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Sample records for arabidopsis thaliana genes

  1. Identifying essential genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Meinke, David; Muralla, Rosanna; Sweeney, Colleen; Dickerman, Allan

    2008-09-01

    Eight years after publication of the Arabidopsis genome sequence and two years before completing the first phase of an international effort to characterize the function of every Arabidopsis gene, plant biologists remain unable to provide a definitive answer to the following basic question: what is the minimal gene set required for normal growth and development? The purpose of this review is to summarize different strategies employed to identify essential genes in Arabidopsis, an important component of the minimal gene set in plants, to present an overview of the datasets and specific genes identified to date, and to discuss the prospects for future saturation of this important class of genes. The long-term goal of this collaborative effort is to facilitate basic research in plant biology and complement ongoing research with other model organisms.

  2. The fate of retrotransposed processed genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Abdelkarim, Basma T M; Maranda, Vincent; Drouin, Guy

    2017-04-20

    Processed genes are functional genes that have arisen as a result of the retrotransposition of mRNA molecules. We found 6 genes that generated processed genes in the common ancestor of five Brassicaceae species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, Capsella rubella, Brassica rapa and Thellungiella parvula). These processed genes have therefore been kept for at least 30millionyears. Analyses of the Ka/Ks ratio of these genes, and of those having given rise to them, show that they evolve relatively slowly and suggest that the processed genes maintained the same function as that of their parental gene. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of ESTs and transcripts produced and the Ka/Ks ratios of the parental genes but not of the processed genes. This suggests that selection has not yet adapted the selective pressure the processed genes experience to their expression level. However, the A. thaliana processed genes tend to be expressed in the same tissues as that of their parental genes. Furthermore, most have a CAATT-box, a TATA-box and are located about 1kb from another protein-coding gene. Altogether, our results suggest that the processed genes found in the A. thaliana genome have been kept to produce more of the same product, and in the same tissues, as that encoded by their parental gene.

  3. Aluminum Induces Oxidative Stress Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana1

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Keith D.; Schott, Eric J.; Sharma, Yogesh K.; Davis, Keith R.; Gardner, Richard C.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in gene expression induced by toxic levels of Al were characterized to investigate the nature of Al stress. A cDNA library was constructed from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with Al for 2 h. We identified five cDNA clones that showed a transient induction of their mRNA levels, four cDNA clones that showed a longer induction period, and two down-regulated genes. Expression of the four long-term-induced genes remained at elevated levels for at least 48 h. The genes encoded peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, blue copper-binding protein, and a protein homologous to the reticuline:oxygen oxidoreductase enzyme. Three of these genes are known to be induced by oxidative stresses and the fourth is induced by pathogen treatment. Another oxidative stress gene, superoxide dismutase, and a gene for Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor were also induced by Al in A. thaliana. These results suggested that Al treatment of Arabidopsis induces oxidative stress. In confirmation of this hypothesis, three of four genes induced by Al stress in A. thaliana were also shown to be induced by ozone. Our results demonstrate that oxidative stress is an important component of the plant's reaction to toxic levels of Al. PMID:9449849

  4. Metallochaperone-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tehseen, Muhammad; Cairns, Narelle; Sherson, Sarah; Cobbett, Christopher S

    2010-08-01

    A complete inventory of metallochaperone-like proteins containing a predicted HMA domain in Arabidopsis revealed a large family of 67 proteins. 45 proteins, the HIPPs, have a predicted isoprenylation site while 22 proteins, the HPPs, do not. Sequence comparisons divided the proteins into seven major clusters (I-VII). Cluster IV is notable for the presence of a conserved Asp residue before the CysXXCys, metal binding motif, analogous to the Zn binding motif in E. coli ZntA. HIPP20, HIPP21, HIPP22, HIPP26 and HIPP27 in Cluster IV were studied in more detail. All but HIPP21 could rescue the Cd-sensitive, ycf1 yeast mutant but failed to rescue the growth of zrt1zrt2, zrc1cot1 and atx1 mutants. In Arabidopsis, single and double mutants did not show a phenotype but the hipp20/21/22 triple mutant was more sensitive to Cd and accumulated less Cd than the wild-type suggesting the HIPPs can have a role in Cd-detoxification, possibly by binding Cd. Promoter-GUS reporter expression studies indicated variable expression of these HIPPs. For example, in roots, HIPP22 and HIPP26 are only expressed in lateral root tips while HIPP20 and HIPP25 show strong expression in the root vasculature.

  5. Functional divergence in tandemly duplicated Arabidopsis thaliana trypsin inhibitor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, M J; Mitchell-Olds, T

    2004-01-01

    In multigene families, variation among loci and alleles can contribute to trait evolution. We explored patterns of functional and genetic variation in six duplicated Arabidopsis thaliana trypsin inhibitor (ATTI) loci. We demonstrate significant variation in constitutive and herbivore-induced transcription among ATTI loci that show, on average, 65% sequence divergence. Significant variation in ATTI expression was also found between two molecularly defined haplotype classes. Population genetic analyses for 17 accessions of A. thaliana showed that six ATTI loci arranged in tandem within 10 kb varied 10-fold in nucleotide diversity, from 0.0009 to 0.0110, and identified a minimum of six recombination events throughout the tandem array. We observed a significant peak in nucleotide and indel polymorphism spanning ATTI loci in the interior of the array, due primarily to divergence between the two haplotype classes. Significant deviation from the neutral equilibrium model for individual genes was interpreted within the context of intergene linkage disequilibrium and correlated patterns of functional differentiation. In contrast to the outcrosser Arabidopsis lyrata for which recombination is observed even within ATTI loci, our data suggest that response to selection was slowed in the inbreeding, annual A. thaliana because of interference among functionally divergent ATTI loci. PMID:15082560

  6. Polycomb-Mediated Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Sung, Sibum

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are conserved chromatin regulators involved in the control of key developmental programs in eukaryotes. They collectively provide the transcriptional memory unique to each cell identity by maintaining transcriptional states of developmental genes. PcG proteins form multi-protein complexes, known as Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). PRC1 and PRC2 contribute to the stable gene silencing in part through catalyzing covalent histone modifications. Components of PRC1 and PRC2 are well conserved from plants to animals. PcG-mediated gene silencing has been extensively investigated in efforts to understand molecular mechanisms underlying developmental programs in eukaryotes. Here, we describe our current knowledge on PcG-mediated gene repression which dictates developmental programs by dynamic layers of regulatory activities, with an emphasis given to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25410906

  7. Caesium-affected gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sahr, Tobias; Voigt, Gabriele; Paretzke, Herwig G; Schramel, Peter; Ernst, Dieter

    2005-03-01

    * Excessive caesium can be toxic to plants. Here we investigated Cs uptake and caesium-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. * Accumulation was measured in plants grown for 5 wk on agar supplemented with nontoxic and up to toxic levels of Cs. Caesium-induced gene expression was studied by suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH) and RT-PCR. * Caesium accumulated in leaf rosettes dependent upon the external concentration in the growth media, whereas the potassium concentration decreased in rosettes. At a concentration of 850 microM, Cs plants showed reduced development, and withered with an increase in concentration to 1 mM Cs. SSH resulted in the isolation of 73 clones that were differentially expressed at a Cs concentration of 150 microM. Most of the genes identified belong to groups of genes encoding proteins in stress defence, detoxification, transport, homeostasis and general metabolism, and proteins controlling transcription and translation. * The present study identified a number of marker genes for Cs in Arabidopsis grown under nontoxic Cs concentrations, indicating that Cs acts as an abiotic stress factor.

  8. Mechanisms guiding Polycomb activities during gene silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    He, Chongsheng; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins act in an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic pathway that regulates chromatin structures in plants and animals, repressing many developmentally important genes by modifying histones. PcG proteins can form at least two multiprotein complexes: Polycomb Repressive Complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2, respectively). The functions of Arabidopsis thaliana PRCs have been characterized in multiple stages of development and have diverse roles in response to environmental stimuli. Recently, the mechanism that precisely regulates Arabidopsis PcG activity was extensively studied. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries in the regulations of PcG at the three different layers: the recruitment of PRCs to specific target loci, the polyubiquitination and degradation of PRC2, and the antagonism of PRC2 activity by the Trithorax group proteins. Current knowledge indicates that the powerful activity of the PcG pathway is strictly controlled for specific silencing of target genes during plant development and in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:24312106

  9. Internet Resources for Gene Expression Analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hehl, Reinhard; Bülow, Lorenz

    2008-09-01

    The number of online databases and web-tools for gene expression analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana has increased tremendously during the last years. These resources permit the database-assisted identification of putative cis-regulatory DNA sequences, their binding proteins, and the determination of common cis-regulatory motifs in coregulated genes. DNA binding proteins may be predicted by the type of cis-regulatory motif. Further questions of combinatorial control based on the interaction of DNA binding proteins and the colocalization of cis-regulatory motifs can be addressed. The database-assisted spatial and temporal expression analysis of DNA binding proteins and their target genes may help to further refine experimental approaches. Signal transduction pathways upstream of regulated genes are not yet fully accessible in databases mainly because they need to be manually annotated. This review focuses on the use of the AthaMap and PathoPlant((R)) databases for gene expression regulation analysis and discusses similar and complementary online databases and web-tools. Online databases are helpful for the development of working hypothesis and for designing subsequent experiments.

  10. Gene Transposition Causing Natural Variation for Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, Daniela; Rappaport, Fabrice; Simon, Matthieu; Loudet, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in biology is to identify molecular polymorphisms responsible for variation in complex traits of evolutionary and agricultural interest. Using the advantages of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model species, we sought to identify new genes and genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation for shoot growth using quantitative genetic strategies. More quantitative trait loci (QTL) still need be resolved to draw a general picture as to how and where in the pathways adaptation is shaping natural variation and the type of molecular variation involved. Phenotypic variation for shoot growth in the Bur-0 × Col-0 recombinant inbred line set was decomposed into several QTLs. Nearly-isogenic lines generated from the residual heterozygosity segregating among lines revealed an even more complex picture, with major variation controlled by opposite linked loci and masked by the segregation bias due to the defective phenotype of SG3 (Shoot Growth-3), as well as epistasis with SG3i (SG3-interactor). Using principally a fine-mapping strategy, we have identified the underlying gene causing phenotypic variation at SG3: At4g30720 codes for a new chloroplast-located protein essential to ensure a correct electron flow through the photosynthetic chain and, hence, photosynthesis efficiency and normal growth. The SG3/SG3i interaction is the result of a structural polymorphism originating from the duplication of the gene followed by divergent paralogue's loss between parental accessions. Species-wide, our results illustrate the very dynamic rate of duplication/transposition, even over short periods of time, resulting in several divergent—but still functional—combinations of alleles fixed in different backgrounds. In predominantly selfing species like Arabidopsis, this variation remains hidden in wild populations but is potentially revealed when divergent individuals outcross. This work highlights the need for improved tools and algorithms to resolve structural variation

  11. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana 5S rRNA Genes.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Isabelle; Tutois, Sylvie; Cuvillier, Claudine; Schubert, Ingo; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2007-05-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome comprises around 1,000 copies of 5S rRNA genes encoding both major and minor 5S rRNAs. In mature wild-type leaves, the minor 5S rRNA genes are silent. Using different mutants of DNA methyltransferases (met1, cmt3 and met1 cmt3), components of the RNAi pathway (ago4) or post-translational histone modifier (hda6/sil1), we show that the corresponding proteins are needed to maintain proper methylation patterns at heterochromatic 5S rDNA repeats. Using reverse transcription-PCR and cytological analyses, we report that a decrease of 5S rDNA methylation at CG or CNG sites in these mutants leads to the release of 5S rRNA gene silencing which occurred without detectable changes of the 5S rDNA chromatin structure. In spite of severely reduced DNA methylation, the met1 cmt3 double mutant revealed no increase in minor 5S rRNA transcripts. Furthermore, the release of silencing of minor 5S rDNAs can be achieved without increased formation of euchromatic loops by 5S rDNA, and is independent from the global heterochromatin content. Additionally, fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric 180 bp repeats confirmed that these highly repetitive sequences, in spite of their elevated transcriptional activity in the DNA methyltransferase mutants (met1, cmt3 and met1 cmt3), remain within chromocenters of the mutant nuclei.

  12. Herbicide safener-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    De Veylder, L; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1997-05-01

    The potential use of a new chemical-inducible gene expression system in Arabidopsis thaliana has been examined. The system is based on the maize In2-2 promoter which is activated by benzenesulfonamide herbicide safeners. Plants transformed with the beta-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene under the control of the In2-2 promoter were grown in the presence of different safeners and the induced GUS activity pattern was studied histochemically. In the absence of safeners, the In2-2 promoter was not active. Application of different safeners induced distinct gus expression patterns, including expression in the root, hydathodes, and the shoot apical meristem. Plants maintained continuously on inducing concentrations of the safeners were retarded in growth. The growth inhibition effects of the Sa5 safener could be overcome in a sulfonylurea-resistant background. In2-2 promoter activity could also be induced by the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron. In the sulfonylurea-resistant background, which derives from herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase activity, induction of the In2-2 promoter by chlorsulfuron was lower. Furthermore, branched-chain amino acids, known to inhibit acetolactate synthase activity, also induced In2-2 promoter activity. Our data suggest a strong correlation between In2-2 expression and inhibition of the acetolactate synthase activity.

  13. Interactions among Genes Regulating Ovule Development in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S. C.; Robinson-Beers, K.; Villanueva, J. M.; Gaiser, J. C.; Gasser, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The INNER NO OUTER (INO) and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) genes are essential for ovule integument development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ovules of ino mutants initiate two integument primordia, but the outer integument primordium forms on the opposite side of the ovule from the normal location and undergoes no further development. The inner integument appears to develop normally, resulting in erect, unitegmic ovules that resemble those of gymnosperms. ino plants are partially fertile and produce seeds with altered surface topography, demonstrating a lineage dependence in development of the testa. ant mutations affect initiation of both integuments. The strongest of five new ant alleles we have isolated produces ovules that lack integuments and fail to complete megasporogenesis. ant mutations also affect flower development, resulting in narrow petals and the absence of one or both lateral stamens. Characterization of double mutants between ant, ino and other mutations affecting ovule development has enabled the construction of a model for genetic control of ovule development. This model proposes parallel independent regulatory pathways for a number of aspects of this process, a dependence on the presence of an inner integument for development of the embryo sac, and the existence of additional genes regulating ovule development. PMID:9093862

  14. Comparative differential gene expression analysis of nucleus-encoded proteins for Rafflesia cantleyi against Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Siuk-Mun; Lee, Xin-Wei; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Regulation of functional nucleus-encoded proteins targeting the plastidial functions was comparatively studied for a plant parasite, Rafflesia cantleyi versus a photosynthetic plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. This study involved two species of different feeding modes and different developmental stages. A total of 30 nucleus-encoded proteins were found to be differentially-regulated during two stages in the parasite; whereas 17 nucleus-encoded proteins were differentially-expressed during two developmental stages in Arabidopsis thaliana. One notable finding observed for the two plants was the identification of genes involved in the regulation of photosynthesis-related processes where these processes, as expected, seem to be present only in the autotroph.

  15. Gravity-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederoff, Heike; Brown, Christopher S.; Heber, Steffen; Kajla, Jyoti D.; Kumar, Sandeep; Lomax, Terri L.; Wheeler, Benjamin; Yalamanchili, Roopa

    Plant growth and development is regulated by changes in environmental signals. Plants sense environmental changes and respond to them by modifying gene expression programs to ad-just cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. Functional expression of genes comprises many different processes including transcription, translation, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications, as well as the degradation of RNA and proteins. Recently, it was discovered that small RNAs (sRNA, 18-24 nucleotides long), which are heritable and systemic, are key elements in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic changes. Sev-eral different classes of sRNAs have been identified that are part of a non-cell autonomous and phloem-mobile network of regulators affecting transcript stability, translational kinetics, and DNA methylation patterns responsible for heritable transcriptional silencing (epigenetics). Our research has focused on gene expression changes in response to gravistimulation of Arabidopsis roots. Using high-throughput technologies including microarrays and 454 sequencing, we iden-tified rapid changes in transcript abundance of genes as well as differential expression of small RNA in Arabidopsis root apices after minutes of reorientation. Some of the differentially regu-lated transcripts are encoded by genes that are important for the bending response. Functional mutants of those genes respond faster to reorientation than the respective wild type plants, indicating that these proteins are repressors of differential cell elongation. We compared the gravity responsive sRNAs to the changes in transcript abundances of their putative targets and identified several potential miRNA: target pairs. Currently, we are using mutant and transgenic Arabidopsis plants to characterize the function of those miRNAs and their putative targets in gravitropic and phototropic responses in Arabidopsis.

  16. Visual markers for detecting gene conversion directly in the gametes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Berchowitz, Luke E; Copenhaver, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Measuring meiotic gene conversion is important both because of its role in the fundamental mechanisms of meiotic recombination and because of its influence on linkage relationships and allelic diversity in the genome. Historically, gene conversion has been most thoroughly examined in fungal organisms through the use of tetrad analysis. Here we describe a method for using tetrad analysis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to detect and quantify gene conversion events - a resource unavailable in most other higher eukaryotic model systems.

  17. Conservation of Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock genes in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianxin; Yang, Liwen; Dai, Silan

    2014-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, circadian clock genes play important roles in photoperiod pathway by regulating the daytime expression of CONSTANS (CO), but related reports for chrysanthemum are notably limited. In this study, we isolated eleven circadian clock genes, which lie in the three interconnected negative and positive feedback loops in a wild diploid chrysanthemum, Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium. With the exception of ClELF3, ClPRR1 and ClPRR73, most of the circadian clock genes are expressed more highly in leaves than in other tested tissues. The diurnal rhythms of these circadian clock genes are similar to those of their homologs in Arabidopsis. ClELF3 and ClZTL are constitutively expressed at all time points in both assessed photoperiods. The expression succession from morning to night of the PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) gene family occurs in the order ClPRR73/ClPRR37, ClPRR5, and then ClPRR1. ClLHY is expressed during the dawn period, and ClGIs is expressed during the dusk period. The peak expression levels of ClFKF1 and ClGIs are synchronous in the inductive photoperiod. However, in the non-inductive night break (NB) condition or non-24 h photoperiod, the peak expression level of ClFKF1 is significantly changed, indicating that ClFKF1 itself or the synchronous expression of ClFKF1 and ClGIs might be essential to initiate the flowering of C. lavandulifolium. This study provides the first extensive evaluation of circadian clock genes, and it presents a useful foundation for dissecting the functions of circadian clock genes in C. lavandulifolium. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. [Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana thioesterase gene in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhaocheng; Wang, Tengfei; Li, Zhongkui; Hao, Zikai; Dai, Kun; Wang, Ruiming

    2015-01-01

    Thioesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-ACP and saturated fatty acyl chain. It plays a key role in the accumulation of medium chain fatty acids in vivo. In this study, to construct an engineering strain to produce MCFAs, the Arabidopsis acyl-ACP thioesterase gene AtFatA was amplified by PCR from cDNA of arabidopsis and double digested by EcoR I/Xba I, then linked to the plasmid digested with same enzymes to get the recombinant plasmid pPICZaA-AtFatA. We transformed the gene into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation and screened positive colonies by YPD medium with Zeocin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that the recombinant enzyme had a molecular of 45 kDa band which was consistent with the predicted molecular mass and we constructed the expression system of gene AtFatA in fungus for the first time. Under shake-flask conditions, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer-computer results indicated that recombinant strain produced 51% more extracellular free MCFAs than the wild and its yield reached 28.7% of all extracellular fatty acids. This figure is 10% higher than the control group. The result provides a new way to produce MCFAs.

  19. Transfer RNA modifications and genes for modifying enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In all domains of life, transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules contain modified nucleosides. Modifications to tRNAs affect their coding capacity and influence codon-anticodon interactions. Nucleoside modification deficiencies have a diverse range of effects, from decreased virulence in bacteria, neural system disease in human, and gene expression and stress response changes in plants. The purpose of this study was to identify genes involved in tRNA modification in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, to understand the function of nucleoside modifications in plant growth and development. Results In this study, we established a method for analyzing modified nucleosides in tRNAs from the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). 21 modified nucleosides in tRNAs were identified in both species. To identify the genes responsible for the plant tRNA modifications, we performed global analysis of the Arabidopsis genome for candidate genes. Based on the conserved domains of homologs in Sacccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli, more than 90 genes were predicted to encode tRNA modifying enzymes in the Arabidopsis genome. Transcript accumulation patterns for the genes in Arabidopsis and the phylogenetic distribution of the genes among different plant species were investigated. Transcripts for the majority of the Arabidopsis candidate genes were found to be most abundant in rosette leaves and shoot apices. Whereas most of the tRNA modifying gene families identified in the Arabidopsis genome was found to be present in other plant species, there was a big variation in the number of genes present for each family. Through a loss of function mutagenesis study, we identified five tRNA modification genes (AtTRM10, AtTRM11, AtTRM82, AtKTI12 and AtELP1) responsible for four specific modified nucleosides (m1G, m2G, m7G and ncm5U), respectively (two genes: AtKTI12 and AtELP1 identified for ncm5U modification). The AtTRM11 mutant

  20. Comparison of Flowering Time Genes in Brassica Rapa, B. Napus and Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, T. C.; Kole, C.; Parkin, IAP.; Sharpe, A. G.; Kuiper, M.; Lydiate, D. J.; Trick, M.

    1997-01-01

    The major difference between annual and biennial cultivars of oilseed Brassica napus and B. rapa is conferred by genes controlling vernalization-responsive flowering time. These genes were compared between the species by aligning the map positions of flowering time quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected in a segregating population of each species. The results suggest that two major QTLs identified in B. rapa correspond to two major QTLs identified in B. napus. Since B. rapa is one of the hypothesized diploid parents of the amphidiploid B. napus, the vernalization requirement of B. napus probably originated from B. rapa. Brassica genes also were compared to flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by mapping RFLP loci with the same probes in both B. napus and Arabidopsis. The region containing one pair of Brassica QTLs was collinear with the top of chromosome 5 in A. thaliana where flowering time genes FLC, FY and CO are located. The region containing the second pair of QTLs showed fractured collinearity with several regions of the Arabidopsis genome, including the top of chromosome 4 where FRI is located. Thus, these Brassica genes may correspond to two genes (FLC and FRI) that regulate flowering time in the latest flowering ecotypes of Arabidopsis. PMID:9215913

  1. Noise-plasticity correlations of gene expression in the multicellular organism Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Koudai; Nagano, Atsushi J; Awazu, Akinori

    2015-12-21

    Gene expression levels exhibit stochastic variations among genetically identical organisms under the same environmental conditions (called gene expression "noise" or phenotype "fluctuation"). In yeast and Escherichia coli, positive correlations have been found between such gene expression noise and "plasticity" with environmental variations. To determine the universality of such correlations in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, we focused on the relationships between gene expression "noise" and "plasticity" in Arabidopsis thaliana, a multicellular model organism. In recent studies on yeast and E. coli, only some gene groups with specific properties of promoter architecture, average expression levels, and functions exhibited strong noise-plasticity correlations. However, we found strong noise-plasticity correlations for most gene groups in Arabidopsis; additionally, promoter architecture, functional essentiality of genes, and circadian rhythm appeared to have only a weak influence on the correlation strength. The differences in the characteristics of noise-plasticity correlations may result from three-dimensional chromosomal structures and/or circadian rhythm.

  2. Nonrandom divergence of gene expression following gene and genome duplications in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Casneuf, Tineke; De Bodt, Stefanie; Raes, Jeroen; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Background Genome analyses have revealed that gene duplication in plants is rampant. Furthermore, many of the duplicated genes seem to have been created through ancient genome-wide duplication events. Recently, we have shown that gene loss is strikingly different for large- and small-scale duplication events and highly biased towards the functional class to which a gene belongs. Here, we study the expression divergence of genes that were created during large- and small-scale gene duplication events by means of microarray data and investigate both the influence of the origin (mode of duplication) and the function of the duplicated genes on expression divergence. Results Duplicates that have been created by large-scale duplication events and that can still be found in duplicated segments have expression patterns that are more correlated than those that were created by small-scale duplications or those that no longer lie in duplicated segments. Moreover, the former tend to have highly redundant or overlapping expression patterns and are mostly expressed in the same tissues, while the latter show asymmetric divergence. In addition, a strong bias in divergence of gene expression was observed towards gene function and the biological process genes are involved in. Conclusion By using microarray expression data for Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the mode of duplication, the function of the genes involved, and the time since duplication play important roles in the divergence of gene expression and, therefore, in the functional divergence of genes after duplication. PMID:16507168

  3. Light-independent developmental regulation of cab gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Brusslan, J A; Tobin, E M

    1992-01-01

    We found a transient increase in the amount of mRNA for four nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins during early development of Arabidopsis thaliana. This increase began soon after germination as cotyledons emerged from the seed coat; it occurred in total darkness and was not affected by external factors, such as gibberellins or light treatments used to stimulate germination. Three members of the cab gene family and the rbcS-1A gene exhibited this expression pattern. Because timing of the increase coincided with cotyledon emergence and because it occurred independently of external stimuli, we suggest that this increase represents developmental regulation of these genes. Further, 1.34 kilobases of the cab1 promoter was sufficient to confer this expression pattern on a reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. The ability of the cab genes to respond to phytochrome preceded this developmental increase, showing that these two types of regulation are independent. Images PMID:1380166

  4. Characterization of a ubiquitous expressed gene family encoding polygalacturonase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Torki, M; Mandaron, P; Mache, R; Falconet, D

    2000-01-25

    Pectin, as one of the major components of plant cell wall, has been implicated in many developmental processes occurring during plant growth. Among the different enzymes known to participate in the pectin structure modifications, polygalacturonase (PG) activity has been shown to be associated with fruit ripening, organ abscission and pollen grain development. Until now, sequence analyses of the deduced polypeptides of the plant PG genes allowed their grouping into three clades corresponding to genes involved in one of these three activities. In this study, we report the sequence of three genomic clones encoding PG in Arabidopsis thaliana. These genes, together with 16 other genes present in the databases form a large gene family, ubiquitously expressed, present on the five chromosomes with at least two gene clusters on chromosomes II and V, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the A. thaliana gene family contains five classes of genes, with three of them corresponding to the previously defined clades. Comparison of positions and numbers of introns among the A. thaliana genes reveals structural conservation between genes belonging to the same class. The pattern of intron losses that could have given rise to the PG gene family is consistent with a mechanism of intron loss by replacement of an ancestral intron-containing gene with a reverse-transcribed DNA copy of a spliced mRNA. Following this event of intron loss, the acquisition of introns in novel positions is consistent with a mechanism of intron gain at proto-splice sites.

  5. Brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, S; Noguchi, T; Yokota, T; Takatsuto, S; Yoshida, S

    1998-06-01

    From the seeds and siliques of Arabidopsis thaliana, six brassinosteroids, brassinolide, castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol and 6-deoxoteasterone, were identified by GC-mass spectrometry or GC-selected ion monitoring. As the occurrence of castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone and 6-deoxotyphasterol in the shoots of A. thaliana has already been reported, this study provides evidence for the occurrence of the above four brassinosteroids in different organs, seeds and siliques, and the first evidence for the occurrence of brassinolide and 6-deoxoteasterone in A. thaliana. All brassinosteroids identified in this study belong to important components of both the early and late C-6 oxidation pathways, which were established in the cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus. This suggests that both pathways are operating in A. thaliana to produce the most biologically active brassinosteroid, brassinolide, which is responsible for growth and development of the plant.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of chromatin packing in Arabidopsis thaliana at single-gene resolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Congmao; Wang, George; Becker, Claude; Zaidem, Maricris; Weigel, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional packing of the genome plays an important role in regulating gene expression. We have used Hi-C, a genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (3C) method, to analyze Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes dissected into subkilobase segments, which is required for gene-level resolution in this species with a gene-dense genome. We found that the repressive H3K27me3 histone mark is overrepresented in the promoter regions of genes that are in conformational linkage over long distances. In line with the globally dispersed distribution of RNA polymerase II in A. thaliana nuclear space, actively transcribed genes do not show a strong tendency to associate with each other. In general, there are often contacts between 5′ and 3′ ends of genes, forming local chromatin loops. Such self-loop structures of genes are more likely to occur in more highly expressed genes, although they can also be found in silent genes. Silent genes with local chromatin loops are highly enriched for the histone variant H3.3 at their 5′ and 3′ ends but depleted of repressive marks such as heterochromatic histone modifications and DNA methylation in flanking regions. Our results suggest that, different from animals, a major theme of genome folding in A. thaliana is the formation of structural units that correspond to gene bodies. PMID:27225844

  7. Tandem orientation of duplicated xanthine dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana: differential gene expression and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Hesberg, Christine; Hänsch, Robert; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian

    2004-04-02

    Xanthine dehydrogenase from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed on molecular and biochemical levels. Whereas most other organisms appear to own only one gene for xanthine dehydrogenase A. thaliana possesses two genes in tandem orientation spaced by 704 base pairs. The cDNAs as well as the proteins AtXDH1 and AtXDH2 share an overall identity of 93% and show high homologies to xanthine dehydrogenases from other organisms. Whereas AtXDH2 mRNA is expressed constitutively, alterations of AtXDH1 transcript levels were observed at various stresses like drought, salinity, cold, and natural senescence, but also after abscisic acid treatment. Transcript alteration did not mandatorily result in changes of xanthine dehydrogenase activities. Whereas salt treatment had no effect on xanthine dehydrogenase activities, cold stress caused a decrease, but desiccation and senescence caused a strong increase of activities in leaves. Because AtXDH1 presumably is the more important isoenzyme in A. thaliana it was expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and used for biochemical studies. AtXDH1 protein is a homodimer of about 300 kDa consisting of identical subunits of 150 kDa. Like xanthine dehydrogenases from other organisms AtXDH1 uses hypoxanthine and xanthine as main substrates and is strongly inhibited by allopurinol. AtXDH1 could be activated by the purified molybdenum cofactor sulfurase ABA3 that converts inactive desulfo-into active sulfoenzymes. Finally it was found that AtXDH1 is a strict dehydrogenase and not an oxidase, but is able to produce superoxide radicals indicating that besides purine catabolism it might also be involved in response to various stresses that require reactive oxygen species.

  8. Gene network analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development through dynamic gene perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Thomson, Bennett; Raganelli, Andrea; Wuest, Samuel E; Ryan, Patrick T; Kwaśniewska, Kamila; Carles, Cristel C; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Understanding how flowers develop from undifferentiated stem cells has occupied developmental biologists for decades. Key to unraveling this process is a detailed knowledge of the global regulatory hierarchies that control developmental transitions, cell differentiation and organ growth. These hierarchies may be deduced from gene perturbation experiments, which determine the effects on gene expression after specific disruption of a regulatory gene. Here, we tested experimental strategies for gene perturbation experiments during Arabidopsis thaliana flower development. We used artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) to disrupt the functions of key floral regulators, and expressed them under the control of various inducible promoter systems that are widely used in the plant research community. To be able to perform genome-wide experiments with stage-specific resolution using the various inducible promoter systems for gene perturbation experiments, we also generated a series of floral induction systems that allow collection of hundreds of synchronized floral buds from a single plant. Based on our results, we propose strategies for performing dynamic gene perturbation experiments in flowers, and outline how they may be combined with versions of the floral induction system to dissect the gene regulatory network underlying flower development.

  9. Characterization of the cDNA and gene coding for the biotin synthase of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, L M; Yu, F; Wurtele, E S; Nikolau, B J

    1996-01-01

    Biotin, an essential cofactor, is synthesized de novo only by plants and some microbes. An Arabidopsis thaliana expressed sequence tag that shows sequence similarity to the carboxyl end of biotin synthase from Escherichia coli was used to isolate a near-full-length cDNA. This cDNA was shown to code for the Arabidopsis biotin synthase by its ability to complement a bioB mutant of E. coli. Site-specific mutagenesis indicates that residue threonine-173, which is highly conserved in biotin synthases, is important for catalytic competence of the enzyme. The primary sequence of the Arabidopsis biotin synthase is most similar to biotin synthases from E. coli, Serratia marcescens, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (about 50% sequence identity) and more distantly related to the Bacillus sphaericus enzyme (33% sequence identity). The primary sequence of the amino terminus of the Arabidopsis biotin synthase may represent an organelle-targeting transit peptide. The single Arabidopsis gene coding for biotin synthase, BIO2, was isolated and sequenced. The biotin synthase coding sequence is interrupted by five introns. The gene sequence upstream of the translation start site has several unusual features, including imperfect palindromes and polypyrimidine sequences, which may function in the transcriptional regulation of the BIO2 gene. PMID:8819873

  10. Growth enhancement and gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana irradiated with active oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Inoue, Asami; Yasuda, Kaori; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of plant growth enhancement effect and the mechanism of the enhancement induced by plasma irradiation are investigated using various active species in plasma. Active oxygen species in oxygen plasma are effective for growth enhancement of plants. DNA microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that the genes coding proteins that counter oxidative stresses by eliminating active oxygen species are expressed at significantly high levels. The size of plant cells increases owing to oxygen plasma irradiation. The increases in gene expression levels and cell size suggest that the increase in the expression level of the expansin protein is essential for plant growth enhancement phenomena.

  11. Natural diversity in flowering responses of Arabidopsis thaliana caused by variation in a tandem gene array.

    PubMed

    Rosloski, Sarah Marie; Jali, Sathya Sheela; Balasubramanian, Sureshkumar; Weigel, Detlef; Grbic, Vojislava

    2010-09-01

    Tandemly arrayed genes that belong to gene families characterize genomes of many organisms. Gene duplication and subsequent relaxation of selection can lead to the establishment of paralogous cluster members that may evolve along different trajectories. Here, we report on the structural variation in MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING 2 (MAF2) gene, one member of the tandemly duplicated cluster of MADS-box-containing transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana. The altered gene structure at the MAF2 locus is present as a moderate-frequency polymorphism in Arabidopsis and leads to the extensive diversity in transcript patterns due to alternative splicing. Rearrangements at the MAF2 locus are associated with an early flowering phenotype in BC(5) lines. The lack of suppression of flowering time in a MAF2-insertion line expressing the MAF2-specific artificial miRNA suggests that these MAF2 variants are behaving as loss-of-function alleles. The variation in gene architecture is also associated with segregation distortion, which may have facilitated the spread and the establishment of the corresponding alleles throughout the Eurasian range of the A. thaliana population.

  12. "Out of pollen" hypothesis for origin of new genes in flowering plants: study from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Wang, Xin; Li, Yan; Zeng, Lin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-09-17

    New genes, which provide material for evolutionary innovation, have been extensively studied for many years in animals where it is observed that they commonly show an expression bias for the testis. Thus, the testis is a major source for the generation of new genes in animals. The source tissue for new genes in plants is unclear. Here, we find that new genes in plants show a bias in expression to mature pollen, and are also enriched in a gene coexpression module that correlates with mature pollen in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transposable elements are significantly enriched in the new genes, and the high activity of transposable elements in the vegetative nucleus, compared with the germ cells, suggests that new genes are most easily generated in the vegetative nucleus in the mature pollen. We propose an "out of pollen" hypothesis for the origin of new genes in flowering plants.

  13. A Shortest-Path-Based Method for the Analysis and Prediction of Fruit-Related Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fangchu; Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Biologically, fruits are defined as seed-bearing reproductive structures in angiosperms that develop from the ovary. The fertilization, development and maturation of fruits are crucial for plant reproduction and are precisely regulated by intrinsic genetic regulatory factors. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism and attempted to identify novel genes related to fruit-associated biological processes. Specifically, using validated genes, we applied a shortest-path-based method to identify several novel genes in a large network constructed using the protein-protein interactions observed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The described analyses indicate that several of the discovered genes are associated with fruit fertilization, development and maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27434024

  14. Fractionation of Synteny in a Genomic Region Containing Tandemly Duplicated Genes Across Glycine max, Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extended comparison of gene sequences found on homeologous soybean BACs to Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic sequences demonstrated a network of synteny within conserved regions interrupted by gene addition and/or deletions. Consolidation of gene order among all three species prov...

  15. Gene expression analysis of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures during a parabolic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbick, Maren; Barjaktarović, Žarko; Hampp, Ruediger

    Plants sense gravity by specialized cells (statocytes) and adjust growth and development accordingly. It has, however, also been shown that plant cells which are not part of specialized tissues are also able to sense gravitational forces. Therefore we used undifferentiated, homogeneous cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) in order to identify early alterations in gene expression as a response to altered gravitational field strengths. In this contribution we report on cell cultures exposed to parabolic flights (approximately 20 sec of microgravity). For this short-term exposure study, we specifically checked for genes at the beginning of signal transduction chains, such as those coding for transcription factors (TFs). TFs are small proteins that regulate expression of their target genes by binding to specific promoter sequences. Our main focus were members of the so-called WRKY TF family. WRKY TFs are known to be involved in various physiological processes like senescence and pathogen defense. By quantifying transcriptional changes of these genes by real-time RT-PCR, we wanted to find out, how gene expression is affected by both hyperand microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight. For this purpose Arabidopsis thaliana callus cultures were metabolically quenched by the injection of RNAlater at the end of the microgravity-phase of each parabola. The data we present will show how fast changes in amounts of transcripts will occur, and to what degree the expression profiles are comparable with data obtained from exposures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity.

  16. Gene Mining for Proline Based Signaling Proteins in Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z; Ahmad, Samina J N; Shah, Zahid Hussain; Rehman, Hafiz M; Aslam, Zubair; Ahuja, Ishita; Bones, Atle M; Ahmad, Jam N

    2017-01-01

    The cell wall (CW) as a first line of defense against biotic and abiotic stresses is of primary importance in plant biology. The proteins associated with cell walls play a significant role in determining a plant's sustainability to adverse environmental conditions. In this work, the genes encoding cell wall proteins (CWPs) in Arabidopsis were identified and functionally classified using geneMANIA and GENEVESTIGATOR with published microarrays data. This yielded 1605 genes, out of which 58 genes encoded proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and glycine-rich proteins (GRPs). Here, we have focused on the cellular compartmentalization, biological processes, and molecular functioning of proline-rich CWPs along with their expression at different plant developmental stages. The mined genes were categorized into five classes on the basis of the type of PRPs encoded in the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. We review the domain structure and function of each class of protein, many with respect to the developmental stages of the plant. We have then used networks, hierarchical clustering and correlations to analyze co-expression, co-localization, genetic, and physical interactions and shared protein domains of these PRPs. This has given us further insight into these functionally important CWPs and identified a number of potentially new cell-wall related proteins in A. thaliana.

  17. Gene Mining for Proline Based Signaling Proteins in Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; Ahmad, Samina J. N.; Shah, Zahid Hussain; Rehman, Hafiz M.; Aslam, Zubair; Ahuja, Ishita; Bones, Atle M.; Ahmad, Jam N.

    2017-01-01

    The cell wall (CW) as a first line of defense against biotic and abiotic stresses is of primary importance in plant biology. The proteins associated with cell walls play a significant role in determining a plant's sustainability to adverse environmental conditions. In this work, the genes encoding cell wall proteins (CWPs) in Arabidopsis were identified and functionally classified using geneMANIA and GENEVESTIGATOR with published microarrays data. This yielded 1605 genes, out of which 58 genes encoded proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and glycine-rich proteins (GRPs). Here, we have focused on the cellular compartmentalization, biological processes, and molecular functioning of proline-rich CWPs along with their expression at different plant developmental stages. The mined genes were categorized into five classes on the basis of the type of PRPs encoded in the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. We review the domain structure and function of each class of protein, many with respect to the developmental stages of the plant. We have then used networks, hierarchical clustering and correlations to analyze co-expression, co-localization, genetic, and physical interactions and shared protein domains of these PRPs. This has given us further insight into these functionally important CWPs and identified a number of potentially new cell-wall related proteins in A. thaliana. PMID:28289422

  18. Genome-wide comparative analysis of the IQD gene families in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Abel, Steffen; Savchenko, Tatyana; Levy, Maggie

    2005-12-20

    Calcium signaling plays a prominent role in plants for coordinating a wide range of developmental processes and responses to environmental cues. Stimulus-specific generation of intracellular calcium transients, decoding of calcium signatures, and transformation of the signal into cellular responses are integral modules of the transduction process. Several hundred proteins with functions in calcium signaling circuits have been identified, and the number of downstream targets of calcium sensors is expected to increase. We previously identified a novel, calmodulin-binding nuclear protein, IQD1, which stimulates glucosinolate accumulation and plant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we present a comparative genome-wide analysis of a new class of putative calmodulin target proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. We identified and analyzed 33 and 29 IQD1-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. The encoded IQD proteins contain a plant-specific domain of 67 conserved amino acid residues, referred to as the IQ67 domain, which is characterized by a unique and repetitive arrangement of three different calmodulin recruitment motifs, known as the IQ, 1-5-10, and 1-8-14 motifs. We demonstrated calmodulin binding for IQD20, the smallest IQD protein in Arabidopsis, which consists of a C-terminal IQ67 domain and a short N-terminal extension. A striking feature of IQD proteins is the high isoelectric point (approximately 10.3) and frequency of serine residues (approximately 11%). We compared the Arabidopsis and rice IQD gene families in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, predicted protein properties and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary history. The existence of an IQD-like gene in bryophytes suggests that IQD proteins are an ancient family of calmodulin-binding proteins and arose during the early evolution of land plants. Comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that the major IQD gene lineages originated before the monocot

  19. Genome-wide comparative analysis of the IQD gene families in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Steffen; Savchenko, Tatyana; Levy, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Background Calcium signaling plays a prominent role in plants for coordinating a wide range of developmental processes and responses to environmental cues. Stimulus-specific generation of intracellular calcium transients, decoding of calcium signatures, and transformation of the signal into cellular responses are integral modules of the transduction process. Several hundred proteins with functions in calcium signaling circuits have been identified, and the number of downstream targets of calcium sensors is expected to increase. We previously identified a novel, calmodulin-binding nuclear protein, IQD1, which stimulates glucosinolate accumulation and plant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we present a comparative genome-wide analysis of a new class of putative calmodulin target proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. Results We identified and analyzed 33 and 29 IQD1-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. The encoded IQD proteins contain a plant-specific domain of 67 conserved amino acid residues, referred to as the IQ67 domain, which is characterized by a unique and repetitive arrangement of three different calmodulin recruitment motifs, known as the IQ, 1-5-10, and 1-8-14 motifs. We demonstrated calmodulin binding for IQD20, the smallest IQD protein in Arabidopsis, which consists of a C-terminal IQ67 domain and a short N-terminal extension. A striking feature of IQD proteins is the high isoelectric point (~10.3) and frequency of serine residues (~11%). We compared the Arabidopsis and rice IQD gene families in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, predicted protein properties and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary history. The existence of an IQD-like gene in bryophytes suggests that IQD proteins are an ancient family of calmodulin-binding proteins and arose during the early evolution of land plants. Conclusion Comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that the major IQD gene lineages originated before the

  20. Gene Expression patterns in cryogenically stored Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genes expressed in response to cryostress in plant shoot tips are not known. In this project we compared the gene expression patterns in untreated, cryoprotectant-treated, and recovering shoot tips using differential display methods. This project identified two genes that appeared to be differ...

  1. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulates field fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, Rachel; Feusier, Julie; Corwin, Jason; Rubin, Matthew; Lin, Catherine; Muok, Alise; Larson, Brandon; Li, Baohua; Joseph, Bindu; Francisco, Marta; Copeland, Daniel; Weinig, Cynthia; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations persist in complex environments, where biotic stressors, such as pathogen and insect communities, fluctuate temporally and spatially. These shifting biotic pressures generate heterogeneous selective forces that can maintain standing natural variation within a species. To directly test if genes containing causal variation for the Arabidopsis thaliana defensive compounds, glucosinolates (GSL) control field fitness and are therefore subject to natural selection, we conducted a multi-year field trial using lines that vary in only specific causal genes. Interestingly, we found that variation in these naturally polymorphic GSL genes affected fitness in each of our environments but the pattern fluctuated such that highly fit genotypes in one trial displayed lower fitness in another and that no GSL genotype or genotypes consistently out-performed the others. This was true both across locations and within the same location across years. These results indicate that environmental heterogeneity may contribute to the maintenance of GSL variation observed within Arabidopsis thaliana. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05604.001 PMID:25867014

  2. REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE genes from Arabidopsis thaliana help to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment

    DOE PAGES

    Larkin, Robert M.; Stefano, Giovanni; Ruckle, Michael E.; ...

    2016-02-09

    Eukaryotic cells require mechanisms to establish the proportion of cellular volume devoted to particular organelles. These mechanisms are poorly understood. From a screen for plastid-to-nucleus signaling mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we cloned a mutant allele of a gene that encodes a protein of unknown function that is homologous to two other Arabidopsis genes of unknown function and Arabidopsis. In contrast to FRIENDLY, these three homologs of FRIENDLY are found only in photosynthetic organisms. Based on these data, we proposed that FRIENDLY expanded into a small gene family to help regulate the energy metabolism of cells that contain both mitochondria andmore » chloroplasts. Indeed, we found that knocking out these genes caused a number of chloroplast phenotypes, including a reduction in the proportion of cellular volume devoted to chloroplasts to 50% of wild type. Thus, we refer to these genes as REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE (REC). The size of the chloroplast compartment was reduced most in rec1 mutants. The REC1 protein accumulated in the cytosol and the nucleus. REC1 was excluded from the nucleus when plants were treated with amitrole, which inhibits cell expansion and chloroplast function. Finally, we conclude that REC1 is an extraplastidic protein that helps to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment, and that signals derived from cell expansion or chloroplasts may regulate REC1.« less

  3. REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE genes from Arabidopsis thaliana help to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.; Stefano, Giovanni; Ruckle, Michael E.; Stavoe, Andrea K.; Sinkler, Christopher A.; Brandizzi, Federica; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells require mechanisms to establish the proportion of cellular volume devoted to particular organelles. These mechanisms are poorly understood. From a screen for plastid-to-nucleus signaling mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we cloned a mutant allele of a gene that encodes a protein of unknown function that is homologous to two other Arabidopsis genes of unknown function and to FRIENDLY, which was previously shown to promote the normal distribution of mitochondria in Arabidopsis. In contrast to FRIENDLY, these three homologs of FRIENDLY are found only in photosynthetic organisms. Based on these data, we proposed that FRIENDLY expanded into a small gene family to help regulate the energy metabolism of cells that contain both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Indeed, we found that knocking out these genes caused a number of chloroplast phenotypes, including a reduction in the proportion of cellular volume devoted to chloroplasts to 50% of wild type. Thus, we refer to these genes as REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE (REC). The size of the chloroplast compartment was reduced most in rec1 mutants. The REC1 protein accumulated in the cytosol and the nucleus. REC1 was excluded from the nucleus when plants were treated with amitrole, which inhibits cell expansion and chloroplast function. We conclude that REC1 is an extraplastidic protein that helps to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment, and that signals derived from cell expansion or chloroplasts may regulate REC1. PMID:26862170

  4. REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE genes from Arabidopsis thaliana help to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Robert M; Stefano, Giovanni; Ruckle, Michael E; Stavoe, Andrea K; Sinkler, Christopher A; Brandizzi, Federica; Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2016-02-23

    Eukaryotic cells require mechanisms to establish the proportion of cellular volume devoted to particular organelles. These mechanisms are poorly understood. From a screen for plastid-to-nucleus signaling mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we cloned a mutant allele of a gene that encodes a protein of unknown function that is homologous to two other Arabidopsis genes of unknown function and to FRIENDLY, which was previously shown to promote the normal distribution of mitochondria in Arabidopsis. In contrast to FRIENDLY, these three homologs of FRIENDLY are found only in photosynthetic organisms. Based on these data, we proposed that FRIENDLY expanded into a small gene family to help regulate the energy metabolism of cells that contain both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Indeed, we found that knocking out these genes caused a number of chloroplast phenotypes, including a reduction in the proportion of cellular volume devoted to chloroplasts to 50% of wild type. Thus, we refer to these genes as REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE (REC). The size of the chloroplast compartment was reduced most in rec1 mutants. The REC1 protein accumulated in the cytosol and the nucleus. REC1 was excluded from the nucleus when plants were treated with amitrole, which inhibits cell expansion and chloroplast function. We conclude that REC1 is an extraplastidic protein that helps to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment, and that signals derived from cell expansion or chloroplasts may regulate REC1.

  5. Evolutionary Rate Heterogeneity of Primary and Secondary Metabolic Pathway Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dola; Mukherjee, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2015-11-10

    Primary metabolism is essential to plants for growth and development, and secondary metabolism helps plants to interact with the environment. Many plant metabolites are industrially important. These metabolites are produced by plants through complex metabolic pathways. Lack of knowledge about these pathways is hindering the successful breeding practices for these metabolites. For a better knowledge of the metabolism in plants as a whole, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes is a prerequisite. In this study, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes has been analyzed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Primary metabolic pathway genes were found to be more conserved than secondary metabolic pathway genes. Several factors such as gene structure, expression level, tissue specificity, multifunctionality, and domain number are the key factors behind this evolutionary rate variation. This study will help to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of plant metabolism.

  6. Evolutionary Rate Heterogeneity of Primary and Secondary Metabolic Pathway Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Dola; Mukherjee, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Primary metabolism is essential to plants for growth and development, and secondary metabolism helps plants to interact with the environment. Many plant metabolites are industrially important. These metabolites are produced by plants through complex metabolic pathways. Lack of knowledge about these pathways is hindering the successful breeding practices for these metabolites. For a better knowledge of the metabolism in plants as a whole, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes is a prerequisite. In this study, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes has been analyzed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Primary metabolic pathway genes were found to be more conserved than secondary metabolic pathway genes. Several factors such as gene structure, expression level, tissue specificity, multifunctionality, and domain number are the key factors behind this evolutionary rate variation. This study will help to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of plant metabolism. PMID:26556590

  7. Retinoblastoma-like RRB gene of arabidopsis thaliana

    DOEpatents

    Durfee, Tim; Feiler, Heidi; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Jenkins, Susan; Roe, Judith; Zambryski, Patricia

    2004-02-24

    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  8. A framework of integrating gene relations from heterogeneous data sources: an experiment on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiexun; Li, Xin; Su, Hua; Chen, Hsinchun; Galbraith, David W

    2006-08-15

    One of the most important goals of biological investigation is to uncover gene functional relations. In this study we propose a framework for extraction and integration of gene functional relations from diverse biological data sources, including gene expression data, biological literature and genomic sequence information. We introduce a two-layered Bayesian network approach to integrate relations from multiple sources into a genome-wide functional network. An experimental study was conducted on a test-bed of Arabidopsis thaliana. Evaluation of the integrated network demonstrated that relation integration could improve the reliability of relations by combining evidence from different data sources. Domain expert judgments on the gene functional clusters in the network confirmed the validity of our approach for relation integration and network inference.

  9. Modified cellulose synthase gene from 'Arabidopsis thaliana' confers herbicide resistance to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scieble, Wolf

    2000-10-11

    Cellulose synthase ('CS'), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl) phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  10. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scheible, Wolf

    2007-07-10

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  11. Use of suppression subtractive hybridization to identify downy mildew genes expressed during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bittner-Eddy, Peter D; Allen, Rebecca L; Rehmany, Anne P; Birch, Paul; Beynon, Jim L

    2003-11-01

    SUMMARY Peronospora parasitica is an obligate biotrophic oomycete that causes downy mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species. Our goal is to identify P. parasitica (At) genes that are involved in pathogenicity. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to generate cDNA libraries enriched for in planta-expressed parasite genes and up-regulated host genes. A total of 1345 clones were sequenced representing cDNA fragments from 25 putative P. parasitica (At) genes (Ppat 1-25) and 618 Arabidopsis genes. Analyses of expression patterns showed that 15 Ppats were expressed only in planta. Eleven Ppats encoded peptides with homology (BlastP values < 1e-05) to proteins with roles in membrane or cell wall biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, osmoregulation, cation transport, phosphorylation or protein secretion. The other 14 represent potentially novel oomycete genes with none having homologues in an extensive Phytophthora species EST database. A full-length sequence was obtained for four Ppats and each encoded small cysteine-rich proteins with amino-terminal signal peptide sequences. These results demonstrate the utility of SSH in obtaining novel in planta-expressed genes from P. parasitica (At) that complements other gene discovery approaches such as EST sequencing.

  12. Exploring potential new floral organ morphogenesis genes of Arabidopsis thaliana using systems biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenchuan; Huang, Junfeng; Liu, Yang; Rao, Jianan; Luo, Da; He, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is one of the important defining features of angiosperms. The initiation of flower development and the formation of different floral organs are the results of the interplays among numerous genes. But until now, just fewer genes have been found linked with flower development. And the functions of lots of genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Although, the quartet model successfully simplified the ABCDE model to elaborate the molecular mechanism by introducing protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We still don't know much about several important aspects of flower development. So we need to discriminate even more genes involving in the flower development. In this study, we identified seven differentially modules through integrating the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) method to analyze co-expression network and PPIs using the public floral and non-floral expression profiles data of Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis was used for the functional annotation of the related genes, and some of the hub genes were identified in each module. The potential floral organ morphogenesis genes of two significant modules were integrated with PPI information in order to detail the inherent regulation mechanisms. Finally, the functions of the floral patterning genes were elucidated by combining the PPI and evolutionary information. It was indicated that the sub-networks or complexes, rather than the genes, were the regulation unit of flower development. We found that the most possible potential new genes underlining the floral pattern formation in A. thaliana were FY, CBL2, ZFN3, and AT1G77370; among them, FY, CBL2 acted as an upstream regulator of AP2; ZFN3 activated the flower primordial determining gene AP1 and AP2 by HY5/HYH gene via photo induction possibly. And AT1G77370 exhibited similar function in floral morphogenesis, same as ELF3. It possibly formed a complex between RFC3 and RPS15 in

  13. Heterologous Overexpression of Poplar SnRK2 Genes Enhanced Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xueqing; Yu, Xiang; Hori, Chiaki; Demura, Taku; Ohtani, Misato; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Subfamily 2 of SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK2) plays important roles in plant abiotic stress responses as a global positive regulator of abscisic acid signaling. In the genome of the model tree Populus trichocarpa, 12 SnRK2 genes have been identified, and some are upregulated by abiotic stresses. In this study, we heterologously overexpressed the PtSnRK2 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that overexpression of PtSnRK2.5 and PtSnRK2.7 genes enhanced stress tolerance. In the PtSnRK2.5 and PtSnRK2.7 overexpressors, chlorophyll content, and root elongation were maintained under salt stress conditions, leading to higher survival rates under salt stress compared with those in the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that PtSnRK2.7 overexpression affected stress-related metabolic genes, including lipid metabolism and flavonoid metabolism, even under normal growth conditions. However, the stress response genes reported to be upregulated in Arabidopsis SRK2C/SnRK2.6 and wheat SnRK2.8 overexpressors were not changed by PtSnRK2.7 overexpression. Furthermore, PtSnRK2.7 overexpression widely and largely influenced the transcriptome in response to salt stress; genes related to transport activity, including anion transport-related genes, were characteristically upregulated, and a variety of metabolic genes were specifically downregulated. We also found that the salt stress response genes were greatly upregulated in the PtSnRK2.7 overexpressor. Taken together, poplar subclass 2 PtSnRK2 genes can modulate salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, through the activation of cellular signaling pathways in a different manner from that by herbal subclass 2 SnRK2 genes. PMID:27242819

  14. Inferring Hypotheses on Functional Relationships of Genes: Analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana Subtilase Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Büssis, Dirk; Stintzi, Annick; Schaller, Andreas; Kopka, Joachim; Altmann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The gene family of subtilisin-like serine proteases (subtilases) in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises 56 members, divided into six distinct subfamilies. Whereas the members of five subfamilies are similar to pyrolysins, two genes share stronger similarity to animal kexins. Mutant screens confirmed 144 T-DNA insertion lines with knockouts for 55 out of the 56 subtilases. Apart from SDD1, none of the confirmed homozygous mutants revealed any obvious visible phenotypic alteration during growth under standard conditions. Apart from this specific case, forward genetics gave us no hints about the function of the individual 54 non-characterized subtilase genes. Therefore, the main objective of our work was to overcome the shortcomings of the forward genetic approach and to infer alternative experimental approaches by using an integrative bioinformatics and biological approach. Computational analyses based on transcriptional co-expression and co-response pattern revealed at least two expression networks, suggesting that functional redundancy may exist among subtilases with limited similarity. Furthermore, two hubs were identified, which may be involved in signalling or may represent higher-order regulatory factors involved in responses to environmental cues. A particular enrichment of co-regulated genes with metabolic functions was observed for four subtilases possibly representing late responsive elements of environmental stress. The kexin homologs show stronger associations with genes of transcriptional regulation context. Based on the analyses presented here and in accordance with previously characterized subtilases, we propose three main functions of subtilases: involvement in (i) control of development, (ii) protein turnover, and (iii) action as downstream components of signalling cascades. Supplemental material is available in the Plant Subtilase Database (PSDB) (http://csbdb.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/psdb.html) , as well as from the CSB.DB (http

  15. Gravity regulated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (GENARA experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Carnero-D&íaz, Eugénie; Medina, Francisco Javier; Gasset, Gilbert; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Graziana, Annick; Mazars, Christian; Le Disquet, Isabelle; Eche, Brigitte; Grat, Sabine; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette

    2012-07-01

    In higher plants, post-embryonic development is possible through the expression of a set of genes constituting the morphogenetic program that contribute to the production of tissues and organs during the whole plant life cycle. Plant development is mainly controlled by internal factors such as phytohormones, as well as by environmental factors, among which gravity plays a key role (gravi-morphogenetic program). The GENARA space experiment has been designed with the goal of contributing to a better understanding of this gravi-morphogenetic program through the identification and characterization of some gravity regulated proteins (GR proteins) by using quantitative proteomic methods, and through the study of the impact of plant hormones on the expression of this program. Among plant hormones, auxin is the major regulator of organogenesis. In fact, it affects numerous plant developmental processes, e.g. cell division and elongation, autumnal loss of leaves, and the formation of buds, roots, flowers and fruits. Furthermore, it also plays a key role in the mechanisms of different tropisms (including gravitropism) that modulate fundamental features of plant growth. The expression of significant genes involved in auxin transport and in auxin signal perception in root cells is being studied in space-grown seedlings and compared with the corresponding ground controls. This experiment was scheduled to be performed in The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), a new facility for plant cultivation and Plant Molecular Biology studies, at ISS. However only one aspect of this experiment was flown and concerns the qualitative and quantitative changes in membrane proteins supposed to be mainly associated with cell signaling and has been called GENARA A. The second part dealing with the function of auxin in the gravi-morphogenetic program and the alterations induced by microgravity will be studied through mutants affected on biosynthesis, transport or perception of auxin in a

  16. FLOR-ID: an interactive database of flowering-time gene networks in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Frédéric; Lobet, Guillaume; Tocquin, Pierre; Périlleux, Claire

    2016-01-04

    Flowering is a hot topic in Plant Biology and important progress has been made in Arabidopsis thaliana toward unraveling the genetic networks involved. The increasing complexity and the explosion of literature however require development of new tools for information management and update. We therefore created an evolutive and interactive database of flowering time genes, named FLOR-ID (Flowering-Interactive Database), which is freely accessible at http://www.flor-id.org. The hand-curated database contains information on 306 genes and links to 1595 publications gathering the work of >4500 authors. Gene/protein functions and interactions within the flowering pathways were inferred from the analysis of related publications, included in the database and translated into interactive manually drawn snapshots.

  17. Inheritance Beyond Plain Heritability: Variance-Controlling Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xia; Pettersson, Mats; Rönnegård, Lars; Carlborg, Örjan

    2012-01-01

    The phenotypic effect of a gene is normally described by the mean-difference between alternative genotypes. A gene may, however, also influence the phenotype by causing a difference in variance between genotypes. Here, we reanalyze a publicly available Arabidopsis thaliana dataset [1] and show that genetic variance heterogeneity appears to be as common as normal additive effects on a genomewide scale. The study also develops theory to estimate the contributions of variance differences between genotypes to the phenotypic variance, and this is used to show that individual loci can explain more than 20% of the phenotypic variance. Two well-studied systems, cellular control of molybdenum level by the ion-transporter MOT1 and flowering-time regulation by the FRI-FLC expression network, and a novel association for Leaf serration are used to illustrate the contribution of major individual loci, expression pathways, and gene-by-environment interactions to the genetic variance heterogeneity. PMID:22876191

  18. A loss-of-function mutation in Calmodulin2 gene affects pollen germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Landoni, Michela; De Francesco, Alessandra; Galbiati, Massimo; Tonelli, Chiara

    2010-10-01

    Calmodulin (CAM) is an ubiquitous calcium binding protein whose function is to translate the signals, perceived as calcium concentration variations, into the appropriate cellular responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are 4 CAM isoforms which are highly similar, encoded by 7 genes, and one possible explanation proposed for the evolutionary conservation of the CAM gene family is that the different genes have acquired different functions so that they play possibly overlapping but non-identical roles. Here we report the characterization of the Arabidopsis mutant cam2-2, identified among the lines of the gene-trapping collection EXOTIC because of a distorted segregation of kanamycin resistance. Phenotypic analysis showed that in normal growth conditions cam2-2 plants were indistinguishable from the wild type while genetic analysis showed a reduced transmission of the cam2-2 allele through the male gametophyte and in vitro pollen germination revealed a reduced level of germination in comparison with the wild type. These results provide genetic evidence of the involvement of a CAM gene in pollen germination and support the theory of functional diversification of the CAM gene family.

