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Sample records for arabinanase encoding cdna

  1. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  2. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  3. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  4. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  5. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  6. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  7. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  8. Sequence of a cDNA encoding pancreatic preprosomatostatin-22.

    PubMed

    Magazin, M; Minth, C D; Funckes, C L; Deschenes, R; Tavianini, M A; Dixon, J E

    1982-09-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence of a precursor to somatostatin that upon proteolytic processing may give rise to a hormone of 22 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of a cDNA from the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) encodes a precursor to somatostatin that is 105 amino acids (Mr, 11,500). The cDNA coding for somatostatin-22 consists of 36 nucleotides in the 5' untranslated region, 315 nucleotides that code for the precursor to somatostatin-22, 269 nucleotides at the 3' untranslated region, and a variable length of poly(A). The putative preprohormone contains a sequence of hydrophobic amino acids at the amino terminus that has the properties of a "signal" peptide. A connecting sequence of approximately 57 amino acids is followed by a single Arg-Arg sequence, which immediately precedes the hormone. Somatostatin-22 is homologous to somatostatin-14 in 7 of the 14 amino acids, including the Phe-Trp-Lys sequence. Hybridization selection of mRNA, followed by its translation in a wheat germ cell-free system, resulted in the synthesis of a single polypeptide having a molecular weight of approximately 10,000 as estimated on Na-DodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. PMID:6127673

  9. Sequence of a cDNA encoding pancreatic preprosomatostatin-22.

    PubMed Central

    Magazin, M; Minth, C D; Funckes, C L; Deschenes, R; Tavianini, M A; Dixon, J E

    1982-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence of a precursor to somatostatin that upon proteolytic processing may give rise to a hormone of 22 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of a cDNA from the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) encodes a precursor to somatostatin that is 105 amino acids (Mr, 11,500). The cDNA coding for somatostatin-22 consists of 36 nucleotides in the 5' untranslated region, 315 nucleotides that code for the precursor to somatostatin-22, 269 nucleotides at the 3' untranslated region, and a variable length of poly(A). The putative preprohormone contains a sequence of hydrophobic amino acids at the amino terminus that has the properties of a "signal" peptide. A connecting sequence of approximately 57 amino acids is followed by a single Arg-Arg sequence, which immediately precedes the hormone. Somatostatin-22 is homologous to somatostatin-14 in 7 of the 14 amino acids, including the Phe-Trp-Lys sequence. Hybridization selection of mRNA, followed by its translation in a wheat germ cell-free system, resulted in the synthesis of a single polypeptide having a molecular weight of approximately 10,000 as estimated on Na-DodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. Images PMID:6127673

  10. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding a taste-modifying protein, miraculin.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Nirasawa, S; Nakaya, K; Kurihara, Y

    1995-08-19

    A cDNA clone encoding a taste-modifying protein, miraculin (MIR), was isolated and sequenced. The encoded precursor to MIR was composed of 220 amino acid (aa) residues, including a possible signal sequence of 29 aa. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA encoding MIR was already expressed in fruits of Richadella dulcifica at 3 weeks after pollination and was present specifically in the pulp. PMID:7665074

  11. Functional cloning of an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding cycloeucalenol cycloisomerase.

    PubMed

    Lovato, M A; Hart, E A; Segura, M J; Giner, J L; Matsuda, S P

    2000-05-01

    Plants and certain protists use cycloeucalenol cycloisomerase (EC ) to convert pentacyclic cyclopropyl sterols to conventional tetracyclic sterols. We used a novel complementation strategy to clone a cycloeucalenol cycloisomerase cDNA. Expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana cycloartenol synthase cDNA in a yeast lanosterol synthase mutant provided a sterol auxotroph that could be genetically complemented with the isomerase. We transformed this yeast strain with an Arabidopsis yeast expression library and selected sterol prototrophs to obtain a strain that accumulated biosynthetic ergosterol. The novel phenotype was conferred by an Arabidopsis cDNA that potentially encodes a 36-kDa protein. We expressed this cDNA (CPI1) in Escherichia coli and showed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that extracts from this strain isomerized cycloeucalenol to obtusifoliol in vitro. The cDNA will be useful for obtaining heterologously expressed protein for catalytic studies and elucidating the in vivo roles of cyclopropyl sterols.

  12. Cloning and sequencing of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus, Coryphaenidae) growth hormone-encoding cDNA.

    PubMed

    Peduel, A D; Elizur, A; Knibb, W

    1994-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the preprotein growth hormone from the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) has been cloned and sequenced. The cDNA was derived by reverse transcription of RNA from the pituitary of a young fish using the method known as Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). An oligonucleotide primer corresponding to the 5' region of Pagrus major and the universal RACE primer enabled amplification using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The dolphinfish and yellow-tail, Seriola quineqeradiata, are both members of the sub-order Percoidei (Perciforme) and their GH sequences show a high level of homology. PMID:7703505

  13. Molecular cloning of Phaseolus vulgaris cDNA encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Strzalka, Wojciech; Ziemienowicz, Alicja

    2007-02-01

    A cDNA fragment encoding a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA 3' end (3' RACE) method, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of this clone contains an open reading frame of 798 nucleotides encoding a protein of 265 amino acids. Alignment of the common bean PCNA predicted sequence shows its high degree of identity with PCNA from other plant species. Analysis of PCNA content in the germinating embryos of common bean showed a decrease in the protein level after 60h of germination. Moreover, PCNA was not detected in the tested plant organs (root, stem, leaf and flower). The presence of PCNA in the germinating seeds and its absence from mature plants suggests that this protein plays a crucial role during early stages of plant development.

  14. Horse cDNA clones encoding two MHC class I genes

    SciTech Connect

    Barbis, D.P.; Maher, J.K.; Stanek, J.; Klaunberg, B.A.; Antczak, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    Two full-length clones encoding MHC class I genes were isolated by screening a horse cDNA library, using a probe encoding in human HLA-A2.2Y allele. The library was made in the pcDNA1 vector (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA), using mRNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from a Thoroughbred stallion (No. 0834) homozygous for a common horse MHC haplotype (ELA-A2, -B2, -D2; Antczak et al. 1984; Donaldson et al. 1988). The clones were sequenced, using SP6 and T7 universal primers and horse-specific oligonucleotides designed to extend previously determined sequences.

  15. Molecular cloning and bacterial expression of cDNA encoding a plant cysteine synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, K; Miura, N; Yamazaki, M; Hirano, H; Murakoshi, I

    1992-01-01

    Cysteine synthase (CSase) [O-acetyl-L-serine acetate-lyase (adding hydrogen sulfide), EC 4.2.99.8] catalyzes the formation of L-cysteine, the key step in sulfur assimilation in plants, from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. We report here the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding cysteine synthase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Internal peptide sequences were obtained from V8 protease-digested fragments of purified CSase. A lambda gt10 cDNA library was constructed from poly(A)+ RNA of young green leaves of spinach. Screening with two synthetic mixed nucleotides encoding the partial peptide sequences revealed 19 positively hybridized clones among 2 x 10(5) clones. Nucleotide sequence analysis of two independent cDNA clones revealed a continuous open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 325 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 34,185 Da. Sequence comparison of the deduced amino acids revealed 53% identity with CSases of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Sequence homology was also observed with other metabolic enzymes for amino acids in bacteria and yeast and with rat hemoprotein H-450. A bacterial expression vector was constructed and could genetically complement an E. coli auxotroph that lacks CSases. The accumulation of functionally active spinach CSase in E. coli was also demonstrated by immunoblotting and assaying enzymatic activity. Southern hybridization analysis showed the presence of two to three copies of the cDNA sequence in the genome of spinach. RNA blot hybridization suggested constitutive expression in leaves and roots of spinach. Images PMID:1518833

  16. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding partial putative molt-inhibiting hormone from Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  17. A cDNA encoding tyrosinase-related protein maps to the brown locus in mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, I J

    1988-01-01

    A mouse melanoma cDNA clone was isolated by virtue of its reactivity with two antisera raised against tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) from two species, hamster and mouse. The cDNA (5A) cross-hybridizes with another, pMT4 [Shibahara, S., Tomita, V., Sakakura, T., Nager, C., Bhabatosh, C. & Muller, R. (1986) Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 2413-2427], previously thought to encode mouse tyrosinase. Two other cDNAs, one human and one mouse, have been reported recently [Kwon, B. S., Haq, A. K., Pomerantz, S. H. & Halaban, R. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 7473-7477; and Yamamoto, H., Takeuchi, S., Kudo, T., Makino, K., Nakata, A., Shinoda, T. & Takeuchi, T. (1987) Jpn. J. Genet. 62, 271-277] as candidates for tyrosinase, and they map at or very close to the mouse albino (c) locus. The proteins they encode are very similar to each other but are distinct from (although related to) the pMT4-encoded protein. Here I use recombinant inbred strains to localize pMT4 at or close to the mouse brown (b) locus. I suggest that the gene mapping to c is the authentic tyrosinase gene, whereas that mapping to b encodes a tyrosinase-related protein. All b mutations in laboratory strains are associated with the same diagnostic Taq I fragment, suggesting that all derive from the same original mutation. I discuss possible function(s) of the tyrosinase-related protein. Images PMID:3132713

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding endonuclease from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud

    2005-11-01

    A cDNA, StEN1, encoding a potato (Solanum tuberosum) endonuclease was cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of this clone contains an open reading frame of 906 nucleotides encoding a protein of 302 amino acids, and with a calculated molecular mass of 34.4kDa and a Pi of 5.6. The deduced StEN1 protein contains a putative signal sequence of 25 amino acid residues. The StEN1 encoded protein shows substantial homology to both plant and fungal endonucleases isolated and cloned from other sources. The highest identity (73%) was observed with AgCEL I from celery, Apium graveolens, ZEN1 from Zinnia elegans (69%) and DSA6 from daylily, Hemerocallis (68%). RT-PCR expression analysis demonstrated that the potato StEN1 gene is constitutively expressed in potato, although minor differences in expression level in different tissues were observed. PMID:16323278

  19. Cloning and Sequencing of the cDNA Encoding the Rubber Elongation Factor of Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Goyvaerts, Elisabeth; Dennis, Mark; Light, David; Chua, Nam-Hai

    1991-01-01

    In Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber particle in the laticiferous vessel is the site of rubber (cis-1-4-polyisoprene) biosynthesis. A 14 kilodalton protein, rubber elongation factor (REF), is associated with the rubber particle in a ratio of one REF to one rubber molecule (Dennis M, Henzel W, Bell J, Kohr W, Light D [1989] J Biol Chem 264: 18618-18628; Dennis M, Light D [1989] J Biol Chem 264: 18608-18617). To obtain more information concerning the function of REF and its synthesis and assembly in the rubber particle, we isolated cDNA clones encoding REF. We used antibodies to REF to screen a Hevea leaf γgt11 cDNA expression library and obtained several positive clones. Sequence analysis of the REF cDNA clones showed that the REF mRNA contains 121 nucleotides of 5′-nontranslated sequences and a 205 nucleotide 3′-nontranslated region. The open reading frame encodes the entire 14 kilodalton REF protein without any extra amino acids (Dennis M, Henzel W, Bell J, Kohr W, Light D [1989] J Biol Chem 264: 18618-18628). The REF cDNA was subcloned in pGEM-3Z/-4Z and expressed in vitro. The translation product is a 14 kilodalton protein that can be immunoprecipitated with antibodies to REF. Addition of microsomal membranes to the in vitro translation product did not alter the mobility of the REF protein. This, and the sequence data, indicate that REF is not made as a preprotein. Our results suggest that REF is synthesized on free polysomes in the laticifer cytoplasm and that assembly of the rubber particles is likely to occur in the cytosol. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668388

  20. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding hexokinase from tomato.

    PubMed

    Menu, T; Rothan, C; Dai, N; Petreikov, M; Etienne, C; Destrac-Irvine, A; Schaffer, A; Granot, D; Ricard, B

    2001-01-01

    Two different partial sequences encoding putative hexokinase (HXK, ATP: hexose-6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1) were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by RT-PCR using degenerate primers. Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of two divergent HXK genes. A complete cDNA of one HXK was isolated by screening a cDNA library prepared from young cherry tomato fruit. The 1770 bp cDNA of LeHXK2 contained an open reading frame encoding a 496 amino acid protein that has 69% identity with the two Arabidopsis HXKs, 83 and 85% identity with potato StHXK1 and tobacco NtHXK, respectively. However, this clone had 97% amino acid identity with potato StHXK2 and, therefore, was named LeHXK2. LeHXK2 cDNA was expressed in a triple mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strain which lacked the ability to phosphorylate glucose and fructose and, therefore, was unable to grow on these sugars as carbon sources. Mutant cells expressing LeHXK2 grew on both glucose and fructose with shorter doubling time on glucose. The kinetic properties of LeHXK2 expressed in yeast were determined after the purification of LeHXK2 by HPLC-ion exchange chromatography, confirming the identity of LeHXK2 as hexokinase with higher affinity to glucose. LeHXK2 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR expression analysis in all organs and tissues and at all stages of fruit development. However, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that LeHXK2 was most highly expressed in flowers.

  1. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding human sterol carrier protein 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Ritsu; Kallen, C.B.; Babalola, G.O.; Rennert, H.; Strauss, J.F. III ); Billheimer, J.T. )

    1991-01-15

    The authors report the cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding human sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP{sub 2}). The 1.3-kilobase (kb) cDNA contains an open reading frame which encompasses a 143-amino acid sequence which is 89% identical to the rat SCP{sub 2} amino acid sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of the polypeptide reveals a 20-residue amino-terminal leader sequence in front of the mature polypeptide, which contains a carboxyl-terminal tripeptide (Ala-Lys-Leu) related to the peroxisome targeting sequence. The expressed cDNA in COS-7 cells yields a 15.3-kDa polypeptide and increased amounts of a 13.2-kDa polypeptide, both reacting with a specific rabbit antiserum to rat liver SCP{sub 2}. The cDNA insert hybridizes with 3.2- and 1.8-kb mRNA species in human liver poly(A){sup +} RNA. In human fibroblasts and placenta the 1.8-kb mRNA was most abundant. Southern blot analysis suggests either that there are multiple copies of the SCP{sub 2} gene in the human genome or that the SCP{sub 2} gene is very large. Coexpression of the SCP{sub 2} cDNA with expression vectors for cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and adrenodoxin resulted in a 2.5-fold enhancement of progestin synthesis over that obtained with expression of the steroidogenic enzyme system alone. These findings are concordant with the notion that SCP{sub 2} plays a role in regulating steroidogenesis, among other possible functions.

  2. Molecular cloning and functional expression of cDNA encoding a mammalian inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Wensel, T G

    1992-12-01

    Extracts of soluble proteins from bovine retina contain multiple species of inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) that can be resolved by hydroxylapatite or ion exchange chromatography. We have purified one of these isoforms by a combination of chromatography and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions and have partially sequenced four peptides generated from it by CNBr digestion. This sequence information was used to clone PPase cDNA from a retinal cDNA library. Of five cDNA inserts, three were 1.3 kilobase pairs in length and two of these contained a complete open reading frame that was 867 base pairs long and encoded a 289-amino acid protein of 33 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence is 49.5% identical to that of PPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains identical amino acid residues at all of the positions previously identified as essential for catalytic activity in that enzyme. When the bovine PPase cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, catalytically active PPase was produced that comigrated with bovine retinal PPase in a nondenaturing gel and was clearly distinguishable from the host PPase. Northern analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from human, canine, and bovine retinas revealed that each contained a single major band of 1.4 kilobases that hybridized strongly with a pyrophosphatase cDNA probe. Southern analysis of bovine genomic DNA was consistent with the existence of one PPase gene. Thus, the multiple forms separated by chromatography may be derived from a common precursor or from mRNAs of very similar size.

