein density and minor vein tracheary to sieve element ratio increased with increasing growth temperature - most strongly in Col-0 and least strongly in the Italian ecotype - and transpirational water loss correlated with vein density and number of tracheary elements per minor vein. Plotting of these vascular features as functions of climatic conditions in the habitat of origin suggested that temperatures during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined acclimatory responses of the foliar phloem and photosynthesis to temperature in this winter annual that upregulates photosynthesis in response to lower temperature, whereas the precipitation experienced during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined adjustment of foliar vein density, xylem, and transpiration to temperature. In particular, whereas photosynthetic capacity, leaf thickness, and foliar minor vein phloem features increased linearly with increasing latitude and decreasing temperature of the habitats of origin in response to experimental growth at low temperature, transpiration rate, foliar vein density, and minor vein tracheary element numbers and cross

  16. Oxygen isotopic fractionation of O₂ during adsorption and desorption processes using molecular sieve at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Insu; Kusakabe, Minoru; Lee, Jong Ik

    2014-06-15

    Cryogenic trapping using molecular sieves is commonly used to collect O2 extracted from silicates for (17)O/(16)O and (18)O/(16)O analyses. However, gases which interfere with (17)O/(16)O analysis, notably NF3, are also trapped and their removal is essential for accurate direct measurement of the (17)O/(16)O ratio. It is also necessary to identify and quantify any isotopic fractionation associated with the use of cryogenic trapping using molecular sieves. The oxygen isotopic compositions of O2 before and after desorption from, and adsorption onto, 13X and 5A molecular sieves (MS13X and MS5A) at 0°C, -78°C, -114°C, and -130°C were measured in order to determine the oxygen isotopic fractionation at these temperatures. We also investigated whether isotopic fractionation occurred when O2 gas was transferred sequentially into a second cold finger, also containing molecular sieve. It was confirmed that significant oxygen isotopic fractionation occurs between the gaseous O2 and that adsorbed onto molecular sieve, if desorption and adsorption are incomplete. As the fraction of released or untrapped O2 becomes smaller with decreasing trapping temperature (from 0 to -130°C), the isotopic fractionation becomes larger. Approximately half of the total adsorbed O2 is released from the molecular sieve during desorption at -114°C, which is the temperature recommended for separation from NF3 (retained on the molecular sieve), and this will interfere with (17)O/(16)O measurements. The use of a single cold finger should be avoided, because partial desorption is accompanied by oxygen isotopic fractionation, thereby resulting in inaccurate isotopic data. The use of a dual cold finger arrangement is recommended because, as we have confirmed, the transfer of O2 from the first trap to the second is almost 100%. However, even under these conditions, a small isotopic fractionation (0.18 ± 0.05‰ in δ(17)O values and 0.26 ± 0.06‰ in δ(18)O values) occurred, with O2 in

  17. Development and evaluation of omeprazole pellets fabricated by sieving-spheronization and extrusion - spheronization process.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sabiha; Baie, Saringat H; Hay, Yuen Kah; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan

    2014-05-01

    Pelletized dosage forms can be prepared by different methods which, in general, are time consuming and labor intensive. The current study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of preparing the spherical pellets of omeprazole by sieving-spheronization. An optimized formulation was also prepared by extrusion-spheronization process to compare the physical parameters between these two methods. The omeprazole pellets were consisted of microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone K 30, sodium lauryl sulphate and polyethylene glycol 6000. The omeprazole delay release system was developed by coating the prepared pellets with aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat 30 DP. The moisture content, spheronization speed and residence time found to influence the final properties of omeprazole pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization and sieving-spheronization. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that both methods produced closely similar characteristics of the pellets in terms of, friability (p=0.553), flowability (p=0.677), hardness (p=0.103) and density (bulk, p=0.514, tapped, p=0.149) except particle size distribution (p=0.004). The percent drug release from the coated formulation prepared by sieving-spheronization and extrusion spheronization was observed to be 84.12 ± 1.10% and 82.67 ± 0.96%, respectively. Dissolution profiles of both formulations were similar as indicated by values of f1 and f2, 1.52 and 89.38, respectively. The coated formulation prepared by sieving-spheronization and commercial reference product, Zimore ® also showed similar dissolution profiles (f1=1.22, f2=91.52). The pellets could be prepared using sieving-spheronization. The process is simple, easy, less time- and labor-consuming and economical as compared to extrusion-spheronization process.

  18. A new beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent for 222Rn monitoring.

    PubMed

    Scarpitta, S C

    1996-05-01

    A new commercially available beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent, Carboxen-564 (20/45 mesh), was tested and compared to Calgon-PCB (40/80) activated carbon for its adsorptive and desorptive characteristics under controlled conditions of temperature (25 degrees C) and relative humidity (RH). The amount of water vapor adsorbed by the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was typically a factor of 4 lower than the activated carbon, with a concomitant fourfold increase in the 222Rn adsorption coefficient, K(Rn). The maximum K(Rn) value for a thin layer of Carboxen-564, following a 2-d exposure at 40% RH, was 7.2 Bq kg(-1) per Bq m(-3). The K(Rn) or a 1-cm bed, following a 2-d exposure was 5.5 Bq m(-3), a 25% reduction. Under dynamic sampling conditions, where 0.4 g of the beaded carbon molecular sieve was contained in a 6 cm x 0.4 cm diameter tube, the maximum K(Rn) value was 6.5 Bq m(-3) after 2.5 h of sampling at 29% RH when the input flow rate was 4.2 x 10(-3) m3 h-1. Kinetic studies were also conducted under passive sampling conditions. The data show that the 222Rn buildup time-constant for a thin layer of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was 1.3 h, whereas that of a 1 cm bed was 13 h. The 222Rn desorption time-constants, from gram amounts of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material into air and into a commercially available toluene based liquid scintillation cocktail, were 2 h and 3 h, respectively. Carboxen's high 222Rn adsorbing capacity, rapid kinetics, hydrophobicity and physical properties makes it an attractive alternative to other commercially available activated carbon used in passive and dynamic sampling devices.

  19. Distribution of 28 elements in size fractions of lunar mare and highlands soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Four volatile, six siderophile and 18 generally lithophile elements were determined in six sieve fractions of mare soil 15100 (moderately mature) and seven sieve fractions of highlands soil 66080 (highly mature). Previous work (Boynton et al., 1976) showed that the volatile elements in lunar soils were enriched in the finest size fraction relative to the coarsest factors by up to about 20. The present investigation tests Boynton's interpretation that the distribution pattern of the volatiles indicates the presence of two components: a volume-correlated component having volatile concentrations independent of grain size and a surface-correlated component with concentration increasing with decreasing grain size.

  20. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature.

    PubMed

    Žitnik, Slavko; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Bajec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice of transforming

  1. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. Results We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice

  2. A new beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent for {sup 222}Rn monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    A new commercially available beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent, Carboxen-564 (20/45 mesh), was tested and compared to Calgon-PCB (40/80) activated carbon for its adsorptive and desorptive characteristics under controlled conditions of temperature (25{degrees})C and relative humidity (RH). The amount of water vapor adsorbed by the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was typically a factor of 4 lower than the activated carbon, with a concomitant fourfold increase in the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient, K{sub Rn}. The maximum K{sub Rn} value for a thin layer of Carboxen-564, following a 2-d exposure at 40% RH, was 7.2 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} per Bq m{sup {minus}3}. The K{sub Rn} for a 1-cm bed, following a 2-d exposure was 5.5 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, a 25% reduction. under dynamic sampling conditions, where 0.4 g of the beaded carbon molecular sieve was contained in a 6 cm x 0.4 cm diameter tube, the maximum K{sub Rn} value was 6.5 Bq m{sup {minus}3} after 2.5 h of sampling at 29% RH when the input flow rate was 4.2 x 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} h{sup {minus}1}. Kinetic studies were also conducted under passive sampling conditions. The data show that the {sup 222}Rn buildup time-constant for a thin layer of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was 1.3 h, whereas that of a 1 cm bed was 13 h. The {sup 222}Rn desorption time-constants, from gram amounts of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was 1.3 h, whereas that of a 1 cm bed was 13 h. The {sup 222}Rn desorption time-constants, from gram amounts of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material into air and into a commercially available toluene based liquid scintillation cocktail, were 2 h and 3 h, respectively. Carboxen`s high {sup 222}Rn adsorbing capacity, rapid kinetics, hydrophobicity and physical properties makes it an attractive alternative to other commercially available activated carbon used in passive and dynamic sampling devices. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Controlled thermal oxidative crosslinking of polymers of intrinsic microporosity towards tunable molecular sieve membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qilei; Cao, Shuai; Pritchard, Robyn H.; Ghalei, Behnam; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A.; Terentjev, Eugene M.; Cheetham, Anthony K.; Sivaniah, Easan

    2014-09-01

    Organic open frameworks with well-defined micropore (pore dimensions below 2 nm) structure are attractive next-generation materials for gas sorption, storage, catalysis and molecular level separations. Polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) represent a paradigm shift in conceptualizing molecular sieves from conventional ordered frameworks to disordered frameworks with heterogeneous distributions of microporosity. PIMs contain interconnected regions of micropores with high gas permeability but with a level of heterogeneity that compromises their molecular selectivity. Here we report controllable thermal oxidative crosslinking of PIMs by heat treatment in the presence of trace amounts of oxygen. The resulting covalently crosslinked networks are thermally and chemically stable, mechanically flexible and have remarkable selectivity at permeability that is three orders of magnitude higher than commercial polymeric membranes. This study demonstrates that controlled thermochemical reactions can delicately tune the topological structure of channels and pores within microporous polymers and their molecular sieving properties.

  4. Ionic sieving through Ti3C2(OH)2 MXene: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdiyorov, Golibjon R.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Mahmoud, Khaled A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent experiments revealed a great potential of MXene nanosheets for water desalination applications as ultrathin, high-flux, and size/charge-selective sieving membranes. Here, we conduct first-principles density functional theory calculations to explore possible mechanisms for the charge-selective ionic transport through Ti3C2(OH)2 MXene. We find that the charge selectivity originates from the charged nature of the MXene layers. For example, due to the electrostatic interactions, ions of different charge states have different energy barriers for the intercalation between the MXene layers. In addition, the system shows dynamic response to the intercalating ions, even in their hydrated states, by changing the interlayer spacing. Our findings highlight the importance of membrane surface charges on the ion sieving performance.

  5. The dependence of the electronic conductivity of carbon molecular sieve electrodes on their charging states.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Elad; Genish, Isaschar; Salitra, Gregory; Soffer, Abraham; Klein, Lior; Aurbach, Doron

    2006-04-13

    The dependence of the electronic conductivity of activated carbon electrodes on their potential in electrolyte solutions was examined. Kapton polymer films underwent carbonization (1000 degrees C), followed by a mild oxidation process (CO(2) at 900 degrees C) for various periods of time, to obtain carbons of different pore structures. A specially designed cell was assembled in order to measure the conductivity of carbon electrodes at different potentials in solutions. When the carbon electrodes possessed molecular sieving properties, a remarkable dependence of their conductivity on their charging state was observed. Aqueous electrolyte solutions containing ions of different sizes were used in order to demonstrate this phenomenon. As the average pore size of the activated carbons was larger, their molecular sieving ability was lower, and the dependence of their conductivity on their charging state regained its classical form. This behavior is discussed herein.

  6. Porous aromatic frameworks with anion-templated pore apertures serving as polymeric sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Sun, Fuxing; Li, Lina; Cui, Peng; Zhu, Guangshan

    2014-06-01

    Owing to environmental pollution and energy depletion, efficient separation of energy gases has attracted widespread attention. Low-cost and efficient adsorbents for gas separation are greatly needed. Here we report a family of quaternary pyridinium-type porous aromatic frameworks with tunable channels. After carefully choosing and adjusting the sterically hindered counter ions via a facile ion exchange approach, the pore diameters are tuned at an angstrom scale in the range of 3.4-7 Å. The designed pore sizes may bring benefits to capturing or sieving gas molecules with varied diameters to separate them efficiently by size-exclusive effects. By combining their specific separation properties, a five-component (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane) gas mixture can be separated completely. The porous aromatic frameworks may hold promise for practical and commercial applications as polymeric sieves.

  7. Activation of methane by transition metal-substituted aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    DOEpatents

    Iton, Lennox E.; Maroni, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Aluminophosphate molecular sieves substituted with cobalt, manganese or iron and having the AlPO.sub.4 -34 or AlPO.sub.4 -5, or related AlPO.sub.4 structure activate methane starting at approximately 350.degree. C. Between 400.degree. and 500.degree. C. and at methane pressures .ltoreq.1 atmosphere the rate of methane conversion increases steadily with typical conversion efficiencies at 500.degree. C. approaching 50% and selectivity to the production of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons approaching 100%. The activation mechanism is based on reduction of the transition metal(III) form of the molecular sieve to the transition metal(II) form with accompanying oxidative dehydrogenation of the methane. Reoxidation of the - transition metal(II) form to the transition metal(III) form can be done either chemically (e.g., using O.sub.2) or electrochemically.

  8. Synthesis of highly selective zeolite topology molecular sieve for adsorption of benzene gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lin; Chen, Yunlin; Zhang, Baoping; Zu, Zhinan

    2013-02-01

    Shangdong fly ash (SFA), Fangshan fly ash (FFA) and Heilongjiang fly ash (HFA) were selected as the raw materials to be used for synthesis of highly selective zeolite topology molecular sieve. Twice foaming method was studied in terms of synthetic zeolite. The experimental products were characterized by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and automated surface area & pore size analyser. The results indicated that 10 M NaOH was chosen as modification experiment condition to process SFA. Crystallization temperature and time were 140 °C and 8 h, respectively. Zeolite topology molecular sieve was prepared with Si/Al molar ratio of 7.9, and its adsorption ratio of benzene gas was up to 66.51%.

  9. Sieve estimation in a Markov illness-death process under dual censoring.

    PubMed

    Boruvka, Audrey; Cook, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Semiparametric methods are well established for the analysis of a progressive Markov illness-death process observed up to a noninformative right censoring time. However, often the intermediate and terminal events are censored in different ways, leading to a dual censoring scheme. In such settings, unbiased estimation of the cumulative transition intensity functions cannot be achieved without some degree of smoothing. To overcome this problem, we develop a sieve maximum likelihood approach for inference on the hazard ratio. A simulation study shows that the sieve estimator offers improved finite-sample performance over common imputation-based alternatives and is robust to some forms of dependent censoring. The proposed method is illustrated using data from cancer trials.

  10. Estimation of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of a packed bed of 13X molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, R.K.; Kumar, S.

    1995-11-01

    Modeling and simulation of packed bed systems operating non-isothermally require sufficiently accurate knowledge of thermal transport properties.Effective thermal conductivity (k) of packed bed of molecular sieves is rarely reported. In this paper, dependence of k on temperature for a packed bed of 13X molecular sieves has been determined. An electrical heater embedded coaxially in the bed was used to heat it, and the radical temperature profiles thus obtained under transient conditions were utilized for estimation. The estimated relationship is k = 8.17635 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} + 10.915427 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}(T {minus} T{sub 0}). Statistical analysis of the estimated parameters has also been carried out. The deviations between experimental and predicted temperatures are less than 5%.