  19. Unstable Inheritance of 45S rRNA Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rabanal, Fernando A.; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Mandáková, Terezie; Novikova, Polina Yu.; Lysak, Martin A.; Mott, Richard; Nordborg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The considerable genome size variation in Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown largely to be due to copy number variation (CNV) in 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Surprisingly, attempts to map this variation by means of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) failed to identify either of the two likely sources, namely the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). Instead, GWAS implicated a trans-acting locus, as if rRNA gene CNV was a phenotype rather than a genotype. To explain these results, we investigated the inheritance and stability of rRNA gene copy number using the variety of genetic resources available in A. thaliana — F2 crosses, recombinant inbred lines, the multiparent advanced-generation inter-cross population, and mutation accumulation lines. Our results clearly show that rRNA gene CNV can be mapped to the NORs themselves, with both loci contributing equally to the variation. However, NOR size is unstably inherited, and dramatic copy number changes are visible already within tens of generations, which explains why it is not possible to map the NORs using GWAS. We did not find any evidence of trans-acting loci in crosses, which is also expected since changes due to such loci would take very many generations to manifest themselves. rRNA gene copy number is thus an interesting example of “missing heritability”—a trait that is heritable in pedigrees, but not in the general population. PMID:28188182

  20. Unstable Inheritance of 45S rRNA Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rabanal, Fernando A; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Mandáková, Terezie; Novikova, Polina Yu; Lysak, Martin A; Mott, Richard; Nordborg, Magnus

    2017-04-03

    The considerable genome size variation in Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown largely to be due to copy number variation (CNV) in 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Surprisingly, attempts to map this variation by means of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) failed to identify either of the two likely sources, namely the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). Instead, GWAS implicated a trans-acting locus, as if rRNA gene CNV was a phenotype rather than a genotype. To explain these results, we investigated the inheritance and stability of rRNA gene copy number using the variety of genetic resources available in A. thaliana - F2 crosses, recombinant inbred lines, the multiparent advanced-generation inter-cross population, and mutation accumulation lines. Our results clearly show that rRNA gene CNV can be mapped to the NORs themselves, with both loci contributing equally to the variation. However, NOR size is unstably inherited, and dramatic copy number changes are visible already within tens of generations, which explains why it is not possible to map the NORs using GWAS. We did not find any evidence of trans-acting loci in crosses, which is also expected since changes due to such loci would take very many generations to manifest themselves. rRNA gene copy number is thus an interesting example of "missing heritability"-a trait that is heritable in pedigrees, but not in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Rabanal et al.

  1. Osmoregulation of a pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, N; Villarroel, R; Van Montagu, M

    1993-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. proline can account for up to 20% of the free amino acid pool after salt stress. Proline accumulation occurs in plants mainly by de novo synthesis from glutamate. The last step of the proline biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase. A gene (AT-P5C1) encoding this enzyme in A. thaliana has been cloned and sequenced. Expression of AT-P5C1 in Escherichia coli resulted in the complementation of a proC mutant to prototrophy. A comparison of the AT-P5C1 primary and secondary structures with those of six P5C reductase of other organisms is presented. With the exception of several functionally important amino acid residues, little conservation in the primary structure is seen; much greater similarity exists in the putative secondary structure. The AT-P5C1 protein is probably cytosolic. Under normal growth conditions, the P5C reductase mRNA level was significantly higher in roots and ripening seeds than in green tissue. A salt treatment of A. thaliana plants resulted in a 5-fold induction of the AT-P5C1 transcript, suggesting osmoregulation of the AT-P5C1 promoter region. Moreover, a time-course experiment indicated that this induction precedes proline accumulation. PMID:8022935

  2. Changes in the gene expression profile of Arabidopsis thaliana after infection with Tobacco etch virus

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Carbonell, Pablo; de la Iglesia, Francisca; Carrera, Javier; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Elena, Santiago F

    2008-01-01

    Background Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) has been extensively used as model system for the study of positive-sense RNA virus infecting plants. TEV ability to infect Arabidopsis thaliana varies among ecotypes. In this study, changes in gene expression of A. thaliana ecotype Ler infected with TEV have been explored using long-oligonucleotide arrays. A. thaliana Ler is a susceptible host that allows systemic movement, although the viral load is low and syndrome induced ranges from asymptomatic to mild. Gene expression profiles were monitored in whole plants 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Microarrays contained 26,173 protein-coding genes and 87 miRNAs. Results Expression analysis identified 1727 genes that displayed significant and consistent changes in expression levels either up or down, in infected plants. Identified TEV-responsive genes encode a diverse array of functional categories that include responses to biotic (such as the systemic acquired resistance pathway and hypersensitive responses) and abiotic stresses (droughtness, salinity, temperature, and wounding). The expression of many different transcription factors was also significantly affected, including members of the R2R3-MYB family and ABA-inducible TFs. In concordance with several other plant and animal viruses, the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSP) was also increased. Finally, we have associated functional GO categories with KEGG biochemical pathways, and found that many of the altered biological functions are controlled by changes in basal metabolism. Conclusion TEV infection significantly impacts a wide array of cellular processes, in particular, stress-response pathways, including the systemic acquired resistance and hypersensitive responses. However, many of the observed alterations may represent a global response to viral infection rather than being specific of TEV. PMID:18684336

  3. Natural variation in abiotic stress responsive gene expression and local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Des Marais, David L; Lowry, David B; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Keitt, Timothy H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, "eSR") to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, "eGEI"). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase genes respond to phosphate deficiency for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yukika; Kusano, Hiroaki; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Aoyama, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Plants drastically alter their root system architecture to adapt to different underground growth conditions. During phosphate (Pi) deficiency, most plants including Arabidopsis thaliana enhance the development of lateral roots and root hairs, resulting in bushy and hairy roots. To elucidate the signal pathway specific for the root hair elongation response to Pi deficiency, we investigated the expression of type-B phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) genes, as a quantitative factor for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. At young seedling stages, the PIP5K3 and PIP5K4 genes responded to Pi deficiency in steady-state transcript levels via PHR1-binding sequences (P1BSs) in their upstream regions. Both pip5k3 and pip5k4 single mutants, which exhibit short-root-hair phenotypes, remained responsive to Pi deficiency for root hair elongation; however the pip5k3pip5k4 double mutant exhibited shorter root hairs than the single mutants, and lost responsiveness to Pi deficiency at young seedling stages. In the tactical complementation line in which modified PIP5K3 and PIP5K4 genes with base substitutions in their P1BSs were co-introduced into the double mutant, root hairs of young seedlings had normal lengths under Pi-sufficient conditions, but were not responsive to Pi deficiency. From these results, we conclude that a Pi-deficiency signal is transferred to the pathway for root hair elongation via the PIP5K genes.

  5. Prediction of drought-resistant genes in Arabidopsis thaliana using SVM-RFE.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Juexin; Joshi, Trupti; Wang, Yan; Xu, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Identifying genes with essential roles in resisting environmental stress rates high in agronomic importance. Although massive DNA microarray gene expression data have been generated for plants, current computational approaches underutilize these data for studying genotype-trait relationships. Some advanced gene identification methods have been explored for human diseases, but typically these methods have not been converted into publicly available software tools and cannot be applied to plants for identifying genes with agronomic traits. In this study, we used 22 sets of Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression data from GEO to predict the key genes involved in water tolerance. We applied an SVM-RFE (Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination) feature selection method for the prediction. To address small sample sizes, we developed a modified approach for SVM-RFE by using bootstrapping and leave-one-out cross-validation. We also expanded our study to predict genes involved in water susceptibility. We analyzed the top 10 genes predicted to be involved in water tolerance. Seven of them are connected to known biological processes in drought resistance. We also analyzed the top 100 genes in terms of their biological functions. Our study shows that the SVM-RFE method is a highly promising method in analyzing plant microarray data for studying genotype-phenotype relationships. The software is freely available with source code at http://ccst.jlu.edu.cn/JCSB/RFET/.

  6. Gene introduction into the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana via peptide-based carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Jo-Ann; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Kodama, Yutaka; Numata, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Available methods in plant genetic transformation are nuclear and plastid transformations because similar procedures have not yet been established for the mitochondria. The double membrane and small size of the organelle, in addition to its large population in cells, are major obstacles in mitochondrial transfection. Here we report the intracellular delivery of exogenous DNA localized to the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana using a combination of mitochondria-targeting peptide and cell-penetrating peptide. Low concentrations of peptides were sufficient to deliver DNA into the mitochondria and expression of imported DNA reached detectable levels within a short incubation period (12 h). We found that electrostatic interaction with the cell membrane is not a critical factor for complex internalization, instead, improved intracellular penetration of mitochondria-targeted complexes significantly enhanced gene transfer efficiency. Our results delineate a simple and effective peptide-based method, as a starting point for the development of more sophisticated plant mitochondrial transfection strategies.

  7. Gene introduction into the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana via peptide-based carriers.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Jo-Ann; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Kodama, Yutaka; Numata, Keiji

    2015-01-13

    Available methods in plant genetic transformation are nuclear and plastid transformations because similar procedures have not yet been established for the mitochondria. The double membrane and small size of the organelle, in addition to its large population in cells, are major obstacles in mitochondrial transfection. Here we report the intracellular delivery of exogenous DNA localized to the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana using a combination of mitochondria-targeting peptide and cell-penetrating peptide. Low concentrations of peptides were sufficient to deliver DNA into the mitochondria and expression of imported DNA reached detectable levels within a short incubation period (12 h). We found that electrostatic interaction with the cell membrane is not a critical factor for complex internalization, instead, improved intracellular penetration of mitochondria-targeted complexes significantly enhanced gene transfer efficiency. Our results delineate a simple and effective peptide-based method, as a starting point for the development of more sophisticated plant mitochondrial transfection strategies.

  8. Arsenic Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana Expressing an Algal Arsenite Methyltransferase Gene Increases Arsenic Phytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhong; Lv, Yanling; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Wenwen; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in soil can lead to elevated transfer of As to the food chain. One potential mitigation strategy is to genetically engineer plants to enable them to transform inorganic As to methylated and volatile As species. In this study, we genetically engineered two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana with the arsenite (As(III)) S-adenosylmethyltransferase (arsM) gene from the eukaryotic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The transgenic A. thaliana plants gained a strong ability to methylate As, converting most of the inorganic As into dimethylarsenate [DMA(V)] in the shoots. Small amounts of volatile As were detected from the transgenic plants. However, the transgenic plants became more sensitive to As(III) in the medium, suggesting that DMA(V) is more phytotoxic than inorganic As. The study demonstrates a negative consequence of engineered As methylation in plants and points to a need for arsM genes with a strong ability to methylate As to volatile species. PMID:26998776

  9. Gene structures and processing of Arabidopsis thaliana HYL1-dependent pri-miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Szarzynska, Bogna; Sobkowiak, Lukasz; Pant, Bikram Datt; Balazadeh, Salma; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana HYL1 is a nuclear double-stranded RNA-binding protein involved in the maturation of pri-miRNAs. A quantitative real-time PCR platform for parallel quantification of 176 pri-miRNAs was used to reveal strong accumulation of 57 miRNA precursors in the hyl1 mutant that completely lacks HYL1 protein. This approach enabled us for the first time to pinpoint particular members of MIRNA family genes that require HYL1 activity for efficient maturation of their precursors. Moreover, the accumulation of miRNA precursors in the hyl1 mutant gave us the opportunity to carry out 3′ and 5′ RACE experiments which revealed that some of these precursors are of unexpected length. The alignment of HYL1-dependent miRNA precursors to A. thaliana genomic sequences indicated the presence of introns in 12 out of 20 genes studied. Some of the characterized intron-containing pri-miRNAs undergo alternative splicing such as exon skipping or usage of alternative 5′ splice sites suggesting that this process plays a role in the regulation of miRNA biogenesis. In the hyl1 mutant intron-containing pri-miRNAs accumulate alongside spliced pri-miRNAs suggesting the recruitment of HYL1 into the miRNA precursor maturation pathway before their splicing occurs. PMID:19304749

  10. Gene structures and processing of Arabidopsis thaliana HYL1-dependent pri-miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Szarzynska, Bogna; Sobkowiak, Lukasz; Pant, Bikram Datt; Balazadeh, Salma; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2009-05-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana HYL1 is a nuclear double-stranded RNA-binding protein involved in the maturation of pri-miRNAs. A quantitative real-time PCR platform for parallel quantification of 176 pri-miRNAs was used to reveal strong accumulation of 57 miRNA precursors in the hyl1 mutant that completely lacks HYL1 protein. This approach enabled us for the first time to pinpoint particular members of MIRNA family genes that require HYL1 activity for efficient maturation of their precursors. Moreover, the accumulation of miRNA precursors in the hyl1 mutant gave us the opportunity to carry out 3' and 5' RACE experiments which revealed that some of these precursors are of unexpected length. The alignment of HYL1-dependent miRNA precursors to A. thaliana genomic sequences indicated the presence of introns in 12 out of 20 genes studied. Some of the characterized intron-containing pri-miRNAs undergo alternative splicing such as exon skipping or usage of alternative 5' splice sites suggesting that this process plays a role in the regulation of miRNA biogenesis. In the hyl1 mutant intron-containing pri-miRNAs accumulate alongside spliced pri-miRNAs suggesting the recruitment of HYL1 into the miRNA precursor maturation pathway before their splicing occurs.

  11. Involvement of THH1, an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of the TOM1 gene, in tobamovirus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Koki; Ravelo, Gerald B; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2006-08-01

    The TOM1 and TOM3 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana encode homologous proteins that are required for tobamovirus multiplication. Although the A. thaliana genome encodes another TOM1-like gene, THH1, the tobamovirus coat protein (CP) does not accumulate to a detectable level in the tom1 tom3 double mutant. Here, double and triple mutants of tom1, tom3 and thh1 were generated to investigate whether THH1 functions to support tobamovirus multiplication. In the tom1 thh1 double mutant, the tobamovirus CP accumulated to a level that was detectable, but lower than that in the tom1 single mutant. In tom1 tom3 double-mutant lines overexpressing THH1, the tobamovirus CP accumulated to a level similar to that observed in wild-type plants. These results suggest that THH1 supports tobamovirus multiplication, but to a lesser extent than TOM1 and TOM3. The expression level of THH1 is lower than that of TOM1 and TOM3, which might explain the smaller contribution of THH1 to tobamovirus multiplication.

  12. CuO Nanoparticle Interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana: Toxicity, Parent-Progeny Transfer, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Xu, Lina; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Xiangke; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-06-07

    CuO nanoparticles (NPs) (20, 50 mg L(-1)) inhibited seedling growth of different Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Col-0, Bay-0, and Ws-2), as well as the germination of their pollens and harvested seeds. For most of growth parameters (e.g., biomass, relative growth rate, root morphology change), Col-0 was the more sensitive ecotype to CuO NPs compared to Bay-0 and Ws-2. Equivalent Cu(2+) ions and CuO bulk particles had no effect on Arabidopsis growth. After CuO NPs (50 mg L(-1)) exposure, Cu was detected in the roots, leaves, flowers and harvested seeds of Arabidopsis, and its contents were significantly higher than that in CuO bulk particles (50 mg L(-1)) and Cu(2+) ions (0.15 mg L(-1)) treatments. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis (XANES), Cu in the harvested seeds was confirmed as being mainly in the form of CuO (88.8%), which is the first observation on the presence of CuO NPs in the plant progeny. Moreover, after CuO NPs exposure, two differentially expressed genes (C-1 and C-3) that regulated root growth and reactive oxygen species generation were identified, which correlated well with the physiological root inhibition and oxidative stress data. This current study provides direct evidence for the negative effects of CuO NPs on Arabidopsis, including accumulation and parent-progeny transfer of the particles, which may have significant implications with regard to the risk of NPs to food safety and security.

  13. TRAUCO, a Trithorax-group gene homologue, is required for early embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Aquea, Felipe; Johnston, Amal J; Cañon, Paola; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2010-02-01

    Embryogenesis is a critical stage during the plant life cycle in which a unicellular zygote develops into a multicellular organism. Co-ordinated gene expression is thus necessary for proper embryo development. Polycomb and Trithorax group genes are members of evolutionarily conserved machinery that maintains the correct expression patterns of key developmental regulators by repressing and activating gene transcription. TRAUCO (TRO), a gene homologous to the Trithorax group of genes that can functionally complement a BRE2P yeast mutant, has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. It is demonstrated that TRO is a nuclear gene product expressed during embryogenesis, and loss of TRO function leads to impaired early embryo development. Embryos that arrested at the globular stage in the tro-1 mutant allele were fully rescued by a TRO expression clone, a demonstration that the tro-1 mutation is a true loss-of-function in TRO. Our data have established that TRO is the first trithorax-group gene homologue in plants that is required for early embryogenesis.

  14. TRAUCO, a Trithorax-group gene homologue, is required for early embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Aquea, Felipe; Johnston, Amal J.; Cañon, Paola; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2010-01-01

    Embryogenesis is a critical stage during the plant life cycle in which a unicellular zygote develops into a multicellular organism. Co-ordinated gene expression is thus necessary for proper embryo development. Polycomb and Trithorax group genes are members of evolutionarily conserved machinery that maintains the correct expression patterns of key developmental regulators by repressing and activating gene transcription. TRAUCO (TRO), a gene homologous to the Trithorax group of genes that can functionally complement a BRE2P yeast mutant, has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. It is demonstrated that TRO is a nuclear gene product expressed during embryogenesis, and loss of TRO function leads to impaired early embryo development. Embryos that arrested at the globular stage in the tro-1 mutant allele were fully rescued by a TRO expression clone, a demonstration that the tro-1 mutation is a true loss-of-function in TRO. Our data have established that TRO is the first trithorax-group gene homologue in plants that is required for early embryogenesis. PMID:20118203

  15. Metabolic regulation of the gene encoding glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, H M; Peng, S S; Coruzzi, G M

    1994-01-01

    Here, we characterize a cDNA encoding a glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase (ASN1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and assess the effects of metabolic regulation on ASN1 mRNA levels. Sequence analysis shows that the predicted ASN1 peptide contains a purF-type glutamine-binding domain. Southern blot experiments and cDNA clone analysis suggest that ASN1 is the only gene encoding glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase in A. thaliana. The ASN1 gene is expressed predominantly in shoot tissues, where light has a negative effect on its mRNA accumulation. This negative effect of light on ASN1 mRNA levels was shown to be mediated, at least in part, via the photoreceptor phytochrome. We also investigated whether light-induced changes in nitrogen to carbon ratios might exert a metabolic regulation of the ASN1 mRNA accumulation. These experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of ASN1 mRNA in dark-grown plants is strongly repressed by the presence of exogenous sucrose. Moreover, this sucrose repression of ASN1 expression can be partially rescued by supplementation with exogenous amino acids such as asparagine, glutamine, and glutamate. These findings suggest that the expression of the ASN1 gene is under the metabolic control of the nitrogen to carbon ratio in cells. This is consistent with the fact that asparagine, synthesized by the ASN1 gene product, is a favored compound for nitrogen storage and nitrogen transport in dark-grown plants. We have put forth a working model suggesting that when nitrogen to carbon ratios are high, the gene product of ASN1 functions to re-direct the flow of nitrogen into asparagine, which acts as a shunt for storage and/or long-distance transport of nitrogen. PMID:7846154

  16. A novel strategy for obtaining kanamycin resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana by silencing an endogenous gene encoding a putative chloroplast transporter.

    PubMed

    Aufsatz, Werner; Nehlin, Lilian; Voronin, Viktor; Schmidt, Agnes; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2009-02-01

    The use of bacterial antibiotic resistance markers in transgenic plants raises concerns about horizontal gene transfer to soil bacteria. We report here that kanamycin resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana can be achieved by silencing an endogenous gene encoding a putative chloroplast transporter, which presumably imports kanamycin into chloroplasts to interfere with ribosomal RNA. Homologs of the transporter exist in other plant species, suggesting this strategy may be generally useful for selecting transformed plant cells.

  17. Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Manmathan, Harish; Shaner, Dale; Snelling, Jacob; Tisserat, Ned; Lapitan, Nora

    2013-03-01

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8'-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting.

  18. Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lapitan, Nora

    2013-01-01

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8’-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. PMID:23364940

  19. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-03-30

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci.

  20. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcombe, John R.; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S.; Purugganan, Michael D.; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci. PMID:15070783

  1. Differentially expressed genes associated with dormancy or germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Toorop, Peter E; Barroco, Rosa Maria; Engler, Gilbert; Groot, Steven P C; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2005-07-01

    Differential display analysis using dormant and non-dormant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh seeds resulted in a set of genes that were associated with either dormancy or germination. Expression of the germination-associated genes AtRPL36B and AtRPL27B, encoding two ribosomal proteins, was undetectable in the dry seed, low in dormant seed, and high under conditions that allowed completion of germination. Expression of these genes was also found to be light-regulated and to correlate with germination speed. Expression of the dormancy-associated genes ATS2 and ATS4, encoding a caleosin-like protein and a protein similar to a low-temperature-induced protein respectively, was high in the dry seed and decreased during germination. Expression of ATS2 and ATS4 was high in primary and secondary dormant seed but low in after-ripened or chilled seed. The expression of both genes was also light-regulated, but no relationship with temperature-dependent germination speed was found.

  2. Deep genome-wide measurement of meiotic gene conversion using tetrad analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujin; Ambrose, Jonathan H; Haughey, Brena S; Webster, Tyler D; Pierrie, Sarah N; Muñoz, Daniela F; Wellman, Emily C; Cherian, Shalom; Lewis, Scott M; Berchowitz, Luke E; Copenhaver, Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    Gene conversion, the non-reciprocal exchange of genetic information, is one of the potential products of meiotic recombination. It can shape genome structure by acting on repetitive DNA elements, influence allele frequencies at the population level, and is known to be implicated in human disease. But gene conversion is hard to detect directly except in organisms, like fungi, that group their gametes following meiosis. We have developed a novel visual assay that enables us to detect gene conversion events directly in the gametes of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this assay we measured gene conversion events across the genome of more than one million meioses and determined that the genome-wide average frequency is 3.5×10(-4) conversions per locus per meiosis. We also detected significant locus-to-locus variation in conversion frequency but no intra-locus variation. Significantly, we found one locus on the short arm of chromosome 4 that experienced 3-fold to 6-fold more gene conversions than the other loci tested. Finally, we demonstrated that we could modulate conversion frequency by varying experimental conditions.

  3. Comparative study of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana and Eutrema halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Quancan; Bartels, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Stresses such as drought or salinity induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which subsequently cause excessive accumulation of aldehydes in plant cells. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are considered as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ to eliminate toxic aldehydes caused by oxidative stress. The completion of the genome sequencing projects of the halophytes Eutrema parvulum and E. salsugineum has paved the way to explore the relationships and the roles of ALDH genes in the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana and halophyte model plants. Methods Protein sequences of all plant ALDH families were used as queries to search E. parvulum and E. salsugineum genome databases. Evolutionary analyses compared the phylogenetic relationships of ALDHs from A. thaliana and Eutrema. Expression patterns of several stress-associated ALDH genes were investigated under different salt conditions using reverse transcription–PCR. Putative cis-elements in the promoters of ALDH10A8 from A. thaliana and E. salsugineum were compared in silico. Key Results Sixteen and 17 members of ten ALDH families were identified from E. parvulum and E. salsugineum genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of ALDH protein sequences indicated that Eutrema ALDHs are closely related to those of Arabidopsis, and members within these species possess nearly identical exon–intron structures. Gene expression analysis under different salt conditions showed that most of the ALDH genes have similar expression profiles in Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum, except for ALDH7B4 and ALDH10A8. In silico analysis of promoter regions of ALDH10A8 revealed different distributions of cis-elements in E. salsugineum and Arabidopsis. Conclusions Genomic organization, copy number, sub-cellular localization and expression profiles of ALDH genes are conserved in Arabidopsis, E. parvulum and E. salsugineum. The different expression patterns of ALDH7B4 and ALDH10A8 in Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum suggest that E

  4. MAN3 gene regulates cadmium tolerance through the glutathione-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Yang, Libo; Gu, Ju; Bai, Xiaoya; Ren, Yongbin; Fan, Tingting; Han, Yi; Jiang, Li; Xiao, Fangming; Liu, Yongsheng; Cao, Shuqing

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of soil by the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is a global environmental problem. The glutathione (GSH)-dependent phytochelatin (PC) synthesis pathway is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to Cd accumulation and tolerance. However, the regulation of this pathway is poorly understood. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana cadmium-tolerant dominant mutant xcd1-D (XVE system-induced cadmium-tolerance 1) and cloned XCD1 gene (previously called MAN3), which encodes an endo-β-mannanase. Overexpression of MAN3 led to enhanced Cd accumulation and tolerance, whereas loss-of-function of MAN3 resulted in decreased Cd accumulation and tolerance. In the presence of estradiol, enhanced Cd accumulation and tolerance in xcd1-D was associated with GSH-dependent, Cd-activated synthesis of PCs, which was correlated with coordinated activation of gene expression. Cd stress-induced expression of MAN3 and the consequently increased mannanase activity, led to increased mannose content in cell walls. Moreover, mannose treatment not only rescued the Cd-sensitive phenotype of the xcd1-2 mutant, but also improved the Cd tolerance of wild-type plants. Significantly, this mannose-mediated Cd accumulation and tolerance is dependent on GSH-dependent PC concentrations via coordinated control of expression of genes involved in PC synthesis. Our results suggest that MAN3 regulates the GSH-dependent PC synthesis pathway that contributes to Cd accumulation and tolerance in A. thaliana by coordinated control of gene expression. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Superoxide-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junhuan; Tran, Thu; Padilla Marcia, Carmen S; Braun, David M; Goggin, Fiona L

    2017-08-01

    Superoxide (O2(-)) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in response to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Different ROS have been reported to elicit different transcriptional responses in plants, and so ROS-responsive marker genes and promoter::reporter gene fusions have been proposed as indirect means of detecting ROS and discriminating among different species. However, further information about the specificity of transcriptional responses to O2(-) is needed in order to assess potential markers for this critical stress-responsive signaling molecule. Using qRT-PCR, the expression of 12 genes previously reported to be upregulated by O2(-) was measured in Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to elicitors of common stress-responsive ROS: methyl viologen (an inducer of O2(-)), rose bengal (an inducer of singlet oxygen, (1)ΔO2), and exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Surprisingly, Zinc-Finger Protein 12 (AtZAT12), which had previously been used as a reporter for H2O2, responded more strongly to O2(-) than to H2O2; moreover, the expression of an AtZAT12 promoter-reporter fusion (AtZAT12::Luc) was enhanced by diethyldithiocarbamate, which inhibits dismutation of O2(-) to H2O2. These results suggest that AtZAT12 is transcriptionally upregulated in response to O2(-), and that AtZAT12::Luc may be a useful biosensor for detecting O2(-) generation in vivo. In addition, transcripts encoding uncoupling proteins (AtUCPs) showed selectivity for O2(-) in Arabidopsis, and an AtUCP homolog upregulated by methyl viologen was also identified in maize (Zea mays L.), indicating that there are O2(-)-responsive members of this family in monocots. These results expand our limited knowledge of ROS-responsive gene expression in monocots, as well as O2(-)-selective responses in dicots. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  6. The oomycete response gene LURP1 is required for defense against Hyaloperonospora parasitica in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Knoth, Colleen; Eulgem, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    LURP1 is a member of the LURP cluster and the PR1 regulon, two previously defined sets of co-expressed Arabidopsis thaliana genes that share a pronounced upregulation in response to infections by the pathogenic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica. LURP1 shows the most extreme transcriptional inducibility by H. parasitica of all LURP and PR1 regulon genes. Using insertion mutants we found that LURP1 is required for full basal defense to H. parasitica and resistance to this pathogen mediated by the R-proteins RPP4 and RPP5. The LURP1 protein shows no obvious similarity to proteins of known molecular function. We identified a 39-bp region of the LURP1 promoter that mediates reporter gene expression in response to H. parasitica and salicylic acid. This promoter region contains a W box motif, W(LURP1), that interacts in vitro with nuclear factors producing two separate DNA-binding patterns. W(LURP1)-related sequences are strongly enriched in the promoters of the PR1 regulon, suggesting a role for this motif in the coordinated expression of genes inducible by H. parasitica and related defense conditions.

  7. [The roles of the NANA and LEPIDA genes in regulating the stem growth in Arabidopsis thaliana].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, O V; Skliarova, O A; Ezhova, T A

    2004-07-01

    Genetic, physiological, and morphological studies of dwarf mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. from the collection of the Department of Genetics and Breeding, Moscow State University, showed that the NA and LE genes are involved in regulating elongation of internode cells and sensitivity to various hormones. The na mutation suppressed stem growth only in the presence of the active LE gene. The absence of the LE activity (in the lele homozygote) restored stem growth of the na mutant to the level characteristic of the le-2 mutant, and a decrease in LE activity (in LEle heterozygote) almost completely suppressed the na phenotype. Phenotypic analysis of homozygous double mutants and heterozygotes obtained by crossing the na and le-2 mutants showed that the recessive le-2 allele has an epistatic effect on the semidominant na allele and that the genes possibly control consecutive steps of one biochemical pathway or one morphogenetic process. A hypothetical scheme was proposed for the interaction of the NA and LE gene products.

  8. Genes of primary sulfate assimilation are part of the glucosinolate biosynthetic network in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yatusevich, Ruslan; Mugford, Sarah G; Matthewman, Colette; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Frerigmann, Henning; Delaney, Sean; Koprivova, Anna; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2010-04-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites involved in responses to biotic stress. The final step of their synthesis is the transfer of a sulfo group from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) onto a desulfo precursor. Thus, glucosinolate synthesis is linked to sulfate assimilation. The sulfate donor for this reaction is synthesized from sulfate in two steps catalyzed by ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase (APK). Here we demonstrate that R2R3-MYB transcription factors, which are known to regulate both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, also control genes of primary sulfate metabolism. Using trans-activation assays we found that two isoforms of APK, APK1, and APK2, are regulated by both classes of glucosinolate MYB transcription factors; whereas two ATPS genes, ATPS1 and ATPS3, are differentially regulated by these two groups of MYB factors. In addition, we show that the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductases APR1, APR2, and APR3, which participate in primary sulfate reduction, are also activated by the MYB factors. These observations were confirmed by analysis of transgenic lines with modulated expression levels of the glucosinolate MYB factors. The changes in transcript levels also affected enzyme activities, the thiol content and the sulfate reduction rate in some of the transgenic plants. Altogether the data revealed that the MYB transcription factors regulate genes of primary sulfate metabolism and that the genes involved in the synthesis of activated sulfate are part of the glucosinolate biosynthesis network.

  9. Finding Missing Interactions of the Arabidopsis thaliana Root Stem Cell Niche Gene Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Azpeitia, Eugenio; Weinstein, Nathan; Benítez, Mariana; Mendoza, Luis; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche (RSCN) has become a model system for the study of plant development and stem cell niche dynamics. Currently, many of the molecular mechanisms involved in RSCN maintenance and development have been described. A few years ago, we published a gene regulatory network (GRN) model integrating this information. This model suggested that there were missing components or interactions. Upon updating the model, the observed stable gene configurations of the RSCN could not be recovered, indicating that there are additional missing components or interactions in the model. In fact, due to the lack of experimental data, GRNs inferred from published data are usually incomplete. However, predicting the location and nature of the missing data is a not trivial task. Here, we propose a set of procedures for detecting and predicting missing interactions in Boolean networks. We used these procedures to predict putative missing interactions in the A. thaliana RSCN network model. Using our approach, we identified three necessary interactions to recover the reported gene activation configurations that have been experimentally uncovered for the different cell types within the RSCN: (1) a regulation of PHABULOSA to restrict its expression domain to the vascular cells, (2) a self-regulation of WOX5, possibly by an indirect mechanism through the auxin signaling pathway, and (3) a positive regulation of JACKDAW by MAGPIE. The procedures proposed here greatly reduce the number of possible Boolean functions that are biologically meaningful and experimentally testable and that do not contradict previous data. We believe that these procedures can be used on any Boolean network. However, because the procedures were designed for the specific case of the RSCN, formal demonstrations of the procedures should be shown in future efforts. PMID:23658556

  10. Identification and biochemical characterization of the fructokinase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Riggs, John W.; Cavales, Philip C.; Chapiro, Sonia M.; ...

    2017-04-26

    Background Fructose is an abundant sugar in plants as it is a breakdown product of both major sucrose-cleaving enzymes. To enter metabolism, fructose is phosphorylated by a fructokinase (FRK). Known FRKs are members of a diverse family of carbohydrate/purine kinases known as the phosphofructokinase B (pfkB) family. The complete complement of active fructokinases has not been reported for any plant species. Results Protein sequence analysis of the 22 Arabidopsis thaliana pfkB members identified eight highly related predicted proteins, including one with previously demonstrated FRK activity. For one, At1g50390, the predicted open reading frame is half the size of active FRKs,more » and only incompletely spliced RNAs were identified, which led to a premature stop codon, both indicating that this gene does not produce active FRK. The remaining seven proteins were expressed in E. coli and phosphorylated fructose specifically in vitro leading us to propose a unifying nomenclature (FRK1–7). Substrate inhibition was observed for fructose in all FRKs except FRK1. Fructose binding was on the same order of magnitude for FRK1–6, between 260 and 480 μM. FRK7 was an outlier with a fructose Km of 12 μM. ATP binding was similar for all FRKs and ranged between 52 and 280 μM. YFP-tagged AtFRKs were cytosolic, except plastidic FRK3. T-DNA alleles with non-detectable wild-type RNAs in five of the seven active FRK genes produced no overt phenotype. We extended our sequence comparisons to include putative FRKs encoded in other plant sequenced genomes. We observed that different subgroups expanded subsequent to speciation. Conclusions Arabidopsis thaliana as well as all other plant species analyzed contain multiple copies of genes encoding FRK activity. Sequence comparisons among multiple species identified a minimal set of three distinct FRKs present on all species investigated including a plastid-localized form. The selective expansion of specific isozymes results in

  11. Systematic prediction of gene function in Arabidopsis thaliana using a probabilistic functional gene network

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sohyun; Rhee, Seung Y; Marcotte, Edward M; Lee, Insuk

    2012-01-01

    AraNet is a functional gene network for the reference plant Arabidopsis and has been constructed in order to identify new genes associated with plant traits. It is highly predictive for diverse biological pathways and can be used to prioritize genes for functional screens. Moreover, AraNet provides a web-based tool with which plant biologists can efficiently discover novel functions of Arabidopsis genes (http://www.functionalnet.org/aranet/). This protocol explains how to conduct network-based prediction of gene functions using AraNet and how to interpret the prediction results. Functional discovery in plant biology is facilitated by combining candidate prioritization by AraNet with focused experimental tests. PMID:21886106

  12. Blue-Light Regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana Cab1 Gene.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J.; Kaufman, L. S.

    1994-01-01

    The steady-state level of Cab RNA in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana increases as a result of a single pulse of blue light. The threshold for the response is at or below 10[deg] [mu]mol m-2 and begins within 1 h of irradiation. The response is not prevented by far-red treatment, and the blue-light source used does not elicit and observable very low fluence phytochrome response for RbcS RNA. The time course for blue-light-induced transcript accumulation differs from that of red, the blue beginning more quickly. Transcripts derived from the Cab1 (AB140; Lhcb1*3) member of the gene family are responsible in part for the blue-light-induced accumulation. This is the same member of the gene family that is responsible for phytochrome-induced Cab gene expression (G.A. Karlin-Neumann, L. Sun, E.M. Tobin [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 1323-1331). The mutant hy4, which lacks blue-light-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation, retains the ability of Cab RNA to respond to blue light. PMID:12232164

  13. Sample Preparation of Arabidopsis thaliana Shoot Apices for Expression Studies of Photoperiod-Induced Genes.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Fernando; Torti, Stefano; Vincent, Coral; Coupland, George

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce new organs from a population of pluripotent cells which are located in specific tissues called meristems. One of these meristems, the shoot apical meristem (SAM), gives rise to leaves during the vegetative phase and flowers during the reproductive phase. The transition from vegetative SAM to an inflorescence meristem (IM) is a dramatic developmental switch, which has been particularly well studied in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. This developmental switch is controlled by multiple environmental signals such as day length (or photoperiod), and it is accompanied by changes in expression of hundreds of genes. A major interest in plant biology is to identify and characterize those genes which are regulated in the stem cells of the SAM in response to the photoperiodic signals. In this sense, techniques such as RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH) have been very successfully employed to detect the temporal and spatial expression patterns of genes in the SAM. This method can be specifically optimized for photoperiodic-flowering studies. In this chapter, we describe improved methods to generate plant material and histological samples to be combined with RNA ISH in flowering-related studies.

  14. The genomic landscape of meiotic crossovers and gene conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wijnker, Erik; Velikkakam James, Geo; Ding, Jia; Becker, Frank; Klasen, Jonas R; Rawat, Vimal; Rowan, Beth A; de Jong, Daniël F; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Zapata, Luis; Huettel, Bruno; de Jong, Hans; Ossowski, Stephan; Weigel, Detlef; Koornneef, Maarten; Keurentjes, Joost JB; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the exact distribution of meiotic crossovers (COs) and gene conversions (GCs) is essential for understanding many aspects of population genetics and evolution, from haplotype structure and long-distance genetic linkage to the generation of new allelic variants of genes. To this end, we resequenced the four products of 13 meiotic tetrads along with 10 doubled haploids derived from Arabidopsis thaliana hybrids. GC detection through short reads has previously been confounded by genomic rearrangements. Rigid filtering for misaligned reads allowed GC identification at high accuracy and revealed an ∼80-kb transposition, which undergoes copy-number changes mediated by meiotic recombination. Non-crossover associated GCs were extremely rare most likely due to their short average length of ∼25–50 bp, which is significantly shorter than the length of CO-associated GCs. Overall, recombination preferentially targeted non-methylated nucleosome-free regions at gene promoters, which showed significant enrichment of two sequence motifs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01426.001 PMID:24347547

  15. Gene co-expression analyses: an overview from microarray collections in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Di Salle, Pasquale; Incerti, Guido; Colantuono, Chiara; Chiusano, Maria Luisa

    2017-03-01

    Bioinformatics web-based resources and databases are precious references for most biological laboratories worldwide. However, the quality and reliability of the information they provide depends on them being used in an appropriate way that takes into account their specific features. Huge collections of gene expression data are currently publicly available, ready to support the understanding of gene and genome functionalities. In this context, tools and resources for gene co-expression analyses have flourished to exploit the 'guilty by association' principle, which assumes that genes with correlated expression profiles are functionally related. In the case of Arabidopsis thaliana, the reference species in plant biology, the resources available mainly consist of microarray results. After a general overview of such resources, we tested and compared the results they offer for gene co-expression analysis. We also discuss the effect on the results when using different data sets, as well as different data normalization approaches and parameter settings, which often consider different metrics for establishing co-expression. A dedicated example analysis of different gene pools, implemented by including/excluding mutant samples in a reference data set, showed significant variation of gene co-expression occurrence, magnitude and direction. We conclude that, as the heterogeneity of the resources and methods may produce different results for the same query genes, the exploration of more than one of the available resources is strongly recommended. The aim of this article is to show how best to integrate data sources and/or merge outputs to achieve robust analyses and reliable interpretations, thereby making use of diverse data resources an opportunity for added value. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Studies on gene expressions analyses for Arabidopsis thaliana plants stimulated by space flight condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Pan, Yi; Li, Huasheng

    We carried out whole-genome microarray to screen the transcript profile of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after three treatment: space microgravity condition( Seedlings grown in microgravity state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8), 1g centrifugal force in space(Seedlings grown in 1g centrifugal force state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8) and ground control. The result of microarray analysis is as followed: There were 368 genes significantly differentially expressed in space microgravity condition compared with that in 1g centrifuge space condition. Space radiation caused 246 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in 1g centrifuge space condition and ground control. Space conditions (including microgravity and radiation) caused 621 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in space microgravity condition and ground control. Microgravity and radiation as a single factor can cause plant gene expression change, but two factors synergism can produce some new effects on plant gene expression. The function of differential expression genes were analyst by bioinformatics, and we found the expression of genes related with stress were more different, such as the dehydration of protein (dehydrin Xero2) expression is up-regulated 57 times; low-temperature-induced protein expression is up-regulated in 49 times; heat shock protein expression is up-regulated 20 times; transcription factor DREB2A expression increase 25 times; protein phosphatase 2C expression is up-regulated 14 times; transcription factor NAM-like protein expression is up-regulated 13 times; cell wall metabolism related genes (xyloglucan, endo-1, 4-beta-D-glucanase) expression is down-regulated in 15 times. The results provide scientific data for the mechanism of space mutation.

  17. Apparent homology of expressed genes from wood-forming tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Matias; Johnson, Arthur F; Baucom, Christie; Ulrich, Erin; Hubbard, Kristy; Staggs, Rod; Paule, Charles; Retzel, Ernest; Whetten, Ross; Sederoff, Ronald

    2003-06-10

    Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) and Arabidopsis thaliana differ greatly in form, ecological niche, evolutionary history, and genome size. Arabidopsis is a small, herbaceous, annual dicotyledon, whereas pines are large, long-lived, coniferous forest trees. Such diverse plants might be expected to differ in a large number of functional genes. We have obtained and analyzed 59,797 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from wood-forming tissues of loblolly pine and compared them to the gene sequences inferred from the complete sequence of the Arabidopsis genome. Approximately 50% of pine ESTs have no apparent homologs in Arabidopsis or any other angiosperm in public databases. When evaluated by using contigs containing long, high-quality sequences, we find a higher level of apparent homology between the inferred genes of these two species. For those contigs 1,100 bp or longer, approximately 90% have an apparent Arabidopsis homolog (E value < 10-10). Pines and Arabidopsis last shared a common ancestor approximately 300 million years ago. Few genes would be expected to retain high sequence similarity for this time if they did not have essential functions. These observations suggest substantial conservation of gene sequence in seed plants.

  18. Dehydration stress memory genes of Zea mays; comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposing plants to diverse abiotic stresses may alter their physiological and transcriptional responses to a subsequent stress, suggesting a form of “stress memory”. Arabidopsis thaliana plants that have experienced multiple exposures to dehydration stress display transcriptional behavior suggesting “memory” from an earlier stress. Genes that respond to a first stress by up-regulating or down-regulating their transcription but in a subsequent stress provide a significantly different response define the ‘memory genes’ category. Genes responding similarly to each stress form the ‘non-memory’ category. It is unknown whether such memory responses exists in other Angiosperm lineages and whether memory is an evolutionarily conserved response to repeated dehydration stresses. Results Here, we determine the transcriptional responses of maize (Zea mays L.) plants that have experienced repeated exposures to dehydration stress in comparison with plants encountering the stress for the first time. Four distinct transcription memory response patterns similar to those displayed by A. thaliana were revealed. The most important contribution is the evidence that monocot and eudicot plants, two lineages that have diverged 140 to 200 M years ago, display similar abilities to ‘remember’ a dehydration stress and to modify their transcriptional responses, accordingly. The highly sensitive RNA-Seq analyses allowed to identify genes that function similarly in the two lineages, as well as genes that function in species-specific ways. Memory transcription patterns indicate that the transcriptional behavior of responding genes under repeated stresses is different from the behavior during an initial dehydration stress, suggesting that stress memory is a complex phenotype resulting from coordinated responses of multiple signaling pathways. Conclusions Structurally related genes displaying the same memory responses in the two species would suggest conservation

  19. Cloning and expression analyses of AtMRP4, a novel MRP-like gene from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, R; Ardiles-Díaz, W; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D; May, M J

    1998-06-01

    In all organisms glutathione-conjugate transporters (GS-X pumps) mediate the detoxification of a number of xenobiotics by removing them from the cytosol. In addition, GS-X pumps appear to play a role in the processing of endogenous compounds. We have isolated a novel genomic clone from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a putative GS-X pump, AtMRP4, which is part of a recently defined gene family. The derived amino acid sequence shares high levels of similarity (55-63%) with human, yeast, and other Arabidopsis homologues. The expression of the different members of the AtMRP gene family in Arabidopsis cell suspensions after treatment with chemicals that modify glutathione metabolism (compounds that induce different types of stress and that act as herbicide antidotes- safeners- in monocotyledonous species) revealed that the members of this gene family are differentially regulated.

  20. Transcription of the 5S rRNA heterochromatic genes is epigenetically controlled in Arabidopsis thaliana and Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Douet, J; Tourmente, S

    2007-07-01

    5S ribosomal DNA is a highly conserved tandemly repeated multigenic family. As suggested for a long time, we have shown that only a fraction of the 5S rRNA genes are expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Xenopus laevis, there is a developmental control of the expression of the 5S rRNA genes with only one of the two 5S rDNA families expressed during oogenesis. For both Arabidopsis and Xenopus, the strongest transcription of 5S rRNA, respectively in the seed and during oogenesis is correlated with heterogeneity in the transcribed 5S rRNAs. Epigenetic mechanisms such as modification of the chromatin structure are involved in the transcriptional regulation of the 5S rRNA genes in both organisms. In Arabidopsis, two silencing pathways, methylation-dependent (RNAi) and methylation-independent (MOM pathway), are involved in the silencing of a 5S rDNA fraction.

  1. Functional Dissection of Sugar Signals Affecting Gene Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Sabine; Pesquet, Edouard; Kleczkowski, Leszek A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sugars modulate expression of hundreds of genes in plants. Previous studies on sugar signaling, using intact plants or plant tissues, were hampered by tissue heterogeneity, uneven sugar transport and/or inter-conversions of the applied sugars. This, in turn, could obscure the identity of a specific sugar that acts as a signal affecting expression of given gene in a given tissue or cell-type. Methodology/Principal Findings To bypass those biases, we have developed a novel biological system, based on stem-cell-like Arabidopsis suspension culture. The cells were grown in a hormone-free medium and were sustained on xylose as the only carbon source. Using functional genomics we have identified 290 sugar responsive genes, responding rapidly (within 1 h) and specifically to low concentration (1 mM) of glucose, fructose and/or sucrose. For selected genes, the true nature of the signaling sugar molecules and sites of sugar perception were further clarified using non-metabolizable sugar analogues. Using both transgenic and wild-type A. thaliana seedlings, it was shown that the expression of selected sugar-responsive genes was not restricted to a specific tissue or cell type and responded to photoperiod-related changes in sugar availability. This suggested that sugar-responsiveness of genes identified in the cell culture system was not biased toward heterotrophic background and resembled that in whole plants. Conclusions Altogether, our research strategy, using a combination of cell culture and whole plants, has provided an unequivocal evidence for the identity of sugar-responsive genes and the identity of the sugar signaling molecules, independently from their inter-conversions or use for energy metabolism. PMID:24950222

  2. Functional dissection of sugar signals affecting gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sabine; Pesquet, Edouard; Kleczkowski, Leszek A

    2014-01-01

    Sugars modulate expression of hundreds of genes in plants. Previous studies on sugar signaling, using intact plants or plant tissues, were hampered by tissue heterogeneity, uneven sugar transport and/or inter-conversions of the applied sugars. This, in turn, could obscure the identity of a specific sugar that acts as a signal affecting expression of given gene in a given tissue or cell-type. To bypass those biases, we have developed a novel biological system, based on stem-cell-like Arabidopsis suspension culture. The cells were grown in a hormone-free medium and were sustained on xylose as the only carbon source. Using functional genomics we have identified 290 sugar responsive genes, responding rapidly (within 1 h) and specifically to low concentration (1 mM) of glucose, fructose and/or sucrose. For selected genes, the true nature of the signaling sugar molecules and sites of sugar perception were further clarified using non-metabolizable sugar analogues. Using both transgenic and wild-type A. thaliana seedlings, it was shown that the expression of selected sugar-responsive genes was not restricted to a specific tissue or cell type and responded to photoperiod-related changes in sugar availability. This suggested that sugar-responsiveness of genes identified in the cell culture system was not biased toward heterotrophic background and resembled that in whole plants. Altogether, our research strategy, using a combination of cell culture and whole plants, has provided an unequivocal evidence for the identity of sugar-responsive genes and the identity of the sugar signaling molecules, independently from their inter-conversions or use for energy metabolism.

  3. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBX32 Gene in Soybean Increases Grain Yield

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Sasha B.; Meister, Robert; Xu, Qingzhang; Urwin, Carl P.; Tripodi, Federico A.; Screen, Steven E.; Anil, Veena S.; Zhu, Shuquan; Morrell, James A.; Liu, Grace; Ratcliffe, Oliver J.; Reuber, T. Lynne; Khanna, Rajnish; Goldman, Barry S.; Bell, Erin; Ziegler, Todd E.; McClerren, Amanda L.; Ruff, Thomas G.; Petracek, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Crop yield is a highly complex quantitative trait. Historically, successful breeding for improved grain yield has led to crop plants with improved source capacity, altered plant architecture, and increased resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To date, transgenic approaches towards improving crop grain yield have primarily focused on protecting plants from herbicide, insects, or disease. In contrast, we have focused on identifying genes that, when expressed in soybean, improve the intrinsic ability of the plant to yield more. Through the large scale screening of candidate genes in transgenic soybean, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana B-box domain gene (AtBBX32) that significantly increases soybean grain yield year after year in multiple transgenic events in multi-location field trials. In order to understand the underlying physiological changes that are associated with increased yield in transgenic soybean, we examined phenotypic differences in two AtBBX32-expressing lines and found increases in plant height and node, flower, pod, and seed number. We propose that these phenotypic changes are likely the result of changes in the timing of reproductive development in transgenic soybean that lead to the increased duration of the pod and seed development period. Consistent with the role of BBX32 in A. thaliana in regulating light signaling, we show that the constitutive expression of AtBBX32 in soybean alters the abundance of a subset of gene transcripts in the early morning hours. In particular, AtBBX32 alters transcript levels of the soybean clock genes GmTOC1 and LHY-CCA1-like2 (GmLCL2). We propose that through the expression of AtBBX32 and modulation of the abundance of circadian clock genes during the transition from dark to light, the timing of critical phases of reproductive development are altered. These findings demonstrate a specific role for AtBBX32 in modulating soybean development, and demonstrate the validity of expressing single genes in crops to

  4. A class V chitinase from Arabidopsis thaliana: gene responses, enzymatic properties, and crystallographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Takayuki; Numata, Tomoyuki; Osawa, Takuo; Mizuhara, Mamiko; Lampela, Outi; Juffer, André H; Skriver, Karen; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2011-07-01

    Expression of a class V chitinase gene (At4g19810, AtChiC) in Arabidopsis thaliana was examined by quantitative real-time PCR and by analyzing microarray data available at Genevestigator. The gene expression was induced by the plant stress-related hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and by the stress resulting from the elicitor flagellin, NaCl, and osmosis. The recombinant AtChiC protein was produced in E. coli, purified, and characterized with respect to the structure and function. The recombinant AtChiC hydrolyzed N-acetylglucosamine oligomers producing dimers from the non-reducing end of the substrates. The crystal structure of AtChiC was determined by the molecular replacement method at 2.0 Å resolution. AtChiC was found to adopt an (β/α)(8) fold with a small insertion domain composed of an α-helix and a five-stranded β-sheet. From docking simulation of AtChiC with pentameric substrate, the amino acid residues responsible for substrate binding were found to be well conserved when compared with those of the class V chitinase from Nicotiana tabacum (NtChiV). All of the structural and functional properties of AtChiC are quite similar to those obtained for NtChiV, and seem to be common to class V chitinases from higher plants.

  5. Four distinct types of dehydration stress memory genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong; Liu, Ning; Virlouvet, Laetitia; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Fromm, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    2013-12-30

    How plants respond to dehydration stress has been extensively researched. However, how plants respond to multiple consecutive stresses is virtually unknown. Pre-exposure to various abiotic stresses (including dehydration) may alter plants' subsequent responses by improving resistance to future exposures. These observations have led to the concept of 'stress memory' implying that during subsequent exposures plants provide responses that are different from those during their first encounter with the stress. Genes that provide altered responses in a subsequent stress define the 'memory genes' category; genes responding similarly to each stress form the 'non-memory' category. Using a genome-wide RNA-Seq approach we determine the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis plants that have experienced multiple exposures to dehydration stress and compare them with the transcriptional behavior of plants encountering the stress for the first time. The major contribution of this study is the revealed existence of four distinct, previously unknown, transcription memory response patterns of dehydration stress genes in A.thaliana. The biological relevance for each of the four memory types is considered in the context of four overlapping strategies employed by a plant to improve its stress tolerance and/or survival: 1) increased synthesis of protective, damage-repairing, and detoxifying functions; 2) coordinating photosynthesis and growth under repetitive stress; 3) re-adjusting osmotic and ionic equilibrium to maintain homeostasis; and 4) re-adjusting interactions between dehydration and other stress/hormone regulated pathways. The results reveal the unknown, hitherto, existence of four distinct transcription memory response types in a plant and provide genome-wide characterization of memory and non-memory dehydration stress response genes in A.thaliana. The transcriptional responses during repeated exposures to stress are different from known responses occurring during a single

  6. Novel glyoxalases from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kyu; Choi, Dongwook; Hyun, Jae Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Baek, Kwanghee; Park, Chankyu

    2013-07-01

    We examined six Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the DJ-1/PfpI superfamily for similarity to the recently characterized bacterial and animal glyoxalases. Based on their sequence similarities, the six genes were classified into two sub-groups consisting of homologs of the human DJ-1 gene and the PH1704 gene of Pyrococcus horikoshii. Unlike the homologs from other species, all the A. thaliana genes have two tandem domains, which may have been created by gene duplication. The six AtDJ-1 proteins (a-f) were expressed in Escherichia coli for enzymatic assays with glyoxals. The DJ-1d protein, which belongs to the PH1704 sub-group, exhibits the highest activity against methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and K(m) values of 0.10 and 0.27 mm were measured for these two substrates, respectively, while the corresponding k(cat) values were 1700 and 2200 min(-1), respectively. The DJ-1a and DJ-1b glyoxalases exhibited higher specificity towards glyoxal. The other three proteins have either no or extremely low activity for glyoxals. For the DJ-1d enzyme, the residues, Cys120/313 and Glu19/212 at the active site and His121/314 and Glu94/287 at the oligomeric interface were mutated to alanines. As in other enzymes characterized to date, mutation of either the Cys or the Glu residues of the active site completely abolished enzyme activity, whereas mutation of the interface residues produced a variable decrease in activity. DJ-1d differs from its animal and bacterial homologs with respect to the configuration of its catalytic residues and the oligomeric property of the enzyme. When the wild-type DJ-1d enzyme was expressed in E. coli, the bacteria became resistant to glyoxals. © 2013 FEBS.

  7. Divergent Evolutionary and Expression Patterns between Lineage Specific New Duplicate Genes and Their Parental Paralogs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2013-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the origination of functional novelties in organisms. We performed a comparative genome analysis to systematically estimate recent lineage specific gene duplication events in Arabidopsis thaliana and further investigate whether and how these new duplicate genes (NDGs) play a functional role in the evolution and adaption of A. thaliana. We accomplished this using syntenic relationship among four closely related species, A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Capsella rubella and Brassica rapa. We identified 100 NDGs, showing clear origination patterns, whose parental genes are located in syntenic regions and/or have clear orthologs in at least one of three outgroup species. All 100 NDGs were transcribed and under functional constraints, while 24% of the NDGs have differential expression patterns compared to their parental genes. We explored the underlying evolutionary forces of these paralogous pairs through conducting neutrality tests with sequence divergence and polymorphism data. Evolution of about 15% of NDGs appeared to be driven by natural selection. Moreover, we found that 3 NDGs not only altered their expression patterns when compared with parental genes, but also evolved under positive selection. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving the differential expression of NDGs and their parents, and found a number of NDGs had different cis-elements and methylation patterns from their parental genes. Overall, we demonstrated that NDGs acquired divergent cis-elements and methylation patterns and may experience sub-functionalization or neo-functionalization influencing the evolution and adaption of A. thaliana. PMID:24009676

  8. A Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Model That Recovers the Cyclic Behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; García-Cruz, Karla; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Castillo, Aaron; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2015-09-01

    Cell cycle control is fundamental in eukaryotic development. Several modeling efforts have been used to integrate the complex network of interacting molecular components involved in cell cycle dynamics. In this paper, we aimed at recovering the regulatory logic upstream of previously known components of cell cycle control, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the cyclic behavior of such components. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, but given that many components of cell cycle regulation are conserved among eukaryotes, when experimental data for this system was not available, we considered experimental results from yeast and animal systems. We are proposing a Boolean gene regulatory network (GRN) that converges into only one robust limit cycle attractor that closely resembles the cyclic behavior of the key cell-cycle molecular components and other regulators considered here. We validate the model by comparing our in silico configurations with data from loss- and gain-of-function mutants, where the endocyclic behavior also was recovered. Additionally, we approximate a continuous model and recovered the temporal periodic expression profiles of the cell-cycle molecular components involved, thus suggesting that the single limit cycle attractor recovered with the Boolean model is not an artifact of its discrete and synchronous nature, but rather an emergent consequence of the inherent characteristics of the regulatory logic proposed here. This dynamical model, hence provides a novel theoretical framework to address cell cycle regulation in plants, and it can also be used to propose novel predictions regarding cell cycle regulation in other eukaryotes.

  9. Identification of Multiple Proteins Coupling Transcriptional Gene Silencing to Genome Stability in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hale, Christopher J; Potok, Magdalena E; Lopez, Jennifer; Do, Truman; Liu, Ao; Gallego-Bartolome, Javier; Michaels, Scott D; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are regulated by epigenetic marks that act to modulate transcriptional control as well as to regulate DNA replication and repair. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of the ATXR5 and ATXR6 histone methyltransferases causes reduction in histone H3 lysine 27 monomethylation, transcriptional upregulation of transposons, and a genome instability defect in which there is an accumulation of excess DNA corresponding to pericentromeric heterochromatin. We designed a forward genetic screen to identify suppressors of the atxr5/6 phenotype that uncovered loss-of-function mutations in two components of the TREX-2 complex (AtTHP1, AtSAC3B), a SUMO-interacting E3 ubiquitin ligase (AtSTUbL2) and a methyl-binding domain protein (AtMBD9). Additionally, using a reverse genetic approach, we show that a mutation in a plant homolog of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 enhances the atxr5/6 phenotype. Through characterization of these mutations, our results suggest models for the production atxr5 atxr6-induced extra DNA involving conflicts between the replicative and transcriptional processes in the cell, and suggest that the atxr5 atxr6 transcriptional defects may be the cause of the genome instability defects in the mutants. These findings highlight the critical intersection of transcriptional silencing and DNA replication in the maintenance of genome stability of heterochromatin.

  10. Polymorphic genes of major effect: consequences for variation, selection and evolution in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Heath, Katy D; Brock, Marcus T; Schmitt, Johanna

    2009-07-01

    The importance of genes of major effect for evolutionary trajectories within and among natural populations has long been the subject of intense debate. For example, if allelic variation at a major-effect locus fundamentally alters the structure of quantitative trait variation, then fixation of a single locus can have rapid and profound effects on the rate or direction of subsequent evolutionary change. Using an Arabidopsis thaliana RIL mapping population, we compare G-matrix structure between lines possessing different alleles at ERECTA, a locus known to affect ecologically relevant variation in plant architecture. We find that the allele present at ERECTA significantly alters G-matrix structure-in particular the genetic correlations between branch number and flowering time traits-and may also modulate the strength of natural selection on these traits. Despite these differences, however, when we extend our analysis to determine how evolution might differ depending on the ERECTA allele, we find that predicted responses to selection are similar. To compare responses to selection between allele classes, we developed a resampling strategy that incorporates uncertainty in estimates of selection that can also be used for statistical comparisons of G matrices.

  11. Involvement of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtPMS1 gene in somatic repeat instability.

    PubMed

    Alou, Abdourahamane H; Azaiez, A; Jean, M; Belzile, Francois J

    2004-10-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) genes participate in the maintenance of genome stability in all organisms. Based on its high degree of sequence conservation, it seems likely that the AtPMS1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is part of the MMR system in this model plant. To test this hypothesis, we aimed to disrupt AtPMS1 function by over-expressing mutated alleles expected to result in a dominant negative effect. To create one mutant allele we substituted two amino acids in the MutL-box, and for the other mutant allele we deleted 87 amino acids comprising the whole MutL-box. Contrary to published reports in some eukaryotes, transgenic plants expressing these alleles did not exhibit a decrease in fertility nor any other visible phenotype. To examine the impact of these mutations on microsatellite instability, the phenotype most often observed in organisms defective in MMR, reporter lines containing a uidA (GUS) gene inactivated by the insertion of a synthetic microsatellite (G7 or G16) were used. GUS gene function in these lines can be restored following the loss of one base or the gain of two bases in the repetitive tract. This results in the observation of blue sectors on a white background following histochemical staining. In a subset of the transformants, a significant increase (2- to 28-fold) in microsatellite instability was observed relative to wild-type. This report shows that MMR function can be disrupted via a dominant negative approach, and it is the first report to describe the phenotypic consequence of disrupting the function of a MutL homolog in plants.