  3. Isolation and expression of cDNA clones encoding mammalian poly(A) polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Wahle, E; Martin, G; Schiltz, E; Keller, W

    1991-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding mammalian poly(A) polymerase were isolated with probes generated by the polymerase chain reaction based on amino acid sequences derived from the purified enzyme. A bovine cDNA clone was obtained encoding a protein of 82 kDa. Expression in Escherichia coli resulted in the appearance of a poly(A) polymerase activity that was dependent on the addition of the purified specificity factor CPF and the presence of the polyadenylation signal AAUAAA in the RNA substrate. The activity copurified with a polypeptide of the expected size. A second class of cDNAs encoded a polypeptide of 43 kDa which was closely related to the N-terminal half of the 82 kDa protein. Northern blots showed two mRNAs of 4.2 and 2.4 kb that probably correspond to the two classes of cDNAs, as well as a third band of 1.3 kb. The sequence of the N-terminal half of bovine poly(A) polymerase is 47% identical with the amino acid sequence of the corresponding part of yeast poly(A) polymerase. Homologies to other proteins are of uncertain significance. Images PMID:1756732

  4. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity of cDNA vaccine encoded antigens by modulation of antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Marit de Groot, A; Keller, Christin; Andersen, Peter; Ovaa, Huib; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2016-09-30

    Most vaccines are based on protective humoral responses while for intracellular pathogens CD8(+) T cells are regularly needed to provide protection. However, poor processing efficiency of antigens is often a limiting factor in CD8(+) T cell priming, hampering vaccine efficacy. The multistage cDNA vaccine H56, encoding three secreted Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, was used to test a complete strategy to enhance vaccine' immunogenicity. Potential CD8(+) T cell epitopes in H56 were predicted using the NetMHC3.4/ANN program. Mice were immunized with H56 cDNA using dermal DNA tattoo immunization and epitope candidates were tested for recognition by responding CD8(+) T cells in ex vivo assays. Seven novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes were identified. H56 immunogenicity could be substantially enhanced by two strategies: (i) fusion of the H56 sequence to cDNA of proteins that modify intracellular antigen processing or provide CD4(+) T cell help, (ii) by substitution of the epitope's hydrophobic C-terminal flanking residues for polar glutamic acid, which facilitated their proteasome-mediated generation. We conclude that this whole strategy of in silico prediction of potential CD8(+) T cell epitopes in novel antigens, followed by fusion to sequences with immunogenicity-enhancing properties or modification of epitope flanking sequences to improve proteasome-mediated processing, may be exploited to design novel vaccines against emerging or 'hard to treat' intracellular pathogens. PMID:27593157

  5. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hev ein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  6. A putative peroxidase cDNA from turnip and analysis of the encoded protein sequence.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gómez, S; Duarte-Vázquez, M A; García-Almendárez, B E; Mayorga-Martínez, L; Cervantes-Avilés, O; Regalado, C

    2008-12-01

    A putative peroxidase cDNA was isolated from turnip roots (Brassica napus L. var. purple top white globe) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Total RNA extracted from mature turnip roots was used as a template for RT-PCR, using a degenerated primer designed to amplify the highly conserved distal motif of plant peroxidases. The resulting partial sequence was used to design the rest of the specific primers for 5' and 3' RACE. Two cDNA fragments were purified, sequenced, and aligned with the partial sequence from RT-PCR, and a complete overlapping sequence was obtained and labeled as BbPA (Genbank Accession No. AY423440, named as podC). The full length cDNA is 1167bp long and contains a 1077bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 358 deduced amino acid peroxidase polypeptide. The putative peroxidase (BnPA) showed a calculated Mr of 34kDa, and isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5, with no significant identity with other reported turnip peroxidases. Sequence alignment showed that only three peroxidases have a significant identity with BnPA namely AtP29a (84%), and AtPA2 (81%) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and HRPA2 (82%) from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). Work is in progress to clone this gene into an adequate host to study the specific role and possible biotechnological applications of this alternative peroxidase source. PMID:18686036

  7. Human brain n-chimaerin cDNA encodes a novel phorbol ester receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S; Kozma, R; Monfries, C; Hall, C; Lim, H H; Smith, P; Lim, L

    1990-01-01

    A human brain-specific cDNA encoding n-chimaerin, a protein of predicted molecular mass 34 kDa, has sequence identity with two different proteins: protein kinase C (PKC) at the N-terminus and BCR protein [product of the breakpoint-cluster-region (BCR) gene, involved in Philadelphia chromosome translocation] at the C-terminus [Hall, Monfries, Smith, Lim, Kozma, Ahmed, Vannaisungham, Leung & Lim (1990) J. Mol. Biol. 211, 11-16]. The sequence identity of n-chimaerin with PKC includes the cysteine-rich motif CX2CX13CX2CX7CX7C, and amino acids upstream of the first cysteine residue, but not the kinase domain. This region of PKC has been implicated in the binding of diacylglycerol and phorbol esters in a phospholipid-dependent fashion. Part of this cysteine-rich motif (CX2CX13CX2C) has the potential of forming a 'Zn-finger' structure. Phorbol esters cause a variety of physiological changes and are among the most potent tumour promoters that have been described. PKC is the only known protein target for these compounds. We now report that n-chimaerin cDNA encodes a novel phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester receptor, with the cysteine-rich region being responsible for this activity. This finding has wide implications for previous studies equating phorbol ester binding with the presence of PKC in the brain. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2268301

  8. Isolation and analysis of a cDNA clone encoding an S. guttatum alternataive oxidase protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, D.M.; McIntosh, L. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing )

    1990-05-01

    Antibodies that recognize the 35, 36, and 37 kilodalton (kDa) alternative oxidase proteins were used to isolate a cDNA proteins were used to isolate a cDNA clone of a nuclearly encoded protein of Sauromatum guttatum. The amino acid sequence deduced from clone pAOSG81 revealed a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 44 kDa, while a 42 kDa protein is immunoprecipitated from in vitro translation products made using S. guttatum poly A+ RNA. The protein contains a 60-65 amino acid transit peptide which is predicted to form amphiphilic helices. We have also identified regions of the mature 42 kDa protein which are likely to be membrane associated. Clone pAOSG81 is being used to screen a genomic library. The genomic clone encoding the 42 kDa protein will be used to investigate the salicylic-acid-controlled transcriptional regulation of the S. guttatum alternative oxidase proteins.

  9. Cloning, characterization, and DNA sequence of a human cDNA encoding neuropeptide tyrosine.

    PubMed Central

    Minth, C D; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M; Dixon, J E

    1984-01-01

    In vitro translation of the RNA isolated from a human pheochromocytoma demonstrated that this tumor contained a mRNA encoding a 10.5-kDa protein, which was immunoprecipitated with antiserum raised against porcine neuropeptide Y. Double-stranded cDNA was synthesized from total RNA and inserted into the Pst I site of pUC8. Transformants containing the neuropeptide Y cDNA were identified using the mixed hybridization probe d[A-(A,G)-(A,G)-T-T-(A,G,T)-A-T-(A,G)-T-A-(A,G)-T-G]. The probe sequences were based on the known amino acid sequence, His-Tyr-Ile-Asn-Leu, found in porcine neuropeptide Y. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was determined and contained 86 and 174 bases in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, respectively. The coding sequence consisted of 291 bases, suggesting a precursor to neuropeptide Y that was 97 amino acids long (10,839 Da). The deduced amino acid sequence of the precursor suggested that there were at least two sites of proteolytic processing, which would generate three peptides having 28 (signal peptide), 36 (human neuropeptide Y), and 30 (COOH-terminal peptide) amino acid residues. A partial NH2-terminal sequence obtained by Edman degradation of the immunoprecipitated in vitro translation product identified the positions of methionine and leucine in the first 30 residues of the prepropeptide. A highly sensitive single-stranded complementary mRNA hybridization probe specific for neuropeptide Y mRNA was prepared using the bacteriophage SP6 promoter. This probe was used to identify a mRNA corresponding to neuropeptide Y of approximately 800 bases. Images PMID:6589611

  10. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the human Sm-D autoantigen

    SciTech Connect

    Rokeach, L.A.; Haselby, J.A.; Hoch, S.O. )

    1988-07-01

    Antibodies to the Sm-D polypeptide antigen are closely associated with the rheumatic disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Sm-D exists in the cell as one of the core proteins of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes implicated in RNA processing. The authors have isolated a cDNA clone, D45-2, coding for the Sm-D human nuclear antigen by screening a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library with synthetic oligonucleotide probes. The 1633-base-pair clone contains an open reading frame (ORF) 357 nucleotides long, capable of encoding a 13,282-dalton polypeptide. The Sm-D coding region is initiated at an AUG codon downstream from a sequence with excellent match to the consensus for the eukaryotic ribosome-binding site. The Sm-D ORF is preceded by a 150-nucleotide-long untranslated leader and followed by a 1126-nucleotide-long untranslated region containing four putative poly(A) signals. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals a (Gly-Arg){sub 9} repeated motif at the C terminus, which may constitute one of the Sm-D immunoreactive determinants. Moreover, this C terminus shows interesting features: (i) a good homology to protamines as expected for a nucleic acid binding protein and (ii) a striking similarity to a region in the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen.

  11. A Potato cDNA Encoding a Homologue of Mammalian Multidrug Resistant P-Glycoprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    A homologue of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene was obtained while screening a potato stolon tip cDNA expression library with S-15-labeled calmodulin. The mammalian MDR gene codes for a membrane-bound P-glycoprotein (170-180 kDa) which imparts multidrug resistance to cancerous cells. The potato cDNA (PMDR1) codes for a polypeptide of 1313 amino acid residues (ca. 144 kDa) and its structural features are very similar to the MDR P-glycoprotein. The N-terminal half of the PMDR1-encoded protein shares striking homology with its C-terminal half, and each half contains a conserved ATP-binding site and six putative transmembrane domains. Southern blot analysis indicated that potato has one or two MDR-like genes. PMDR1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in all organs studied with higher expression in the stem and stolon tip. The PMDR1 expression was highest during tuber initiation and decreased during tuber development.

  12. Characterization of a cDNA encoding cysteine proteinase inhibitor from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) flower buds.

    PubMed

    Lim, C O; Lee, S I; Chung, W S; Park, S H; Hwang, I; Cho, M J

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a new phytocystatin isotype named BCPI-1 was isolated from a cDNA library of Chinese cabbage flower buds. The BCPI-1 clone encodes 199 amino acids resulting in a protein much larger than other known phytocystatins. BCPI-1 has an unusually long C-terminus. A BCPI-1 fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli strongly inhibits the enzymatic activity of papain, a cysteine proteinase. Genomic Southern blot analysis revealed that the BCPI gene is a member of a small multi-gene family in Chinese cabbage. Northern blot analysis showed that it is differentially expressed in the flower bud, leaf and root.

  13. Serine protease variants encoded by Echis ocellatus venom gland cDNA: cloning and sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Hasson, S S; Mothana, R A; Sallam, T A; Al-balushi, M S; Rahman, M T; Al-Jabri, A A

    2010-01-01

    Envenoming by Echis saw-scaled viper is the leading cause of death and morbidity in Africa due to snake bite. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here, we report the cloning of cDNA sequences encoding four groups or isoforms of the haemostasis-disruptive Serine protease proteins (SPs) from the venom glands of Echis ocellatus. All these SP sequences encoded the cysteine residues scaffold that form the 6-disulphide bonds responsible for the characteristic tertiary structure of venom serine proteases. All the Echis ocellatus EoSP groups showed varying degrees of sequence similarity to published viper venom SPs. However, these groups also showed marked intercluster sequence conservation across them which were significantly different from that of previously published viper SPs. Because viper venom SPs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity and yet exert profoundly different effects on the mammalian haemostatic system, no attempt was made to assign functionality to the new Echis ocellatus EoSPs on the basis of sequence alone. The extraordinary level of interspecific and intergeneric sequence conservation exhibited by the Echis ocellatus EoSPs and analogous serine proteases from other viper species leads us to speculate that antibodies to representative molecules should neutralise (that we will exploit, by epidermal DNA immunization) the biological function of this important group of venom toxins in vipers that are distributed throughout Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. PMID:20936075

  14. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding calreticulin from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinliang; Luo, Jianxun; Fan, Ruiquan; Fingerle, Volker; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Zhao, Haiping; Ma, Miling; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Dang, Zhisheng; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yin, Hong

    2008-03-01

    The application of anti-tick vaccine has been shown to be the most promising alternative strategy compared to the current use of acaricides that suffer from a number of serious limitations. The success of this method is dependent upon identification and cloning of potential tick vaccine antigens. Previously, we have cloned 21 positive clones (named from Hq02 to Hq22) by immunoscreening complimentary DNA (cDNA) libraries of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis; however, some of those clones did not contain open reading frames (ORF). In this study, we amplified the entire sequence of Hq07 by using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Hq07 contains an ORF of 1,233 bp that encodes for 410 amino acid residues with a coding capacity of 47 kDa. Search of the cloned sequences against GenBank revealed that Hq07 is a calreticulin (CRT)-similar clone and designated HqCRT. Expression analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that this gene is ubiquitously expressed at different developmental stages and in different tissues of H. qinghaiensis. The gene was expressed as glutathione S-transferase-fused proteins in a prokaryotic system. Western blot analysis revealed that native HqCRT was secreted into their hosts by ticks during blood sucking. Vaccination of sheep with rHqCRT conferred protective immunity against ticks, resulting in 54.3% mortality in adult ticks, compared to the 38.7% death rate in the control group. These results demonstrated that rHqCRT might be a useful vaccine candidate antigen for biological control of H. qinghaiensis.

  15. Isolation of cDNA from Jacaratia mexicana encoding a mexicain-like cysteine protease gene.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martínez, Erick M; Herrera-Ramírez, Alejandra C; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; González-Rábade, Nuria; Oliver-Salvador, María Del Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Cysteine proteases (CPs) from the C1 family, which are similar to papain, can be found in animals and plants, as well as some viruses and prokaryotes. These enzymes have diverse physiological functions and are thus very attractive for science and industry. Jacaratia mexicana, a member of the Caricaceae plant family, contains several CPs, the principal being mexicain, found to favorably compete against papain for many industrial applications due to its high stability and specific activity. In this study, leaves of J. mexicana were used to isolate a CP-coding gene, similar to those that code for mexicain and chymomexicain. By using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) as well as oligonucleotide design from papain-like conserved amino acids (aa), a sequence of 1404 bp consisting of a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 153 bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 131 bp, with a polyadenylation (poly(A)) signal sequence and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1046 bp, was obtained by overlapping three partial sequences. Two full-length cDNA sequences that encode for mexicain-like proteases were cloned from mRNA (JmCP4 and JmCP5). JmCP4 is predicted to have an ORF of 1044 bp, which codifies for polypeptides that have a 26 aa signal peptide region, a 108 aa propeptide region and a mature enzyme of 214 aa. A 969 bp fragment (JmCP5) encodes for a partial sequence of a CP gene, without the signal peptide region but with a full-length propeptide region. The sequence analysis showed that this protease presented a high similarity to other plant CPs from J. mexicana, Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, Vasconcellea stipulata, and Carica papaya, among others, mainly at the conserved catalytic site. Obtaining the sequence of this CP gene from J. mexicana provides an alternative for production in a standard system and could be an initial step towards the commercialization of this enzyme.

  16. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding an elicitor of Phytophthora colocasiae.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Kamal; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2010-02-28

    The rapid and effective activation of disease resistance responses is essential for plant defense against pathogen attack. These responses are initiated when pathogen-derived molecules (elicitors) are recognized by the host. A cDNA encoding elicitor, the major secreted extracellular glycoprotein of Phytophthora colocasiae, a pathogen of taro (Colocasia esculenta) plants, was isolated, sequenced and characterized. The expression of the corresponding elicitor gene during the disease cycle of P. colocasiae was analyzed. Elicitor was shown to be expressed in mycelium grown in culture media, whereas it was not expressed in sporangiospores and zoospores. In planta, during infection of taro, particularly during the biotrophic stage, expression of elicitor was down-regulated compared to in vitro. The highest levels of expression of elicitor were observed in in vitro grown mycelium and in late stages of infection when profuse sporulation and leaf necrosis occur. The elicitation of the suspension-cultured taro cells was effective in the induction of the enzyme activity of l-phenylalanine-ammonia lyase, peroxidase and lipoxygenase as well as the expression of defense-related endochitinase gene. All these biological activities were exerted within a low concentration range. The glycoprotein represents a powerful tool to investigate further the signals and their transduction pathways involved in induced disease resistance. It may also be useful to engineer broad disease protection in taro plant against Phytophthora leaf blight. PMID:19230634

  17. Identification and characterization of a cDNA encoding mouse CAP: a homolog of the yeast adenylyl cyclase associated protein.

    PubMed

    Vojtek, A B; Cooper, J A

    1993-07-01

    CAP, an adenylyl cyclase associated protein, is present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In both organisms, CAP is bifunctional: the N-terminal domain binds to adenylyl cyclase, thereby enabling adenylyl cyclase to respond appropriately to upstream regulatory signals, such as RAS in S. cerevisiae; the C-terminal domain is required for cellular morphogenesis. Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding a CAP homolog from a higher eukaryote. The mouse CAP cDNA contains an open reading frame capable of encoding a 474 amino acid protein. The protein encoded by the mouse CAP cDNA shows extensive homology to the yeast CAP proteins, particularly in the central poly-proline rich region and in the C-terminal domain. By northern analysis, the CAP message appears to be ubiquitous, but not uniform. By indirect immunofluorescence, ectopically expressed mouse CAP protein is found in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts and, in migrating cells, at the leading edge. Expression of the mouse CAP cDNA in S. cerevisiae complements defects associated with loss of the yeast CAP carboxy-terminal domain. Hence, the function of the CAP carboxy-terminal domain has been conserved from yeast to mouse.

  18. Cloning, characterization, and expression of a cDNA encoding an inducible nitric oxide synthase from the human chondrocyte.