  11. Evaluation of RTV as a Moldable Matrix When Combined With Molecular Sieve and Organic Hydrogen Getter

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to develop a combined RTV 615/3Å molecular sieve/DEB molded component. A molded RTV 615/3Å molecular sieve component is currently in production, and an RTV 615/DEB component was produced in the past. However, all three materials have never before been combined in a single production part, and this is an opportunity to create a new component capable of being molded to shape, performing desiccation, and hydrogen gettering. This analysis looked at weapons system parameters and how they might influence part design. It also looked at material processing and how it related to mixing, activating a dessicant, and hydrogen uptake testing.

  12. Power Grid De-icing Optimal Plan Based on Fractional Sieve Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guangbin; Lin, Meihan; Li, Huaqiang

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem that the reliability of system was reduced and the security risk was increased during the DC de-icing period, a decision-making model based on the fractional sieve method was proposed. This model introduced risk assessment theory, and took into account the comprehensive failure probability model of protection action and ice cover. Considering the de-icing condition, a DC de-icing strategy model, which was with the objective function of minimizing the load of shedding and minimizing the operating risk, was proposed. The objective function was optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm and fractional sieve method. The simulative results of IEEE30-bus system indicated that the load loss caused by de-icing and the operational risk of the system could be effectively reduced by the proposed model. It provided a reference for power department to make a de-icing plan.

  13. Chip-based optical microscopy for imaging membrane sieve plates of liver scavenger cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, Øystein I.; Øie, Cristina I.; McCourt, Peter; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.

    2015-08-01

    The evanescent field on top of optical waveguides is used to image membrane network and sieve-plates of liver endothelial cells. In waveguide excitation, the evanescent field is dominant only near the surface (~100-150 nm) providing a default optical sectioning by illuminating fluorophores in close proximity to the surface and thus benefiting higher signal-to-noise ratio. The sieve plates of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are present on the cell membrane, thus near-field waveguide chip-based microscopy configuration is preferred over epi-fluorescence. The waveguide chip is compatible with optical fiber components allowing easy multiplexing to different wavelengths. In this paper, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities provided by integrated optical microscopy for imaging cell membranes.

  14. Synthesis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate using molecular sieve-immobilized lipase from Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Raghuvanshi, Shilpa; Gupta, Reena

    2009-03-01

    Extracellular lipase from Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was immobilized on (3 A x 1.5 mm) molecular sieve. The molecular sieve showed approximately 68.48% binding efficiency for lipase (specific activity 55 IU mg(-1)). The immobilized enzyme achieved approx 90% conversion of acetic acid and 4-nitrophenol (100 mM each) into 4-nitrophenyl acetate in n-heptane at 65 degrees C in 3 h. When alkane of C-chain length other than n-heptane was used as the organic solvent, the conversion of 4-nitrophenol and acetic acid was found to decrease. About 88.6% conversion of the reactants into ester was achieved when reactants were used at molar ratio of 1:1. The immobilized lipase brought about conversion of approximately 58% for esterification of 4-nitrophenol and acetic acid into 4-nitrophenyl acetate at a temperature of 65 degrees C after reuse for 5 cycles.

  15. Controlled thermal oxidative crosslinking of polymers of intrinsic microporosity towards tunable molecular sieve membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Qilei; Cao, Shuai; Pritchard, Robyn H; Ghalei, Behnam; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A; Terentjev, Eugene M; Cheetham, Anthony K; Sivaniah, Easan

    2014-09-04

    Organic open frameworks with well-defined micropore (pore dimensions below 2 nm) structure are attractive next-generation materials for gas sorption, storage, catalysis and molecular level separations. Polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) represent a paradigm shift in conceptualizing molecular sieves from conventional ordered frameworks to disordered frameworks with heterogeneous distributions of microporosity. PIMs contain interconnected regions of micropores with high gas permeability but with a level of heterogeneity that compromises their molecular selectivity. Here we report controllable thermal oxidative crosslinking of PIMs by heat treatment in the presence of trace amounts of oxygen. The resulting covalently crosslinked networks are thermally and chemically stable, mechanically flexible and have remarkable selectivity at permeability that is three orders of magnitude higher than commercial polymeric membranes. This study demonstrates that controlled thermochemical reactions can delicately tune the topological structure of channels and pores within microporous polymers and their molecular sieving properties.

  16. Synthesis of a specified, silica molecular sieve by using computationally predicted organic structure-directing agents.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Joel E; Deem, Michael W; Davis, Mark E

    2014-08-04

    Crystalline molecular sieves are used in numerous applications, where the properties exploited for each technology are the direct consequence of structural features. New materials are typically discovered by trial and error, and in many cases, organic structure-directing agents (OSDAs) are used to direct their formation. Here, we report the first successful synthesis of a specified molecular sieve through the use of an OSDA that was predicted from a recently developed computational method that constructs chemically synthesizable OSDAs. Pentamethylimidazolium is computationally predicted to have the largest stabilization energy in the STW framework, and is experimentally shown to strongly direct the synthesis of pure-silica STW. Other OSDAs with lower stabilization energies did not form STW. The general method demonstrated here to create STW may lead to new, simpler OSDAs for existing frameworks and provide a way to predict OSDAs for desired, theoretical frameworks. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Polymeric molecular sieve membranes via in situ cross-linking of non-porous polymer membrane templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhen-An; Chai, Song-Hai; Nelson, Kimberly; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Zhu, Xiang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    High-performance polymeric membranes for gas separation are attractive for molecular-level separations in industrial-scale chemical, energyand environmental processes. Molecular sieving materials are widely regarded as the next-generation membranes to simultaneously achieve high permeability and selectivity. However, most polymeric molecular sieve membranes are based on a few solution-processable polymers such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Here we report an in situ cross-linking strategy for the preparation of polymeric molecular sieve membranes with hierarchical and tailorable porosity. These membranes demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, over larger molecules such as nitrogen. Hence, these membranes have potential for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance. Moreover, this strategy could provide a possible alternative to ‘classical’ methods for the preparation of porous membranes and, in some cases, the only viable synthetic route towards certain membranes.

  18. Polymeric molecular sieve membranes via in situ cross-linking of non-porous polymer membrane templates.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhen-An; Chai, Song-Hai; Nelson, Kimberly; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Mahurin, Shannon M; Zhu, Xiang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-04-16

    High-performance polymeric membranes for gas separation are attractive for molecular-level separations in industrial-scale chemical, energy and environmental processes. Molecular sieving materials are widely regarded as the next-generation membranes to simultaneously achieve high permeability and selectivity. However, most polymeric molecular sieve membranes are based on a few solution-processable polymers such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Here we report an in situ cross-linking strategy for the preparation of polymeric molecular sieve membranes with hierarchical and tailorable porosity. These membranes demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, over larger molecules such as nitrogen. Hence, these membranes have potential for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance. Moreover, this strategy could provide a possible alternative to 'classical' methods for the preparation of porous membranes and, in some cases, the only viable synthetic route towards certain membranes.

  19. A 1-D Model of the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Developments to improve system efficiency and reliability for water and carbon dioxide separation systems on crewed vehicles combine sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. This paper describes the development of COMSOL simulations in support of the Life Support Systems (LSS) project within NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Specifically, we model the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) operating on the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. Various conformations of carbon nanocoils prepared by supported Ni-Fe/molecular sieve catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoming; Chen, Xiuqin; Takeuchi, K; Motojima, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    The carbon nanocoils with various kinds of conformations were prepared by the catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene using the Ni metal catalyst supported on molecular Sieves which was prepared using Fe-containing kaolin as the raw material. There are four kinds of carbon nanocoils conformations produced by this catalyst. The influences of reaction temperature and gas conditions on the conformations of the nanocoils were investigated and the reasons of forming nano-size coils were discussed by comparison with pure Ni metal catalyst.

  1. A ’Smart’ Molecular Sieve Oxygen Concentrator with Continuous Cycle Time Adjustment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    A ’smart’ molecular sieve oxygen concentrator (MSOC) is controlled by a set of computer algorithms . The ’smart’ system automatically adjusts...determine if concentrator performance could be controlled by computer algorithms which continuously adjust concentrator cycle time. A two-bed... Computer algorithms or decision process were developed which allowed the software to control concentrator cycle time. Step changes in product flow from 5

  2. Reproducibility of a silicone-based test food to masticatory performance evaluation by different sieve methods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis; Costa, Marina Abrantes; Farias-Neto, Arcelino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the condensation silicone Optosil Comfort® as an artificial test food for masticatory performance evaluation. Twenty dentate subjects with mean age of 23.3±0.7 years were selected. Masticatory performance was evaluated using the simple (MPI), the double (IME) and the multiple sieve methods. Trials were carried out five times by three examiners: three times by the first, and once by the second and third examiners. Friedman's test was used to find the differences among time trials. Reproducibility was determined by the intra-class correlation (ICC) test (α=0.05). No differences among time trials were found, except for MPI-4 mm (p=0.022) from the first examiner results. The intra-examiner reproducibility (ICC) of almost all data was high (ICC≥0.92, p<0.001), being moderate only for MPI-0.50 mm (ICC=0.89, p<0.001). The inter-examiner reproducibility was high (ICC>0.93, p<0.001) for all results. For the multiple sieve method, the average mean of absolute difference from repeated measurements were lower than 1 mm. This trend was observed only from MPI-0.50 to MPI-1.4 for the single sieve method, and from IME-0.71/0.50 to IME-1.40/1.00 for the double sieve method. The results suggest that regardless of the method used, the reproducibility of Optosil Comfort® is high.

  3. Coreference analysis in clinical notes: a multi-pass sieve with alternate anaphora resolution modules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dingcheng; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wu, Stephen Tze-Inn; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the coreference resolution system submitted by Mayo Clinic for the 2011 i2b2/VA/Cincinnati shared task Track 1C. The goal of the task was to construct a system that links the markables corresponding to the same entity. Materials and methods The task organizers provided progress notes and discharge summaries that were annotated with the markables of treatment, problem, test, person, and pronoun. We used a multi-pass sieve algorithm that applies deterministic rules in the order of preciseness and simultaneously gathers information about the entities in the documents. Our system, MedCoref, also uses a state-of-the-art machine learning framework as an alternative to the final, rule-based pronoun resolution sieve. Results The best system that uses a multi-pass sieve has an overall score of 0.836 (average of B3, MUC, Blanc, and CEAF F score) for the training set and 0.843 for the test set. Discussion A supervised machine learning system that typically uses a single function to find coreferents cannot accommodate irregularities encountered in data especially given the insufficient number of examples. On the other hand, a completely deterministic system could lead to a decrease in recall (sensitivity) when the rules are not exhaustive. The sieve-based framework allows one to combine reliable machine learning components with rules designed by experts. Conclusion Using relatively simple rules, part-of-speech information, and semantic type properties, an effective coreference resolution system could be designed. The source code of the system described is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/ohnlp/files/MedCoref. PMID:22707745

  4. Design Through Simulation of a Molecular Sieve Column for Treatment of MON-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. Ben; Wilson, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of water in propellant-grade MON-3 is a concern in the Aerospace Industry. NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Propulsion Department has evaluated many types of molecular sieves for control of iron, the corrosion product of water in Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON-3). In 1995, WSTF initiated laboratory and pilot-scale testing of molecular sieve type 3A for removal of water and iron. These tests showed sufficient promise that a series of continuous recycle tests were conducted at WSTF. Periodic samples of the circulating MON-3 solution were analyzed for water (wt %) and iron (ppm, wt). This test column was modeled as a series of transfer units; i. e., each unit represented the height equivalent of a theoretical plate. Such a model assumes there is equilibrium between the adsorbent material and the effluent stream from the unit. Operational and design parameters were derived based on the simulation results. These parameters were used to predict the design characteristics of a proposed molecular sieve column for removal of water and iron from MON-3 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In addition, these parameters were used to simulate a small, single-pass operation column at KSC currently used for treating MON-3. The results of this work indicated that molecular sieve type 3A in 1/16 in. diameter pellets, in a column 2.5 ft. in diameter, 18 ft. in height, and operated at 25 gpm is adequate for the required removal of water and iron from MON-3.

  5. Comparison of particle-size distributions determined by optical scanning and by sieving in the assessment of masticatory performance.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, L; Schindler, H J; Hellmann, D; Schmitter, M; Rammelsberg, P; Giannakopoulos, N N

    2012-05-01

    Aim of this study was to introduce a feasible and valid technique for the assessment of masticatory performance that is comparable to the standard sieving method. Twenty-one chewing samples (Optosil) comminuted by healthy dentate adults were analysed with a sieving and scanning method. Scanning was performed using a conventional flatbed scanner (1200dpi). All scanned images underwent image analysis (ImageJ), which yielded descriptive parameters such as area, best-fitting ellipse for each particle. Of the 2D-image, a volume was estimated for each particle, which was converted into a weight. To receive a discrete distribution of particle sizes comparable to sieving, five chewing samples were used to calculate a size-dependent area-volume-conversion factor. The sieving procedure was carried out with a stack of 10 sieves, and the retained particles per sieve were weighed. The cumulated weights yielded by either method were curve-fitted with the Rosin-Rammler distribution to determine the median particle size x(50) . The Rosin-Rammler distributions for sieving and scanning resemble each other. The distributions show a high correlation (0·919-1·0, n= 21, P<0·01, Pearson's correlation coefficient). The median particle sizes vary between 3·83 and 4·77mm (mean: 4·31) for scanning and 3·53 and 4·55mm (mean: 4·21) for sieving. On average, scanning overestimates the x(50) values by 2·4%. A modified Bland-Altman plot reveals that 95% of the x(50) values fall within 10% of the average x(50) . The scanning method is a valid, simple and feasible method to determine masticatory performance. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. From an equilibrium based MOF adsorbent to a kinetic selective carbon molecular sieve for paraffin/iso-paraffin separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Baiyan; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Zhang, Yiming; Bhatt, Prashant M; He, Hongming; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Perman, Jason A; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-11-24

    We unveil a unique kinetic driven separation material for selectively removing linear paraffins from iso-paraffins via a molecular sieving mechanism. Subsequent carbonization and thermal treatment of CD-MOF-2, the cyclodextrin metal-organic framework, afforded a carbon molecular sieve with a uniform and reduced pore size of ca. 5.0 Å, and it exhibited highly selective kinetic separation of n-butane and n-pentane from iso-butane and iso-pentane, respectively.

  7. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high 3He/4He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application. PMID:26813491

  8. A Pervaporation Study of Ammonia Solutions Using Molecular Sieve Silica Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing; Fraser, Thomas; Myat, Darli; Smart, Simon; Zhang, Jianhua; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Liubinas, Audra; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    An innovative concept is proposed to recover ammonia from industrial wastewater using a molecular sieve silica membrane in pervaporation (PV), benchmarked against vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Cobalt and iron doped molecular sieve silica-based ceramic membranes were evaluated based on the ammonia concentration factor downstream and long-term performance. A modified low-temperature membrane evaluation system was utilized, featuring the ability to capture and measure ammonia in the permeate. It was found that the silica membrane with confirmed molecular sieving features had higher water selectivity over ammonia. This was due to a size selectivity mechanism that favoured water, but blocked ammonia. However, a cobalt doped silica membrane previously treated with high temperature water solutions demonstrated extraordinary preference towards ammonia by achieving up to a 50,000 mg/L ammonia concentration (a reusable concentration level) measured in the permeate when fed with 800 mg/L of ammonia solution. This exceeded the concentration factor expected by the benchmark VMD process by four-fold, suspected to be due to the competitive adsorption of ammonia over water into the silica structure with pores now large enough to accommodate ammonia. However, this membrane showed a gradual decline in selectivity, suspected to be due to the degradation of the silica material/pore structure after several hours of operation. PMID:24957120

  9. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high 3He/4He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application.