  12. Systemic endopolyploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, D.W.; Harkins, K.R. ); Knapp, S. )

    1991-07-01

    Microfluorometric analysis of the nuclear DNA contents of the somatic tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed extensive endoreduplication, resulting in tissues that comprise mixtures of polypoloid cells. Endoreduplication was found in all tissues except those of the inflorescences and was developmentally regulated according to the age of the tissues and their position within the plant.

  13. Nucleolin Is Required for DNA Methylation State and the Expression of rRNA Gene Variants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Abou-Ellail, Mohamed; Douet, Julien; Comella, Pascale; Matia, Isabel; Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; DeBures, Anne; Blevins, Todd; Cooke, Richard; Medina, Francisco J.; Tourmente, Sylvette; Pikaard, Craig S.; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays in copy numbers ranging from several hundred to several thousand in plants. Although it is clear that not all copies are transcribed under normal growth conditions, the molecular basis controlling the expression of specific sets of rRNA genes remains unclear. Here, we report four major rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, while transcription of one of these rRNA variants is induced, the others are either repressed or remain unaltered in A. thaliana plants with a disrupted nucleolin-like protein gene (Atnuc-L1). Remarkably, the most highly represented rRNA gene variant, which is inactive in WT plants, is reactivated in Atnuc-L1 mutants. We show that accumulated pre–rRNAs originate from RNA Pol I transcription and are processed accurately. Moreover, we show that disruption of the AtNUC-L1 gene induces loss of symmetrical DNA methylation without affecting histone epigenetic marks at rRNA genes. Collectively, these data reveal a novel mechanism for rRNA gene transcriptional regulation in which the nucleolin protein plays a major role in controlling active and repressed rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis. PMID:21124873

  14. Structure at 1.6 Å resolution of the protein from gene locus At3g22680 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Simon T. M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Wesenberg, Gary E.; Bitto, Eduard; Jeon, Won Bae; Phillips, George N. Jr

    2005-07-01

    The crystal structure of the 18 kDa At3g22680 gene product from A. thaliana was determined at 1.6 Å resolution. At3g22680 shows no structural homology to any other known proteins and represents a new fold in protein conformational space. The gene product of At3g22680 from Arabidopsis thaliana codes for a protein of unknown function. The crystal structure of the At3g22680 gene product was determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction and refined to an R factor of 16.0% (R{sub free} = 18.4%) at 1.60 Å resolution. The refined structure shows one monomer in the asymmetric unit, with one molecule of the non-denaturing detergent CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate) tightly bound. Protein At3g22680 shows no structural homology to any other known proteins and represents a new fold in protein conformation space.

  15. The maintenance of extreme amino acid diversity at the disease resistance gene, RPP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Laura E; Bittner-Eddy, Peter D; Langley, Charles H; Holub, Eric B; Michelmore, Richard W; Beynon, Jim L

    2004-01-01

    We have used the naturally occurring plant-parasite system of Arabidopsis thaliana and its common parasite Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew) to study the evolution of resistance specificity in the host population. DNA sequence of the resistance gene, RPP13, from 24 accessions, including 20 from the United Kingdom, revealed amino acid sequence diversity higher than that of any protein coding gene reported so far in A. thaliana. A significant excess of amino acid polymorphism segregating within this species is localized within the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of RPP13. These results indicate that single alleles of the gene have not swept through the population, but instead, a diverse collection of alleles have been maintained. Transgenic complementation experiments demonstrate functional differences among alleles in their resistance to various pathogen isolates, suggesting that the extreme amino acid polymorphism in RPP13 is maintained through continual reciprocal selection between host and pathogen. PMID:15082565

  16. Evolutionary Divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana Classical Peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Kupriyanova, E V; Mamoshina, P O; Ezhova, T A

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms of 62 peroxidase genes derived from Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated to evaluate evolutionary dynamics and divergence of peroxidase proteins. By comparing divergence of duplicated genes AtPrx53-AtPrx54 and AtPrx36-AtPrx72 and their products, nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were identified that were apparently targets of positive selection. These substitutions were detected among paralogs of 461 ecotypes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Some of these substitutions are conservative and matched paralogous peroxidases in other Brassicaceae species. These results suggest that after duplication, peroxidase genes evolved under the pressure of positive selection, and amino acid substitutions identified during our study provided divergence of properties and physiological functions in peroxidases. Our predictions regarding functional significance for amino acid residues identified in variable sites of peroxidases may allow further experimental assessment of evolution of peroxidases after gene duplication.

  17. The CCoAOMT1 gene from jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) is involved in lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyang; Zhang, Yujia; Xu, Jiantang; Niu, Xiaoping; Qi, Jianmin; Tao, Aifen; Zhang, Liwu; Fang, Pingping; Lin, LiHui; Su, Jianguang

    2014-08-10

    The Caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis in plants. In this study we cloned the full-length cDNA of the Caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) gene from jute using homology clone (primers were designed according to the sequence of CCoAOMT gene of other plants), and a modified RACE technique, subsequently named "CcCCoAOMT1". Bioinformatic analyses showed that the gene is a member of the CCoAOMT gene family. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the CcCCoAOMT1 gene is constitutively expressed in all tissues, and the expression level was greatest in stem, followed by stem bark, roots and leaves. In order to understand this gene's function, we transformed it into Arabidopsis thaliana; integration (one insertion site) was confirmed following PCR and southern hybridization. The over-expression of CcCCoAOMT1 in these transgenic A.thaliana plants resulted in increased plant height and silique length relative to non-transgenic plants. Perhaps the most important finding was that the transgenic Arabidopsis plants contained more lignin (20.44-21.26%) than did control plants (17.56%), clearly suggesting an important role of CcCCoAOMT1 gene in lignin biosynthesis. These data are important for the success of efforts to reduce jute lignin content (thereby increasing fiber quality) via CcCCoAOMT1 gene inhibition.

  18. Interaction of Xanthomonas campestris with Arabidopsis thaliana: characterization of a gene from X. c. pv. raphani that confers avirulence to most A. thaliana accessions.

    PubMed

    Parker, J E; Barber, C E; Fan, M J; Daniels, M J

    1993-01-01

    Infiltration of leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana accession Columbia with Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris leads to bacterial growth and disease symptoms reminiscent of those incited in Brassica plants inoculated under the same conditions. A search among A. thaliana accessions for variation in the reaction phenotype to strains of X. campestris pathovars campestris, aberrans, and raphani showed that there were no clear differential responses between plant accessions to the individual bacterial strains tested. X. c. pv. raphani strain 1067 was avirulent to all A. thaliana accessions tested. A gene was cloned from X. c. pv. raphani 1067 which, when transferred into the virulent X. c. pv. campestris strain 8004, strongly reduced symptom development and bacterial growth in A. thaliana Columbia plants but did not affect virulence to Brassica plants. The gene (denoted avrXca) interacted with all A. thaliana accessions tested except one, Kas-1, which developed disease symptoms and supported growth of the transconjugant to levels similar to those with X. c. pv. campestris 8004 alone. Sequence analysis of avrXca revealed a probable open reading frame encoding a protein of 66,566 Da that has no homology with other known sequences. A sequence motif conserved among hrp genes was identified in the 5' noncoding region of avrXca, and features characteristic of a signal peptide were found in the N-terminal portion of the presumed AvrXca protein. DNA from different phytopathogenic bacteria contained sequences hybridizing with avrXca in related X. campestris pathovars but not in Erwinia or Pseudomonas strains.

  19. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 gene confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions.

  20. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. PMID:22949853

  1. Suppressors of an Arabidopsis thaliana phyB mutation identify genes that control light signaling and hypocotyl elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, J W; Elumalai, R P; Chory, J

    1998-01-01

    Ambient light controls the development and physiology of plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana photoreceptor phytochrome B (PHYB) regulates developmental light responses at both seedling and adult stages. To identify genes that mediate control of development by light, we screened for suppressors of the long hypocotyl phenotype caused by a phyB mutation. Genetic analyses show that the shy (short hypocotyl) mutations we have isolated fall in several loci. Phenotypes of the mutants suggest that some of the genes identified have functions in control of light responses. Other loci specifically affect cell elongation or expansion. PMID:9539443

  2. Genes encoding pseudo-response regulators: insight into His-to-Asp phosphorelay and circadian rhythm in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Makino, S; Kiba, T; Imamura, A; Hanaki, N; Nakamura, A; Suzuki, T; Taniguchi, M; Ueguchi, C; Sugiyama, T; Mizuno, T

    2000-06-01

    In the higher plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, results from recent intensive studies suggested that His-to-Asp phosphorelay mechanisms are involved presumably in propagation of environmental stimuli, such as phytohormones (e.g. ethylene and cytokinin). Here we identified and characterized a set of novel Arabidopsis genes whose products considerably resemble the authentic response regulators (ARR-series) of Arabidopsis in the sense that they have a phospho-accepting receiver-like domain. However, they should be discriminated from the classical ones in the strict sense that they lack the invariant phospho-accepting aspartate site. They were thus named APRRs (Arabidopsis pseudo-response regulators). Two such representatives, APRR1 and APRR2, were characterized extensively through cloning of the corresponding cDNAs, in terms of their structural designs, biochemical properties, subcellular localization in plant cells, and expression profiles at the transcriptional level. The result of in vitro phosphorylation experiment with the Arabidopsis AHP phosphotransmitter suggested that the pseudo-receivers have no ability to undergo phosphorylation. The result of transient expression assay with onion epidermal cells showed that the GFP-APRR1 fusion protein has an ability to enter into the nuclei. The C-terminal domain of APRR1, termed CONSTANS-motif, appears to be responsible for the nuclear-localization. The most intriguing result was that the accumulation of APRR1 transcript is subjected to a circadian rhythm. The APRR1 protein is identical to the one that was recently suggested to interact with the ABI3 (ABISCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3) protein. These are discussed with special reference to the His-to-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction and circadian rhythm in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. The putative SWI/SNF complex subunit BRAHMA activates flower homeotic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Lidia; Farrona, Sara; Reyes, Jose C

    2006-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana BRAHMA (BRM, also called AtBRM) is a SNF2 family protein homolog of Brahma, the ATPase of the Drosophila SWI/SNF complex involved in chromatin remodeling during transcription. Here we show that, in contrast to its Drosophila counterpart, BRM is not an essential gene. Thus, homozygous BRM loss of function mutants are viable but exhibit numerous defects including dwarfism, altered leaf and root development and several reproduction defects. The analysis of the progeny of self-fertilized heterozygous brm plants and reciprocal crosses between heterozygous and wild type plants indicated that disruption of BRM reduced both male and female gametophyte transmission. This was consistent with the presence of aborted ovules in the self-fertilized heterozygous flowers that contained arrested embryos predominantly at the two terminal cells stage. Furthermore, brm homozygous mutants were completely sterile. Flowers of brm loss-of-function mutants have several developmental abnormalities, including homeotic transformations in the second and third floral whorls. In accordance with these results, brm mutants present reduced levels of APETALA2, APETALA3, PISTILLATA and NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI. We have previously shown that BRM strongly interacts with AtSWI3C. Now we extend our interaction studies demonstrating that BRM interacts weakly with AtSWI3B but not with AtSWI3A or AtSWI3D. In agreement with these results, the phenotype described in this study for brm plants is very similar to that previously described for the AtSWI3C mutant plants, suggesting that both proteins participate in the same genetic pathway or form a molecular complex.

  4. A Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Model That Recovers the Cyclic Behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; García-Cruz, Karla; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Castillo, Aaron; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle control is fundamental in eukaryotic development. Several modeling efforts have been used to integrate the complex network of interacting molecular components involved in cell cycle dynamics. In this paper, we aimed at recovering the regulatory logic upstream of previously known components of cell cycle control, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the cyclic behavior of such components. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, but given that many components of cell cycle regulation are conserved among eukaryotes, when experimental data for this system was not available, we considered experimental results from yeast and animal systems. We are proposing a Boolean gene regulatory network (GRN) that converges into only one robust limit cycle attractor that closely resembles the cyclic behavior of the key cell-cycle molecular components and other regulators considered here. We validate the model by comparing our in silico configurations with data from loss- and gain-of-function mutants, where the endocyclic behavior also was recovered. Additionally, we approximate a continuous model and recovered the temporal periodic expression profiles of the cell-cycle molecular components involved, thus suggesting that the single limit cycle attractor recovered with the Boolean model is not an artifact of its discrete and synchronous nature, but rather an emergent consequence of the inherent characteristics of the regulatory logic proposed here. This dynamical model, hence provides a novel theoretical framework to address cell cycle regulation in plants, and it can also be used to propose novel predictions regarding cell cycle regulation in other eukaryotes. PMID:26340681

  5. Distribution of 5-methylcytosine residues in 5S rRNA genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Secale cereale.

    PubMed

    Fulnecek, J; Matyásek, R; Kovarík, A

    2002-12-01

    Bisulfite genomic sequencing was used to localise 5-methylcytosine residues (mC) in 5S rRNA genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Secale cereale. The maps of mC distribution were compared with the previously published map of the corresponding region in Nicotiana tabacum. In all three species, the level of methylation of 5S rRNA genes was generally higher than the average for the entire genome. The ratio of 5S rDNA methylation to average overall methylation was 44%/30-33% for N. tabacum, 27%/4-6% for A. thaliana and 24%/20-22% for S. cereale. With the exception of one clone from S. cereale, no methylation-free 5S rDNA was detected. The level of methylation at different sequence motifs in 5S rDNA was calculated for N. tabacum/A. thaliana/ S. cereale, and this analysis yielded the following values (expressed as a percentage of total C): mCG 90%/78%/85%, mCWG 89%/41%/53%, mCmCG 72%/32%/16%, mCCG 4%/2%/0%, mCHH 15%/6%/1%, where W=A or T, and H=A or C or T. Non-symmetrical methylation was almost negligible in the large genome of S. cereale but relatively frequent in N. tabacum and A. thaliana, suggesting that the strict correlation between genome size and cytosine methylation might be violated for this type of methylation. Among non-symmetrical motifs the mCWA triplets were significantly over-represented in Arabidopsis, while in tobacco this preference was not as pronounced. The differences in methylation levels in different sequence contexts might be of phylogenetic significance, but further species in related and different taxa need to be studied before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  6. Molecular characterization and evolution of self-incompatibility genes in Arabidopsis thaliana: the case of the Sc haplotype.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Kathleen G; Berger, Martin T; Ahmed, Rimsha; Hritzo, Molly K; McCulloch, Amanda A; Price, Michael J; Serniak, Nicholas J; Walsh, Leonard T; Nasrallah, June B; Nasrallah, Mikhail E

    2013-03-01

    The switch from an outcrossing mode of mating enforced by self-incompatibility to self-fertility in the Arabidopsis thaliana lineage was associated with mutations that inactivated one or both of the two genes that comprise the self-incompatibility (SI) specificity-determining S-locus haplotype, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR) genes, as well as unlinked modifier loci required for SI. All analyzed A. thaliana S-locus haplotypes belong to the SA, SB, or SC haplotypic groups. Of these three, the SC haplotype is the least well characterized. Its SRKC gene can encode a complete open-reading frame, although no functional data are available, while its SCRC sequences have not been isolated. As a result, it is not known what mutations were associated with inactivation of this haplotype. Here, we report on our analysis of the Lz-0 accession and the characterization of its highly rearranged SC haplotype. We describe the isolation of its SCRC gene as well as the subsequent isolation of SCRC sequences from other SC-containing accessions and from the A. lyrata S36 haplotype, which is the functional equivalent of the A. thaliana SC haplotype. By performing transformation experiments using chimeric SRK and SCR genes constructed with SC- and S36-derived sequences, we show that the SRKC and SCRC genes of Lz-0 and at least a few other SC-containing accessions are nonfunctional, despite SCRC encoding a functional full-length protein. We identify the probable mutations that caused the inactivation of these genes and discuss our results in the context of mechanisms of S-locus inactivation in A. thaliana.

  7. Exploiting Differential Gene Expression and Epistasis to Discover Candidate Genes for Drought-Associated QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lovell, John T; Mullen, Jack L; Lowry, David B; Awole, Kedija; Richards, James H; Sen, Saunak; Verslues, Paul E; Juenger, Thomas E; McKay, John K

    2015-04-01

    Soil water availability represents one of the most important selective agents for plants in nature and the single greatest abiotic determinant of agricultural productivity, yet the genetic bases of drought acclimation responses remain poorly understood. Here, we developed a systems-genetic approach to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs), physiological traits and genes that affect responses to soil moisture deficit in the TSUxKAS mapping population of Arabidopsis thaliana. To determine the effects of candidate genes underlying QTLs, we analyzed gene expression as a covariate within the QTL model in an effort to mechanistically link markers, RNA expression, and the phenotype. This strategy produced ranked lists of candidate genes for several drought-associated traits, including water use efficiency, growth, abscisic acid concentration (ABA), and proline concentration. As a proof of concept, we recovered known causal loci for several QTLs. For other traits, including ABA, we identified novel loci not previously associated with drought. Furthermore, we documented natural variation at two key steps in proline metabolism and demonstrated that the mitochondrial genome differentially affects genomic QTLs to influence proline accumulation. These findings demonstrate that linking genome, transcriptome, and phenotype data holds great promise to extend the utility of genetic mapping, even when QTL effects are modest or complex. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploiting Differential Gene Expression and Epistasis to Discover Candidate Genes for Drought-Associated QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, John T.; Mullen, Jack L.; Lowry, David B.; Awole, Kedija; Richards, James H.; Sen, Saunak; Verslues, Paul E.; Juenger, Thomas E.; McKay, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil water availability represents one of the most important selective agents for plants in nature and the single greatest abiotic determinant of agricultural productivity, yet the genetic bases of drought acclimation responses remain poorly understood. Here, we developed a systems-genetic approach to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs), physiological traits and genes that affect responses to soil moisture deficit in the TSUxKAS mapping population of Arabidopsis thaliana. To determine the effects of candidate genes underlying QTLs, we analyzed gene expression as a covariate within the QTL model in an effort to mechanistically link markers, RNA expression, and the phenotype. This strategy produced ranked lists of candidate genes for several drought-associated traits, including water use efficiency, growth, abscisic acid concentration (ABA), and proline concentration. As a proof of concept, we recovered known causal loci for several QTLs. For other traits, including ABA, we identified novel loci not previously associated with drought. Furthermore, we documented natural variation at two key steps in proline metabolism and demonstrated that the mitochondrial genome differentially affects genomic QTLs to influence proline accumulation. These findings demonstrate that linking genome, transcriptome, and phenotype data holds great promise to extend the utility of genetic mapping, even when QTL effects are modest or complex. PMID:25873386

  9. Molecular Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of Arabidopsis Thaliana Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Gene: A Comparison with Bixa orellana and Crocus Sativus.

    PubMed

    Priya, R; Sneha, P; Rivera Madrid, Renata; Doss, C George Priya; Singh, Pooja; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2017-09-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) gene, ubiquitously found in numerous types of plants, are eminent in synthesizing the various volatile compounds (β-ionone, C13 -norisoprenoid, geranylacetone) known as apocarotenoids. These apocarotenoids have various biological functions such as volatile signals, allelopathic interaction and plant defense. In Arabidopsis genome sequence, four potential CCD genes have been identified namely CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, and CCD8. These four genes give rise to diverse biological functions with almost similar sequence identity. In this investigation, an in silico analysis was proposed to study CCD proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana, aiming at constructing three-dimensional (3D) structure for CCD1 proteins of Bixa orellana and Crocus sativus to observe the structural difference among AtCCD (A. thaliana CCD) proteins. The quality of modeled structures was evaluated using RAMPAGE, PSVS protein validation server and Q Mean server. Finally, we utilised molecular dynamics simulation to identify the stability of the predicted CCD protein structures. The molecular dynamic simulation also revealed that AtCCD4 protein showed lesser stability when compared to other CCD proteins. Overall results from molecular dynamics analysis predicted that BoCCD1, CsCCD1, and AtCCD1 show similar structural characteristics. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2712-2721, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress.

  11. Natural variations in expression of regulatory and detoxification related genes under limiting phosphate and arsenate stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Tapsi; Kumar, Smita; Khare, Ria; Tripathi, Rudra D.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress including nutrient deficiency and heavy metal toxicity severely affects plant growth, development, and productivity. Genetic variations within and in between species are one of the important factors in establishing interactions and responses of plants with the environment. In the recent past, natural variations in Arabidopsis thaliana have been used to understand plant development and response toward different stresses at genetic level. Phosphorus deficiency negatively affects plant growth and metabolism and modulates expression of the genes involved in Pi homeostasis. Arsenate, As(V), a chemical analog of Pi, is taken up by the plants via phosphate transport system. Studies suggest that during Pi deficiency, enhanced As(V) uptake leads to increased toxicity in plants. Here, the natural variations in Arabidopsis have been utilized to study the As(V) stress response under limiting Pi condition. The primary root length was compared to identify differential response of three Arabidopsis accessions (Col-0, Sij-1, and Slavi-1) under limiting Pi and As(V) stress. To study the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differential response, comprehensive expression profiling of the genes involved in uptake, detoxification, and regulatory mechanisms was carried out. Analysis suggests genetic variation-dependent regulatory mechanisms may affect differential response of Arabidopsis natural variants toward As(V) stress under limiting Pi condition. Therefore, it is hypothesized that detailed analysis of the natural variations under multiple stress conditions might help in the better understanding of the biological processes involved in stress tolerance and adaptation. PMID:26557133

  12. The PHYTOCHROME C photoreceptor gene mediates natural variation in flowering and growth responses of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Sureshkumar; Sureshkumar, Sridevi; Agrawal, Mitesh; Michael, Todd P.; Wessinger, Carrie; Maloof, Julin N.; Clark, Richard; Warthmann, Norman; Chory, Joanne; Weigel, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Light plays an important role in modulating seedling growth and flowering time1. We show that allelic variation at the PHYTOCHROME C (PHYC) photoreceptor locus affects both traits in natural populations of A. thaliana. Two functionally distinct PHYC haplotype groups are distributed in a FRIGIDA-dependent latitudinal cline that is stronger than the one reported for FLOWERING LOCUS C, which together with FRIGIDA explains a large portion of the variation in A. thaliana flowering time2. In a genome-wide scan for association of 65 loci with latitude, there was an excess of significant p-values, indicative of population structure. Nevertheless, PHYC was the most strongly associated locus across 163 strains, suggesting that PHYC alleles are under diversifying selection in A. thaliana. Our work, together with previous findings3–6, suggests that photoreceptor genes are major agents of natural variation in plant flowering and growth response. PMID:16732287

  13. Comparative microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis halleri roots identifies nicotianamine synthase, a ZIP transporter and other genes as potential metal hyperaccumulation factors.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael; Harada, Emiko; Vess, Christoph; Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda v; Clemens, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    The hyperaccumulation of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) is a constitutive property of the metallophyte Arabidopsis halleri. We therefore used Arabidopsis GeneChips to identify genes more active in roots of A. halleri as compared to A. thaliana under control conditions. The two genes showing highest expression in A. halleri roots relative to A. thaliana roots out of more than 8000 genes present on the chip encode a nicotianamine (NA) synthase and a putative Zn2+ uptake system. The significantly higher activity of these and other genes involved in metal homeostasis under various growth conditions was confirmed by Northern and RT-PCR analyses. A. halleri roots also show higher NA synthase protein levels. Furthermore, we developed a capillary liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CapLC-ESI-QTOF-MS)-based NA analysis procedure and consistently found higher NA levels in roots of A. halleri. Expression of a NA synthase in Zn2+-hypersensitive Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells demonstrated that formation of NA can confer Zn2+ tolerance. Taken together, these observations implicate NA in plant Zn homeostasis and NA synthase in the hyperaccumulation of Zn by A. halleri. Furthermore, the results show that comparative microarray analysis of closely related species can be a valuable tool for the elucidation of phenotypic differences between such species.

  14. Exploiting a Reference Genome in Terms of Duplications: The Network of Paralogs and Single Copy Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sangiovanni, Mara; Vigilante, Alessandra; Chiusano, Maria Luisa

    2013-12-09

    Arabidopsis thaliana became the model organism for plant studies because of its small diploid genome, rapid lifecycle and short adult size. Its genome was the first among plants to be sequenced, becoming the reference in plant genomics. However, the Arabidopsis genome is characterized by an inherently complex organization, since it has undergone ancient whole genome duplications, followed by gene reduction, diploidization events and extended rearrangements, which relocated and split up the retained portions. These events, together with probable chromosome reductions, dramatically increased the genome complexity, limiting its role as a reference. The identification of paralogs and single copy genes within a highly duplicated genome is a prerequisite to understand its organization and evolution and to improve its exploitation in comparative genomics. This is still controversial, even in the widely studied Arabidopsis genome. This is also due to the lack of a reference bioinformatics pipeline that could exhaustively identify paralogs and singleton genes. We describe here a complete computational strategy to detect both duplicated and single copy genes in a genome, discussing all the methodological issues that may strongly affect the results, their quality and their reliability. This approach was used to analyze the organization of Arabidopsis nuclear protein coding genes, and besides classifying computationally defined paralogs into networks and single copy genes into different classes, it unraveled further intriguing aspects concerning the genome annotation and the gene relationships in this reference plant species. Since our results may be useful for comparative genomics and genome functional analyses, we organized a dedicated web interface to make them accessible to the scientific community.

  15. The FOUR LIPS and MYB88 transcription factor genes are widely expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana during development.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qin; Lee, EunKyoung; Keerthisinghe, Sandra; Lai, Lien; Li, Meng; Lucas, Jessica R; Wen, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaolin; Sack, Fred D

    2015-09-01

    The FOUR LIPS (FLP) and MYB88 transcription factors, which are closely related in structure and function, control the development of stomata, as well as entry into megasporogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, other locations where these transcription factors are expressed are poorly described. Documenting additional locations where these genes are expressed might define new functions for these genes. Expression patterns were examined throughout vegetative and reproductive development. The expression from two transcriptional-reporter fusions were visualized with either β-glucuronidase (GUS) or green fluorescence protein (GFP). Both flp and myb88 genes were expressed in many, previously unreported locations, consistent with the possibility of additional functions for FLP and MYB88. Moreover, expression domains especially of FLP display sharp cutoffs or boundaries. In addition to stomatal and reproductive development, FLP and MYB88, which are R2R3 MYB transcription factor genes, are expressed in many locations in cells, tissues, and organs. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Photosynthetic properties of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant possessing a defective PsbS gene.

    PubMed

    Peterson, R B; Havir, E A

    2001-11-01

    We describe the properties of npq4-9, a new mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. with reduced nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) capacity that possesses a single amino acid substitution in the PsbS gene encoding PSII-S, a ubiquitous pigment-binding protein associated with photosystem II (PSII) of higher plants. Growth, photosynthetic pigment contents, and levels of the major PSII antenna proteins were not affected by npq4-9. Although the extent of de-epoxidatin of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin plus zeaxanthin for leaves displaying the mutant phenotype equaled or exceeded that observed for the wild type, the relative effectiveness of de-epoxidized xanthophylls in promoting NPQ was consistently lower for the mutant. Energy partitioning in PSII was analyzed in terms of the competition for singlet chlorophyll a among the processes of fluorescence, thermal dissipation, and photochemistry. The key processes of NPQ and photochemistry in open PSII centers are represented by the relative in vivo rate constants kN and kP0, respectively. The magnitude of kP0 in normal leaves declined only slightly with increasing kN, consistent with localization of NPQ primarily in the antenna complex. Conversely, a highly significant linear decline in kP0 with increasing kN was observed for the mutant, consistent with a role for the PSII reaction center in the NPQ mechanism. Although the PSII absorption cross-section for white light was not significantly different relative to that of the wild type, PSII quantum yield was significantly lower in the mutant. The resulting lower capacity for linear electron transport in the mutant primarily affected reduction of terminal acceptors other than CO2. Parallel measurements of fluorescence and in vivo absorbance at 820 nm indicated a consistently higher steady-state level of reduction of PSII acceptors and accumulation of P700+ for the mutant. This suggests that inter-photosystem electron transport in the mutant is restricted either by a higher

  17. Jasmonic acid-dependent and -independent signaling pathways control wound-induced gene activation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Titarenko, E; Rojo, E; León, J; Sánchez-Serrano, J J

    1997-01-01

    Plant response to mechanical injury includes gene activation both at the wound site and systemically in nondamaged tissues. The model developed for the wound-induced activation of the proteinase inhibitor II (Pin2) gene in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) establishes the involvement of the plant hormones abscisic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) as key components of the wound signal transduction pathway. To assess in Arabidopsis thaliana the role of these plant hormones in regulating wound-induced gene expression, we isolated wound- and JA-inducible genes by the differential mRNA display technique. Their patterns of expression upon mechanical wounding and hormonal treatments revealed differences in the spatial distribution of the transcripts and in the responsiveness of the analyzed genes to abscisic acid and JA. A correlation can be established between sensitivity to JA and the accumulation of the transcripts in systemic tissues upon wounding. A comparative study of the wound response in wild-type and JA-insensitive coi1 mutant plants indicated that in A. thaliana wound signals are transmitted via at least two different pathways. One of them does not involve JA as a mediator and is preferentially responsible for gene activation in the vicinity of the wound site, whereas the other requires JA perception and activates gene expression throughout the aerial part of the plant. PMID:9342878

  18. Molecular mapping of Arabidopsis thaliana lipid-related orthologous genes in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianyi; Huang, Jixiang; Chen, Fei; Xu, Fei; Ni, Xiyuan; Xu, Haiming; Wang, Yilong; Jiang, Chonchon; Wang, Hao; Xu, Aixia; Huang, Ruizhi; Li, Dianrong; Meng, Jinling

    2012-02-01

    Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for oil content has been previously analyzed in a SG-DH population from a cross between a Chinese cultivar and a European cultivar of Brassica napus. Eight QTL with additive and epistatic effects, and with environmental interactions were evaluated. Here we present an integrated linkage map of this population predominantly based on informative markers derived from Brassica sequences, including 249 orthologous A. thaliana genes, where nearly half (112) are acyl lipid metabolism related genes. Comparative genomic analysis between B. napus and A. thaliana revealed 33 colinearity regions. Each of the conserved A. thaliana segments is present two to six times in the B. napus genome. Approximately half of the mapped lipid-related orthologous gene loci (76/137) were assigned in these conserved colinearity regions. QTL analysis for seed oil content was performed using the new map and phenotypic data from 11 different field trials. Nine significant QTL were identified on linkage groups A1, A5, A7, A9, C2, C3, C6 and C8, together explaining 57.79% of the total phenotypic variation. A total of 14 lipid related candidate gene loci were located in the confidence intervals of six of these QTL, of which ten were assigned in the conserved colinearity regions and felled in the most frequently overlapped QTL intervals. The information obtained from this study demonstrates the potential role of the suggested candidate genes in rapeseed kernel oil accumulation.

  19. Identification of Plant RAD52 Homologs and Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana RAD52-Like Genes[W

    PubMed Central

    Samach, Aviva; Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Avivi-Ragolski, Naomi; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Levy, Avraham A.

    2011-01-01

    RADiation sensitive52 (RAD52) mediates RAD51 loading onto single-stranded DNA ends, thereby initiating homologous recombination and catalyzing DNA annealing. RAD52 is highly conserved among eukaryotes, including animals and fungi. This article reports that RAD52 homologs are present in all plants whose genomes have undergone extensive sequencing. Computational analyses suggest a very early RAD52 gene duplication, followed by later lineage-specific duplications, during the evolution of higher plants. Plant RAD52 proteins have high sequence similarity to the oligomerization and DNA binding N-terminal domain of RAD52 proteins. Remarkably, the two identified Arabidopsis thaliana RAD52 genes encode four open reading frames (ORFs) through differential splicing, each of which specifically localized to the nucleus, mitochondria, or chloroplast. The A. thaliana RAD52-1A ORF provided partial complementation to the yeast rad52 mutant. A. thaliana mutants and RNA interference lines defective in the expression of RAD52-1 or RAD52-2 showed reduced fertility, sensitivity to mitomycin C, and decreased levels of intrachromosomal recombination compared with the wild type. In summary, computational and experimental analyses provide clear evidence for the presence of functional RAD52 DNA-repair homologs in plants. PMID:22202891

  20. An Arabidopsis thaliana thionin gene is inducible via a signal transduction pathway different from that for pathogenesis-related proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Epple, P; Apel, K; Bohlmann, H

    1995-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding thionin preproteins have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. The corresponding genes have been designated Thi2.1 and Thi2.2. Southern blot analysis suggests that A. thaliana most probably contains single genes for both thionins. Thi2.2 transcripts have a low basal level in seedlings and show circadian variation. Thi2.2 transcripts were also detected in rosette leaves. No potent elicitors have been found for the Thi2.2 gene. Transcripts of the Thi2.1 gene are not detectable in seedlings but are present in rosette leaves and at a very high level in flowers and in siliques. The expression of the Thi2.1 gene is highly inducible in seedlings by pathogens, silver nitrate, and methyl jasmonate, but not by salicylate, indicating that the gene is induced by a signal transduction pathway that is at least partly different from that for the pathogenesis-related proteins. PMID:8552715

  1. EXPORTIN1 Genes are Essential for Development and Function of the Gametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gametes are produced in plants through mitotic divisions in the haploid gametophytes. We investigated the role of EXPORTIN1 (XPO1) genes during the development of both female and male gametophytes of Arabidopsis. Exportins exclude target proteins from the nucleus and are also part of a complex recru...

  2. Evolution of microRNA genes in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana: an update of the inverted duplication model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Wen-kai; Gao, Li-zhi

    2011-01-01

    The origin and evolution of microRNA (miRNA) genes, which are of significance in tuning and buffering gene expressions in a number of critical cellular processes, have long attracted evolutionary biologists. However, genome-wide perspectives on their origins, potential mechanisms of their de novo generation and subsequent evolution remain largely unsolved in flowering plants. Here, genome-wide analyses of Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed apparently divergent patterns of miRNA gene origins. A large proportion of miRNA genes in O. sativa were TE-related and MITE-related miRNAs in particular, whereas the fraction of these miRNA genes much decreased in A. thaliana. Our results show that the majority of TE-related and pseudogene-related miRNA genes have originated through inverted duplication instead of segmental or tandem duplication events. Based on the presented findings, we hypothesize and illustrate the four likely molecular mechanisms to de novo generate novel miRNA genes from TEs and pseudogenes. Our rice genome analysis demonstrates that non-MITEs and MITEs mediated inverted duplications have played different roles in de novo generating miRNA genes. It is confirmed that the previously proposed inverted duplication model may give explanations for non-MITEs mediated duplication events. However, many other miRNA genes, known from the earlier proposed model, were rather arisen from MITE transpositions into target genes to yield binding sites. We further investigated evolutionary processes spawned from de novo generated to maturely-formed miRNA genes and their regulatory systems. We found that miRNAs increase the tunability of some gene regulatory systems with low gene copy numbers. The results also suggest that gene balance effects may have largely contributed to the evolution of miRNA regulatory systems.

  3. The Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox gene ATHB12 is involved in symptom development caused by geminivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungan; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Cheon, Choong-Ill; Kim, Sung-Han; Hur, Yoon-Sun; Auh, Chung-Kyun; Im, Kyung-Hwan; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sukchan; Davis, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a number of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Arabidopsis is susceptible to infection with the Curtovirus, Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV). Infection of Arabidopsis with BSCTV causes severe symptoms characterized by stunting, leaf curling, and the development of abnormal inflorescence and root structures. BSCTV-induced symptom development requires the virus-encoded C4 protein which is thought to interact with specific plant-host proteins and disrupt signaling pathways important for controlling cell division and development. Very little is known about the specific plant regulatory factors that participate in BSCTV-induced symptom development. This study was conducted to identify specific transcription factors that are induced by BSCTV infection. Arabidopsis plants were inoculated with BSCTV and the induction of specific transcription factors was monitored using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. We found that the ATHB12 and ATHB7 genes, members of the homeodomain-leucine zipper family of transcription factors previously shown to be induced by abscisic acid and water stress, are induced in symptomatic tissues of Arabidopsis inoculated with BSCTV. ATHB12 expression is correlated with an array of morphological abnormalities including leaf curling, stunting, and callus-like structures in infected Arabidopsis. Inoculation of plants with a BSCTV mutant with a defective c4 gene failed to induce ATHB12. Transgenic plants expressing the BSCTV C4 gene exhibited increased ATHB12 expression whereas BSCTV-infected ATHB12 knock-down plants developed milder symptoms and had lower ATHB12 expression compared to the wild-type plants. Reporter gene studies demonstrated that the ATHB12 promoter was responsive to BSCTV infection and the highest expression levels were observed in symptomatic tissues where cell cycle genes also were induced. These results suggest that ATHB7 and ATHB12 may play an

  4. The progeny of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to salt exhibit changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bilichak, Andriy; Ilnystkyy, Yaroslav; Hollunder, Jens; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Plants are able to acclimate to new growth conditions on a relatively short time-scale. Recently, we showed that the progeny of plants exposed to various abiotic stresses exhibited changes in genome stability, methylation patterns and stress tolerance. Here, we performed a more detailed analysis of methylation patterns in the progeny of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants exposed to 25 and 75 mM sodium chloride. We found that the majority of gene promoters exhibiting changes in methylation were hypermethylated, and this group was overrepresented by regulators of the chromatin structure. The analysis of DNA methylation at gene bodies showed that hypermethylation in the progeny of stressed plants was primarily due to changes in the 5' and 3' ends as well as in exons rather than introns. All but one hypermethylated gene tested had lower gene expression. The analysis of histone modifications in the promoters and coding sequences showed that hypermethylation and lower gene expression correlated with the enrichment of H3K9me2 and depletion of H3K9ac histones. Thus, our work demonstrated a high degree of correlation between changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and gene expression in the progeny of salt-stressed plants.

  5. Cloning and characterization of a gene (UVR3) required for photorepair of 6-4 photoproducts in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, S; Sugiyama, M; Iwai, S; Hitomi, K; Otoshi, E; Kim, S T; Jiang, C Z; Todo, T; Britt, A B; Yamamoto, K

    1998-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major classes of pyrimidine dimers: the pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4 product) and the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD). Many organisms produce enzymes, termed photolyases, that specifically bind to these damage products and split them via a UV-A/blue light-dependent mechanism, thereby reversing the damage. These photolyases are specific for either CPDs or 6-4 products. A gene that expresses a protein with 6-4 photolyase activity in vitro was recently cloned from Drosophila melanogaster and Xenopus laevis. We report here the isolation of a homolog of this gene, cloned on the basis of sequence similarity, from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This cloned gene produces a protein with 6-4 photolyase activity when expressed in Escherichia coli. We also find that a previously described mutant of Arabidopsis (uvr3) that is defective in photoreactivation of 6-4 products carries a nonsense mutation in this 6-4 photolyase homolog. We have therefore termed this gene UVR3. Although homologs of this gene have previously been shown to produce a functional 6-4 photolyase when expressed in heterologous systems, this is the first demonstration of a requirement for this gene for photoreactivation of 6-4 products in vivo. PMID:9421527

  6. Wheat TaSP gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoli; Cui, Weina; Liang, Wenji; Huang, Zhanjing

    2015-12-01

    A novel salt-induced gene with unknown functions was cloned through analysis of gene expression profile of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 under salt stress. The gene was named Triticum aestivum salt-related protein (TaSP) and deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KF307326). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that TaSP expression was induced under salt, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSP was mainly localized in cell membrane. Overexpression of TaSP in Arabidopsis could improve salt tolerance of 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis lines after salt stress presented better physiological indexes than the control group. In the non-invasive micro-test (NMT), an evident Na(+) excretion was observed at the root tip of salt-stressed 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. TaSP promoter was cloned, and its beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities before and after ABA, salt, cold, heat, and salicylic acid (SA) stresses were determined. Full-length TaSP promoter contained ABA and salt response elements.

  7. Identification of ICE2, a gene involved in cold acclimation which determines freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fursova, Oksana V; Pogorelko, Gennady V; Tarasov, Valentin A

    2009-01-15

    Several transcription factors are presently known to regulate the response to cold stress. Here we describe a new positive regulator, ICE2, which is a transcription factor of the bHLH family that participates in the response to deep freezing through the cold acclimation-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. An overexpression of ICE2 (as we named the At1g12860 locus) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants results in increased tolerance to deep freezing stress after cold acclimation. The seeds of transgenic lines that overexpressed ICE2 were characterized by decreased levels of carbohydrate and increased levels of lipids. The analysis of expression of CBF1 gene (also known as DREB1B), which have been shown to be required for the complete development of cold acclimation response in Arabidopsis indicated a difference between expression of the CBF1 gene in transgenic plants and the wild-type control plants, Col-0. These results suggested that the CBF1 transcription factor, known as one of the regulators of the cold stress response, has a dominant role in providing freezing tolerance in transgenic plants characterized by overexpression of ICE2.

  8. Boron deficiency increases the levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) and expression of Ca(2+)-related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Pando, Carlos; Rexach, Jesús; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2013-04-01

    Boron (B) deficiency affects the expressions of genes involved in major physiological processes. However, signal transduction pathway through which plants are able to sense and transmit B-deprivation signal to the nucleus is unknown. The aim of this work was to research in Arabidopsis thaliana roots whether the short-term B deficiency affects cytosolic Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]cyt) as well as expression of genes involved in Ca(2+) signaling. To visualize in vivo changes in root [Ca(2+)]cyt, Arabidopsis seedlings expressing Yellow Cameleon (YC) 3.6 were grown in a nutrient solution supplemented with 2 μM B and then transferred to a B-free medium for 24 h. Root [Ca(2+)]cyt was clearly higher in B-deficient seedlings upon 6 and 24 h of B treatments when compared to controls. Transcriptome analyses showed that transcript levels of Ca(2+) signaling-related genes were affected by B deprivation. Interestingly, Ca(2+) channel (CNGC19, cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel) gene was strongly upregulated as early as 6 h after B deficiency. Expression levels of Ca(2+) transporter (ACA, autoinhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase; CAX, cation exchanger) genes increased when seedlings were subjected to B deficiency. Gene expressions of calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) were also overexpressed upon exposure to B starvation. Our results suggest that B deficiency causes early responses in the expression of CNGC19 Ca(2+)-influx channel, ACA- and CAX-efflux, and Ca(2+) sensor genes to regulate Ca(2+) homeostasis. It is the first time that changes in the levels of in vivo cytosolic Ca(2+) and expression of Ca(2+) channel/transporter genes are related with short-term B deficiency in Arabidopsis roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  10. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  11. Response of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots with Altered Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP) Gene Expression to the Clubroot Disease and Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jülke, Sabine; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    The clubroot disease of Brassicaceae is caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae. The disease is characterized by abnormal tumorous swellings of infected roots that result in reduced drought resistance and insufficient distribution of nutrients, leading to reduced crop yield. It is one of the most damaging diseases among cruciferous crops worldwide. The acquisition of nutrients by the protist is not well understood. Gene expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana clubroots indicate that lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) could be involved in disease development or at least in adaptation to the disease symptoms. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the role of some, of the still enigmatic LTPs during clubroot development. For a functional approach, we have generated transgenic plants that overexpress LTP genes in a root specific manner or show reduced LTP gene expression. Our results showed that overexpression of some of the LTP genes resulted in reduced disease severity whereas the lipid content in clubs of LTP mutants seems to be unaffected. Additional studies indicate a role for some LTPs during salt stress conditions in roots of A. thaliana. PMID:27135222

  12. Modification of AtGRDP1 gene expression affects silique and seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Muro-Medina, Carlos Vladimir; Ramírez-Alonso, Jocelin Itzel; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2017-04-29

    Glycine Rich Proteins (GRPs) are induced at different developmental stages and in specific plant tissues. Recently, we described a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a short glycine-rich domain protein (AtGRDP1). This gene is involved in abiotic stress responsiveness; the Atgrdp1-null mutant seeds were more sensitive to stress, while the opposite phenotype was achieved by AtGRDP1 overexpression. In this study, we analyzed the phenotype of the fruits produced by Arabidopsis Atgrdp1 mutants and 35S::AtGRDP1 overexpression lines. Our analyses revealed important changes in silique length, seed number, seed weight and morphology in the analyzed lines. In particular, Atgrdp1 mutant lines exhibited several defects including short siliques, a diminished number of seeds per silique, and a reduction in seed size and weight as compared to Col-0. The overexpression of the AtGRDP1 gene also generated phenotypes with alterations in size of silique, number of seeds per silique, and size and weight of the seed. In addition, the expression analysis of AtGRDP1 gene showed that it was expressed in floral and fruit organs, with the highest expression level in mature siliques. The alterations in the siliques and seeds traits in the Atgrdp1 mutant line, as well as the phenotypes observed in AtGRDP1 overexpression lines, suggest a role of the AtGRDP1 gene in the Arabidopsis fruit development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Overexpression of Actinidia deliciosa pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene enhances waterlogging stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Yu; Huang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Gang; Xuan, Ji-Ping; Guo, Zhong-Ren

    2016-09-01

    Ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with waterlogging tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. Here, we cloned a full-length PDC cDNA sequence from kiwifruit, named AdPDC1. We determined the expression of the AdPDC1 gene in kiwifruit under different environmental stresses using qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the increase of AdPDC1 expression during waterlogging stress was much higher than that during salt, cold, heat and drought stresses. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the resistance to waterlogging stress but could not enhance resistance to cold stress at five weeks old seedlings. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis could not enhance resistance to NaCl and mannitol stresses at the stage of seed germination and in early seedlings. These results suggested that the kiwifruit AdPDC1 gene is required during waterlogging but might not be required during other environmental stresses. Expression of the AdPDC1 gene was down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in kiwifruit, and overexpression of the AdPDC1 gene in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and root length under ABA treatment, indicating that ABA might negatively regulate the AdPDC1 gene under waterlogging stress.

  14. Analysis of rRNA gene methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana by CHEF-Conventional 2D gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Mohannath, Gireesha; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Contour-clamped homogenous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis, a variant of Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), is a powerful technique for resolving large fragments of DNA (10 kb to 9 Mb). CHEF has many applications including the physical mapping of chromosomes, artificial chromosomes and sub-chromosomal DNA fragments, etc. Here we describe the use of CHEF and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to analyze rRNA gene methylation patterns within the two ~ 4 million base pair nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) of Arabidopsis thaliana. The method involves CHEF gel electrophoresis of agarose-embedded DNA following restriction endonuclease digestion to cut the NORs into large but resolvable segments, followed by digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases and conventional (or CHEF) gel electrophoresis, in a second dimension. Resulting products are then detected by Southern blotting or PCR analyses capable of discriminating rRNA gene subtypes. PMID:27576719

  15. Analysis of rRNA Gene Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana by CHEF-Conventional 2D Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mohannath, Gireesha; Pikaard, Craig S

    2016-01-01

    Contour-clamped homogenous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis, a variant of Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), is a powerful technique for resolving large fragments of DNA (10 kb-9 Mb). CHEF has many applications including the physical mapping of chromosomes, artificial chromosomes, and sub-chromosomal DNA fragments, etc. Here, we describe the use of CHEF and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to analyze rRNA gene methylation patterns within the two ~4 million base pair nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) of Arabidopsis thaliana. The method involves CHEF gel electrophoresis of agarose-embedded DNA following restriction endonuclease digestion to cut the NORs into large but resolvable segments, followed by digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases and conventional (or CHEF) gel electrophoresis, in a second dimension. Resulting products are then detected by Southern blotting or PCR analyses capable of discriminating rRNA gene subtypes.

  16. Metabolic fingerprinting of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo-Silveira, Mariana; Chauvin, Anne-Laure; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Winkler, Robert; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the post-genomic era much effort has been put on the discovery of gene function using functional genomics. Despite the advances achieved by these technologies in the understanding of gene function at the genomic and proteomic level, there is still a big genotype-phenotype gap. Metabolic profiling has been used to analyze organisms that have already been characterized genetically. However, there is a small number of studies comparing the metabolic profile of different tissues of distinct accessions. Here, we report the detection of over 14,000 and 17,000 features in inflorescences and leaves, respectively, in two widely used Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. A predictive Random Forest Model was developed, which was able to reliably classify tissue type and accession of samples based on LC-MS profile. Thereby we demonstrate that the morphological differences among A. thaliana accessions are reflected also as distinct metabolic phenotypes within leaves and inflorescences. PMID:26074932

  17. Insertional mutagenesis of genes required for seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    McElver, J; Tzafrir, I; Aux, G; Rogers, R; Ashby, C; Smith, K; Thomas, C; Schetter, A; Zhou, Q; Cushman, M A; Tossberg, J; Nickle, T; Levin, J Z; Law, M; Meinke, D; Patton, D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify large numbers of Arabidopsis genes with essential functions during seed development. More than 120,000 T-DNA insertion lines were generated following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants were screened for defective seeds and putative mutants were subjected to detailed analysis in subsequent generations. Plasmid rescue and TAIL-PCR were used to recover plant sequences flanking insertion sites in tagged mutants. More than 4200 mutants with a wide range of seed phenotypes were identified. Over 1700 of these mutants were analyzed in detail. The 350 tagged embryo-defective (emb) mutants identified to date represent a significant advance toward saturation mutagenesis of EMB genes in Arabidopsis. Plant sequences adjacent to T-DNA borders in mutants with confirmed insertion sites were used to map genome locations and establish tentative identities for 167 EMB genes with diverse biological functions. The frequency of duplicate mutant alleles recovered is consistent with a relatively small number of essential (EMB) genes with nonredundant functions during seed development. Other functions critical to seed development in Arabidopsis may be protected from deleterious mutations by extensive genome duplications. PMID:11779812

  18. Conservation of Arabidopsis thaliana photoperiodic flowering time genes in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Massiah, Andrea Juliet; Thomas, Brian

    2010-10-01

    The genetics underlying onion development are poorly understood. Here the characterization of onion homologs of Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway genes is reported with the end goal of accelerating onion breeding programs by understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to different latitudes. The expression of onion GI, FKF1 and ZTL homologs under short day (SD) and long day (LD) conditions was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of AcGI and AcFKF1 was examined in onion varieties which exhibit different daylength responses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to confirm the identity of the homologs. AcGI and AcFKF1 showed diurnal expression patterns similar to their Arabidopsis counterparts, while AcZTL was found to be constitutively expressed. AcGI showed similar expression patterns in varieties which exhibit different daylength responses, whereas AcFKF1 showed differences. It is proposed that these differences could contribute to the different daylength responses in these varieties. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all the genes isolated are very closely related to their proposed homologs. The results presented here show that key genes controlling photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis are conserved in onion, and a role for these genes in the photoperiodic control of bulb initiation is predicted. This theory is supported by expression and phylogenetic data.

  19. Terpene Specialized Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tholl, Dorothea; Lee, Sungbeom

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which are compounds of ecological function in plant defense or the attraction of beneficial organisms. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, nearly all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) enzymes of the core biosynthetic pathways producing the 5-carbon building blocks of terpenes have been characterized and closer insight has been gained into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional/translational mechanisms regulating these pathways. The biochemical function of most prenyltransferases, the downstream enzymes that condense the C5-precursors into central 10-, 15-, and 20-carbon prenyldiphosphate intermediates, has been described, although the function of several isoforms of C20-prenyltranferases is not well understood. Prenyl diphosphates are converted to a variety of C10-, C15-, and C20-terpene products by enzymes of the terpene synthase (TPS) family. Genomic organization of the 32 Arabidopsis TPS genes indicates a species-specific divergence of terpene synthases with tissue- and cell-type specific expression profiles that may have emerged under selection pressures by different organisms. Pseudogenization, differential expression, and subcellular segregation of TPS genes and enzymes contribute to the natural variation of terpene biosynthesis among Arabidopsis accessions (ecotypes) and species. Arabidopsis will remain an important model to investigate the metabolic organization and molecular regulatory networks of terpene specialized metabolism in relation to the biological activities of terpenes. PMID:22303268

  20. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A.; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis. PMID:27462337

  1. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  2. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase.

  3. Coselected genes determine adaptive variation in herbivore resistance throughout the native range of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christopher G.; Villoutreix, Romain; Platt, Alexander; Morton, Timothy C.; Roux, Fabrice; Bergelson, Joy

    2015-01-01

    The “mustard oil bomb” is a major defense mechanism in the Brassicaceae, which includes crops such as canola and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants produce and store blends of amino acid-derived secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Upon tissue rupture by natural enemies, the myrosinase enzyme hydrolyses glucosinolates, releasing defense molecules. Brassicaceae display extensive variation in the mixture of glucosinolates that they produce. To investigate the genetics underlying natural variation in glucosinolate profiles, we conducted a large genome-wide association study of 22 methionine-derived glucosinolates using A. thaliana accessions from across Europe. We found that 36% of among accession variation in overall glucosinolate profile was explained by genetic differentiation at only three known loci from the glucosinolate pathway. Glucosinolate-related SNPs were up to 490-fold enriched in the extreme tail of the genome-wide FST scan, indicating strong selection on loci controlling this pathway. Glucosinolate profiles displayed a striking longitudinal gradient with alkenyl and hydroxyalkenyl glucosinolates enriched in the West. We detected a significant contribution of glucosinolate loci toward general herbivore resistance and lifetime fitness in common garden experiments conducted in France, where accessions are enriched in hydroxyalkenyls. In addition to demonstrating the adaptive value of glucosinolate profile variation, we also detected long-distance linkage disequilibrium at two underlying loci, GS-OH and GS-ELONG. Locally cooccurring alleles at these loci display epistatic effects on herbivore resistance and fitness in ecologically realistic conditions. Together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a locally adaptive configuration of physically unlinked loci in Western Europe. PMID:25775585

  4. AraNet v2: an improved database of co-functional gene networks for the study of Arabidopsis thaliana and 27 other nonmodel plant species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tak; Yang, Sunmo; Kim, Eiru; Ko, Younhee; Hwang, Sohyun; Shin, Junha; Shim, Jung Eun; Shim, Hongseok; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Chanyoung; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is a reference plant that has been studied intensively for several decades. Recent advances in high-throughput experimental technology have enabled the generation of an unprecedented amount of data from A. thaliana, which has facilitated data-driven approaches to unravel the genetic organization of plant phenotypes. We previously published a description of a genome-scale functional gene network for A. thaliana, AraNet, which was constructed by integrating multiple co-functional gene networks inferred from diverse data types, and we demonstrated the predictive power of this network for complex phenotypes. More recently, we have observed significant growth in the availability of omics data for A. thaliana as well as improvements in data analysis methods that we anticipate will further enhance the integrated database of co-functional networks. Here, we present an updated co-functional gene network for A. thaliana, AraNet v2 (available at http://www.inetbio.org/aranet), which covers approximately 84% of the coding genome. We demonstrate significant improvements in both genome coverage and accuracy. To enhance the usability of the network, we implemented an AraNet v2 web server, which generates functional predictions for A. thaliana and 27 nonmodel plant species using an orthology-based projection of nonmodel plant genes on the A. thaliana gene network. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Simultaneous knockdown of six non-family genes using a single synthetic RNAi fragment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Bryan, Anthony C.; Jawdy, Sara S.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Genetic engineering of plants that results in successful establishment of new biochemical or regulatory pathways requires stable introduction of one or more genes into the plant genome. It might also be necessary to down-regulate or turn off expression of endogenous genes in order to reduce activity of competing pathways. An established way to knockdown gene expression in plants is expressing a hairpin-RNAi construct, eventually leading to degradation of a specifically targeted mRNA. Knockdown of multiple genes that do not share homologous sequences is still challenging and involves either sophisticated cloning strategies to create vectors with different serial expression constructs ormore » multiple transformation events that is often restricted by a lack of available transformation markers. Synthetic RNAi fragments were assembled in yeast carrying homologous sequences to six or seven non-family genes and introduced into pAGRIKOLA. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and subsequent expression analysis of targeted genes proved efficient knockdown of all target genes. In conclusion, we present a simple and cost-effective method to create constructs to simultaneously knockdown multiple non-family genes or genes that do not share sequence homology. The presented method can be applied in plant and animal synthetic biology as well as traditional plant and animal genetic engineering.« less

  6. Simultaneous knockdown of six non-family genes using a single synthetic RNAi fragment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Bryan, Anthony C.; Jawdy, Sara S.; Yang, Xiaohan; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Gui; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2016-02-17

    Genetic engineering of plants that results in successful establishment of new biochemical or regulatory pathways requires stable introduction of one or more genes into the plant genome. It might also be necessary to down-regulate or turn off expression of endogenous genes in order to reduce activity of competing pathways. An established way to knockdown gene expression in plants is expressing a hairpin-RNAi construct, eventually leading to degradation of a specifically targeted mRNA. Knockdown of multiple genes that do not share homologous sequences is still challenging and involves either sophisticated cloning strategies to create vectors with different serial expression constructs or multiple transformation events that is often restricted by a lack of available transformation markers. Synthetic RNAi fragments were assembled in yeast carrying homologous sequences to six or seven non-family genes and introduced into pAGRIKOLA. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and subsequent expression analysis of targeted genes proved efficient knockdown of all target genes. In conclusion, we present a simple and cost-effective method to create constructs to simultaneously knockdown multiple non-family genes or genes that do not share sequence homology. The presented method can be applied in plant and animal synthetic biology as well as traditional plant and animal genetic engineering.

  7. Effects of hypergravity stimulus on the expression level of genes responsible for lignin formation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, D.; Karahara, I.; Nishiuchi, T.; Wakasugi, T.; Yamada, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kamisaka, S.

    Secondary cell walls contribute mechanical strength to plant bodies Deposition of lignin in secondary cell walls has been considered to be prerequisite for the evolution of land plants In the present study we examined the effects of hypergravity conditions on lignin deposition in secondary cell walls of Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana L inflorescence stems Plants were grown for 3 days after exposure to basipetal hypergravity at 300 x g for 24 h A secondary cell wall fraction was prepared by enzyme digestion of inflorescence stem segments to remove primary cell wall components The content of lignin in a secondary cell wall fraction was significantly increased by hypergravity stimulus Microarray analysis 22K was used to identify genes that are modulated in expression in response to hypergravity conditions The results showed that many genes putatively involved in lignin biosynthesis were expressed more than 2-fold by hypergravity treatment These data indicate that hypergravity-induced increase in the content of the constituents of secondary cell walls is attributed to increase in the expression level of genes responsible for the formation of secondary cell walls under hypergravity conditions

  8. Cloning and characterization of a Verticillium wilt resistance gene from Gossypium barbadense and functional analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xingfen; Yang, Shuo; Chi, Jina; Zhang, Guiyin; Ma, Zhiying

    2011-11-01

    Verticillium wilt causes enormous loss to yield or quality in many crops. In an effort to help controlling this disease through genetic engineering, we first cloned and characterized a Verticillium wilt resistance gene (GbVe) from cotton (Gossypium barbadense) and analyzed its function in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its nucleotide sequence is 3,819 bp long, with an open reading frame of 3,387 bp, and encoding an 1,128-aa protein precursor. Sequence analysis shows that GbVe produces a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein. It shares identities of 55.9% and 57.4% with tomato Ve1 and Ve2, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the Ve gene expression pattern was different between the resistant and susceptible cultivars. In the resistant Pima90-53, GbVe was quickly induced and reached to a peak at 2 h after inoculation, two-fold higher than that of control. We localized the GbVe-GFP fusion protein to the cytomembrane in onion epidermal cells. By inserting GbVe into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, T(3) transgenic lines were obtained. Compared with the wild-type control, GbVe-overexpressing plants had greater levels of resistance to V. dahliae. This suggests that GbVe is a useful gene for improving the plant resistance against fungal diseases.

  9. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  10. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  11. GmFLD, a soybean homolog of the autonomous pathway gene FLOWERING LOCUS D, promotes flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin; Jin, Ye; Shi, Huazhong; Yang, Wannian

    2014-10-07

    Flowering at an appropriate time is crucial for seed maturity and reproductive success in all flowering plants. Soybean (Glycine max) is a typical short day plant, and both photoperiod and autonomous pathway genes exist in soybean genome. However, little is known about the functions of soybean autonomous pathway genes. In this article, we examined the functions of a soybean homolog of the autonomous pathway gene FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD), GmFLD in the flowering transition of A. thaliana. In soybean, GmFLD is highly expressed in expanded cotyledons of seedlings, roots, and young pods. However, the expression levels are low in leaves and shoot apexes. Expression of GmFLD in A. thaliana (Col) resulted in early flowering of the transgenic plants, and rescued the late flowering phenotype of the A. thaliana fld mutant. In GmFLD transgenic plants (Col or fld background), the FLC (FLOWERING LOCUS C) transcript levels decreased whereas the floral integrators, FT and SOC1, were up-regulated when compared with the corresponding non-transgenic genotypes. Furthermore, chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis showed that in the transgenic rescued lines (fld background), the levels of both tri-methylation of histone H3 Lys-4 and acetylation of H4 decreased significantly around the transcriptional start site of FLC. This is consistent with the function of GmFLD as a histone demethylase. Our results suggest that GmFLD is a functional ortholog of the Arabidopsis FLD and may play an important role in the regulation of chromatin state in soybean. The present data provides the first evidence for the evolutionary conservation of the components in the autonomous pathway in soybean.