    PubMed Central

    Charles, I G; Palmer, R M; Hickery, M S; Bayliss, M T; Chubb, A P; Hall, V S; Moss, D W; Moncada, S

    1993-01-01

    Incubation of human articular chondrocytes with interleukin 1 beta results in the time-dependent expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. We report here the isolation of a cDNA clone which encodes a protein of 1153 amino acids with a molecular mass of 131,213 Da and a calculated isoelectric point of 7.9. CHO cells transfected with a plasmid harboring this cDNA clone expressed NO synthase activity that was inhibited by some L-arginine analogues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human chondrocyte inducible NO synthase shows 51% identity and 68% similarity with the endothelial NO synthase and 54% identity and 70% similarity with the neuronal NO synthase. The similarity (88%) between the human chondrocyte NO synthase cDNA sequence and that reported for the murine macrophage suggests that the inducible class of enzyme is conserved between different cell types and across species. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7504305

  19. Identification and characterization of a cDNA clone-encoding antigen of Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huili; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Tang, Fang; Wang, Song; Li, Xiangrui

    2012-11-01

    Eimeria spp. are the causative agents of coccidiosis, a major disease affecting the poultry industry. So far, only a few antigen genes of E. acervulina have been reported. In this study, a clone, named as cSZ-JN2, was identified from a cDNA expression library prepared from E. acervulina sporozoite stage with the ability to stimulate the chicken immune response. The sequence analysis showed that the open reading fragment (ORF) of cSZ-JN2 was 153 bp in size and encoded a predicted protein of 50 amino acids of Mr 5·3 kDa. BLASTN search revealed that cSZ-JN2 had no significant homology with the known genes of E. acervulina or any other organism (GenBank). The recombinant cSZ-JN2 antigen expressed in E. coli was recognized strongly by serum from chickens experimentally infected with E. acervulina. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibody against recombinant cSZ-JN2 indicated that this protein was expressed in sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant protein of cSZ-JN2 and DNA vaccine carrying cSZ-JN2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens and presented anti-coccidial indices of more than 165. All the above results suggested that the cSZ-JN2 was a novel E. acervulina antigen and could be an effective candidate for the development of a new vaccine against E. acervulina infection.

  20. [Expression and cloning of cDNA encoding 43 kD rubber particle membrane protein of Hevea brasiliensis].

    PubMed

    Peng, Shi-Qing; Chen, Shou-Cai

    2004-06-01

    A rubber particle protein with apparent molecular mass of 43 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE was purified. A degenerate oligonucleotide primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this purified protein was used to amplify a 1385 bp cDNA by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'RACE). The cDNA contains five repeats in a head-to-tail arrangement without intervening sequences, each encoding a ubiquitin unit of 76 amino acids. The last ubiquitin unit is followed by an extraphenylanaline residue at the carboxyl-terminal end. The structure of the cDNA is consistent with the structure of other known polyubiquitin genes. Western blot demonstrated that 43 kD rubber particle protein might be a polyubiquitin. Southern blot analysis revealed that there were multiple copies of gene encoding 43 kD rubber particle protein in Hevea brasiliensis. The results of Northern blot analysis indicated that the gene was expressed in latex, young leaves and bark tissue. PMID:15599030

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of an Ophiophagus hannah cDNA encoding a precursor of two natriuretic peptide domains.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Jiang, Ping; He, Yingying; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2011-04-01

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake. Despite the components are mainly neurotoxins, the venom contains several proteins affecting blood system. Natriuretic peptide (NP), one of the important components of snake venoms, could cause local vasodilatation and a promoted capillary permeability facilitating a rapid diffusion of other toxins into the prey tissues. Due to the low abundance, it is hard to purify the snake venom NPs. The cDNA cloning of the NPs become a useful approach. In this study, a 957 bp natriuretic peptide-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from an O. hannah venom gland cDNA library. The open-reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 210-amino acid residues precursor protein named Oh-NP. Oh-NP has a typical signal peptide sequence of 26 amino acid residues. Surprisingly, Oh-NP has two typical NP domains which consist of the typical sequence of 17-residue loop of CFGXXDRIGC, so it is an unusual NP precursor. These two NP domains share high amino acid sequence identity. In addition, there are two homologous peptides of unknown function within the Oh-NP precursor. To our knowledge, Oh-NP is the first protein precursor containing two NP domains. It might belong to another subclass of snake venom NPs. PMID:21334357

  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of an Ophiophagus hannah cDNA encoding a precursor of two natriuretic peptide domains.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Jiang, Ping; He, Yingying; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2011-04-01

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake. Despite the components are mainly neurotoxins, the venom contains several proteins affecting blood system. Natriuretic peptide (NP), one of the important components of snake venoms, could cause local vasodilatation and a promoted capillary permeability facilitating a rapid diffusion of other toxins into the prey tissues. Due to the low abundance, it is hard to purify the snake venom NPs. The cDNA cloning of the NPs become a useful approach. In this study, a 957 bp natriuretic peptide-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from an O. hannah venom gland cDNA library. The open-reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 210-amino acid residues precursor protein named Oh-NP. Oh-NP has a typical signal peptide sequence of 26 amino acid residues. Surprisingly, Oh-NP has two typical NP domains which consist of the typical sequence of 17-residue loop of CFGXXDRIGC, so it is an unusual NP precursor. These two NP domains share high amino acid sequence identity. In addition, there are two homologous peptides of unknown function within the Oh-NP precursor. To our knowledge, Oh-NP is the first protein precursor containing two NP domains. It might belong to another subclass of snake venom NPs.

  3. Expression and characterization of a GH43 endo-arabinanase from Thermotoga thermarum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arabinan is an important plant polysaccharide degraded mainly by two hydrolytic enzymes, endo-arabinanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase. In this study, the characterization and application in arabinan degradation of an endo-arabinanase from Thermotoga thermarum were investigated. Results The recombinant endo-arabinanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by heat treatment followed by purification on a nickel affinity column chromatography. The purified endo-arabinanase exhibited optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 75°C and its residual activity retained more than 80% of its initial activity after being incubated at 80°C for 2 h. The results showed that the endo-arabinanase was very effective for arabinan degradation at higher temperature. When linear arabinan was used as the substrate, the apparent Km and Vmax values were determined to be 12.3 ± 0.15 mg ml−1 and 1,052.1 ± 12.7 μmol ml−1 min−1, respectively (at pH 6.5, 75°C), and the calculated kcat value was 349.3 ± 4.2 s−1. Conclusions This work provides a useful endo-arabinanase with high thermostability andcatalytic efficiency, and these characteristics exhibit a great potential for enzymatic conversion of arabinan. PMID:24886412

  4. Molecular cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding a plant tryptophan decarboxylase: comparison with animal dopa decarboxylases.

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, V; Marineau, C; Brisson, N

    1989-01-01

    The sequence of a cDNA clone that includes the complete coding region of tryptophan decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.28, formerly EC 4.1.1.27) from periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is reported. The cDNA clone (1747 base pairs) was isolated by antibody screening of a cDNA expression library produced from poly(A)+ RNA found in developing seedlings of C. roseus. The clone hybridized to a 1.8-kilobase mRNA from developing seedlings and from young leaves of mature plants. The identity of the clone was confirmed when extracts of transformed Escherichia coli expressed a protein containing tryptophan decarboxylase enzyme activity. The tryptophan decarboxylase cDNA clone encodes a protein of 500 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 56,142 Da. The amino acid sequence shows a high degree of similarity with the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase) and the alpha-methyldopa-hypersensitive protein of Drosophila melanogaster. The tryptophan decarboxylase sequence also showed significant similarity to feline glutamate decarboxylase and mouse ornithine decarboxylase, suggesting a possible evolutionary link between these amino acid decarboxylases. Images PMID:2704736

  5. Isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones encoding ethylene-induced putative peroxidases from cucumber cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Morgens, P H; Callahan, A M; Dunn, L J; Abeles, F B

    1990-05-01

    A cDNA library from ethephon-treated cucumber cotyledons (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsett 76) was constructed. Two cDNA clones encoding putative peroxidases were isolated by means of a synthetic probe based on a partial amino acid sequence of a 33 kDa cationic peroxidase that had been previously shown to be induced by ethylene. DNA sequencing indicates that the two clones were derived from two closely related RNA species that are related to published plant peroxidase sequences. Southern analysis indicates that there are 1-5 copies in a haploid genome of a gene homologous to the cDNA clones. The deduced amino acid sequences are homologous with a tobacco (55% sequence identity), a horseradish (53%), a turnip (45%), and a potato (41%) peroxidase. The cloned sequences do not encode the 33 kDa peroxidase from which the original synthetic probe was been derived, but rather other putative peroxidases. An increase in the level of mRNA is evident by 3 hours after ethephon or ethylene treatment and plateaus by 15 hours. PMID:2102850

  6. Homology probing: identification of cDNA clones encoding members of the protein-serine kinase family

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Mixed /sup 32/P-labeled oligonucleotide probes were used to screen a HeLa cDNA library for clones encoding amino acid contiguities whose conservation is characteristic of the protein-serine kinase family. Eighty thousand clones were screened, from which 19 were identified as showing strong hybridization to two distinct probes. Four clones were chosen for characterization by partial DNA sequence analysis and 3 of these were found to encode amino acid sequences typical of protein-serine kinases. One deduced amino acid sequence shares 72% identify with rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase ..gamma..-subunit, while another is closely related to the yeast protein-serine kinases CDC2 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and CDC28 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This screening approach should have applications in the identification of clones encoding previously unknown or poorly characterized members of other protein families.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

    1992-05-01

    A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds.

  8. Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding rat preprocholecystokinin.

    PubMed Central

    Deschenes, R J; Lorenz, L J; Haun, R S; Roos, B A; Collier, K J; Dixon, J E

    1984-01-01

    Poly(A) RNA was isolated from a rat medullary thyroid carcinoma that exhibited high levels of immunoreactive cholecystokinin (CCK). Double-stranded cDNA was synthesized from the poly(A) RNA and inserted into the Pst I site of pBR322. Bacterial colonies containing CCK cDNA were identified using the hybridization probe d(T-C-C-A-T-C-C-A-N-C-C-C-A-T-G-T-A-G-T-C). The sequence of the probe was deduced from the known amino acid sequence of porcine CCK-8, Asp-Tyr-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA complementary to the mRNA of rat preprocholecystokinin was determined. The cDNA contains 33 nucleotides in the 5'-noncoding region, 199 nucleotides in the 3'-noncoding region, and 345 nucleotides coding for a precursor to CCK, which is 115 amino acids (Mr, 12,826). Examination of the rat CCK gene revealed a suggested transcriptional control sequence analogous to the "TATA" sequence located 33 nucleotides upstream from a proposed transcriptional start site. The amino acid sequence of CCK-39 is flanked by both amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal extensions. Analysis of CCK mRNA showed that it is approximately equal to 750 nucleotides long. CCK mRNA of the rat brain and intestine appeared to be identical in size to the CCK mRNA of the carcinoma. Images PMID:6199787

  9. Sanfilippo syndrome type B: cDNA and gene encoding human {alpha}-N-acetylglucosaminidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.G.; Lopez, R.; Rennecker, J.

    1994-09-01

    Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme {alpha}-N-acetlyglucosaminidase underlies the type B Sanfilippo syndrome (MPS III B), a mucopolysaccharide storage disease with profound neurologic deterioration. We are acquiring tools to study the molecular basis of the disorder. The enzyme was purified from bovine testis; after ConA-, DEAE- and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, it was subjected to SDS-PAGE without preheating. Of two bands of activity detected on the gel, 170 kDa and 87 kDa, the larger one, which coincided with a well-defined Coomassie blue band, was selected for sequence analysis. Degenerate 17-base oligonucleotides, corresponding to the ends of an internal 23 amino acid sequence, were used for RT-PCR of RNA from human fibroblasts. A 41-mer was synthesized from the sequence of the RT-PCR product and used to screen a human testis cDNA library. A number of cDNA inserts were isolated, all lacking the 5{prime} end and none longer than 1.7 kb. An additional 300 bp segment has been obtained by RACE. The cDNA sequence accounts for 9 of 11 peptides, allowing for species difference. Northern analysis of fibroblast RNA with a 1.5 kb cDNA probe showed the presence of a 3 kb mRNA; marked deficiency of this mRNA in two MPS III B fibroblast lines confirmed the authenticity of the cloned cDNA. While no homologous amino acid sequence has been found in a search of GenBank, the nucleotide sequence (interrupted by 4 introns) is present in a flanking region upstream of an unrelated gene on chromosome 17q11-21 (human 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). This must therefore be the chromosomal locus of the {alpha}-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene and of MPS III B.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of Chitinase-Encoding cDNA from the Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Aron; Park, Hee Yun; Jeong, Seong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Chitinase is a rate-limiting and endo-splitting enzyme involved in the bio-degradation of chitin, an important component of the cuticular exoskeleton and peritrophic matrix in insects. We isolated a cDNA-encoding chitinase from the last larval integument of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae), cloned the ORF cDNA into E. coli to confirm its functionality, and analyzed the deduced amino acid sequence in comparison with previously described lepidopteran chitinases. M. brassicae chitinase expressed in the transformed E. coli cells with the chitinase-encoding cDNA enhanced cell proliferation to about 1.6 times of the untransformed wild type strain in a colloidal chitin-including medium with only a very limited amount of other nutrients. Compared with the wild type strain, the intracellular levels of chitin degradation derivatives, glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine were about 7.2 and 2.3 times higher, respectively, while the extracellular chitinase activity was about 2.2 times higher in the transformed strain. The ORF of M. brassicae chitinase-encoding cDNA consisted of 1686 nucleotides (562 amino acid residues) except for the stop codon, and its deduced amino acid composition revealed a calculated molecular weight of 62.7 and theoretical pI of 5.3. The ORF was composed of N-terminal leading signal peptide (AA 1-20), catalytic domain (AA 21–392), linker region (AA 393–498), and C-terminal chitin-binding domain (AA 499–562) showing its characteristic structure as a molting fluid chitinase. In phylogenetic analysis, the enzymes from 6 noctuid species were grouped together, separately from a group of 3 bombycid and 1 tortricid enzymes, corresponding to their taxonomic relationships at both the family and genus levels. PMID:22124732

  11. Sequence analysis and expression of a cDNA clone encoding tropomysin in Sinonovacula constricta.

    PubMed

    Song, Juanjuan; Li, Li; Liu, Zhigang; Li, Qiyuan; Ran, Pixin

    2009-02-01

    Shellfish can cause severe anaphylactic reactions. Tropomyosin has been assumed partly responsible for the cross-reactivity among shellfish and other invertebrates. In this study, cDNA of Sinonovacula constricta was amplified by RT-PCR and 3'-RACE from total RNA. The obtained tropomyosin cDNA included an open reading frame coding for 284 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein shared high identity with other allergenic tropomyosins. Expression of the recombinant tropomyosin was carried out in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using vector PET28a and the purification of the recombinant protein was performed via affinity chromatography. IgE reactivity of recombinant tropomyosin was investigated by immunoblot and the sensized precentage was 36% which indicated that tropomyosin was the minor allergens in S. constricta. Moreover, the character of the purified protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS.

  12. Identification, molecular characterization, and chromosomal localization of the cDNA encoding a novel leucine zipper motif-containing protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Nan-Chi A.; Chang, A.C.

    1996-08-15

    cDNA clones encoding a novel protein (LUZP) with three leucine zipper motifs were first identified from a murine bone marrow cDNA library. After screening two additional cDNA libraries of activated peritoneal exudate cells, 32 positive clones were obtained from 1.3 x 10{sup 7} phage plaques. Four overlapping clones constituting a total of 7399 hp were sequenced on both strands. The complete open reading frame of LUZP is 1067 amino acids. In addition to three leucine zipper motifs located at the NH2 terminus, there are three nuclear localization signals and a large number of putative Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites. Western blot analyses indicate that LUZP is predominantly expressed in brain, whereas immunocytochemistry data clearly reveal its presence in the nucleus of neutrons. Interspecific backcross analyses have mapped Luzp to mouse chromosome 4 in proximity to Gpcr14. Comparative mapping data suggest that the human homolog of Luzp will map to human chromosome 1p36. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Isolation of genomic and cDNA clones encoding bovine poly(A) binding protein II.

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, A; Krause, S; Blank, D; Jenny, A; Jenö, P; Lustig, A; Wahle, E

    1995-01-01

    cDNA clones for bovine poly(A) binding protein II (PAB II) were isolated. Their sequence predicts a protein of 32.8 kDa, revising earlier estimates of molecular mass. The protein contains one putative RNA-binding domain of the RNP type, an acidic N-terminal and a basic C-terminal domain. Analyses of authentic PAB II were in good agreement with all predictions from the cDNA sequence except that a number of arginine residues appeared to be post-translationally modified. Poly(A) binding protein II expressed in Escherichia coli was active in poly(A) binding and reconstitution of processive polyadenylation, including poly(A) tail length control. The cDNA clones showed a number of potential PAB II binding sites in the 3' untranslated sequence. Bovine poly(A)+RNA contained two mRNAs hybridizing to a PAB II-specific probe. Analysis of a genomic clone revealed six introns in the coding sequence. The revised molecular mass led to a demonstration of PAB II oligomer formation and a reinterpretation of earlier data concerning the protein's binding to poly(A). Images PMID:7479061

  14. Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a bovine adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21-hydroxylation.