  10. Molecular Sieving Across Centimeter-Scale Single-Layer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes.

    PubMed

    Boutilier, Michael S H; Jang, Doojoon; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Kidambi, Piran R; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-06-27

    Molecular sieving across atomically thin nanoporous graphene is predicted to enable superior gas separation performance compared to conventional membranes. Although molecular sieving has been demonstrated across a few pores in microscale graphene membranes, leakage through nonselective defects presents a major challenge toward realizing selective membranes with high densities of pores over macroscopic areas. Guided by multiscale gas transport modeling of nanoporous graphene membranes, we designed the porous support beneath the graphene to isolate small defects and minimize leakage through larger defects. Ion bombardment followed by oxygen plasma etching was used to produce subnanometer pores in graphene at a density of ∼10(11) cm(-2). Gas permeance measurements demonstrate selectivity that exceeds the Knudsen effusion ratio and scales with the kinetic diameter of the gas molecules, providing evidence of molecular sieving across centimeter-scale nanoporous graphene. The extracted nanoporous graphene performance is comparable to or exceeds the Robeson limit for polymeric gas separation membranes, confirming the potential of nanoporous graphene membranes for gas separations.

  11. Radiolytic and thermal dechlorination of organic chlorides adsorbed on molecular sieve 13X.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Tagawa, S

    2001-05-15

    Reductive dechlorination of chlorobenzene (PhCl), trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), 1- and 2-chlorobutanes, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-trichloroethanes adsorbed on molecular sieve 13X was investigated. The molecular sieve adsorbing the organic chlorides was irradiated with gamma-rays, heated, or allowed to stand at room temperature in a sealed ampule and was then soaked in water. The dechlorination yields were determined from the Cl- concentrations of the supernatant aqueous solutions. It was found that the chlorinated alkanes adsorbed on the molecular sieve are readily dechlorinated on standing at room temperature. The dechlorination at room temperature was limited for TCE and PCE. PhCl was quite stable even at 200 degrees C. gamma-Radiolysis was examined for PhCl, TCE, and PCE at room temperature. The radiation chemical yields of the dechlorination, G(Cl-), were 1.9, 40, and 30 for PhCl, TCE, and PCE, respectively. After 5 h of heating at 200 degrees C, the dechlorination yields for TCE and PCE were 24.5 and 4.3%, respectively. TCE is much more reactive than PCE in the thermal dechlorination, whereas their radiolytic dechlorination yields are comparable. The pH of the supernatant solutions decreased along with the dechlorination.

  12. Praseodymium incorporated AIPO-5 molecular sieves for aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Sundaravel, B; Babu, C M; Palanisamy, B; Palanichamy, M; Shanthi, K; Murugesan, V

    2013-04-01

    PrAlPO-5 with (Al + P)/Pr ratios of 25, 50, 75 and 100 molecular sieves were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. These molecular sieves were characterised using XPS, TPD-NH3, ex-situ pyridine adsorbed IR, TPR, TGA, 27Al and 31P MAS-NMR and ESR studies. The incorporation of praseodymium in the framework of AlPO-5 was confirmed by XRD, DRS UV-vis and 27Al and 31P MAS-NMR analysis. ESR spectrum showed the presence of adsorbed oxygen. The nature and strength of acid sites were identified by ex-situ pyridine adsorbed IR and TPD-NH3. The BET surface area was found to be in the range of 238-272 m2 g(-1). The catalytic activity of the molecular sieves was tested for the liquid phase aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzene. Acetophenone was found to be the major product with more than 90% ethylbenzene conversion. ICP-OES analysis revealed the presence of praseodymium intact in the framework of AlPO-5 up to five cycles.

  13. Impact of fine mesh sieve primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Rusten, B; Razafimanantsoa, V A; Andriamiarinjaka, M A; Otis, C L; Sahu, A K; Bilstad, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effect of selective particle removal during primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Two small MBBR pilot plants were operated in parallel, where one train treated 2 mm screened municipal wastewater and the other train treated wastewater that had passed through a Salsnes Filter SF1000 rotating belt sieve (RBS) with a 33 µs sieve cloth. The SF1000 was operated without a filter mat on the belt. The tests confirmed that, for the wastewater characteristics at the test plant, Salsnes Filter primary treatment with a 33 µs RBS and no filter mat produced a primary effluent that was close to optimum. Removal of organic matter with the 33 µs sieve had no negative effect on the denitrification process. Nitrification rates improved by 10-15% in the train with 33 µs RBS primary treatment. Mass balance calculations showed that without RBS primary treatment, the oxygen demand in the biological system was 36% higher. Other studies have shown that the sludge produced by RBS primary treatment is beneficial for biogas production and will also significantly improve sludge dewatering of the combined primary and biological sludge.

  14. Estimating the number and size of phloem sieve plate pores using longitudinal views and geometric reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bussières, Philippe

    2014-05-12

    Because it is difficult to obtain transverse views of the plant phloem sieve plate pores, which are short tubes, to estimate their number and diameters, a method based on longitudinal views is proposed. This method uses recent methods to estimate the number and the sizes of approximately circular objects from their images, given by slices perpendicular to the objects. Moreover, because such longitudinal views are obtained from slices that are rather close to the plate centres whereas the pore size may vary with the pore distance from the plate edge, a sieve plate reconstruction model was developed and incorporated in the method to consider this bias. The method was successfully tested with published longitudinal views of phloem of Soybean and an exceptional entire transverse view from the same tissue. The method was also validated with simulated slices in two sieve plates from Cucurbita and Phaseolus. This method will likely be useful to estimate and to model the hydraulic conductivity and the architecture of the plant phloem, and it could have applications for other materials with approximately cylindrical structures.

  15. Modification of 13X Molecular Sieve by Chitosan for Adsorptive Removal of Cadmium from Simulated Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Sun, Ken; Huo, Lixin; Li, Xiuxiu; Qi, Xuebin

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan was used to modify a 13X molecular sieve to improve its cadmium removal capability. After being modified with 2% chitosan-acetate for 2 h at 30 °C, significant uptake of Cd2+ could be achieved. The uptake of Cd2+ on the modified 13X molecular sieve followed the Langmuir isotherms with a capacity of 1 mg/g. The kinetics of Cd2+ removal by modified 13X molecular sieve followed a pseudo second-order reaction, suggesting chemisorption or surface complexation. The Cd2+ removal with a sorbent dose of 2 g/L from an initial concentration of 100 μg/L reached more than 95% in 90 min. The equilibrium Cd2+ concentration was <5 μg/L, which meets the requirements of “Standards for Irrigation Water Quality” (GB5084-2005) (10 μg/L) and MCL and MCLG for groundwater and drinking water (5 μg/L) set by United States Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:28925966

  16. A novel first principles approach for the estimation of the sieve factor of blood samples.

    PubMed

    Northam, L; Baranoski, G V G

    2010-03-29

    Light may traverse a turbid material, such as blood, without encountering any of its pigment containing structures, a phenomenon known as sieve effect. This phenomenon may result in a decrease in the amount of light absorbed by the material. Accordingly, the corresponding sieve factor needs to be accounted for in optical investigations aimed at the derivation of blood biophysical properties from light transmittance measurements. The existing procedures used for its estimation either lack the flexibility required for practical applications or are based on general formulas that incorporate other light and matter interaction phenomena such as detour (scattering) effects. In this paper, a ray optics framework is proposed to estimate the sieve factor for blood samples. It employs a first principles approach to account for the distribution, orientation and shape of the cells that contain hemoglobin, the essential (oxygen-carrying) pigment found in human blood. Within this framework, ray-casting techniques are used to determine the probability that light can traverse a blood sample without encountering any of these cells. The predictive capabilities of the proposed framework are demonstrated through a series of in silico experiments. Its effectiveness is further illustrated by visualizations depicting the different blood parameterizations considered in the simulations.

  17. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-27

    Light isotopes separation, such as (3)He/(4)He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as (3)He/(4)He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high (3)He/(4)He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application.

  18. Lithium recovery with LiTi2O4 ion-sieves.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-W; Chen, P-A; Wei, C-J; Huang, H-L; Jou, C-J; Wei, Y-L; Wang, H Paul

    2017-02-12

    A feasibility study for the recovery of lithium from salt water with the protonated lithium titanium oxide ion-sieves was carried out in this work. Lithium ions (Li(+)) in LiTi2O4 having a similar ion density with H(+) allow repeated exchanges and regeneration with high selectivity. By Li(7) magic angle spinning solid-state magnetic resonance, it is apparent that chemical structure of lithium in the ion-sieves is not perturbed during the repeated Li(+)/H(+) exchange processes. As the dissolution of titanium is negligible (<0.1%), the secondary contamination during the capture process can be minimized. The ion-sieves exhibit lithium capture capacities of up to 9.5mg/g during the repeated Li(+)/H(+) exchanges with H0.23Li0.77Ti2O4/LiTi2O4 for 24h, and the captured Li(+) may be recovered in the form of Li2CO3. Accordingly, the lithium capture method developed in this work could be integrated with current desalination processes for valuable lithium recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating the number and size of phloem sieve plate pores using longitudinal views and geometric reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Because it is difficult to obtain transverse views of the plant phloem sieve plate pores, which are short tubes, to estimate their number and diameters, a method based on longitudinal views is proposed. This method uses recent methods to estimate the number and the sizes of approximately circular objects from their images, given by slices perpendicular to the objects. Moreover, because such longitudinal views are obtained from slices that are rather close to the plate centres whereas the pore size may vary with the pore distance from the plate edge, a sieve plate reconstruction model was developed and incorporated in the method to consider this bias. The method was successfully tested with published longitudinal views of phloem of Soybean and an exceptional entire transverse view from the same tissue. The method was also validated with simulated slices in two sieve plates from Cucurbita and Phaseolus. This method will likely be useful to estimate and to model the hydraulic conductivity and the architecture of the plant phloem, and it could have applications for other materials with approximately cylindrical structures. PMID:24816291

  20. MOLECULAR SIEVES AS CATALYSTS FOR METHANOL DEHYDRATION IN THE LPDMEtm PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-04-01

    Several classes of molecular sieves were investigated as methanol dehydration catalysts for the LPDME{trademark} (liquid-phase dimethyl ether) process. Molecular sieves offer a number of attractive features as potential catalysts for the conversion of methanol to DME. These include (1) a wide range of acid strengths, (2) diverse architectures and channel connectivities that provide latitude for steric control, (3) high active site density, (4) well-investigated syntheses and characterization, and (5) commercial availability in some cases. We directed our work in two areas: (1) a general exploration of the catalytic behavior of various classes of molecular sieves in the LPDME{trademark} system and (2) a focused effort to prepare and test zeolites with predominantly Lewis acidity. In our general exploration, we looked at such diverse materials as chabazites, mordenites, pentasils, SAPOs, and ALPOs. Our work with Lewis acidity sought to exploit the structural advantages of zeolites without the interfering effects of deleterious Broensted sites. We used zeolite Ultrastable Y (USY) as our base material because it possesses a high proportion of Lewis acid sites. This work was extended by modifying the USY through ion exchange to try to neutralize residual Broensted acidity.

  1. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 over Cu-TiO2 /molecular sieve 5A composite.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Basavaraju; Shubhamangala, Ballamoole; Lalitha, Kannekanti; Reddy, Police Anil Kumar; Kumari, Valluri Durga; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju; De, Bhudev Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    TiO(2) and different Cu wt% loaded TiO(2) (TC(0.5-5.0)), 10 wt% TC(2.0) supported on molecular sieve 5A (10 wt% TC(2.0)/MS) were prepared by impregnation and solid-state dispersion methods. The photocatalysts prepared were characterized using XRD, SEM, and UV-Vis DRS, TEM, XPS spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic reduction of CO(2) in water and alkaline solution are investigated in a batch reactor. The yield of oxalic acid increased notably when TC was supported on molecular sieve. The Cu-TiO(2) supported on molecular sieve catalyst promotes the charge separation that leads to an increase in the selective formation of oxalic acid in addition to methanol, acetic acid and traces of methane. The product formation is due to the high adsorption of CO(2), water and product shape selectivity of the composite photocatalyst. The maximum yield of oxalic acid was found to be 65.6 μg h(-1) g(-1) per cat using 0.2 N NaOH containing solution over 10 wt% TC(2.0)/MS photocatalyst. The difference in the photocatalytic activity is related to its physicochemical properties. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a new microporous cesium silicotitanate (SNL-B) molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    NYMAN,MAY D.; GU,B.X.; WANG,L.M.; EWING,R.C.; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-03-20

    Ongoing hydrothermal Cs-Ti-Si-O-H{sub 2}O phase investigations has produced several new ternary phases including a novel microporous Cs-silicotitanate molecular sieve, SNL-B with the approximate formula of Cs{sub 3}TiSi{sub 3}O{sub 9.5}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O. SNL-B is only the second molecular sieve Cs-silicotitanate phase reported to have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods. Crystallites are very small (0.1 x 2 microns) with a blade-like morphology. SNL-B is confirmed to be a 3-dimensional molecular sieve by a variety of characterization techniques (N{sub 2} adsorption, ion exchange, water adsorption/desorption, solid state CP-MAS NMR). SNL-B is able to desorb and adsorb water from its pores while retaining its crystal structure and exchanges Cs cations readily. Additional techniques were used to describe fundamental properties (powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, {sup 29}Si and {sup 133}/Cs MAS NMR, DTA, SEM/EDS, ion selectivity, and radiation stability). The phase relationships of metastable SNL-B to other hydrothermally synthesized Cs-Ti-Si-O-H{sub 2}O phases are discussed, particularly its relationship to a Cs-silicotitanate analogue of pharmacosiderite, and a novel condensed phase, a polymorph of Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15}(SNL-A).

  3. A pervaporation study of ammonia solutions using molecular sieve silica membranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Fraser, Thomas; Myat, Darli; Smart, Simon; Zhang, Jianhua; Diniz da Costa, João C; Liubinas, Audra; Duke, Mikel

    2014-02-17

    An innovative concept is proposed to recover ammonia from industrial wastewater using a molecular sieve silica membrane in pervaporation (PV), benchmarked against vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Cobalt and iron doped molecular sieve silica-based ceramic membranes were evaluated based on the ammonia concentration factor downstream and long-term performance. A modified low-temperature membrane evaluation system was utilized, featuring the ability to capture and measure ammonia in the permeate. It was found that the silica membrane with confirmed molecular sieving features had higher water selectivity over ammonia. This was due to a size selectivity mechanism that favoured water, but blocked ammonia. However, a cobalt doped silica membrane previously treated with high temperature water solutions demonstrated extraordinary preference towards ammonia by achieving up to a 50,000 mg/L ammonia concentration (a reusable concentration level) measured in the permeate when fed with 800 mg/L of ammonia solution. This exceeded the concentration factor expected by the benchmark VMD process by four-fold, suspected to be due to the competitive adsorption of ammonia over water into the silica structure with pores now large enough to accommodate ammonia. However, this membrane showed a gradual decline in selectivity, suspected to be due to the degradation of the silica material/pore structure after several hours of operation.