  12. Cloning and functional expression of the gene encoding the key enzyme for chlorophyll b biosynthesis (CAO) from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Oster, U; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, A; Rüdiger, W

    2000-02-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis and degradation are the only biochemical processes on Earth that can be directly observed from satellites or other planets. The bulk of the Chls is found in the light-harvesting antenna complexes of photosynthetic organisms. Surprisingly little is known about the biosynthesis of Chl b, which is the second most abundant Chl pigment after Chl a. We describe here the expression and properties of the chlorophyllide a oxygenase gene (CAO) from Arabidopsis thaliana, which is apparently the key enzyme in Chl b biosynthesis. The recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli catalyses an unusual two-step oxygenase reaction that is the 'missing link' in the chlorophyll cycle of higher plants.

  13. Inferring transcriptional gene regulation network of starch metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves using graphical Gaussian model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch serves as a temporal storage of carbohydrates in plant leaves during day/night cycles. To study transcriptional regulatory modules of this dynamic metabolic process, we conducted gene regulation network analysis based on small-sample inference of graphical Gaussian model (GGM). Results Time-series significant analysis was applied for Arabidopsis leaf transcriptome data to obtain a set of genes that are highly regulated under a diurnal cycle. A total of 1,480 diurnally regulated genes included 21 starch metabolic enzymes, 6 clock-associated genes, and 106 transcription factors (TF). A starch-clock-TF gene regulation network comprising 117 nodes and 266 edges was constructed by GGM from these 133 significant genes that are potentially related to the diurnal control of starch metabolism. From this network, we found that β-amylase 3 (b-amy3: At4g17090), which participates in starch degradation in chloroplast, is the most frequently connected gene (a hub gene). The robustness of gene-to-gene regulatory network was further analyzed by TF binding site prediction and by evaluating global co-expression of TFs and target starch metabolic enzymes. As a result, two TFs, indeterminate domain 5 (AtIDD5: At2g02070) and constans-like (COL: At2g21320), were identified as positive regulators of starch synthase 4 (SS4: At4g18240). The inference model of AtIDD5-dependent positive regulation of SS4 gene expression was experimentally supported by decreased SS4 mRNA accumulation in Atidd5 mutant plants during the light period of both short and long day conditions. COL was also shown to positively control SS4 mRNA accumulation. Furthermore, the knockout of AtIDD5 and COL led to deformation of chloroplast and its contained starch granules. This deformity also affected the number of starch granules per chloroplast, which increased significantly in both knockout mutant lines. Conclusions In this study, we utilized a systematic approach of microarray analysis to discover

  14. Mutations in epidermis-specific HD-ZIP IV genes affect floral organ identity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Naoko; Okada, Hitomi; Komeda, Yoshibumi; Takahashi, Taku

    2013-08-01

    Development of the epidermis involves members of the class-IV homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP IV) transcription factors. The Arabidopsis HD-ZIP IV family consists of 16 members, among which PROTODERMAL FACTOR 2 (PDF2) and ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MERISTEM LAYER 1 (ATML1) play an indispensable role in the differentiation of shoot epidermal cells; however, the functions of other HD-ZIP IV genes that are also expressed specifically in the shoot epidermis remain to be fully elucidated. We constructed double mutant combinations of these HD-ZIP IV mutant alleles and found that the double mutants of pdf2-1 with homeodomain glabrous1-1 (hdg1-1), hdg2-3, hdg5-1 and hdg12-2 produced abnormal flowers with sepaloid petals and carpelloid stamens in association with the reduced expression of the petal and stamen identity gene APETALA 3 (AP3). Expression of another petal and stamen identity gene PISTILATA (PI) was less affected in these mutants. We confirmed that AP3 expression in pdf2-1 hdg2-3 was normally induced at the initial stages of flower development, but was attenuated both in the epidermis and internal cell layers of developing flowers. As the expression of PDF2 and these HD-ZIP IV genes during floral organ formation is exclusively limited to the epidermal cell layer, these double mutations may have non-cell-autonomous effects on AP3 expression in the internal cell layers. Our results suggest that cooperative functions of PDF2 and other members of the HD-ZIP IV family in the epidermis are crucial for normal development of floral organs in Arabidopsis.

  15. Circadian clock signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana: from gene expression to physiology and development.

    PubMed

    Más, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    The daily rotation of the earth on its axis leads to predictable periodic fluctuations of environmental conditions. Accordingly, most organisms have evolved an internal timing mechanism, the circadian clock, which is able to recognize these 24-hour rhythmic oscillations. In plants, the temporal synchronization of physiology with the environment is essential for successful plant growth and development. The intimate connection between light signaling pathways and the circadian oscillator allows the anticipation of the environmental transitions and the measurement of day-length as an indicator of changing seasons. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the genetic and molecular dissection of the plant circadian system, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. The overall plant clock organization is highly complex; the system seems to include several input pathways, tightly regulated central oscillators and a myriad of outputs. The molecular cloning and characterization of a number of clock components has greatly improved our view of the plant central oscillator and additional players will most likely come into place very soon. Molecular mechanisms underlying circadian clock function are also beginning to be characterized. The emerging model relies on negative feedback loops at the core of the oscillator. Additional levels of post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation also contribute to the generation and maintenance of the rhythms. Globally, these studies have shed new light on how the clock coordinates plant physiology and development with the daily and seasonal environmental cycles.

  16. Introns Structure Patterns of Variation in Nucleotide Composition in Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice Protein-Coding Genes.

    PubMed

    Ressayre, Adrienne; Glémin, Sylvain; Montalent, Pierre; Serre-Giardi, Laurana; Dillmann, Christine; Joets, Johann

    2015-10-07

    Plant genomes present a continuous range of variation in nucleotide composition (G + C content). In coding regions, G + C-poor species tend to have unimodal distributions of G + C content among genes within genomes and slight 5'-3' gradients along genes. In contrast, G + C-rich species display bimodal distributions of G + C content among genes and steep 5'-3' decreasing gradients along genes. The causes of these peculiar patterns are still poorly understood. Within two species (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice), each representative of one side of the continuum, we studied the consequences of intron presence on coding region and intron G + C content at different scales. By properly taking intron structure into account, we showed that, in both species, intron presence is associated with step changes in nucleotide, codon, and amino acid composition. This suggests that introns have a barrier effect structuring G + C content along genes and that previous continuous characterizations of the 5'-3' gradients were artifactual. In external gene regions (located upstream first or downstream last introns), species-specific factors, such as GC-biased gene conversion, are shaping G + C content whereas in internal gene regions (surrounded by introns), G + C content is likely constrained to remain within a range common to both species.

  17. Introns Structure Patterns of Variation in Nucleotide Composition in Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ressayre, Adrienne; Glémin, Sylvain; Montalent, Pierre; Serre-Giardi, Laurana; Dillmann, Christine; Joets, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Plant genomes present a continuous range of variation in nucleotide composition (G + C content). In coding regions, G + C-poor species tend to have unimodal distributions of G + C content among genes within genomes and slight 5′–3′ gradients along genes. In contrast, G + C-rich species display bimodal distributions of G + C content among genes and steep 5′–3′ decreasing gradients along genes. The causes of these peculiar patterns are still poorly understood. Within two species (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice), each representative of one side of the continuum, we studied the consequences of intron presence on coding region and intron G + C content at different scales. By properly taking intron structure into account, we showed that, in both species, intron presence is associated with step changes in nucleotide, codon, and amino acid composition. This suggests that introns have a barrier effect structuring G + C content along genes and that previous continuous characterizations of the 5′–3′ gradients were artifactual. In external gene regions (located upstream first or downstream last introns), species-specific factors, such as GC-biased gene conversion, are shaping G + C content whereas in internal gene regions (surrounded by introns), G + C content is likely constrained to remain within a range common to both species. PMID:26450849

  18. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Conclusions Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and

  19. Two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase are required for ascorbate biosynthesis and seedling viability.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, John; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Gatzek, Stephan; Rolinski, Susanne; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2007-11-01

    Plants synthesize ascorbate from guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-mannose via L-galactose/L-gulose, although uronic acids have also been proposed as precursors. Genes encoding all the enzymes of the GDP-mannose pathway have previously been identified, with the exception of the step that converts GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-P. We show that a GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene, catalyses this step in the ascorbate biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, a homologue of VTC2, At5g55120, encodes a second GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase with similar properties to VTC2. Two At5g55120 T-DNA insertion mutants (vtc5-1 and vtc5-2) have 80% of the wild-type ascorbate level. Double mutants were produced by crossing the loss-of-function vtc2-1 mutant with each of the two vtc5 alleles. These show growth arrest immediately upon germination and the cotyledons subsequently bleach. Normal growth was restored by supplementation with ascorbate or L-galactose, indicating that both enzymes are necessary for ascorbate generation. vtc2-1 leaves contain more mannose 6-P than wild-type. We conclude that the GDP-mannose pathway is the only significant source of ascorbate in A. thaliana seedlings, and that ascorbate is essential for seedling growth. A. thaliana leaves accumulate more ascorbate after acclimatization to high light intensity. VTC2 expression and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase activity rapidly increase on transfer to high light, but the activity of other enzymes in the GDP-mannose pathway is little affected. VTC2 and At5g55120 (VTC5) expression also peak in at the beginning of the light cycle and are controlled by the circadian clock. The GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase step may therefore play an important role in controlling ascorbate biosynthesis.

  20. Chromate induces adventitious root formation via auxin signalling and SOLITARY-ROOT/IAA14 gene function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    López-Bucio, José; Ortiz-Castro, Randy; Ruíz-Herrera, León Francisco; Juárez, Consuelo Vargas; Hernández-Madrigal, Fátima; Carreón-Abud, Yazmín; Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Morphological root plasticity optimizes nutrient and water uptake by plants and is a promising target to improve tolerance to metal toxicity. Exposure to sublethal chromate [Cr(VI)] concentrations inhibits root growth, decreases photosynthesis and compromises plant development and productivity. Despite the increasing environmental problem that Cr(VI) represents, to date, the Cr tolerance mechanisms of plants are not well understood, and it remains to be investigated whether root architecture remodelling is important for plant adaptation to Cr(VI) stress. In this report, we analysed the growth response of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to concentrations of Cr(VI) that strongly repress primary and lateral root growth. Interestingly, adventitious roots started developing, branched and allowed seedlings to grow under highly growth-repressing Cr(VI) concentrations. Cr(VI) negatively regulates auxin transport and response gene expression in the primary root tip, as evidenced by decreased expression of auxin-related reporters DR5::GFP, DR5::uidA and PIN1::PIN1::GFP, and then, another auxin maximum is established at the site of adventitious root initiation that drives adventitious root organogenesis. Both primary root growth inhibition and adventitious root formation induced by high Cr(VI) levels are blocked by a gain-of-function mutation in the SOLITARY-ROOT/IAA14 gene of Arabidopsis. These data provide evidence that suggests a critical role for auxin transport and signalling via IAA14/SLR1 in the developmental program linking Cr(VI) to root architecture remodelling.

  1. Expression of the ggpPS gene for glucosylglycerol biosynthesis from Azotobacter vinelandii improves the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Klähn, Stephan; Marquardt, Daniel M; Rollwitz, Inga; Hagemann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Many organisms accumulate compatible solutes in response to salt or desiccation stress. Moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria and some heterotrophic bacteria synthesize the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG) as their main protective compound. In order to analyse the potential of GG to improve salt tolerance of higher plants, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was transformed with the ggpPS gene from the gamma-proteobacterium Azotobacter vinelandii coding for a combined GG-phosphate synthase/phosphatase. The heterologous expression of the ggpPS gene led to the accumulation of high amounts of GG. Three independent Arabidopsis lines showing different GG contents were characterized in growth experiments. Plants containing a low (1-2 micromol g(-1) FM) GG content in leaves showed no altered growth performance under control conditions but an increased salt tolerance, whereas plants accumulating a moderate (2-8 micromol g(-1) FM) or a high GG content (around 17 micromol g(-1) FM) showed growth retardation and no improvement of salt resistance. These results indicate that the synthesis of the compatible solute GG has a beneficial effect on plant stress tolerance as long as it is accumulated to an extent that does not negatively interfere with plant metabolism.

  2. Combining growth-promoting genes leads to positive epistasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Vanhaeren, Hannes; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Coppens, Frederik; De Milde, Liesbeth; Van Daele, Twiggy; Vermeersch, Mattias; Eloy, Nubia B; Storme, Veronique; Inzé, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Several genes positively influence final leaf size in Arabidopsis when mutated or overexpressed. The connections between these growth regulators are still poorly understood although such knowledge would further contribute to understand the processes driving leaf growth. In this study, we performed a combinatorial screen with 13 transgenic Arabidopsis lines with an increased leaf size. We found that from 61 analyzed combinations, 39% showed an additional increase in leaf size and most resulted from a positive epistasis on growth. Similar to what is found in other organisms in which such an epistasis assay was performed, only few genes were highly connected in synergistic combinations as we observed a positive epistasis in the majority of the combinations with samba, BRI1OE or SAUR19OE. Furthermore, positive epistasis was found with combinations of genes with a similar mode of action, but also with genes which affect distinct processes, such as cell proliferation and cell expansion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02252.001 PMID:24843021

  3. Enhanced Accumulation of Cd2+ by a Mesorhizobium sp. Transformed with a Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana Coding for Phytochelatin Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Hayashi, Makoto; Ono, Hisayo; Takagi, Masahiro; Hirata, Kazumasa; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    We expressed the Arabidopsis thaliana gene for phytochelatin synthase (PCSAt) in Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei B3, a microsymbiont of Astragalus sinicus, a legume used as manure. The PCSAt gene was expressed under the control of the nifH promoter, which regulates the nodule-specific expression of the nifH gene. The expression of the PCSAt gene was demonstrated in free-living cells under low-oxygen conditions. Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) was expressed and catalyzed the synthesis of phytochelatins [(γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly; PCs] in strain B3. A range of PCs, with values of n from 2 to 7, was synthesized by cells that expressed the PCSAt gene, whereas no PCs were found in control cells that harbored the empty plasmid. The presence of CdCl2 activated PCS and induced the synthesis of substantial amounts of PCs. Cells that contained PCs accumulated 36 nmol of Cd2+/mg (dry weight) of cells. The expression of the PCSAt gene in M. huakuii subsp. rengei B3 increased the ability of cells to bind Cd2+ approximately 9- to 19-fold. The PCS protein was detected by immunostaining bacteroids of mature nodules of A. sinicus containing the PCSAt gene. When recombinant M. huakuii subsp. rengei B3 established the symbiotic relationship with A. sinicus, the symbionts increased Cd2+ accumulation in nodules 1.5-fold. PMID:12620871

  4. A plant-specific HUA2-LIKE (HULK) gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana is essential for development

    PubMed Central

    Jali, Sathya S; Rosloski, Sarah M; Janakirama, Preetam; Steffen, Joshua G; Zhurov, Vladimir; Berleth, Thomas; Clark, Richard M; Grbic, Vojislava

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the HUA2 gene is required for proper expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and AGAMOUS, key regulators of flowering time and reproductive development, respectively. Although HUA2 is broadly expressed, plants lacking HUA2 function have only moderately reduced plant stature, leaf initiation rate and flowering time. To better understand HUA2 activity, and to test whether redundancy with similar genes underlies the absence of strong phenotypes in HUA2 mutant plants, we identified and subsequently characterized three additional HUA2-LIKE (HULK) genes in Arabidopsis. These genes form two clades (HUA2/HULK1 and HULK2/HULK3), with members broadly conserved in both vascular and non-vascular plants, but not present outside the plant kingdom. Plants with progressively reduced HULK activity had increasingly severe developmental defects, and plants homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in all four HULK genes were not recovered. Multiple mutants displayed reproductive, embryonic and post-embryonic abnormalities, and provide detailed insights into the overlapping and unique functions of individual HULK genes. With regard to flowering time, opposing influences were apparent: hua2 hulk1 plants were early-flowering, while hulk2 hulk3 mutants were late-flowering, and hua2 acted epistatically to cause early flowering in all combinations. Genome-wide expression profiling of mutant combinations using RNA-Seq revealed complex transcriptional changes in seedlings, with FLC, a known target of HUA2, among the most affected. Our studies, which include characterization of HULK expression patterns and subcellular localization, suggest that the HULK genes encode conserved nuclear factors with partially redundant but essential functions associated with diverse genetic pathways in plants. PMID:25070081

  5. Overexpressing the Multiple-Stress Responsive Gene At1g74450 Reduces Plant Height and Male Fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Anne M.; Belfield, Eric J.; Vlad, Daniela; Irani, Niloufer; Moore, Ian; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be up-regulated in response to a wide range of different environmental stress factors. However, not all of these genes are characterized as yet with respect to their functions. In this study, we used transgenic knockout, overexpression and reporter gene approaches to try to elucidate the biological roles of five unknown multiple-stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis. The selected genes have the following locus identifiers: At1g18740, At1g74450, At4g27652, At4g29780 and At5g12010. Firstly, T-DNA insertion knockout lines were identified for each locus and screened for altered phenotypes. None of the lines were found to be visually different from wildtype Col-0. Secondly, 35S-driven overexpression lines were generated for each open reading frame. Analysis of these transgenic lines showed altered phenotypes for lines overexpressing the At1g74450 ORF. Plants overexpressing the multiple-stress responsive gene At1g74450 are stunted in height and have reduced male fertility. Alexander staining of anthers from flowers at developmental stage 12–13 showed either an absence or a reduction in viable pollen compared to wildtype Col-0 and At1g74450 knockout lines. Interestingly, the effects of stress on crop productivity are most severe at developmental stages such as male gametophyte development. However, the molecular factors and regulatory networks underlying environmental stress-induced male gametophytic alterations are still largely unknown. Our results indicate that the At1g74450 gene provides a potential link between multiple environmental stresses, plant height and pollen development. In addition, ruthenium red staining analysis showed that At1g74450 may affect the composition of the inner seed coat mucilage layer. Finally, C-terminal GFP fusion proteins for At1g74450 were shown to localise to the cytosol. PMID:26485022

  6. Structure of U2 snRNA genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and their expression in electroporated plant protoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Vankan, Pierre; Filipowicz, Witold

    1988-01-01

    We have characterized the U2 snRNA gene family in the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. It consists of 10-15 genes which do not appear to be closely clustered. Six of the U2 genes were sequenced and the structure of the Arabidopsis U2 RNA termini was determined in order to define the coding regions. Each of the genes codes for a distinct RNA differing from the others by 2-13 point mutations, localized in the 3' part of the 196 nt-long RNA. The upstream non-coding regions of all genes show strong sequence similarity in positions −81 to −1 and contain three highly conserved sequence elements: GTCCCACATCG (positions −78 to −68; 100% conservation), GTAGTATAAATA (−37 to −26) and CAANTC (−6 to −1). The coding regions are followed by the sequence CAN7-9AGTNNAA, a putative termination signal. The expression of three of the genes was studied in electroporated Orychophragmus violaceus and Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts. The genes, one of which contains a T → C change in the Sm antigen binding site, were actively transcribed and processed into U2 RNAs of the expected size and containing trimethylguanosine caps. Deletion analysis indicates that sequences upstream of the conserved −80 to −1 region are not important for transcription in protoplasts. The 5'-terminal parts of U2 RNAs from several monocot and dicot plants were sequenced. This region, containing the sequence implicated in base-pairing with the branch point in pre-mRNA introns, is identical in all U2 RNAs examined. Images PMID:16453831

  7. Overexpression of a peroxidase gene (AtPrx64) of Arabidopsis thaliana in tobacco improves plant's tolerance to aluminum stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanshuang; Yang, Zhili; How, Jingyi; Xu, Huini; Chen, Limei; Li, Kunzhi

    2017-08-16

    AtPrx64 is one of the peroxidases gene up-regulated in Al stress and has some functions in the formation of plant second cell wall. Its overexpression may improve plant tolerance to Al by some ways. Studies on its function under Al stress may help us to understand the mechanism of plant tolerance to Al stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the expressions of some genes (AtPrxs) encoding class III plant peroxidases have been found to be either up-regulated or down-regulated under aluminum (Al) stress. Among 73 genes that encode AtPrxs in Arabidopsis, AtPrx64 is always up-regulated by Al stress, suggesting this gene plays protective roles in response to such stress. In this study, transgenic tobacco plants were generated to examine the effects of overexpressing of AtPrx64 gene on the tolerance to Al stress. The results showed that overexpression of AtPrx64 gene increased the root growth and reduced the accumulation of Al and ROS in the roots. Compared with wild type controls, transgenic tobaccos had much less soluble proteins and malondialdehyde in roots and much more root citrate exudation. The activity of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, the phosphorylation of PM H(+)-ATPase and its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins increased in transgenic tobaccos; moreover, the content of lignin in root tips also increased. Taken together, these results showed that overexpression of AtPrx64 gene might enhance the tolerance of tobacco to Al stress.

  8. Identification and analysis of novel genes involved in gravitropism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Miyo T.; Tasaka, Masao; Masatoshi Taniguchi, .

    2012-07-01

    Gravitropism is a continuous control with regard to the orientation and juxtaposition of the various parts of the plant body in response to gravity. In higher plants, the relative directional change of gravity is mainly suscepted in specialized cells called statocytes, followed by signal conversion from physical information into physiological information within the statocytes. We have studied the early process of shoot gravitropism, gravity sensing and signaling process, mainly by molecular genetic approach. In Arabidopsis shoot, statocytes are the endodermal cells. sgr1/scarcrow (scr) and sgr7/short-root (shr) mutants fail to form the endodermis and to respond to gravity in their inflorescence stems. Since both SGR1/SCR and SGR7/SHR are transcriptional factors, at least a subset of their downstream genes can be expected to be involved in gravitropism. In addition, eal1 (endodermal-amyloplast less 1), which exhibits no gravitropism in inflorescence stem but retains ability to form endodermis, is a hypomorphic allele of sgr7/shr. Take advantage of these mutants, we performed DNA microarray analysis and compared gene expression profiles between wild type and the mutants. We found that approx. 40 genes were commonly down-regulated in these mutants and termed them DGE (DOWN-REGULATED GENE IN EAL1) genes. DGE1 has sequence similarity to Oryza sativa LAZY1 that is involved in shoot gravitropism of rice. DGE2 has a short region homologous to DGE1. DTL (DGE TWO-LIKE}) that has 54% identity to DGE2 is found in Arabidopsis genome. All three genes are conserved in angiosperm but have no known functional domains or motifs. We analyzed T-DNA insertion for these genes in single or multiple combinations. In dge1 dge2 dtl triple mutant, gravitropic response of shoot, hypocotyl and root dramatically reduced. Now we are carrying out further physiological and molecular genetic analysis of the triple mutant.

  9. Ectopic expression of different cytokinin-regulated transcription factor genes of Arabidopsis thaliana alters plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Köllmer, Ireen; Werner, Tomáš; Schmülling, Thomas

    2011-08-15

    The plant hormone cytokinin rapidly alters the steady state transcript levels of a number of transcription factor genes suggesting that these might have a function in mediating cytokinin effects. Here we report the analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an altered expression level of four different cytokinin-regulated transcription factor genes. These include GATA22 (also known as CGA1/GNL), two genes coding for members of the homeodomain zip (HD zip) class II transcription factor family (HAT4, HAT22), and bHLH64. Ectopic expression of the GATA22 gene induced the development of chloroplasts in root tissue where it is normally suppressed and led to the formation of shorter and less branched roots. Overexpression of HAT22 lowered the seedlings chlorophyll content and caused an earlier onset of leaf senescence. Enhanced expression of the HAT4 gene led to severe defects in inflorescence stem development and to a decrease in root growth and branching, while hat4 insertional mutants developed a larger root system. 35S:bHLH64 transgenic plants showed a pleiotropic phenotype, consisting of larger rosettes, reduced chlorophyll content and an elongated and thickened hypocotyl. Flower development was strongly disturbed leading to sterile plants. The results are consistent with specific functions of these transcription factor genes in regulating part of the cytokinin activities and suggest their action as convergence point with other signalling pathways, particularly those of gibberellin and light. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Cell cycle and mismatch repair genes as potential biomarkers in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exposed to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, Prakash M; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-06-01

    The expression of cell cycle genes and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes were analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exposed to 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L of silver nanoparticles for 24, 48 and 72 h using real-time PCR. Significant up-regulation of AtPCNA1 was observed after 24 h exposure to 0.2 and 0.5 mg/L of silver nanoparticles. AtPCNA2 gene was up-regulated after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure to 0.5 and 1 mg/L of silver nanoparticles. AtMLH1 gene was up-regulated after 48 h exposure to 0.5 and 1 mg/L of silver nanoparticles and down-regulated after 72 h. Down-regulation of AtMSH2, AtMSH3, AtMSH6 and AtMSH7 mRNA was observed after exposure to all concentrations of silver nanoparticles for different time periods. Exposure to silver ions showed no significant change in the expression levels of AtPCNA and MMR genes. The results show that AtPCNA and MMR genes could be used as potential molecular biomarkers.

  11. SVD-based anatomy of gene expressions for correlation analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Wada, Masayoshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori

    2008-12-01

    Gene co-expression analysis has been widely used in recent years for predicting unknown gene function and its regulatory mechanisms. The predictive accuracy depends on the quality and the diversity of data set used. In this report, we applied singular value decomposition (SVD) to array experiments in public databases to find that co-expression linkage could be estimated by a much smaller number of array data. Correlations of co-expressed gene were assessed using two regulatory mechanisms (feedback loop of the fundamental circadian clock and a global transcription factor Myb28), as well as metabolic pathways in the AraCyc database. Our conclusion is that a smaller number of informative arrays across tissues can suffice to reproduce comparable results with a state-of-the-art co-expression software tool. In our SVD analysis on Arabidopsis data set, array experiments that contributed most as the principal components included stamen development, germinating seed and stress responses on leaf.

  12. Prediction of operon-like gene clusters in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome based on co-expression analysis of neighboring genes.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Nakamura, Kensuke; Hirai, Masami Y; Ohta, Daisaku; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2012-07-15

    Operon-like arrangements of genes occur in eukaryotes ranging from yeasts and filamentous fungi to nematodes, plants, and mammals. In plants, several examples of operon-like gene clusters involved in metabolic pathways have recently been characterized, e.g. the cyclic hydroxamic acid pathways in maize, the avenacin biosynthesis gene clusters in oat, the thalianol pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the diterpenoid momilactone cluster in rice. Such operon-like gene clusters are defined by their co-regulation or neighboring positions within immediate vicinity of chromosomal regions. A comprehensive analysis of the expression of neighboring genes therefore accounts a crucial step to reveal the complete set of operon-like gene clusters within a genome. Genome-wide prediction of operon-like gene clusters should contribute to functional annotation efforts and provide novel insight into evolutionary aspects acquiring certain biological functions as well. We predicted co-expressed gene clusters by comparing the Pearson correlation coefficient of neighboring genes and randomly selected gene pairs, based on a statistical method that takes false discovery rate (FDR) into consideration for 1469 microarray gene expression datasets of A. thaliana. We estimated that A. thaliana contains 100 operon-like gene clusters in total. We predicted 34 statistically significant gene clusters consisting of 3 to 22 genes each, based on a stringent FDR threshold of 0.1. Functional relationships among genes in individual clusters were estimated by sequence similarity and functional annotation of genes. Duplicated gene pairs (determined based on BLAST with a cutoff of E<10(-5)) are included in 27 clusters. Five clusters are associated with metabolism, containing P450 genes restricted to the Brassica family and predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism. Operon-like clusters tend to include genes encoding bio-machinery associated with ribosomes, the ubiquitin/proteasome system, secondary

  13. Sulfenome mining in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Waszczak, Cezary; Akter, Salma; Eeckhout, Dominique; Persiau, Geert; Wahni, Khadija; Bodra, Nandita; Van Molle, Inge; De Smet, Barbara; Vertommen, Didier; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be potent signaling molecules. Today, oxidation of cysteine residues is a well-recognized posttranslational protein modification, but the signaling processes steered by such oxidations are poorly understood. To gain insight into the cysteine thiol-dependent ROS signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent sulfenome: that is, proteins with at least one cysteine thiol oxidized to a sulfenic acid. By means of a genetic construct consisting of a fusion between the C-terminal domain of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) AP-1–like (YAP1) transcription factor and a tandem affinity purification tag, we detected ∼100 sulfenylated proteins in Arabidopsis cell suspensions exposed to H2O2 stress. The in vivo YAP1-based trapping of sulfenylated proteins was validated by a targeted in vitro analysis of DEHYDROASCORBATE REDUCTASE2 (DHAR2). In DHAR2, the active site nucleophilic cysteine is regulated through a sulfenic acid-dependent switch, leading to S-glutathionylation, a protein modification that protects the protein against oxidative damage. PMID:25049418

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana life without phytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Bárbara; Sánchez-Lamas, Maximiliano; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.; Casal, Jorge J.; Cerdán, Pablo D.

    2010-01-01

    Plants use light as a source of energy for photosynthesis and as a source of environmental information perceived by photoreceptors. Testing whether plants can complete their cycle if light provides energy but no information about the environment requires a plant devoid of phytochromes because all photosynthetically active wavelengths activate phytochromes. Producing such a quintuple mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has been challenging, but we were able to obtain it in the flowering locus T (ft) mutant background. The quintuple phytochrome mutant does not germinate in the FT background, but it germinates to some extent in the ft background. If germination problems are bypassed by the addition of gibberellins, the seedlings of the quintuple phytochrome mutant exposed to red light produce chlorophyll, indicating that phytochromes are not the sole red-light photoreceptors, but they become developmentally arrested shortly after the cotyledon stage. Blue light bypasses this blockage, rejecting the long-standing idea that the blue-light receptors cryptochromes cannot operate without phytochromes. After growth under white light, returning the quintuple phytochrome mutant to red light resulted in rapid senescence of already expanded leaves and severely impaired expansion of new leaves. We conclude that Arabidopsis development is stalled at several points in the presence of light suitable for photosynthesis but providing no photomorphogenic signal. PMID:20176939

  15. Multi-scale modeling of Arabidopsis thaliana response to different CO2 conditions: From gene expression to metabolic flux.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Shen, Fangzhou; Xin, Changpeng; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale investigation from gene transcript level to metabolic activity is important to uncover plant response to environment perturbation. Here we integrated a genome-scale constraint-based metabolic model with transcriptome data to explore Arabidopsis thaliana response to both elevated and low CO2 conditions. The four condition-specific models from low to high CO2 concentrations show differences in active reaction sets, enriched pathways for increased/decreased fluxes, and putative post-transcriptional regulation, which indicates that condition-specific models are necessary to reflect physiological metabolic states. The simulated CO2 fixation flux at different CO2 concentrations is consistent with the measured Assimilation-CO2intercellular curve. Interestingly, we found that reactions in primary metabolism are affected most significantly by CO2 perturbation, whereas secondary metabolic reactions are not influenced a lot. The changes predicted in key pathways are consistent with existing knowledge. Another interesting point is that Arabidopsis is required to make stronger adjustment on metabolism to adapt to the more severe low CO2 stress than elevated CO2 . The challenges of identifying post-transcriptional regulation could also be addressed by the integrative model. In conclusion, this innovative application of multi-scale modeling in plants demonstrates potential to uncover the mechanisms of metabolic response to different conditions.

  16. Cloning and characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum major latex protein gene and functional analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Yin; Dai, Xiao-Feng

    2010-03-01

    The major latex protein (MLP) gene in Gossypium hirsutum was cloned and designated Gh-MLP. Expression in cotton root was induced by salt stress and Verticillium dahliae toxin, and bioinformatic analysis showed that Gh-MLP encodes a 157-amino acid protein that is similar to members of the MLP subfamily in the Bet v 1 family. Although the structure of MLP is similar to Bet v 1 family proteins, the sequence identity to other subfamilies of Bet v 1 proteins is less than 20%. The Gh-MLP promoter contains potential cis-acting elements for response to salt stress and fungal elicitor. RT-PCR analysis showed that Gh-MLP expression was rapidly induced by NaCl and V. dahliae toxin, and induction was maintained over 72 h. However, Gh-MLP transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana did not show resistance to V. dahiae, salt tolerance was significantly enhanced. In contrast to the wild type, the Gh-MLP transgene allowed plants to germinate normally after treatment with 75 mM NaCl. Total flavonoid was twofold higher in transgenic Arabidopsis than in the control, suggesting that Gh-MLP might be involved in altering flavonoid content. We hypothesize Gh-MLP, like other Bet v 1 family proteins, participates in the binding or transport of ligands through its specific three-dimensional structure, and takes part in defensive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  17. pKAMA-ITACHI Vectors for Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Knockout in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9) system is widely used as a tool for genome engineering in various organisms. A complex consisting of Cas9 and single guide RNA (sgRNA) induces a DNA double-strand break in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in knockout. Some binary vectors for CRISPR/Cas9 in plants have been reported, but there is a problem with low efficiency. Here, we present a newly developed, highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9 vector for Arabidopsis thaliana, pKAMA-ITACHI Red (pKIR), harboring the RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S5 A (RPS5A) promoter to drive Cas9. The RPS5A promoter maintains high constitutive expression at all developmental stages starting from the egg cell and including meristematic cells. Even in the T1 generation, pKIR induced null phenotypes in some genes: PHYTOENE DESATURASE 3 (PDS3), AGAMOUS (AG) and DUO POLLEN 1 (DUO1). Mutations induced by pKIR were carried in the germ cell line of the T1 generation. Surprisingly, in some lines, 100% of the T2 plants had the adh1 (ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 1) null phenotype, indicating that pKIR strongly induced heritable mutations. Cas9-free T2 mutant plants were obtained by removing T2 seeds expressing a fluorescent marker in pKIR. Our results suggest that the pKIR system is a powerful molecular tool for genome engineering in Arabidopsis. PMID:27856772

  18. Identification of genes involved in the ACC-mediated control of root cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Markakis, Marios Nektarios; De Cnodder, Tinne; Lewandowski, Michal; Simon, Damien; Boron, Agnieszka; Balcerowicz, Daria; Doubbo, Thanaa; Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Höfte, Herman; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2012-11-07

    Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone). Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream signaling cascade, these are converged to a 'common pathway

  19. Identification of genes involved in the ACC-mediated control of root cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone). Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Results Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. Conclusions ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream signaling cascade, these are

  20. Integrating roots into a whole plant network of flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bouché, Frédéric; D’Aloia, Maria; Tocquin, Pierre; Lobet, Guillaume; Detry, Nathalie; Périlleux, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Molecular data concerning the involvement of roots in the genetic pathways regulating floral transition are lacking. In this study, we performed global analyses of the root transcriptome in Arabidopsis in order to identify flowering time genes that are expressed in the roots and genes that are differentially expressed in the roots during the induction of flowering. Data mining of public microarray experiments uncovered that about 200 genes whose mutations are reported to alter flowering time are expressed in the roots (i.e. were detected in more than 50% of the microarrays). However, only a few flowering integrator genes passed the analysis cutoff. Comparison of root transcriptome in short days and during synchronized induction of flowering by a single 22-h long day revealed that 595 genes were differentially expressed. Enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes in root tissues, gene ontology categories, and cis-regulatory elements converged towards sugar signaling. We concluded that roots are integrated in systemic signaling, whereby carbon supply coordinates growth at the whole plant level during the induction of flowering. This coordination could involve the root circadian clock and cytokinin biosynthesis as a feed forward loop towards the shoot. PMID:27352932

  1. The Arabidopsis thaliana Mob1A gene is required for organ growth and correct tissue patterning of the root tip

    PubMed Central

    Pinosa, Francesco; Begheldo, Maura; Pasternak, Taras; Zermiani, Monica; Paponov, Ivan A.; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ruperti, Benedetto; Palme, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The Mob1 family includes a group of kinase regulators conserved throughout eukaryotes. In multicellular organisms, Mob1 is involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus controlling appropriate cell number and organ size. These functions are also of great importance for plants, which employ co-ordinated growth processes to explore the surrounding environment and respond to changing external conditions. Therefore, this study set out to investigate the role of two Arabidopsis thaliana Mob1-like genes, namely Mob1A and Mob1B, in plant development. Methods A detailed spatio-temporal analysis of Mob1A and Mob1B gene expression was performed by means of bioinformatic tools, the generation of expression reporter lines and in situ hybridization of gene-specific probes. To explore the function of the two genes in plant development, knock-out and knock-down mutants were isolated and their phenotype quantitatively characterized. Key Results Transcripts of the two genes were detected in specific sets of cells in all plant organs. Mob1A was upregulated by several stress conditions as well as by abscisic acid and salicylic acid. A knock-out mutation in Mob1B did not cause any visible defect in plant development, whereas suppression of Mob1A expression affected organ growth and reproduction. In the primary root, reduced levels of Mob1A expression brought about severe defects in tissue patterning of the stem cell niche and columella and led to a decrease in meristem size. Moreover, loss of Mob1A function resulted in a higher sensitivity of root growth to abscisic acid. Conclusions Taken together, the results indicate that arabidopsis Mob1A is involved in the co-ordination of tissue patterning and organ growth, similarly to its orthologues in other multicellular eukaryotes. In addition, Mob1A serves a plant-specific function by contributing to growth adjustments in response to stress conditions. PMID:24201137

  2. Changes in Gene Expression of Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Cultures Upon Exposure to Real and Simulated Partial- g Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengler, Svenja; Spirer, Ina; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hauslage, Jens; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2016-06-01

    Cell cultures of the plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to partial- g forces during parabolic flight and clinostat experiments (0.16 g, 0.38 g and 0.5 g were tested). In order to investigate gravity-dependent alterations in gene expression, samples were metabolically quenched by the fixative RNA later Ⓡ to stabilize nucleic acids and used for whole-genome microarray analysis. An attempt to identify the potential threshold acceleration for the gravity-dependent response showed that the smaller the experienced g-force, the greater was the susceptibility of the cell cultures. Compared to short-term μ g during a parabolic flight, the number of differentially expressed genes under partial- g was lower. In addition, the effect on the alteration of amounts of transcripts decreased during partial- g parabolic flight due to the sequence of the different parabolas (0.38 g, 0.16 g and μ g). A time-dependent analysis under simulated 0.5 g indicates that adaptation occurs within minutes. Differentially expressed genes (at least 2-fold up- or down-regulated in expression) under real flight conditions were to some extent identical with those affected by clinorotation. The highest number of homologuous genes was detected within seconds of exposure to 0.38 g (both flight and clinorotation). To a considerable part, these genes deal with cell wall properties. Additionally, responses specific for clinorotation were observed.

  3. Overexpression of lycopene ε-cyclase gene from lycium chinense confers tolerance to chilling stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Li, Zhaodi; Wu, Jiang; Josine, Tchouopou Lontchi; Wang, Yurong

    2016-01-15

    Lutein plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage and eliminating ROS to render normal physiological function of cells. As a rate-limiting step for lutein synthesis in plants, lycopene ε-cyclase catalyzes lycopene to δ-carotene. We cloned a lycopene ε-cyclase gene (Lcε-LYC) from Lycium chinense (L. chinense), a deciduous woody perennial halophyte growing in various environmental conditions. The Lcε-LYC gene has an ORF of 1569bp encoding a protein of 522 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence of Lcε-LYC gene has higher homology with LycEs in other plants, such as Nicotiana tabacum and Solanum tuberosum. When L. chinense was exposed to chilling stress, relative expression of Lcε-LYC increased. To study the protective role of Lcε-LYC against chilling stress, we overexpressed the Lcε-LYC gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lcε-LYC overexpression led to an increase of lutein accumulation in transgenic A. thaliana, and the content of lutein decreased when transgenics were under cold conditions. In addition, the transgenic plants under chilling stress displayed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and less H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) than the control. Moreover, the photosynthesis rate, photosystem II activity (Fv/fm), and Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also increased in the transgenetic plants. On the whole, overexpression of Lcε-LYC ameliorates photoinhibition and photooxidation, and decreases the sensitivity of photosynthesis to chilling stress in transgenic plants.

  4. The effects of a stimulating intron on the expression of heterologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Emami, Shahram; Arumainayagam, Dinah; Korf, Ian; Rose, Alan B

    2013-06-01

    Introns are often added to transgenes to increase expression, although the mechanism through which introns stimulate gene expression in plants and other eukaryotes remains mysterious. While introns vary in their effect on expression, it is unknown whether different genes respond similarly to the same stimulatory intron. Furthermore, the degree to which gene regulation is preserved when expression is increased by an intron has not been thoroughly investigated. To test the effects of the same intron on the expression of a range of genes, GUS translational fusions were constructed using the promoters of eight Arabidopsis genes whose expression was reported to be constitutive (GAE1, CNGC2 and ROP10), tissue specific (ADL1A, YAB3 and AtAMT2) or regulated by light (ULI3 and MSBP1). For each gene, a fusion containing the first intron from the UBQ10 gene was compared to fusions containing the gene's endogenous first intron (if the gene has one) or no intron. In every case, the UBQ10 intron increased expression relative to the intronless control, although the magnitude of the change and the level of expression varied. The UBQ10 intron also changed the expression patterns of the CNGC2 and YAB3 fusions to include strong activity in roots, indicating that tissue specificity was disrupted by this intron. In contrast, the regulation of the ULI3 and MSBP1 genes by light was preserved when their expression was stimulated by the intron. These findings have important implications for biotechnology applications in which a high level of transgene expression in only certain tissues is desired.

  5. Genes involved in biosynthesis and signalisation of ethylene in Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana: identification and genome comparative mapping of specific gene homologues.

    PubMed

    Babula, D; Misztal, L H; Jakubowicz, M; Kaczmarek, M; Nowak, W; Sadowski, J

    2006-02-01

    The study reported was aimed at the identification and determination of the chromosomal organisation of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways in Brassica oleracea, on the basis of the Arabidopsis thaliana DNA probes and in silico genome analysis. Because of its polyploidal origin, the B. oleracea genome is characterised by extensive gene redundancy. Therefore, an important aspect of gene expression in B. oleracea response to environmental stimuli is to identify the specific gene copy involved. This aspect should also be taken into consideration while studying the genetic basis of biosynthesis and signal transduction in relation to basic phytohormones. Our present work concerns the identification of homologue genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis such as SAM, ACS and ACO, as well as those involved in the ethylene signalling pathway, mainly ETR1, CTR1, MKK4, MKK5, EIN2, EIN3, EREBP, ERF5 and ERF7 on the basis of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR mapping. In the case of ACC synthases, (ACSs) the in silico analysis of gene variants in the genome of A. thaliana was followed by the identification of homologues to ACS2, ACS6 and ACS7 in the B. oleracea database. In total, 22 loci with sequence homology to the genes under analysis were included in the existing B. oleracea RFLP chromosomal map. Based on the stress responsiveness of most of the A. thaliana genes analysed in this study, we performed initial functional analysis of some gene homologues mapped. With the use of the RT-PCR approach the conservation of differential transcriptional induction of ACS homologues in the B. oleracea and A. thaliana was demonstrated during ozone stress.

  6. Differential pattern of expression and sugar regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Crevillén, Pedro; Ventriglia, Tiziana; Pinto, Francisco; Orea, Alicia; Mérida, Angel; Romero, José M

    2005-03-04

    ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first and limiting step in starch biosynthesis. In plants, the enzyme is composed of two types of subunits (small and large) and is allosterically regulated by 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphate. The pattern of expression and sugar regulation of the six Arabidopsis thaliana ADP-Glc PPase-encoding genes (two small subunits, ApS1 and ApS2; and four large subunits, ApL1-ApL4) has been studied. Based on mRNA expression, ApS1 is the main small subunit or catalytic isoform responsible for ADP-Glc PPase activity in all tissues of the plant. Large subunits play a regulatory role, and the data presented define a clear functional distinction among them. ApL1 is the main large subunit in source tissues, whereas ApL3 and, to a lesser extent, ApL4 are the main isoforms present in sink tissues. Thus, in source tissues, ADP-Glc PPase would be finely regulated by the 3-phosphoglycerate/phosphate ratio, whereas in sink tissues, the enzyme would be dependent on the availability of substrates for starch synthesis. Sugar regulation of ADP-Glc PPase genes is restricted to ApL3 and ApL4 in leaves. Sugar induction of ApL3 and ApL4 transcription in leaves allows the establishment of heterotetramers less sensitive to the allosteric effectors, resembling the situation in sink tissues. The results presented on the expression pattern and sugar regulation allow us to propose a gene evolution model for the Arabidopsis ADP-Glc PPase gene family.

  7. Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sup; Frost, Jennifer M; Park, Kyunghyuk; Ohr, Hyonhwa; Park, Guen Tae; Kim, Seohyun; Eom, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ilha; Brooks, Janie S; Fischer, Robert L; Choi, Yeonhee

    2017-02-21

    The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell. Here, we show that, in the male gametophyte, DME expression is limited to the companion cell of sperm, the vegetative cell, and to a narrow window of time: immediately after separation of the companion cell lineage from the germline. We define transcriptional regulatory elements of DME using reporter genes, showing that a small region, which surprisingly lies within the DME gene, controls its expression in male and female companion cells. DME expression from this minimal promoter is sufficient to rescue seed abortion and the aberrant DNA methylome associated with the null dme-2 mutation. Within this minimal promoter, we found short, conserved enhancer sequences necessary for the transcriptional activities of DME and combined predicted binding motifs with published transcription factor binding coordinates to produce a list of candidate upstream pathway members in the genetic circuitry controlling DNA demethylation in gamete companion cells. These data show how DNA demethylation is regulated to facilitate endosperm gene imprinting and potential transgenerational epigenetic regulation, without subjecting the germline to potentially deleterious transposable element demethylation.

  8. The Arabidopsis thaliana PARTING DANCERS Gene Encoding a Novel Protein Is Required for Normal Meiotic Homologous RecombinationD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wijeratne, Asela J.; Chen, Changbin; Zhang, Wei; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Ma, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies of meiotic recombination in the budding yeast and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana indicate that meiotic crossovers (COs) occur through two genetic pathways: the interference-sensitive pathway and the interference-insensitive pathway. However, few genes have been identified in either pathway. Here, we describe the identification of the PARTING DANCERS (PTD) gene, as a gene with an elevated expression level in meiocytes. Analysis of two independently generated transferred DNA insertional lines in PTD showed that the mutants had reduced fertility. Further cytological analysis of male meiosis in the ptd mutants revealed defects in meiosis, including reduced formation of chiasmata, the cytological appearance of COs. The residual chiasmata in the mutants were distributed randomly, indicating that the ptd mutants are defective for CO formation in the interference-sensitive pathway. In addition, transmission electron microscopic analysis of the mutants detected no obvious abnormality of synaptonemal complexes and apparently normal late recombination nodules at the pachytene stage, suggesting that the mutant's defects in bivalent formation were postsynaptic. Comparison to other genes with limited sequence similarity raises the possibility that PTD may present a previously unknown function conserved in divergent eukaryotic organisms. PMID:16394097

  9. Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Sup; Frost, Jennifer M.; Park, Kyunghyuk; Ohr, Hyonhwa; Park, Guen Tae; Kim, Seohyun; Eom, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ilha; Brooks, Janie S.; Fischer, Robert L.; Choi, Yeonhee

    2017-01-01

    The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell. Here, we show that, in the male gametophyte, DME expression is limited to the companion cell of sperm, the vegetative cell, and to a narrow window of time: immediately after separation of the companion cell lineage from the germline. We define transcriptional regulatory elements of DME using reporter genes, showing that a small region, which surprisingly lies within the DME gene, controls its expression in male and female companion cells. DME expression from this minimal promoter is sufficient to rescue seed abortion and the aberrant DNA methylome associated with the null dme-2 mutation. Within this minimal promoter, we found short, conserved enhancer sequences necessary for the transcriptional activities of DME and combined predicted binding motifs with published transcription factor binding coordinates to produce a list of candidate upstream pathway members in the genetic circuitry controlling DNA demethylation in gamete companion cells. These data show how DNA demethylation is regulated to facilitate endosperm gene imprinting and potential transgenerational epigenetic regulation, without subjecting the germline to potentially deleterious transposable element demethylation. PMID:28130550

  10. Ploidy and Hybridity Effects on Growth Vigor and Gene Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana Hybrids and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Marisa; Zhang, Changqing; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2012-04-01

    Both ploidy and hybridity affect cell size and growth vigor in plants and animals, but the relative effects of genome dosage and hybridization on biomass, fitness, and gene expression changes have not been systematically examined. Here we performed the first comparative analysis of seed, cell, and flower sizes, starch and chlorophyll content, biomass, and gene expression changes in diploid, triploid, and tetraploid hybrids and their respective parents in three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes: Columbia, C24, and Landsberg erecta (Ler). Ploidy affects many morphological and fitness traits, including stomatal size, flower size, and seed weight, whereas hybridization between the ecotypes leads to altered expression of central circadian clock genes and increased starch and chlorophyll content, biomass, and seed weight. However, varying ploidy levels has subtle effects on biomass, circadian clock gene expression, and chlorophyll and starch content. Interestingly, biomass, starch content, and seed weight are significantly different between the reciprocal hybrids at all ploidy levels tested, with the lowest and highest levels found in the reciprocal triploid hybrids, suggesting parent-of-origin effects on biomass, starch content, and seed weight. These findings provide new insights into molecular events of polyploidy and heterosis, as well as complex agronomic traits that are important to biomass and seed production in hybrid and polyploid crops.

  11. Exportin1 genes are essential for development and function of the gametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Blanvillain, Robert; Boavida, Leonor C; McCormick, Sheila; Ow, David W

    2008-11-01

    Gametes are produced in plants through mitotic divisions in the haploid gametophytes. We investigated the role of EXPORTIN1 (XPO1) genes during the development of both female and male gametophytes of Arabidopsis. Exportins exclude target proteins from the nucleus and are also part of a complex recruited at the kinetochores during mitosis. Here we show that double mutants in Arabidopsis XPO1A and XPO1B are gametophytic defective. In homozygous-heterozygous plants, 50% of the ovules were arrested at different stages according to the parental genotype. Double-mutant female gametophytes of xpo1a-3/+; xpo1b-1/xpo1b-1 plants failed to undergo all the mitotic divisions or failed to complete embryo sac maturation. Double-mutant female gametophytes of xpo1a-3/xpo1a-3; xpo1b-1/+ plants had normal mitotic divisions and fertilization occurred; in most of these embryo sacs the endosperm started to divide but an embryo failed to develop. Distortions in male transmission correlated with the occurrence of smaller pollen grains, poor pollen germination, and shorter pollen tubes. Our results show that mitotic divisions are possible without XPO1 during the haploid phase, but that XPO1 is crucial for the maternal-to-embryonic transition.

  12. AtTHIC, a gene involved in thiamine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyu; Zhu, Yuxing; Wu, Huilan; Cheng, Xudong; Liang, Hui; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2008-05-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B(1)) is an essential compound for organisms. It contains a pyrimidine ring structure and a thiazole ring structure. These two moieties of thiamine are synthesized independently and then coupled together. Here we report the molecular characterization of AtTHIC, which is involved in thiamine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTHIC is similar to Escherichia coli ThiC, which is involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis in prokaryotes. Heterologous expression of AtTHIC could functionally complement the thiC knock-out mutant of E. coli. Downregulation of AtTHIC expression by T-DNA insertion at its promoter region resulted in a drastic reduction of thiamine content in plants and the knock-down mutant thic1 showed albino (white leaves) and lethal phenotypes under the normal culture conditions. The thic1 mutant could be rescued by supplementation of thiamine and its defect functions could be complemented by expression of AtTHIC cDNA. Transient expression analysis revealed that the AtTHIC protein targets plastids and chloroplasts. AtTHIC was strongly expressed in leaves, flowers and siliques and the transcription of AtTHIC was downregulated by extrinsic thiamine. In conclusion, AtTHIC is a gene involved in pyrimidine synthesis in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway of Arabidopsis, and our results provide some new clues for elucidating the pathway of thiamine biosynthesis in plants.

  13. The precise regulation of different COR genes by individual CBF transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yihao; Huang, Jiaying; Sun, Tianshu; Wang, Xuefei; Zhu, Chenqi; Ai, Yuxi; Gu, Hongya

    2017-02-01

    The transcription factors CBF1/2/3 are reported to play a dominant role in the cold responsive network of Arabidopsis by directly regulating the expression levels of cold responsive (COR) genes. In this study, we obtained CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function mutants of cbf1∼3. Over 3,000 COR genes identified by RNA-seq analysis showed a slight but significant change in their expression levels in the mutants compared to the wild-type plants after being treated at 4 °C for 12 h. The C-repeat (CRT) motif (5'-CCGAC-3') was enriched in promoters of genes that were up-regulated by CBF2 and CBF3 but not in promoters of genes up-regulated by CBF1. These data suggest that CBF2 and CBF3 play a more important role in directing the cold response by regulating different sets of downstream COR genes. More than 2/3 of COR genes were co-regulated by two or three CBFs and were involved mainly in cellular signal transduction and metabolic processes; less than 1/3 of the genes were regulated by one CBF, and those genes up-regulated were enriched in cold-related abiotic stress responses. Our results indicate that CBFs play an important role in the trade-off between cold tolerance and plant growth through the precise regulation of COR genes in the complicated transcriptional network. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Nuclear targeted AtS40 modulates senescence associated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana during natural development and in darkness.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Kilbienski, Isabell; Miao, Ying; Roitsch, Thomas; Zschiesche, Wiebke; Humbeck, Klaus; Krupinska, Karin

    2010-07-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana AtS40-3 gene belongs to a group of genes sharing the conserved DUF548 sequence motif with up to now unknown function. One member of this group, the barley HvS40, was shown before to play a role in regulation of leaf senescence. Similar as the barley gene, AtS40-3 is induced during senescence and is also regulated in response to dark treatment, ABA, salicylic acid and pathogen attack. By localization of the GUS fusion protein, the AtS40-3 gene was shown to encode a nucleus targeted protein. The s40-3a mutant with a T-DNA insertion in the promoter region of the gene was observed to have a staygreen phenotype. By quantitative real-time PCR analyses expression of the AtS40-3 gene in this mutant was observed to be constitutive and not induced during senescence. This coincided with WRKY53 gene expression in nonsenescent leaves and lowered expression levels of WRKY53 and SAG12 at later stages of development. While in the wildtype expression of AtS40-3 was activated by darkness, in the s40-3a mutant the expression of AtS40-3 stayed at a low level. This coincided with lower expression of the SEN1 and SAG12 genes. In another promoter mutant with a T-DNA insertion further upstream of the coding sequence the levels of AtS40-3 and SAG12 transcripts increased in parallel both in a natural light-dark regime and in darkness. The data on gene expression in promoter T-DNA insertion mutants of the s40-3 gene indicate that AtS40 regulates senescence either by modulation of WRKY53 or by activation of SAG12 independent of WRKY53.

  15. Efficient In Planta Detection and Dissection of De Novo Mutation Events in the Arabidopsis thaliana Disease Resistance Gene UNI.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tomohiko; Mori, Akiko; Igari, Kadunari; Morita, Miyo Terao; Tasaka, Masao; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2016-06-01

    Plants possess disease resistance (R) proteins encoded by R genes, and each R protein recognizes a specific pathogen factor(s) for immunity. Interestingly, a remarkably high degree of polymorphisms in R genes, which are traces of past mutation events during evolution, suggest the rapid diversification of R genes. However, little is known about molecular aspects that facilitate the rapid change of R genes because of the lack of tools that enable us to monitor de novo R gene mutations efficiently in an experimentally feasible time scale, especially in living plants. Here we introduce a model assay system that enables efficient in planta detection of de novo mutation events in the Arabidopsis thaliana R gene UNI in one generation. The uni-1D mutant harbors a gain-of-function allele of the UNI gene. uni-1D heterozygous individuals originally exhibit dwarfism with abnormally short stems. However, interestingly, morphologically normal stems sometimes emerge spontaneously from the uni-1D plants, and the morphologically reverted tissues carry additional de novo mutations in the UNI gene. Strikingly, under an extreme condition, almost half of the examined population shows the reversion phenomenon. By taking advantage of this phenomenon, we demonstrate that the reversion frequency is remarkably sensitive to a variety of fluctuations in DNA stability, underlying a mutable tendency of the UNI gene. We also reveal that activities of the salicylic acid pathway and DNA damage sensor pathway are involved in the reversion phenomenon. Thus, we provide an experimentally feasible model tool to explore factors and conditions that significantly affect the R gene mutation phenomenon. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-04-10

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  17. An Efficient Antipodal Cell Isolation Method for Screening of Cell Type-Specific Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng-xiang

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, the mature embryo sac consists of seven cells, namely two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, one central cell, and three antipodal cells at the chalazal end. Excluding the antipodal cell, as a model for the study of cell fate determination and cell type specification, the roles of these embryo sac component cells in fertilization and seed formation have been widely investigated. At this time, little is known regarding the function of antipodal cells and their cell type-specific gene expression patterns. One reason for this is difficulties related to the observation and isolation of cells for detailed functional analyses. Here, we report a method for antipodal cell isolation and transcriptome analysis. We identified antipodal cell-specific marker line K44-1, and based on this marker line, established a procedure allowing us to isolate antipodal cells with both high quality and quantity. PCR validation of antipodal-specific genes from antipodal cell cDNA showed that the isolated cells are qualified and can be used for transcriptome analysis and screening of cell type-specific marker genes. The isolated cells could keep viable for a week in culture condition. This method can be used to efficiently isolate antipodal cells of high quality and will promote the functional investigation of antipodal cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. This increases our understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism of antipodal cell specification. PMID:27875553

  18. Accumulation of coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kai, Kosuke; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Watanabe, Ken; Sakata, Kanzo

    2006-02-01

    The biosynthesis of coumarins in plants is not well understood, although these metabolic pathways are often found in the plant kingdom. We report here the occurrence of coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia. Considerably high levels of scopoletin and its beta-d-glucopyranoside, scopolin, were found in the wild-type roots. The scopolin level in the roots was approximately 1200nmol/gFW, which was approximately 180-fold of that in the aerial parts. Calli accumulated scopolin at a level of 70nmol/gFW. Scopoletin and scopolin formation were induced in shoots after treatment with either 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (at 100microM) or a bud-cell suspension of Fusarium oxysporum. In order to gain insight into the biosynthetic pathway of coumarins in A. thaliana, we analyzed coumarins in the mutants obtained from the SALK Institute collection that carried a T-DNA insertion within the gene encoding the cytochrome P450, CYP98A3, which catalyzes 3'-hydroxylation of p-coumarate units in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The content of scopoletin and scopolin in the mutant roots greatly decreased to approximately 3% of that in the wild-type roots. This observation suggests that scopoletin and scopolin biosynthesis in A. thaliana are strongly dependent on the 3'-hydroxylation of p-coumarate units catalyzed by CYP98A3. We also found that the level of skimmin, a beta-d-glucopyranoside of umbelliferone, was slightly increased in the mutant roots.

  19. Transcriptome analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in space: implications for gravity-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Correll, Melanie J; Pyle, Tyler P; Millar, Katherine D L; Sun, Yijun; Yao, Jin; Edelmann, Richard E; Kiss, John Z

    2013-09-01

    The transcriptome of seedlings was analyzed from experiments performed on the International Space Station to study the interacting effects of light and gravity on plant tropisms (project named TROPI-2; Kiss et al. 2012). Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated in space, and seedlings were then grown in the European Modular Cultivation System for 4 days at ~1g followed by exposure to a range of gravitational accelerations (from microgravity to 1g) and two light treatments (blue light with or without a 1 h pretreatment with red). At the end of the experiments, the cassettes containing the seedlings were frozen in the minus eighty laboratory freezer and returned to Earth on space shuttle mission STS-131. The RNA was extracted from whole seedlings and used for the transcriptome analyses. A comparison of 1g spaceflight samples with 1g ground controls identified 230 genes that were differentially regulated at least twofold, emphasizing the need for "in situ" tissue fixation on a 1g centrifuge as an important control for spaceflight experiments. A further comparison of all spaceflight samples with ground controls identified approximately 280 genes that were differentially regulated at least twofold. Of these genes, several were involved in regulating cell polarity (i.e., auxin, calcium, lipid metabolism), cell-wall development, oxygen status, and cell defense or stress. However, when the transcriptome of the all g-treated spaceflight samples was compared with microgravity samples, only ~130 genes were identified as being differently regulated (P ≤ 0.01). Of this subset, only 27 genes were at least twofold differently regulated between microgravity and 1g space samples and included putative/pseudo/undefined genes (14), transposable elements (5), an expansin (ATEXP24; At1g21240), a cell-wall kinase (WAK3; At1g21240), a laccase-like flavonoid oxidase (TT10; At5g48100), among others.