    PubMed Central

    White, P C; New, M I; Dupont, B

    1984-01-01

    We isolated a cDNA clone encoding a bovine adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21-hydroxylation (P-450C21). Serum from rabbits immunized with purified P-450C21 precipitated a single protein from the products of an in vitro translation reaction using bovine adrenal mRNA. This protein migrated with P-450C21 on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After sucrose gradient sedimentation, mRNA encoding P-450C21 was found in the 19S fraction. This fraction was reverse transcribed into double-stranded cDNA and inserted into the Pst I site of pBR322 by the dC X dG tailing procedure. Escherichia coli cells transformed with recombinant plasmids were screened with an in situ immunoassay using anti-P-450C21 serum and 125I-labeled staphylococcal protein A. Two colonies consistently bound anti-P-450C21 serum. They were identified as carrying the same plasmid by restriction mapping. This plasmid, pC21a, contains an insert of 520 base pairs. It hybridizes with mRNA encoding P-450C21. The peptide encoded by the insert in pC21a is highly homologous to two peptides isolated from porcine P-450C21 and shows limited homology to the P-450 induced by phenobarbital in rat liver. This clone may be useful in studying the molecular genetics of human congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Images PMID:6609358

  15. Cloning of the Trichoderma reesei cDNA Encoding a Glucuronan Lyase Belonging to a Novel Polysaccharide Lyase Family▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Naotake; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Habu, Naoto; Samejima, Masahiro; Isogai, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei produces glucuronan lyase (TrGL) when it is grown on β-(1→4)-polyglucuronate (cellouronate) as a sole carbon source. The cDNA encoding TrGL was cloned, and the recombinant enzyme was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The cDNA of TrGL includes a 777-bp open reading frame encoding a 20-amino-acid signal peptide and the 238-amino-acid mature protein. The amino acid sequence showed no similarity to the amino acid sequences of previously described functional proteins, indicating that the enzyme should be classified in a novel polysaccharide lyase (PL) family. Recombinant TrGL catalyzed depolymerization of cellouronate endolytically by β-elimination and was highly specific for cellouronate. The enzyme was most active at pH 6.5 and 50°C, and its activity and thermostability increased in the presence of Ca2+, suggesting that its calcium dependence is similar to that of other PLs, such as pectate lyases. PMID:18978091

  16. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding transformation-sensitive tropomyosin isoform 3 from tumorigenic human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.S.; Leavitt, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from the tumorigenic human fibroblast cell line HuT-14 that contains the entire protein coding region of tropomyosin isoform 3 (Tm3) and 781 base pairs of 5'- and 3'-untranslated sequences. Tm3, despite its apparent smaller molecular weight than Tm1 in two-dimensional gels, has the same peptide length as Tm1 (284 amino acids) and shares 83% homology with Tm1. Tm3 cDNA hybridized to an abundant mRNA of 1.3 kilobases in fetal muscle and cardiac muscle, suggesting that Tm3 is related to an ..cap alpha../sub fast/-tropomyosin. The first 188 amino acids of Tm3 are identical to those of rat or rabbit skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin, and the last 71 amino acids differ from those of rat smooth muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin by only 1 residue. Tm3 therefore appears to be encoded by the same gene that encodes the fast skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin and the smooth muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin via an alternative RNA-splicing mechanism. In contrast to Tm4 and Tm5, Tm3 has a small gene family, with, at best, only one pseudogene.

  17. Characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding a tubuliform silk protein of the golden web spider Nephila antipodiana.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Lin, Z; Sin, Y M; Li, D; Gong, Z; Yang, D

    2006-07-01

    Spider silks are renowned for their excellent mechanical properties. Although several spider fibroin genes, mainly from dragline and capture silks, have been identified, there are still many members in the spider fibroin gene family remain uncharacterized. In this study, a novel silk cDNA clone from the golden web spider Nephila antipodiana was isolated. It is serine rich and contains two almost identical fragments with one varied gap region and one conserved spider fibroin-like C-terminal domain. Both in situ hybridization and immunoblot analyses have shown that it is specifically expressed in the tubuliform gland. Thus, it likely encodes the silk fibroin from the tubuliform gland, which supplies the main component of the inner egg case. Unlike other silk proteins, the protein encoded by the novel cDNA in water solution exhibits the characteristic of an alpha-helical protein, which implies the distinct property of the egg case silk, though the fiber of tubuliform silk is mainly composed of beta-sheet structure. Its sequence information facilitates elucidation of the evolutionary history of the araneoid fibroin genes.

  18. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding rat liver cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD).

    PubMed

    Reymond, I; Sergeant, A; Tappaz, M

    1996-06-01

    The taurine biosynthesis enzyme, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), was purified to homogeneity from rat liver. Three CSD peptides generated by tryptic cleavage were isolated and partially sequenced. Two of them showed a marked homology with glutamate decarboxylase and their respective position on the CSD amino acid sequence was postulated accordingly. Using appropriate degenerated primers derived from these two peptides, a PCR amplified DNA fragment was generated from liver poly(A)+ mRNA, cloned and used as a probe to screen a rat liver cDNA library. Three cDNAs, length around 1800 bp, were isolated which all contained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 493 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 55.2 kDa close to the experimental values for CSD. The encoded protein contained the sequence of the three peptides isolated from homogenous liver CSD. Our data confirm and significantly extend those recently published (Kaisaki et al. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1262, 79-82). Indeed, an additional base pair found 1371 bp downstream from the initiation codon led to a shift in the open reading frame which extended the carboxy-terminal end by 15 amino acid residues and altogether modified 36 amino acids. The validity of this correction is supported by the finding that the corrected reading frame encoded a peptide issued from CSD tryptic cleavage that was not encoded anywhere in the CSD sequence previously reported. PMID:8679699

  19. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding jacalin isolectins.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Czapla, T H

    1993-03-15

    Four jacalin cDNA clones (pSKcJA1, pSKcJA3, pSKcJA15, and pSKcJA17) have been obtained from an Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit) seed cDNA library. These clones share over 94% sequence homology, and their deduced polypeptide sequences confirm the existence of multiple jacalin isolectins in jackfruit seeds. The deduced amino acid sequences show that jacalin appears to be initially synthesized as a prepropeptide with the following structure: N-signal (21 residues)-->propeptide (39 residues)-->beta-peptide (20 residues)-->linker region (4 residues)-->alpha-peptide (133 residues). These observations are supported by Western blot analysis of jackfruit seed extract and by immunoprecipitation of in vitro translated products of both pSKcJA3 transcript and jackfruit seed poly(A)+ RNA. Sequence analysis of the 39-residue propeptide reveals that it has the potential to facilitate proper folding of jacalin protein. The unusual primary structure of jacalin prepropeptide suggests a quite interesting processing of this lectin precursor into mature alpha- and beta-subunits.

  20. Identification and characterization of cDNA clones encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from tobacco.

    PubMed

    Farmer, M J; Czernic, P; Michael, A; Negrel, J

    1999-08-01

    The sequences of three cDNA clones that include the complete coding region of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (THT) from tobacco are reported. The three cDNAs were isolated by antibody screening of a cDNA expression library produced from poly(A)+RNA purified from tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bottom Special), previously infiltrated with an incompatible strain of Ralstonia solanacearum. The identity of these clones was confirmed by the detection of THT activity in extracts of transformed Escherichia coli and by matching the translated polypeptides with tryptic enzyme sequences. cDNA clones tht4 and tht11 differ only by their 5' leader and 3' UTRs and therefore encode the same protein, whereas tht10 and tht11 exhibit 95 and 99% sequence identity at the DNA and deduced amino acid levels, respectively. The three clones encode proteins of 226 amino acids with calculated molecular masses of 26 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequences show no similarity with the sequence of anthranilate hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase from Dianthus caryophyllus, the only enzyme exhibiting hydroxycinnamoyltransferase activity to be cloned so far in plants. In contrast, comparison of the THT amino acid sequence with protein sequence databases revealed substantial homology with mammalian diamine acetyltransferases. The THT clones hybridized to a 0.95-kb mRNA from elicited tobacco cell-suspension cultures and also to a mRNA of similar size from wound-healing potato tubers. The messengers for THT were also found to be expressed at relatively high levels in tobacco root tissues. Southern hybridization of tobacco genomic DNA with THT cDNA suggests that several copies of the THT gene occur in the tobacco genome. Inhibition experiments using amino-acid-specific reagents demonstrated that both histidyl and cysteyl residues are required for THT activity. In the course of these experiments THT was also found to be inhibited by (2-hydroxyphenyl) amino sulfinyl

  1. Cytochrome P3-450 cDNA encodes aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Faletto, M B; Koser, P L; Battula, N; Townsend, G K; Maccubbin, A E; Gelboin, H V; Gurtoo, H L

    1988-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen and ubiquitous dietary contaminant in some countries, is detoxified to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via cytochrome P-450-mediated AFB1-4-hydroxylase. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that the expression of AFB1-4-hydroxylase is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon locus and suggested that different cytochrome P-450 isozymes catalyze AFB1-4-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. We have now examined lysates from mammalian cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses containing expressible cytochrome P1-450 or P3-450 cDNAs for their ability to metabolize AFB1 to AFM1. Our results show that cytochrome P3-450 cDNA specifies AFB1-4-hydroxylase. This is the first direct assignment of a specific cytochrome P-450 to an AFB1 detoxification pathway. This finding may have relevance to the dietary modulation of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis.

  2. Isolation and structure of a cDNA encoding the B1 (CD20) cell-surface antigen of human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, T F; Streuli, M; Schlossman, S F; Saito, H

    1988-01-01

    The B1 (CD20) molecule is a Mr 33,000 phosphoprotein on the surface of human B lymphocytes that may serve a central role in the humoral immune response by regulating B-cell proliferation and differentiation. In this report, a cDNA clone that encodes the B1 molecule was isolated and the amino acid sequence of B1 was determined. B-cell-specific cDNA clones were selected from a human tonsillar cDNA library by differential hybridization with labeled cDNA derived from either size-fractionated B-cell mRNA or size-fractionated T-cell mRNA. Of the 261 cDNA clones isolated, 3 cross-hybridizing cDNA clones were chosen as potential candidates for encoding B1 based on their selective hybridization to RNA from B1-positive cell lines. The longest clone, pB1-21, contained a 2.8-kilobase insert with an 891-base-pair open reading frame that encodes a protein of 33 kDa. mRNA synthesized from the pB1-21 cDNA clone in vitro was translated into a protein of the same apparent molecular weight as B1. Limited proteinase digestion of the pB1-21 translation product and B1 generated peptides of the same sizes, indicating that the pB1-21 cDNA encodes the B1 molecule. Gel blot analysis indicated that pB1-21 hybridized with two mRNA species of 2.8 and 3.4 kilobases only in B1-positive cell lines. The amino acid sequence deduced from the pB1-21 nucleotide sequence apparently lacks a signal sequence and contains three extensive hydrophobic regions. The deduced B1 amino acid sequence shows no significant homology with other known proteins. Images PMID:2448768

  3. Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from cultured cells of Manihot esculenta.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung-Yong; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) cDNA, mSOD2, encoding cytosolic copper/zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) cDNA was isolated from suspension-cultured cells of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by cDNA library screening, and its expression was investigated in relation to environmental stress. mSOD2 is 774 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 152 amino acids, corresponding to a protein of predicted molecular mass 15 kDa and a pI of 5.22. One copy of the mSOD2 gene was found to be present in the cassava genome by Southern analysis using an mSOD2 cDNA-specific probe. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed diverse expression patterns for the mSOD2 gene in various tissues of intact cassava plants, at various stages of the growth in suspension cultures, and in the leaf tissues exposed to different stresses. The mSOD2 gene was highly expressed in suspension-cultured cells and in the stems of intact plants. However, it was expressed at low levels in leaves and roots. During suspension cell growth, the mSOD2 transcript progressively increased during culture. Moreover, the mSOD2 gene in excised cassava leaves responded to various stresses in different ways. In particular, it was highly induced in leaf tissue by several abiotic stresses, including high temperature (37 degrees C), chilling (4 degrees C), methyl viologen (MV) exposure, and wounding treatment. These results indicate that the mSOD2 gene is involved in the antioxidative process triggered by oxidative stress induced by environmental change.

  4. Identification of cDNA clones encoding HMG 2, a major protein of the mexican axolotl hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes.

    PubMed

    de Guerra, A; Guillet, F; Charlemagne, J; Fellah, J S

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and analyzed cDNA clones encoding a major 26 kDa protein of the HMG1-2 family which is abundant in the cytoplasm and nucleus of axolotl hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes. The axolotl HMG2 protein is very similar to proteins belonging to the HMG1-2 family, from teleost fish to mammals. All the molecular features of the HMG1-2 proteins are conserved, including the high proportion of basic and aromatic residues, and the characteristic acidic C-terminus tail. The 3'-untranslated region of the HMG2 axolotl cDNA is also similar to the avian and mammalian HMG2 3'-UT sequences, suggesting that some selective events have acted at the DNA level to conserve this region, which could be important in the differential expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes. The axolotl HMG2 protein contains the two well conserved HMG boxes which are thought to be the DNA-binding domains of the molecule. Axolotl thymocytes and spleen cells contain almost identical amounts of HMG2 mRNAs but HMG2 polypeptide is undetectable in spleen cells using anti-26 kDa antibodies. The reason for the accumulation of HMG1-2 molecules in vertebrate hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes is discussed, as well as their possible role in apoptosis. PMID:8654668

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding urotensin I precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, I; Ichikawa, T; Deguchi, T

    1986-01-01

    The primary structure of the precursor of urotensin I, a neuropeptide hormone from the caudal neurosecretory system of the carp Cyprinus carpio, has been determined by analyzing the nucleotide sequence of cloned DNA complementary to the mRNA encoding it. The precursor consists of 145 amino acid residues and the carboxyl terminus represents the 41-amino acid sequence of urotensin I, preceded by Lys-Arg and followed by Gly-Lys. Sequence homology as well as similar organization of the precursors of urotensin I and mammalian corticotropin-releasing factors suggest that they are evolutionarily related. RNA transfer blot analysis indicates that mRNA encoding the precursor of urotensin I is present only in the spinal cord and not in the brain, intestine, liver, or kidney of the carp. Images PMID:3484550

  6. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA sequence encoding the precursor of a chlorotoxin-like peptide from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X C; Li, W X; Zhu, S Y; Peng, F; Zhu, Z H; Wu, K L; Yiang, F H

    2000-08-01

    A full-length cDNA sequence encoding the precursor of a venom peptide with homology to chlorotoxin (named BmKCT) was isolated from a cDNA library made from the venom glands of the Chinese Scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. The encoded precursor of BmKCT was 59 amino acid residues long including a signal peptide of 24 residues and a mature toxin of 35 residues with four disulfide bridges. The sequence of BmKCT is similar (68% identities) to that of chlorotoxin isolated from Leiurus quinguestriatus quinquestriatus. BmKCT is the first report of the cDNA sequences encoding four-disulfide-bridged short-chain toxins from Buthus martensuii Karsch so far.

  7. Pez: a novel human cDNA encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase- and ezrin-like domains.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Mitchell, P J; Shipley, J; Gusterson, B A; Rogers, M V; Crompton, M R

    1995-04-26

    We have isolated cDNAs from normal human breast tissue and breast tumour cells that encode a protein (pez) with features of a novel non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase possessing N-terminal sequence homology to the ezrin-band 4.1-merlin-radixin protein family. Northern blot analysis indicates that pez is expressed in a variety of human tissues including kidney, skeletal muscle, lung and placenta. Fluorescence in situ hybridization has mapped pez to chromosome 1 region q32.2-41. Sequence identity to a characterized polymorphic marker confirms this localization. PMID:7733990

  8. Nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the proenzyme of phenol oxidase A1 of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, K; Okino, N; Kawabata, S; Iwanaga, S; Ohnishi, E

    1995-01-01

    Clones encoding pro-phenol oxidase [pro-PO; zymogen of phenol oxidase (monophenol, L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1)] A1 were isolated from a lambda gt10 library that originated from Drosophila melanogaster strain Oregon-R male adults. The 2294 bp of the cDNA included a 13-bp 5'-noncoding region, a 2070-bp encoding open reading frame of 690 amino acids, and a 211-bp 3'-noncoding region. A hydrophobic NH2-terminal sequence for a signal peptide is absent in the protein. Furthermore, there are six potential N-glycosylation sites in the sequence, but no amino sugar was detected in the purified protein by amino acid analysis, indicating the lack of an N-linked sugar chain. The potential copper-binding sites, amino acids 200-248 and 359-414, are highly homologous to the corresponding sites of hemocyanin of the tarantula Eurypelma californicum, the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, and the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. On the basis of the phylogenetic tree constructed by the neighbor-joining method, vertebrate tyrosinases and molluscan hemocyanins constitute one family, whereas pro-POs and arthropod hemocyanins group with another family. It seems, therefore, likely that pro-PO originates from a common ancestor with arthropod hemocyanins, independently to the vertebrate and microbial tyrosinases. PMID:7644493

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new cDNA sequence encoding a venom peptide from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanhong; Luo, Feng; He, Jing; Cao, Zhijian; Miao, Lixia

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on venomous peptides derived from animals. However, little of this research has focused on peptides from centipede venoms. Here, a venom gland cDNA library was successfully constructed for the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. A new cDNA encoding the precursor of a venom peptide, named SsmTx, was cloned from the venomous gland cDNA library of the centipede S. subspinipes mutilans. The full-length SsmTx cDNA sequence is 465 nt, including a 249 nt ORF, a 45 nt 5' UTR and a 171 nt 3' UTR. There is a signal tail AATAAA 31 nt upstream of the poly (A) tail. The precursor nucleotide sequence of SsmTx encodes a signal peptide of 25 residues and a mature peptide of 57 residues, which is bridged by two pairs of disulfide bonds. SsmTx displays a unique cysteine motif that is completely different from that of other venomous animal toxins. This is the first reported cDNA sequence encoding a venom peptide from the centipede S. subspinipes mutilans.