  4. Molecular simulation and experimental studies of a mesoporous ZSM-5 type molecular sieve.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoyu; Wu, Yongbiao; Liu, Defei; Wu, Ying; Xi, Hongxia; Qian, Yu

    2013-02-28

    The mesoporous zeolite is a novel porous material possessing mesopores as well as the inherent micropores of zeolites. This material can exhibit the dual merits of two different pore structures and enable zeolites to have maximum structural functions. During the past few decades, various synthetic strategies have been well developed. However, up to now, there has only been a few attempts to model mesoporous zeolites. In this paper, the structural properties of a mesoporous ZSM-5 type molecular sieve, which has mesopore walls that are made up of ZSM-5 zeolite-like frameworks, were studied using an atomistic model. The full-atom model of the mesoporous ZSM-5 type molecular sieve was constructed using a molecular modeling technique. The structure model was characterized by estimating the nitrogen accessible solvent surface area, small-angle and wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns, toluene and benzene adsorption. It was found that these simulated results match well with the experimental data. Furthermore, the present approach can be extended to construct other micro-mesoporous molecular sieve structure models in the future.

  5. Macroscopic nanoporous graphene membranes for molecular-sieving-based gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutilier, Michael; Karnik, Rohit; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Nanoporous graphene membranes have the potential to exceed permeance and selectivity limits of existing gas separation membranes. This is made possible by the atomic thickness of the material, which can support sub-nanometer pores that enable molecular sieving while presenting low resistance to permeate flow. The feasibility of gas separation by graphene nanopores has been demonstrated experimentally on micron-scale areas of graphene. However, scaling up to macroscopic membrane areas presents significant challenges, including graphene imperfections and control of the selective nanopore size distribution across large areas. Towards this goal, gas permeance experiments are conducted on single and few layer graphene membranes to understand leakage pathways and a model is developed to predict conditions under which molecular sieving can occur in macroscopic membranes. Approaches to seal or mitigate the effects of micron and nanometer scale defects in graphene are investigated and methods of creating a high density of selectively permeable nanopores are explored. Experimental results demonstrating separation ratios exceeding the Knudsen effusion limit, indicating molecular sieving in agreement with the model predictions, are presented and discussed.

  6. The Relationship between Fenestrations, Sieve Plates and Rafts in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McNerney, Gregory P.; Owen, Dylan M.; Zencak, Dusan; Zykova, Svetlana N.; Crane, Harry; Huser, Thomas; Quinn, Ronald J.; Smedsrød, Bård; Le Couteur, David G.; Cogger, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Fenestrations are transcellular pores in endothelial cells that facilitate transfer of substrates between blood and the extravascular compartment. In order to understand the regulation and formation of fenestrations, the relationship between membrane rafts and fenestrations was investigated in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells where fenestrations are grouped into sieve plates. Three dimensional structured illumination microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy were used to study liver sinusoidal endothelial cells isolated from mice. There was an inverse distribution between sieve plates and membrane rafts visualized by structured illumination microscopy and the fluorescent raft stain, Bodipy FL C5 ganglioside GM1. 7-ketocholesterol and/or cytochalasin D increased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane, while Triton X-100 decreased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane. The effects of cytochalasin D on fenestrations were abrogated by co-administration of Triton X-100, suggesting that actin disruption increases fenestrations by its effects on membrane rafts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) depleted lipid-ordered membrane and increased fenestrations. The results are consistent with a sieve-raft interaction, where fenestrations form in non-raft lipid-disordered regions of endothelial cells once the membrane-stabilizing effects of actin cytoskeleton and membrane rafts are diminished. PMID:23029409

  7. Activation of methane by transition metal-substituted aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, V A; Willms, K A; Nguyen, Hiephoa; Iton, L E

    1989-12-01

    Recent experiments in our laboratory have demonstrated that aluminophosphate molecular sieves substituted with cobalt and cobalt/silicon combinations and having the AlPO{sub 4}-34 or AlPO{sub 4}-5 structure activate methane starting at {approximately}350{degree}C. Between 400 and 500{degree}C the rate of methane conversion increases steadily with typical conversion efficiencies at 500{degree}C ranging from 15 to 60%. The cobalt and silicon substituted AlPO{sub 4}-34 structure (CoAPSO-34) produces ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane in varying proportions, depending on reactions conditions. The cobalt-substituted AlPO{sub 4}-5 (CoAPSO-5) produces propylene in very high yield with ethane, ethylene, and propane also seen. Analogous aluminophosphate molecular sieves substituted with magnesium or silicon, but containing no transition metal (e.g., SAPO-34, MAPO-5), do not activate methane under the conditions described above. The activation mechanism is based on reduction of the cobalt(III) form of the molecular sieve to the cobalt(II) form with accompanying oxidative dehydrogenation of the methane. Reoxidation of the cobalt(II) for to the cobalt(III) form can be done either chemically (e.g., using O{sub 2}) or electrochemically. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  9. Epigenetic natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Matthew W; Tanurdzić, Milos; Lippman, Zachary; Jiang, Hongmei; Carrasquillo, Robert; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Dedhia, Neilay; McCombie, W Richard; Agier, Nicolas; Bulski, Agnès; Colot, Vincent; Doerge, R W; Martienssen, Robert A

    2007-07-01

    Cytosine methylation of repetitive sequences is widespread in plant genomes, occurring in both symmetric (CpG and CpNpG) as well as asymmetric sequence contexts. We used the methylation-dependent restriction enzyme McrBC to profile methylated DNA using tiling microarrays of Arabidopsis Chromosome 4 in two distinct ecotypes, Columbia and Landsberg erecta. We also used comparative genome hybridization to profile copy number polymorphisms. Repeated sequences and transposable elements (TEs), especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons, are densely methylated, but one third of genes also have low but detectable methylation in their transcribed regions. While TEs are almost always methylated, genic methylation is highly polymorphic, with half of all methylated genes being methylated in only one of the two ecotypes. A survey of loci in 96 Arabidopsis accessions revealed a similar degree of methylation polymorphism. Within-gene methylation is heritable, but is lost at a high frequency in segregating F(2) families. Promoter methylation is rare, and gene expression is not generally affected by differences in DNA methylation. Small interfering RNA are preferentially associated with methylated TEs, but not with methylated genes, indicating that most genic methylation is not guided by small interfering RNA. This may account for the instability of gene methylation, if occasional failure of maintenance methylation cannot be restored by other means.

  10. Epigenetic Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongmei; Carrasquillo, Robert; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Dedhia, Neilay; McCombie, W. Richard; Agier, Nicolas; Bulski, Agnès; Colot, Vincent; Doerge, R.W; Martienssen, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Cytosine methylation of repetitive sequences is widespread in plant genomes, occurring in both symmetric (CpG and CpNpG) as well as asymmetric sequence contexts. We used the methylation-dependent restriction enzyme McrBC to profile methylated DNA using tiling microarrays of Arabidopsis Chromosome 4 in two distinct ecotypes, Columbia and Landsberg erecta. We also used comparative genome hybridization to profile copy number polymorphisms. Repeated sequences and transposable elements (TEs), especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons, are densely methylated, but one third of genes also have low but detectable methylation in their transcribed regions. While TEs are almost always methylated, genic methylation is highly polymorphic, with half of all methylated genes being methylated in only one of the two ecotypes. A survey of loci in 96 Arabidopsis accessions revealed a similar degree of methylation polymorphism. Within-gene methylation is heritable, but is lost at a high frequency in segregating F 2 families. Promoter methylation is rare, and gene expression is not generally affected by differences in DNA methylation. Small interfering RNA are preferentially associated with methylated TEs, but not with methylated genes, indicating that most genic methylation is not guided by small interfering RNA. This may account for the instability of gene methylation, if occasional failure of maintenance methylation cannot be restored by other means. PMID:17579518

  11. Quality Control of Trichinella Testing at the Slaughterhouse Laboratory: Evaluation of the Use of a 400-Micrometer-Mesh-Size Sieve in the Magnetic Stirrer Method.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Frits; van Andel, Esther; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-02-01

    The performance of a 400-μm-mesh-size sieve (sieve400) has not previously been compared with that of a 180-μm-mesh-size sieve (sieve180). Using pork samples spiked with 0 to 10 Trichinella muscle larvae and an artificial digestion method, sieve performance was evaluated for control of Trichinella in meat-producing animals. The use of a sieve400 resulted in 12% lower larval counts, 147% more debris, and 28% longer counting times compared with the use of a sieve180. Although no false-negative results were obtained, prolonged counting times with the sieve400 may have an impact on performance in a high-throughput environment such as a slaughterhouse laboratory. Based on our results, the sieve180 remains the sieve of choice for Trichinella control in meat in slaughterhouse laboratories, according to the European Union reference method (European Commission regulation 2075/2005). Furthermore, the results of the present study contribute to the discussion of harmonization of meat inspection requirements among countries.

  12. Brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, S; Noguchi, T; Yokota, T; Takatsuto, S; Yoshida, S

    1998-06-01

    From the seeds and siliques of Arabidopsis thaliana, six brassinosteroids, brassinolide, castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol and 6-deoxoteasterone, were identified by GC-mass spectrometry or GC-selected ion monitoring. As the occurrence of castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone and 6-deoxotyphasterol in the shoots of A. thaliana has already been reported, this study provides evidence for the occurrence of the above four brassinosteroids in different organs, seeds and siliques, and the first evidence for the occurrence of brassinolide and 6-deoxoteasterone in A. thaliana. All brassinosteroids identified in this study belong to important components of both the early and late C-6 oxidation pathways, which were established in the cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus. This suggests that both pathways are operating in A. thaliana to produce the most biologically active brassinosteroid, brassinolide, which is responsible for growth and development of the plant.

  13. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The simple gas ethylene influences a diverse array of plant growth and developmental processes including germination, senescence, cell elongation, and fruit ripening. This review focuses on recent molecular genetic studies, principally in Arabidopsis, in which components of the ethylene response pathway have been identified. The isolation and characterization of two of these genes has revealed that ethylene sensing involves a protein kinase cascade. One of these genes encodes a protein with similarity to the ubiquitous Raf family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. A second gene shows similarity to the prokaryotic two-component histidine kinases and most likely encodes an ethylene receptor. Additional elements involved in ethylene signaling have only been identified genetically. The characterization of these genes and mutants will be discussed.

  14. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The simple gas ethylene influences a diverse array of plant growth and developmental processes including germination, senescence, cell elongation, and fruit ripening. This review focuses on recent molecular genetic studies, principally in Arabidopsis, in which components of the ethylene response pathway have been identified. The isolation and characterization of two of these genes has revealed that ethylene sensing involves a protein kinase cascade. One of these genes encodes a protein with similarity to the ubiquitous Raf family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. A second gene shows similarity to the prokaryotic two-component histidine kinases and most likely encodes an ethylene receptor. Additional elements involved in ethylene signaling have only been identified genetically. The characterization of these genes and mutants will be discussed.

  15. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Paul

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a one-box process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactor's behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and

  16. A predicted interactome for Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Geisler-Lee, Jane; O'Toole, Nicholas; Ammar, Ron; Provart, Nicholas J; Millar, A Harvey; Geisler, Matt

    2007-10-01

    The complex cellular functions of an organism frequently rely on physical interactions between proteins. A map of all protein-protein interactions, an interactome, is thus an invaluable tool. We present an interactome for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) predicted from interacting orthologs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster), and human (Homo sapiens). As an internal quality control, a confidence value was generated based on the amount of supporting evidence for each interaction. A total of 1,159 high confidence, 5,913 medium confidence, and 12,907 low confidence interactions were identified for 3,617 conserved Arabidopsis proteins. There was significant coexpression of genes whose proteins were predicted to interact, even among low confidence interactions. Interacting proteins were also significantly more likely to be found within the same subcellular location, and significantly less likely to be found in conflicting localizations than randomly paired proteins. A notable exception was that proteins located in the Golgi were more likely to interact with Golgi, vacuolar, or endoplasmic reticulum sorted proteins, indicating possible docking or trafficking interactions. These predictions can aid researchers by extending known complexes and pathways with candidate proteins. In addition we have predicted interactions for many previously unknown proteins in known pathways and complexes. We present this interactome, and an online Web interface the Arabidopsis Interactions Viewer, as a first step toward understanding global signaling in Arabidopsis, and to whet the appetite for those who are awaiting results from high-throughput experimental approaches.

  17. Gradient Mechanical Properties Facilitate Arabidopsis Trichome as Mechanosensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Zhou, Li Hong; Jiao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Shaobao; Zhang, Zhanming; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2016-04-20

    It has been reported that Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichome can act as a mechanosensory switch, transducing mechanical stimuli into physiological signals, mainly through a buckling instability to focus external force (e.g., exerted by insects) on the base of trichome. The material and structural properties of trichomes remain largely unknown in this buckling instability. In this report, we mainly focused on material standpoint to explore the possible mechanism facilitating the buckling instability. We observed that the Young's modulus of trichome cell wall decreased gradually from branch to the base region of trichome. Interestingly, we also found a corresponding decline of calcium concentration on the trichome cell wall. Results of finite element method (FEM) simulation suggested that such a gradient distribution of Young's modulus significantly promotes force focusing and buckling instability on the base of trichome. It is indicated that Arabidopsis trichome has developed into an active mechanosensor benefiting from gradient cell wall mechanical properties.