  20. Bimodal expression level polymorphisms in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Atsushi J.; Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Okuyama, Yudai; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2012-01-01

    Differences in gene expression are termed expression level polymorphisms (ELPs). Here, we propose a new ELP class, bimodal ELPs (bELPs), as a criterion to screen for genes that are responsible for natural phenotypic variation and/or that are targeted by balancing selection. bELP genes are characterized by two expression level modes. Genomic scans based on nucleotide sequences are not ideal for identifying genes targeted for selection. A critical concern is that several genes can be present in the selection-targeted regions identified by such scans. This situation indicates the importance of integrating genomic sequence data and other information, such as gene expression data. Comparative transcriptomics is useful for determining evolutionarily and ecologically important polymorphisms. In a genome-wide expression screen of 34 accessions, we identified 344 Arabidopsis thaliana genes exhibiting bELPs. Population genetic analysis revealed that bELP genes had high nucleotide diversities and long linkage disequilibriums. The highest nucleotide diversity (11-fold greater than the genomic mean) was found in the At1g23780 gene, which encodes a putative F-box protein. We observed a clear association between the expression mode and sequence type of the At1g23780 gene. Our results suggest that bELPs will be useful for the screening and functional analysis of genes responsible for phenotypic polymorphisms. Such a “multi-omics” approach has the potential to facilitate the scanning of genes relevant to balanced polymorphisms not only in A. thaliana, but also in other model and non-model organisms. PMID:22751308

  1. Overexpression of ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 Genes Provides Insight into Their Role in Glycine Betaine Synthesis and Affects Primary Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Missihoun, Tagnon D; Willée, Eva; Guegan, Jean-Paul; Berardocco, Solenne; Shafiq, Muhammad R; Bouchereau, Alain; Bartels, Dorothea

    2015-09-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases oxidize betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine in species that accumulate glycine betaine as a compatible solute under stress conditions. In contrast, the physiological function of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is at present unclear in species that do not accumulate glycine betaine, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To address this question, we overexpressed the Arabidopsis ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 genes, which were identified to code for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases, in wild-type A. thaliana. We analysed changes in metabolite contents of transgenic plants in comparison with the wild type. Using exogenous or endogenous choline, our results indicated that ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 are involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine in Arabidopsis. Choline availability seems to be a factor limiting glycine betaine synthesis. Moreover, the contents of diverse metabolites including sugars (glucose and fructose) and amino acids were altered in fully developed transgenic plants compared with the wild type. The plant metabolic response to salt and the salt stress tolerance were impaired only in young transgenic plants, which exhibited a delayed growth of the seedlings early after germination. Our results suggest that a balanced expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is important for early growth of A. thaliana seedlings and for salt stress mitigation in young seedlings.

  2. Expression of the Streptococcus pneumoniae yoeB chromosomal toxin gene causes cell death in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Fauziah Abu; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-04-12

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems usually comprise of a pair of genes encoding a stable toxin and its cognate labile antitoxin and are located in the chromosome or in plasmids of several bacterial species. Chromosomally-encoded toxin-antitoxin systems are involved in bacterial stress responses and activation of the toxins usually leads to cell death or dormancy. Overexpression of the chromosomally-encoded YoeB toxin from the yefM-yoeB toxin-antitoxin locus of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae has been shown to cause cell death in S. pneumoniae as well as E. coli. Induction of a YoeB-GFP fusion protein using a 17-β-estradiol-inducible plant expression system in Arabidopsis thaliana Col 0, was lethal in all T2 progeny. Examination of plants by fluorescent confocal microscopy showed GFP fluorescence in all parts of the leaves at 24 hours after 17-β-estradiol induction, continuing up to plant death. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of the yoeB toxin gene peaked at 3 days after induction with 17-β-estradiol, coinciding with the onset of visible effects on the plants. Moreover, we detected DNA laddering in the transgenic plants at 24 hours after yoeB induction, indicative of apoptosis. Expression of the YoeB toxin from Streptococcus pneumoniae is lethal in Arabidopsis. We believe this is the first report of a toxin from a bacterial toxin-antitoxin system functioning in plants. The results presented here mark an important milestone towards the development of a cell ablation based bio-containment strategy, which may be useful for functional studies and for the control of spread of transgenic plants.

  3. Crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana cytokinin dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Bitto, Eduard; Aceti, David J.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2008-08-13

    Since first discovered in Zea mays, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) genes have been identified in many plants including rice and Arabidopsis thaliana, which possesses CKX homologues (AtCKX1-AtCKX7). So far, the three-dimensional structure of only Z. mays CKX (ZmCKX1) has been determined. The crystal structures of ZmCKX1 have been solved in the native state and in complex with reaction products and a slowly reacting substrate. The structures revealed four glycosylated asparagine residues and a histidine residue covalently linked to FAD. Combined with the structural information, recent biochemical analyses of ZmCKX1 concluded that the final products of the reaction, adenine and a side chain aldehyde, are formed by nonenzymatic hydrolytic cleavage of cytokinin imine products resulting directly from CKX catalysis. Here, we report the crystal structure of AtCKX7 (gene locus At5g21482.1, UniProt code Q9FUJ1).

  4. Expression analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtSpen2 gene, and its relationship with other plant genes encoding Spen proteins.

    PubMed

    Solís-Guzmán, María Gloria; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo; López-Bucio, José; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Meza, Joel; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Carreón-Abud, Yazmín; Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Proteins of the Split ends (Spen) family are characterized by an N-terminal domain, with one or more RNA recognition motifs and a SPOC domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Spen protein FPA is involved in the control of flowering time as a component of an autonomous pathway independent of photoperiod. The A. thaliana genome encodes another gene for a putative Spen protein at the locus At4g12640, herein named AtSpen2. Bioinformatics analysis of the AtSPEN2 SPOC domain revealed low sequence similarity with the FPA SPOC domain, which was markedly lower than that found in other Spen proteins from unrelated plant species. To provide experimental information about the function of AtSpen2, A. thaliana plants were transformed with gene constructs of its promoter region with uidA::gfp reporter genes; the expression was observed in vascular tissues of leaves and roots, as well as in ovules and developing embryos. There was absence of a notable phenotype in knockout and overexpressing lines, suggesting that its function in plants might be specific to certain endogenous or environmental conditions. Our results suggest that the function of Atspen2 diverged from that of fpa due in part to their different transcription expression pattern and divergence of the regulatory SPOC domain.

  5. Heterologous expression of a Nelumbo nucifera phytochelatin synthase gene enhances cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaolei; Gu, Chunsun; Chen, Fadi; Yang, Dongyin; Wu, Kunwei; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-02-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins, which are thought to play important roles in heavy metal detoxification. The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), one of the most popular ornamental species, has been shown to be a potential phytoremediator of heavy metal polluted water. However, the phytochelatin synthase gene in N. nucifera has not been identified yet. Here, we report the isolation and function characterization of a N. nucifera homologue of phytochelatin synthase. The sequence obtained shares a high degree of similarity with PCSs from other plant species and was named as Nelumbo nucifera phytochelatin synthase1 (NnPCS1). By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the expression of NnPCS1 in leaves of N. nucifera was dramatically increased in response to Cadmium (Cd) treatment. We further showed that, when exposed to Cd stress, Arabidopsis transgenic plants heterologous expressing NnPCS1 accumulated more Cd when compared with wild type. These results suggest that NnPCS1 involved in the response of N. nucifera to Cd stress and may represent a useful target gene for the phytoremediation of Cd-polluted water.

  6. Liver and colon DNA oxidative damage and gene expression profiles of rats fed Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds containing contrasted flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Luceri, Cristina; Giovannelli, Lisa; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Toti, Simona; Castagnini, Cinzia; Routaboul, Jean-Marc; Lepiniec, Loic; Larrosa, Mar; Dolara, Piero

    2008-04-01

    Plant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, comprise many compounds, ranging from simple phenolic molecules (i.e. flavonols, anthocyanins) to polymeric structures with high molecular weight (as proanthocyanidins, PAs). We investigated the effects of flavonoids by feeding Wistar rats Arabidopsis thaliana seeds carrying mutations in key enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway (15% w/w seeds for 4 weeks). The seeds used were: Ws-2 wild-type containing flavonols and PAs, tt3-4 mutant containing flavonols only, ban-5 accumulating flavonols and anthocyanins, tt4-8 mutant, deprived of flavonoids. DNA oxidative damage was significantly reduced only in the liver of rats fed tt3-4 mutant seeds. Microarray analysis of the liver revealed down-regulation of genes associated with oxidative stress, Krebs cycle, electron transport and proteasome degradation in all experimental groups compared to the tt4-8-fed reference rats; therefore, these effects were due to the flavonol content and not to high molecular weight compounds. We observed a down-regulation of inflammatory response genes in the colon mucosa in ban-5- fed rats, probably due to anthocyanin content. In conclusion, flavonols exhibited antioxidant effects at systemic level, whereas high molecular weight flavonoids affected only the colon, probably due to their limited absorption.

  7. The Arabidopsis thaliana MHX gene includes an intronic element that boosts translation when localized in a 5' UTR intron.

    PubMed

    Akua, Tsofit; Shaul, Orit

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the ability of some introns to increase gene expression, a phenomenon called intron-mediated enhancement (IME), are not fully understood. It is also not known why introns localized in the 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) are considerably longer than downstream eukaryotic introns. It was hypothesized that this extra length results from the presence of some functional intronic elements. However, deletion analyses studies carried out thus far were unable to identify specific intronic regions necessary for IME. Using deletion analysis and a gain-of-function approach, an internal element that considerably increases translational efficiency, without affecting splicing, was identified in the 5' UTR intron of the Arabidopsis thaliana MHX gene. Moreover, the ability of this element to enhance translation was diminished by a minor downstream shift in the position of introns containing it from the 5' UTR into the coding sequence. These data suggest that some of the extra length of 5' UTR introns results from the presence of elements that enhance translation, and, moreover, from the ability of 5' UTR introns to provide preferable platforms for such elements over downstream introns. The impact of the identified intronic element on translational efficiency was augmented upon removal of neighbouring intronic elements. Interference between different intronic elements had not been reported thus far. This interference may support the bioinformatics-based idea that some of the extra sequence of 5' UTR introns is also necessary for separating different functional intronic elements.

  8. Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway affect root waving on tilted agar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Gallois, P.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana roots grow in a wavy pattern upon a slanted surface. A novel mutation in the anthranilate synthase alpha 1 (ASA1) gene, named trp5-2wvc1, and mutations in the tryptophan synthase alpha and beta 1 genes (trp3-1 and trp2-1, respectively) confer a compressed root wave phenotype on tilted agar surfaces. When trp5-2wvc1 seedlings are grown on media supplemented with anthranilate metabolites, their roots wave like wild type. Genetic and pharmacological experiments argue that the compressed root wave phenotypes of trp5-2wvc1, trp2-1 and trp3-1 seedlings are not due to reduced IAA biosynthetic potential, but rather to a deficiency in L-tryptophan (L-Trp), or in a L-Trp derivative. Although the roots of 7-day-old seedlings possess higher concentrations of free L-Trp than the shoot as a whole, trp5-2wvc1 mutants show no detectable alteration in L-Trp levels in either tissue type, suggesting that a very localized shortage of L-Trp, or of a L-Trp-derived compound, is responsible for the observed phenotype.

  9. Low glutathione regulates gene expression and the redox potentials of the nucleus and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Schnaubelt, Daniel; Queval, Guillaume; Dong, Yingping; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Makgopa, Matome Eugene; Howell, Gareth; De Simone, Ambra; Bai, Juan; Hannah, Matthew A; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-02-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is considered to exert a strong influence on cellular redox homeostasis and to regulate gene expression, but these processes remain poorly characterized. Severe GSH depletion specifically inhibited root meristem development, while low root GSH levels decreased lateral root densities. The redox potential of the nucleus and cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana roots determined using roGFP probes was between -300 and -320 mV. Growth in the presence of the GSH-synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) increased the nuclear and cytosolic redox potentials to approximately -260 mV. GSH-responsive genes including transcription factors (SPATULA, MYB15, MYB75), proteins involved in cell division, redox regulation (glutaredoxinS17, thioredoxins, ACHT5 and TH8) and auxin signalling (HECATE), were identified in the GSH-deficient root meristemless 1-1 (rml1-1) mutant, and in other GSH-synthesis mutants (rax1-1, cad2-1, pad2-1) as well as in the wild type following the addition of BSO. Inhibition of auxin transport had no effect on organ GSH levels, but exogenous auxin decreased the root GSH pool. We conclude that GSH depletion significantly increases the redox potentials of the nucleus and cytosol, and causes arrest of the cell cycle in roots but not shoots, with accompanying transcript changes linked to altered hormone responses, but not oxidative stress.

  10. Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway affect root waving on tilted agar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Gallois, P.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana roots grow in a wavy pattern upon a slanted surface. A novel mutation in the anthranilate synthase alpha 1 (ASA1) gene, named trp5-2wvc1, and mutations in the tryptophan synthase alpha and beta 1 genes (trp3-1 and trp2-1, respectively) confer a compressed root wave phenotype on tilted agar surfaces. When trp5-2wvc1 seedlings are grown on media supplemented with anthranilate metabolites, their roots wave like wild type. Genetic and pharmacological experiments argue that the compressed root wave phenotypes of trp5-2wvc1, trp2-1 and trp3-1 seedlings are not due to reduced IAA biosynthetic potential, but rather to a deficiency in L-tryptophan (L-Trp), or in a L-Trp derivative. Although the roots of 7-day-old seedlings possess higher concentrations of free L-Trp than the shoot as a whole, trp5-2wvc1 mutants show no detectable alteration in L-Trp levels in either tissue type, suggesting that a very localized shortage of L-Trp, or of a L-Trp-derived compound, is responsible for the observed phenotype.

  11. Molecular character of a phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene relation to stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihong; Li, Xiushan; He, Zhimin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Wang, Qiming; Zhou, Bo; Yu, Dashi; Huang, Xinqun; Tang, Dongying; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Xuanming

    2013-03-01

    Protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) from group A, which includes the ABI1/HAB1 and PP2CA branches, are key negative regulators of ABA signaling. HAI-1 gene had been shown to affect both seed and vegetative responses to ABA, which is one of PP2Cs clade A in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic plants containing pHAI-1::GUS (β-glucuronidase) displayed GUS activity existing in the vascular system of leave veins, stems and petioles. Green fluorescent protein fused HAI-1 (HAI-1-GFP) was found in the nucleus through transient transformation assays with onion epidermal cells. The water-loss assays indicated the loss-of-function mutants did not show symptoms of wilting and they had still turgid green rosette leaves. The assays of seed germination by exogenous ABA and NaCl manifested that the loss-of-function mutants displayed higher insensitivity than wild-type plants. Taken together, the final results suggest that the HAI-1 (AT5G59220) encoded a nuclear protein and it can be highly induced by ABA and wound in Arabidposis, the stress-tolerance phenotype showed a slightly improvement when HAI-1 gene was disrupted.

  12. Multiple genes, tissue specificity, and expression-dependent modulationcontribute to the functional diversity of potassium channels in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Ward, J M; Kelly, W B; Ichida, A M; Gaber, R F; Anderson, J A; Uozumi, N; Schroeder, J I; Crawford, N M

    1995-01-01

    K+ channels play diverse roles in mediating K+ transport and in modulating the membrane potential in higher plant cells during growth and development. Some of the diversity in K+ channel functions may arise from the regulated expression of multiple genes encoding different K+ channel polypeptides. Here we report the isolation of a novel Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA (AKT2) that is highly homologous to the two previously identified K+ channel genes, KAT1 and AKT1. This cDNA mapped to the center of chromosome 4 by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and was highly expressed in leaves, whereas AKT1 was mainly expressed in roots. In addition, we show that diversity in K+ channel function may be attributable to differences in expression levels. Increasing KAT1 expression in Xenopus oocytes by polyadenylation of the KAT1 mRNA increased the current amplitude and led to higher levels of KAT1 protein, as assayed in western blots. The increase in KAT1 expression in oocytes produced shifts in the threshold potential for activation to more positive membrane potentials and decreased half-activation times. These results suggest that different levels of expression and tissue-specific expression of different K+ channel isoforms can contribute to the functional diversity of plant K+ channels. The identification of a highly expressed, leaf-specific K+ channel homolog in plants should allow further molecular characterization of K+ channel functions for physiological K+ transport processes in leaves. PMID:8552711

  13. The AtNFS2 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a NifS-like plastidial cysteine desulphurase.

    PubMed

    Léon, Sébastien; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Lobréaux, Stéphane

    2002-09-01

    NifS-like proteins are cysteine desulphurases required for the mobilization of sulphur from cysteine. They are present in all organisms, where they are involved in iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster biosynthesis. In eukaryotes, these enzymes are present in mitochondria, which are the major site for Fe-S cluster assembly. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains two putative NifS-like proteins. A cDNA corresponding to one of them was cloned by reverse-transcription PCR, and named AtNFS2. The corresponding transcript is expressed in many plant tissues. It encodes a protein highly related (75% similarity) to the slr0077-gene product from Synechocystis PCC 6803, and is predicted to be targeted to plastids. Indeed, a chimaeric AtNFS2-GFP fusion protein, containing one-third of AtNFS2 from its N-terminal end, was addressed to chloroplasts. Overproduction in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtNFS2 protein enabled one to demonstrate that it bears a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent cysteine desulphurase activity in vitro, thus being the first NifS homologue characterized to date in plants. The putative physiological functions of this gene are discussed, including the attractive hypothesis of a possible role in Fe-S cluster assembly in plastids.

  14. The AtNFS2 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a NifS-like plastidial cysteine desulphurase.

    PubMed Central

    Léon, Sébastien; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Lobréaux, Stéphane

    2002-01-01

    NifS-like proteins are cysteine desulphurases required for the mobilization of sulphur from cysteine. They are present in all organisms, where they are involved in iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster biosynthesis. In eukaryotes, these enzymes are present in mitochondria, which are the major site for Fe-S cluster assembly. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains two putative NifS-like proteins. A cDNA corresponding to one of them was cloned by reverse-transcription PCR, and named AtNFS2. The corresponding transcript is expressed in many plant tissues. It encodes a protein highly related (75% similarity) to the slr0077-gene product from Synechocystis PCC 6803, and is predicted to be targeted to plastids. Indeed, a chimaeric AtNFS2-GFP fusion protein, containing one-third of AtNFS2 from its N-terminal end, was addressed to chloroplasts. Overproduction in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtNFS2 protein enabled one to demonstrate that it bears a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent cysteine desulphurase activity in vitro, thus being the first NifS homologue characterized to date in plants. The putative physiological functions of this gene are discussed, including the attractive hypothesis of a possible role in Fe-S cluster assembly in plastids. PMID:12033984

  15. Defective in cuticular ridges (DCR) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene associated with surface cutin formation, encodes a soluble diacylglycerol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Rani, Sapa Hima; Krishna, T H Anantha; Saha, Saikat; Negi, Arvind Singh; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2010-12-03

    A key step in the triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthetic pathway is the final acylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG acyltransferase. In silico analysis has revealed that the DCR (defective in cuticular ridges) (At5g23940) gene has a typical HX(4)D acyltransferase motif at the N-terminal end and a lipid binding motif VX(2)GF at the middle of the sequence. To understand the biochemical function, the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant protein was found to acylate DAG specifically in an acyl-CoA-dependent manner. Overexpression of At5g23940 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae quadruple mutant deficient in DAG acyltransferases resulted in TAG accumulation. At5g23940 rescued the growth of this quadruple mutant in the oleate-containing medium, whereas empty vector control did not. Lipid particles were localized in the cytosol of At5g23940-transformed quadruple mutant cells, as observed by oil red O staining. There was an incorporation of 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid into TAG in At5g23940-transformed cells of quadruple mutant. Here we report a soluble acyl-CoA-dependent DAG acyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Taken together, these data suggest that a broad specific DAG acyltransferase may be involved in the cutin as well as in the TAG biosynthesis by supplying hydroxy fatty acid.

  16. Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84(T) induces changes in Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression against aluminum, drought, and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Eul-Su; Koh, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-03-01

    Current agricultural production methods, for example the improper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, create many health and environmental problems. Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) for agricultural benefits is increasing worldwide and also appears to be a trend for the future. There is possibility to develop microbial inoculants for use in agricultural biotechnology, based on these beneficial plant-microbe interactions. For this study, ten bacterial strains were isolated from Yongin forest soil for which in vitro plant-growth promoting trait screenings, such as indole acetic acid (IAA) production, a phosphate solubilization test, and a siderophore production test were used to select two PGPB candidates. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were inoculated with Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84(T) and Micrococcus yunnanensis PGPB7. Salt stress, drought stress and heavy metal (aluminum) stress challenges indicated that P. yonginensis DCY84(T)-inoculated plants were more resistant than control plants. AtRSA1, AtVQ9 and AtWRKY8 were used as the salinity responsive genes. The AtERD15, AtRAB18, and AtLT178 were selected to check A. thaliana responses to drought stress. Aluminum stress response was checked using AtAIP, AtALS3 and AtALMT1. The qRT-PCR results indicated that P. yonginensis DCY84(T) can promote plant tolerance against salt, drought, and aluminum stress. P. yonginensis DCY84(T) also showed positive results during in vitro compatibility testing and virulence assay against X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 (PXO99). Better germination rates and growth parameters were also recorded for the P. yonginensis DCY84(T) Chuchung cultivar rice seed which was grown on coastal soil collected from Suncheon. Based on these results, P. yonginensis DCY84(T) can be used as a promising PGPB isolate for crop improvement.

  17. An S-adenosyl Methionine Synthetase (SAMS) Gene from Andropogon virginicus L. Confers Aluminum Stress Tolerance and Facilitates Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ezaki, Bunichi; Higashi, Aiko; Nanba, Norie; Nishiuchi, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Candidate clones which conferred Al tolerance to yeast transformants (TFs) were obtained from a cDNA library derived from a highly Al-tolerant poaceae, Andropogon virginicus L. One such clone, AL3A-4, encoded an S-adenosyl methionine synthetase (SAMS) gene. A full-length cDNA was obtained by 5′-RACE, designated AvSAMS1, and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate its biological functions under Al stress. Two TF plant lines both showed higher tolerance than the Col-0 ecotype (non-TF) not only for Al stress, but also for Cu, Pb, Zn and diamide stresses, suggesting the AvSAMS1 was a multiple tolerance gene. More than 40 of A. thaliana Al response-genes (Al induced genes and Al repressed genes) were selected from microarray results and then used for investigations of DNA or histone methylation status under Al stress in Col-0 and the AvSAMS1 TF line. The results indicated that Al stress caused alterations of methylation status in both DNA and histone H3 (H3K4me3 and H3K9me3) and that these alterations were different between the AvSAMS1 TF and Col-0, suggesting the differences were AvSAMS1-gene dependent. These results suggested the existence of AvSAMS1-related epigenetic gene-regulation under Al stress. PMID:27877178

  18. Iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana: transcriptomic analyses reveal novel FIT-regulated genes, iron deficiency marker genes and functional gene networks.

    PubMed

    Mai, Hans-Jörg; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Bauer, Petra

    2016-10-03

    FIT (FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR) is the central regulator of iron uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. We performed transcriptome analyses of six day-old seedlings and roots of six week-old plants using wild type, a fit knock-out mutant and a FIT over-expression line grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions. We compared genes regulated in a FIT-dependent manner depending on the developmental stage of the plants. We assembled a high likelihood dataset which we used to perform co-expression and functional analysis of the most stably iron deficiency-induced genes. 448 genes were found FIT-regulated. Out of these, 34 genes were robustly FIT-regulated in root and seedling samples and included 13 novel FIT-dependent genes. Three hundred thirty-one genes showed differential regulation in response to the presence and absence of FIT only in the root samples, while this was the case for 83 genes in the seedling samples. We assembled a virtual dataset of iron-regulated genes based on a total of 14 transcriptomic analyses of iron-deficient and iron-sufficient wild-type plants to pinpoint the best marker genes for iron deficiency and analyzed this dataset in depth. Co-expression analysis of this dataset revealed 13 distinct regulons part of which predominantly contained functionally related genes. We could enlarge the list of FIT-dependent genes and discriminate between genes that are robustly FIT-regulated in roots and seedlings or only in one of those. FIT-regulated genes were mostly induced, few of them were repressed by FIT. With the analysis of a virtual dataset we could filter out and pinpoint new candidates among the most reliable marker genes for iron deficiency. Moreover, co-expression and functional analysis of this virtual dataset revealed iron deficiency-induced and functionally distinct regulons.

  19. pKAMA-ITACHI Vectors for Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Knockout in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Hiroki; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9) system is widely used as a tool for genome engineering in various organisms. A complex consisting of Cas9 and single guide RNA (sgRNA) induces a DNA double-strand break in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in knockout. Some binary vectors for CRISPR/Cas9 in plants have been reported, but there is a problem with low efficiency. Here, we present a newly developed, highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9 vector for Arabidopsis thaliana, pKAMA-ITACHI Red (pKIR), harboring the RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S5 A (RPS5A) promoter to drive Cas9. The RPS5A promoter maintains high constitutive expression at all developmental stages starting from the egg cell and including meristematic cells. Even in the T1 generation, pKIR induced null phenotypes in some genes: PHYTOENE DESATURASE 3 (PDS3), AGAMOUS (AG) and DUO POLLEN 1 (DUO1). Mutations induced by pKIR were carried in the germ cell line of the T1 generation. Surprisingly, in some lines, 100% of the T2 plants had the adh1 (ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 1) null phenotype, indicating that pKIR strongly induced heritable mutations. Cas9-free T2 mutant plants were obtained by removing T2 seeds expressing a fluorescent marker in pKIR. Our results suggest that the pKIR system is a powerful molecular tool for genome engineering in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  20. Characterization of a small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)-like gene involved in Arabidopsis thaliana development.

    PubMed

    Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Boron, Agnieszka Karolina; Van Loock, Bram; Saini, Kumud; Cirera, Susanna; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2013-01-01

    The root of Arabidopsis thaliana is used as a model system to unravel the molecular nature of cell elongation and its arrest. From a micro-array performed on roots that were treated with aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, a Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)-like gene was found to be up regulated. As it appeared as the 76th gene in the family, it was named SAUR76. Root and leaf growth of overexpression lines ectopically expressing SAUR76 indicated the possible involvement of the gene in the division process. Using promoter::GUS and GFP lines strong expression was seen in endodermal and pericycle cells at the end of the elongation zone and during several stages of lateral root primordia development. ACC and IAA/NAA were able to induce a strong up regulation of the gene and changed the expression towards cortical and even epidermal cells at the beginning of the elongation zone. Confirmation of this up regulation of expression was delivered using qPCR, which also indicated that the expression quickly returned to normal levels when the inducing IAA-stimulus was removed, a behaviour also seen in other SAUR genes. Furthermore, confocal analysis of protein-GFP fusions localized the protein in the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. SAUR76 expression was quantified in several mutants in ethylene and auxin-related pathways, which led to the conclusion that the expression of SAUR76 is mainly regulated by the increase in auxin that results from the addition of ACC, rather than by ACC itself.

  1. Spaceflight engages heat shock protein and other molecular chaperone genes in tissue culture cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zupanska, Agata K; Denison, Fiona C; Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Gravity has been a major force throughout the evolution of terrestrial organisms, and plants have developed exquisitely sensitive, regulated tropisms and growth patterns that are based on the gravity vector. The nullified gravity during spaceflight allows direct assessment of gravity roles. The microgravity environments provided by the Space Shuttle and International Space Station have made it possible to seek novel insights into gravity perception at the organismal, tissue, and cellular levels. Cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana perceive and respond to spaceflight, even though they lack the specialized cell structures normally associated with gravity perception in intact plants; in particular, genes for a specific subset of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and factors (HSFs) are induced. Here we ask if similar changes in HSP gene expression occur during nonspaceflight changes in gravity stimulation. Quantitative RT-qPCR was used to evaluate mRNA levels for Hsp17.6A and Hsp101 in cell cultures exposed to four conditions: spaceflight (mission STS-131), hypergravity (centrifugation at 3 g or 16 g), sustained two-dimensional clinorotation, and transient milligravity achieved on parabolic flights. We showed that HSP genes were induced in cells only in response to sustained clinorotation. Transient microgravity intervals in parabolic flight and various hypergravity conditions failed to induce HSP genes. We conclude that nondifferentiated cells do indeed sense their gravity environment and HSP genes are induced only in response to prolonged microgravity or simulated microgravity conditions. We hypothesize that HSP induction upon microgravity indicates a role for HSP-related proteins in maintaining cytoskeletal architecture and cell shape signaling.

  2. A Gene Regulatory Network Model for Cell-Fate Determination during Arabidopsis thaliana Flower Development That Is Robust and Recovers Experimental Gene Expression ProfilesW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Soto, Carlos; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2004-01-01

    Flowers are icons in developmental studies of complex structures. The vast majority of 250,000 angiosperm plant species have flowers with a conserved organ plan bearing sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels in the center. The combinatorial model for the activity of the so-called ABC homeotic floral genes has guided extensive experimental studies in Arabidopsis thaliana and many other plant species. However, a mechanistic and dynamical explanation for the ABC model and prevalence among flowering plants is lacking. Here, we put forward a simple discrete model that postulates logical rules that formally summarize published ABC and non-ABC gene interaction data for Arabidopsis floral organ cell fate determination and integrates this data into a dynamic network model. This model shows that all possible initial conditions converge to few steady gene activity states that match gene expression profiles observed experimentally in primordial floral organ cells of wild-type and mutant plants. Therefore, the network proposed here provides a dynamical explanation for the ABC model and shows that precise signaling pathways are not required to restrain cell types to those found in Arabidopsis, but these are rather determined by the overall gene network dynamics. Furthermore, we performed robustness analyses that clearly show that the cell types recovered depend on the network architecture rather than on specific values of the model's gene interaction parameters. These results support the hypothesis that such a network constitutes a developmental module, and hence provide a possible explanation for the overall conservation of the ABC model and overall floral plan among angiosperms. In addition, we have been able to predict the effects of differences in network architecture between Arabidopsis and Petunia hybrida. PMID:15486106

  3. Evolutionary history and functional divergence of the cytochrome P450 gene superfamily between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species uncover effects of whole genome and tandem duplications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Wang, Linhai; Dossa, Komivi; Zhang, Xiurong; Ke, Tao; Liao, Boshou

    2017-09-18

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) superfamily is involved in the biosynthesis of various primary and secondary metabolites. However, little is known about the effects of whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) events on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450s in Brassica after splitting from a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana. Using Hidden Markov Model search and manual curation, we detected that Brassica species have nearly 1.4-fold as many P450 members as A. thaliana. Most P450s in A. thaliana and Brassica species were located on pseudo-chromosomes. The inferred phylogeny indicated that all P450s were clustered into two different subgroups. Analysis of WGD event revealed that different P450 gene families had appeared after evolutionary events of species. For the TD event analyses, the P450s from TD events in Brassica species can be divided into ancient and recent parts. Our comparison of influence of WGD and TD events on the P450 gene superfamily between A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that the family-specific evolution in the Brassica lineage can be attributed to both WGD and TD, whereas WGD was recognized as the major mechanism for the recent evolution of the P450 super gene family. Expression analysis of P450s from A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that WGD-type P450s showed the same expression pattern but completely different expression with TD-type P450s across different tissues in Brassica species. Selection force analysis suggested that P450 orthologous gene pairs between A. thaliana and Brassica species underwent negative selection, but no significant differences were found between P450 orthologous gene pairs in A. thaliana-B. rapa and A. thaliana-B. oleracea lineages, as well as in different subgenomes in B. rapa or B. oleracea compared with A. thaliana. This study is the first to investigate the effects of WGD and TD on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450

  4. A survey of dominant mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Meinke, David W

    2013-02-01

    Following the recent publication of a comprehensive dataset of 2400 genes with a loss-of-function mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), questions remain concerning the diversity of dominant mutations in Arabidopsis. Most of these dominant phenotypes are expected to result from inappropriate gene expression, novel protein function, or disrupted protein complexes. This review highlights the major classes of dominant mutations observed in model organisms and presents a collection of 200 Arabidopsis genes associated with a dominant or semidominant phenotype. Emphasis is placed on mutants identified through forward genetic screens of mutagenized or activation-tagged populations. These datasets illustrate the variety of genetic changes and protein functions that underlie dominance in Arabidopsis and may ultimately contribute to phenotypic variation in flowering plants.

  5. Epistasis × environment interactions among Arabidopsis thaliana glucosinolate genes impact complex traits and fitness in the field.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, Rachel E; Feusier, Julie; Muok, Alise; Lin, Catherine; Larson, Brandon; Copeland, Daniel; Corwin, Jason A; Rubin, Matthew J; Francisco, Marta; Li, Baohua; Joseph, Bindu; Weinig, Cynthia; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the growing number of studies showing that genotype × environment and epistatic interactions control fitness, the influences of epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait evolution remain largely uncharacterized. Across three field trials, we quantified aliphatic glucosinolate (GSL) defense chemistry, leaf damage, and relative fitness using mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana varying at pairs of causal aliphatic GSL defense genes to test the impact of epistatic and epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait variation. We found that aliphatic GSL accumulation was primarily influenced by additive and epistatic genetic variation, leaf damage was primarily influenced by environmental variation and relative fitness was primarily influenced by epistasis and epistasis × environment interactions. Epistasis × environment interactions accounted for up to 48% of the relative fitness variation in the field. At a single field site, the impact of epistasis on relative fitness varied significantly over 2 yr, showing that epistasis × environment interactions within a location can be temporally dynamic. These results suggest that the environmental dependency of epistasis can profoundly influence the response to selection, shaping the adaptive trajectories of natural populations in complex ways, and deserves further consideration in future evolutionary studies. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Bastress, Kristen L.; Ruegger, Max O.; Denault, Jeff W.; Chapple, Clint

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall–esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

  7. Identification, occurrence, and validation of DRE and ABRE Cis-regulatory motifs in the promoter regions of genes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sonal; Shukla, Aparna; Upadhyay, Swati; Sanchita; Sharma, Pooja; Singh, Seema; Phukan, Ujjal J; Meena, Abha; Khan, Feroz; Tripathi, Vineeta; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar; Shrama, Ashok

    2014-04-01

    Plants posses a complex co-regulatory network which helps them to elicit a response under diverse adverse conditions. We used an in silico approach to identify the genes with both DRE and ABRE motifs in their promoter regions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results showed that Arabidopsis contains a set of 2,052 genes with ABRE and DRE motifs in their promoter regions. Approximately 72% or more of the total predicted 2,052 genes had a gap distance of less than 400 bp between DRE and ABRE motifs. For positional orientation of the DRE and ABRE motifs, we found that the DR form (one in direct and the other one in reverse orientation) was more prevalent than other forms. These predicted 2,052 genes include 155 transcription factors. Using microarray data from The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) database, we present 44 transcription factors out of 155 which are upregulated by more than twofold in response to osmotic stress and ABA treatment. Fifty-one transcripts from the one predicted above were validated using semiquantitative expression analysis to support the microarray data in TAIR. Taken together, we report a set of genes containing both DRE and ABRE motifs in their promoter regions in A. thaliana, which can be useful to understand the role of ABA under osmotic stress condition. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    van de Mortel, Judith E; Schat, Henk; Moerland, Perry D; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; van der Ent, Sjoerd; Blankestijn, Hetty; Ghandilyan, Artak; Tsiatsiani, Styliani; Aarts, Mark G M

    2008-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd and zinc (Zn) are examined, with the main aim to determine the differences in gene expression between the Cd-tolerant Zn-hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens and the Cd-sensitive non-accumulator Arabidopsis. This comparative transcriptional analysis emphasized the role of genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism. Furthermore the transcription factors MYB72 and bHLH100 were studied for their involvement in metal homeostasis, as they showed an altered expression after exposure to Cd. The Arabidopsis myb72 knockout mutant was more sensitive to excess Zn or iron (Fe) deficiency than wild type, while Arabidopsis transformants overexpressing bHLH100 showed increased tolerance to high Zn and nickel (Ni) compared to wild-type plants, confirming their role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  9. Multi-omics analysis identifies genes mediating the extension of cell walls in the Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation zone

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael H.; Holman, Tara J.; Sørensen, Iben; Cancho-Sanchez, Ester; Wells, Darren M.; Swarup, Ranjan; Knox, J. Paul; Willats, William G. T.; Ubeda-Tomás, Susana; Holdsworth, Michael; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Vissenberg, Kris; Hodgman, T. Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Plant cell wall composition is important for regulating growth rates, especially in roots. However, neither analyses of cell wall composition nor transcriptomes on their own can comprehensively reveal which genes and processes are mediating growth and cell elongation rates. This study reveals the benefits of carrying out multiple analyses in combination. Sections of roots from five anatomically and functionally defined zones in Arabidopsis thaliana were prepared and divided into three biological replicates. We used glycan microarrays and antibodies to identify the major classes of glycans and glycoproteins present in the cell walls of these sections, and identified the expected decrease in pectin and increase in xylan from the meristematic zone (MS), through the rapid and late elongation zones (REZ, LEZ) to the maturation zone and the rest of the root, including the emerging lateral roots. Other compositional changes included extensin and xyloglucan levels peaking in the REZ and increasing levels of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP) epitopes from the MS to the LEZ, which remained high through the subsequent mature zones. Immuno-staining using the same antibodies identified the tissue and (sub)cellular localization of many epitopes. Extensins were localized in epidermal and cortex cell walls, while AGP glycans were specific to different tissues from root-hair cells to the stele. The transcriptome analysis found several gene families peaking in the REZ. These included a large family of peroxidases (which produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) needed for cell expansion), and three xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase genes (XTH17, XTH18, and XTH19). The significance of the latter may be related to a role in breaking and re-joining xyloglucan cross-bridges between cellulose microfibrils, a process which is required for wall expansion. Knockdowns of these XTHs resulted in shorter root lengths, confirming a role of the corresponding proteins in root extension

  10. Characterization of cDNA for a dehydration-inducible gene that encodes a CLP A, B-like protein in Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    PubMed

    Kiyosue, T; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Shinozaki, K

    1993-11-15

    Sequence was obtained from a cDNA clone, designated ERD1, isolated from a cDNA library of 1-hour-dehydrated plants of Arabidopsis thaliana L. The clone (3150 bp) contains an open reading frame of 946 amino acid residues with greater than 34% sequence identity to the regulatory subunit of the Clp ATP-dependent protease in Escherichia coli and contains a putative chloroplast-targeting signal at the N-terminus. Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of additional ERD1-related genes in A. thaliana. The expression of ERD1 gene was strongly induced by dehydration-stress but not by heat-, cold-, or heavy-metal-stress. In addition ERD1 gene-expression was not strongly affected by treatment with plant growth regulators, such as auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and gibberellic acid, or by starvation-stress for 10 hours.

  11. A mutational analysis of the ABA1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana highlights the involvement of ABA in vegetative development.

    PubMed

    Barrero, José María; Piqueras, Pedro; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Serrano, Ramón; Rodríguez, Pedro L; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2005-08-01

    Much of the literature on the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) describes it as a mediator in triggering plant responses to environmental stimuli, as well as a growth inhibitor. ABA-deficient mutants, however, display a stunted phenotype even under well-watered conditions and high relative humidity, which suggests that growth promotion may also be one of the roles of endogenous ABA. Zeaxanthin epoxidase, the product of the ABA1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, catalyses the epoxidation of zeaxanthin to antheraxanthin and violaxanthin, generating the epoxycarotenoid precursor of the ABA biosynthetic pathway. This paper gives a description of the molecular and phenotypic characterization of a large series of mutant alleles of the ABA1 gene, which cause different degrees of ABA deficiency, four of them previously isolated (aba1-1, aba1-3, aba1-4, and aba1-6) and the remaining five novel (sañ1-1, sañ1-2, sañ1-3, sañ1-4, and sre3). Molecular analysis of these alleles provides insights into the domains in which they compromise zeaxanthin epoxidase function. The size of the leaves, inflorescences, and flowers of these mutants is reduced, and their rosettes have lower fresh and dry weights than their wild types, as a result of a diminished cell size. Low concentrations of exogenous ABA increase the fresh weight of mutant and wild-type plants, as well as the dry weight of the mutants. The leaves of aba1 mutants are abnormally shaped and fail to develop clearly distinct spongy and palisade mesophyll layers. Taken together, these phenotypic traits indicate, as suggested by previous authors, that ABA acts as a growth promoter during vegetative development. The abnormal shape and internal structure of the leaves of aba1 mutants suggests, in addition, a role for ABA in organogenesis.

  12. Chlorosis caused by two recessively interacting genes reveals a role of RNA helicase in hybrid breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Plötner, Björn; Nurmi, Markus; Fischer, Axel; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Holm, Svante; Vaid, Neha; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Walther, Dirk; Hoefgen, Rainer; Weigel, Detlef; Laitinen, Roosa A E

    2017-04-04

    Hybrids often differ in fitness from their parents. They may be superior, translating into hybrid vigour or heterosis, but they may also be markedly inferior, because of hybrid weakness or incompatibility. The underlying genetic causes for the latter can often be traced back to genes that evolve rapidly because of sexual or host-pathogen conflicts. Hybrid weakness may manifest itself only in later generations, in a phenomenon called hybrid breakdown. We have characterized a case of hybrid breakdown among two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Shahdara (Sha, Tajikistan) and Lövvik-5 (Lov-5, Northern Sweden). In addition to chlorosis, a fraction of the F2 plants have defects in leaf and embryo development and reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Hybrid chlorosis is due to two major-effect loci, of which one, originating from Lov-5, appears to encode an RNA helicase (AtRH18). To examine the role of the chlorosis allele in the Lövvik area, in addition to eight accessions collected in year 2009, we collected another 240 accessions from 15 collections sites, including Lövvik, from Northern Sweden in year 2015. Genotyping revealed that Lövvik collection site is separated from the rest. Crosses between 109 accessions from this area and Sha revealed 85 cases of hybrid chlorosis, indicating that the chlorosis causing allele is common in this area. These results suggest that hybrid breakdown alleles not only occur at rapidly evolving loci, but also at genes that code for conserved processes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutants of circadian-associated PRR genes display a novel and visible phenotype as to light responses during de-etiolation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiko; Murakami, Masaya; Nakamura, Yuko; Ito, Shogo; Nakamichi, Norihito; Yamashino, Takafumi; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2007-03-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, it is currently accepted that certain mutants with lesions in clock-associated genes commonly display hallmarked phenotypes with regard to three characteristic biological events: (i) altered rhythmic expression of circadian-controlled genes, (ii) changes in flowering time, and (iii) altered sensitivity to red light in elongation of hypocotyls. During the course of examination of the clock-associated mutants of PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS, PRRs, including TOC1 (PRR1), we found that they commonly show another visible phenotype of anomalous greening responses upon the onset to light exposure of etiolated seedlings. These findings are indicative of a novel link between circadian rhythms and chloroplast development.

  14. Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Jase; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tremblay, Julien; Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Edgar, Robert C.; Eickhorst, Thilo; Ley, Ruth E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2014-01-01

    Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing therhizosphere(immediately surroundingthe root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation1-3. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system4,5, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plantmicrobe interactions derived from complex soil communities. PMID:22859206

  15. Photoperiodic flowering regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Golembeski, Greg S.; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A.; Song, Young Hun; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Photoperiod, or the duration of light in a given day, is a critical cue that flowering plants utilize to effectively assess seasonal information and coordinate their reproductive development in synchrony with the external environment. The use of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine how plants process and utilize photoperiodic information to coordinate a flowering response. This mechanism is typified by the transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene by the transcription factor CONSTANS (CO) under inductive long-day conditions in Arabidopsis. FT protein then moves from the leaves to the shoot apex, where floral meristem development can be initiated. As a point of integration from a variety of environmental factors in the context of a larger system of regulatory pathways that affect flowering, the importance of photoreceptors and the circadian clock in CO regulation throughout the day has been a key feature of the photoperiodic flowering pathway. In addition to these established mechanisms, the recent discovery of a photosynthate derivative trehalose-6-phosphate as an activator of FT in leaves has interesting implications for the involvement of photosynthesis in the photoperiodic flowering response that were suggested from previous physiological experiments in flowering induction. PMID:25684830

  16. Shotgun Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two shotgun tandem mass spectrometry proteomics approaches, Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS, were used to identify Arabidopsis thaliana leaf proteins. These methods utilize different protein/peptide separation strategies. Detergents not compatible wit...

  17. Effects of tung oilseed FAD2 and DGAT2 genes on unsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Rhodotorula glutinis and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yicun; Cui, Qinqin; Xu, Yongjie; Yang, Susu; Gao, Ming; Wang, Yangdong

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering to produce valuable lipids containing unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) holds great promise for food and industrial applications. Efforts to genetically modify plants to produce desirable UFAs with single enzymes, however, have had modest success. The key enzymes fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are responsible for UFA biosynthesis (a push process) and assembling fatty acids into lipids (a pull process) in plants, respectively. To examine their roles in UFA accumulation, VfFAD2 and VfDGAT2 genes cloned from Vernicia fordii (tung tree) oilseeds were conjugated and transformed into Rhodotorula glutinis and Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed variable gene expression levels in the transformants, with a much higher level of VfDGAT2 than VfFAD2. The relationship between VfFAD2 expression and linoleic acid (C18:2) increases in R. glutinis (R (2) = 0.98) and A. thaliana (R (2) = 0.857) transformants was statistically linear. The VfDGAT2 expression level was statistically correlated with increased total fatty acid content in R. glutinis (R (2) = 0.962) and A. thaliana (R (2) = 0.8157) transformants. With a similar expression level between single- and two-gene transformants, VfFAD2-VfDGAT2 co-transformants showed a higher linolenic acid (C18:3) yield in R. glutinis (174.36 % increase) and A. thaliana (14.61 % increase), and eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3) was enriched (17.10 % increase) in A. thaliana. Our data suggest that VfFAD2-VfDGAT2 had a synergistic effect on UFA metabolism in R. glutinis, and to a lesser extent, A. thaliana. These results show promise for further genetic engineering of plant lipids to produce desirable UFAs.

  18. Neutralization of Bacterial YoeBSpn Toxicity and Enhanced Plant Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana via Co-Expression of the Toxin-Antitoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Fauziah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have various cellular functions, including as part of the general stress response. The genome of the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors several putative TA systems, including yefM-yoeBSpn, which is one of four systems that had been demonstrated to be biologically functional. Overexpression of the yoeBSpn toxin gene resulted in cell stasis and eventually cell death in its native host, as well as in Escherichia coli. Our previous work showed that induced expression of a yoeBSpn toxin-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusion gene apparently triggered apoptosis and was lethal in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-expression of the yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic A. thaliana. When co-expressed in Arabidopsis, the YefMSpn antitoxin was found to neutralize the toxicity of YoeBSpn-GFP. Interestingly, the inducible expression of both yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic hybrid Arabidopsis resulted in larger rosette leaves and taller plants with a higher number of inflorescence stems and increased silique production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a prokaryotic antitoxin neutralizing its cognate toxin in plant cells. PMID:27104531

  19. Successful expression of a novel bacterial gene for pinoresinol reductase and its effect on lignan biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masayuki; Tsuji, Yukiko; Kusunose, Tatsuya; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kamimura, Naofumi; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Fukuhara, Yuki; Hara, Hirofumi; Sato-Izawa, Kanna; Muranaka, Toshiya; Saito, Kazuki; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji; Kajita, Shinya

    2014-10-01

    Pinoresinol reductase and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase play important roles in an early step of lignan biosynthesis in plants. The activities of both enzymes have also been detected in bacteria. In this study, pinZ, which was first isolated as a gene for bacterial pinoresinol reductase, was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Higher reductive activity toward pinoresinol was detected in the resultant transgenic plants but not in wild-type plant. Principal component analysis of data from untargeted metabolome analyses of stem, root, and leaf extracts of the wild-type and two independent transgenic lines indicate that pinZ expression caused dynamic metabolic changes in stems, but not in roots and leaves. The metabolome data also suggest that expression of pinZ influenced the metabolisms of lignan and glucosinolates but not so much of neolignans such as guaiacylglycerol-8-O-4'-feruloyl ethers. In-depth quantitative analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated that amounts of pinoresinol and its glucoside form were markedly reduced in the transgenic plant, whereas the amounts of glucoside form of secoisolariciresinol in transgenic roots, leaves, and stems increased. The detected levels of lariciresinol in the transgenic plant following β-glucosidase treatment also tended to be higher than those in the wild-type plant. Our findings indicate that overexpression of pinZ induces change in lignan compositions and has a major effect not only on lignan biosynthesis but also on biosynthesis of other primary and secondary metabolites.

  20. Efficient use of artificial micro-RNA to downregulate the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, A; Rauf, M; Ghafoor, S; Khattak, M N K; Hameed, M W; Shah, H; Jan, S; Muhammad, K; Rehman, A; Inamullah

    2016-04-07

    Micro-RNAs are cellular components regulating gene expression at the post-transcription level. In the present study, artificial micro-RNAs were used to decrease the transcript level of two genes, AtExpA8 (encoding an expansin) and AHL25 (encoding an AT-hook motif nuclear localized protein) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The backbone of the Arabidopsis endogenous MIR319a micro-RNA was used in a site-directed mutagenesis approach for the generation of artificial micro-RNAs targeting two genes. The recombinant cassettes were expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in individual A. thaliana plants. Transgenic lines of the third generation were tested by isolating total RNA and by subsequent cDNA synthesis using oligo-dT18 primers and mRNAs as templates. The expression of the two target genes was checked through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to confirm reduced transcript levels for AtExpA8 and AHL25. Downregulation of AtExpA8 resulted in the formation of short hypocotyls compared with those of the wild-type control in response to low pH and high salt concentration. This technology could be used to prevent the expression of exogenous and invading genes posing a threat to the normal cellular physiology of the host plant.

  1. The circadian oscillator gene GIGANTEA mediates a long-term response of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock to sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Dalchau, Neil; Baek, Seong J.; Briggs, Helen M.; Robertson, Fiona C.; Dodd, Antony N.; Gardner, Michael J.; Stancombe, Matthew A.; Haydon, Michael J.; Stan, Guy-Bart; Gonçalves, Jorge M.; Webb, Alex A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Circadian clocks are 24-h timing devices that phase cellular responses; coordinate growth, physiology, and metabolism; and anticipate the day–night cycle. Here we report sensitivity of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian oscillator to sucrose, providing evidence that plant metabolism can regulate circadian function. We found that the Arabidopsis circadian system is particularly sensitive to sucrose in the dark. These data suggest that there is a feedback between the molecular components that comprise the circadian oscillator and plant metabolism, with the circadian clock both regulating and being regulated by metabolism. We used also simulations within a three-loop mathematical model of the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator to identify components of the circadian clock sensitive to sucrose. The mathematical studies identified GIGANTEA (GI) as being associated with sucrose sensing. Experimental validation of this prediction demonstrated that GI is required for the full response of the circadian clock to sucrose. We demonstrate that GI acts as part of the sucrose-signaling network and propose this role permits metabolic input into circadian timing in Arabidopsis. PMID:21383174

  2. Analysis of the Metabolic Pathways Affected by Poly(γ-glutamic Acid) in Arabidopsis thaliana Based on GeneChip Microarray.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongqi; Lei, Peng; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2016-08-17

    Plant growth is promoted by poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying such promotion is not yet well understood. Therefore, we used GeneChip microarrays to explore the effects of γ-PGA on gene transcription in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results revealed 299 genes significantly regulated by γ-PGA. These differently expressed genes participate mainly in metabolic and cellular processes and in stimuli responses. The metabolic pathways linked to these differently expressed genes were also investigated. A total of 64 of the 299 differently expressed genes were shown to be directly involved in 24 pathways such as brassinosteroid biosynthesis, α-linolenic acid metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and nitrogen metabolism, all of which were influenced by γ-PGA. The analysis demonstrated that γ-PGA promoted nitrogen assimilation and biosynthesis of brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, and lignins, providing a better explanation for why γ-PGA promotes growth and enhances stress tolerance in plants.

  3. GBF3 transcription factor imparts drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Gill, Upinder Singh; Sivalingam, Palaiyur Nanjappan; Gupta, Aarti; Gupta, Chirag; Govind, Geetha; Nataraja, Karaba N; Pereira, Andy; Udayakumar, Makarla; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2017-08-22

    Drought transcriptome analysis of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) by cDNA subtraction identified drought responsive genes that have a potential role in drought tolerance. Through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in a related crop species, maize (Zea mays), several genes, including a G-BOX BINDING FACTOR 3 (GBF3) were identified as candidate drought stress response genes and the role of GBF3 in drought tolerance was studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of both EcGBF3 and AtGBF3 in A. thaliana resulted in improved tolerance to osmotic stress, salinity and drought stress in addition to conferring insensitivity to ABA. Conversely, loss of function of this gene increased the sensitivity of A. thaliana plants to drought stress. EcGBF3 transgenic A. thaliana results also suggest that drought tolerance of sensitive plants can be improved by transferring genes from far related crops like finger millet. Our results demonstrate the role of GBF3 in imparting drought tolerance in A. thaliana and indicate the conserved role of this gene in drought and other abiotic stress tolerance in several plant species.

  4. A combination of gene expression ranking and co-expression network analysis increases discovery rate in large-scale mutant screens for novel Arabidopsis thaliana abiotic stress genes.

    PubMed

    Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Basha, Omer; Acuna, Tania; Verduyn, Christoph; Gordon, Michal; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Hannah, Matthew A; Barak, Simon

    2015-05-01

    As challenges to food security increase, the demand for lead genes for improving crop production is growing. However, genetic screens of plant mutants typically yield very low frequencies of desired phenotypes. Here, we present a powerful computational approach for selecting candidate genes for screening insertion mutants. We combined ranking of Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes according to their expression in response to multiple abiotic stresses (Multiple Stress [MST] score), with stress-responsive RNA co-expression network analysis to select candidate multiple stress regulatory (MSTR) genes. Screening of 62 T-DNA insertion mutants defective in candidate MSTR genes, for abiotic stress germination phenotypes yielded a remarkable hit rate of up to 62%; this gene discovery rate is 48-fold greater than that of other large-scale insertional mutant screens. Moreover, the MST score of these genes could be used to prioritize them for screening. To evaluate the contribution of the co-expression analysis, we screened 64 additional mutant lines of MST-scored genes that did not appear in the RNA co-expression network. The screening of these MST-scored genes yielded a gene discovery rate of 36%, which is much higher than that of classic mutant screens but not as high as when picking candidate genes from the co-expression network. The MSTR co-expression network that we created, AraSTressRegNet is publicly available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/arnet. This systems biology-based screening approach combining gene ranking and network analysis could be generally applicable to enhancing identification of genes regulating additional processes in plants and other organisms provided that suitable transcriptome data are available.

  5. [Studying the role of FASCIATA5 gene in the regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana].

    PubMed

    Al'bert, A V; Kavaĭ-ool, U N; Ezhova, T A

    2015-01-01

    Identification of new genes involved in the control of flower initiation and development, is an important problem of the plant developmental genetics. Central approach to solve it is the study of mutants with changes in these characters. The effect of pleiotropic mutation fasciata5 on the transition to the reproductive stage and flower development was studied. By analyzing double mutants we identified interactions of FASCIATA5 gene with LEAFY, APETALA1 and APETALA2, which control the floral meristem identity. The results indicate an important role of gene FASCIATA5 in upregulation of these genes.

  6. Over-expression of a Zea mays L. protein phosphatase 2C gene (ZmPP2C) in Arabidopsis thaliana decreases tolerance to salt and drought.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lixia; Hu, Xiaoli; Song, Jian; Zong, Xiaojuan; Li, Dapeng; Li, Dequan

    2009-03-15

    ZmPP2C (AY621066) is a protein phosphatase type-2c previously isolated from roots of Zea mays (LD9002). In this study, constitutive expression of ZmPP2C in Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter decreased plant tolerance to salt and drought during seed germination and vegetative growth. When growing on media with NaCl or mannitol, the ZmPP2C-overexpressed plants displayed more severe damages, with weaker growth phenotypes corresponding to a series of physiological changes: lower net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and free proline content, higher malondialdehyde (MDA) level, higher relative membrane permeability (RMP), and water loss. Under these stress conditions, they also showed decreased transcription of the stress-related genes RD29A, RD29B, P5CS1, and P5CS2, and ABA-related genes ABI1 and ABI2. Further, the transgenic plants became less sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). ZmPP2C over-expression significantly attenuated ABA inhibition on seed germination and root growth of the transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that ZmPP2C is involved in plant stress signal transduction, and ZmPP2C gene over-expression in Arabidopsis thaliana may be exploited to study its potential roles in stress-induced signaling pathway.

  7. Multi site polyadenylation and transcriptional response to stress of a vacuolar type H+-ATPase subunit A gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Magnotta, Scot M; Gogarten, Johann Peter

    2002-01-01

    Background Vacuolar type H+-ATPases play a critical role in the maintenance of vacuolar homeostasis in plant cells. V-ATPases are also involved in plants' defense against environmental stress. This research examined the expression and regulation of the catalytic subunit of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis thaliana and the effect of environmental stress on multiple transcripts generated by this gene. Results Evidence suggests that subunit A of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase is encoded by a single gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome blot analysis showed no indication of a second subunit A gene being present. The single gene identified was shown by whole RNA blot analysis to be transcribed in all organs of the plant. Subunit A was shown by sequencing the 3' end of multiple cDNA clones to exhibit multi site polyadenylation. Four different poly (A) tail attachment sites were revealed. Experiments were performed to determine the response of transcript levels for subunit A to environmental stress. A PCR based strategy was devised to amplify the four different transcripts from the subunit A gene. Conclusions Amplification of cDNA generated from seedlings exposed to cold, salt stress, and etiolation showed that transcript levels for subunit A of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis were responsive to stress conditions. Cold and salt stress resulted in a 2–4 fold increase in all four subunit A transcripts evaluated. Etiolation resulted in a slight increase in transcript levels. All four transcripts appeared to behave identically with respect to stress conditions tested with no significant differential regulation. PMID:11985780

  8. Differential induction of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by wounding and pathogenic attack.

    PubMed Central

    Keith, B; Dong, X N; Ausubel, F M; Fink, G R

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated cDNAs from two distinct genes encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 4.1.2.15) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Predicted protein sequences from both genes, DHS1 and DHS2, and a potato DAHP synthase gene are highly related, but none shows significant sequence similarity to conserved microbial DAHP synthase proteins. Despite this structural difference, the DHS1 cDNA complements mutations in a yeast strain lacking DAHP synthase activity. DHS1 RNA levels increase in Arabidopsis leaves subjected either to physical wounding or to infiltration with pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains. DHS2 RNA levels are not increased by these treatments, suggesting that the DHS1 and DHS2 proteins fulfill different physiological functions. Other enzymes in the Arabidopsis aromatic pathway are also encoded by duplicated genes, an arrangement that may allow independent regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis by distinct physiological requirements such as protein synthesis and secondary metabolism. The presence of amino-terminal extensions characteristic of chloroplast transit peptides on DHS1 and DHS2 suggests that both proteins may be targeted to the chloroplast. Images PMID:1681544

  9. Dated molecular phylogenies indicate a Miocene origin for Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Beilstein, Mark A.; Nagalingum, Nathalie S.; Clements, Mark D.; Manchester, Steven R.; Mathews, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Dated molecular phylogenies are the basis for understanding species diversity and for linking changes in rates of diversification with historical events such as restructuring in developmental pathways, genome doubling, or dispersal onto a new continent. Valid fossil calibration points are essential to the accurate estimation of divergence dates, but for many groups of flowering plants fossil evidence is unavailable or limited. Arabidopsis thaliana, the primary genetic model in plant biology and the first plant to have its entire genome sequenced, belongs to one such group, the plant family Brassicaceae. Thus, the timing of A. thaliana evolution and the history of its genome have been controversial. We bring previously overlooked fossil evidence to bear on these questions and find the split between A. thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata occurred about 13 Mya, and that the split between Arabidopsis and the Brassica complex (broccoli, cabbage, canola) occurred about 43 Mya. These estimates, which are two- to threefold older than previous estimates, indicate that gene, genomic, and developmental evolution occurred much more slowly than previously hypothesized and that Arabidopsis evolved during a period of warming rather than of cooling. We detected a 2- to 10-fold shift in species diversification rates on the branch uniting Brassicaceae with its sister families. The timing of this shift suggests a possible impact of the Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction on their radiation and that Brassicales codiversified with pierid butterflies that specialize on mustard-oil–producing plants. PMID:20921408

  10. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in xylem secondary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko

    2006-05-01

    The xylem of higher plants offers support to aerial portions of the plant body and serves as conduit for the translocation of water and nutrients. Terminal differentiation of xylem cells typically involves deposition of thick secondary cell walls. This is a dynamic cellular process accompanied by enhanced rates of cellulose deposition and the induction of synthesis of specific secondary-wall matrix polysaccharides and lignin. The secondary cell wall is essential for the function of conductive and supportive xylem tissues. Recently, significant progress has been made in identifying the genes responsible for xylem secondary cell wall formation. However, our present knowledge is still insufficient to account for the molecular processes by which this complex system operates. To acquire further information about xylem secondary cell walls, we initially focused our research effort on a set of genes specifically implicated in secondary cell wall formation, as well as on loss-of-function mutants. Results from two microarray screens identified several key candidate genes responsible for secondary cell wall formation. Reverse genetic analyses led to the identification of a glycine-rich protein involved in maintaining the stable structure of protoxylem, which is essential for the transport of water and nutrients. A combination of expression analyses and reverse genetics allows us to systematically identify new genes required for the development of physical properties of the xylem secondary wall.