  10. Identification and characterization of the cDNA sequence encoding amelogenin in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Bai, Chunyan; Li, Yumei; Yan, Shouqing; Fang, Hengtong; Sun, Boxing; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhao, Zhihui

    2016-02-01

    Amelogenins, the most abundant proteins in tooth enamel extracellular matrix (ECM), are essential for tooth amelogenesis. The nucleotide sequence of amelogenin gene (AMEL) for rabbit, as an important member of mammals and good continuously growing incisor model, is important for comparative and evolutional study. Previous studies about rabbit amelogenin proteins got no consensus yet even as to their existence or size. In this study, with combined usage of in silico and molecular cloning technologies, we identified sequences of two transcripts of rabbit amelogenin, resulting from the alternative splicing of the 45-bp exon 4. The coding regions of the two transcripts are of 567- and 522-bp, encoding 188 and 173 amino acids including a 17-residue signal peptide, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that rabbit amelogenin features in extremely high GC-content in nucleotide sequence and Alanine content in protein sequence. Detailed comparison of amino acid sequence with other mammals showed that the rabbit amelogenin protein is conserved in the sites and regions important for protein functions. Overall, our results uncovered the mysteries about rabbit amelogenin and revealed its sequence peculiarities. PMID:26551300

  11. Isolation, characterization and cloning of a cDNA encoding a new antifungal defensin from Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Games, Patrícia D; Dos Santos, Izabela S; Mello, Erica O; Diz, Mariângela S S; Carvalho, André O; de Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A; Da Cunha, Maura; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Ferreira, Beatriz Dos S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2008-12-01

    The PvD1 defensin was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris (cv. Pérola) seeds, basically as described by Terras et al. [Terras FRG, Schoofs HME, De Bolle MFC, Van Leuven F, Ress SB, Vanderleyden J, Cammue BPA, Broekaer TWF. Analysis of two novel classes of plant antifungal proteins from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds. J Biol Chem 1992;267(22):15301-9], with some modifications. A DEAE-Sepharose, equilibrated with 20mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, was initially utilized for the separation of peptides after ammonium sulfate fractionation. The basic fraction (the non-retained peak) obtained showed the presence of one unique band in SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of approximately 6kDa. The purification of this peptide was confirmed after a reverse-phase chromatography in a C2/C18 column by HPLC, where once again only one peak was observed and denominated H1. H1 was submitted to N-terminal sequencing and the comparative analysis in databanks revealed high similarity with sequences of different defensins isolated from other plants species. The N-terminal sequence of the mature defensin isolated was used to produce a degenerated primer. This primer allowed the amplification of the defensin cDNA by RT-PCR from mRNA of P. vulgaris seeds. The sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA, named PVD1, demonstrated 314bp encoding a polypeptide of 47 amino acids. The deduced peptide presented high similarity with plant defensins of Vigna unguiculata (93%), Cicer arietinum (95%) and Pachyrhizus erosus (87%). PvD1 inhibited the growth of the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, Kluyveromyces marxiannus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvD1 also presented an inhibitory activity against the growth of phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium lateritium and Rizoctonia solani. PMID:18786582

  12. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding an alternative oxidase protein of Sauromatum guttatum (Schott).

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, D M; McIntosh, L

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that recognize the 35-, 36-, and 37-kDa alternative oxidase proteins of Sauromatum guttatum (Schott) were used to isolate a cDNA clone, pAOSG81, from an S. guttatum cDNA expression library. A fusion protein with an apparent molecular mass of 48 kDa was expressed from a pUC119 derivative of pAOSG81 (pAOSG81-119) in Escherichia coli cells and was recognized by the monoclonal antibodies. When the in vitro translated and immunoprecipitated products made from mRNA hybrid-selected by pAOSG81 were analyzed, a single band corresponding to a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa was observed. DNA sequence characterization showed that pAOSG81 contains the entire coding region of a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 38.9 kDa, a putative 63-amino acid transit peptide, and a 9-amino acid match to the authentic N-terminal sequence of the 36-kDa alternative oxidase protein. Analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence indicate: (i) that the transit peptide is predicted to form amphiphilic helices, and (ii) that three regions of the processed protein are likely to form transmembrane alpha-helices. We conclude from these data that pAOSG81 represents a nuclear gene, aox1, encoding a precursor protein of one or more of the alternative oxidase proteins of S. guttatum. Images PMID:1706518

  13. Identification of a cDNA encoding a novel small secretory protein, neurosecretory protein GL, in the chicken hypothalamic infundibulum.

    PubMed

    Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Bessho, Yuki; Maejima, Sho; Masuda, Keiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Furumitsu, Megumi; Tachibana, Tetsuya

    2014-03-28

    To find novel neuropeptide and/or peptide hormone precursors in the avian brain, we performed a cDNA subtractive screen of the chicken hypothalamic infundibulum, which contains one of the feeding and neuroendocrine centers. After sequencing 596 clones, we identified a novel cDNA encoding a previously unknown protein. The deduced precursor protein consisted of 182 amino acid residues, including one putative small secretory protein of 80 amino acid residues. This small protein was flanked at the N-terminus by a signal peptide and at the C-terminus by a glycine amidation signal and a dibasic amino acid cleavage site. Because the predicted C-terminal amino acids of the small protein were Gly-Leu-NH2, the small protein was named neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated specific expression of the NPGL precursor mRNA in the hypothalamic infundibulum. Furthermore, the mRNA levels in the hypothalamic infundibulum increased during post-hatching development. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the cells containing the NPGL precursor mRNA were localized in the medial mammillary nucleus and infundibular nucleus within the hypothalamic infundibulum of 8- and 15-day-old chicks. Subcutaneous infusion of NPGL in chicks increased body weight gain without affecting food intake. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the identification and localization of the NPGL precursor mRNA and the function of its translated product in animals. Our findings indicate that NPGL may participate in the growth process in chicks.

  14. Characterization of a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase cDNA which encodes an isozyme toward oxaloacetate reduction in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Ma, Qing-Hu

    2004-08-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is ubiquitous in nature, catalyzes the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. Higher plants contain multiple forms of MDH that differ in co-enzyme specificity, subcellular localization and physiological function. Cytosolic NAD-dependent MDH (cyMDH) is one class of MDH that has not been extensively characterized in plants. Here we report the cloning of a cDNA from wheat by RT-PCR and cDNA library screening, which is designated as TaMDH. Sequence analysis indicated that TaMDH exhibits a highly similarity to other plant cyMDHs. Immunological analysis confirmed that TaMDH encoded a cytosolic NAD-dependent MDH. The secondary and three-dimensional structures of TaMDH were analyzed by molecular modeling. DNA gel-blot analyses demonstrated that TaMDH gene exists as two copies in the wheat genome. RNA and protein gel-blot hybridization indicated that both TaMDH mRNA and protein were constitutively expressed in vegetative tissues of wheat, with slightly lower levels in roots than in leaves and stems. In silico analysis indicated that TaMDH was also expressed in various reproductive tissues and tissues under many different stress conditions. Kinetic analysis of bacterially expressed and purified protein confirmed that TaMDH catalyzed a reaction driven towards malate synthesis, which is consistent with other cyMDHs. Evolutionary analysis showed that this class of genes evolved from a very ancestral gene. The cyMDH represents an ancestral form of MDH, which is highly conserved in plants, animals and bacteria. This implies that cyMDHs are housekeeping genes and may have very essential functions in plant metabolism.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the cytosolic copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase from sweet potato tuberous root.

    PubMed

    Lin, C T; Yeh, K W; Kao, M C; Shaw, J F

    1993-11-01

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding a putative copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD) of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv Tainong 57, was isolated from a cDNA library constructed in lambda gt10 from tuber root mRNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this cDNA clone revealed that it comprises a complete open reading frame coding for 152 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed higher homology (78-86%) with the sequence of the cytosolic SOD than that of the chloroplast SOD from other plant species. The residues required for coordinating copper and zinc are conserved as they are among all reported Cu/Zn-SOD sequences. In addition, it lacks recognizable plastic or mitochondrial targeting sequences. These data suggest that the isolated sweet potato clone encodes a cytosolic Cu/Zn-SOD.

  16. [Molecular cloning and characteristics of cDNA encoding pig beta6 subunit for FMDV receptor].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan-Dian; Du, Jun-Zheng; Chang, Hui-Yun; Cong, Guo-Zheng; Shao, Jun-Jun; Shan, Yi Hua; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Xie, Qing-Ge

    2007-09-01

    In order to study the roles of integrin beta6 in Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus infection, pig integrin beta6 was firstly molecularly cloned from RNA of the tongue and lung of recovered pig infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV), and was compared with the beta6 gene of other animals available in GenBank at nucleotide and amino acid leves. GeneBank association number of the beta6 gene is EF432729. Pig integrin beta6 gene (2367bp) encodes a polypeptide of 788 amino acids consisting of 9 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 3 Glycosaminoglycan attachment sites, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, 10 Protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 EGF-like domains and 2 cysteine-rich regions. Pig integrin beta6 subunit has a 26-residue putative signal peptide, a 681-residue ectodomain, a 29-residue transmembrane domain, and a 52-residue cytoplasmic domain. 11 mutant nucleotides were found in beta6 gene coding region and 9 amino acids were changed. The nucleotide sequence similarity of integrin beta6 gene between rheses monkey, mouse, Norway rat, dog, guinea pig, human, bovine, sheep is 79.5%, 84.9%, 85.4%, 85.2%, 88.7%, 90.1%, 91.9% and 91.9%, and the amino acid sequence similarity is 93.5%, 88.2%, 88.5%, 88.3%, 91.0%, 92.8%, 93.3% and 93.4% respectively. This study will lay a foundation for understanding the interactions of FMDV with receptors. PMID:18064756

  17. Isolation and characterization of human cDNA clones encoding the. alpha. and the. alpha. prime subunits of casein kinase II

    SciTech Connect

    Lozeman, F.J.; Litchfield, D.W.; Piening, C.; Takio, Koji; Walsh, K.A.; Krebs E.G. )

    1990-09-11

    Casein kinase II is a widely distributed protein serine/threonine kinase. The holoenzyme appears to be a tetramer, containing two {alpha} or {alpha}{prime} subunits (or one of each) and two {beta} subunits. Complementary DNA clones encoding the subunits of casein kinase II were isolated from a human T-cell {lambda}gt 10 library using cDNA clones isolated from Drosophila melanogasten. One of the human cDNA clones (hT4.1) was 2.2 kb long, including a coding region of 1176 bp preceded by 156 bp (5{prime} untranslated region) and followed by 871 bp (3{prime} untranslated region). The hT4.1 close was nearly identical in size and sequence with a cDNA clone from HepG2 human hepatoma cultured cells. Another of the human T-cell cDNA clones (hT9.1) was 1.8 kb long, containing a coding region of 1053 bp preceded by 171 by (5{prime} untranslated region) and followed by 550 bp (3{prime} untranslated region). Amino acid sequences deduced from these two cDNA clones were about 85% identical. Most of the difference between the two encoded polypeptides was in the carboxy-terminal region, but heterogeneity was distributed throughout the molecules. Partial amino acid sequence was determined in a mixture of {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} subunits from bovine lung casein kinase II. The bovine sequences aligned with the 2 human cDNA-encoded polypeptides with only 2 discrepancies out of 535 amino acid positions. This confirmed that the two human T-cell cDNA clones encoded the {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} subunits of casein kinase II. These studies show that there are two distinct catalytic subunits for casein II ({alpha} and {alpha}{prime}) and that the sequence of these subunits is largely conserved between the bovine and the human.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of cDNA Encoding Three Dehydrins Expressed During Coffea canephora (Robusta) Grain Development

    PubMed Central

    HINNIGER, CÉCILE; CAILLET, VICTORIA; MICHOUX, FRANCK; BEN AMOR, MOHAMED; TANKSLEY, STEVE; LIN, CHENWEI; MCCARTHY, JAMES

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dehydrins, or group 2 late embryogenic abundant proteins (LEA), are hydrophilic Gly-rich proteins that are induced in vegetative tissues in response to dehydration, elevated salt, and low temperature, in addition to being expressed during the late stages of seed maturation. With the aim of characterizing and studying genes involved in osmotic stress tolerance in coffee, several full-length cDNA-encoding dehydrins (CcDH1, CcDH2 and CcDH3) and an LEA protein (CcLEA1) from Coffea canephora (robusta) were isolated and characterized. • Methods The protein sequences deduced from the full-length cDNA were analysed to classify each dehydrin/LEA gene product and RT–PCR was used to determine the expression pattern of all four genes during pericarp and grain development, and in several other tissues of C. arabica and C. canephora. Primer-assisted genome walking was used to isolate the promoter region of the grain specific dehydrin gene (CcDH2). • Key Results The CcDH1 and CcDH2 genes encode Y3SK2 dehydrins and the CcDH3 gene encodes an SK3 dehydrin. CcDH1 and CcDH2 are expressed during the final stages of arabica and robusta grain development, but only the CcDH1 transcripts are clearly detected in other tissues such as pericarp, leaves and flowers. CcDH3 transcripts are also found in developing arabica and robusta grain, in addition to being detected in pericarp, stem, leaves and flowers. CcLEA1 transcripts were only detected during a brief period of grain development. Finally, over 1 kb of genomic sequence potentially encoding the entire grain-specific promoter region of the CcDH2 gene was isolated and characterized. • Conclusions cDNA sequences for three dehydrins and one LEA protein have been obtained and the expression of the associated genes has been determined in various tissues of arabica and robusta coffees. Because induction of dehydrin gene expression is associated with osmotic stress in other plants, the dehydrin sequences

  19. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a cobalamin-independent methionine synthase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zeh, Michaela; Leggewie, Georg; Hoefgen, Rainer; Hesse, Holger

    2002-02-01

    A potato cDNA clone, StMS1, that encodes a methionine synthase was isolated. This protein was identified on the basis of both structural and functional evidence. The predicted sequence of the protein encoded by StMS1 shows a high degree of similarity to methionine synthases from other organisms and the expression of StMS1 in bacterial mutant strains restored the mutant's ability to synthesize methionine. Genomic organization and expression analyses suggest that StMS1 is a low-copy gene and is differentially expressed in potato organs. StMS1 expression was found in all tissues, but at elevated levels in flowers, basal levels in sink and source leaves, roots and stolons, and low levels in stems and tubers. RNA expression data were confirmed by western blot analysis except that the protein content in leaves was less than expected from the RNA data. Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the protein is located in the cytosol. However, the changing pattern of gene expression during the day/night period implied a light-dependent control of MS transcription normally seen for enzymes localized in plastids. The expression of MS was shown to be light-inducible with its highest expression at midday. These RNA data were not confirmed at the protein level since protein content levels remained constant over the whole day. Feeding experiments of detached leaves revealed that sucrose or sucrose-derived products are responsible for StMS1 induction. This induction can be blocked by treatment with DCMU during the light period. Western analysis revealed that the amount of StMS1 is not affected by either treatment. This experiment confirmed the presence of a day/night rhythm. Methionine synthase expression is regulated by photoassimilates but this seems not to detectably alter protein levels. PMID:11855727

  20. An Arabidopsis cDNA encoding a DNA-binding protein that is highly similar to the DEAH family of RNA/DNA helicase genes.

    PubMed

    Isono, K; Yamamoto, H; Satoh, K; Kobayashi, H

    1999-09-15

    A cDNA encoding a putative RNA and/or DNA helicase has been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA libraries. The cloned cDNA is 5166 bases long, and its largest open reading frame encodes 1538 amino acids. The central region of the predicted protein is homologous to a group of nucleic acid helicases from the DEAD/H family. However, the N- and C-terminal regions of the Arabidopsis cDNA product are distinct from these animal DEIH proteins. We have found that the C-terminal region contains three characteristic sequences: (i) two DNA-binding segments that form a probe helix (PH) involved in DNA recognition; (ii) an SV40-type nuclear localization signal; and (iii) 11 novel tandem-repeat sequences each consisting of about 28 amino acids. We have designated this cDNA as NIH (nuclear DEIH-boxhelicase). Functional character-ization of a recombinant fusion product containing the repeated region indicates that NIH may form homodimers, and that this is the active form in solution. Based on this information and the observation that the sequence homology is limited to the DEAH regions, we conclude that the biological roles of the plant helicase NIH differ from those of the animal DEIH family. PMID:10471743

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the cerebrovascular and the neuritic plaque amyloid peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Robakis, N.K.; Ramakrishna, N.; Wolfe, G.; Wisniewski, H.M.