  18. Molecular mobility of nematic E7 confined to molecular sieves with a low filling degree.

    PubMed

    Brás, A R; Frunza, S; Guerreiro, L; Fonseca, I M; Corma, A; Frunza, L; Dionísio, M; Schönhals, A

    2010-06-14

    The nematic liquid crystalline mixture E7 was confined with similar filling degrees to molecular sieves with constant composition but different pore diameters (from 2.8 to 6.8 nm). Fourier transform infrared analysis proved that the E7 molecules interact via the cyanogroup with the pore walls of the molecular sieves. The molecular dynamics of the system was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (10(-2)-10(9) Hz) covering a wide temperature range of approximately 200 K from temperatures well above the isotropic-nematic transition down to the glass transition of bulk E7. A variety of relaxation processes is observed including two modes that are located close to the bulk behavior in its temperature dependence. For all confined samples, two relaxation processes, at frequencies lower than the processes observed for the bulk, were detected. At lower temperatures, their relaxation rates have different temperature dependencies whereas at higher temperatures, they seem to collapse into one chart. The temperature dependence of the slowest process (S-process) obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law indicating a glassy dynamics of the E7 molecules anchored to the pore surface. The pore size dependence of both the Vogel temperature and fragility revealed a steplike transition around 4 nm pore size, which indicates a transition from a strong to a fragile behavior. The process with a relaxation rate in between the bulklike and the S-process (I-process) shows no dependence on the pore size. The agreement of the I-process with the behavior of a 5CB surface layer adsorbed on nonporous silica leads to the assignment of E7 molecules anchored at the outer surface of the microcrystals of the molecular sieves.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    SciTech Connect

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D.; Sawada, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  20. n-alkane profiles of engine lubricating oil and particulate matter by molecular sieve extraction.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Gianni A; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Macdonald, Penny; Graham, Lisa

    2007-05-15

    As part of the Canadian Atmospheric Fine Particle Research Program to obtain reliable primary source emission profiles, a molecular sieve method was developed to reliably determine n-alkanes in lubricating oils, vehicle emissions, and mobile source dominated ambient particulate matter (PM). This work was also initiated to better calculate carbon preference index values (CPI: the ratio of the sums of odd over even n-alkanes), a parameter for estimating anthropogenic versus biogenic contributions in PM. n-Alkanes in lubricating oil and mobile source dominated PM are difficult to identify and quantify by gas chromatography due to the presence of similar components that cannot be fully resolved. This results in a hump, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that leads to incorrect n-alkane concentrations and CPI values. The sieve method yielded better chromatography, unambiguous identification of n-alkanes and allowed examination of differences between n-alkane profiles in light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) lubricating oils that would have been otherwise difficult. These profile differences made it possible to relate the LDV profile to that of the PM samples collected during a tunnel study in August 2001 near Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). The n-alkane PM data revealed that longer sampling times result in a negative artifact, i.e., the desorption of the more volatile n-alkanes from the filters. Furthermore, the sieve procedure yielded n-alkane data that allowed calculation of accurate CPI values for lubricating oils and PM samples. Finally, this method may prove helpful in estimating the respective diesel and gasoline contributions to ambient PM.

  1. Correlation of diafiltration sieving behavior of lysozyme-BSA mixtures with osmotic second virial cross-coefficients.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Peter M; Verruto, Vincent J; Sandler, Stanley I; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2004-08-05

    The role of protein-protein interactions in membrane separations of protein mixtures remains incompletely understood, largely due to the difficulty of characterizing protein self- and, especially, cross-association. Recently, a novel technique, cross-interaction chromatography, has been developed to measure weak protein cross-association in terms of the osmotic second virial cross-coefficient. In this work the relationship between protein cross-association and the sieving behavior of lysozyme in the presence of BSA has been investigated. Sieving coefficients were measured using a stirred diafiltration cell over a range of pH and ionic strength, and a striking correlation between the lysozyme sieving and second virial cross-coefficients for BSA/lysozyme mixtures has been found: when the protein cross-interactions are most attractive (negative second virial cross-coefficient), the lysozyme sieving coefficients are lowest, and vice versa. The correlation between the sieving and second virial cross-coefficients may be due to the physically similar environments in the chromatography and filtration experiments since one protein is passed through a concentrated region of the second protein either immobilized on the column or accumulated at the membrane surface, and the migration rate of the mobile protein in both cases is influenced by protein cross-association. This study represents the first time that molecular interactions in binary mixtures have been related directly to filtration behavior, and may provide a useful approach to optimize the separation of other binary protein mixtures.

  2. Increasing the sludge energy potential of wastewater treatment plants by introducing fine mesh sieves for primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Paulsrud, Bjarne; Rusten, Bjørn; Aas, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare some basic characteristics of sludge from fine mesh sieves (sieve sludge) with sludge from primary clarifiers (primary sludge) regarding their energy potential with a focus on anaerobic digestion and/or incineration. Nineteen samples of sludge from fine mesh sieve plants (most of them without fine screens and grit chambers as pre-treatment) and 10 samples of primary sludge were analysed for the content of dry solids (DS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), calorific value and methane potential. The results demonstrated that the sieve sludges have significantly higher VS content and higher methane potential than primary sludges, clearly indicating an increased sludge energy potential if fine mesh sieves are used for primary treatment instead of primary clarifiers at wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic digesters. If the sludges from primary treatment are to be incinerated or used as fuel in cement kilns, there is no significant difference in energy potential (given as calorific values) for the two types of primary treatment.

  3. Analysis of the heat transfer to hydrocarbon mixtures from geothermal brines using a sieve tray column

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, H.R.; Eden, T.J.; Mines, G.L.; Demuth, O.J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to design geothermal direct contact binary cycle power plants it is necessary to develop design tools to size the direct contactor. Of particular importance is the design of the working fluid preheater. For sieve tray columns a method is presented which has been successfully used when the working fluid is a pure fluid. It is shown here to be equally successful when applied to fluid mixtures. Further, it is shown that when changing the working fluid mixture that column internals must be changed to meet the demands of the new conditions.

  4. Improved light olefin yield from methyl bromide coupling over modified SAPO-34 molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Shouli; Komon, Zachary J A; Osterwalder, Neil; Gadewar, Sagar; Stoimenov, Peter; Auerbach, Daniel J; Stucky, Galen D; McFarland, Eric W

    2011-02-21

    As an alternative to the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas followed by methanol synthesis and the subsequent generation of olefins, we have studied the production of light olefins (ethylene and propylene) from the reaction of methyl bromide over various modified microporous silico-aluminophosphate molecular-sieve catalysts with an emphasis on SAPO-34. Some comparisons of methyl halides and methanol as reaction intermediates in their conversion to olefins are presented. Increasing the ratio of Si/Al and incorporation of Co into the catalyst framework improved the methyl bromide yield of light olefins over that obtained using standard SAPO-34.

  5. Molecular sieving polymer for DNA/RNA separation in capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chenchen; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Dou, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    In capillary polymer electrophoresis, the property of polymer sieving matrix dominates the migration behavior of DNA/RNA. We investigated the capillary electrophoresis of RNA ranging from 100 nt to 10,000 nt in polyacrylamide (PA) solutions with different molecular weights (Mw) and different concentrations. We observed that the resolution length (RSL) of RNA fragments was improved and the migration time was prolonged, when polymer concentration was increased. The resolution for small RNA fragments (<1000 nt) was improved with the increase of polymer concentration, whereas the large ones (>3000 nt) became inseparable. In addition, we estimated the smallest resolvable nucleotide length (Ls) by the plot of RSL against RNA size.

  6. Thermal expansion properties of stannosilicate molecular sieve with MFI type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niphadkar, P. S.; Bhange, D. S.; Selvaraj, K.; Joshi, P. N.

    2012-10-01

    An in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction study was carried out for investigating the thermal expansion properties of Si-MFI and SnSi-MFI molecular sieves. The thermal stability up to 973 K and a negative lattice thermal expansion in anisotropic manner was exhibited by both the phases in the temperature range of 373-973 K. The trend observed in contraction along the axes was as: a > c > b. The substitution of Sn4+ in MFI framework resulted in an expansion of unit cell volume and in an increase in the lattice thermal expansion coefficient in the temperature range 423-973 K.

  7. Electronic and magnetic structure of LaSr-2×4 manganese oxide molecular sieve nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gazquez, Jaume; Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí; Mestres, Narcís; Varela, María

    2014-06-01

    In this study we combine scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and electron magnetic circular dichroism to get new insights into the electronic and magnetic structure of LaSr-2×4 manganese oxide molecular sieve nanowires integrated on a silicon substrate. These nanowires exhibit ferromagnetism with strongly enhanced Curie temperature (T c >500 K), and we show that the new crystallographic structure of these LaSr-2×4 nanowires involves spin orbital coupling and a mixed-valence Mn3+/Mn4+, which is a must for ferromagnetic ordering to appear, in line with the standard double exchange explanation.

  8. Investigations to improve carbon dioxide control with amine and molecular sieve type sorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, J. F.; Brose, H. F.; Kester, F. L.; Lunde, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The optimization trends and operating parameters of an integral molecular sieve bed heat exchanger were investigated. The optimum combination of substrate and coating for the HS-B porous polymer was determined based on the CO2 dynamic capacity in the presence of water vapor. Full size HS-B canister performance was evaluated. An Amine CO2 Concentrator utilizing IR-45 sorber material and available Manned Orbiting Laboratory hardware was designed, fabricated and tested for use as an experiment in the NASA 90-day space simulator test of 1970. It supported four men in the simulator for 71 days out of the 90-day test duration.

  9. Alleviation of Copper Toxicity in Arabidopsis Thaliana and Zinnia Elegans by Silicon Addition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While the role of silicon in plants has been studied for over 150 years, and this element can mitigate the effects of certain heavy metals, its role in Cu metabolism is unclear. Therefore, the role of Si in plant response to Cu stress was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heyn) and Zinnia el...

  10. In Situ Electrochemical Synthesis of Oriented and Defect-Free AEL Molecular-Sieve Films Using Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tongwen; Chu, Wenling; Cai, Rui; Liu, Yanchun; Yang, Weishen

    2015-10-26

    Simply preparing oriented and defect-free molecular-sieve films have been a long-standing challenge both in academia and industry. Most of the early works focus on the careful and multiple controls of the seeds layer or synthesis conditions. Herein, we report a one-step in situ electrochemical ionothermal method that combines a controllable electric field with ionic liquids. We demonstrate that an in-plane oriented and defect-free AEL (one molecular-sieve framework type) molecular-sieve film was obtained using an Al electrode as the Al source. The excellent corrosion-resistant performance of the film makes this technology promising in multiple applications, such as anti-corrosion coatings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Zeolite molecular sieves have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Nuno; Partridge, Johann; Halling, Peter J; Barreiros, Susana

    2002-02-05

    Zeolite molecular sieves very commonly are used as in situ drying agents in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. They often affect enzyme behavior, and this has been interpreted in terms of altered hydration. Here, we show that zeolites can also have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in low water media, resulting from their cation-exchange ability. Initial rates of transesterification catalyzed by cross-linked crystals of subtilisin were compared in supercritical ethane, hexane, and acetonitrile with water activity fixed by pre-equilibration. Addition of zeolite NaA (4 A powder) still caused remarkable rate enhancements (up to 20-fold), despite the separate control of hydration. In the presence of excess of an alternative solid-state acid-base buffer, however, zeolite addition had no effect. The more commonly used Merck molecular sieves (type 3 A beads) had similar but somewhat smaller effects. All zeolites have ion-exchange ability and can exchange H+ for cations such as Na+ and K+. These exchanges will tend to affect the protonation state of acidic groups in the protein and, hence, enzymatic activity. Zeolites pre-equilibrated in aqueous suspensions of varying pH-pNa gave very different enzyme activities. Their differing basicities were demonstrated directly by equilibration with an indicator dissolved in toluene. The potential of zeolites as acid-base buffers for low-water media is discussed, and their ability to overcome pH memory is demonstrated.

  12. Remembering the SIEV X: who cares for the bodies of the stateless, lost at sea?

    PubMed

    Gibbings, Beth

    2010-02-01

    The SIEV X was a tiny fishing vessel traveling from Indonesia to Australia in 2001, carrying around four hundred people seeking asylum after fleeing from the warfare and persecution predominantly in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many were women and children trying to enter Australia to join fathers and husbands already granted refugee status but not allowed to bring in family members because of new Australian laws on "Temporary Protection Visas". Of these, 353 drowned when the boat sank in international waters. The conservative Australian government denied responsibility, using the event in an election campaign to play on fears about illegal entry and border defense in the Islamophobic climate in the aftermath of 9/11. Yet many everyday Australians eventually became involved in a collaborative design process to create a memorial to those asylum seekers. This article discusses the debates around memorials for those lost at sea, and particularly for those who might be portrayed as enemies or "illegal immigrants" whose coming threatens national borders. It identifies the conditions under which the campaign to commemorate those who died on the SIEV X moved from being a minority interest to become a cause so widely supported by Australians across the country that the memorial was eventually erected in the heart of the national capital.

  13. Using a parity-sensitive sieve to count prime values of a polynomial.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, J; Iwaniec, H

    1997-02-18

    It is expected that any irreducible polynomial with integer coefficients assumes infinitely many prime values provided that it satisfies some obvious local conditions. Moreover, it is expected that the frequency of these primes obeys a simple asymptotic law. This has however been proven for only a few special classes of polynomials. In the most famous unsolved cases the sequence of values is "thin" in the sense that it contains fewer than N(theta) integers up to N for some constant theta < 1. Quite generally it seems to be difficult to show the infinitude of primes in a given thin integer sequence and there is no polynomial for which this has hitherto been done. The polynomial x(2) + y(4) is an example of such a thin sequence; here, specifically, theta = 3/4. We report here the development of new methods that rigorously demonstrate the asymptotic formula in the case of this polynomial and that are applicable to an infinite class of polynomials to which this one belongs. The proof is based partly on a new sieve method that breaks the well-known parity problem of sieve theory and partly on a careful harmonic analysis of the special properties of biquadratic polynomial sequences.

  14. Structural and thermotropic peculiarities of hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals confined in mesoporous molecular sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatyuk, I.; Gavrilko, T.; Yaroshchuk, O.; Holovina, N.; Shcherban, N.; Baran, J.; Drozd, M.

    2016-12-01

    The phase behaviour and structural organization of hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals were investigated under confinement to mesoporous molecular sieves. As such liquid crystalline compounds, 4-hexylbenzoic and 4-butylcyclohexanecarboxylic acids with different head group structure and alkyl chain length where selected and filled in the AlMCM-41 sieves. With FTIR spectroscopy it was found that some part of incorporated acid molecules, presumably located in the inner space of the AlMCM-41 pores, is in undissociated form of open dimers or chain associates and thus shows spectroscopic features characteristic to the bulk-like species. The other FTIR spectra components indicate strong interaction of the incorporated monomeric molecules with the pore surface. Two specific mechanisms are shown to be involved in molecular interactions at the interface: (1) deprotonation of monomeric acid molecules on the pore surface with formation of COO- carboxylate ions and (2) bonding of these ions to the pore surface by a coordinated bond R-COO-…Al+ with Lewis acid sites. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that these near-surface processes lead to complete suppression of mesomorphic properties of the studied acids under confinement to nanopores.

  15. Modeling water adsorption in carbon micropores: study of water in carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, S W

    2006-01-17

    Measurements of water adsorption equilibrium in a carbon molecular sieve are undertaken in order to gain insight into the nature of water adsorption in carbon micropores. The measurements are taken at low concentrations to emphasize the role of oxygen-containing functional groups in the adsorption of water. Comparisons are made with previously published water adsorption data at higher concentrations to provide a data set spanning a wide range of loading. The assembled data set provides an opportunity for comparison of various theories for prediction of water adsorption in carbon micropores. Shortcomings of current theories are outlined, and an analytical theory that is free of these deficiencies is proposed in this investigation. With the consideration of micropore volume and pore size distribution, the experimental data and proposed isotherm model are consistent with previous studies of Takeda carbon molecular sieves. Also investigated is the uptake kinetics of water, which is characterized by a Fickian diffusion mechanism. The Maxwell-Stefan formulation is applied to characterize the dependence of the diffusional mobility upon loading.