  11. Overexpression of Brassica rapa SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE genes suppresses growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joon Ki; Kim, Jin A; Kim, Jung Sun; Lee, Soo In; Koo, Bon Sung; Lee, Yeon-Hee

    2012-08-01

    S HI-R ELATED SEQUENCE (SRS) genes are plant-specific transcription factors containing a zinc-binding RING finger motif, which play a critical role in plant growth and development. We have characterized six SRS genes in Brassica rapa. Overexpression of the SRSs BrSTY1, BrSRS7, and BrLRP1 induced dwarf and compact plants, and significantly decreased primary root elongation and lateral root formation. Additionally, the transgenic plants had upward-curled leaves of narrow widths and with short petioles, and had shorter siliques and low fertility. In stems, hypocotyls, and styles, epidermal cell lengths were also significantly reduced in transgenic plants. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants revealed that BrSTY1, BrSRS7, and BrLRP1 regulate expression of several gibberellin (GA)- and auxin-related genes involved in morphogenesis in shoot apical regions. We conclude that BrSTY1, BrSRS7, and BrLRP1 regulate plant growth and development by regulating expression of GA- and auxin-related genes.

  12. Shotgun proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyun; Garrett, Wesley M; Cooper, Bret

    2007-09-01

    Two shotgun tandem MS proteomics approaches, multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) and 1-D gel-LC-MS/MS, were used to identify Arabidopsis thaliana leaf proteins. These methods utilize different protein/peptide separation strategies. Detergents not compatible with MudPIT were used with 1-D gel-LC-MS/MS to help enrich for the detection of membrane-spanning and hydrophobic proteins. By combining the data from all MudPIT and 1-D gel-LC-MS/MS experiments, 2342 nonredundant proteins spanning a broad range of molecular weights and pI values were detected. With the exception of unknown proteins, the distribution of gene ontology (GO) classifications for the detected proteins was similar to that encoded by the genome, which shows that these extraction and separation procedures are useful for a broad proteomic survey of plant cells. Unknown proteins will likely have to be targeted by using additional methods, some of which should be compatible with separation strategies taken here.

  13. Phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle M; Dilkes, Brian P; Miller, Eric S; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Comai, Luca

    2010-12-01

    Aneuploid cells are characterized by incomplete chromosome sets. The resulting imbalance in gene dosage has phenotypic consequences that are specific to each karyotype. Even in the case of Down syndrome, the most viable and studied form of human aneuploidy, the mechanisms underlying the connected phenotypes remain mostly unclear. Because of their tolerance to aneuploidy, plants provide a powerful system for a genome-wide investigation of aneuploid syndromes, an approach that is not feasible in animal systems. Indeed, in many plant species, populations of aneuploid individuals can be easily obtained from triploid individuals. We phenotyped a population of Arabidopsis thaliana aneuploid individuals containing 25 different karyotypes. Even in this highly heterogeneous population, we demonstrate that certain traits are strongly associated with the dosage of specific chromosome types and that chromosomal effects can be additive. Further, we identified subtle developmental phenotypes expressed in the diploid progeny of aneuploid parent(s) but not in euploid controls from diploid lineages. These results indicate long-term phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy that can persist after chromosomal balance has been restored. We verified the diploid nature of these individuals by whole-genome sequencing and discuss the possibility that trans-generational phenotypic effects stem from epigenetic modifications passed from aneuploid parents to their diploid progeny.

  14. Phenotypic Consequences of Aneuploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Isabelle M.; Dilkes, Brian P.; Miller, Eric S.; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Comai, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Aneuploid cells are characterized by incomplete chromosome sets. The resulting imbalance in gene dosage has phenotypic consequences that are specific to each karyotype. Even in the case of Down syndrome, the most viable and studied form of human aneuploidy, the mechanisms underlying the connected phenotypes remain mostly unclear. Because of their tolerance to aneuploidy, plants provide a powerful system for a genome-wide investigation of aneuploid syndromes, an approach that is not feasible in animal systems. Indeed, in many plant species, populations of aneuploid individuals can be easily obtained from triploid individuals. We phenotyped a population of Arabidopsis thaliana aneuploid individuals containing 25 different karyotypes. Even in this highly heterogeneous population, we demonstrate that certain traits are strongly associated with the dosage of specific chromosome types and that chromosomal effects can be additive. Further, we identified subtle developmental phenotypes expressed in the diploid progeny of aneuploid parent(s) but not in euploid controls from diploid lineages. These results indicate long-term phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy that can persist after chromosomal balance has been restored. We verified the diploid nature of these individuals by whole-genome sequencing and discuss the possibility that trans-generational phenotypic effects stem from epigenetic modifications passed from aneuploid parents to their diploid progeny. PMID:20876566

  15. Ectopic expression of a grape aspartic protease gene, AP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana improves resistance to powdery mildew but increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Zhao, Jiao; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-07-01

    The grape aspartic protease gene, AP13 was previously reported to be responsive, in Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', to infection by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease, as well as to treatment with salicylic acid in V. labrusca×V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho'. In the current study, we evaluated the expression levels of AP13 in 'Shang-24' in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET) treatments, as well as to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and the transcript levels of VqAP13 decreased after B. cinerea infection and MeJA treatment, but increased following ET and SA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VqAP13 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and accumulated more callose than wild type plants, while the resistance of transgenic A. thaliana lines to B. cinerea inoculation was reduced. In addition, the expression profiles of various disease resistance- related genes in the transgenic A. thaliana lines following infection by different pathogens were compared to the equivalent profiles in the wild type plants. The results suggest that VqAP13 action promotes the SA dependent signal transduction pathway, but suppresses the JA signal transduction pathway.

  16. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  17. Heterologous expression of the gourd E3 ubiquitin ligase gene LsRZF1 compromises the drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Hee; Ju, Hyun-Woo; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Chung, Jung-Sung; Cho, Baik-Ho; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2014-04-01

    Protein ubiquitination is one of the major regulatory processes used by eukaryotic cells. The ubiquitin E3 ligase acts as a main determinant of substrate specificity. However, the precise roles of E3 ligase in plants to drought stress are poorly understood. In this study, a gourd family (Lagenaria siceraria) ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana RING Zinc Finger 1 (AtRZF1) gene, designated LsRZF1, was identified and characterized. LsRZF1 was reduced by abscisic acid (ABA), osmotic stress, and drought conditions. Compared to wild type, transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopic expressing LsRZF1 were hypersensitive to ABA and osmotic stress during early seedling development, indicating that LsRZF1 negatively regulates drought-mediated control of early seedling development. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the LsRZF1 gene was very influential in drought sensitive parameters including proline content, water loss, and the expression of dehydration stress-related genes. Furthermore, ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and genetic data indicate that AtRZF1 and LsRZF1 function in similar pathway to control proline metabolism in Arabidopsis under drought condition. Together, these results suggest that the E3 ligase LsRZF1 is an important regulator of water deficit stress during early seedling development. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Competence of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes and mutants for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer: role of phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Chateau, S; Sangwan, R S; Sangwan-Norreel, B S

    2000-12-01

    Many plant species and/or genotypes are highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, and yet little is known about this phenomenon. Using several Arabidopsis genotypes/ecotypes, the results of this study indicated that phytohormone pretreatment could overcome this recalcitrance by increasing the transformation rate in the known recalcitrant genotypes. Transient expression of a T-DNA encoded ss-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and stable kanamycin resistance were obtained for the ten Arabidopsis genotypes tested as well as for the mutant uvh1 (up to 69% of petioles with blue spots and up to 42% resistant calli). Cultivation of Arabidopsis tissues on phytohormones for 2-8 d before co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens significantly increased transient GUS gene expression by 2-11-fold and stable T-DNA integration with petiole explants. Different Arabidopsis ecotypes revealed differences in their susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and in their type of reaction to pre-cultivation (three types of reactions were defined by gathering ecotypes into three groups). The Arabidopsis uvh1 mutant described as defective in a DNA repair system showed slightly lower competence to transformation than did its progenitor Colombia. This reduced transformation competence, however, could be overcome by 4-d pre-culture with phytohormones. The importance of pre-cultivation with phytohormones for genetic transformation is discussed.

  19. Cloning, characterization and subcellular localization of a gene encoding a human Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana UBC-16 gene product.

    PubMed

    Yin, Gang; Ji, Chaoneng; Wu, Tong; Shen, Zhouliang; Xu, Xin; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2006-05-01

    Ubiquitin charging and activation of class III E2 enzymes has been directly linked to their nuclear import. It has not been published whether other classes E2s also abide by this mechanism. During the large-scale sequencing analysis of a human fetal brain cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA clone that is 2252 base pair in length, encoding a putative 162 amino acid protein, which shares high homology to Arabidopsis thaliana ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (Accession number NP_565110, 51% identity and 71% similarity) at protein level. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the gene is composed of 7 exons, located on human chromosome 8q13-8q21.1, and that the predicted protein of the gene is a class I E2, for only composed of a conserved approximately 150-amino acid catalytic core, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 domain (UBC domain). In the C-terminal of the UBC domain sequence, there are two nuclear localization signals (NLSs). RT-PCR showed that this gene is ubiquitously expressed in 16 kinds of normal human tissues, but expression level is very low, unless in human heart, brain, liver, and pancreas. The subcellular localizations of the new human Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 and its mutation were also examined, which showed that the nuclear localization of hUBC16 depended on two conditions: It has NLS, and at the same time, has enzyme active site, too, at least in HEK293 cells.

  20. Gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana: Root-specific action of the EHB gene and violation of the resultant law.

    PubMed

    Dümmer, Michaela; Forreiter, Christoph; Galland, Paul

    2015-09-15

    Gravitropic bending of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana in response to centrifugal accelerations was determined in a range between 0.0025 and 4×g to revisit and validate the so-called resultant law, which claims that centrifugation causes gravitropic organs to orient parallel to the resultant stimulus vector. We show here for seedlings of A. thaliana that this empirical law holds for hypocotyls but surprisingly fails for roots. While the behavior of hypocotyls could be modeled by an arc tangent function predicted by the resultant law, roots displayed a sharp maximum at 1.8×g that substantially overshoots the predicted value and that represents a novel phenomenon, diagravitropism elicited by centrifugal acceleration. The gravitropic bending critically depended on the orientation of the seedling relative to the centrifugal acceleration. If the centrifugal vector pointed toward the cotyledons, gravitropic bending of hypocotyls and roots was substantially enhanced. The complex behavior of Arabidopsis seedlings provides strong evidence that gravitropic bending entails a cosine component (longitudinal stimulus) to which the seedlings were more sensitive than to the classical sine component. The absolute gravitropic thresholds of hypocotyls and roots were determined in a clinostat-centrifuge and found to be below 0.015×g. A tropism mutant lacking the EHB1 protein, which interacts with ARF-GAP (ARF GTPase-activating protein) and thus indirectly with a small ARF-type G protein, displayed a lower gravitropic threshold for roots and also enhanced bending, while the responses of the hypocotyls remained nearly unaffected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstruction of gene regulatory network related to photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianbin; Zheng, Guangyong; Shan, Lanlan; Meng, Guofeng; Vingron, Martin; Liu, Qi; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes on the earth. So far, though the molecular mechanisms underlying photosynthesis is well understood, however, the regulatory networks of photosynthesis are poorly studied. Given the current interest in improving photosynthetic efficiency for greater crop yield, elucidating the detailed regulatory networks controlling the construction and maintenance of photosynthetic machinery is not only scientifically significant but also holding great potential in agricultural application. In this study, we first identified transcription factors (TFs) related to photosynthesis through the TRAP approach using position weight matrix information. Then, for TFs related to photosynthesis, interactions between them and their targets were also determined by the ARACNE approach. Finally, a gene regulatory network was established by combining TF-targets information generated by these two approaches. Topological analysis of the regulatory network suggested that (a) the regulatory network of photosynthesis has a property of “small world”; (b) there is substantial coordination mediated by transcription factors between different components in photosynthesis. PMID:24982665

  2. An ordered Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial cDNA library on high-density filters allows rapid systematic analysis of plant gene expression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giegé, P; Konthur, Z; Walter, G; Brennicke, A

    1998-09-01

    The availability of the complete sequence of a genome allows a systematic analysis of its expression. Gene-specific variations of transcription levels and phenomena such as transcript processing and RNA editing require large numbers of clones to be examined. For the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana we adapted robot technology to identify and characterize expressed genes. A cDNA library of about 50,000 clones was constructed, robot-ordered into 384-well microtitre plates and spotted onto high-density filter membranes. These filters permit the isolation of large numbers of specific cDNA clones in a single hybridization step. The cox1, cox2 and cox3 genes were used to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of this approach. A cluster of RNA editing sites observed outside the cox3 coding region identifies a novel reading frame orf95 in higher plants with significant similarity to a subunit of respiratory chain complex II.

  3. ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene, a member of LOB/AS2 family of Arabidopsis thaliana, causes an abaxializing leaves in transgenic cockscomb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shao-Bo; Song, Jiang-Ping; Meng, Lai-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    The leaf primordium derives from the peripheral zone of shoot apical meristem. During the formation of leaf primordia, they need to establish the proximodistal, mediolateral, and ab/adaxial axes. Among these axes, the ab/adaxial axis might be the most important. ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) gene is a member of AS2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY (LOB) family of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this work, we transformed 35S:AS2 transgene constructs to cockscomb (Celosia cristata) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. All primary transformants subsequently obtained were placed into phenotypic categories and self-pollinated. As a whole, a total of 44 T1 35S:AS2 cockscomb plants obtained were grouped into two major categories: (I) slightly wrinkled leaves (28/44), (II) extremely curved leaves (16/44), on the basis of their leaf phenotypes. Furthermore, we characterized the anatomical features of these malformed leaves; and found the transformation of adaxial cell types into abaxial cell ones. A series of data suggest that AS2 might be involved in the determination of abaxial polarity in cockscomb plants. However, a few research teams have reported that AS2 might be involved in the determination of adaxial polarity in leaf primodia of Arabidopsis thaliana. These data above indicate that the roles of the same ab/adaxial determinant might differ between distinct species. At last, the different function of AS2 in distinct species was discussed.

  4. Mapping salinity tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S

    2011-01-01

    To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response.

  5. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  6. Genetic Regulation of Transcriptional Variation in Natural Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Yanjun; Shen, Xia; Forsberg, Simon K. G.; Carlborg, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    An increased knowledge of the genetic regulation of expression in Arabidopsis thaliana is likely to provide important insights about the basis of the plant’s extensive phenotypic variation. Here, we reanalyzed two publicly available datasets with genome-wide data on genetic and transcript variation in large collections of natural A. thaliana accessions. Transcripts from more than half of all genes were detected in the leaves of all accessions, and from nearly all annotated genes in at least one accession. Thousands of genes had high transcript levels in some accessions, but no transcripts at all in others, and this pattern was correlated with the genome-wide genotype. In total, 2669 eQTL were mapped in the largest population, and 717 of them were replicated in the other population. A total of 646 cis-eQTL-regulated genes that lacked detectable transcripts in some accessions was found, and for 159 of these we identified one, or several, common structural variants in the populations that were shown to be likely contributors to the lack of detectable RNA transcripts for these genes. This study thus provides new insights into the overall genetic regulation of global gene expression diversity in the leaf of natural A. thaliana accessions. Further, it also shows that strong cis-acting polymorphisms, many of which are likely to be structural variations, make important contributions to the transcriptional variation in the worldwide A. thaliana population. PMID:27226169

  7. The Role of SHI/STY/SRS Genes in Organ Growth and Carpel Development Is Conserved in the Distant Eudicot Species Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Gomariz-Fernández, Africa; Sánchez-Gerschon, Verónica; Fourquin, Chloé; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Carpels are a distinctive feature of angiosperms, the ovule-bearing female reproductive organs that endow them with multiple selective advantages likely linked to the evolutionary success of flowering plants. Gene regulatory networks directing the development of carpel specialized tissues and patterning have been proposed based on genetic and molecular studies carried out in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, studies on the conservation/diversification of the elements and the topology of this network are still scarce. In this work, we have studied the functional conservation of transcription factors belonging to the SHI/STY/SRS family in two distant species within the eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Nicotiana benthamiana. We have found that the expression patterns of EcSRS-L and NbSRS-L genes during flower development are similar to each other and to those reported for Arabidopsis SHI/STY/SRS genes. We have also characterized the phenotypic effects of NbSRS-L gene inactivation and overexpression in Nicotiana. Our results support the widely conserved role of SHI/STY/SRS genes at the top of the regulatory network directing style and stigma development, specialized tissues specific to the angiosperm carpels, at least within core eudicots, providing new insights on the possible evolutionary origin of the carpels.

  8. A root-expressed magnesium transporter of the MRS2/MGT gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana allows for growth in low-Mg2+ environments.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Michael; Meschenmoser, Karoline; Svidová, Sona; Weghuber, Julian; Schweyen, Rudolf; Eifler, Karolin; Lenz, Henning; Weyand, Katrin; Knoop, Volker

    2009-12-01

    The MRS2/MGT gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the superfamily of CorA-MRS2-ALR-type membrane proteins. Proteins of this type are characterized by a GMN tripeptide motif (Gly-Met-Asn) at the end of the first of two C-terminal transmembrane domains and have been characterized as magnesium transporters. Using the recently established mag-fura-2 system allowing direct measurement of Mg(2+) uptake into mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we find that all members of the Arabidopsis family complement the corresponding yeast mrs2 mutant. Highly different patterns of tissue-specific expression were observed for the MRS2/MGT family members in planta. Six of them are expressed in root tissues, indicating a possible involvement in plant magnesium supply and distribution after uptake from the soil substrate. Homozygous T-DNA insertion knockout lines were obtained for four members of the MRS2/MGT gene family. A strong, magnesium-dependent phenotype of growth retardation was found for mrs2-7 when Mg(2+) concentrations were lowered to 50 microM in hydroponic cultures. Ectopic overexpression of MRS2-7 from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter results in complementation and increased biomass accumulation. Green fluorescent protein reporter gene fusions indicate a location of MRS2-7 in the endomembrane system. Hence, contrary to what is frequently found in analyses of plant gene families, a single gene family member knockout results in a strong, environmentally dependent phenotype.

  9. The Role of SHI/STY/SRS Genes in Organ Growth and Carpel Development Is Conserved in the Distant Eudicot Species Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Gomariz-Fernández, Africa; Sánchez-Gerschon, Verónica; Fourquin, Chloé; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Carpels are a distinctive feature of angiosperms, the ovule-bearing female reproductive organs that endow them with multiple selective advantages likely linked to the evolutionary success of flowering plants. Gene regulatory networks directing the development of carpel specialized tissues and patterning have been proposed based on genetic and molecular studies carried out in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, studies on the conservation/diversification of the elements and the topology of this network are still scarce. In this work, we have studied the functional conservation of transcription factors belonging to the SHI/STY/SRS family in two distant species within the eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Nicotiana benthamiana. We have found that the expression patterns of EcSRS-L and NbSRS-L genes during flower development are similar to each other and to those reported for Arabidopsis SHI/STY/SRS genes. We have also characterized the phenotypic effects of NbSRS-L gene inactivation and overexpression in Nicotiana. Our results support the widely conserved role of SHI/STY/SRS genes at the top of the regulatory network directing style and stigma development, specialized tissues specific to the angiosperm carpels, at least within core eudicots, providing new insights on the possible evolutionary origin of the carpels. PMID:28588595

  10. Different functions of the histone acetyltransferase HAC1 gene traced in the model species Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boycheva, Irina; Vassileva, Valya; Revalska, Miglena; Zehirov, Grigor; Iantcheva, Anelia

    2017-03-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetyltransferases regulate the acetylation of histones and transcription factors, affecting chromatin structural organization, transcriptional regulation, and gene activation. To assess the role of HAC1, a gene encoding for a histone acetyltransferase in Medicago truncatula, stable transgenic lines with modified HAC1 expression in the model plants M. truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and used for functional analyses. Histochemical, transcriptional, flow cytometric, and morphological analyses demonstrated the involvement of HAC1 in plant growth and development, responses to internal stimuli, and cell cycle progression. Expression patterns of a reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused to the HAC1 promoter sequence were associated with young tissues comprised of actively dividing cells in different plant organs. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, driven by the HAC1 promoter, was detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of root cells. Transgenic lines with HAC1 overexpression and knockdown showed a wide range of phenotypic deviations and developmental abnormalities, which provided lines of evidence for the role of HAC1 in plant development. Synchronization of A. thaliana root tips in a line with HAC1 knockdown showed the involvement of this gene in the acetylation of two core histones during S phase of the plant cell cycle.

  11. Tetrapyrrole Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ryouichi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2011-01-01

    Higher plants produce four classes of tetrapyrroles, namely, chlorophyll (Chl), heme, siroheme, and phytochromobilin. In plants, tetrapyrroles play essential roles in a wide range of biological activities including photosynthesis, respiration and the assimilation of nitrogen/sulfur. All four classes of tetrapyrroles are derived from a common biosynthetic pathway that resides in the plastid. In this article, we present an overview of tetrapyrrole metabolism in Arabidopsis and other higher plants, and we describe all identified enzymatic steps involved in this metabolism. We also summarize recent findings on Chl biosynthesis and Chl breakdown. Recent advances in this field, in particular those on the genetic and biochemical analyses of novel enzymes, prompted us to redraw the tetrapyrrole metabolic pathways. In addition, we also summarize our current understanding on the regulatory mechanisms governing tetrapyrrole metabolism. The interactions of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and other cellular processes including the plastid-to-nucleus signal transduction are discussed. PMID:22303270

  12. Light responses in Photoperiodism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Cashmore

    2006-08-01

    ADO1: An Arabidopsis blue light photoreceptor We have reported the characterization of an Arabidopsis gene encoding the ADAGIO 1 (ADO1) protein (Jarillo et al., 2001a). ADO1 contains a LOV domain, similar to WHITE COLLAR 1 (WC1), a photoreceptor for entrainment of Neurospora circadian rhythms (Froehlich et al., 2002), as well as PHOT1 and PHOT2, the blue light photoreceptors for phototropism (Briggs et al., 2001; Christie et al., 1998; Jarillo et al., 2001b; Kinoshita et al., 2001). Loss of function ado1 mutants show an unusually long periodicity for their free running circadian rhythm (Jarillo et al., 2001a). This observation holds for plants grown under white light as well as blue light and surprisingly, plants grown under red light also show altered circadian properties. The similarity of the LOV domain of ADO1 to those of PHOT1, PHOT2 and WC1 (known flavoprotein photoreceptors) as well as the genetic and molecular properties of ADO1, indicate that ADO1 is likely a new class of blue light photoreceptor. Indeed, the LOV domain of the related FKF1/ADO3 has been shown to bind FMN, and exhibit the in vitro photochemistry characteristic of PHOT1 (Imaizumi et al., 2003). Furthermore, ZTL/ADO1 has been shown to participate in the circadian and proteasome mediated degradation of the Arabidopsis clock protein, TOC1 (Mas et al., 2003). We also showed that the ado1 mutation selectively confers hypersensitivity to red light — when grown under red light (but not blue light) the ado1 mutant possesses an unusually short hypocotyl. This red light hypersensivity is even more severe in a triple ado1 ado2 ado3 mutant — ADO2 and ADO3 being the two other members of this ADAGIO gene family. This finding of a mutant phenotype under red light is somewhat unexpected for a protein thought to function as a photoreceptor for blue light. We have pursued our studies of ADO1 by preparing a mutant gene for which we have altered the codon for the cysteine residue conserved in all LOV

  13. Characterization of the Nrt2.6 Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana: A Link with Plant Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dechorgnat, Julie; Patrit, Oriane; Krapp, Anne; Fagard, Mathilde; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    The high affinity nitrate transport system in Arabidopsis thaliana involves one gene and potentially seven genes from the NRT1 and NRT2 family, respectively. Among them, NRT2.1, NRT2.2, NRT2.4 and NRT2.7 proteins have been shown to transport nitrate and are localized on the plasmalemma or the tonoplast membranes. NRT2.1, NRT2.2 and NRT2.4 play a role in nitrate uptake from soil solution by root cells while NRT2.7 is responsible for nitrate loading in the seed vacuole. We have undertaken the functional characterization of a third member of the family, the NRT2.6 gene. NRT2.6 was weakly expressed in most plant organs and its expression was higher in vegetative organs than in reproductive organs. Contrary to other NRT2 members, NRT2.6 expression was not induced by limiting but rather by high nitrogen levels, and no nitrate-related phenotype was found in the nrt2.6-1 mutant. Consistently, the over-expression of the gene failed to complement the nitrate uptake defect of an nrt2.1-nrt2.2 double mutant. The NRT2.6 expression is induced after inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. Interestingly, plants with a decreased NRT2.6 expression showed a lower tolerance to pathogen attack. A correlation was found between NRT2.6 expression and ROS species accumulation in response to infection by E. amylovora and treatment with the redox-active herbicide methyl viologen, suggesting a probable link between NRT2.6 activity and the production of ROS in response to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:22880003

  14. Genome-wide identification of physically clustered genes suggests chromatin-level co-regulation in male reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Reimegård, Johan; Kundu, Snehangshu; Pendle, Ali; Irish, Vivian F.; Shaw, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Co-expression of physically linked genes occurs surprisingly frequently in eukaryotes. Such chromosomal clustering may confer a selective advantage as it enables coordinated gene regulation at the chromatin level. We studied the chromosomal organization of genes involved in male reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. We developed an in-silico tool to identify physical clusters of co-regulated genes from gene expression data. We identified 17 clusters (96 genes) involved in stamen development and acting downstream of the transcriptional activator MS1 (MALE STERILITY 1), which contains a PHD domain associated with chromatin re-organization. The clusters exhibited little gene homology or promoter element similarity, and largely overlapped with reported repressive histone marks. Experiments on a subset of the clusters suggested a link between expression activation and chromatin conformation: qRT-PCR and mRNA in situ hybridization showed that the clustered genes were up-regulated within 48 h after MS1 induction; out of 14 chromatin-remodeling mutants studied, expression of clustered genes was consistently down-regulated only in hta9/hta11, previously associated with metabolic cluster activation; DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that transcriptional activation of the clustered genes was correlated with open chromatin conformation. Stamen development thus appears to involve transcriptional activation of physically clustered genes through chromatin de-condensation. PMID:28175342

  15. A gene co-expression network predicts functional genes controlling the re-establishment of desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Cecília D; Righetti, Karima; Nijveen, Harm; Yazdanpanah, Farzaneh; Ligterink, Wilco; Buitink, Julia; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-08-01

    During re-establishment of desiccation tolerance (DT), early events promote initial protection and growth arrest, while late events promote stress adaptation and contribute to survival in the dry state. Mature seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana are desiccation tolerant, but they lose desiccation tolerance (DT) while progressing to germination. Yet, there is a small developmental window during which DT can be rescued by treatment with abscisic acid (ABA). To gain temporal resolution and identify relevant genes in this process, data from a time series of microarrays were used to build a gene co-expression network. The network has two regions, namely early response (ER) and late response (LR). Genes in the ER region are related to biological processes, such as dormancy, acquisition of DT and drought, amplification of signals, growth arrest and induction of protection mechanisms (such as LEA proteins). Genes in the LR region lead to inhibition of photosynthesis and primary metabolism, promote adaptation to stress conditions and contribute to seed longevity. Phenotyping of 12 hubs in relation to re-establishment of DT with T-DNA insertion lines indicated a significant increase in the ability to re-establish DT compared with the wild-type in the lines cbsx4, at3g53040 and at4g25580, suggesting the operation of redundant and compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we show that re-establishment of DT by polyethylene glycol and ABA occurs through partially overlapping mechanisms. Our data confirm that co-expression network analysis is a valid approach to examine data from time series of transcriptome analysis, as it provides promising insights into biologically relevant relations that help to generate new information about the roles of certain genes for DT.

  16. Transcriptomic and proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed genes and proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking chloroplastic 1 and cytosolic FBPases reveals several levels of metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Soto-Suárez, Mauricio; Serrato, Antonio J; Rojas-González, José A; Bautista, Rocío; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2016-12-01

    During the photosynthesis, two isoforms of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), the chloroplastidial (cFBP1) and the cytosolic (cyFBP), catalyse the first irreversible step during the conversion of triose phosphates (TP) to starch or sucrose, respectively. Deficiency in cyFBP and cFBP1 isoforms provokes an imbalance of the starch/sucrose ratio, causing a dramatic effect on plant development when the plastidial enzyme is lacking. We study the correlation between the transcriptome and proteome profile in rosettes and roots when cFBP1 or cyFBP genes are disrupted in Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutants. By using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing the genome of Arabidopsis we were able to identify 1067 and 1243 genes whose expressions are altered in the rosettes and roots of the cfbp1 mutant respectively; whilst in rosettes and roots of cyfbp mutant 1068 and 1079 genes are being up- or down-regulated respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR validated 100% of a set of 14 selected genes differentially expressed according to our microarray analysis. Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis-based proteomic analysis revealed quantitative differences in 36 and 26 proteins regulated in rosettes and roots of cfbp1, respectively, whereas the 18 and 48 others were regulated in rosettes and roots of cyfbp mutant, respectively. The genes differentially expressed and the proteins more or less abundant revealed changes in protein metabolism, RNA regulation, cell signalling and organization, carbon metabolism, redox regulation, and transport together with biotic and abiotic stress. Notably, a significant set (25%) of the proteins identified were also found to be regulated at a transcriptional level. This transcriptomic and proteomic analysis is the first comprehensive and comparative study of the gene/protein re-adjustment that occurs in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs of Arabidopsis mutants lacking FBPase isoforms.

  17. The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem.

    PubMed

    Samach, A; Klenz, J E; Kohalmi, S E; Risseeuw, E; Haughn, G W; Crosby, W L

    1999-11-01

    Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene, from Arabidopsis thaliana, is expressed in all shoot apical meristems, and is involved in the regulation of a complex set of developmental events during floral development, including floral meristem and floral organ identity. Results from in situ hybridization using genes expressed early in floral development as probes indicate that UFO controls growth of young floral primordia. Transgenic constructs were used to provide evidence that UFO regulates floral organ identity by activating or maintaining transcription of the class B organ-identity gene APETALA 3, but not PISTILLATA. In an attempt to understand the biochemical mode of action of the UFO gene product, we show here that UFO is an F-box protein that interacts with Arabidopsis SKP1-like proteins, both in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. In yeast and other organisms both F-box proteins and SKP1 homologues are subunits of specific ubiquitin E3 enzyme complexes that target specific proteins for degradation. The protein selected for degradation by the complex is specified by the F-box proteins. It is therefore possible that the role of UFO is to target for degradation specific proteins controlling normal growth patterns in the floral primordia, as well as proteins that negatively regulate APETALA 3 transcription.

  18. Blue light alters miR167 expression and microRNA-targeted auxin response factor genes in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Pashkovskiy, Pavel P; Kartashov, Alexander V; Zlobin, Ilya E; Pogosyan, Sergei I; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-07-01

    The effect of blue LED (450 nm) on the photomorphogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants and the transcript levels of several genes, including miRNAs, photoreceptors and auxin response factors (ARF) was investigated. It was observed that blue light accelerated the generative development, reduced the rosette leaf number, significantly reduced the leaf area, dry biomass and led to the disruption of conductive tissue formation. The blue LED differentially influenced the transcript levels of several phytochromes (PHY a, b, c, d, and e), cryptochromes (CRY 1 and 2) and phototropins (PHOT 1 and 2). At the same time, the blue LED significantly increased miR167 expression compared to a fluorescent lamp or white LEDs. This increase likely resulted in the enhanced transcription of the auxin response factor genes ARF4 and ARF8, which are regulated by this miRNA. These findings support the hypothesis that the effects of blue light on A. thaliana are mediated by auxin signalling pathway involving miRNA-dependent regulation of ARF gene expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analyses of stress-responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana: insight from genomic data mining, functional enrichment, pathway analysis and phenomics.

    PubMed

    Naika, Mahantesha; Shameer, Khader; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2013-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses adversely affect agriculture by reducing crop growth and productivity worldwide. To investigate the abiotic stress-responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, we compiled a dataset of stress signals and differentially upregulated genes (>= 2.5 fold change) from Stress-responsive transcription Factors DataBase (STIFDB) with additional set of stress signals and genes curated from PubMed and Gene Expression Omnibus. A dataset of 3091 genes differentially upregulated due to 14 different stress signals (abscisic acid, aluminum, cold, cold-drought-salt, dehydration, drought, heat, iron, light, NaCl, osmotic stress, oxidative stress, UV-B and wounding) were curated and used for the analysis. Details about stress-responsive enriched genes and their association with stress signals can be obtained from STIFDB2 database . The gene-stress-signal data were analyzed using an enrichment-based meta-analysis framework consisting of two different ontologies (Gene Ontology and Plant Ontology), biological pathway and functional domain annotations. We found several shared and distinct biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions associated with stress-responsive genes. Pathway analysis revealed that stress-responsive genes perturbed the pathways under the "Metabolic pathways" category. We also found several shared and stress-signal specific protein domains, suggesting functional mechanisms regulating stress-response. Phenomic characteristics of abiotic stress-responsive genes were ascertained for several stresses and found to be shared by multiple stresses in both anatomy and temporal categories of Plant Ontology. We found several constitutive stress-responsive genes that are differentially upregulated due to perturbation of different stress signals, for example a gene (AT1G68440) involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism and polyamine catabolism as responsive to seven different stress signals. We also performed structure-function prediction

  20. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  1. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  2. Family-based linkage and association mapping reveals novel genes affecting Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pagny, Gaëlle; Paulstephenraj, Pauline S; Poque, Sylvain; Sicard, Ophélie; Cosson, Patrick; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Caballero, Mélodie; Chague, Aurélie; Gourdon, Germain; Negrel, Lise; Candresse, Thierry; Mariette, Stéphanie; Decroocq, Véronique

    2012-11-01

    Sharka is a devastating viral disease caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees and few sources of resistance are known in its natural hosts. Since any knowledge gained from Arabidopsis on plant virus susceptibility factors is likely to be transferable to crop species, Arabidopsis's natural variation was searched for host factors essential for PPV infection. To locate regions of the genome associated with susceptibility to PPV, linkage analysis was performed on six biparental populations as well as on multiparental lines. To refine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, a genome-wide association analysis was carried out using 147 Arabidopsis accessions. Evidence was found for linkage on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5 with restriction of PPV long-distance movement. The most relevant signals occurred within a region at the bottom of chromosome 3, which comprises seven RTM3-like TRAF domain-containing genes. Since the resistance mechanism analyzed here is recessive and the rtm3 knockout mutant is susceptible to PPV infection, it suggests that other gene(s) present in the small identified region encompassing RTM3 are necessary for PPV long-distance movement. In consequence, we report here the occurrence of host factor(s) that are indispensable for virus long-distance movement. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS2 from Dunaliella viridis and biochemical identification of DvGS2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-02-25

    The salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella has remarkable capability to survive in some extreme environments such as nitrogen starvation, which makes Dunaliella be a proper model for mining novel genes on nitrogen uptake or assimilation. In this study, a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS2 with amino acid identity of 72% to other homologous GS proteins, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic comparison with other GSs revealed that DvGS2 occupied an independent phylogenetic position. Expressional analysis in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation confirmed that DvGS2 increased its mRNA level in 12h. Subcellular localization study and functional analysis in a GS-deficient Escherichia coli mutant proved that DvGS2 was a chloroplastic and functional GS enzyme. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS2 in higher plants, the transgenic studies of DvGS2 in Arabidopsis thaliana were carried out. Results showed that the transgenic lines expressed the DvGS2 gene and demonstrated obviously enhanced root length (29%), fresh weight (40%-48% at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (21%), leaf size (39%) and silique number (44%) in contrast with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content (35%-43%), total GS activity (39%-45%) and soluble protein concentration (23%-24%) than the wild type. These results indicated that the overexpression of DvGS2 in A. thaliana resulted in higher biomass and the improvement of the host's nitrogen use efficiency.

  4. PpCBF3 from Cold-Tolerant Kentucky Bluegrass Involved in Freezing Tolerance Associated with Up-Regulation of Cold-Related Genes in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Bin; Yang, Zhimin; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding proteins (DREB)/C-repeat (CRT) Binding Factors (CBF) have been identified as transcriptional activators during plant responses to cold stress. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological roles of a CBF gene isolated from a cold-tolerant perennial grass species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), which designated as PpCBF3, in regulating plant tolerance to freezing stress. Transient transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplast with PpCBF3-eGFP fused protein showed that PpCBF3 was localized to the nucleus. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpCBF3 was specifically induced by cold stress (4°C) but not by drought stress [induced by 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (PEG-6000)] or salt stress (150 mM NaCl). Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing PpCBF3 showed significant improvement in freezing (-20°C) tolerance demonstrated by a lower percentage of chlorotic leaves, lower cellular electrolyte leakage (EL) and H2O2 and O2.- content, and higher chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency compared to the wild type. Relative mRNA expression level analysis by qRT-PCR indicated that the improved freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PpCBF3 was conferred by sustained activation of downstream cold responsive (COR) genes. Other interesting phenotypic changes in the PpCBF3-transgenic Arabidopsis plants included late flowering and slow growth or ‘dwarfism’, both of which are desirable phenotypic traits for perennial turfgrasses. Therefore, PpCBF3 has potential to be used in genetic engineering for improvement of turfgrass freezing tolerance and other desirable traits. PMID:26177510

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres exhibit euchromatic features

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Sedas, María I.; Gámez-Arjona, Francisco M.; Vega-Palas, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere function is influenced by chromatin structure and organization, which usually involves epigenetic modifications. We describe here the chromatin structure of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres. Based on the study of six different epigenetic marks we show that Arabidopsis telomeres exhibit euchromatic features. In contrast, subtelomeric regions and telomeric sequences present at interstitial chromosomal loci are heterochromatic. Histone methyltransferases and the chromatin remodeling protein DDM1 control subtelomeric heterochromatin formation. Whereas histone methyltransferases are required for histone H3K92Me and non-CpG DNA methylation, DDM1 directs CpG methylation but not H3K92Me or non-CpG methylation. These results argue that both kinds of proteins participate in different pathways to reinforce subtelomeric heterochromatin formation. PMID:21071395

  6. Development of a luciferase-based reporter of transcriptional gene silencing that enables bidirectional mutant screening in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cytosine methylation is an important chromatin modification that maintains genome integrity and regulates gene expression through transcriptional gene silencing. Major players in de novo methylation guided by siRNAs (known as RNA-directed DNA methylation, or RdDM), maintenance methylation, and active demethylation have been identified in Arabidopsis. However, active demethylation only occurs at a subset of RdDM loci, raising the question of how the homeostasis of DNA methylation is achieved at most RdDM loci. To identify factors that regulate the levels of cytosine methylation, we aimed to establish a transgenic reporter system that allows for forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis. Results We introduced a dual 35 S promoter (d35S) driven luciferase reporter, LUCH, into Arabidopsis and isolated a line with a moderate level of luciferase activity. LUCH produced transgene-specific 24 nucleotide siRNAs and its d35S contained methylated cytosine in CG, CHG and CHH contexts. Treatment of the transgenic line with an inhibitor of cytosine methylation de-repressed luciferase activity. Mutations in several components of the RdDM pathway but not the maintenance methylation genes resulted in reduced d35S methylation, especially CHH methylation, and de-repression of luciferase activity. A mutation in MOM1, which is known to cooperate with RdDM to silence transposons, reduced d35S DNA methylation and de-repressed LUCH expression. A mutation in ROS1, a cytosine demethylation enzyme, increased d35S methylation and reduced LUCH expression. Conclusion We developed a luciferase-based reporter, LUCH, which reports both DNA methylation directed by small RNAs and active demethylation by ROS1 in Arabidopsis. The moderate basal level of LUCH expression allows for bi-directional genetic screens that dissect the mechanisms of DNA methylation as well as demethylation. PMID:22676624

  7. Identification of proliferation-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Characterization of a new member of the highly evolutionarily conserved histone H2A.F/Z variant subfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Callard, D; Mazzolini, L

    1997-01-01

    The changes in gene expression associated with the reinitiation of cell division and subsequent progression through the cell cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana cell-suspension cultures were investigated. Partial synchronization of cells was achieved by a technique combining phosphate starvation and a transient treatment with the DNA replication inhibitor aphidicolin. Six cDNAs corresponding to genes highly induced in proliferating cells and showing cell-cycle-regulated expression were obtained by the mRNA differential display technique. Full-length cDNA clones (cH2BAt and cH2AvAt) corresponding to two of the display products were subsequently isolated. The cH2BAt clone codes for a novel histone H2B protein, whereas the cH2AvAt cDNA corresponds to a gene encoding a new member of the highly conserved histone H2A.F/Z subfamily of chromosomal proteins. Further studies indicated that H2AvAt mRNA expression is tightly correlated with cell proliferation in cell-suspension cultures, and that closely related analogs of the encoded protein exist in Arabidopsis. The implications of the conservation of histone H2A.F/Z variants in plants are discussed. PMID:9414552

  8. A novel Glycine soja tonoplast intrinsic protein gene responds to abiotic stress and depresses salt and dehydration tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiao-Li; Chen, Lian-Jiang; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-07-15

    Tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) is a subfamily of the aquaporin (AQP), also known as major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, and regulates water movement across vacuolar membranes. Some reports have implied that TIP genes are associated with plant tolerance to some abiotic stresses that cause water loss, such as drought and high salinity. In our previous work, we found that an expressed sequence tag (EST) representing a TIP gene in our Glycine soja EST library was inducible by abiotic stresses. This TIP was subsequently isolated from G. soja with cDNA library screening, EST assembly and PCR, and named as GsTIP2;1. The expression patterns of GsTIP2;1 in G. soja under low temperature, salt and dehydration stress were different in leaves and roots. Though GsTIP2;1 is a stress-induced gene, overexpression of GsTIP2;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stress, but did not affect seedling growth under cold or favorable conditions. Higher dehydration speed was detected in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GsTIP2;1, implying GsTIP2;1 might mediate stress sensitivity by enhancing water loss in the plant. Such a result is not identical to previous reports, providing some new information about the relationship between TIP and plant abiotic stress tolerance.

  9. Mutations in the plant-conserved MTERF9 alter chloroplast gene expression, development and tolerance to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Robles, Pedro; Micol, José Luis; Quesada, Víctor

    2015-06-01

    The control of organelle gene expression in plants is far from fully understood. The characterization of mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana is assigning an increasingly prominent role to the mitochondrial transcription termination factors (mTERFs) in this process. To gain insight into the function of mTERF genes in plants, we took a reverse genetics approach to identify and characterize A. thaliana mTERF-defective mutants. Here we report the characterization of the mterf9 mutant, affected in an mTERF protein functionally conserved in plants and targeted to chloroplasts. Loss of MTERF9 results in defective chloroplast development, which is likely to cause paleness, stunted growth and reduced mesophyll cell numbers. Expression analysis of different plastid genes revealed reduced levels of plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP)-dependent transcripts and increased levels of transcripts dependent of nucleus-encoded polymerase. mterf9 plants exhibited altered responses to sugars, abscisic acid (ABA), salt and osmotic stresses, and the microarray data analysis showed modifications in MTERF9 expression after salt or mannitol treatments. Our genetic interactions results indicate a functional relationship between MTERF9 and the previously characterized MDA1 gene, and between MDA1 and some plastid ribosomal genes. MDA1 and MTERF9 were upregulated in the mterf9 and mda1 mutants, respectively. Moreover, 21 of 50 genes were commonly co-expressed with MDA1 and MTERF9. The analysis of the MDA1 and MTERF9 promoters showed that both were rich in stress-related cis-regulatory elements. Our results highlight the role of the MTERF9 gene in plant biology and deepens the understanding of the functional relationship of plant mTERF genes. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Crystal structure of the protein from Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450, a putative DnaQ-like exonuclease domain-containing protein with homohexameric assembly.

    PubMed

    Smith, David W; Han, Mi Ra; Park, Joon Sung; Kim, Kyung Rok; Yeom, Taeho; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Do Jin; Bingman, Craig A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jo, Kyubong; Han, Byung Woo; Phillips, George N

    2013-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450 encodes a putative DnaQ-like 3'-5' exonuclease domain-containing protein (AtDECP). The DnaQ-like 3'-5' exonuclease domain is often found as a proofreading domain of DNA polymerases. The overall structure of AtDECP adopts an RNase H fold that consists of a mixed β-sheet flanked by α-helices. Interestingly, AtDECP forms a homohexameric assembly with a central six fold symmetry, generating a central cavity. The ring-shaped structure and comparison with WRN-exo, the best structural homologue of AtDECP, suggest a possible mechanism for implementing its exonuclease activity using positively charged patch on the N-terminal side of the homohexameric assembly. The homohexameric structure of AtDECP provides unique information about the interaction between the DnaQ-like 3'-5' exonuclease and its substrate nucleic acids.

  11. Crystal structure of the protein from Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450, a putative DnaQ-like exonuclease domain-containing protein with homohexameric assembly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Sung; Kim, Kyung Rok; Yeom, Taeho; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Do Jin; Bingman, Craig A.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jo, Kyubong; Han, Byung Woo; Phillips, George N.

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450 encodes a putative DnaQ-like 3′-5′ exonuclease domain-containing protein (AtDECP). The DnaQ-like 3′-5′ exonuclease domain is often found as a proofreading domain of DNA polymerases. The overall structure of AtDECP adopts an RNase H fold that consists of a mixed β-sheet flanked by α-helices. Interestingly, AtDECP forms a homohexameric assembly with a central 6-fold symmetry, generating a central cavity. The ring-shaped structure and comparison with WRN-exo, the best structural homologue of AtDECP, suggest a possible mechanism for implementing its exonuclease activity using positively charged patch on the N-terminal side of the homohexameric assembly. The homohexameric structure of AtDECP provides unique information about the interaction between the DnaQ-like 3′-5′ exonuclease and its substrate nucleic acids. PMID:23616405

  12. Root transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to beneficial Bacillus subtilis FB17 rhizobacteria revealed genes for bacterial recruitment and plant defense independent of malate efflux.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Castaneda, Rafael; Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Bais, Harsh P

    2013-10-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana can actively recruit beneficial rhizobacteria Bacillus subtilis strain FB17 (hereafter FB17) through an unknown shoot-to-root long-distance signaling pathway post a foliar bacterial pathogen attack. However, it is still not well understood which genetic targets FB17 affects in plants. Microarray analysis of A. thaliana roots treated with FB17 post 24 h of treatment showed 168 and 129 genes that were up- and down-regulated, respectively, compared with the untreated control roots. Those up-regulated include auxin-regulated genes as well as genes involved in metabolism, stress response, and plant defense. In addition, other defense-related genes, as well as cell-wall modification genes were also down-regulated with FB17 colonization. Expression patterns of 20 selected genes were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, validating the microarray results. A. thaliana insertion mutants were used against FB17 to further study the functional response of the differentially expressed genes. Five mutants for the up-regulated genes were tested for FB17 colonization, three (at3g28360, at3g20190 and at1g21240) mutants showed decreased FB17 colonization on the roots while increased FB17 titers was seen with three mutants of the down-regulated genes (at3g27980, at4g19690 and at5g56320). Further, these mutants for up-regulated genes and down-regulated genes were foliar infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (hereafter PstDC3000) and analyzed for Aluminum activated malate transporter (ALMT1) expression which showed that ALMT1 may be the key regulator for root FB17 colonization. Our microarray showed that under natural condition, FB17 triggers plant responses in a manner similar to known plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and to some extent also suppresses defense-related genes expression in roots, enabling stable colonization. The possible implication of this study opens up a new dialogin terms of how beneficial

  13. Effects of AOX1a deficiency on plant growth, gene expression of respiratory components and metabolic profile under low-nitrogen stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Chihiro K; Hachiya, Takushi; Takahara, Kentaro; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Uesono, Yukifumi; Terashima, Ichiro; Noguchi, Ko

    2010-05-01

    Expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) and cyanide (CN)-resistant respiration are often highly enhanced in plants exposed to low-nitrogen (N) stress. Here, we examined the effects of AOX deficiency on plant growth, gene expression of respiratory components and metabolic profiles under low-N stress, using an aox1a knockout transgenic line (aox1a) of Arabidopsis thaliana. We exposed wild-type (WT) and aox1a plants to low-N stress for 7 d and analyzed their shoots and roots. In WT plants, the AOX1a mRNA levels and AOX capacity increased in proportion to low-N stress. Expression of the genes of the components for non-phosphorylating pathways and antioxidant enzymes was enhanced, but differences between WT and aox1a plants were small. Metabolome analyses revealed that AOX deficiency altered the levels of certain metabolites, such as sugars and sugar phosphates, in the shoots under low-N stress. However, the carbon (C)/N ratios and carbohydrate levels in aox1a plants were similar to those in the WT under low-N stress. Our results indicated that the N-limited stress induced AOX expression in A. thaliana plants, but the induced AOX may not play essential roles under stress due to low-N alone, and the C/N balance under low-N stress may be tightly regulated by systems other than AOX.

  14. Crosstalk between nitric oxide and glutathione is required for NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1)-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Izabella; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes in animals and plants. Although its significant influence on plant immunity is well known, information about the exact regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the defense response to pathogens is still limited. We used genetic, biochemical, pharmacological approaches in combination with infection experiments to investigate the NO-triggered salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defense response in Arabidopsis thaliana. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) promoted the nuclear accumulation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) protein accompanied by an elevated SA concentration and the activation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, leading to induced resistance of A. thaliana against Pseudomonas infection. Moreover, NO induced a rapid change in the glutathione status, resulting in increased concentrations of glutathione, which is required for SA accumulation and activation of the NPR1-dependent defense response. Our data imply crosstalk between NO and glutathione, which is integral to the NPR1-dependent defense signaling pathway, and further demonstrate that glutathione is not only an important cellular redox buffer but also a signaling molecule in the plant defense response.

  15. Mercuric ion reduction and resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a modified bacterial merA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, C L; Wilde, H D; Stack, N M; Thompson, D M; Summers, A O; Meagher, R B

    1996-01-01

    With global heavy metal contamination increasing, plants that can process heavy metals might provide efficient and ecologically sound approaches to sequestration and removal. Mercuric ion reductase, MerA, converts toxic Hg2+ to the less toxic, relatively inert metallic mercury (Hg0) The bacterial merA sequence is rich in CpG dinucleotides and has a highly skewed codon usage, both of which are particularly unfavorable to efficient expression in plants. We constructed a mutagenized merA sequence, merApe9, modifying the flanking region and 9% of the coding region and placing this sequence under control of plant regulatory elements. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds expressing merApe9 germinated, and these seedlings grew, flowered, and set seed on medium containing HgCl2 concentrations of 25-100 microM (5-20 ppm), levels toxic to several controls. Transgenic merApe9 seedlings evolved considerable amounts of Hg0 relative to control plants. The rate of mercury evolution and the level of resistance were proportional to the steady-state mRNA level, confirming that resistance was due to expression of the MerApe9 enzyme. Plants and bacteria expressing merApe9 were also resistant to toxic levels of Au3+. These and other data suggest that there are potentially viable molecular genetic approaches to the phytoremediation of metal ion pollution. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8622910

  16. Transcriptional networks in the nitrate response of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Elena A; Álvarez, José M; Moyano, Tomás C; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plants and its availability is a key determinant of plant growth and development and crop yield. Besides their nutritional role, N nutrients and metabolites are signals that activate signaling pathways that modulate many plant processes. Because the most abundant inorganic N source for plants in agronomic soils is nitrate, much of the work to understand plant N-signaling has focused on this nutrient. Over the last years, several studies defined a comprehensive catalog of nitrate-responsive genes, involved in nitrate transport, metabolism and a variety of other processes. Despite significant progress in recent years, primarily using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system, the molecular mechanisms by which nitrate elicits changes in transcript abundance are still not fully understood. Here we highlight recent advancements in identifying key transcription factors and transcriptional mechanisms that orchestrate the gene expression response to changes in nitrate availability in A. thaliana.

  17. Integrating the genetic and physical maps of Arabidopsis thaliana: identification of mapped alleles of cloned essential (EMB) genes.

    PubMed

    Meinke, David; Sweeney, Colleen; Muralla, Rosanna

    2009-10-08

    The classical genetic map of Arabidopsis includes more than 130 genes with an embryo-defective (emb) mutant phenotype. Many of these essential genes remain to be cloned. Hundreds of additional EMB genes have been cloned and catalogued (www.seedgenes.org) but not mapped. To facilitate EMB gene identification and assess the current level of saturation, we updated the classical map, compared the physical and genetic locations of mapped loci, and performed allelism tests between mapped (but not cloned) and cloned (but not mapped) emb mutants with similar chromosome locations. Two hundred pairwise combinations of genes located on chromosomes 1 and 5 were tested and more than 1100 total crosses were screened. Sixteen of 51 mapped emb mutants examined were found to be disrupted in a known EMB gene. Alleles of a wide range of published EMB genes (YDA, GLA1, TIL1, AtASP38, AtDEK1, EMB506, DG1, OEP80) were discovered. Two EMS mutants isolated 30 years ago, T-DNA mutants with complex insertion sites, and a mutant with an atypical, embryo-specific phenotype were resolved. The frequency of allelism encountered was consistent with past estimates of 500 to 1000 EMB loci. New EMB genes identified among mapped T-DNA insertion mutants included CHC1, which is required for chromatin remodeling, and SHS1/AtBT1, which encodes a plastidial nucleotide transporter similar to the maize Brittle1 protein required for normal endosperm development. Two classical genetic markers (PY, ALB1) were identified based on similar map locations of known genes required for thiamine (THIC) and chlorophyll (PDE166) biosynthesis. The alignment of genetic and physical maps presented here should facilitate the continued analysis of essential genes in Arabidopsis and further characterization of a broad spectrum of mutant phenotypes in a model plant.

  18. Ectopic Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of an NB-ARC Encoding Putative Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhifeng; Yao, Liping; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Liu, Chonghuai; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession “Baihe-35-1,” which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw.), a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084), increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase) analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine. PMID:26697041

  19. Expression of glycine-rich protein genes, AtGRP5 and AtGRP23, induced by the cutin monomer 16-hydroxypalmitic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Ho; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Moon Chul; Cho, Sung Ho

    2008-11-01

    Glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) belong to a large family of heterogenous proteins that are enriched in glycine residues. The expression of two GRP genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, AtGRP5 and AtGRP23, was induced by 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (HPA), a major component of cutin. The expression of AtGRP3, which encodes a GRP protein that is structurally different from AtGRP5 and AtGRP23, was not responsive to HPA application. Treatment with HPA also induced expression of the pathogen-related PR-1 and PR-4 genes. Abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments enhanced the transcript levels of AtGRP5 and AtGRP23 as well as those of AtGRP3. It was also demonstrated that HPA effectively elicited the accumulation of H2O2 in rosette leaves of Arabidopsis. Results suggest the possible role of some species of GRPs, such as AtGRP5 and AtGRP23, in response to the pathogenic invasion mediated by cutin monomers in plants.

  20. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 chromatin environment at super-induced dehydration stress memory genes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Fromm, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    2014-03-01

    Pre-exposure to a stress may alter the plant's cellular, biochemical, and/or transcriptional responses during future encounters as a 'memory' from the previous stress. Genes increasing transcription in response to a first dehydration stress, but producing much higher transcript levels in a subsequent stress, represent the super-induced 'transcription memory' genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The chromatin environment (histone H3 tri-methylations of Lys 4 and Lys 27, H3K4me3, and H3K27me3) studied at five dehydration stress memory genes revealed existence of distinct memory-response subclasses that responded differently to CLF deficiency and displayed different transcriptional activities during the watered recovery periods. Among the most important findings is the novel aspect of the H3K27me3 function observed at specific dehydration stress memory genes. In contrast to its well-known role as a chromatin repressive mechanism at developmentally regulated genes, H3K27me3 did not prevent transcription from the dehydration stress-responding genes. The high H3K27me3 levels present during transcriptionally inactive states did not interfere with the transition to active transcription and with H3K4me3 accumulation. H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks function independently and are not mutually exclusive at the dehydration stress-responding memory genes.

  1. The Arabidopsis thaliana DSB formation (AtDFO) gene is required for meiotic double-strand break formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Song, Yao; Cheng, Zhi-hao; Wang, Ying-xiang; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Hong; Xu, Ling; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2012-10-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is the initial event for meiotic recombination catalyzed by the conserved Spo11 protein. In Arabidopsis, several proteins have been reported to be involved in DSB formation. Here, we report an Arabidopsis DSB forming (DFO) gene in Arabidopsis that is involved in DSB formation. The dfo mutant exhibits reduced fertility, producing polyads with an abnormal number of microspores, unlike the tetrads in the wild type. The dfo meiocytes were defective in homologous chromosome synapsis and segregation. Genetic analysis revealed that the homologous recombination of Atdfo-1 is severely affected in meiotic prophase I. DFO encodes a protein without any known conserved domain. There was no homologue identified outside the plant kingdom, indicating that AtDFO is a plant-specific protein. AtMRE11 has been reported to be responsible for processing SPO11-generated DSBs. The Atmre11 mutant displays chromosome fragmentation during meiosis. However, the Atdfo Atmre11 double mutant had no such chromosome fragmentation, indicating that AtDFO is required for DSB formation.

  2. Floral glycerolipid profiles in homeotic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Liu, Yu-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chen

    2014-08-08

    Flowers have distinct glycerolipid composition, yet its floral organ-specific profile remains elusive in Arabidopsis whose flowers are too tiny to dissect different floral organs. Here, we employed known floral homeotic mutants agamous-1 (ag-1) and apetala3-3 (ap3-3) to facilitate sample preparation enriched in different floral organs. The result of analysis on different polar glycerolipid classes and their fatty acid composition demonstrated that flowers of ap3-3 and ag-1 have distinct glycerolipid composition from that of wild type. Moreover, distinct set of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes is expressed in these mutants by qRT-PCR gene expression analysis. These data suggest that glycerolipid profile is distinct among different floral organs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of NRAMP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana in iron transport.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; Alonso, J M; Le Jean, M; Ecker, J R; Briat, J F

    2000-05-01

    Nramp genes code for a widely distributed class of proteins involved in a variety of processes, ranging from the control of susceptibility to bacterial infection in mammalian cells and taste behaviour in Drosophila to manganese uptake in yeast. Some of the NRAMP proteins in mammals and in yeast are capable of transporting metal ions, including iron. In plants, iron transport was shown to require a reduction/Fe(II) transport system. In Arabidopsis thaliana this process involves the IRT1 and Fro2 genes. Here we report the sequence of five NRAMP proteins from A. thaliana. Sequence comparison suggests that there are two classes of NRAMP proteins in plants: A. thaliana (At) NRAMP1 and Oriza sativa (Os) NRAMP1 and 3 (two rice isologues) represent one class, and AtNRAMP2-5 and OsNRAMP2 the other. AtNramp1 and OsNramp1 are able to complement the fet3fet4 yeast mutant defective both in low- and high-affinity iron transports, whereas AtNramp2 and OsNramp2 fail to do so. In addition, AtNramp1 transcript, but not AtNramp2 transcript, accumulates in response to iron deficiency in roots but not in leaves. Finally, overexpression of AtNramp1 in transgenic A. thaliana plants leads to an increase in plant resistance to toxic iron concentration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AtNramp1 participates in the control of iron homoeostasis in plants.

  4. Genomic and functional characterization of the oas gene family encoding O-acetylserine (thiol) lyases, enzymes catalyzing the final step in cysteine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jost, R; Berkowitz, O; Wirtz, M; Hopkins, L; Hawkesford, M J; Hell, R

    2000-08-08

    The final step of cysteine biosynthesis in plants is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL), which occurs as several isoforms found in the cytosol, the plastids and the mitochondria. Genomic DNA blot hybridization and isolation of genomic clones indicate single copy genes (oasA1, oasA2, oasB and oasC) that encode the activities of OAS-TL A, B and C found in separate subcellular compartments in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence analysis reveals that the newly discovered oasA2 gene represents a pseudogene that is still transcribed, but is not functionally translated. The comparison of gene structures suggests that oasA1/oasA2 and oasB/oasC are closely related and may be derived from a common ancestor by subsequent duplications. OAS-TL A, B and C were overexpressed in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking cysteine synthesis and exhibited bifunctional OAS-TL and beta-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) activities. However, all three proteins represent true OAS-TLs according to kinetic analysis and are unlikely to function in cyanide detoxification or secondary metabolism. In addition, it was demonstrated that the mitochondrial OAS-TL C exhibits in vivo protein-protein interaction capabilities with respect to cysteine synthase complex formation similar to cytosolic OAS-TL A and plastid OAS-TL B. Multiple database accessions for each of the A. thaliana OAS-TL isoforms can thus be attributed to a specified number of oas genes to which functionally defined gene products are assigned, and which are responsible for compartment-specific cysteine synthesis.