    1987-06-01

    Deposits of amyloid fibers are found in large numbers in the walls of blood vessels and in neuritic plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease and adults with Down syndrome. The authors used the amino acid sequence of the amyloid peptide to synthesize oligonucleotide probes specific for the gene encoding this peptide. When a human brain cDNA library was screened with this probe, a clone was found with a 1.7-kilobase insert that contains a long open reading frame coding for 412 amino acid residues including the 28 amino acids of the amyloid peptide. RNA gel blots revealed that a 3.3-kilobase mRNA species was present in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease, with Down syndrome, or with not apparent neurological disorders. Southern blots showed that homologous genes are present in the genomic DNA of humans, rabbits, sheep, hamsters, and mice, suggesting that this gene has been conserved through mammalian evolution. Localization of the corresponding genomic sequences on human chromosome 21 suggest a genetic relationship between Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome, and it may explain the early appearance of large numbers of neuritic plaques in adult Down syndrome patients.

  2. Characterization of cDNA encoding mouse homolog of fission yeast dhp1+ gene: structural and functional conservation.

    PubMed Central

    Shobuike, T; Sugano, S; Yamashita, T; Ikeda, H

    1995-01-01

    The dhp1+ gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HKE1/RAT1/TAP1 gene that is involved in RNA metabolism such as RNA trafficking and RNA synthesis. dhp1+ is also related to S. cerevisiae DST2 (SEP1) that encodes a DNA strand exchange protein required for sporulation and homologous recombination in S.cerevisiae. We isolated several clones of Dhm1, a mouse homolog of dhp1+, from mouse spermatocyte cDNA library and determined its nucleotide sequence. The Dhm1 gene consists of an open reading frame predicting a protein with 947 amino acids and molecular weight of 107,955. Northern blot analysis revealed that Dhm1 is transcribed at high level in testis, liver and kidney. The predicted product of Dhm1 (Dhm1p) has a significant homology with Dhp1p, Hke1p/Rat1p/Tap1p and Dst2p. In particular, Dhm1p, Dhp1p and Hke1p/Rat1p/Tap1p share strong similarity at the two regions of their N- and C-terminal parts. The Dhm1 gene on a multicopy plasmid rescued the temperature-sensitivity of dhp1ts and lethality of dhp1 null mutation, suggesting that Dhm1 is a mouse homolog of S.pombe dhp1+ and functions similarly in mouse as dhp1+. Images PMID:7885830

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the cerebrovascular and the neuritic plaque amyloid peptides.

    PubMed

    Robakis, N K; Ramakrishna, N; Wolfe, G; Wisniewski, H M

    1987-06-01

    Deposits of amyloid fibers are found in large numbers in the walls of blood vessels and in neuritic plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease and adults with Down syndrome. We used the amino acid sequence of the amyloid peptide to synthesize oligonucleotide probes specific for the gene encoding this peptide. When a human brain cDNA library was screened with this probe, a clone was found with a 1.7-kilobase insert that contains a long open reading frame coding for 412 amino acid residues including the 28 amino acids of the amyloid peptide. RNA gel blots revealed that a 3.3-kilobase mRNA species was present in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease, with Down syndrome, or with no apparent neurological disorders. Southern blots showed that homologous genes are present in the genomic DNA of humans, rabbits, sheep, hamsters, and mice, suggesting that this gene has been conserved through mammalian evolution. Localization of the corresponding genomic sequences on human chromosome 21 suggests a genetic relationship between Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome, and it may explain the early appearance of large numbers of neuritic plaques in adult Down syndrome patients.

  4. Isolation of a cDNA encoding a glutathione S-transferase (GST) class-pi from the bovine ocular ciliary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hernando, N; Martín-Alonso, J M; Ghosh, S; Coca-Prados, M

    1992-11-01

    We have used a polyclonal antiserum to bovine ciliary epithelium, a secretory tissue involved in the formation of aqueous humor, to immunoscreen a directional lambda gt11 Sfi-Not cDNA expression library prepared from bovine ciliary epithelium poly(A)+ RNA. After immunoscreening 6 x 10(5) independent clones, 41 cDNA clones positive for ciliary epithelium were isolated and characterized. About one-third of the positive cDNA clones were found to be identical and to encode a glutathione S-transferase (GST) class-pi. The largest bovine GST cDNA clone isolated, pCN11, contains an open reading frame of 630 bases, encoding a protein of 210 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 23,335 Da. The corresponding amino acid sequence showed an overall identity of 85.6% with the human, and 85.2% with the rat and mouse GST class-pi. Northern analysis of bovine ocular tissues revealed that the GST class-pi gene encodes a 0.8-kilobase mRNA which is expressed most abundantly in cornea, ciliary epithelium and retina, and in lower levels in iris and lens. Cell lines derived from non-pigmented or pigmented bovine ciliary epithelium also showed high levels of GST-pi mRNA expression. These results provide additional evidence for differential gene expression of GST class-pi mRNA in various areas of the bovine eye.

  5. Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding human fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, the enzyme deficient in hereditary tyrosinemia: assignment of the gene to chromosome 15.

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, D; Labelle, Y; Bérubé, D; Arden, K; Cavenee, W; Gagné, R; Tanguay, R M

    1991-01-01

    Type 1 hereditary tyrosinemia (HT) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH; E.C.3.7.1.2). We have isolated human FAH cDNA clones by screening a liver cDNA expression library using specific antibodies and plaque hybridization with a rat FAH cDNA probe. A 1,477-bp cDNA was sequenced and shown to code for FAH by an in vitro transcription-translation assay and sequence homology with tryptic fragments of purified FAH. Transient expression of this FAH cDNA in transfected CV-1 mammalian cells resulted in the synthesis of an immunoreactive protein comigrating with purified human liver FAH on SDS-PAGE and having enzymatic activity as shown by the hydrolysis of the natural substrate fumarylacetoacetate. This indicates that the single polypeptide chain encoded by the FAH gene contains all the genetic information required for functional activity, suggesting that the dimer found in vivo is a homodimer. The human FAH cDNA was used as a probe to determine the gene's chromosomal localization using somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. The human FAH gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 15 in the region q23-q25. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:1998338

  6. Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding human fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, the enzyme deficient in hereditary tyrosinemia: assignment of the gene to chromosome 15.

    PubMed

    Phaneuf, D; Labelle, Y; Bérubé, D; Arden, K; Cavenee, W; Gagné, R; Tanguay, R M

    1991-03-01

    Type 1 hereditary tyrosinemia (HT) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH; E.C.3.7.1.2). We have isolated human FAH cDNA clones by screening a liver cDNA expression library using specific antibodies and plaque hybridization with a rat FAH cDNA probe. A 1,477-bp cDNA was sequenced and shown to code for FAH by an in vitro transcription-translation assay and sequence homology with tryptic fragments of purified FAH. Transient expression of this FAH cDNA in transfected CV-1 mammalian cells resulted in the synthesis of an immunoreactive protein comigrating with purified human liver FAH on SDS-PAGE and having enzymatic activity as shown by the hydrolysis of the natural substrate fumarylacetoacetate. This indicates that the single polypeptide chain encoded by the FAH gene contains all the genetic information required for functional activity, suggesting that the dimer found in vivo is a homodimer. The human FAH cDNA was used as a probe to determine the gene's chromosomal localization using somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. The human FAH gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 15 in the region q23-q25.

  7. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production

    PubMed Central

    Benassi, Vivian Machado; de Lucas, Rosymar Coutinho; Jorge, João Atílio; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 °C, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 °C. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form) were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35–40 °C), while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 °C. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes. PMID:25763055

  8. Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Gershenfeld, H K; Hershberger, R J; Shows, T B; Weissman, I L

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a human T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease was obtained by screening a phage lambda gt10 cDNA library from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the mouse Hanukah factor cDNA clone. In an RNA blot-hybridization analysis, this human Hanukah factor cDNA hybridized with a 1.3-kilobase band in allogeneic-stimulated cytotoxic T cells and the Jurkat cell line, but this transcript was not detectable in normal muscle, liver, tonsil, or thymus. By dot-blot hybridization, this cDNA hybridized with RNA from three cytolytic T-cell clones and three noncytolytic T-cell clones grown in vitro as well as with purified CD16+ natural killer cells and CD3+, CD16- T-cell large granular lymphocytes from peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD = cluster designation). The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone encodes a predicted serine protease of 262 amino acids. The predicted protein has a 22-amino acid presegment, a 6-amino acid prosegment, and an active enzyme of 234 amino acids with a calculated unglycosylated molecular weight of 25,820. The active enzyme is 71% and 77% similar to the mouse sequence at the amino acid and DNA level, respectively. The human and mouse sequences conserve the active site residues of serine proteases--the trypsin-specific Asp-189 and all 10 cysteine residues. The gene for the human Hanukah factor serine protease is located on human chromosome 5. We propose that this trypsin-like serine protease may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Images PMID:3257574

  9. Identification and expression analysis of a full-length cDNA encoding a Kandelia candel tonoplast intrinsic protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Fang, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Qi-Fen; Li, Guan-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Ming

    2003-03-01

    Soil salinity is an important issue, as most crop plants are low in salt tolerance. Salt tolerance, a complex, multifactorial, and multigenic process, has been known to be a quantitative trait. The identification of the salt stress responsive genes or salt tolerance genes is essential for the breeding programs. Most recent efforts have been focused on the products of structural genes (transport proteins, ion channels, enzymes of solute synthesis) while little attention were paid to the regulatory aspects of these proteins. Since the first aquaporin gene from plants was cloned and functionally expressed in 1993, there has been a growing interest in the molecular biology of MIPs (membrane intrinsic proteins) and their bearing on the biophysics of water flow across plant membranes. In the last decades, studies on Mangroves, a special kind of wood plants, grow in high-salt and flooding conditions have been concentrated almost exclusively on their physiological and ecological characteristics. Kandelia candel, one of the dominant species of mangroves along the Chinese coast, lacks salt glands or salt hairs used for removal of excess salt in other mangroves. This makes K. candel a perfect model to study the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in mangrove plants. Using cDNA RDA, a cDNA-specific modification of genomic representational difference analysis, a series of salt responsive genes of Kandelia candel were cloned. Among these gene fragments, a 183 bp fragment (termed as SRGKC1) encoding a tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) in Kandelia candel (KCTIP1) was identified. Based on the sequence of SRGKC1, two gene specific primers were designed, and the 3' and 5' end of the KCTIP1 gene were obtained using the SMART RACE cDNA Amplification Kit. RACE products were purified from low-melting agarose, and sequenced directly with GSPs as the sequencing primers. A 500-bp fragment corresponding to the 3'end of this gene was obtained using the GSP1 primer, and a 690 bp fragment

  10. Identification and expression analysis of a full-length cDNA encoding a Kandelia candel tonoplast intrinsic protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Fang, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Qi-Fen; Li, Guan-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Ming

    2003-03-01

    Soil salinity is an important issue, as most crop plants are low in salt tolerance. Salt tolerance, a complex, multifactorial, and multigenic process, has been known to be a quantitative trait. The identification of the salt stress responsive genes or salt tolerance genes is essential for the breeding programs. Most recent efforts have been focused on the products of structural genes (transport proteins, ion channels, enzymes of solute synthesis) while little attention were paid to the regulatory aspects of these proteins. Since the first aquaporin gene from plants was cloned and functionally expressed in 1993, there has been a growing interest in the molecular biology of MIPs (membrane intrinsic proteins) and their bearing on the biophysics of water flow across plant membranes. In the last decades, studies on Mangroves, a special kind of wood plants, grow in high-salt and flooding conditions have been concentrated almost exclusively on their physiological and ecological characteristics. Kandelia candel, one of the dominant species of mangroves along the Chinese coast, lacks salt glands or salt hairs used for removal of excess salt in other mangroves. This makes K. candel a perfect model to study the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in mangrove plants. Using cDNA RDA, a cDNA-specific modification of genomic representational difference analysis, a series of salt responsive genes of Kandelia candel were cloned. Among these gene fragments, a 183 bp fragment (termed as SRGKC1) encoding a tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) in Kandelia candel (KCTIP1) was identified. Based on the sequence of SRGKC1, two gene specific primers were designed, and the 3' and 5' end of the KCTIP1 gene were obtained using the SMART RACE cDNA Amplification Kit. RACE products were purified from low-melting agarose, and sequenced directly with GSPs as the sequencing primers. A 500-bp fragment corresponding to the 3'end of this gene was obtained using the GSP1 primer, and a 690 bp fragment

  11. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a new neurocalcin isoform (neurocalcin alpha) from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, M; Watanabe, Y; Iino, S; Takaoka, Y; Kobayashi, S; Haga, T; Hidaka, H

    1998-01-01

    Neurocalcin (NC), a neuron-specific EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein, purified from bovine brain [Terasawa, Nakano, Kobayashi and Hidaka (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 19596-19599] contains multiple isoforms. We previously cloned NCdelta from bovine brain and showed high expression in neuronal tissues [Okazaki, Watanabe, Ando, Hagiwara, Terasawa and Hidaka (1992) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185, 147-153]. We report here the molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding bovine brain NCalpha. The translated bovine protein is 191 amino acids long and shares 69.1% of its amino acid sequence with NCdelta. Recombinant NCalpha migrates as a single 23 kDa band and exhibits a Ca2+-dependent mobility shift on SDS/PAGE. Analysis of fluorescence emission spectra showed the Ca2+-induced peak at 337 nm. Interestingly, the mobility shift and the fluorescence intensity at 337 nm were larger for NCalpha than for NCdelta. In Ca2+-overlay experiments, however, the apparent affinity of NCalpha for 45Ca2+ was similar to that of NCdelta. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed NCalpha expression in the granular layer of the rat cerebellar cortex whereas NCdelta was found in the Purkinje cell layer. In the rat olfactory bulb, NCalpha was located in external tufted cells, and NCdelta was found in the periglomerular cells. These data demonstrate that NC isoforms differ in their tissue distribution and conformational changes induced by Ca2+ binding. Thus differential regulation of the two NC isoforms may be involved in control of neuron function. PMID:9560316

  12. Isolation and expression of a cDNA clone encoding an Alternaria alternata Alt a 1 subunit.

    PubMed

    De Vouge, M W; Thaker, A J; Curran, I H; Zhang, L; Muradia, G; Rode, H; Vijay, H M

    1996-12-01

    Alternaria alternata is recognized as an important source of fungal aeroallergens. Alt a 1, the major allergen of this mold, is a dimer of disulfide-linked subunits that migrate in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions at apparent M(r)s of 14,500 and 16,000. IgE antibodies to this protein are present in the sera of >90% of A. alternata-sensitive individuals. Previous studies from this laboratory showed that the N-termini twenty amino acids of the purified subunits are nearly identical. We now report the isolation of clones from an A. alternata (strain 34-016) cDNA library constructed in lambda(gt)11, using rabbit IgG antiserum against partially purified Alt a 1. One of nineteen clones selected from screens totalling 305,000 pfu (rb51) was sequenced, and determined to harbor an insert of 660 bp. An in-frame open reading frame within the cloned insert encodes a peptide of M(r) 16,960 that bears no significant homology to known allergens or proteins. The size of the rb51 transcript was determined to be approximately 0.7 kb by Northern analysis of A. alternata total RNA. The largely hydrophobic N-terminal region of the peptide contains an alpha-helical domain and other features characteristic of membrane targeting or secretory signals. The peptide sequence downstream of this region matches previously sequenced Alt a 1 N-terminal from two independent sources at 17 of 20, and 24 of 26 positions. Recombinant Alt a 1 expressed as a secreted protein in Pichia pastoris exists as a dimer in conditioned medium, as shown by immunoblotting under nonreducing conditions. Recombinant Alt a 1, like the natural allergen in A. alternata extracts, is also reactive with serum IgE from A. alternata-sensitive individuals.

  13. Ribosomal protein genes are overexpressed in colorectal cancer: isolation of a cDNA clone encoding the human S3 ribosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Pogue-Geile, K; Geiser, J R; Shu, M; Miller, C; Wool, I G; Meisler, A I; Pipas, J M

    1991-08-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding the human S3 ribosomal protein from a normal human colon cDNA library. The clone was identified as one of many that detected genes whose level of expression was increased in adenocarcinoma of the colon relative to normal colonic mucosa. Increased levels of the S3 transcript were present in the tumors of all eight patients examined. Moreover, the S3 mRNA was also more abundant in 7 of 10 adenomatous polyps, the presumed precursor of carcinoma. Additional studies demonstrated that increased levels of mRNAs encoding several other ribosomal proteins, including S6, S8, S12, L5, and P0, were present in colorectal tumors and polyps. These results suggest that there is increased synthesis of ribosomes in colorectal tumors and that this increase is an early event in colon neoplasia.