  16. Carbon molecular sieves from carbon cloth: Influence of the chemical impregnant on gas separation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Blanco, G.; Giraldo, L.; Moreno-Piraján, J. C.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon materials with molecular sieve properties (CMS) were prepared by pyrolysis of cotton fabrics by chemical activation procedures. To evaluate the changes in the chemical and textural properties, the impregnants AlCl 3, ZnCl 2 and H 3PO 4 were used at 1123 K. The materials were characterized using adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, TPD, and immersion calorimetry in C 6H 6. Adsorption kinetics of O 2, N 2, CO 2, CH 4, C 3H 8 and C 3H 6 were measured in all the prepared materials to determine their behaviour as molecular sieves. The results confirm that the chemical used as impregnant has a significant effect on the resulting CMS separation properties. All materials exhibit microporosity and low oxygen surface group contents; however, the sample impregnated with zinc chloride, with an immersion enthalpy value of 66.4 J g -1 in benzene, exhibits the best performance in the separation of CH 4-CO 2 and C 3H 8-C 3H 6 at 273 K.

  17. A passive sampling method for radiocarbon analysis of atmospheric CO 2 using molecular sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Mark H.; Hartley, Iain P.

    2010-03-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14C) analysis of atmospheric CO 2 can provide information on CO 2 sources and is potentially valuable for validating inventories of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. We tested zeolite molecular sieve cartridges, in both field and laboratory experiments, for passively collecting atmospheric CO 2. Cartridges were exposed to the free atmosphere in two configurations which controlled CO 2 trapping rate, allowing collection of sufficient CO 2 in between 1.5 and 10 months at current levels. 14C results for passive samples were within measurement uncertainty of samples collected using a pump-based system, showing that the method collected samples with 14C contents representative of the atmosphere. δ 13C analysis confirmed that the cartridges collected representative CO 2 samples, however, fractionation during passive trapping means that δ 13C values need to be adjusted by an amount which we have quantified. Trapping rate was proportional to atmospheric CO 2 concentration, and was not affected by exposure time unless this exceeded a threshold. Passive sampling using molecular sieve cartridges provides an easy and reliable method to collect atmospheric CO 2 for 14C analysis.

  18. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO{sub 2} sampling system for radiocarbon measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palonen, V.

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO{sub 2} samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO{sub 2} concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO{sub 2} selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO{sub 2} from chambers prior to the CO{sub 2} build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO{sub 2} and the determination of CO{sub 2} flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  19. Combining sieving and washing, a way to treat MSWI boiler fly ash.

    PubMed

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ashes contain some compounds that could be extracted and valorised. A process based on wet sieving and washing steps has been developed aiming to reach this objective. Such unique combination in MSWI fly ash treatment led to a non-hazardous fraction from incineration fly ashes. More specifically, MSWI Boiler Fly Ash (BFA) was separately sampled and treated. The BFA finer particles (13wt%) were found to be more contaminated in Pb and Zn than the coarser fractions. After three washing steps, the coarser fractions presented leaching concentrations acceptable to landfill for non-hazardous materials so that an eventual subsequent valorisation may be foreseen. At the contrary, too much Pb leached from the finest particles and this fraction should be further treated. Wet sieving and washing permit thus to reduce the leachability of MSWI BFA and to concentrate the Pb and Zn contamination in a small (in particle size and volume) fraction. Such combination would therefore constitute a straightforward and efficient basis to valorise coarse particles from MSWI fly ashes.

  20. Molecular sieve/sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changkhamchom, Sairung; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-02-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) is an electrolyte membrane used in both polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Currently, PEMs typically used for PEMFCs are mainly the commercially available Nafion^ membranes, which is high cost and loss of proton conductivity at elevated temperature. In this work, the Sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone), (S-PEKES), was synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution polycondensation between bisphenol S and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone, and followed by the sulfonation reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. The molecular sieve was added in the S-PEKES matrix at various ratios to form composite membranes to be the candidate for PEM. Properties of both pure sulfonated polymer and composite membranes were compared with the commercial Nafion^ 117 membrane from Dupont. S-PEKES membranes cast from these materials were evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. The main properties investigated were the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, thermal, chemical, oxidative, and mechanical stabilities by using a LCR meter, Gas Chromatography, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Fenton's reagent, and Universal Testing Machine. The addition of the molecular sieve helped to increase both the proton conductivity and the methanol stability. These composite membranes are shown as to be potential candidates for use as a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM).

  1. Method for Determining the Activation Energy Distribution Function of Complex Reactions by Sieving and Thermogravimetric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bufalo, Gennaro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-14

    A method for studying the kinetics of thermal degradation of complex compounds is suggested. Although the method is applicable to any matrix whose grain size can be measured, herein we focus our investigation on thermogravimetric analysis, under a nitrogen atmosphere, of ground soft wheat and ground maize. The thermogravimetric curves reveal that there are two well-distinct jumps of mass loss. They correspond to volatilization, which is in the temperature range 298-433 K, and decomposition regions go from 450 to 1073 K. Thermal degradation is schematized as a reaction in the solid state whose kinetics is analyzed separately in each of the two regions. By means of a sieving analysis different size fractions of the material are separated and studied. A quasi-Newton fitting algorithm is used to obtain the grain size distribution as best fit to experimental data. The individual fractions are thermogravimetrically analyzed for deriving the functional relationship between activation energy of the degradation reactions and the particle size. Such functional relationship turns out to be crucial to evaluate the moments of the activation energy distribution, which is unknown in terms of the distribution calculated by sieve analysis. From the knowledge of moments one can reconstruct the reaction conversion. The method is applied first to the volatilization region, then to the decomposition region. The comparison with the experimental data reveals that the method reproduces the experimental conversion with an accuracy of 5-10% in the volatilization region and of 3-5% in the decomposition region.

  2. Redox chemistry of gaseous reactants inside photoexcited FeAlPO{sub 4} molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Ulagappan, N.; Frei, H.

    2000-01-27

    The reactivity of ligand-to-metal charge transfer excited Fe centers of FeAlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieve at the gas-micropore interface has been probed by in situ FT-IR spectroscopy. Laser light in the region 350--430 nm was used to excite the metal centers, and reaction was induced between methanol or 2-propanol and O{sub 2}. Acetone and H{sub 2}O are the observed products of the 2-propanol + O{sub 2} system, while the reaction of methanol with O{sub 2} yields formic acid, methyl formate, and H{sub 2}O as final products. These originate from secondary thermal reaction of initially produced formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The primary step of the proposed mechanism involves one-electron reduction of O{sub 2} by transient Fe{sup +II} under concurrent donation of an electron to be hole of framework oxygen by the alcohol molecule. The efficient reaction suggests that the photoreduced Fe center of the molecular sieve has a substantially stronger reducing power than the conduction band electrons of dense-phase Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} semiconductor particles.

  3. Tritiated water on a molecular sieve: Water dynamics and anomalous pressure observations

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.T.

    1999-07-01

    The production of fusion energy in a tokamak using deuterium (D) and tritium (T) requires the safe handling and processing of exhaust gases that contain various amounts of tritium. Initial operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, oxidized exhaust gases for tritium recovery or long-term storage. One of the most efficient and safest ways to contain tritiated water is to sorb it onto a pelletized 4A molecular sieve. For that reason, a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) was designed as a pressure vessel because of the possibility of pressure generation from the self-radiolysis of tritiated water. Two months after removing a DMSB from the process at TFTR, a pressure in excess of that predicted from self-radiolysis was observed. Interestingly, pressure measurements at longer times (up to 2.5 yr) showed less pressure than expected. Pressure was not being generated in the DMSBs at the predicted rate. This was unexpected and prompted an investigation into the mechanism responsible for the anomalous pressure measurements.

  4. Effective removal of hydrogen sulfide using 4A molecular sieve zeolite synthesized from attapulgite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinpeng; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-15

    In this work, 4A molecular sieve zeolite was synthesized from attapulgite (ATP) in different conditions and was applied initially for H2S removal. The sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and N2 adsorption/desorption. The effects of the synthesis condition and adsorption temperature were studied by dynamic adsorption experiment. The optimal adsorption temperature is 50°C. The H2S adsorption results have showed that the optimal synthesis conditions are as follows: the ratio of silicon to aluminum and ratio of sodium to silicon are both 1.5, the ratio of water to sodium is 30, crystallization temperature and crystallization time is 90°C, 4h, respectively. The breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacities of zeolite synthesized under optimum conditions are up to nearly 10 and 15mg/g-sorbent, respectively, and the H2S removal rate is nearly 100%. The adsorption kinetics nonlinear fitting results show that the adsorption system follows Bingham model. These results indicate that 4A molecular sieve zeolite synthesized from attapulgite can be used for H2S removal promisingly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanoscale tailor-made membranes for precise and rapid molecular sieve separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Junyong; Zhang, Yatao; Liu, Jindun; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-03-02

    The precise and rapid separation of different molecules from aqueous, organic solutions and gas mixtures is critical to many technologies in the context of resource-saving and sustainable development. The strength of membrane-based technologies is well recognized and they are extensively applied as cost-effective, highly efficient separation techniques. Currently, empirical-based approaches, lacking an accurate nanoscale control, are used to prepare the most advanced membranes. In contrast, nanoscale control renders the membrane molecular specificity (sub-2 nm) necessary for efficient and rapid molecular separation. Therefore, as a growing trend in membrane technology, the field of nanoscale tailor-made membranes is highlighted in this review. An in-depth analysis of the latest advances in tailor-made membranes for precise and rapid molecule sieving is given, along with an outlook to future perspectives of such membranes. Special attention is paid to the established processing strategies, as well as the application of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in nanoporous membrane design. This review will provide useful guidelines for future research in the development of nanoscale tailor-made membranes with a precise and rapid molecular sieve separation property.

  6. Bio-inspired polydopamine: a versatile and powerful platform for covalent synthesis of molecular sieve membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Nanyi; Caro, Jürgen; Huang, Aisheng

    2013-11-27

    Inspired by the bioadhesive ability of the marine mussel, a simple, versatile, and powerful synthesis strategy was developed to prepare highly reproducible and permselective molecular sieve membranes by using polydopamine as a novel covalent linker. Attributing to the formation of strong covalent and noncovalent bonds, ZIF-8 nutrients are attracted and bound to the support surface, thus promoting the ZIF-8 nucleation and the growth of uniform, well intergrown, and phase-pure ZIF-8 molecular sieve membranes. The developed ZIF-8 membranes show high hydrogen selectivity and thermal stability. At 150 °C and 1 bar, the mixture separation factors of H2/CO2, H2/N2, H2/CH4, and H2/C3H8 are 8.9, 16.2, 31.5 and 712.6, with H2 permeances higher than 1.8 × 10(-7) mol·m(-2)·s(-1)·Pa(-1), which is promising for hydrogen separation and purification.

  7. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO2 sampling system for radiocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palonen, V.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO2 samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO2 concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO2 selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO2 from chambers prior to the CO2 build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO2 and H2O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO2 and the determination of CO2 flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  8. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO2 sampling system for radiocarbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Palonen, V

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO2 samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO2 concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO2 selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO2 from chambers prior to the CO2 build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO2 and H2O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO2 and the determination of CO2 flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  9. Time-dependent CO2 sorption hysteresis in a one-dimensional microporous octahedral molecular sieve.

    PubMed

    Espinal, Laura; Wong-Ng, Winnie; Kaduk, James A; Allen, Andrew J; Snyder, Chad R; Chiu, Chun; Siderius, Daniel W; Li, Lan; Cockayne, Eric; Espinal, Anais E; Suib, Steven L

    2012-05-09

    The development of sorbents for next-generation CO(2) mitigation technologies will require better understanding of CO(2)/sorbent interactions. Among the sorbents under consideration are shape-selective microporous molecular sieves with hierarchical pore morphologies of reduced dimensionality. We have characterized the non-equilibrium CO(2) sorption of OMS-2, a well-known one-dimensional microporous octahedral molecular sieve with manganese oxide framework. Remarkably, we find that the degree of CO(2) sorption hysteresis increases when the gas/sorbent system is allowed to equilibrate for longer times at each pressure step. Density functional theory calculations indicate a "gate-keeping" role of the cation in the tunnel, only allowing CO(2) molecules to enter fully into the tunnel via a highly unstable transient state when CO(2) loadings exceed 0.75 mmol/g. The energy barrier associated with the gate-keeping effect suggests an adsorption mechanism in which kinetic trapping of CO(2) is responsible for the observed hysteretic behavior.

  10. Study on the pyrolysis of cellulose for bio-oil with mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng-wen; Ji, Deng-xiang; Nie, Yong; Luo, Yao; Huang, Cheng-jie; Ji, Jian-bing

    2012-09-01

    Mesoporous materials possess a hexagonal array of uniform mesopores, high surface areas, and moderate acidity. They are one of the important catalysts in the field of catalytic pyrolysis. In this paper, mesoporous materials of Al-MCM-41, La-Al-MCM-41, and Ce-Al-MCM-41 were synthesized, characterized, and tested as catalysts in the cellulose catalytic pyrolysis process using a fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results showed that mesoporous materials exhibited a strong influence on the pyrolytic behavior of cellulose. The presence of these mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts could vary the yield of products, which was that they could decrease the yield of liquid and char and increase the yield of gas product, and could promote high-carbon chain compounds to break into low-carbon chain compounds. Mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts were benefit to the reaction of dehydrogenation and deoxidation and the breakdown of carbon chain. Further, La-Al-MCM-41 and Ce-Al-MCM-41 catalysts can produce more toluene and 2-methoxy-phenol, as compared to the non-catalytic runs.

  11. Hydroxylation of phenol over MeAPO molecular sieves synthesized by vapor phase transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hui; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Xia; Leng, Yixin; Zhong, Jing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, MeAPO-25 (Me = Fe, Cu, Mn) molecular sieves were first synthesized by a vapor phase transport method using tetramethyl guanidine as the template and applied to hydroxylation of phenol. The zeolites were characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, and DR UV-Vis. As a result, MeAPO-21 and MeAPO-15 were synthesized by changing the Me/Al ratio. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance study suggested incorporation of heteroatoms into the framework and FT-IR study also supported these data. Effects of heteroatoms, contents of Me in MeAPO-25, reaction temperature, phenol/H2O2 mole ratios, reaction time and concentration of catalyst on the conversion of phenol, as well as on the selectivity were studied. FeAPO-25 exhibited a high catalytic activity at the mole ratio of FeO and Al2O3 equal to 0.1 in the synthesis gel, giving the phenol conversion of 88.75% and diphenols selectivity of 66.23% at 60°C within 3 h [ n(phenol)/ n(H2O2) = 0.75, m(FeAPO-25)/ m(phenol) = 7.5%]. Experimental results indicated that the FeAPO-25 molecular sieve was a fairly promising candidate for the application in hydroxylation of phenol.

  12. Threshold microsclerotial inoculum for cotton verticillium wilt determined through wet-sieving and real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Fan, Rong; Dong, Haitao; Shang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiangming; Zhu, Heqin; Yang, Jiarong; Hu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    Quantification of Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia is an important component of wilt management on a range of crops. Estimation of microsclerotia by dry or wet sieving and plating of soil samples on semiselective medium is a commonly used technique but this method is resource-intensive. We developed a new molecular quantification method based on Synergy Brands (SYBR) Green real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of wet-sieving samples (wet-sieving qPCR). This method can detect V. dahliae microsclerotia as low as 0.5 CFU g(-1) of soil. There was a high correlation (r=0.98) between the estimates of conventional plating analysis and the new wet-sieving qPCR method for 40 soil samples. To estimate the inoculum threshold for cotton wilt, >400 soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of individual plants with or without visual wilt symptoms in experimental and commercial cotton fields at the boll-forming stage. Wilt inoculum was estimated using the wet-sieving qPCR method and related to wilt development. The estimated inoculum threshold varied with cultivar, ranging from 4.0 and 7.0 CFU g(-1) of soil for susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively. In addition, there was an overall relationship of wilt incidence with inoculum density across 31 commercial fields where a single composite soil sample was taken at each field, with an estimated inoculum threshold of 11 CFU g(-1) of soil. These results suggest that wilt risk can be predicted from the estimated soil inoculum density using the new wet-sieving qPCR method. We recommend the use of 4.0 and 7.0 CFU g(-1) as an inoculum threshold on susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively, in practical risk prediction schemes.