  5. Transcriptome response analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana to leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants have evolved a complicated resistance system and exhibit a variety of defense patterns in response to different attackers. Previous studies have shown that responses of plants to chewing insects and phloem-feeding insects are significantly different. Less is known, however, regarding molecular responses to leafminer insects. To investigate plant transcriptome response to leafminers, we selected the leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, which has a special feeding pattern more similar to pathogen damage than that of chewing insects, as a model insect, and Arabidopsis thaliana as a response plant. Results We first investigated local and systemic responses of A. thaliana to leafminer feeding using an Affymetrix ATH1 genome array. Genes related to metabolic processes and stimulus responses were highly regulated. Most systemically-induced genes formed a subset of the local response genes. We then downloaded gene expression data from online databases and used hierarchical clustering to explore relationships among gene expression patterns in A. thaliana damaged by different attackers. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that plant response patterns are strongly coupled to damage patterns of attackers. PMID:23231622

  6. Members of the gibberellin receptor gene family GID1 (GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1) play distinct roles during Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Voegele, Antje; Linkies, Ada; Müller, Kerstin; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Germination of endospermic seeds is partly regulated by the micropylar endosperm, which acts as constraint to radicle protrusion. Gibberellin (GA) signalling pathways control coat-dormancy release, endosperm weakening, and organ expansion during seed germination. Three GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) GA receptors are known in Arabidopsis thaliana: GID1a, GID1b, and GID1c. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of angiosperm GID1s reveals that they cluster into two eudicot (GID1ac, GID1b) groups and one monocot group. Eudicots have at least one gene from each of the two groups, indicating that the different GID1 receptors fulfil distinct roles during plant development. A comparative Brassicaceae approach was used, in which gid1 mutant and whole-seed transcript analyses in Arabidopsis were combined with seed-tissue-specific analyses of its close relative Lepidium sativum (garden cress), for which three GID1 orthologues were cloned. GA signalling via the GID1ac receptors is required for Arabidopsis seed germination, GID1b cannot compensate for the impaired germination of the gid1agid1c mutant. Transcript expression patterns differed temporarily, spatially, and hormonally, with GID1b being distinct from GID1ac in both species. Endosperm weakening is mediated, at least in part, through GA-induced genes encoding cell-wall-modifying proteins. A suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library enriched for sequences that are highly expressed during early germination in the micropylar endosperm contained expansins and xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases/hydrolases (XTHs). Their transcript expression patterns in both species strongly suggest that they are regulated by distinct GID1-mediated GA signalling pathways. The GID1ac and GID1b pathways seem to fulfil distinct regulatory roles during Brassicaceae seed germination and seem to control their downstream targets distinctly. PMID:21778177

  7. Two genes that encode Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases are induced by drought and high-salt stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Urao, T; Katagiri, T; Mizoguchi, T; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Hayashida, N; Shinozaki, K

    1994-08-15

    Two cDNA clones, cATCDPK1 and cATCDPK2, encoding Ca(2+)-dependent, calmodulin-independent protein kinases (CDPK) were cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Northern blot analysis indicated that the mRNAs corresponding to the ATCDPK1 and ATCDPK2 genes are rapidly induced by drought and high-salt stress but not by low-temperature stress or heat stress. Treatment of Arabidopsis plants with exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) had no effect on the induction of ATCDPK1 or ATCDPK2. These findings suggest that a change in the osmotic potential of the environment can serve as a trigger for the induction of ATCDPK1 and ATCDPK2. Putative proteins encoded by ATCDPK1 and ATCDPK2 which contain open reading frames of 1479 and 1488 bp, respectively, are designated ATCDPK1 and ATCDPK2 and show 52% identity at the amino acid sequence level. ATCDPK1 and ATCDPK2 exhibit significant similarity to a soybean CDPK (51% and 73%, respectively). Both proteins contain a catalytic domain that is typical of serine/threonine protein kinases and a regulatory domain that is homologous to the Ca(2+)-binding sites of calmodulin. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests the existence of a few additional genes that are related to ATCDPK1 and ATCDPK2 in the Arabidopsis genome. The ATCDPK2 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was found to phosphorylate casein and myelin basic protein preferentially, relative to a histone substrate, and required Ca2+ for activation.

  8. A Chemical Genetic Screening Procedure for Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, Marta; Song, Xingshun; Dandekar, Abhaya; Franz, Annaliese; Drakakaki, Georgia; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-01-01

    Unbiased screening approaches are powerful tools enabling identification of novel players in biological processes. Chemical genetic screening refers to the technique of using a reporter response, such as expression of luciferase driven by a promoter of interest, to discover small molecules that affect a given process when applied to plants. These chemicals then act as tools for identification of regulatory components that could not otherwise be detected by forward genetic screens due to gene family redundancy or mutant lethality. This protocol describes a chemical genetic screen using Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, which has led to recognition of novel players in the plant general stress response. PMID:27446980

  9. Quantitative trait loci for inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Ungerer, Mark C; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Modliszewski, Jennifer L; Mackay, Trudy F C; Purugganan, Michael D

    2002-01-01

    Variation in inflorescence development patterns is a central factor in the evolutionary ecology of plants. The genetic architectures of 13 traits associated with inflorescence developmental timing, architecture, rosette morphology, and fitness were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant system. There is substantial naturally occurring genetic variation for inflorescence development traits, with broad sense heritabilities computed from 21 Arabidopsis ecotypes ranging from 0.134 to 0.772. Genetic correlations are significant for most (64/78) pairs of traits, suggesting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among loci. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping indicates 47 and 63 QTL for inflorescence developmental traits in Ler x Col and Cvi x Ler recombinant inbred mapping populations, respectively. Several QTL associated with different developmental traits map to the same Arabidopsis chromosomal regions, in agreement with the strong genetic correlations observed. Epistasis among QTL was observed only in the Cvi x Ler population, and only between regions on chromosomes 1 and 5. Examination of the completed Arabidopsis genome sequence in three QTL regions revealed between 375 and 783 genes per region. Previously identified flowering time, inflorescence architecture, floral meristem identity, and hormone signaling genes represent some of the many candidate genes in these regions. PMID:11901129

  10. Over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana SFD1/GLY1, the gene encoding plastid localized glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, increases plastidic lipid content in transgenic rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Adnan; Singh, Subaran; Banday, Zeeshan Zahoor; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are the major constituents of all membranous structures in plants. Plants possess two pathways for lipid biosynthesis: the prokaryotic pathway (i.e., plastidic pathway) and the eukaryotic pathway (i.e., endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) pathway). Whereas some plants synthesize galactolipids from diacylglycerol assembled in the plastid, others, including rice, derive their galactolipids from diacylglycerols assembled by the eukaryotic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pDH), coded by SUPPRESSOR OF FATTY ACID DESATURASE 1 (SFD1; alias GLY1) gene, catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate (G3p), the backbone of many membrane lipids. Here SFD1 was introduced to rice as a transgene. Arabidopsis SFD1 localizes in rice plastids and its over-expression increases plastidic membrane lipid content in transgenic rice plants without any major impact on ER lipids. The results suggest that over-expression of plastidic G3pDH enhances biosynthesis of plastid-localized lipids in rice. Lipid composition in the transgenic plants is consistent with increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in the plastid and increased galactolipid synthesis from diacylglycerol produced via the ER pathway. The transgenic plants show a higher photosynthetic assimilation rate, suggesting a possible application of this finding in crop improvement. PMID:26747130

  11. Over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana SFD1/GLY1, the gene encoding plastid localized glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, increases plastidic lipid content in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijayata; Singh, Praveen Kumar; Siddiqui, Adnan; Singh, Subaran; Banday, Zeeshan Zahoor; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Lipids are the major constituents of all membranous structures in plants. Plants possess two pathways for lipid biosynthesis: the prokaryotic pathway (i.e., plastidic pathway) and the eukaryotic pathway (i.e., endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) pathway). Whereas some plants synthesize galactolipids from diacylglycerol assembled in the plastid, others, including rice, derive their galactolipids from diacylglycerols assembled by the eukaryotic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pDH), coded by SUPPRESSOR OF FATTY ACID DESATURASE 1 (SFD1; alias GLY1) gene, catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate (G3p), the backbone of many membrane lipids. Here SFD1 was introduced to rice as a transgene. Arabidopsis SFD1 localizes in rice plastids and its over-expression increases plastidic membrane lipid content in transgenic rice plants without any major impact on ER lipids. The results suggest that over-expression of plastidic G3pDH enhances biosynthesis of plastid-localized lipids in rice. Lipid composition in the transgenic plants is consistent with increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in the plastid and increased galactolipid synthesis from diacylglycerol produced via the ER pathway. The transgenic plants show a higher photosynthetic assimilation rate, suggesting a possible application of this finding in crop improvement.

  12. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Upland Cotton Gene GhFPF1 Confers Promotion of Flowering Time and Shade-Avoidance Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Yu, Jiwen; Ma, Qifeng; Yu, Shuxun

    2014-01-01

    Extensive studies on floral transition in model species have revealed a network of regulatory interactions between proteins that transduce and integrate developmental and environmental signals to promote or inhibit the transition to flowering. Previous studies indicated FLOWERING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (FPF1) gene was involved in the promotion of flowering, but the molecular mechanism was still unclear. Here, FPF1 homologous sequences were screened from diploid Gossypium raimondii L. (D-genome, n = 13) and Gossypium arboreum L. genome (A-genome, n = 13) databases. Orthologous genes from the two species were compared, suggesting that distinctions at nucleic acid and amino acid levels were not equivalent because of codon degeneracy. Six FPF1 homologous genes were identified from the cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. (AD-genome, n = 26). Analysis of relative transcripts of the six genes in different tissues revealed that this gene family displayed strong tissue-specific expression. GhFPF1, encoding a 12.0-kDa protein (Accession No: KC832319) exerted more transcripts in floral apices of short-season cotton, hinting that it could be involved in floral regulation. Significantly activated APETALA 1 and suppressed FLOWERING LOCUS C expression were induced by over-expression of GhFPF1 in the Arabidopsis Columbia-0 ecotype. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a constitutive shade-avoiding phenotype that is characterized by long hypocotyls and petioles, reduced chlorophyll content, and early flowering. We propose that GhFPF1 may be involved in flowering time control and shade-avoidance responses. PMID:24626476

  14. A wheat aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene, TaACO1, negatively regulates salinity stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Donghua; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunlong; Zhang, Wei; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mei

    2014-11-01

    TaACO1 could catalyze ACC into ethylene in vitro. Constitutive expression of TaACO1 in Arabidopsis conferred salt sensitivity, and TaACO1 regulates salt stress mainly via the DREB1/CBF signal transduction pathway. Ethylene signaling plays essential roles in mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, besides regulating plant growth and development. The roles of ethylene biosynthesis in abiotic stress, however, remain elusive. In this study, an aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene, TaACO1, affecting the terminal step in ethylene biosynthesis, was isolated from a salt-tolerant bread wheat introgression line Shanrong No. 3 (SR3) and its effect on salt-stress response was examined. Purified recombinant protein of TaACO1 heterogenously expressed in Escherchia coli could catalyze ACC into ethylene in vitro. TaACO1 transcripts were down-regulated by salt, drought, oxidative stress and ABA. TaACO1-transgenic plants conferred salt sensitivity as judged from the seed germination, cotyledon greening and the relative root growth under salt stress. Constitutive expression of TaACO1 in Arabidopsis increased AtMYB15 expression and suppressed the expression of stress-responsive genes AtRAB18, AtCBF1 and AtCBF3. These findings are helpful in understanding the roles of ethylene biosynthesis in plant salt-stress response.

  15. A brassinosteroid transcriptional network revealed by genome-wide identification of BESI target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaofei; Li, Lei; Zola, Jaroslaw; Aluru, Maneesha; Ye, Huaxun; Foudree, Andrew; Guo, Hongqing; Anderson, Sarah; Aluru, Srinivas; Liu, Peng; Rodermel, Steve; Yin, Yanhai

    2011-02-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important regulators for plant growth and development. BRs signal to control the activities of the BES1 and BZR1 family transcription factors. The transcriptional network through which BES1 and BZR regulate large number of target genes is mostly unknown. By combining chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with Arabidopsis tiling arrays (ChIP-chip) and gene expression studies, we have identified 1609 putative BES1 target genes, 404 of which are regulated by BRs and/or in gain-of-function bes1-D mutant. BES1 targets contribute to BR responses and interactions with other hormonal or light signaling pathways. Computational modeling of gene expression data using Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe) reveals that BES1-targeted transcriptional factors form a gene regulatory network (GRN). Mutants of many genes in the network displayed defects in BR responses. Moreover, we found that BES1 functions to inhibit chloroplast development by repressing the expression of GLK1 and GLK2 transcription factors, confirming a hypothesis generated from the GRN. Our results thus provide a global view of BR regulated gene expression and a GRN that guides future studies in understanding BR-regulated plant growth.

  16. PHH1, a novel gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a protein similar to plant blue-light photoreceptors and microbial photolyases.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P D; Batschauer, A; Hays, J B

    1996-11-27

    A cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana similar to microbial photolyase genes, and designated AT-PHH1, was isolated using a photolyase-like cDNA from Sinapsis alba (SA-PHR1) as a probe. Multiple isolations yielded only PHH1 cDNAs, and a few blue-light-receptor CRY1 (HY4) cDNAs (also similar to microbial photolyase genes), suggesting the absence of any other highly similar Arabidopsis genes. The AT-PHH1 and SA-PHR1 cDNA sequences predict 89% identity at the protein level, except for an AT-PHH1 C-terminal extension (111 amino acids), also not seen in microbial photolyases. AT-PHH1 and CRY1 show less similarity (54% p4erein identity), including respective C-terminal extensions that are themselves mostly dissimilar. Analysis of fifteen AT-PHH1 genomic isolates reveals a single gene, with three introns in the coding sequence and one in the 5'-untranslated leader. Full-length AT-PHH1, and both AT-PHH1 and AT-PHH1 delta C-513 (truncated to be approximately the size of microbial photolyase genes) cDNAs, were overexpressed, respectively, in yeast and Escherichia coli mutants hypersensitive to ultraviolet light. The absence of significant effects on resistance suggests either that any putative AT-PHH1 DNA repair activity requires cofactors/chromophores not present in yeast or E. coli, or that AT-PHH1 encodes a blue-light/ultraviolet-A receptor rather than a DNA repair protein.

  17. [The gene NANA regulates cell proliferation in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristem without interaction with CLV1, CLV2, CLV3].

    PubMed

    Al'bert, A V; Kavaĭ-ool, U N; Ezhova, T A

    2014-01-01

    A constancycy of stem cell pool in shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is provided by a genetic regulation system with negative feedback loop based on the interaction of the gene WUS, which maintains indeterminate state of cells, with CLV genes, which restrict the level of WUS expression and stem cell pool size. clv mutations lead to an increase in the pool of stem cells in the apical and floral meristems and wus mutation leads to the opposite effect. Mutation na (nana), like wus mutation, causes premature termination of shoot apical meristem function, although it does not affect the activity of the flower meristem. To elucidate the role of NA in the control of shoot apical meristem functioning, the interaction of NA with CLVgenes were investigated. Additive phenotype of double mutants na clv1, na clv1-1, anl na clv3-2 indicates that the NA gene makes an independent contribution to the functioning of the shoot apical meristem. It is assumed that the NA gene controls apical meristem cell proliferation during the transition to the reproductive phase of plant development, acting much later and independently of the genes WUS-CLV.

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP44: a transcription factor affecting seed germination and expression of the mannanase-encoding gene AtMAN7.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Carrillo-Barral, Néstor; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Carbonero, Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Endo-β-mannanases (MAN; EC. 3.2.1.78) catalyze the cleavage of β1→4 bonds in mannan polymers and have been associated with the process of weakening the tissues surrounding the embryo during seed germination. In germinating Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the most highly expressed MAN gene is AtMAN7 and its transcripts are restricted to the micropylar endosperm and to the radicle tip just before radicle emergence. Mutants with a T-DNA insertion in AtMAN7 have a slower germination than the wild type. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of the AtMAN7 gene, a bioinformatic search for conserved non-coding cis-elements (phylogenetic shadowing) within the Brassicaceae MAN7 gene promoters has been done, and these conserved motifs have been used as bait to look for their interacting transcription factors (TFs), using as a prey an arrayed yeast library from A. thaliana. The basic-leucine zipper TF AtbZIP44, but not the closely related AtbZIP11, has thus been identified and its transcriptional activation upon AtMAN7 has been validated at the molecular level. In the knock-out lines of AtbZIP44, not only is the expression of the AtMAN7 gene drastically reduced, but these mutants have a significantly slower germination than the wild type, being affected in the two phases of the germination process, both in the rupture of the seed coat and in the breakage of the micropylar endosperm cell walls. In the over-expression lines the opposite phenotype is observed. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Heterologous expression of yeast Hxt2 in Arabidopsis thaliana alters sugar uptake, carbon metabolism and gene expression leading to glucose tolerance of germinating seedlings.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Chacón, Daniel; Cordoba, Elizabeth; Olivera, Teresa; Sánchez, Sobeida; Coello, Patricia; León, Patricia; Tiessen, Axel; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar

    2010-04-01

    The hexose transporter 2 gene (Hxt2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the 35S promoter. Several independent transgenic lines were selected after confirming single gene insertion by southern blot analysis in the T4 generation. Northern blots revealed the presence of heterologous transcript. Radiolabeling experiments revealed an increased rate of incorporation of the non-metabolizable analog 3-O-methyl-[U-14C]-glucose. This confirmed that the yeast Hxt2 transporter was functional in Arabidopsis. No phenotypic changes at the vegetative and reproductive stages could be detected in the transgenic lines when compared to wild type plants. Shortly after germination some differences in development and glucose signaling were observed. Transgenic seedlings cultivated in liquid medium or on solid agar plates were able to grow with 3% glucose (producing bigger plants and longer roots), while development of wild type plants was delayed under those conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed that the Hxt2 transgenic lines had higher rates of sugar utilization. Transcriptional profiling showed that particular genes were significantly up- or down-regulated. Some transcription factors like At1g27000 were repressed, while others, such as At3g58780, were induced. The mRNA from classical sugar signaling genes such as STP1, Hxk1, and ApL3 behaved similarly in transgenic lines and wild type lines. Results suggest that the Hxt2 transgene altered some developmental processes related to the perception of high carbon availability after the germination stage. We conclude that the developmental arrest of wild type plants at 3% glucose not only depends on Hxk1 as the only sugar sensor but might also be influenced by the route of hexose transport across the plasma membrane.

  20. Genetic analysis of photoreceptor action pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The specific strategies and long-term goals of this proposal remain intact relative to the original proposal. We continue to isolate and characterize photomorphogenic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. The molecular and biochemical characterization of one of these mutants, det1, has led to one publication of original data and to one Society for Experimental Biology Symposium paper (see below). The phenotype of a second mutant, det2, has also been studied during this funding period. In addition, we have continued work on a general strategy to isolate mutations in trans-acting regulatory factors that mediate light-regulated gene expression, and have identified several potentially interesting regulatory mutants. In the third funding period, we will concentrate on the genetical, biochemical, and molecular characterization of these new mutants. Construction of double mutants between the new mutants and the previously characterized morphological mutants should allow us to construct a pathway for light-regulated seedling development in Arabidopsis.

  1. Monoterpene-induced molecular responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Godard, Kimberley-Ann; White, Richard; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2008-06-01

    Terpenoid volatiles mediate various forms of chemical communications of plants with other organisms. In this paper we demonstrate that exposure of intact Arabidopsis thaliana plants to monoterpene volatiles results in substantial changes of the plant transcriptome and induction of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) accumulation. We used a heterologous pinII::GUS reporter system to test monoterpenes for their potential to induce a response in A. thaliana. Plants showed increased pinII-promoter activity upon exposure to different monoterpene volatiles, similar to the response induced by MeJA, mechanical wounding, or insect feeding. Microarray gene expression profiling indicated induced changes in the abundance of several hundred transcripts in wild-type plants upon either exposure to myrcene volatiles or exposure to a blend of ocimene volatiles consisting of (E)-beta-ocimene, (Z)-beta-ocimene, and allo-ocimene. Many of the monoterpene-induced transcripts are annotated as either transcription factors or as stress or defense genes including several steps in the octadecanoid pathway. Metabolite analysis showed that exposure of Arabidopsis for 2h to myrcene or ocimene induced increased tissue levels of MeJA. Octadecanoid biosynthesis (aoc) and signaling (coi1) mutants showed some reduced ocimene-induction of gene expression.

  2. Distinct carbohydrate and lipid-based molecular patterns within lipopolysaccharides from Burkholderia cepacia contribute to defense-associated differential gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Madala, Ntakadzeni E; Molinaro, Antonio; Dubery, Ian A

    2012-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharides are structural components within the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPSs as microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules can trigger defense-related responses involved in MAMP-triggered immunity and basal resistance in plants, presumably from an initial perception event. LPS from Burkholderia cepacia as well as two fragments, the glycolipid, lipid A and the polysaccharide (OPS-core) chain, were used to treat Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to evaluate the eliciting activities of the individual LPS sub-domains by means of Annealing Control Primer-based Differential Display transcript profiling. Genes found to be up-regulated encode for proteins involved in signal perception and transduction, transcriptional regulation and defense - and stress responses. Furthermore, genes encoding proteins involved in chaperoning, secretion, protein-protein interactions and protein degradation were differentially expressed. It is concluded that intact LPS, as well as the two sub-components, induced the expression of a broad range of genes associated with perception and defense as well as metabolic reprogramming of cellular activities in support of immunity and basal resistance. Whilst the lipid A and OPS moieties were able to up-regulate sub-sets of defense-associated genes over the same spectrum of categories as intact LPS, the up-regulation observed with intact LPS was the more comprehensive, suggesting that the lipid A and glycan molecular patterns of the molecule act as partial agonists, but that the intact LPS structure is required for full agonist activity.

  3. Classification of Genes Differentially Expressed during Water‐deficit Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana: an Analysis using Microarray and Differential Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    BRAY, ELIZABETH A.

    2002-01-01

    Many changes in gene expression occur in response to water‐deficit stress. A challenge is to determine which changes support plant adaptation to conditions of reduced soil water content and which occur in response to lesions in metabolic and cellular functions. Microarray methods are being employed to catalogue all of the changes in gene expression that occur in response to specific water‐deficit conditions. Although these methods do not measure the amount or activities of specific proteins that function in the water‐deficit response, they do target specific biochemical and cellular events that should be detailed in further work. Potential functions of approx. 130 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana that have been shown to be up‐regulated are tabulated here. These point to signalling events, detoxification and other functions involved in the cellular response to water‐deficit stress. As microarray techniques are refined, plant stress biologists will be able to characterize changes in gene expression within the whole genome in specific organs and tissues subjected to different levels of water‐deficit stress. PMID:12102506

  4. Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to low dose rates of ultraviolet B radiation show specific changes in morphology and gene expression in the absence of stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hectors, Kathleen; Prinsen, Els; De Coen, Wim; Jansen, Marcel A K; Guisez, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) acclimation comprises complex and poorly understood changes in plant metabolism. The effects of chronic and ecologically relevant UV-B dose rates on Arabidopsis thaliana were determined. The UV-B acclimation process was studied by measuring radiation effects on morphology, physiology, biochemistry and gene expression. Chronic UV-B radiation did not affect photosynthesis or the expression of stress responsive genes, which indicated that the UV-acclimated plants were not stressed. UV-induced morphological changes in acclimated plants included decreased rosette diameter, decreased inflorescence height and increased numbers of flowering stems, indicating that chronic UV-B treatment caused a redistribution rather than a cessation of growth. Gene expression profiling indicated that UV-induced morphogenesis was associated with subtle changes in phytohormone (auxins, brassinosteroids and gibberellins) homeostasis and the cell wall. Based on the comparison of gene expression profiles, it is concluded that acclimation to low, chronic dose rates of UV-B is distinct from that to acute, stress-inducing UV-B dose rates. Hence, UV-B-induced morphogenesis is functionally uncoupled from stress responses.

  5. Overexpression of MuHSP70 gene from Macrotyloma uniflorum confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    A 70-KD heat shock protein (HSP70) is one of the most conserved chaperones. It is involved in de novo protein folding and prevents the aggregation of unfolded proteins under lethal environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to characterise a MuHSP70 from horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) and elucidating its role in stress tolerance of plants. A MuHSP70 was cloned and characterised from a natural drought stress tolerant HPK4 variety of horsegram (M. uniflorum). For functional characterization, MuHSP70 was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. Overexpression of MuHSP70 was found to provide tolerance to the transgenic Arabidopsis against various stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity and oxidative stress. MuHSP70 transgenics were observed to maintain the shoot biomass, root length, relative water content, and chlorophyll content during exposure to multi-stresses relative to non-transgenic control. Transgenic lines have further shown the reduced levels of MDA, H2O2, and proteolytic activity. Together, these findings suggest that overexpression of MuHSP70 plays an important role in improving abiotic stress tolerance and could be a crucial candidate gene for exploration in crop improvement program.

  6. Over-expression of different aldehyde dehydrogenase genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confers tolerance to abiotic stress and protects plants against lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kotchoni, Simeon O; Kuhns, Christine; Ditzer, Andrea; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Bartels, Dorothea

    2006-06-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play a major role in the detoxification processes of aldehydes generated in plants when exposed to abiotic stress. In previous studies, we have shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana ALDH3I1 gene is transcriptionally activated by abiotic stress, and over-expression of the ALDH3I1 gene confers stress tolerance in transgenic plants. The A. thaliana genome contains 14 ALDH genes expressed in different sub-cellular compartments and are presumably involved in different reactions. The purpose of this study was to compare the potential of a cytoplasmic and a chloroplastic stress-inducible ALDH in conferring stress tolerance under different conditions. We demonstrated that constitutive or stress-inducible expression of both the chloroplastic ALDH3I1 and the cytoplasmic ALDH7B4 confers tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stress. Stress tolerance in transgenic plants is accompanied by a reduction of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) derived from cellular lipid peroxidation. Involvement of ALDHs in stress tolerance was corroborated by the analysis of ALDH3I1 and ALDH7B4 T-DNA knockout (KO) mutants. Both mutant lines exhibited higher sensitivity to dehydration and salt than wild-type (WT) plants. The results indicate that ALDH3I1 and ALDH7B4 not only function as aldehyde-detoxifying enzymes, but also as efficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting enzymes. The potential of ALDHs to interfere with H2O2 was also shown for recombinant bacterial proteins.

  7. An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase Capable of Methylating Farnesoic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,Y.; Yuan, J.; Ross, J.; Noel, J.; Pichersky, E.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the identification of a new family of plant methyltransferases (MTs), named the SABATH family, that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to methylate a carboxyl moiety or a nitrogen-containing functional group on a diverse array of plant compounds. The Arabidopsis genome alone contains 24 distinct SABATH genes. To identify the catalytic specificities of members of this protein family in Arabidopsis, we screened recombinantly expressed and purified enzymes with a large number of potential substrates. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene At3g44860 encodes a protein with high catalytic specificity towards farnesoic acid (FA). Under steady-state conditions, this farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (FAMT) exhibits K{sub M} values of 41 and 71 {mu}M for FA and SAM, respectively. A three-dimensional model of FAMT constructed based upon similarity to the experimentally determined structure of Clarkia breweri salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) suggests a reasonable model for FA recognition in the FAMT active site. In plants, the mRNA levels of At3g44860 increase in response to the exogenous addition of several compounds previously shown to induce plant defense responses at the transcriptional level. Although methyl farnesoate (MeFA) has not yet been detected in Arabidopsis, the presence of a FA-specific carboxyl methyltransferase in Arabidopsis capable of producing MeFA, an insect juvenile hormone made by some plants as a presumed defense against insect herbivory, suggests that MeFA or chemically similar compounds are likely to serve as new specialized metabolites in Arabidopsis.

  8. Transcriptional Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Response to Lima Bean Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sufang; Wei, Jianing; Kang, Le

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure of plants to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) alters their resistance to herbivores. However, the whole-genome transcriptional responses of treated plants remain unknown, and the signal pathways that produce HIPVs are also unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Time course patterns of the gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to Lima bean volatiles were examined using Affymetrix ATH1 genome arrays. Results showed that A. thaliana received and responded to leafminer-induced volatiles from Lima beans through up-regulation of genes related to the ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid pathways. Time course analysis revealed strong and partly qualitative differences in the responses between exposure at 24 and that at 48 h. Further experiments using either A. thaliana ET mutant ein2-1 or A. thaliana jasmonic acid mutant coi1-2 indicated that both pathways are involved in the volatile response process but that the ET pathway is indispensable for detecting volatiles. Moreover, transcriptional comparisons showed that plant responses to larval feeding do not merely magnify the volatile response process. Finally, (Z)-3-hexen-ol, ocimene, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, and (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene triggered responses in A. thaliana similar to those induced by the entire suite of Lima bean volatiles after 24 and 48 h. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that the transcriptional responses of plants to HIPVs become stronger as treatment time increases and that ET signals are critical during this process. PMID:22558246

  9. The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 and 3 genes have a post-meristematic effect on Arabidopsis thaliana phyllotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Burian, Agata; Raczyńska-Szajgin, Magdalena; Borowska-Wykręt, Dorota; Piatek, Agnieszka; Aida, Mitsuhiro; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The arrangement of flowers in inflorescence shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a regular spiral Fibonacci phyllotaxis. However, in the cuc2 cuc3 double mutant, flower pedicels are fused to the inflorescence stem, and phyllotaxis is aberrant in the mature shoot regions. This study examined the causes of this altered development, and in particular whether the mutant phenotype is a consequence of defects at the shoot apex, or whether post-meristematic events are involved. Methods The distribution of flower pedicels and vascular traces was examined in cross-sections of mature shoots; sequential replicas were used to investigate the phyllotaxis and geometry of shoot apices, and growth of the young stem surface. The expression pattern of CUC3 was analysed by examining its promoter activity. Key Results Phyllotaxis irregularity in the cuc2 cuc3 double mutant arises during the post-meristematic phase of shoot development. In particular, growth and cell divisions in nodes of the elongating stem are not restricted in the mutant, resulting in pedicel–stem fusion. On the other hand, phyllotaxis in the mutant shoot apex is nearly as regular as that of the wild type. Vascular phyllotaxis, generated almost simultaneously with the phyllotaxis at the apex, is also much more regular than pedicel phyllotaxis. The most apparent phenotype of the mutant apices is a higher number of contact parastichies. This phenotype is associated with increased meristem size, decreased angular width of primordia and a shorter plastochron. In addition, the appearance of a sharp and deep crease, a characteristic shape of the adaxial primordium boundary, is slightly delayed and reduced in the mutant shoot apices. Conclusions The cuc2 cuc3 double mutant displays irregular phyllotaxis in the mature shoot but not in the shoot apex, thus showing a post-meristematic effect of the mutations on phyllotaxis. The main cause of this effect is the formation of pedicel–stem fusions

  10. Genes encoding glycine-rich Arabidopsis thaliana proteins with RNA-binding motifs are influenced by cold treatment and an endogenous circadian rhythm.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, C D; Kreps, J A; Simon, A E

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized the expression of two members of a class of Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich, putative RNA-binding proteins that we denote Ccr1 and Ccr2. Southern blot analysis indicates that Ccr1 and Ccr2 are members of a small gene family. Both Ccr1 and Ccr2 mRNA levels were influenced by a circadian rhythm that has an unusual phase for plants, with maximal accumulation at 6:00 PM and minimal accumulation at 10:00 AM. The level of CCR1 protein, however, remained relatively constant throughout the cycle. The transcript accumulation patterns of the Ccr1 and Ccr2 genes differed considerably from conditions that affect the expression of similar genes from maize, sorghum, and carrot. Levels of Ccr1 and Ccr2 mRNAs were unchanged in wounded plants, increased at least 4-fold in cold-stressed plants, and decreased 2- to 3-fold in abscisic acid-treated plants. Ccr1 transcript levels decreased in response to drought, whereas Ccr2 transcript levels increased under the same conditions. Based on the presence of additional Ccr transcripts in dark-grown plants, we propose that Ccr transcripts may be subjected to a light- or dark-mediated regulation. PMID:7513083

  11. Characterization of Circadian-associated pseudo-response regulators: I. Comparative studies on a series of transgenic lines misexpressing five distinctive PRR Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Murakami, Masaya; Ito, Shogo; Nakamichi, Norihito; Yamashino, Takafumi; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    Every member of a small family of Pseudo-Response Regulator (PRR) genes, including Timing of Cab Expression 1 (TOC1 [or PRR1]), are believed to play roles close to the circadian clock in the model higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study we established a transgenic line that misexpresses (or overexpresses) the PRR7 gene. As compared with wild-type plants, the resulting PRR7-misexpressing plants (designated PRR7-ox) showed characteristic phenotypes as to hallmarked circadian-associated biological events: (i) early flowering in a manner independent of photoperiodicity, (ii) hypersensitive response to red light during early photomorphogenesis, and (iii) altered free-running rhythms with long period of clock-associated genes. Finally, a series of all transgenic lines (PRR1-ox, PRR3-ox, PRR5-ox, PRR7-ox, and PRR9-ox) were characterized comparatively with regard to their clock-associated roles. The results suggested that the five homologous PRR factors play coordinate roles, distinctively from one another, and closely to the circadian clock in higher plants.

  12. The Medicago truncatula R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene MtMYBS1 enhances salinity tolerance when constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Song, Yuguang; Zhao, Zhong; Qiu, Nian Wei; Liu, Xijiang; Guo, Weihua

    2017-08-19

    MYB-type proteins are known to participate in many stress responses, although their role in legumes is still less clear. Here, the isolation and characterization of MtMYBS1, an R2R3 MYB gene isolated from the model legume Medicago truncatula, is described. MtMYBS1 transcription was inducible by NaCl, polyethylene glycol or abscisic acid (ABA). When tested in yeast, its product was shown to have transactivational activity. The constitutive expression of MtMYBS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings mitigated the restriction on root growth imposed by either salinity or osmotic stress and raised their sensitivity to ABA. It also resulted in the plants being able to overcome several growth constraints and promoted activity in both the ABA-dependent and -independent stress-responsive pathways. In particular, it enhanced the transcription of P5CS, a gene which encodes a component of proline synthesis. MtMYBS1 may prove to be a useful gene for manipulating the salinity tolerance of legumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A cell type-specific view on the translation of mRNAs from ROS-responsive genes upon paraquat treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Benina, Maria; Ribeiro, Dimas Mendes; Gechev, Tsanko S; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress causes dramatic changes in the expression levels of many genes. The formation of a functional protein through successful mRNA translation is central to a coordinated cellular response. To what extent the response towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) is regulated at the translational level is poorly understood. Here we analysed leaf- and tissue-specific translatomes using a set of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing a FLAG-tagged ribosomal protein to immunopurify polysome-bound mRNAs before and after oxidative stress. We determined transcript levels of 171 ROS-responsive genes upon paraquat treatment, which causes formation of superoxide radicals, at the whole-organ level. Furthermore, the translation of mRNAs was determined for five cell types: mesophyll, bundle sheath, phloem companion, epidermal and guard cells. Mesophyll and bundle sheath cells showed the strongest response to paraquat treatment. Interestingly, several ROS-responsive transcription factors displayed cell type-specific translation patterns, while others were translated in all cell types. In part, cell type-specific translation could be explained by the length of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Our analysis reveals insights into the translational regulation of ROS-responsive genes, which is important to understanding cell-specific responses and functions during oxidative stress.

  14. Expression pattern of the glucosinolate side chain biosynthetic genes MAM1 and MAM3 of Arabidopsis thaliana in different organs and developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Redovniković, Ivana Radojčić; Textor, Susanne; Lisnić, Berislav; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Aliphatic glucosinolates, secondary metabolites known to be involved in plant defence, make up the majority of the glucosinolate content of Arabidopsis thaliana, and their structural diversity arises in part from chain elongations of methionine before the formation of the glucosinolate core structure. The key enzymatic step in determining the length of the chain is the condensation of acetyl-coenzyme A with a series of ω-methylthio-2-oxoalkanoic acids, catalyzed by methylthioalkylmalate (MAM) synthases. The existence of two MAM synthases has been previously reported in A. thaliana, ecotype Columbia-0. MAM1 catalyses the condensation step of the first three elongation cycles while MAM3 catalyzes the condensation step of all six elongation cycles. We studied the expression patterns of MAM1 and MAM3 genes in different organs and developmental stages using promoter-GUS fusion lines and qRT-PCR. The promoter-GUS lines revealed MAM1 and MAM3 expression in varying degrees in all organs, but this was generally restricted to the phloem, except in wounded tissue where expression was general. No difference was found between the two genes. The qRT-PCR measurements showed that expression was generally highest in seedlings and vegetative parts at the reproductive phase, but low in flowers and fruits. Since high amounts of glucosinolates accumulate in flowers and fruits, these data indicate possible transport from vegetative to reproductive organs. The expression of MAM1 was different than that of MAM3 with MAM3 having relative more expression in seedlings and roots than MAM1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shumei; Sun, Dan; Wang, Ji; Li, Ying; Wang, Xinwang; Liu, Shenkui

    2014-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7 mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 μM CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 μM CuCl2, 220 μM FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors.

  16. Accumulation of γ- rather than α-tocopherol alters ethylene signaling gene expression in the vte4 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cela, Jana; Chang, Caren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-08-01

    Tocopherols are antioxidants found in chloroplasts of leaves, and it is a matter of current debate whether or not they can affect signaling and gene expression in plant cells. For insight into the possible effects of altered tocopherol composition in chloroplasts on gene expression in the nucleus, the expression of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signaling genes was investigated in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, which are impaired in tocopherol (vitamin E) biosynthesis. Changes in gene expression were measured in plants exposed to either salt or water stress, and in young and mature leaves of vte1 and vte4 mutants, which lack tocopherol cyclase and γ-tocopherol methyltransferase, respectively. While transcript levels of ethylene signaling genes in the vte1 mutant and the wild type were similar in all tested conditions, major changes in gene expression occurred in the vte4 mutant, particularly in mature leaves (compared with young leaves) and under salt stress. Accumulation of γ- instead of α-tocopherol in this mutant led to elevated transcript levels of ethylene signaling pathway genes (particularly CTR1, EIN2, EIN3 and ERF1) in mature leaves of control plants. However, with salt treatment, transcript levels of most of these genes remained constant or dropped in the vte4 mutant, while they were dramatically induced in the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Furthermore, under salt stress, leaf age-induced jasmonic acid accumulated in both the vte1 mutant and the wild type, but not in the vte4 mutant. It is concluded that jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways are down-regulated in mature leaves of salt-stressed vte4 plants.

  17. Fitness benefits and costs of cold acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ying; Dhakal, Preeti; Ungerer, Mark C

    2011-07-01

    Abstract When resources are limited, there is a trade-off between growth/reproduction and stress defense in plants. Most temperate plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, can enhance freezing tolerance through cold acclimation at low but nonfreezing temperatures. Induction of the cold acclimation pathway should be beneficial in environments where plants frequently encounter freezing stress, but it might represent a cost in environments where freezing events are rare. In A. thaliana, induction of the cold acclimation pathway critically involves a small subfamily of genes known as the CBFs. Here we test for a cost of cold acclimation by utilizing (1) natural accessions of A. thaliana that originate from different regions of the species' native range and that have experienced different patterns of historical selection on their CBF genes and (2) transgenic CBF overexpression and T-DNA insertion (knockdown/knockout) lines. While benefits of cold acclimation in the presence of freezing stress were confirmed, no cost of cold acclimation was detected in the absence of freezing stress. These findings suggest that cold acclimation is unlikely to be selected against in warmer environments and that naturally occurring mutations disrupting CBF function in the southern part of the species range are likely to be selectively neutral. An unanticipated finding was that cold acclimation in the absence of a subsequent freezing stress resulted in increased fruit production, that is, fitness.

  18. Looking for Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases involved in lignin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Joaquín; Esteban-Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Monolignol polymerization into lignin is catalyzed by peroxidases or laccases. Recently, a Zinnia elegans peroxidase (ZePrx) that is considered responsible for monolignol polymerization in this plant has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Nevertheless, Arabidopsis thaliana has become an alternative model plant for studies of lignification, filling the gaps that may occur with Z. elegans. The arabidopsis genome offers the possibility of performing bioinformatic analyses and data mining that are not yet feasible with other plant species, in order to obtain preliminary evidence on the role of genes and proteins. In our search for arabidopsis homologs to the ZePrx, we performed an exhaustive in silico characterization of everything from the protein to the transcript of Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases (AtPrxs) homologous to ZePrx, with the aim of identifying one or more peroxidases that may be involved in monolignol polymerization. Nine peroxidases (AtPrx 4, 5, 52, 68, 67, 36, 14, 49 and 72) with an E-value greater than 1e-80 with ZePrx were selected for this study. The results demonstrate that a high level of 1D, 2D and 3D homology between these AtPrxs and ZePrx are not always accompanied by the presence of the same electrostatic and mRNA properties that indicate a peroxidase is involved in lignin biosynthesis. In summary, we can confirm that the peroxidases involved in lignification are among AtPrx 4, 52, 49 and 72. Their structural and mRNA features indicate that exert their action in the cell wall similar to ZePrx.

  19. CYP709B3, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Within the Arabidopsis genome, there are 272 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) genes. However, the biological functions of the majority of these P450s remain unknown. The CYP709B family of P450s includes three gene members, CYP709B1, CYP709B2 and CYP709B3, which have high amino acid sequence similarity and lack reports elucidating biological functions. Results We identified T-DNA insertion-based null mutants of the CYP709B subfamily of genes. No obvious morphological phenotypes were exhibited under normal growth conditions. When the responses to ABA and salt stress were studied in these mutants, only the cyp709b3 mutant showed sensitivity to ABA and salt during germination. Under moderate salt treatment (150 mM NaCl), cyp709b3 showed a higher percentage of damaged seedlings, indicating a lower tolerance to salt stress. CYP709B3 was highly expressed in all analyzed tissues and especially high in seedlings and leaves. In contrast, CYP709B1 and CYP709B2 were highly expressed in siliques, but were at very low levels in other tissues. Under salt stress condition, CYP709B3 gene expression was induced after 24 hr and remained at high expression level. Expression of the wild type CYP709B3 gene in the cyp709b3 mutant fully complemented the salt intolerant phenotype. Furthermore, metabolite profiling analysis revealed some differences between wild type and cyp709b3 mutant plants, supporting the salt intolerance phenotype of the cyp709b3 mutant. Conclusions These results suggest that CYP709B3 plays a role in ABA and salt stress response and provides evidence to support the functions of cytochrome P450 enzymes in plant stress response. PMID:24164720

  20. Dual Role of a SAS10/C1D Family Protein in Ribosomal RNA Gene Expression and Processing Is Essential for Reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Jiun C.; Wang, Huei-Jing

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are transcribed, processed, and assembled with ribosomal proteins in the nucleolus. Regulatory mechanisms of rRNA gene (rDNA) transcription and processing remain elusive in plants, especially their connection to nucleolar organization. We performed an in silico screen for essential genes of unknown function in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified Thallo (THAL) encoding a SAS10/C1D family protein. THAL disruption caused enlarged nucleoli in arrested embryos, aberrant processing of precursor rRNAs at the 5’ External Transcribed Spacer, and repression of the major rDNA variant (VAR1). THAL overexpression lines showed de-repression of VAR1 and overall reversed effects on rRNA processing sites. Strikingly, THAL overexpression also induced formation of multiple nucleoli per nucleus phenotypic of mutants of heterochromatin factors. THAL physically associated with histone chaperone Nucleolin 1 (NUC1), histone-binding NUC2, and histone demethylase Jumonji 14 (JMJ14) in bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, suggesting that it participates in chromatin regulation. Furthermore, investigation of truncated THAL proteins revealed that the SAS10 C-terminal domain is likely important for its function in chromatin configuration. THAL also interacted with putative Small Subunit processome components, including previously unreported Arabidopsis homologue of yeast M Phase Phosphoprotein 10 (MPP10). Our results uncovering the dual role of THAL in transcription and processing events critical for proper rRNA biogenesis and nucleolar organization during reproduction are the first to define the function of SAS10/C1D family members in plants. PMID:27792779

  1. Morphological, physiological and molecular genetic characterization ofArabidopsis himalaica, with reference toA. thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tsukaya, H; Yokoyama, J; Ikeda, H; Kuroiwa, H; Kuroiwa, T; Iwatsuki, K

    1997-03-01

    Arabidopsis himalaica (Edgeworth) O.E. Schulz, a poorly characterized species typical of HimalayanArabidopsis, was analyzed in terms of its morphology, physiology, chromosome number and molecular genetics, in comparison withA. thaliana which is the standard species in the genusArabidopsis. From view point of developmental genetics, several features which are specific toA. himalaica seem not to be derived by single-gene mutations inA. thaliana. Phylogenetic analyses based onrbcL sequences suggested that genusArabidopsis is not monophyletic. The detailed characterization ofA. himalaica should provide clues to understand the trait of evolution of particular features of Himalayan species ofArabidopsis and their genetic basis.

  2. Null Mutants of Individual RABA Genes Impact the Proportion of Different Cell Wall Components in Stem Tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, Daniel; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R.; Tucker, Gregory A.; Lycett, Grantley W.

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, and other plants, the RABA GTPases (orthologous to the Rab11a of mammals) have expanded in number and diversity and have been shown to belong to eight sub clades, some of which have been implicated in controlling vesicles that traffic cell wall polymers and enzymes that synthesise or modify them to the cell wall. In order to investigate this, we have investigated whether T-DNA insertion knockouts of individual RABA genes belonging to different sub clades, impact on the composition of the plant cell wall. Single gene knockouts of the RABA1, RABA2 and RABA4 sub clades primarily affected the percentage composition of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose within the cell wall, respectively, despite having no obvious phenotype in the whole plant. We hypothesise that vesicles carrying specific types of cargoes from the Golgi to the cell surface may be regulated by particular sub types of RABA proteins, a finding that could have wider implications for how trafficking systems work and could be a useful tool in cell wall research and other fields of plant biology. PMID:24124508

  3. Minimal influence of G-protein null mutations on ozone-induced changes in gene expression, foliar injury, gas exchange and peroxidase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana L

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Fitzgerald; Burkey, Kent; Morgan, Patrick; Fiscus, Edwin; Jones, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) uptake by plants leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intercellular space of leaves and induces signalling processes reported to involve the membrane-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Therefore, potential G-protein-mediated response mechanisms to O3 were compared between Arabidopsis thaliana L. lines with null mutations in the α- and β-subunits (gpa1-4, agb1-2 and gpa1-4/agb1-2) and Col-0 wild-type plants. Plants were treated with a range of O3 concentrations (5, 125, 175 and 300 nL L−1) for 1 and 2 d in controlled environment chambers. Transcript levels of GPA1, AGB1 and RGS1 transiently increased in Col-0 exposed to 125 nL L−1 O3 compared with the 5 nL L−1 control treatment. However, silencing of α and β G-protein genes resulted in little alteration of many processes associated with O3 injury, including the induction of ROS-signalling genes, increased leaf tissue ion leakage, decreased net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and increased peroxidase activity, especially in the leaf apoplast. These results indicated that many responses to O3 stress at physiological levels were not detectably influenced by α and β G-proteins. PMID:21988569

  4. Overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana gibberellic acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene enhance the vegetative growth and fiber quality in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plants

    PubMed Central

    Withanage, Samanthi Priyanka; Hossain, Md Aktar; Kumar M., Sures; Roslan, Hairul Azman B; Abdullah, Mohammad Puad; Napis, Suhaimi B.; Shukor, Nor Aini Ab.

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.; Family: Malvaceae), is multipurpose crop, one of the potential alternatives of natural fiber for biocomposite materials. Longer fiber and higher cellulose contents are required for good quality biocomposite materials. However, average length of kenaf fiber (2.6 mm in bast and 1.28 mm in whole plant) is below the critical length (4 mm) for biocomposite production. Present study describes whether fiber length and cellulose content of kenaf plants could be enhanced by increasing GA biosynthesis in plants by overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana Gibberellic Acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene. AtGA20ox gene with intron was overexpressed in kenaf plants under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter, followed by in planta transformation into V36 and G4 varieties of kenaf. The lines with higher levels of bioactive GA (0.3–1.52 ng g−1 fresh weight) were further characterized for their morphological and biochemical traits including vegetative and reproductive growth, fiber dimension and chemical composition. Positive impact of increased gibberellins on biochemical composition, fiber dimension and their derivative values were demonstrated in some lines of transgenic kenaf including increased cellulose content (91%), fiber length and quality but it still requires further study to confirm the critical level of this particular bioactive GA in transgenic plants. PMID:26175614

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana gibberellic acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene enhance the vegetative growth and fiber quality in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Withanage, Samanthi Priyanka; Hossain, Md Aktar; Kumar M, Sures; Roslan, Hairul Azman B; Abdullah, Mohammad Puad; Napis, Suhaimi B; Shukor, Nor Aini Ab

    2015-06-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.; Family: Malvaceae), is multipurpose crop, one of the potential alternatives of natural fiber for biocomposite materials. Longer fiber and higher cellulose contents are required for good quality biocomposite materials. However, average length of kenaf fiber (2.6 mm in bast and 1.28 mm in whole plant) is below the critical length (4 mm) for biocomposite production. Present study describes whether fiber length and cellulose content of kenaf plants could be enhanced by increasing GA biosynthesis in plants by overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana Gibberellic Acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene. AtGA20ox gene with intron was overexpressed in kenaf plants under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter, followed by in planta transformation into V36 and G4 varieties of kenaf. The lines with higher levels of bioactive GA (0.3-1.52 ng g(-1) fresh weight) were further characterized for their morphological and biochemical traits including vegetative and reproductive growth, fiber dimension and chemical composition. Positive impact of increased gibberellins on biochemical composition, fiber dimension and their derivative values were demonstrated in some lines of transgenic kenaf including increased cellulose content (91%), fiber length and quality but it still requires further study to confirm the critical level of this particular bioactive GA in transgenic plants.

  6. Promotion of flowering and reduction of a generation time in apple seedlings by ectopical expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene using the Apple latent spherical virus vector.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Sasaki, Shintaro; Yamagata, Kousuke; Komori, Sadao; Nagase, Momoyo; Wada, Masato; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Tree crops have a long juvenile period which is a serious constraint for genetic improvement and experimental research. For example, apple remains in a juvenile phase for more than five years after seed germination. Here, we report about induction of rapid flowering in apple seedlings using the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector expressing a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. Apple seedlings could be flowered at 1.5-2 months after inoculation to cotyledons of seeds just after germination with ALSV expressing the FT gene. A half of precocious flowers was normal in appearance with sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. Pollen from a precocious flower successfully pollinated flowers of 'Fuji' apple from which fruits developed normally and next-generation seeds were produced. Our system using the ALSV vector promoted flowering time of apple seedlings within two months after germination and shortened the generation time from seed germination to next-generation seed maturation to within 7 months when pollen from precocious flowers was used for pollination.

  7. Uncovering Genes and Ploidy Involved in the High Diversity in Root Hair Density, Length and Response to Local Scarce Phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Markus G.; Schmid, Karl; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Plant root hairs increase the root surface to enhance the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile nutrients, such as the essential nutrient phosphorus, from the soil. Here, root hair traits and the response to scarce local phosphorus concentration were studied in 166 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using split plates. Root hair density and length were correlated, but highly variable among accessions. Surprisingly, the well-known increase in root hair density under low phosphorus was mostly restricted to genotypes that had less and shorter root hairs under P sufficient conditions. By contrast, several accessions with dense and long root hairs even had lower hair density or shorter hairs in local scarce phosphorus. Furthermore, accessions with whole-genome duplications developed more dense but phosphorus-insensitive root hairs. The impact of genome duplication on root hair density was confirmed by comparing tetraploid accessions with their diploid ancestors. Genome-wide association mapping identified candidate genes potentially involved in root hair responses tp scarce local phosphate. Knock-out mutants in identified candidate genes (CYR1, At1g32360 and RLP48) were isolated and differences in root hair traits in the mutants were confirmed. The large diversity in root hair traits among accessions and the diverse response when local phosphorus is scarce is a rich resource for further functional analyses. PMID:25781967

  8. Gene Networks Involved in Hormonal Control of Root Development in Arabidopsis thaliana: A Framework for Studying Its Disturbance by Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Stefanie; Cuypers, Ann; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Remans, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival under abiotic stress conditions requires morphological and physiological adaptations. Adverse soil conditions directly affect root development, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely to be discovered. Plant hormones regulate normal root growth and mediate root morphological responses to abiotic stress. Hormone synthesis, signal transduction, perception and cross-talk create a complex network in which metal stress can interfere, resulting in root growth alterations. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, for which gene networks in root development have been intensively studied, and supply essential terminology of anatomy and growth of roots. Knowledge of gene networks, mechanisms and interactions related to the role of plant hormones is reviewed. Most knowledge has been generated for auxin, the best-studied hormone with a pronounced primary role in root development. Furthermore, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, strigolactones, brassinosteroids and salicylic acid are discussed. Interactions between hormones that are of potential importance for root growth are described. This creates a framework that can be used for investigating the impact of abiotic stress factors on molecular mechanisms related to plant hormones, with the limited knowledge of the effects of the metals cadmium, copper and zinc on plant hormones and root development included as case example. PMID:26287175

  9. Minimal influence of G-protein null mutations on ozone-induced changes in gene expression, foliar injury, gas exchange and peroxidase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    PubMed

    Booker, Fitzgerald; Burkey, Kent; Morgan, Patrick; Fiscus, Edwin; Jones, Alan

    2012-04-01

    Ozone (O(3)) uptake by plants leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intercellular space of leaves and induces signalling processes reported to involve the membrane-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Therefore, potential G-protein-mediated response mechanisms to O(3) were compared between Arabidopsis thaliana L. lines with null mutations in the α- and β-subunits (gpa1-4, agb1-2 and gpa1-4/agb1-2) and Col-0 wild-type plants. Plants were treated with a range of O(3) concentrations (5, 125, 175 and 300 nL L(-1)) for 1 and 2 d in controlled environment chambers. Transcript levels of GPA1, AGB1 and RGS1 transiently increased in Col-0 exposed to 125 nL L(-1) O(3) compared with the 5 nL L(-1) control treatment. However, silencing of α and β G-protein genes resulted in little alteration of many processes associated with O(3) injury, including the induction of ROS-signalling genes, increased leaf tissue ion leakage, decreased net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and increased peroxidase activity, especially in the leaf apoplast. These results indicated that many responses to O(3) stress at physiological levels were not detectably influenced by α and β G-proteins.

  10. A functional genomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana PP2C clade D

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the reference dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the PP2C family of P-protein phosphatases includes the products of 80 genes that have been separated into 10 multi-protein clades plus six singletons. Clade D includes the products of nine genes distributed among 3 chromosomes (PPD1, At3g12620; PPD2...

  11. Boron deficiency results in early repression of a cytokinin receptor gene and abnormal cell differentiation in the apical root meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Isidro; Poza, Laura; Bonilla, Ildefonso; Bolaños, Luis

    2014-04-01

    The development of Arabidopsis thaliana was dramatically altered within few hours following boron (B) deprivation. This effect was particularly evident in the apical root meristem. The essentiality of boron in plants has been clearly linked to its structural role in the cell wall, however the diversity and rapidity alterations of plant organogenesis when the micronutrient is absent suggest that B deficiency could also affect gene regulation during plant development. Therefore, the effect of B deficiency on cell elongation, apical root meristem cell division, and early differentiation of root tissues was investigated in A. thaliana seedlings. Dark-growth experiments indicated that hypocotyl elongation was inhibited 2 days after removing B, but apical root growth ceased almost immediately following B deprivation. Detection of cycline B1 by GUS staining of a promoter-reporter construct revealed that low B led to a reduced zone of cell division. The expression of CRE1/WOL/AHK4, encoding an integral membrane protein with histidine kinase domain that mediates cytokinin signaling and root xylem differentiation, was inhibited under B deficiency resulting in arrested xylem development at the protoxylem stage. Because the transition from cell division to cell differentiation in apical root meristems is controlled by cytokinins, this result support the hypothesis that signaling mechanisms during cell differentiation and organogenesis are highly sensitive to B deficiency, and together with previous reports that link the micronutrient with auxin or ethylene control of root architecture, suggests that B could play a role in regulation of hormone mediated early plant development signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Pattern Dynamics in Adaxial-Abaxial Specific Gene Expression Are Modulated by a Plastid Retrograde Signal during Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Tameshige, Toshiaki; Fujita, Hironori; Watanabe, Keiro; Toyokura, Koichi; Kondo, Maki; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Noritaka; Tsugeki, Ryuji; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Mikio; Okada, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance and reformation of gene expression domains are the basis for the morphogenic processes of multicellular systems. In a leaf primordium of Arabidopsis thaliana, the expression of FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL) and the activity of the microRNA miR165/166 are specific to the abaxial side. This miR165/166 activity restricts the target gene expression to the adaxial side. The adaxial and abaxial specific gene expressions are crucial for the wide expansion of leaf lamina. The FIL-expression and the miR165/166-free domains are almost mutually exclusive, and they have been considered to be maintained during leaf development. However, we found here that the position of the boundary between the two domains gradually shifts from the adaxial side to the abaxial side. The cell lineage analysis revealed that this boundary shifting was associated with a sequential gene expression switch from the FIL-expressing (miR165/166 active) to the miR165/166-free (non-FIL-expressing) states. Our genetic analyses using the enlarged fil expression domain2 (enf2) mutant and chemical treatment experiments revealed that impairment in the plastid (chloroplast) gene expression machinery retards this boundary shifting and inhibits the lamina expansion. Furthermore, these developmental effects caused by the abnormal plastids were not observed in the genomes uncoupled1 (gun1) mutant background. This study characterizes the dynamic nature of the adaxial-abaxial specification process in leaf primordia and reveals that the dynamic process is affected by the GUN1-dependent retrograde signal in response to the failure of plastid gene expression. These findings advance our understanding on the molecular mechanism linking the plastid function to the leaf morphogenic processes. PMID:23935517

  13. AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development

    PubMed Central

    Krizek, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) is an important regulator of Arabidopsis flower development that has overlapping functions with the related AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) gene in floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth, and patterning. Two other AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) genes, AIL5 and AIL7, are expressed in developing flowers in spatial domains that partly overlap with those of ANT. Here, it is shown that AIL5 and AIL7 also act in a partially redundant manner with ANT. The results demonstrate that AIL genes exhibit unequal genetic redundancy with roles for AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 only revealed in the absence of ANT function. ant ail5 and ant ail7 double mutant flowers show alterations in floral organ positioning and growth, sepal fusion, and reductions in petal number. In ant ail5, petals are often replaced by filaments or dramatically reduced in size. ant ail7 double mutants produce increased numbers of carpels, which have defects in valve fusion and a loss of apical tissues. The distinct phenotypes of ant ail5, ant ail7 and the previously characterized ant ail6 indicate that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 make unique contributions to flower development. These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants. While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants. Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds. PMID:25956884

  14. AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

    PubMed

    Krizek, Beth A

    2015-08-01

    AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) is an important regulator of Arabidopsis flower development that has overlapping functions with the related AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) gene in floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth, and patterning. Two other AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) genes, AIL5 and AIL7, are expressed in developing flowers in spatial domains that partly overlap with those of ANT. Here, it is shown that AIL5 and AIL7 also act in a partially redundant manner with ANT. The results demonstrate that AIL genes exhibit unequal genetic redundancy with roles for AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 only revealed in the absence of ANT function. ant ail5 and ant ail7 double mutant flowers show alterations in floral organ positioning and growth, sepal fusion, and reductions in petal number. In ant ail5, petals are often replaced by filaments or dramatically reduced in size. ant ail7 double mutants produce increased numbers of carpels, which have defects in valve fusion and a loss of apical tissues. The distinct phenotypes of ant ail5, ant ail7 and the previously characterized ant ail6 indicate that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 make unique contributions to flower development. These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants. While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants. Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

  15. The Alphabet of Galactolipids in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Amina; Schütz, Anna-Lena; Galano, Jean-Marie; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Kirstin; Durand, Thierry; Brodhun, Florian; Feussner, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Galactolipids constitute the major lipid class in plants. In recent years oxygenated derivatives of galactolipids have been detected. They are discussed as signal molecules during leaf damage, since they accumulate in wounded leaves in high levels. Using different analytical methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infra-red spectroscopy, and high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) earlier reports focused on the analysis of either oxidized or non-oxidized species and needed high levels of analytes. Here, we report on the analysis of the galactolipid subfraction of the Arabidopsis leaf lipidome by an improved HPLC/MS2-based method that is fast, robust, and comparatively simple in its performance. Due to a combination of phase partitioning, solid phase fractionation, liquid chromatography, and MS2 experiments this method has high detection sensitivity and requires only low amounts of plant material. With this method 167 galactolipid species were detected in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of these 79 being newly described species. From all species the head group and acyl side chains were identified via MS2 experiments. Moreover, the structural identification was supported by HPLC/time-of-flight (TOF)-MS and gas chromatography (GC)/MS analysis. The quantification of different galactolipid species that accumulated 30 min after a mechanical wounding in A. thaliana leaves showed that the oxidized acyl side chains in galactolipids are divided into 65% cyclopentenones, 27% methyl-branched ketols, 3.8% hydroperoxides/straight-chain ketols, 2.0% hydroxides, and 2.6% phytoprostanes. In comparison to the free cyclopentenone derivatives, the esterified forms occur in a 149-fold excess supporting the hypothesis that galactolipids might function as storage compounds for cyclopentenones. Additional analysis of the ratio of non-oxidized to oxidized galactolipid species in leaves of wounded plants was performed resulting in a ratio of 2.0 in case

  16. Comparison of the expression patterns of two small gene families of S gene family receptor kinase genes during the defence response in Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pastuglia, Martine; Swarup, Ranjan; Rocher, Anne; Saindrenan, Patrick; Roby, Dominique; Dumas, Christian; Cock, J Mark

    2002-01-09

    SFR2, a member of the S gene family of receptor kinases, has been shown to be rapidly induced by wounding and bacterial infection suggesting that this gene may play a role in the defence response in Brassica. In this study we have compared the response of SFR2 to that of two other members of the SFR gene family in Brassica (SFR1 and SFR3) and to the closely-related ARK genes of Arabidopsis. Different patterns of mRNA accumulation were observed for different members of these families. SFR1 transcripts only accumulated in response to bacterial infection and their abundance was not significantly affected by wounding. Neither treatment induced accumulation of SFR3 transcripts. ARK1 and ARK3 resembled SFR2 in that their mRNAs accumulated in response to both wounding and bacterial infection. Both SFR1 and SFR2 mRNAs accumulated in response to exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and SA was shown to be required for induction of expression from the SFR2 promoter in Arabidopsis. However, the timing of the increase in endogenous SA levels following bacterial infiltration in Brassica indicates that the accumulation of SFR mRNA in the first few hours after infiltration does not occur in response to an increase in SA levels. We discuss the possibility that induction of SFR gene expression by SA may contribute to potentialization of the defence response. Taken together with previous studies that indicate a possible role during development, the data presented here suggest that the SFR and ARK gene families may have overlapping roles in both defence and during development.