  14. The human CYP2F gene subfamily: Identification of a cDNA encoding a new cytochrome P450, cDNA-directed expression, and chromosome mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Kimura, Shioko; McBride, O.W.; Kozak, C.A.; Gelboin, H.V.; Gonzalez, F.J. )

    1990-06-12

    A cDNA coding for a P450, designated IIF1, was isolated from a human lung {lambda}gt11 library by screening with a human IIC9 cDNA probe. The cDNA-encoded IIF1 protein had 491 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 55,507. IIF1 cDNA, expressed by using a vaccinia virus vector, produced a cytochrome with a {lambda}{sub max} of 454 nm when reduced and complexed with carbon monoxide. This enzyme was able to dealkylate ethoxycoumarin, propoxycoumarin, and pentoxyresorufin but possessed no activity toward ethoxyresorufin and only trace dearylation activity toward benzyloxyresorufin. A variant cDNA, designated IIF1v, was isolated that was identical with IIF1 except for the loss of two segments of 161 and 388 bp within the cDNA coding region. Two mRNAs, consistent with the predicted size of the IIF1 and IIF1v transcripts, were found at very low abundance in lung specimens by Northern blot analysis. A 2-kb transcript, hybridizing with the human IIF1, was also detected as an abundant mRNA in rat lung. The CYP2F gene subfamily was localized to human chromosome 19 and mouse chromosome 7. On the basis of southern blotting analysis with multiple restriction enzymes, the authors conclude that the CYP2F1 gene is flanked by a second highly similar gene.

  15. Isolation of a cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of CAAX-prenyltransferases from Catharanthus roseus and the expression of the active recombinant protein farnesyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Courdavault, Vincent; Burlat, Vincent; St-Pierre, Benoit; Gantet, Pascal; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Crfta/ggt_Ia (AF525030), a cDNA encoding the ?-subunit of the two types of CaaX-prenyltransferase (CaaX-PTase), i.e. protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) and type I protein geranylgeranyltransferase, was cloned from Catharanthus roseus via a PCR strategy. Crfta/ggt_Ia is 1381-bp long and bears a 999-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 332 residues (FTA) that shares 66% identity with its Lycopersicon esculentum orthologue. Southern blot analysis revealed that FTA is encoded by a single gene copy per haploid genome. Co-expression of Crfta/ggt_Ia and Crftb encoding the beta-subunit of PFT yielded purified active recombinant PFT. This enzyme is able to prenylate proteins from C. roseus, and could be used as a potent tool for prenylated protein identification.

  16. The cDNA sequences encoding two components of the polymeric fraction of the intracellular hemoglobin of Glycera dibranchiata.

    PubMed

    Zafar, R S; Chow, L H; Stern, M S; Scully, J S; Sharma, P R; Vinogradov, S N; Walz, D A

    1990-12-15

    The intracellular hemoglobin of the polychaete Glycera dibranchiata consists of several components, some of which self-associate into a "polymeric" fraction. The cDNA library constructed from the poly(A+) mRNA of Glycera erythrocytes (Simons, P. C., and Satterlee, J. D. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 8525-8530) was screened with two oligodeoxynucleotide probes corresponding to the amino acid sequences MEEKVP and AMNSKV. Each of the two probes identified a full-length positive insert; these were sequenced using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. One clone was 630 bases long and contained 36 bases of 5'-untranslated RNA, a reading frame of 441 bases coding for the 147 amino acids of globin P2 including the residues MEEKVP, and a 3'-untranslated region of 153 bases. The other clone was 540 bases long and contained 24 bases of 5'-untranslated RNA, an open reading frame of 441 bases coding for globin P3 including the residues AMNSKV, and a 3'-untranslated region of 75 bases. The inferred amino acid sequences of the two globins were in agreement with the partial amino acid sequences obtained by chemical methods. The P2 and P3 globin sequences, together with the previously determined P1 sequence of a complete insert and partial sequences P4, P5, and P6 obtained from partial inserts (Zafar, R. S., Chow, L. H., Stern, M. S., Vinogradov, S. N., and Walz, D. A. (1990) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, in press) suggest that there are at least six components in the polymeric fraction of Glycera hemoglobin, which is in agreement with the results of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris/glycine buffer, pH 8.3, 6 M urea. Nothern and dot blot analyses of Glycera erythrocyte poly(A+) mRNA using the foregoing two cDNA probes clearly demonstrated the presence of mature messages encoding both types of globins. Comparison of the polymeric sequences P1, P2, and P3 with the "monomeric" globins M-II and M-IV using the alignment and templates of Bashford et al. (Bashford, D., Chothia, C

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of the porcine trigeminal ganglion cDNA encoding a 5-ht(1F) receptor.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Pankaj; Sharma, Hari S; Wurch, Thierry; Pauwels, Petrus J; Saxena, Pramod R

    2002-02-01

    Using a combination of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and inverse-PCR techniques, we amplified, cloned and sequenced a full-length porcine 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F (5-ht(1F)) receptor complementary DNA (cDNA) derived from porcine trigeminal ganglion. Sequence analysis revealed 1101 base pairs (bp) encoding an open reading frame of 366 amino acids showing a high similarity (>90%) with the 5-ht(1F) receptor sequences from other species, including human. The recombinant porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor was expressed in African green monkey kidney cell lines (COS-7 cells) and its ligand binding profile was determined using [3H]5-HT. The affinities of several agonists (LY334370 (5-(4-fluorobenzoyl)amino-3-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-1H-indole fumarate)>CP122638 (N-methyl-3 [pyrrolidin 2(R)-yl methyl]-1H-indol-5-ylmethyl sulphonamide)=naratriptan =5HT>eletriptan>sumatriptan>frovatriptan =avitriptan>dihydroergotamine>zolmitriptan>5-carboxamidotryptamine>rizatriptan>alniditan=donitriptan>L694247 (2-[5-[3-(4-methylsulphonylamino)benzyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-1H-indole-3-yl] ethylamine) and putative antagonists (methiothepin>GR127935 (N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl 4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) [1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride)>ritanserin>SB224289 (2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1'-methyl-5-[2'-methyl-4'(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) biphenyl-4-carbonyl] furo [2,3-f] indole-3-spiro-4'-piperidine hydrochloride)>BRL155572 ([1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-[3,3-diphenyl (2-(S,R) hydroxypropanyl)piperazine] hydrochloride)>ketanserin=pindolol) correlated highly with those described for the recombinant human 5-ht(1F) receptor (Spearman correlation coefficient; r(s)=0.942). Nevertheless, as compared to the human homologue, some triptans (i.e. sumatriptan, zolmitriptan and rizatriptan) displayed a 10- to 15-fold lower affinity for the porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor. Using RT-PCR technique, the expression of porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor mRNA was observed in

  18. Characterization and distribution of a maize cDNA encoding a peptide similar to the catalytic region of second messenger dependent protein kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, B.; Johnson, E. M.; Feldman, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) roots respond to a variety of environmental stimuli which are perceived by a specialized group of cells, the root cap. We are studying the transduction of extracellular signals by roots, particularly the role of protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation by kinases is an important step in many eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. As a first phase of this research we have isolated a cDNA encoding a maize protein similar to fungal and animal protein kinases known to be involved in the transduction of extracellular signals. The deduced sequence of this cDNA encodes a polypeptide containing amino acids corresponding to 33 out of 34 invariant or nearly invariant sequence features characteristic of protein kinase catalytic domains. The maize cDNA gene product is more closely related to the branch of serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic domains composed of the cyclic-nucleotide- and calcium-phospholipid-dependent subfamilies than to other protein kinases. Sequence identity is 35% or more between the deduced maize polypeptide and all members of this branch. The high structural similarity strongly suggests that catalytic activity of the encoded maize protein kinase may be regulated by second messengers, like that of all members of this branch whose regulation has been characterized. Northern hybridization with the maize cDNA clone shows a single 2400 base transcript at roughly similar levels in maize coleoptiles, root meristems, and the zone of root elongation, but the transcript is less abundant in mature leaves. In situ hybridization confirms the presence of the transcript in all regions of primary maize root tissue.

  19. Increased mRNA expression of a laminin-binding protein in human colon carcinoma: Complete sequence of a full-length cDNA encoding the protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, Hsiukang; Wong, Jau Min; Chen, Hai Shiene; Lee, C.; Steele, G.D. Jr.; Chen, Lanbo

    1988-09-01

    Reliable markers to distinguish human colon carcinoma from normal colonic epithelium are needed particularly for poorly differentiated tumors where no useful marker is currently available. To search for markers the authors constructed cDNA libraries from human colon carcinoma cell lines and screened for clones that hybridize to a greater degree with mRNAs of colon carcinomas than with their normal counterparts. Here they report one such cDNA clone that hybridizes with a 1.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA, the level of which is /approx/9-fold greater in colon carcinoma than in adjacent normal colonic epithelium. Blot hybridization of total RNA from a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines shows that the level of this 1.2-kb mRNA in poorly differentiated colon carcinomas is as high as or higher than that in well-differentiated carcinomas. Molecular cloning and complete sequencing of cDNA corresponding to the full-length open reading frame of this 1.2-kb mRNA unexpectedly show it to contain all the partial cDNA sequence encoding 135 amino acid residues previously reported for a human laminin receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this putative laminin-binding protein from human colon carcinomas consists of 295 amino acid residues with interesting features. There is an unusual C-terminal 70-amino acid segment, which is trypsin-resistant and highly negatively charged.

  20. Cloning and identification of a cDNA that encodes a novel human protein with thrombospondin type I repeat domain, hPWTSR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Shu; Tang, Rong; Yang, Quan-Sheng; Zhao, Enpeng; Chao, Yaoqiong; Ying, Kang; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yu-Min

    2002-09-01

    A cDNA was isolated from the fetal brain cDNA library by high throughput cDNA sequencing. The 2390 bp cDNA with an open reading fragment (ORF) of 816 bp encodes a 272 amino acids putative protein with a thrombospondin type I repeat (TSR) domain and a cysteine-rich region at the N-terminus, so it is named hPWTSR. We used Northern blot detected two bands with length of about 3 kb and 4 kb respectively, which expressed in human adult tissues with different intensities. The expression pattern was verified by RT-PCR, revealing that the transcripts were expressed ubiquitously in fetal tissues and human tumor tissues too. However, the transcript was detected neither in ovarian carcinoma GI-102 nor in lung carcinoma LX-1. Blast analysis against NCBI database revealed that the new gene contained at least 5 exons and located in human chromosome 6q22.33. Our results demonstrate that the gene is a novel member of TSR supergene family.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va from the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Ayala, Jorge; Dowdy, Alan K; Beeman, Richard W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2003-10-01

    A cDNA encoding subunit Va of cytochrome c oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1) was cloned and characterized from a lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica) cDNA library. The complete cDNA consists of 693-bp and contains an open reading frame of 450-bp that encodes 150 amino acid residues. The sequence includes a 28-bp putative N-terminal and a 122-bp putative mature protein. The estimated molecular weight and pI for the predicted mature protein are 13,962 and 4.60, respectively. The cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein shows 73% identity to that of a corresponding subunit of African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae) and 59% identity to that of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). In addition, 31% of all amino acid residues are conserved among six different animal species. Evolutionary distance analysis suggests that cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va from R. dominica is most similar to the corresponding subunit from the malaria mosquito. Northern analysis revealed a single 4.9-kb transcript that is much larger than that found in mammalian species.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the pokeweed antiviral protein II from Phytolacca americana and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Poyet, J L; Radom, J; Hoeveler, A

    1994-06-27

    Three distinct ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from pokeweed (Phytolacca americana). We identified and sequenced for the first time a complete cDNA encoding the pokeweed antiviral protein II (PAP II), which is expressed in the late summer leaves of pokeweed. The cDNA of PAP II consists of 1,187 nucleotides and encodes a mature protein of 285 amino acids. Its predicted amino acid sequence is only 33% similar to PAP and PAP-S. The NH2 terminal extrapeptide (25 amino acid residues) was similar but not identical to that of PAP's extrapeptide. The cDNA of PAP II was expressed in E. coli. The growth of the transformants was strongly inhibited after induction of the gene. Furthermore, PAP II, which was produced in E. coli, inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. Thus, recombinant PAP II would appear to be as functional as native PAP in inhibiting protein synthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a potential morphogen from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium that is conserved in higher metazoans.

    PubMed Central

    Pahler, S; Krasko, A; Schütze, J; Müller, I M; Müller, W E

    1998-01-01

    Species belonging to the lowest metazoan phylum, the sponges (Porifera), exhibit a surprisingly complex and multifaceted Bauplan (body plan). Recently, key molecules have been isolated from sponges which demonstrate that the cells of these animals are provided with characteristic metazoan adhesion and signal transduction molecules, allowing tissue formation. In order to understand which factors control the spatial organization of these cells in the sponge body plan, we screened for a cDNA encoding a soluble modulator of the behaviour of endothelial cells. A cDNA encoding a putative protein, which is highly similar to the human and mouse endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide (EMAP) II has been isolated from a library of the marine sponge Geodia cydonium. The sponge EMAP-related polypeptide (EMAPR) has been termed EMAPR1_GC. The full-length cDNA clone, GCEMAPR1, has a size of 592 nucleotides (nt) and contains a 447 nt-long potential open reading frame; the molecular weight (MW) of the deduced amino acid sequence, 16,499 Da, is close to that of mature mammalian EMAP II (ca. 18 kDa). The sponge polypeptide is also closely related to a deduced polypeptide from the cosmid clone F58B3 isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sponge and the nematode EMAPR molecules form a cluster which is significantly separated from the corresponding mammalian EMAP molecules. The function of the first cloned putative soluble modulator of endothelial cells in sponges remains to be determined. PMID:9523439

  4. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein located in the centrosome, AKAP450.

    PubMed Central

    Witczak, O; Skålhegg, B S; Keryer, G; Bornens, M; Taskén, K; Jahnsen, T; Orstavik, S

    1999-01-01

    A combination of protein kinase A type II (RII) overlay screening, database searches and PCR was used to identify a centrosomal A-kinase anchoring protein. A cDNA with an 11.7 kb open reading frame was characterized and found to correspond to 50 exons of genomic sequence on human chromosome 7q21-22. This cDNA clone encoded a 3908 amino acid protein of 453 kDa, that was designated AKAP450 (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession No. AJ131693). Sequence comparison demonstrated that the open reading frame contained a previously characterized cDNA encoding Yotiao, as well as the human homologue of AKAP120. Numerous coiled-coil structures were predicted from AKAP450, and weak homology to pericentrin, giantin and other structural proteins was observed. A putative RII-binding site was identified involving amino acid 2556 of AKAP450 by mutation analysis combined with RII overlay and an amphipatic helix was predicted in this region. Immunoprecipitation of RII from RIPA-buffer extracts of HeLa cells demonstrated co-precipitation of AKAP450. By immunofluorecent labeling with specific antibodies it was demonstrated that AKAP450 localized to centrosomes. Furthermore, AKAP450 was shown to co-purify in centrosomal preparations. The observation of two mRNAs and several splice products suggests additional functions for the AKAP450 gene. PMID:10202149

  5. cDNA isolated from a human T-cell library encodes a member of the protein-tyrosine-phosphatase family

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, D.E.; Tonks, N.K.; Charbonneau, H.; Walsh, K.A.; Fischer, E.H.; Krebs, E.G. )

    1989-07-01

    A human peripheral T-cell cDNA library was screened with two labeled synthetic oligonucleotides encoding regions of a human placenta protein-tyrosine-phosphatase. One positive clone was isolated and the nucleotide sequence was determined. It contained 1,305 base pairs of open reading frame followed by a TAA stop codon and 978 base pairs of 3{prime} untranslated end, although a poly(A){sup +} tail was not found. An initiator methionine residue was predicted at position 61, which would result in a protein of 415 amino acid residues. This was supported by the synthesis of a M{sub r} 48,000 protein in an in vitro reticulocyte lysate translation system using RNA transcribed from the cloned cDNA and T7 RNA polymerase. The deduced amino acid sequence was compared to other known proteins revealing 65% identity to the low M{sub r} PTPase 1B isolated from placenta. In view of the high degree of similarity, the T-cell cDNA likely encodes a newly discovered protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, thus expanding this family of genes.

  6. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding the human ribosomal protein L11 mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mishin, V.P.; Filipenko, M.L.; Muravlev, A.I.

    1995-02-01

    To clone the RPL11 cDNA, we used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the single-stranded cDNA synthesized on the total placentary poly(A){sup +}mRNA with the use of primer M245 containing a 3{prime}-terminal oligo(dT)-tract, the 5{prime}terminal hexadecanucleotide sequence of the M13 universal primer, and a NotiI restriction site between them. On the basis of the known sequence of the 5{prime}-end of the human ribosomal protein L11 mRNA, we chose two partially overlapping deoxyribooligonucleotides as 5{prime}-terminal primers in the amplification of the RPL11 cDNA. A pair of partially overlapping oligonucleotides complementary to the oligo(dT)-containing primer were used as 3{prime}-terminal primers.