  13. Dynamic quantum molecular sieving separation of D2 from H2-D2 mixture with nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Subaru; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Minami, Daiki; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Abrams, Lloyd; Corbin, Dave; Hata, Kenji; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-11-14

    Quantum molecular sieving separability of D(2) from an H(2)-D(2) mixture was measured at 77 K for activated carbon fiber, carbon molecular sieve, zeolite and single wall carbon nanotube using a flow method. The amount of adsorbed D(2) was evidently larger than H(2) for all samples. The maximum adsorption ratio difference between D(2) and H(2) was 40% for zeolite (MS13X), yielding a selectivity for D(2) with respect to H(2) of 3.05.

  14. Cryogenic adsorption of low-concentration hydrogen on charcoal, 5A molecular sieve, sodalite, ZSM-5 and Wessalith DAY

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R.S.

    1993-12-01

    The separation of low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from helium is a processing step that is required for ceramic lithium breeding blanket processing. Cryogenic adsorption is one method of effecting this separation. In this study live adsorbents were considered for this purpose: charcoal, 5A molecular sieve, UOP S-115, ZSM-5 and Wessalith DAY. The first two adsorbents exhibit good equilibrium loadings and are shown to be quite effective at adsorbing low-concentration hydrogen isotopes. The latter three adsorbents display considerably lower equilibrium loadings. This study concludes that by using either charcoal or 5A molecular sieve, cryogenic adsorption would be an effective means of separating hydrogen isotopes from helium.

  15. Araport: the Arabidopsis information portal.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Vivek; Hanlon, Matthew R; Contrino, Sergio; Ferlanti, Erik S; Karamycheva, Svetlana; Kim, Maria; Rosen, Benjamin D; Cheng, Chia-Yi; Moreira, Walter; Mock, Stephen A; Stubbs, Joseph; Sullivan, Julie M; Krampis, Konstantinos; Miller, Jason R; Micklem, Gos; Vaughn, Matthew; Town, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis Information Portal (https://www.araport.org) is a new online resource for plant biology research. It houses the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence and associated annotation. It was conceived as a framework that allows the research community to develop and release 'modules' that integrate, analyze and visualize Arabidopsis data that may reside at remote sites. The current implementation provides an indexed database of core genomic information. These data are made available through feature-rich web applications that provide search, data mining, and genome browser functionality, and also by bulk download and web services. Araport uses software from the InterMine and JBrowse projects to expose curated data from TAIR, GO, BAR, EBI, UniProt, PubMed and EPIC CoGe. The site also hosts 'science apps,' developed as prototypes for community modules that use dynamic web pages to present data obtained on-demand from third-party servers via RESTful web services. Designed for sustainability, the Arabidopsis Information Portal strategy exploits existing scientific computing infrastructure, adopts a practical mixture of data integration technologies and encourages collaborative enhancement of the resource by its user community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Araport: the Arabidopsis Information Portal

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, Vivek; Hanlon, Matthew R.; Contrino, Sergio; Ferlanti, Erik S.; Karamycheva, Svetlana; Kim, Maria; Rosen, Benjamin D.; Cheng, Chia-Yi; Moreira, Walter; Mock, Stephen A.; Stubbs, Joseph; Sullivan, Julie M.; Krampis, Konstantinos; Miller, Jason R.; Micklem, Gos; Vaughn, Matthew; Town, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis Information Portal (https://www.araport.org) is a new online resource for plant biology research. It houses the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence and associated annotation. It was conceived as a framework that allows the research community to develop and release ‘modules’ that integrate, analyze and visualize Arabidopsis data that may reside at remote sites. The current implementation provides an indexed database of core genomic information. These data are made available through feature-rich web applications that provide search, data mining, and genome browser functionality, and also by bulk download and web services. Araport uses software from the InterMine and JBrowse projects to expose curated data from TAIR, GO, BAR, EBI, UniProt, PubMed and EPIC CoGe. The site also hosts ‘science apps,’ developed as prototypes for community modules that use dynamic web pages to present data obtained on-demand from third-party servers via RESTful web services. Designed for sustainability, the Arabidopsis Information Portal strategy exploits existing scientific computing infrastructure, adopts a practical mixture of data integration technologies and encourages collaborative enhancement of the resource by its user community. PMID:25414324

  17. Systemic endopolyploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, D.W.; Harkins, K.R. ); Knapp, S. )

    1991-07-01

    Microfluorometric analysis of the nuclear DNA contents of the somatic tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed extensive endoreduplication, resulting in tissues that comprise mixtures of polypoloid cells. Endoreduplication was found in all tissues except those of the inflorescences and was developmentally regulated according to the age of the tissues and their position within the plant.

  18. The salty tale of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, D

    2000-06-29

    High concentrations of sodium chloride are toxic to most plant species. New insights into the mechanisms by which plants tolerate salt have emerged from the identification of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana that play a critical part in physiological resistance to salt.

  19. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Christopher M.; Chapple, Clint

    2011-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway serves as a rich source of metabolites in plants, being required for the biosynthesis of lignin, and serving as a starting point for the production of many other important compounds, such as the flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans. In spite of the fact that the phenylpropanoids and their derivatives are sometimes classified as secondary metabolites, their relevance to plant survival has been made clear via the study of Arabidopsis and other plant species. As a model system, Arabidopsis has helped to elucidate many details of the phenylpropanoid pathway, its enzymes and intermediates, and the interconnectedness of the pathway with plant metabolism as a whole. These advances in our understanding have been made possible in large part by the relative ease with which mutations can be generated, identified, and studied in Arabidopsis. Herein, we provide an overview of the research progress that has been made in recent years, emphasizing both the genes (and gene families) associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis, and the end products that have contributed to the identification of many mutants deficient in the phenylpropanoid metabolism: the sinapate esters. PMID:22303276

  20. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered phototropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty five strains of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. have been identified with altered phototropic responses to 450-nm light. Four of these mutants have been more thoroughly characterized. Strain JK224 shows normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. However, while the amplitude for "first positive" phototropism is the same as that in the wild-type, the threshold and fluence for the maximum response in "first positive" phototropism are shifted to higher fluence by a factor of 20-30. This mutant may represent an alteration in the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism. Strain JK218 exhibits no curvature to light at any fluence from 1 micromole m-2 to 2700 micromoles m-2, but shows normal gravitropism. Strain JK345 shows no "first positive" phototropism, and reduced gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Strain JK229 shows no measurable "first positive" phototropism, but normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Based on these data, it is suggested that: 1. gravitropism and phototropism contain at least one common element; 2. "first positive" and "second positive" phototropism contain at least one common element; and 3. "first positive" phototropism can be substantially altered without any apparent alteration of "second positive" phototropism.

  1. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered phototropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty five strains of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. have been identified with altered phototropic responses to 450-nm light. Four of these mutants have been more thoroughly characterized. Strain JK224 shows normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. However, while the amplitude for "first positive" phototropism is the same as that in the wild-type, the threshold and fluence for the maximum response in "first positive" phototropism are shifted to higher fluence by a factor of 20-30. This mutant may represent an alteration in the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism. Strain JK218 exhibits no curvature to light at any fluence from 1 micromole m-2 to 2700 micromoles m-2, but shows normal gravitropism. Strain JK345 shows no "first positive" phototropism, and reduced gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Strain JK229 shows no measurable "first positive" phototropism, but normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Based on these data, it is suggested that: 1. gravitropism and phototropism contain at least one common element; 2. "first positive" and "second positive" phototropism contain at least one common element; and 3. "first positive" phototropism can be substantially altered without any apparent alteration of "second positive" phototropism.

  2. Comparative transcriptomics of early meiosis in Arabidopsis and maize.

    PubMed

    Dukowic-Schulze, Stefanie; Harris, Anthony; Li, Junhua; Sundararajan, Anitha; Mudge, Joann; Retzel, Ernest F; Pawlowski, Wojciech P; Chen, Changbin

    2014-03-20

    Though sexually reproductive plants share the same principle and most processes in meiosis, there are distinct features detectable. To address the similarities and differences of early meiosis transcriptomes from the dicot model system Arabidopsis and monocot model system maize, we performed comparative analyses of RNA-seq data of isolated meiocytes, anthers and seedlings from both species separately and via orthologous genes. Overall gene expression showed similarities, such as an increased number of reads mapping to unannotated features, and differences, such as the amount of differentially expressed genes. We detected major similarities and differences in functional annotations of genes up-regulated in meiocytes, which point to conserved features as well as unique features. Transcriptional regulation seems to be quite similar in Arabidopsis and maize, and we could reveal known and novel transcription factors and cis-regulatory elements acting in early meiosis. Taken together, meiosis between Arabidopsis and maize is conserved in many ways, but displays key distinctions that lie in the patterns of gene expression.

  3. Contribution of transcriptional regulation to natural variations in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenqiong J; Chang, Sherman H; Hudson, Matthew E; Kwan, Wai-King; Li, Jingqiu; Estes, Bram; Knoll, Daniel; Shi, Liang; Zhu, Tong

    2005-01-01

    Background Genetic control of gene transcription is a key component in genome evolution. To understand the transcriptional basis of natural variation, we have studied genome-wide variations in transcription and characterized the genetic variations in regulatory elements among Arabidopsis accessions. Results Among five accessions (Col-0, C24, Ler, WS-2, and NO-0) 7,508 probe sets with no detectable genomic sequence variations were identified on the basis of the comparative genomic hybridization to the Arabidopsis GeneChip microarray, and used for accession-specific transcriptome analysis. Two-way ANOVA analysis has identified 60 genes whose mRNA levels differed in different accession backgrounds in an organ-dependent manner. Most of these genes were involved in stress responses and late stages of plant development, such as seed development. Correlation analysis of expression patterns of these 7,508 genes between pairs of accessions identified a group of 65 highly plastic genes with distinct expression patterns in each accession. Conclusion Genes that show substantial genetic variation in mRNA level are those with functions in signal transduction, transcription and stress response, suggesting the existence of variations in the regulatory mechanisms for these genes among different accessions. This is in contrast to those genes with significant polymorphisms in the coding regions identified by genomic hybridization, which include genes encoding transposon-related proteins, kinases and disease-resistance proteins. While relatively fewer sequence variations were detected on average in the coding regions of these genes, a number of differences were identified from the upstream regions, several of which alter potential cis-regulatory elements. Our results suggest that nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory elements of genes encoding controlling factors could be primary targets of natural selection and a driving force behind the evolution of Arabidopsis accessions. PMID

  4. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; ...

    2018-09-09

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x ≤ 0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and atmore » the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.« less

  5. Gravity-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederoff, Heike; Brown, Christopher S.; Heber, Steffen; Kajla, Jyoti D.; Kumar, Sandeep; Lomax, Terri L.; Wheeler, Benjamin; Yalamanchili, Roopa

    Plant growth and development is regulated by changes in environmental signals. Plants sense environmental changes and respond to them by modifying gene expression programs to ad-just cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. Functional expression of genes comprises many different processes including transcription, translation, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications, as well as the degradation of RNA and proteins. Recently, it was discovered that small RNAs (sRNA, 18-24 nucleotides long), which are heritable and systemic, are key elements in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic changes. Sev-eral different classes of sRNAs have been identified that are part of a non-cell autonomous and phloem-mobile network of regulators affecting transcript stability, translational kinetics, and DNA methylation patterns responsible for heritable transcriptional silencing (epigenetics). Our research has focused on gene expression changes in response to gravistimulation of Arabidopsis roots. Using high-throughput technologies including microarrays and 454 sequencing, we iden-tified rapid changes in transcript abundance of genes as well as differential expression of small RNA in Arabidopsis root apices after minutes of reorientation. Some of the differentially regu-lated transcripts are encoded by genes that are important for the bending response. Functional mutants of those genes respond faster to reorientation than the respective wild type plants, indicating that these proteins are repressors of differential cell elongation. We compared the gravity responsive sRNAs to the changes in transcript abundances of their putative targets and identified several potential miRNA: target pairs. Currently, we are using mutant and transgenic Arabidopsis plants to characterize the function of those miRNAs and their putative targets in gravitropic and phototropic responses in Arabidopsis.

  6. Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana with altered shoot gravitropism

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, B.L.; Poff, K.L.

    1987-04-01

    A procedure has been developed and used to screen 40,000 m-2 seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana for strains with altered shoot gravitropism. Several strains have been identified for which shoot gravitropism is considerably more random than that of their wild-type parent (based on frequency distribution histograms of the gravitropic response to a 1 g stimulus). One such strain exhibits normal hypocotyl phototropism and normal root gravitropism. Thus, the gravitropism pathway in the shoot contains at least one mutable element which is not required for root gravitropism.

  7. The combined use of ultrasound and molecular sieves improves the synthesis of ethyl butyrate catalyzed by immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.

    PubMed

    Paludo, Natalia; Alves, Joana S; Altmann, Cintia; Ayub, Marco A Z; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the combined use of ultrasound energy and molecular sieves was investigated for the synthesis of ethyl butyrate, ester with mango and banana notes, catalyzed by the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM). Initially, the best concentrations of biocatalysts (35%) and butyric acid (0.7M) were tested using ultrasound as an alternative to mechanical agitation. The amount of acid in the reaction could be increased by 2-fold when compared to previous works where mechanical agitation was used. In the next step, substrate molar ratio and reaction temperature were optimized and the best conditions were at their lowest levels: 1:1 (acid:alcohol), and 30°C, reaching 61% of conversion in 6h. Molecular sieves (3Å) were added to optimized reaction medium in order to remove the formed water and improve the maximum yield. The reaction yield increased 1.5 times, reaching 90% of conversion in 6h, when 60mg of molecular sieves per mmol of butyric acid was used. Finally, the reuse of Lipozyme TL-IM for the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of ethyl butyrate was verified for 10 batches, without any appreciable loss of activity, whereas in systems using mechanical agitation, the biocatalyst was completely inactivated after 5 batches. These results suggest that the combined use of ultrasound and molecular sieves greatly improve esterification reactions by stabilizing the enzyme and increasing yields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Practical-scale tests of cryogenic molecular sieve for separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willms, R. S.; Taylor, D. J.; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-04-01

    Earlier bench-scale work at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory examined a number of adsorbents for their suitability for separating low-concentration hydrogen (no tritium) from helium. One of the effective adsorbents was Linde 5A molecular sieve. Recently, experiments including tritium were conducted using practical-scale adsorbers. These tests used existing cryogenic molecular sieve beds (CMSB's) which each contain about 1.6 kg of Linde 5A molecular sieve. They are part of the TSTA integrated tritium processing system. Gas was fed to each CMSB at about 13 SLPM with a nominal composition of 99% He, 0.98% H2, and 0.02% HT. In all cases, for an extended period of time, the beds allowed no detectable (via Raman spectroscopy) hydrogen isotopes to escape in the bed effluent. Thereafter, the hydrogen isotopes appeared in the bed exit with a relatively sharp breakthrough curve. This work concludes that cryogenic molecular sieve adsorption is a practical and effective means of separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from a helium carrier.