  17. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rojas-González, José A; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sandalio, Luisa M; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin-Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1.

  18. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-González, José A.; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J.; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin–Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1. PMID:25743161

  19. Cleaning the GenBank Arabidopsis thaliana data set.

    PubMed Central

    Korning, P G; Hebsgaard, S M; Rouze, P; Brunak, S

    1996-01-01

    Data driven computational biology relies on the large quantities of genomic data stored in international sequence data banks. However, the possibilities are drastically impaired if the stored data is unreliable. During a project aiming to predict splice sites in the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, we extracted a data set from the A.thaliana entries in GenBank. A number of simple 'sanity' checks, based on the nature of the data, revealed an alarmingly high error rate. More than 15% of the most important entries extracted did contain erroneous information. In addition, a number of entries had directly conflicting assignments of exons and introns, not stemming from alternative splicing. In a few cases the errors are due to mere typographical misprints, which may be corrected by comparison to the original papers, but errors caused by wrong assignments of splice sites from experimental data are the most common. It is proposed that the level of error correction should be increased and that gene structure sanity checks should be incorporated--also at the submitter level--to avoid or reduce the problem in the future. A non-redundant and error corrected subset of the data for A.thaliana is made available through anonymous FTP. PMID:8628656

  20. Gene gain and loss during evolution of obligate parasitism in the white rust pathogen of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kemen, Eric; Gardiner, Anastasia; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Kemen, Ariane C; Balmuth, Alexi L; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Bailey, Kate; Holub, Eric; Studholme, David J; Maclean, Dan; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-07-01

    Biotrophic eukaryotic plant pathogens require a living host for their growth and form an intimate haustorial interface with parasitized cells. Evolution to biotrophy occurred independently in fungal rusts and powdery mildews, and in oomycete white rusts and downy mildews. Biotroph evolution and molecular mechanisms of biotrophy are poorly understood. It has been proposed, but not shown, that obligate biotrophy results from (i) reduced selection for maintenance of biosynthetic pathways and (ii) gain of mechanisms to evade host recognition or suppress host defence. Here we use Illumina sequencing to define the genome, transcriptome, and gene models for the obligate biotroph oomycete and Arabidopsis parasite, Albugo laibachii. A. laibachii is a member of the Chromalveolata, which incorporates Heterokonts (containing the oomycetes), Apicomplexa (which includes human parasites like Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii), and four other taxa. From comparisons with other oomycete plant pathogens and other chromalveolates, we reveal independent loss of molybdenum-cofactor-requiring enzymes in downy mildews, white rusts, and the malaria parasite P. falciparum. Biotrophy also requires "effectors" to suppress host defence; we reveal RXLR and Crinkler effectors shared with other oomycetes, and also discover and verify a novel class of effectors, the "CHXCs", by showing effector delivery and effector functionality. Our findings suggest that evolution to progressively more intimate association between host and parasite results in reduced selection for retention of certain biosynthetic pathways, and particularly reduced selection for retention of molybdopterin-requiring biosynthetic pathways. These mechanisms are not only relevant to plant pathogenic oomycetes but also to human pathogens within the Chromalveolata.

  1. Construction, expression, and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana 4CL and Arachis hypogaea RS fusion gene 4CL::RS in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erhao; Guo, Xuefeng; Meng, Zhifen; Wang, Jin; Sun, Jia; Yao, Xi; Xun, Hang

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is an important antioxidant that confers several beneficial effects on human health. 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase (4CL) and resveratrol synthase (RS) are key rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol. Using gene fusion technology, the fusion gene, 4CL::RS, was constructed by the 4CL gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and RS gene from Arachis hypogaea. DNAMAN analysis showed that the fusion gene encoded a 964-amino acid protein with an approximate weight of 104.7 kDa and a pI of 5.63. A prokaryotic expression vector containing Nco-I and EcoR-I restriction sites, pET-30a/4CL::RS, was identified by liquid culture bacterial PCR, enzyme digestion, and sequencing, and then used in the induction of expression. Subsequently, a biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol was constructed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) that harbored pET-30a/4CL::RS. The recombinant strains were induced to express the fusion protein at 28 °C for 8 h. After bacterial cells were disrupted by hypothermic ultrasonication, the 4CL::RS fusion protein was thoroughly separated from tags using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, and then detected by SDS-PAGE analysis. When the recombinant strains expressed the fusion protein, the precursor, p-coumaric acid, was converted to resveratrol. In the present study, the final concentration of resveratrol derived from 1 mM p-coumaric acid was 80.524 mg/L, with a 35.28 % (mol/mol) conversion yield.

  2. Catabolism of Glutathione Conjugates in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Brazier-Hicks, Melissa; Evans, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Oliver D.; Hodgson, David R. W.; Steel, Patrick G.; Edwards, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The safener fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine) increases tolerance to chloroacetanilide herbicides in rice by enhancing the expression of detoxifying glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Fenclorim also enhances GSTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, and while investigating the functional significance of this induction in suspension cultures, we determined that these enzymes glutathionylated the safener. The resulting S-(fenclorim)-glutathione conjugate was sequentially processed to S-(fenclorim)-γ-glutamyl-cysteine and S-(fenclorim)-cysteine (FC), the latter accumulating in both the cells and the medium. FC was then either catabolized to 4-chloro-6-(methylthio)-phenylpyrimidine (CMTP) or N-acylated with malonic acid. These cysteine derivatives had distinct fates, with the enzymes responsible for their formation being induced by fenclorim and FC. Fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine was formed from FC by the action of a malonyl-CoA-dependent N-malonyltransferase. A small proportion of the fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine then underwent decarboxylation to yield a putative S-fenclorim-N-acetylcysteine intermediate, which underwent a second round of GST-mediated S-glutathionylation and subsequent proteolytic processing. The formation of CMTP was catalyzed by the concerted action of a cysteine conjugate β-lyase and an S-methyltransferase, with the two activities being coordinately regulated. Although the fenclorim conjugates tested showed little GST-inducing activity in Arabidopsis, the formation of CMTP resulted in metabolic reactivation, with the product showing good enhancing activity. In addition, CMTP induced GSTs and herbicide-safening activity in rice. The bioactivated CMTP was in turn glutathione-conjugated and processed to a malonyl cysteine derivative. These results reveal the surprisingly complex set of competing catabolic reactions acting on xenobiotics entering the S-glutathionylation pathway in plants, which can result in both detoxification and bioactivation. PMID

  3. Overexpression of the PP2A-C5 gene confers increased salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongbin; Zhu, Yinfeng; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was shown to play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways in plants. PP2A is made of 3 subunits: a scaffolding subunit A, a regulatory subunit B, and a catalytic subunit C. It is believed that the B subunit recognizes specific substrates and the C subunit directly acts on the selected substrates, whereas the A subunit brings a B subunit and a C subunit together to form a specific PP2A holoenzyme. Because there are multiple isoforms for each PP2A subunit, there could be hundreds of novel PP2A holoenzymes in plants. For an example, there are 3 A subunits, 17 B subunits, and 5 C subunits in Arabidopsis, which could form 255 different PP2A holoenzymes. Understanding the roles of these PP2A holoenzymes in various signaling pathways is a challenging task. In a recent study,1 we discovered that PP2A-C5, the catalytic subunit 5 of PP2A, plays an important role in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. We found that a knockout mutant of PP2A-C5 (i.e. pp2a-c5–1) was very sensitive to salt treatments, whereas PP2A-C5-overexpressing plants were more tolerant to salt stresses. Genetic analyses between pp2a-c5–1 and Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) mutants indicated that PP2A-C5 does not function in the same pathway as SOS genes. Using yeast 2-hybrid analysis, we found that PP2A-C5 interacts with several vacuolar membrane bound chloride channel proteins. We hypothesize that these vacuolar chloride channel proteins might be PP2A-C5's substrates in vivo, and the action of PP2A-C5 on these channel proteins could increase or activate their activities, thereby result in accumulation of the chloride and sodium contents in vacuoles, leading to increased salt tolerance in plants. PMID:28045581

  4. Epigenetic natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Matthew W; Tanurdzić, Milos; Lippman, Zachary; Jiang, Hongmei; Carrasquillo, Robert; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Dedhia, Neilay; McCombie, W Richard; Agier, Nicolas; Bulski, Agnès; Colot, Vincent; Doerge, R W; Martienssen, Robert A

    2007-07-01

    Cytosine methylation of repetitive sequences is widespread in plant genomes, occurring in both symmetric (CpG and CpNpG) as well as asymmetric sequence contexts. We used the methylation-dependent restriction enzyme McrBC to profile methylated DNA using tiling microarrays of Arabidopsis Chromosome 4 in two distinct ecotypes, Columbia and Landsberg erecta. We also used comparative genome hybridization to profile copy number polymorphisms. Repeated sequences and transposable elements (TEs), especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons, are densely methylated, but one third of genes also have low but detectable methylation in their transcribed regions. While TEs are almost always methylated, genic methylation is highly polymorphic, with half of all methylated genes being methylated in only one of the two ecotypes. A survey of loci in 96 Arabidopsis accessions revealed a similar degree of methylation polymorphism. Within-gene methylation is heritable, but is lost at a high frequency in segregating F(2) families. Promoter methylation is rare, and gene expression is not generally affected by differences in DNA methylation. Small interfering RNA are preferentially associated with methylated TEs, but not with methylated genes, indicating that most genic methylation is not guided by small interfering RNA. This may account for the instability of gene methylation, if occasional failure of maintenance methylation cannot be restored by other means.

  5. Epigenetic Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongmei; Carrasquillo, Robert; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Dedhia, Neilay; McCombie, W. Richard; Agier, Nicolas; Bulski, Agnès; Colot, Vincent; Doerge, R.W; Martienssen, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Cytosine methylation of repetitive sequences is widespread in plant genomes, occurring in both symmetric (CpG and CpNpG) as well as asymmetric sequence contexts. We used the methylation-dependent restriction enzyme McrBC to profile methylated DNA using tiling microarrays of Arabidopsis Chromosome 4 in two distinct ecotypes, Columbia and Landsberg erecta. We also used comparative genome hybridization to profile copy number polymorphisms. Repeated sequences and transposable elements (TEs), especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons, are densely methylated, but one third of genes also have low but detectable methylation in their transcribed regions. While TEs are almost always methylated, genic methylation is highly polymorphic, with half of all methylated genes being methylated in only one of the two ecotypes. A survey of loci in 96 Arabidopsis accessions revealed a similar degree of methylation polymorphism. Within-gene methylation is heritable, but is lost at a high frequency in segregating F 2 families. Promoter methylation is rare, and gene expression is not generally affected by differences in DNA methylation. Small interfering RNA are preferentially associated with methylated TEs, but not with methylated genes, indicating that most genic methylation is not guided by small interfering RNA. This may account for the instability of gene methylation, if occasional failure of maintenance methylation cannot be restored by other means. PMID:17579518

  6. The SlASR gene cloned from the extreme halophyte Suaeda liaotungensis K. enhances abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Xin; Yang, Xing; Li, Xiao-Lan; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Qiu-Li

    2014-10-10

    Halophytes have a distinct signaling pathway and regulatory network to impart salt stress tolerance. Environmental signals are first perceived by specific receptors, which modulate expression and activation of different genes leading to stress tolerance. SlASR, an abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced protein, was previously isolated and characterized from high-throughput Solexa sequencing of extreme halophyte Suaeda liaotungensis K.. SlASR, localized in the nucleus, contained 237 amino acids with a 24.94-kDa molecular mass and an ABA/WDS domain. SlASR had a large number of disorder-promoting amino acids, making it an intrinsically disordered protein. It was not a transcriptional activator in yeast cells. The expression of SlASR was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl, dehydration, or low temperature treatment. To investigate the biological role of SlASR proteins in abiotic stress responses, we used an overexpression approach in Arabidopsis thaliana. Constitutive overexpression of SlASR under the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter conferred reduced sensitivity to NaCl, drought, and low temperature.

  7. The TORNADO1 and TORNADO2 Genes Function in Several Patterning Processes during Early Leaf Development in Arabidopsis thaliana[W

    PubMed Central

    Cnops, Gerda; Neyt, Pia; Raes, Jeroen; Petrarulo, Marica; Nelissen, Hilde; Malenica, Nenad; Luschnig, Christian; Tietz, Olaf; Ditengou, Franck; Palme, Klaus; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Prinsen, Els; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, patterning is a process that generates axes in the primary body plan, creates domains upon organ formation, and finally leads to differentiation into tissues and cell types. We identified the Arabidopsis thaliana TORNADO1 (TRN1) and TRN2 genes and their role in leaf patterning processes such as lamina venation, symmetry, and lateral growth. In trn mutants, the leaf venation network had a severely reduced complexity: incomplete loops, no tertiary or quaternary veins, and vascular islands. The leaf laminas were asymmetric and narrow because of a severely reduced cell number. We postulate that the imbalance between cell proliferation and cell differentiation and the altered auxin distribution in both trn mutants cause asymmetric leaf growth and aberrant venation patterning. TRN1 and TRN2 were epistatic to ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 with respect to leaf asymmetry, consistent with their expression in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. TRN1 codes for a large plant-specific protein with conserved domains also found in a variety of signaling proteins, whereas TRN2 encodes a transmembrane protein of the tetraspanin family whose phylogenetic tree is presented. Double mutant analysis showed that TRN1 and TRN2 act in the same pathway. PMID:16531491

  8. Molecular identification of zeaxanthin epoxidase of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a gene involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis and corresponding to the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, E; Nussaume, L; Quesada, A; Gonneau, M; Sotta, B; Hugueney, P; Frey, A; Marion-Poll, A

    1996-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone which plays an important role in seed development and dormancy and in plant response to environmental stresses. An ABA-deficient mutant of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, aba2, was isolated by transposon tagging using the maize Activator transposon. The aba2 mutant exhibits precocious seed germination and a severe wilty phenotype. The mutant is impaired in the first step of the ABA biosynthesis pathway, the zeaxanthin epoxidation reaction. ABA2 cDNA is able to complement N.plumbaginifolia aba2 and Arabidopsis thaliana aba mutations indicating that these mutants are homologous. ABA2 cDNA encodes a chloroplast-imported protein of 72.5 kDa, sharing similarities with different mono-oxigenases and oxidases of bacterial origin and having an ADP-binding fold and an FAD-binding domain. ABA2 protein, produced in Escherichia coli, exhibits in vitro zeaxanthin epoxidase activity. This is the first report of the isolation of a gene of the ABA biosynthetic pathway. The molecular identification of ABA2 opens the possibility to study the regulation of ABA biosynthesis and its cellular location. Images PMID:8665840

  9. Expression pattern of genes encoding nitrate and ammonium assimilating enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to short term NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Debouba, Mohamed; Dguimi, Houda Maaroufi; Ghorbel, Mohamed; Gouia, Houda; Suzuki, Akira

    2013-01-15

    Key steps in nitrate nutrition and assimilation were assessed over two weeks in control and 100mM NaCl-exposed Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia) plants. The data showed that NaCl stress lowered nitrate contents in both leaves and roots. While NaCl stress decreased ammonium contents in leaves, it increased the contents in roots at the end of treatment. A survey of transcript levels of NIA1 (At1g77760) and NIA2 (At1g37130) and nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.1.6) activity in the leaves and roots suggested a major role of NIA2 rather than NIA1 in the regulation of NR by salt stress. A drop in mRNA levels for GLN2 (At5g35630) and GLN1;2 (At1g66200) by salt was associated with a similar inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) activity in the leaves. In the roots, NaCl stress was found to enhance mRNA levels of GLN2 and cytosolic-encoding genes (GLN1;1 (At5g37600) and GLN1;2).

  10. Disrupting Two Arabidopsis thaliana Xylosyltransferase Genes Results in Plants Deficient in Xyloglucan, a Major Primary Cell Wall Component[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier, David M.; Lerouxel, Olivier; Neumetzler, Lutz; Yamauchi, Kazuchika; Reinecke, Antje; Freshour, Glenn; Zabotina, Olga A.; Hahn, Michael G.; Burgert, Ingo; Pauly, Markus; Raikhel, Natasha V.; Keegstra, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Xyloglucans are the main hemicellulosic polysaccharides found in the primary cell walls of dicots and nongraminaceous monocots, where they are thought to interact with cellulose to form a three-dimensional network that functions as the principal load-bearing structure of the primary cell wall. To determine whether two Arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode xylosyltransferases, XXT1 and XXT2, are involved in xyloglucan biosynthesis in vivo and to determine how the plant cell wall is affected by the lack of expression of XXT1, XXT2, or both, we isolated and characterized xxt1 and xxt2 single and xxt1 xxt2 double T-DNA insertion mutants. Although the xxt1 and xxt2 mutants did not have a gross morphological phenotype, they did have a slight decrease in xyloglucan content and showed slightly altered distribution patterns for xyloglucan epitopes. More interestingly, the xxt1 xxt2 double mutant had aberrant root hairs and lacked detectable xyloglucan. The reduction of xyloglucan in the xxt2 mutant and the lack of detectable xyloglucan in the xxt1 xxt2 double mutant resulted in significant changes in the mechanical properties of these plants. We conclude that XXT1 and XXT2 encode xylosyltransferases that are required for xyloglucan biosynthesis. Moreover, the lack of detectable xyloglucan in the xxt1 xxt2 double mutant challenges conventional models of the plant primary cell wall. PMID:18544630

  11. The molecular population genetics of shoot development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Kristen A

    2007-01-01

    Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have provided us with a wealth of information about the genetic pathways that regulate plant morphogenesis. This developmental genetic treasure trove represents a fantastic resource for researchers interested in the microevolution of development. Several laboratories have begun using molecular population genetic analyses to investigate the evolutionary forces that act upon loci that regulate shoot morphogenesis. Much of this work has focused on coding sequence variation in transcription factors; however, recent studies have explored sequence variation in other types of proteins and in promoter regions. Several genes that regulate shoot development contain signatures of selective sweeps associated with positive selection or harbor putative balanced polymorphisms in coding and noncoding sequences. Other regulatory genes appear to be evolving neutrally, but have accumulated potentially deleterious replacement polymorphisms.

  12. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered phototropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty five strains of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. have been identified with altered phototropic responses to 450-nm light. Four of these mutants have been more thoroughly characterized. Strain JK224 shows normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. However, while the amplitude for "first positive" phototropism is the same as that in the wild-type, the threshold and fluence for the maximum response in "first positive" phototropism are shifted to higher fluence by a factor of 20-30. This mutant may represent an alteration in the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism. Strain JK218 exhibits no curvature to light at any fluence from 1 micromole m-2 to 2700 micromoles m-2, but shows normal gravitropism. Strain JK345 shows no "first positive" phototropism, and reduced gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Strain JK229 shows no measurable "first positive" phototropism, but normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Based on these data, it is suggested that: 1. gravitropism and phototropism contain at least one common element; 2. "first positive" and "second positive" phototropism contain at least one common element; and 3. "first positive" phototropism can be substantially altered without any apparent alteration of "second positive" phototropism.

  13. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered phototropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty five strains of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. have been identified with altered phototropic responses to 450-nm light. Four of these mutants have been more thoroughly characterized. Strain JK224 shows normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. However, while the amplitude for "first positive" phototropism is the same as that in the wild-type, the threshold and fluence for the maximum response in "first positive" phototropism are shifted to higher fluence by a factor of 20-30. This mutant may represent an alteration in the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism. Strain JK218 exhibits no curvature to light at any fluence from 1 micromole m-2 to 2700 micromoles m-2, but shows normal gravitropism. Strain JK345 shows no "first positive" phototropism, and reduced gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Strain JK229 shows no measurable "first positive" phototropism, but normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Based on these data, it is suggested that: 1. gravitropism and phototropism contain at least one common element; 2. "first positive" and "second positive" phototropism contain at least one common element; and 3. "first positive" phototropism can be substantially altered without any apparent alteration of "second positive" phototropism.

  14. Molecular genetics of root gravitropism and waving in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedbrook, J.; Boonsirichai, K.; Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Pearlman, R.; Rosen, E.; Rutherford, R.; Batiza, A.; Carroll, K.; Schulz, T.; hide

    1998-01-01

    When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grow embedded in an agar-based medium, their roots grow vertically downward. This reflects their ability to sense the gravity vector and to position their tip parallel to it (gravitropism). We have isolated a number of mutations affecting root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. One of these mutations, named arg1, affects root and hypocotyl gravitropism without promoting defects in starch content or in the ability of seedlings' organs to respond to plant hormones. The ARG1 gene was cloned and shown to code for a protein with a J domain at its amino terminus and a second sequence motif found in several cytoskeleton binding proteins. Mutations in the AGR1 locus promote a strong defect in root gravitropism. Some alleles also confer an increased root resistance to exogenous ethylene and an increased sensitivity to auxin. AGR1 was cloned and found to encode a putative transmembrane protein which might be involved in polar auxin transport, or in regulating the differential growth response to gravistimulation. When Arabidopsis seedlings grow on the surface of agar-based media tilted backward, their roots wave. That wavy pattern of root growth derives from a combined response to gravity, touch and other surface-derived stimuli. It is accompanied by a reversible rotation of the root tip about its axis. A number of mutations affect the presence or the shape of root waves on tilted agar-based surfaces. One of them, wvc1, promotes the formation of compressed root waves under these conditions. The physiological and molecular analyses of this mutant suggest that a tryptophan-derived molecule other than IAA might be an important regulator of the curvature responsible for root waving.

  15. Molecular genetics of root gravitropism and waving in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sedbrook, J; Boonsirichai, K; Chen, R; Hilson, P; Pearlman, R; Rosen, E; Rutherford, R; Batiza, A; Carroll, K; Schulz, T; Masson, P H

    1998-05-01

    When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grow embedded in an agar-based medium, their roots grow vertically downward. This reflects their ability to sense the gravity vector and to position their tip parallel to it (gravitropism). We have isolated a number of mutations affecting root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. One of these mutations, named arg1, affects root and hypocotyl gravitropism without promoting defects in starch content or in the ability of seedlings' organs to respond to plant hormones. The ARG1 gene was cloned and shown to code for a protein with a J domain at its amino terminus and a second sequence motif found in several cytoskeleton binding proteins. Mutations in the AGR1 locus promote a strong defect in root gravitropism. Some alleles also confer an increased root resistance to exogenous ethylene and an increased sensitivity to auxin. AGR1 was cloned and found to encode a putative transmembrane protein which might be involved in polar auxin transport, or in regulating the differential growth response to gravistimulation. When Arabidopsis seedlings grow on the surface of agar-based media tilted backward, their roots wave. That wavy pattern of root growth derives from a combined response to gravity, touch and other surface-derived stimuli. It is accompanied by a reversible rotation of the root tip about its axis. A number of mutations affect the presence or the shape of root waves on tilted agar-based surfaces. One of them, wvc1, promotes the formation of compressed root waves under these conditions. The physiological and molecular analyses of this mutant suggest that a tryptophan-derived molecule other than IAA might be an important regulator of the curvature responsible for root waving.

  16. Molecular genetics of root gravitropism and waving in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedbrook, J.; Boonsirichai, K.; Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Pearlman, R.; Rosen, E.; Rutherford, R.; Batiza, A.; Carroll, K.; Schulz, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grow embedded in an agar-based medium, their roots grow vertically downward. This reflects their ability to sense the gravity vector and to position their tip parallel to it (gravitropism). We have isolated a number of mutations affecting root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. One of these mutations, named arg1, affects root and hypocotyl gravitropism without promoting defects in starch content or in the ability of seedlings' organs to respond to plant hormones. The ARG1 gene was cloned and shown to code for a protein with a J domain at its amino terminus and a second sequence motif found in several cytoskeleton binding proteins. Mutations in the AGR1 locus promote a strong defect in root gravitropism. Some alleles also confer an increased root resistance to exogenous ethylene and an increased sensitivity to auxin. AGR1 was cloned and found to encode a putative transmembrane protein which might be involved in polar auxin transport, or in regulating the differential growth response to gravistimulation. When Arabidopsis seedlings grow on the surface of agar-based media tilted backward, their roots wave. That wavy pattern of root growth derives from a combined response to gravity, touch and other surface-derived stimuli. It is accompanied by a reversible rotation of the root tip about its axis. A number of mutations affect the presence or the shape of root waves on tilted agar-based surfaces. One of them, wvc1, promotes the formation of compressed root waves under these conditions. The physiological and molecular analyses of this mutant suggest that a tryptophan-derived molecule other than IAA might be an important regulator of the curvature responsible for root waving.

  17. The AtCathB3 gene, encoding a cathepsin B-like protease, is expressed during germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and transcriptionally repressed by the basic leucine zipper protein GBF1

    PubMed Central

    Wozny, Dorothee; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Protein hydrolysis plays an important role during seed germination and post-germination seedling establishment. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cathepsin B-like proteases are encoded by a gene family of three members, but only the AtCathB3 gene is highly induced upon seed germination and at the early post-germination stage. Seeds of a homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant in the AtCathB3 gene have, besides a reduced cathepsin B activity, a slower germination than the wild type. To explore the transcriptional regulation of this gene, we used a combined phylogenetic shadowing approach together with a yeast one-hybrid screening of an arrayed library of approximately 1200 transcription factor open reading frames from Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified a conserved CathB3-element in the promoters of orthologous CathB3 genes within the Brassicaceae species analysed, and, as its DNA-interacting protein, the G-Box Binding Factor1 (GBF1). Transient overexpression of GBF1 together with a PAtCathB3::uidA (β-glucuronidase) construct in tobacco plants revealed a negative effect of GBF1 on expression driven by the AtCathB3 promoter. In stable P35S::GBF1 lines, not only was the expression of the AtCathB3 gene drastically reduced, but a significant slower germination was also observed. In the homozygous knockout mutant for the GBF1 gene, the opposite effect was found. These data indicate that GBF1 is a transcriptional repressor of the AtCathB3 gene and affects the germination kinetics of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. As AtCathB3 is also expressed during post-germination in the cotyledons, a role for the AtCathB3-like protease in reserve mobilization is also inferred. PMID:24600022

  18. The AtCathB3 gene, encoding a cathepsin B-like protease, is expressed during germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and transcriptionally repressed by the basic leucine zipper protein GBF1.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Wozny, Dorothee; Iriondo-de Hond, Maite; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Carbonero, Pilar; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Protein hydrolysis plays an important role during seed germination and post-germination seedling establishment. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cathepsin B-like proteases are encoded by a gene family of three members, but only the AtCathB3 gene is highly induced upon seed germination and at the early post-germination stage. Seeds of a homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant in the AtCathB3 gene have, besides a reduced cathepsin B activity, a slower germination than the wild type. To explore the transcriptional regulation of this gene, we used a combined phylogenetic shadowing approach together with a yeast one-hybrid screening of an arrayed library of approximately 1200 transcription factor open reading frames from Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified a conserved CathB3-element in the promoters of orthologous CathB3 genes within the Brassicaceae species analysed, and, as its DNA-interacting protein, the G-Box Binding Factor1 (GBF1). Transient overexpression of GBF1 together with a PAtCathB3::uidA (β-glucuronidase) construct in tobacco plants revealed a negative effect of GBF1 on expression driven by the AtCathB3 promoter. In stable P35S::GBF1 lines, not only was the expression of the AtCathB3 gene drastically reduced, but a significant slower germination was also observed. In the homozygous knockout mutant for the GBF1 gene, the opposite effect was found. These data indicate that GBF1 is a transcriptional repressor of the AtCathB3 gene and affects the germination kinetics of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. As AtCathB3 is also expressed during post-germination in the cotyledons, a role for the AtCathB3-like protease in reserve mobilization is also inferred.

  19. Gene Gain and Loss during Evolution of Obligate Parasitism in the White Rust Pathogen of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kemen, Eric; Gardiner, Anastasia; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Kemen, Ariane C.; Balmuth, Alexi L.; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Bailey, Kate; Holub, Eric; Studholme, David J.; MacLean, Dan; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Biotrophic eukaryotic plant pathogens require a living host for their growth and form an intimate haustorial interface with parasitized cells. Evolution to biotrophy occurred independently in fungal rusts and powdery mildews, and in oomycete white rusts and downy mildews. Biotroph evolution and molecular mechanisms of biotrophy are poorly understood. It has been proposed, but not shown, that obligate biotrophy results from (i) reduced selection for maintenance of biosynthetic pathways and (ii) gain of mechanisms to evade host recognition or suppress host defence. Here we use Illumina sequencing to define the genome, transcriptome, and gene models for the obligate biotroph oomycete and Arabidopsis parasite, Albugo laibachii. A. laibachii is a member of the Chromalveolata, which incorporates Heterokonts (containing the oomycetes), Apicomplexa (which includes human parasites like Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii), and four other taxa. From comparisons with other oomycete plant pathogens and other chromalveolates, we reveal independent loss of molybdenum-cofactor-requiring enzymes in downy mildews, white rusts, and the malaria parasite P. falciparum. Biotrophy also requires “effectors” to suppress host defence; we reveal RXLR and Crinkler effectors shared with other oomycetes, and also discover and verify a novel class of effectors, the “CHXCs”, by showing effector delivery and effector functionality. Our findings suggest that evolution to progressively more intimate association between host and parasite results in reduced selection for retention of certain biosynthetic pathways, and particularly reduced selection for retention of molybdopterin-requiring biosynthetic pathways. These mechanisms are not only relevant to plant pathogenic oomycetes but also to human pathogens within the Chromalveolata. PMID:21750662

  20. Molecular Genetics of Root Thigmoresponsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Patrick H.

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow plant roots to use gravity and touch as growth guides are investigated. We are using a molecular genetic strategy in Arabidopsis thaliana to study these processes. When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grow on tilted hard-agar surfaces, their roots develop a wavy pattern of growth which appears to derive from a succession of left-handed and right-handed circumnutation-like processes triggered by gravity and touch stimulation (Okada and Shimura, 1990; Rutherford et al., 1998; Rutherford and Masson, 1996). Interestingly, mutations that affect root waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces can be identified and characterized. Some of these mutations affect root gravitropism, while others appear to be responsible for the production of abnormal waves (no waves, compressed or square waves, coils) without affecting gravitropism. The specific objectives of this project were to functionally characterize two genes (WVD2 and WVD6) which are required for root waving on tilted agar surfaces, but not for root gravitropism. Specific objectives included a physiological and cytological analysis of the mutants, and molecular cloning and characterization of the corresponding genes. As summarized in this paper, we have reached these objectives. We have also identified and partially characterized other mutations that affect root skewing on hard-agar surfaces (sku5-1 and ago1), and have completed our work on the root-wave phenotype associated with mutations in genes of the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway (Lynn et al., 1999; Rutherford et al., 1998; Sedbrook et al., 2000, 2002). We briefly describe our progress on the cloning and characterization of WVD6, WVD2 and SKU5, and provide a list of papers (published, or in preparation) that derived from this grant. We also discuss the biological implications of our findings, with special emphasis on the analysis of WVD2.

  1. Isolation of cDNAs encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Sugiyama, M; Yamamoto, K

    1995-07-28

    A GTP cyclohydrolase II-encoding gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated through functional complementation of a mutant of Escherichia coli, BSV18, deficient in this protein. The derived amino-acid sequence constitutes a polypeptide of 27 kDa and shows 37-58% identity with previously published sequences of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. phosphoreum.

  2. Natural variation in herbivore-induced volatiles in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Snoeren, Tjeerd A. L.; Broekgaarden, Colette; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2010-01-01

    To study whether natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana could be used to dissect the genetic basis of responses to herbivory in terms of induced volatile emissions, nine accessions were characterized upon herbivory by biting-chewing Pieris rapae caterpillars or after treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). Analysis of 73 compounds in the headspace showed quantitative differences in the emission rates of several individual compounds among the accessions. Moreover, variation in the emission of volatile compounds after JA treatment was reflected in the behaviour of the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum when they were offered the headspace volatiles of several combinations of accessions in two-choice experiments. Accessions also differ in transcript levels of genes that are associated with the emission of plant volatiles. The genes BSMT1 and Cyp72A13 could be connected to the emission of methyl salicylate and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT), respectively. Overall, Arabidopsis showed interesting phenotypic variations with respect to the volatile blend emitted in response to herbivory that can be exploited to identify genes and alleles that underlie this important plant trait. PMID:20488836

  3. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana Toc159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have shown that a null mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis and incapable of importing photosynthetic proteins. The mutant is referred to as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2, and has an albino phenotype. In this study, we measured ...

  4. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have shown that a mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks the Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis. The mutant is referred as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2 and has an albino phenotype due to its inability to import the photosynthetic proteins. In this study, we measured...

  5. Architectural phenotypes in the transparent testa mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Buer, Charles S.; Djordjevic, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoids are low molecular weight secondary plant metabolites with a myriad of functions. As flavonoids affect auxin transport (an important growth-controlling hormone) and are biologically active in eukaryotes, flavonoid mutants were expected to have undescribed architectural phenotypes. The Arabidopsis thaliana transparent testa (tt) mutants are compromised in the enzymatic steps or transcriptional regulators affecting flavonoid synthesis. tt mutant seedlings were grown on hard-slanted agar (a stress condition), under varying light conditions, and in soil to examine the resulting growth patterns. These tt mutants revealed a wide variety of architectural phenotypes in root and aerial tissues. Mutants with increased inflorescences, siliques, and lateral root density or reduced stature are traits that could affect plant yield or performance under certain environmental conditions. The regulatory genes affected in architectural traits may provide useful molecular targets for examination in other plants. PMID:19129166

  6. Allyl isothiocyanate affects the cell cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Åsberg, Signe E.; Bones, Atle M.; Øverby, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are degradation products of glucosinolates present in members of the Brassicaceae family acting as herbivore repellents and antimicrobial compounds. Recent results indicate that allyl ITC (AITC) has a role in defense responses such as glutathione depletion, ROS generation and stomatal closure. In this study we show that exposure to non-lethal concentrations of AITC causes a shift in the cell cycle distribution of Arabidopsis thaliana leading to accumulation of cells in S-phases and a reduced number of cells in non-replicating phases. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed an AITC-induced up-regulation of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase A while several genes encoding mitotic proteins were down-regulated, suggesting an inhibition of mitotic processes. Interestingly, visualization of DNA synthesis indicated that exposure to AITC reduced the rate of DNA replication. Taken together, these results indicate that non-lethal concentrations of AITC induce cells of A. thaliana to enter the cell cycle and accumulate in S-phases, presumably as a part of a defensive response. Thus, this study suggests that AITC has several roles in plant defense and add evidence to the growing data supporting a multifunctional role of glucosinolates and their degradation products in plants. PMID:26042144

  7. Aluminium resistant, plant growth promoting bacteria induce overexpression of Aluminium stress related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and increase the ginseng tolerance against Aluminium stress.

    PubMed

    Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Singh, Priyanka; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important cash crop in the Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical effects, however the plant is exposed to various abiotic stresses, lead to reduction of its quality. One of them is the Aluminum (Al) accumulation. Plant growth promoting bacteria which able to tolerate heavy metals has been considered as a new trend for supporting the growth of many crops in heavy metal occupied areas. In this study, twelve bacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere of diseased Korean ginseng roots located in Gochang province, Republic of Korea and tested for their ability to grow in Al-embedded broth media. Out of them, four strains (Pseudomonas simiae N3, Pseudomonas fragi N8, Chryseobacterium polytrichastri N10, and Burkholderia ginsengiterrae N11-2) were able to grow. The strains could also show other plant growth promoting activities e.g. auxins and siderophores production and phosphate solubilization. P. simiae N3, C. polytrichastri N10, and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 strains were able to support the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana stressed by Al while P. fragi N8 could not. Plants inoculated with P. simiae N3, C. polytrichastri N10, and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 showed higher expression level of Al-stress related genes, AtAIP, AtALS3 and AtALMT1, compared to non-bacterized plants. Expression profiles of the genes reveal the induction of external mechanism of Al resistance by P. simiae N3 and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 and internal mechanism by C. polytrichastri N10. Korean ginseng seedlings treated with these strains showed higher biomass, particularly the foliar part, higher chlorophyll content than non-bacterized Al-stressed seedlings. According to the present results, these strains can be used in the future for the cultivation of ginseng in Al-persisted locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytosolic Calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and related gene expression and protein modulation in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures respond immediately to altered gravitation: Parabolic flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, Ruediger; Hausmann, Niklas; Neef, Maren; Fengler, Svenja

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) were exposed to parabolic flights in order to assess molecular short-term responses to altered gravity fields. Using transgenic cell lines, hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic Ca2+ were continuously monitored. In parallel, the metabolism of samples was chemically quenched (RNAlater, Ambion, for RNA; acid/base for NADPH, NADP) at typical stages of a parabola (1g before pull up; end of pull up (1.8 g), end of microgravity (µg, 20 sec), and end of pull out (1.8 g)). Cells exhibited an increase of both Ca2+ and hydrogen peroxide with the onset of µg, and a decline thereafter. This behaviour was accompanied by a decrease of the NADPH/NADP redox ratio, indicating a Ca2+-dependent activation of a NADPH oxidase. Microarray analyses revealed concomitant expression profiles. At the end of the microgravity phase, 396 transcripts were specifically up-, while 485 were down-regulated. Up-regulation was dominated by Ca2+- and ROS(reactive oxygen species)-related gene products. The same material was also used for the analysis of phosphopeptides by 2D SDS PAGE. Relevant spots were identified by liquid chromatography-MS. With the exception of a chaperone (HSP 70-3), hypergravity (1.8 g) and microgravity modified different sets of proteins. These are partly involved in primary metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle) and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these data show that both gene expression and protein modulation jointly respond within seconds to alterations in the gravity field, with a focus on metabolic adaptation, signalling and control of ROS.

  9. Cytosolic calcium, hydrogen peroxide and related gene expression and protein modulation in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures respond immediately to altered gravitation: parabolic flight data.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, N; Fengler, S; Hennig, A; Franz-Wachtel, M; Hampp, R; Neef, M

    2014-01-01

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) were exposed to parabolic flights in order to assess molecular, short-term responses to altered gravity fields. Using transgenic cell lines, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and cytosolic Ca(2+) were continuously monitored. In parallel, the metabolism of samples was chemically quenched (RNAlater, Ambion for RNA; acid/base for NADPH, NADP) at typical stages of a parabola [1 g before pull up; end of pull up (1.8 g), end of microgravity (20 s) and end of pull out (1.8 g)]. Cells exhibited an increase in both Ca(2+) and H2 O2 with the onset of microgravity, and a decline thereafter. This behaviour was accompanied by a decrease of the NADPH/NADP redox ratio, indicating Ca(2+) -dependent activation of a NADPH oxidase. Microarray analyses revealed concomitant expression profiles. At the end of the microgravity phase, 396 transcripts were specifically up-, while 485 were down-regulated. Up-regulation was dominated by Ca(2+) - and ROS-related gene products. The same material was also used for analysis of phosphopeptides with 2-D SDS PAGE. Relevant spots were identified by liquid chromatography-MS. With the exception of a chaperone (HSP 70-3), hypergravity (1.8 g) and microgravity modified different sets of proteins. These are partly involved in primary metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle) and detoxification of ROS. Taken together, these data show that both gene expression and protein modulation jointly respond within seconds to alterations in the gravity field, with a focus on metabolic adaptation, signalling and control of ROS. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Rhizobacterial volatiles affect the growth of fungi and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vespermann, Anja; Kai, Marco; Piechulla, Birgit

    2007-09-01

    Volatiles of Stenotrophomonas, Serratia, and Bacillus species inhibited mycelial growth of many fungi and Arabidopsis thaliana (40 to 98%), and volatiles of Pseudomonas species and Burkholderia cepacia retarded the growth to lesser extents. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium species were resistant, and B. cepacia and Staphylococcus epidermidis promoted the growth of Rhizoctonia solani and A. thaliana. Bacterial volatiles provide a new source of compounds with antibiotic and growth-promoting features.

  11. Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V) stress

    PubMed Central

    Abercrombie, Jason M; Halfhill, Matthew D; Ranjan, Priya; Rao, Murali R; Saxton, Arnold M; Yuan, Joshua S; Stewart, C Neal

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic is toxic to plants and a common environmental pollutant. There is a strong chemical similarity between arsenate [As (V)] and phosphate (Pi). Whole genome oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to investigate the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V) stress. Results Antioxidant-related genes (i.e. coding for superoxide dismutases and peroxidases) play prominent roles in response to arsenate. The microarray experiment revealed induction of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) (at2g28190), Cu/Zn SOD (at1g08830), as well as an SOD copper chaperone (at1g12520). On the other hand, Fe SODs were strongly repressed in response to As (V) stress. Non-parametric rank product statistics were used to detect differentially expressed genes. Arsenate stress resulted in the repression of numerous genes known to be induced by phosphate starvation. These observations were confirmed with qRT-PCR and SOD activity assays. Conclusion Microarray data suggest that As (V) induces genes involved in response to oxidative stress and represses transcription of genes induced by phosphate starvation. This study implicates As (V) as a phosphate mimic in the cell by repressing genes normally induced when available phosphate is scarce. Most importantly, these data reveal that arsenate stress affects the expression of several genes with little or unknown biological functions, thereby providing new putative gene targets for future research. PMID:18684332

  12. Inflorescence abnormalities occur with overexpression of Arabidopsis lyrata FT in the fwa mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2011-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is a quantitative long-day plant with the timing of the floral transition being regulated by both endogenous signals and multiple environmental factors. fwa is a late-flowering mutant, and this phenotype is due to ectopic FWA expression caused by hypomethylation at the FWA locus. The floral transition results in the activation of the floral development process, the key regulators being the floral meristem identity genes, AP1 (APETALA1) and LFY (LEAFY). In this study, we describe inflorescence abnormalities in plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis lyrata FT (AlFT) and A. thaliana FWA (AtFWA) genes simultaneously. The inflorescence abnormality phenotype was present in only a proportion of plants. All plants overexpressing both AlFT and AtFWA flowered earlier than fwa, suggesting that the inflorescence abnormality and earlier flowering time are caused independently. The inflorescence abnormality phenotype was similar to that of the double mutant of ap1 and lfy, and AP1 and LFY genes were down-regulated in the abnormal inflorescences. From these results, we suggest that not only does ectopic AtFWA expression inhibit AtFT/AlFT function to delay flowering but that overexpression of AtFWA and AlFT together inhibits AP1 and LFY function to produce abnormal inflorescences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic architecture of plastic methyl jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Figuth, Antje; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a single genotype to generate different phenotypes in disparate environments is termed phenotypic plasticity, which reflects the interaction of genotype and environment on developmental processes. However, there is controversy over the definition of plasticity genes. The gene regulation model states that plasticity loci influence trait changes between environments without altering the means within a given environment. Alternatively, the allelic sensitivity model argues that plasticity evolves due to selection of phenotypic values expressed within particular environments; hence plasticity must be controlled by loci expressed within these environments. To identify genetic loci controlling phenotypic plasticity and address this controversy, we analyzed the plasticity of glucosinolate accumulation under methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found genetic variation influencing multiple MeJa signal transduction pathways. Analysis of MeJa responses in the Landsberg erecta x Columbia recombinant inbred lines identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate plastic MeJa responses. All significant plasticity QTL also impacted the mean trait value in at least one of the two "control" or "MeJa" environments, supporting the allelic sensitivity model. Additionally, we present an analysis of MeJa and salicylic acid cross-talk in glucosinolate regulation and describe the implications for glucosinolate physiology and functional understanding of Arabidopsis MeJa signal transduction. PMID:12196411

  14. Cross-talk between gibberellins and salicylic acid in early stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Rodríguez, Dolores; Reyes, David; Jiménez, Jesús Angel; Nicolás, Gregorio; López-Climent, María; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone mainly associated with the induction of defense mechanism in plants, although in the last years there is increasing evidence on the role of SA in plant responses to abiotic stress. We recently reported that an increase in endogenous SA levels are able to counteract the inhibitory effects of several abiotic stress conditions during germination and seedling establishment of Arabidopsis thaliana and that this effect is modulated by gibberellins (GAs) probably through a member of the GASA (Giberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis) gene family, clearly showing the existence of a cross talk between these two plant hormones in Arabidopsis. PMID:19820299

  15. GEM2Net: from gene expression modeling to -omics networks, a new CATdb module to investigate Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zaag, Rim; Tamby, Jean Philippe; Guichard, Cécile; Tariq, Zakia; Rigaill, Guillem; Delannoy, Etienne; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Balzergue, Sandrine; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Aubourg, Sébastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Brunaud, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CATdb (http://urgv.evry.inra.fr/CATdb) is a database providing a public access to a large collection of transcriptomic data, mainly for Arabidopsis but also for other plants. This resource has the rare advantage to contain several thousands of microarray experiments obtained with the same technical protocol and analyzed by the same statistical pipelines. In this paper, we present GEM2Net, a new module of CATdb that takes advantage of this homogeneous dataset to mine co-expression units and decipher Arabidopsis gene functions. GEM2Net explores 387 stress conditions organized into 18 biotic and abiotic stress categories. For each one, a model-based clustering is applied on expression differences to identify clusters of co-expressed genes. To characterize functions associated with these clusters, various resources are analyzed and integrated: Gene Ontology, subcellular localization of proteins, Hormone Families, Transcription Factor Families and a refined stress-related gene list associated to publications. Exploiting protein-protein interactions and transcription factors-targets interactions enables to display gene networks. GEM2Net presents the analysis of the 18 stress categories, in which 17,264 genes are involved and organized within 681 co-expression clusters. The meta-data analyses were stored and organized to compose a dynamic Web resource.

  16. Subcellular location of Arabidopsis thaliana subfamily a1 β-galactosidases and developmental regulation of transcript levels of their coding genes.

    PubMed

    Moneo-Sánchez, María; Izquierdo, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to gain insight into the six members of the a1 subfamily of the β-galactosidases (BGAL) from Arabidopsis thaliana. First, the subcellular location of all these six BGAL proteins from a1 subfamily has been established in the cell wall by the construction of transgenic plants producing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fused to the BGAL proteins. BGAL12 is also located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our study of the AtBGAL transcript accumulation along plant development indicated that all AtBGAL transcript appeared in initial stages of development, both dark- and light-grown seedlings, being AtBGAL1, AtBGAL2 and AtBGAL3 transcripts the predominant ones in the latter condition, mainly in the aerial part and with levels decreasing with age. The high accumulation of transcript of AtBGAL4 in basal internodes and in leaves at the end of development, and their strong increase after treatment both with BL and H3BO3 point to an involvement of BGAL4 in cell wall changes leading to the cease of elongation and increased rigidity. The changes of AtBGAL transcript accumulation in relation to different stages and conditions of plant development, suggest that each of the different gene products have a plant-specific function and provides support for the proposed function of the subfamily a1 BGAL in plant cell wall remodelling for cell expansion or for cell response to stress conditions.

  17. Effective carbon partitioning driven by exotic phloem-specific regulatory elements fused to the Arabidopsis thaliana AtSUC2 sucrose-proton symporter gene.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Avinash C; Ganesan, Savita; Ismail, Ihab O; Ayre, Brian G

    2009-01-20

    AtSUC2 (At1g22710) from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a phloem-localized sucrose/proton symporter required for efficient photoassimilate transport from source tissues to sink tissues. AtSUC2 plays a key role in coordinating the demands of sink tissues with the output capacity of source leaves, and in maintaining phloem hydrostatic pressure during changes in plant-water balance. Expression and activity are regulated, both positively and negatively, by developmental (sink to source transition) and environmental cues, including light, diurnal changes, photoassimilate levels, turgor pressure, drought and osmotic stress, and hormones. To assess the importance of this regulation to whole-plant growth and carbon partitioning, AtSUC2 cDNA was expressed from two exotic, phloem-specific promoters in a mutant background debilitated for AtSUC2 function. The first was a promoter element from Commelina Yellow Mottle Virus (CoYMV), and the second was the rolC promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. CoYMVp::AtSUC2 cDNA restored growth and carbon partitioning to near wild-type levels, whereas plants harboring rolCp::AtSUC2 cDNA showed only partial complementation. Expressing AtSUC2 cDNA from exotic, phloem-specific promoters argues that strong, phloem-localized expression is sufficient for efficient transport. Expressing AtSUC2 from promoters that foster efficient phloem transport but are subject to regulatory cascades different from the endogenous sucrose/proton symporter genes has implications for biotechnology.

  18. Exploring Arabidopsis thaliana Root Endophytes via Single-Cell Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, Derek; Woyke, Tanja; Tringe, Susannah; Dangl, Jeff

    2014-03-19

    Land plants grow in association with microbial communities both on their surfaces and inside the plant (endophytes). The relationships between microbes and their host can vary from pathogenic to mutualistic. Colonization of the endophyte compartment occurs in the presence of a sophisticated plant immune system, implying finely tuned discrimination of pathogens from mutualists and commensals. Despite the importance of the microbiome to the plant, relatively little is known about the specific interactions between plants and microbes, especially in the case of endophytes. The vast majority of microbes have not been grown in the lab, and thus one of the few ways of studying them is by examining their DNA. Although metagenomics is a powerful tool for examining microbial communities, its application to endophyte samples is technically difficult due to the presence of large amounts of host plant DNA in the sample. One method to address these difficulties is single-cell genomics where a single microbial cell is isolated from a sample, lysed, and its genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to produce enough DNA for genome sequencing. This produces a single-cell amplified genome (SAG). We have applied this technology to study the endophytic microbes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Extensive 16S gene profiling of the microbial communities in the roots of multiple inbred A. thaliana strains has identified 164 OTUs as being significantly enriched in all the root endophyte samples compared to their presence in bulk soil.

  19. Protists are an integral part of the Arabidopsis thaliana microbiome.

    PubMed

    Sapp, Melanie; Ploch, Sebastian; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Bonkowski, Michael; Rose, Laura E

    2017-10-02

    Although protists occupy a vast range of habitats and are known to interact with plants among other things via disease suppression, competition or growth stimulation, their contributions to the "phytobiome" are not well described. To contribute to a more comprehensive picture of the plant holobiont, we examined cercozoan and oomycete taxa living in association with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in two different soils. Soil, roots, leaves and wooden toothpicks were analyzed before and after surface sterilization. Cercozoa were identified using 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding, whereas the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1) was used to determine oomycetes. Subsequent analyses revealed strong spatial structuring of protist communities between compartments, although oomycetes appeared more specialized than Cercozoa. With regards to oomycetes, only members of the Peronosporales and taxa belonging to the genus Globisporangium were identified as shared members of the A. thaliana microbiome. This also applied to cercozoan taxa belonging to the Glissomonadida and Cercomonadida. We identified a strong influence by edaphic factors on the rhizosphere, but not for the phyllosphere. Distinct differences of Cercozoa found preferably in wood or fresh plant material imply specific niche adaptations. Our results highlight the importance of micro-eukaryotes for the plant holobiont. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Competitive ability not kinship affects growth of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    PubMed

    Masclaux, Frédéric; Hammond, Robert L; Meunier, Joël; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Keller, Laurent; Reymond, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In many organisms, individuals behave more altruistically towards relatives than towards unrelated individuals. Here, we conducted a study to determine if the performance of Arabidopsis thaliana is influenced by whether individuals are in competition with kin or non-kin. We selected seven pairs of genetically distinct accessions that originated from local populations throughout Europe. We measured the biomass of one focal plant surrounded by six kin or non-kin neighbours in in vitro growth experiments and counted the number of siliques produced per pot by one focal plant surrounded by four kin or non-kin neighbours. The biomass and number of siliques of a focal plant were not affected by the relatedness of the neighbour. Depending on the accession, a plant performed better or worse in a pure stand than when surrounded by non-kin plants. In addition, whole-genome microarray analyses revealed that there were no genes differentially expressed between kin and non-kin conditions. In conclusion, our study does not provide any evidence for a differential response to kin vs non-kin in A. thaliana. Rather, the outcome of the interaction between kin and non-kin seems to depend on the strength of the competitive abilities of the accessions.

  1. Adaptation response of Arabidopsis thaliana to random positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittang, A.-I.; Winge, P.; van Loon, J. J. W. A.; Bones, A. M.; Iversen, T.-H.

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were exposed on a Random Positioning Machine (RPM) under light conditions for 16 h and the samples were analysed using microarray techniques as part of a preparation for a space experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). The results demonstrated a moderate to low regulation of 55 genes (<0.2% of the analysed genes). Genes encoding proteins associated with the chaperone system (e.g. heat shock proteins, HSPs) and enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis were induced. Most of the repressed genes were associated with light and sugar responses. Significant up-regulation of selected HSP genes was found by quantitative Real-Time PCR in 1 week old plants after the RPM exposure both in light and darkness. Higher quantity of DPBA (diphenylboric acid 2-amino-ethyl ester) staining was observed in the whole root and in the root elongation zone of the seedlings exposed on the RPM by use of fluorescent microscopy, indicating higher flavonoid content. The regulated genes and an increase of flavonoids are related to several stresses, but increased occurrence of HSPs and flavonoids are also representative for normal growth (e.g. gravitropism). The response could be a direct stress response or an integrated response of the two signal pathways of light and gravity resulting in an overall light response.

  2. CAMTA 1 regulates drought responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcription factors (TF) play a crucial role in regulating gene expression and are fit to regulate diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. A TF named calmodulin binding transcription activator (CAMTA) was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCAMTA1-6). To explore the role of CAMTA1 in drought response, the phenotypic differences and gene expression was studied between camta1 and Col-0 under drought condition. Results In camta1, root development was abolished showing high-susceptibility to induced osmotic stress resulting in small wrinkled rosette leaves and stunted primary root. In camta1 under drought condition, we identified growth retardation, poor WUE, low photosystem II efficiency, decline in RWC and higher sensitivity to drought with reduced survivability. The microarray analysis of drought treated camta1 revealed that CAMTA1 regulates “drought recovery” as most indicative pathway along with other stress response, osmotic balance, apoptosis, DNA methylation and photosynthesis. Interestingly, majority of positively regulated genes were related to plasma membrane and chloroplast. Further, our analysis indicates that CAMTA1 regulates several stress responsive genes including RD26, ERD7, RAB18, LTPs, COR78, CBF1, HSPs etc. and promoter of these genes were enriched with CAMTA recognition cis-element. CAMTA1 probably regulate drought recovery by regulating expression of AP2-EREBP transcription factors and Abscisic acid response. Conclusion CAMTA1 rapidly changes broad spectrum of responsive genes of membrane integrity and photosynthetic machinery by generating ABA response for challenging drought stress. Our results demonstrate the important role of CAMTA1 in regulating drought response in Arabidopsis, thus could be genetically engineered for improving drought tolerance in crop. PMID:23547968

  3. The Genomic and Morphological Effects of Bisphenol A on Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Frejd, Derek; Dunaway, Kiera; Hill, Jennifer; Van Maanen, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    The environmental toxin bisphenol A (BPA) is a known mammalian hormone disrupter but its effects on plants have not been well established. The effect of BPA on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana was determined using microarray analysis and quantitative gene PCR. Many hormone responsive genes showed changes in expression after BPA treatment. BPA disrupted flowering by a mechanism that may involve disruption of auxin signaling. The results presented here indicate that BPA is a plant hormone disrupter. PMID:27631104

  4. The Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer: a high-resolution map of transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) clones aligned with the Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 genome.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yoshitsugu; Suda, Kunihiro; Liu, Yao-Guang; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yukino; Yokoyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hanano, Shigeru; Takita, Eiji; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Yano, Kentaro; Tabata, Satoshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2015-09-01

    We present a high-resolution map of genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) clones extending over all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) chromosomes. The Arabidopsis genomic TAC clones have been valuable genetic tools. Previously, we constructed an Arabidopsis genomic TAC library consisting of more than 10,000 TAC clones harboring large genomic DNA fragments extending over the whole Arabidopsis genome. Here, we determined 13,577 end sequences from 6987 Arabidopsis TAC clones and mapped 5937 TAC clones to precise locations, covering approximately 90% of the Arabidopsis chromosomes. We present the large-scale data set of TAC clones with high-resolution mapping information as a Java application tool, the Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer, which provides ready-to-go transformable genomic DNA clones corresponding to certain loci on Arabidopsis chromosomes. The TAC clone resources will accelerate genomic DNA cloning, positional walking, complementation of mutants and DNA transformation for heterologous gene expression.

  5. AtSIG6 and other members of the sigma gene family jointly but differentially determine plastid target gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Sylvia; Ortelt, Jennifer; Link, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain a nuclear gene family for plastid sigma factors, i.e., proteins that associate with the “bacterial-type” organellar RNA polymerase and confer the ability for correct promoter binding and transcription initiation. Questions that are still unresolved relate to the “division of labor” among members of the sigma family, both in terms of their range of target genes and their temporal and spatial activity during development. Clues to the in vivo role of individual sigma genes have mainly come from studies of sigma knockout lines. Despite its obvious strengths, however, this strategy does not necessarily trace-down causal relationships between mutant phenotype and a single sigma gene, if other family members act in a redundant and/or compensatory manner. We made efforts to reduce the complexity by genetic crosses of Arabidopsis single mutants (with focus on a chlorophyll-deficient sig6 line) to generate double knockout lines. The latter typically had a similar visible phenotype as the parental lines, but tended to be more strongly affected in the transcript patterns of both plastid and sigma genes. Because triple mutants were lethal under our growth conditions, we exploited a strategy of transformation of single and double mutants with RNAi constructs that contained sequences from the unconserved sigma region (UCR). These RNAi/knockout lines phenotypically resembled their parental lines, but were even more strongly affected in their plastid transcript patterns. Expression patterns of sigma genes revealed both similarities and differences compared to the parental lines, with transcripts at reduced or unchanged amounts and others that were found to be present in higher (perhaps compensatory) amounts. Together, our results reveal considerable flexibility of gene activity at the levels of both sigma and plastid gene expression. A (still viable) “basal state” seems to be reached, if 2–3 of the 6 Arabidopsis sigma genes are functionally compromised

  6. Acclimation responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to sustained phosphite treatments

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Phosphite () induces a range of physiological and developmental responses in plants by disturbing the homeostasis of the macronutrient phosphate. Because of its close structural resemblance to phosphate, phosphite impairs the sensing, membrane transport, and subcellular compartmentation of phosphate. In addition, phosphite induces plant defence responses by an as yet unknown mode of action. In this study, the a