  9. Improving the accuracy of sediment-associated constituent concentrations in whole storm water samples by wet-sieving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.; Bowman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Sand-sized particles (>63 ??m) in whole storm water samples collected from urban runoff have the potential to produce data with substantial bias and/or poor precision both during sample splitting and laboratory analysis. New techniques were evaluated in an effort to overcome some of the limitations associated with sample splitting and analyzing whole storm water samples containing sand-sized particles. Wet-sieving separates sand-sized particles from a whole storm water sample. Once separated, both the sieved solids and the remaining aqueous (water suspension of particles less than 63 ??m) samples were analyzed for total recoverable metals using a modification of USEPA Method 200.7. The modified version digests the entire sample, rather than an aliquot, of the sample. Using a total recoverable acid digestion on the entire contents of the sieved solid and aqueous samples improved the accuracy of the derived sediment-associated constituent concentrations. Concentration values of sieved solid and aqueous samples can later be summed to determine an event mean concentration. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  10. Development of Polysulfone (PSF)-Carbon Molecular Sieve (CMS) Mixed Matrix Membrane (MMM) For O2/N2 Gas Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. F.; Rahman, W. R.; Aziz, F.

    2009-06-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising polysulfone (PSF) Udel® P-1700 and synthesized carbon molecular sieve (CMS) particles (<25 μm) have been fabricated and characterized. CMS were synthesized by using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as polymer precursor. The casting process was performed at the processing temperature close to Tg of PSF in order to maintain the flexibility of polymer during film formation. This study investigated the effects of CMS loadings (10, 20, 30 and 35 wt%) on the morphology and the gas separation performance of PSF-CMS MMMs. The fabricated MMMs were characterized using TGA, DSC, FESEM and single gas permeation test using high purity O2 and N2. Based on FESEM micrograph, a good polymer-sieve adhesion was achieved in MMMs using the combination of PSF-CMS even at high sieve loading (up to 35 wt%). The formation of `sieve-in-the-cage' morphology in PSF-CMS MMMs has been minimized to a great extend by implementing casting procedure at the operating temperature close to the Tg of polymer matrix. The O2 and N2 permeability for MMMs were increased with increasing CMS loading; while at 20 wt% CMS loading the O2/N2 selectivity attain the highest value which is 5.97 with the O2 permeability of 7.9617 barrers.

  11. Defect-Controlled Preparation of UiO-66 Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films with Molecular Sieving Capability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caiqin; Zhao, Yajing; Li, Yali; Zhang, Xuetong; Chi, Lifeng; Lu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66 thin films are solvothermally grown on conducting substrates. The as-synthesized MOF thin films are subsequently dried by a supercritical process or treated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The obtained UiO-66 thin films show excellent molecular sieving capability as confirmed by the electrochemical studies for redox-active species with different sizes.

  12. Improving the accuracy of sediment-associated constituent concentrations in whole storm water samples by wet-sieving.

    PubMed

    Selbig, William R; Bannerman, Roger; Bowman, George

    2007-01-01

    Sand-sized particles (>63 microm) in whole storm water samples collected from urban runoff have the potential to produce data with substantial bias and/or poor precision both during sample splitting and laboratory analysis. New techniques were evaluated in an effort to overcome some of the limitations associated with sample splitting and analyzing whole storm water samples containing sand-sized particles. Wet-sieving separates sand-sized particles from a whole storm water sample. Once separated, both the sieved solids and the remaining aqueous (water suspension of particles less than 63 microm) samples were analyzed for total recoverable metals using a modification of USEPA Method 200.7. The modified version digests the entire sample, rather than an aliquot, of the sample. Using a total recoverable acid digestion on the entire contents of the sieved solid and aqueous samples improved the accuracy of the derived sediment-associated constituent concentrations. Concentration values of sieved solid and aqueous samples can later be summed to determine an event mean concentration.

  13. Organotemplate-free hydrothermal synthesis of an aluminophosphate molecular sieve with AEN zeotype topology and properties of its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Sun, Yanjun; Mu, Ying; Zhang, Chuanqi; Li, Jiyang; Yu, Jihong

    2014-12-18

    A facile organotemplate-free route has been developed to synthesize an aluminophosphate molecular sieve in an alkali metal-containing system under hydrothermal conditions. The as-prepared JU93 possesses AEN zeotype topology with small 8-ring pores, and its derivatives show ion conductivity and adsorption selectivity of CO2 over CH4.

  14. Potential Use of Molecular Sieves for the Removal of Ni2+ Metal Ion: Kinetics, Isotherms and Thermodynamic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddala, Babu Rao; Monditoka, Krishna Prasad; Challa, Venkata Ramachandra Murthy; Kadimpati, Kishore Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The potential of using molecular sieves as adsorbent for the removal of nickel from aqueous solution was investigated. The isotherms and kinetics of nickel adsorption using 3 Å molecular sieves were evaluated. The results indicated that equilibrium was established in about 5 h. The effect of the pH was examined in the range of 2-6. The maximum removal of nickel obtained is at pH value of 5. The effect of dosage also evaluated to get optimum adsorption of nickel. The maximum adsorption capacity at 25 °C is 18.25 mg/g. The effect of temperature has been carried out at 15, 25, 30, and 40 °C. The data obtained from adsorption isotherms of nickel at different temperatures fit to linear form of Freundlich adsorption equation followed by Langmuir equations. Adsorption kinetic data were modelled using the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order equation models. The results indicated that the pseudo-second-order model was best described adsorption kinetic data. The thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH°), free energy (ΔG°), and entropy (ΔS°) were calculated. They show that adsorption of nickel onto molecular sieves is an exothermic process. These results show that molecular sieves are a good adsorbent for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions and could be used as a purifier for water and wastewater.

  15. Enhanced catalytic performance of copper-exchanged SAPO-34 molecular sieve in methanol-to-olefin reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Kwang Young; Seo, Gon; Song, Mee Kyung; Jeong, Soon-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Methanol-to-olefin (MTO) reaction over copper-exchanged SAPO-34 catalysts was investigated in order to extend their catalyst life. The exchange of copper ions into the cages of an SAPO-34 molecular sieve was confirmed by ESR, XPS, and 129Xe NMR techniques. Copper ions located in its cages considerably reduced its deactivation rate in the MTO reaction, while those dispersed on the external surface of the SAPO-34 molecular sieve accelerated the deactivation due to the limited mass transfer through the pore entrances. The 13C NMR and UV-VIS spectroscopy investigations of the materials occluded on the copper-exchanged SAPO-34 catalysts during the MTO reaction clearly showed that the copper ions exchanged in the cages suppressed the further condensation of alkyl aromatics to large, fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Theoretical calculations for the SAPO-34 and copper-exchanged SAPO-34 molecular sieves supported this observation because copper ions located in the cages stabilized the alkyl aromatics. Therefore, the exchange of copper ions into the SAPO-34 molecular sieve stabilized the reactive intermediates, alkyl aromatics, of the MTO reaction and suppressed their further condensation to PAHs, thereby slowing the deactivation.

  16. Sequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mayer, K; Schüller, C; Wambutt, R; Murphy, G; Volckaert, G; Pohl, T; Düsterhöft, A; Stiekema, W; Entian, K D; Terryn, N; Harris, B; Ansorge, W; Brandt, P; Grivell, L; Rieger, M; Weichselgartner, M; de Simone, V; Obermaier, B; Mache, R; Müller, M; Kreis, M; Delseny, M; Puigdomenech, P; Watson, M; Schmidtheini, T; Reichert, B; Portatelle, D; Perez-Alonso, M; Boutry, M; Bancroft, I; Vos, P; Hoheisel, J; Zimmermann, W; Wedler, H; Ridley, P; Langham, S A; McCullagh, B; Bilham, L; Robben, J; Van der Schueren, J; Grymonprez, B; Chuang, Y J; Vandenbussche, F; Braeken, M; Weltjens, I; Voet, M; Bastiaens, I; Aert, R; Defoor, E; Weitzenegger, T; Bothe, G; Ramsperger, U; Hilbert, H; Braun, M; Holzer, E; Brandt, A; Peters, S; van Staveren, M; Dirske, W; Mooijman, P; Klein Lankhorst, R; Rose, M; Hauf, J; Kötter, P; Berneiser, S; Hempel, S; Feldpausch, M; Lamberth, S; Van den Daele, H; De Keyser, A; Buysshaert, C; Gielen, J; Villarroel, R; De Clercq, R; Van Montagu, M; Rogers, J; Cronin, A; Quail, M; Bray-Allen, S; Clark, L; Doggett, J; Hall, S; Kay, M; Lennard, N; McLay, K; Mayes, R; Pettett, A; Rajandream, M A; Lyne, M; Benes, V; Rechmann, S; Borkova, D; Blöcker, H; Scharfe, M; Grimm, M; Löhnert, T H; Dose, S; de Haan, M; Maarse, A; Schäfer, M; Müller-Auer, S; Gabel, C; Fuchs, M; Fartmann, B; Granderath, K; Dauner, D; Herzl, A; Neumann, S; Argiriou, A; Vitale, D; Liguori, R; Piravandi, E; Massenet, O; Quigley, F; Clabauld, G; Mündlein, A; Felber, R; Schnabl, S; Hiller, R; Schmidt, W; Lecharny, A; Aubourg, S; Chefdor, F; Cooke, R; Berger, C; Montfort, A; Casacuberta, E; Gibbons, T; Weber, N; Vandenbol, M; Bargues, M; Terol, J; Torres, A; Perez-Perez, A; Purnelle, B; Bent, E; Johnson, S; Tacon, D; Jesse, T; Heijnen, L; Schwarz, S; Scholler, P; Heber, S; Francs, P; Bielke, C; Frishman, D; Haase, D; Lemcke, K; Mewes, H W; Stocker, S; Zaccaria, P; Bevan, M; Wilson, R K; de la Bastide, M; Habermann, K; Parnell, L; Dedhia, N; Gnoj, L; Schutz, K; Huang, E; Spiegel, L; Sehkon, M; Murray, J; Sheet, P; Cordes, M; Abu-Threideh, J; Stoneking, T; Kalicki, J; Graves, T; Harmon, G; Edwards, J; Latreille, P; Courtney, L; Cloud, J; Abbott, A; Scott, K; Johnson, D; Minx, P; Bentley, D; Fulton, B; Miller, N; Greco, T; Kemp, K; Kramer, J; Fulton, L; Mardis, E; Dante, M; Pepin, K; Hillier, L; Nelson, J; Spieth, J; Ryan, E; Andrews, S; Geisel, C; Layman, D; Du, H; Ali, J; Berghoff, A; Jones, K; Drone, K; Cotton, M; Joshu, C; Antonoiu, B; Zidanic, M; Strong, C; Sun, H; Lamar, B; Yordan, C; Ma, P; Zhong, J; Preston, R; Vil, D; Shekher, M; Matero, A; Shah, R; Swaby, I K; O'Shaughnessy, A; Rodriguez, M; Hoffmann, J; Till, S; Granat, S; Shohdy, N; Hasegawa, A; Hameed, A; Lodhi, M; Johnson, A; Chen, E; Marra, M; Martienssen, R; McCombie, W R

    1999-12-16

    The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we report one of the first milestones of this project, the sequence of chromosome 4. Analysis of 17.38 megabases of unique sequence, representing about 17% of the genome, reveals 3,744 protein coding genes, 81 transfer RNAs and numerous repeat elements. Heterochromatic regions surrounding the putative centromere, which has not yet been completely sequenced, are characterized by an increased frequency of a variety of repeats, new repeats, reduced recombination, lowered gene density and lowered gene expression. Roughly 60% of the predicted protein-coding genes have been functionally characterized on the basis of their homology to known genes. Many genes encode predicted proteins that are homologous to human and Caenorhabditis elegans proteins.

  17. A Virtual Laboratory for the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, James; O'Connor, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing work to improve water and carbon dioxide separation systems to be used on crewed space vehicles combines sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. Thus, as part of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program and the Life Support Systems Project (LSSP), fully predictive COMSOL Multiphysics models of the Four Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) have been developed. This Virtual Laboratory is being used to help reduce mass, power, and volume requirements for exploration missions. In this paper we describe current and planned modeling developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support future missions as well as the resolution of anomalies observed in the ISS CDRA.

  18. Reverse osmosis molecular differentiation of organic liquids using carbon molecular sieve membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Dong-Yeun; McCool, Benjamin A.; Deckman, Harry W.; Lively, Ryan P.

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-phase separations of similarly sized organic molecules using membranes is a major challenge for energy-intensive industrial separation processes. We created free-standing carbon molecular sieve membranes that translate the advantages of reverse osmosis for aqueous separations to the separation of organic liquids. Polymer precursors were cross-linked with a one-pot technique that protected the porous morphology of the membranes from thermally induced structural rearrangement during carbonization. Permeation studies using benzene derivatives whose kinetic diameters differ by less than an angstrom show kinetically selective organic liquid reverse osmosis. Ratios of single-component fluxes for para- and ortho-xylene exceeding 25 were observed and para- and ortho- liquid mixtures were efficiently separated, with an equimolar feed enriched to 81 mole % para-xylene, without phase change and at ambient temperature.

  19. Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Based Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis and Metathesis Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcar, Hynek; Čejka, Jiří

    Heterogeneous catalysts for olefin metathesis using different types of (i) siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves, and (ii) organized mesoporous alumina as supports are reported. The catalysts were prepared either by spreading of transition metal oxidic phase on the support surface or by immobilizing transition metal compounds (mostly organometallic) on the support. The activity of these catalysts in various types of metathesis reactions (i.e. alkene and diene metathesis, metathesis of unsaturated esters and ethers, RCM, ROMP and metathesis polymerization of alkynes) was described. The main advantages of these catalysts consist generally in their high activity and selectivity, easy separation of catalysts from reaction products and the preparation of products free of catalyst residue. The examples of pore size influence on the selectivity in metathesis reactions are also given.

  20. Evolution of ultramicroporous adsorptive structure in poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Mariwala, R.K.; Foley, H.C. )

    1994-03-01

    The genesis of the adsorptive structure of carbogenic molecular sieves (CMS) derived from poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) was investigated as a function of the synthesis temperature (from 400 to 1200 C) and soak time (from 0 to 8 h). The apparent CO[sub 2] adsorption capacity of these materials maximizes at 93 mg/g with a final synthesis temperature of 800 C. The maximum adsorption capacity is obtained from the 24-h CO[sub 2] uptake of 93 mg/g at a relative pressure of 0.015 and at T = 295 K. [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR spectra of the carbon produced at lower synthesis temperature and short soak times shows a resonance that is reminiscent of the PFA precursor. At higher synthesis temperatures and longer soak times, the NMR spectra display resonances attributable only to aromatic microdomains.