  7. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a novel fatty acid-binding protein from rat skin.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, R; Fujii, H; Odani, S; Sakakibara, J; Yamamoto, A; Ito, M; Ono, T

    1994-04-15

    A novel skin-type fatty acid-binding protein, termed cutaneous(C)-FABP, has been purified from rat skin and a cDNA clone for this protein has been identified. The purified protein had the ability to bind long chain fatty acids like other rat FABPs. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA clone comprises residues yielding a molecular mass for the polypeptide of 15.1 kDa and exhibits around 50% identity to myelin P2 protein, adipocyte FABP and heart FABP. Our results propose that C-FABP is a new member of the FABP family.

  8. Cloning and molecular characterization of the salt-regulated jojoba ScRab cDNA encoding a small GTP-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi-Aviv, Ela; Mills, David; Benzioni, Aliza; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2002-10-01

    Salt stress results in a massive change in gene expression. An 837 bp cDNA designated ScRab was cloned from shoot cultures of the salt tolerant jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis). The cloned cDNA encodes a full length 200 amino acid long polypeptide that bears high homology to the Rab subfamily of small GTP binding proteins, particularly, the Rab5 subfamily. ScRab expression is reduced in shoots grown in the presence of salt compared to shoots from non-stressed cultures. His6-tagged ScRAB protein was expressed in E. coli, and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein bound radiolabelled GTP. The unlabelled guanine nucleotides GTP, GTP gamma S and GDP but not ATP, CTP or UTP competed with GTP binding.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a membrane bound acyl-CoA binding protein from Agave americana L. epidermis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Consuelo; Martín-Rufián, M; Reina, José J; Heredia, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A cDNA encoding an acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) homologue has been cloned from a cDNA library made from mRNA isolated from epidermis of young leaves of Agave americana L. The derived amino acid sequence reveals a protein corresponding to the membrane-associated form of ACBPs only previously described in Arabidopsis and rice. Northern blot analysis showed that the A. americana ACBP gene is mainly expressed in the epidermis of mature zone of the leaves. The epidermis of A. americana leaves have a well developed cuticle with the highest amounts of the cuticular components waxes, cutin and cutan suggesting a potential role of the protein in cuticle formation.

  10. Cloning of cDNA encoding the common alpha subunit precursor molecule of pituitary glycoprotein hormones in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Kubokawa, K; Ishii, S; Joss, J M

    1998-05-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding a putative glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit precursor molecule from a pituitary cDNA library of the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) by a two-step plaque hybridization technique initially using cDNA encoding the toad glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit precursor molecule as the hybridization probe. The inserts (799 bp) of two of the isolated cDNA clones contained sequences of 5' and 3' untranslated regions, including a poly(A) stretch, and the entire coding sequence of the alpha subunit precursor molecule. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that its signal peptide consists of 24 residues and its mature protein 97 residues. In the mature protein, there is an insert of one residue (Ala) just after the 9th residue. This insert is unique to the Australian lungfish among vertebrate species studied. The amino acid sequence of the mature protein shares the common, or the same-group, amino acid residues at 9 positions with tetrapod and not actinopterygian vertebrates, while only one residue is common to some teleosts and the lungfish to the exclusion of the tetrapods. The overall sequence of the mature protein of the Australian lungfish also shares more similarity with those of tetrapods (69 to 84%) than it does with teleosts (57 to 74%). These results on the relation of the alpha subunit precursor molecule between the lungfish and other vertebrates are consistent with the recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggesting a closer relationship between lungfish and tetrapods than between lungfish and teleosts. We also found that the primary structure of the lungfish alpha subunit is slightly but significantly more similar to that of homeothermic vertebrates than to that of amphibians. This may be due to specialization of the amphibian alpha subunit molecules.

  11. Localization of the gene (LAMA4) to chromosome 6q21 and isolation of a partial cDNA encoding a variant laminin A chain

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, A.J.; Al-Imara, L.; Carter, N.P.

    1994-07-01

    Laminin is a basement membrane glycoprotein composed of three nonidentical chains, A, B1, and B2. Variant chains such as merosin and S-laminin have been found in different tissues. The authors have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel laminin A variant that hybridizes to a 6.45-kb mRNA. Using amplification of genomic DNA and flow-sorted chromosomes they have assigned the gene (LAMA4) for this new laminin A variant to chromosome 6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of a YAC clone further localized the gene to 6q21. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA from Aspergillus parasiticus encoding an O-methyltransferase involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Cary, J W; Bhatnagar, D; Cleveland, T E; Keller, N P; Chu, F S

    1993-11-01

    Aflatoxins are polyketide-derived secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Among the catalytic steps in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, the conversion of sterigmatocystin to O-methylsterigmatocystin and the conversion of dihydrosterigmatocystin to dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin are catalyzed by an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent O-methyltransferase. A cDNA library was constructed by using RNA isolated from a 24-h-old culture of wild-type A. parasiticus SRRC 143 and was screened by using polyclonal antiserum raised against a purified 40-kDa O-methyltransferase protein. A clone that harbored a full-length cDNA insert (1,460 bp) containing the 1,254-bp coding region of the gene omt-1 was identified by the antiserum and isolated. The complete cDNA sequence was determined, and the corresponding 418-amino-acid sequence of the native enzyme with a molecular weight of 46,000 was deduced. This 46-kDa native enzyme has a leader sequence of 41 amino acids, and the mature form of the enzyme apparently consists of 377 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 42,000. Direct sequencing of the purified mature enzyme from A. parasiticus SRRC 163 showed that 19 of 22 amino acid residues were identical to the amino acid residues in an internal region of the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein. The 1,460-bp omt-1 cDNA was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system; a Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of crude extracts from this expression system revealed a 51-kDa fusion protein (fused with a 5-kDa beta-galactosidase N-terminal fragment).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8285664

  13. Cloning and expression analysis of a cDNA encoding fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase: post-transcriptional modulation in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Y; Phaneuf, D; Tanguay, R M

    1991-08-15

    Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) is an enzyme which is deficient in human hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. We have cloned and sequenced a rat liver cDNA encoding FAH. The identity of the clone was ascertained by hybrid-selection experiments and deduced amino acid (aa) sequence homologies with sequenced oligopeptide fragments of the purified rat liver protein. The cDNA codes for a 419-aa protein of 45,946 daltons. We used this cDNA as a probe in conjunction with a specific anti-rat FAH antibody to study the expression pattern of the FAH gene in rat liver and kidney. Northern blot analysis indicates that the kidney contains slightly more FAH mRNA that the liver. Western blotting shows, however, that the liver contains about twice as much FAH protein as the kidney. Primer extension experiments suggest that there are no differences in the 5'-untranslated (UT) ends of the FAH mRNA of both tissues. We conclude that synthesis of the FAH protein is in part regulated at the post-transcriptional level in rats liver and kidney, and that this regulation does not appear to be mediated by the 5'-UT sequence of the FAH mRNA.

  14. Identification and molecular characterization of the cDNA encoding Cucumis melo allergen, Cuc m 3, a plant pathogenesis-related protein

    PubMed Central

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Hajavi, Jafar; Moghadam, Malihe; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Melon (Cucumis melo) allergy is one of the most common food allergies, characterized by oral allergy syndrome. To date, two allergen molecules, Cuc m 1 and Cuc m 2, have been fully characterized in melon pulp, but there are few reports about the molecular characteristics of Cuc m 3. Methods: The Cuc m 3 cDNA has been characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), which revealed a 456 base-pair (bp) fragment encoding a 151-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 16.97 kDa, and identified 79 and 178 bp untranslated sequences at the 5′ and 3´ ends, respectively. Results: In silico analysis showed strong similarities between Cuc m 3 and other plant pathogen-related protein 1s from cucumber, grape, bell pepper, and tomato. Conclusion: Here we report the identification and characterization of the Cuc m 3 cDNA, which will be utilized for further analyses of structural and allergenic features of this allergen. PMID:26989726

  15. Cloning of the full length pig PIT1 (POU1F1) CDNA and a novel alternative PIT1 transcript, and functional studies of their encoded proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, T P; Sun, H S; Wahls, S; Sanchez-Serrano, I; Rothschild, M F; Tuggle, C K

    2001-05-01

    PIT1 is an essential regulatory gene of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin beta subunit (TSHbeta). Previously, a partial pig PIT1 cDNA and a genomic clone of the entire 3' end of the PIT1 gene was isolated, and polymorphisms at PIT1 were associated with several performance traits in the pig. In order to understand the biological function of the pig PIT1 gene and its possible application in swine genetics, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to complete the cloning of the full length cDNA for pig PIT1. The pig PIT1 cDNA and its deduced protein sequence have approximately 90% and 95% identity, respectively, with the PIT1 cDNA and protein of other mammals (human, bovine, sheep and rodents). Surprisingly, sequence comparison to other pig PIT1 sequences indicated only approximately 93% identity. Additional sequencing confirmed our sequence, and identified a new polymorphism in exon 4. Phylogenetic analysis of several mammalian PIT1 sequences indicates sequencing errors may account for the discrepancies observed in the other pig sequences reported. Several PIT1 alternative spliced forms were also identified by RT-PCR. They were the delta3PIT1 (missing entire exon 3), delta4PIT1 (missing entire exon 4) and PIT1beta (additional 26 amino acids inserted in front of exon 2) transcripts. The delta4PIT1 and PIT1beta transcripts have been found to encode functionally different proteins in rodents. The delta3PIT1 transcript is a novel isoform of PIT1. Potentially different functions between pig delta3PIT1 and PIT1 were analyzed by expressing these proteins in bacteria. The E. coli-expressed PIT1 and delta3PIT1 proteins were used with rat growth hormone (rGH) and rat prolactin (rPRL) promoter DNA in DNA mobility shift assays. The results showed that pig PIT1 can specifically bind rGH and rPRL promoter regions, but that the pig delta3PIT1 cannot, even at very high protein concentrations. Possible protein-protein interactions between

  16. Putative multiadhesive protein from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium: cloning of the cDNA encoding a fibronectin-, an SRCR-, and a complement control protein module.

    PubMed

    Pahler, S; Blumbach, B; Müller, I; Müller, W E

    1998-10-15

    Sponges (Porifera) representing the simplest metazoan phylum so far have been thought to possess no basal lamina tissue structures. One major extracellular matrix protein that is also a constitutive glycoprotein of the basal lamina is fibronectin. It was the aim of the present study to identify the native protein from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium and to isolate the corresponding cDNA. In crude extracts from this sponge protein(s) of M(r) of approximately 230 and approximately 210 kDa could be visualized by Western-blotting using an anti-fibronectin [human] antibody. By PCR cloning from a cDNA library of G. cydonium we isolated a cDNA comprising one element of fibronectin, the type-III (FN3) module. The cDNA (2.3 kb long), encoding a 701 amino acid [aa] long putative "multiadhesive protein" termed MAP_GEOCY, was found to contain (i) a fibronectin-, (ii) a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich [SRCR]-, and (iii) a short consensus repeat [SCR] module. The 89 aa long fibronectin module comprises the characteristic topology and conserved aa found in fibronectin type-III (FN3) elements. The SRCR module (101 aa) features the characteristics of group B SRCR molecules. The predominant proteins belonging to this group are the mammalian WC1-, M130-, CD6- and CD5 antigens that probably are involved in immunological reactions. The SCR module (54 aa) shows the characteristics of type III SCR modules found in complement receptors. Phylogenetic analyses performed with all three building blocks of the "multiadhesive protein" showed that the respective sponge modules form independent, possibly basal, lineages in trees that include the corresponding modules from higher metazoan animals. In summary, these data demonstrate for the first time that the phylogenetically oldest Metazoa, the sponges, contain protein modules seen in higher animals in proteins of the extracellular matrix and in molecules involved in cell-mediated immune reactions in vertebrates. PMID:9755483

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  18. Identification of a human cDNA encoding a protein that is structurally and functionally related to the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Matviw, Yu, G.; Young, D. )

    1992-11-01

    The adenylyl cyclases of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are associated with related proteins named CAP. In S. cerevisiae, CAP is required for cellular responses mediated by the RAS/cyclic AMP pathway. Both yeast CAPs appear to be bifunctional proteins: The N-terminal domains are required for the proper function of adenylyl cyclase, while loss of the C-terminal domains results in morphological and nutritional defects that appear to be unrelated to the cAMP pathways. Expression of either yeast CAP in the heterologous yeast suppresses phenotypes associated with loss of the C-terminal domain of the endogenous CAP but does not suppress loss of the N-terminal domain. On the basis of the homology between the two yeast CAP proteins, we have designed degenerate oligonucleotides that we used to detect, by the polymerase chain reaction method, a human cDNA fragment encoding a CAP-related peptide. Using the polymerase chain reaction fragment as a probe, we isolated a human cDNA clone encoding a 475-amino-acid protein that is homologous to the yeast CAP proteins. Expressions of the human CAP protein in S. cerevisiae suppresses the phenotypes associated with loss of the C-terminal domain of CAP but does not suppress phenotypes associated with loss of the N-terminal domain. Thus, CAP proteins have been structurally and, to some extent, functionally conserved in evolution between yeasts and mammals. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of larval midgut cDNA transcripts encoding peptidases from the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, S; Chen, M-S; Elpidina, E N; Vinokurov, K S; Smith, C M; Marshall, J; Oppert, B

    2007-08-01

    Peptidase sequences were analysed in randomly picked clones from cDNA libraries of the anterior or posterior midgut or whole larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. Of a total of 1528 sequences, 92 encoded potential peptidases, from which 50 full-length cDNA sequences were obtained, including serine and cysteine proteinases and metallopeptidases. Serine proteinase transcripts were predominant in the posterior midgut, whereas transcripts encoding cysteine and metallopeptidases were mainly found in the anterior midgut. Alignments with other proteinases indicated that 40% of the serine proteinase sequences were serine proteinase homologues, and the remaining ones were identified as either trypsin, chymotrypsin or other serine proteinases. Cysteine proteinase sequences included cathepsin B- and L-like proteinases, and metallopeptidase transcripts were similar to carboxypeptidase A. Northern blot analysis of representative sequences demonstrated the differential expression profile of selected transcripts across five developmental stages of Te. molitor. These sequences provide insights into peptidases in coleopteran insects as a basis to study the response of coleopteran larvae to external stimuli and to evaluate regulatory features of the response.

  20. Identification of a mouse brain cDNA that encodes a protein related to the Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid beta protein precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Wasco, W; Bupp, K; Magendantz, M; Gusella, J F; Tanzi, R E; Solomon, F

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA from a mouse brain library that encodes a protein whose predicted amino acid sequence is 42% identical and 64% similar to that of the amyloid beta protein precursor (APP). This 653-amino acid protein, which we have termed the amyloid precursor-like protein (APLP), appears to be similar to APP in overall structure as well as amino acid sequence. The amino acid homologies are concentrated within three distinct regions of the two proteins where the identities are 47%, 54%, and 56%. The APLP cDNA hybridizes to two messages of approximately 2.4 and 1.6 kilobases that are present in mouse brain and neuroblastoma cells. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a peptide derived from the C terminus of APLP stain the cytoplasm in a pattern reminiscent of Golgi staining. In addition to APP, APLP also displays significant homology to the Drosophila APP-like protein APPL and a rat testes APP-like protein. These data indicate that the APP gene is a member of a strongly conserved gene family. Studies aimed at determining the functions of the proteins encoded by this gene family should provide valuable clues to their potential role in Alzheimer disease neuropathology. Images PMID:1279693

  1. Isolation and characterization of two cDNA clones encoding ATP-sulfurylases from potato by complementation of a yeast mutant.

    PubMed

    Klonus, D; Höfgen, R; Willmitzer, L; Riesmeier, J W

    1994-07-01

    Sulfur plays an important role in plants, being used for the biosynthesis of amino acids, sulfolipids and secondary metabolites. After uptake sulfate is activated and subsequently reduced to sulfide or serves as donor for sulfurylation reactions. The first step in the activation of sulfate in all cases studied so far is catalyzed by the enzyme ATP-sulfurylase (E.C. 2.7.7.4.) which catalyzes the formation of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS). Two cDNA clones from potato encoding ATP-sulfurylases were identified following transformation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in ATP-sulfurylase activity with a cDNA library from potato source leaf poly(A)+ RNA cloned in a yeast expression vector. Several transformants were able to grow on a medium with sulfate as the only sulfur source, this ability being strictly linked to the presence of two classes of cDNAs. The clones StMet3-1 and StMet3-2 were further analyzed. DNA analysis revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein with a molecular mass of 48 kDa in the case of StMet3-1 and 52 kDa for StMet3-2. The deduced polypeptides are 88% identical at the amino acid level. The clone StMet3-2 has a 48 amino acid N-terminal extension which shows common features of a chloroplast transit peptide. Sequence comparison of the ATP-sulfurylase Met3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the cDNA StMet3-1 (StMet3-2) reveals 31% (30%) identity at the amino acid level. Protein extracts from the yeast mutant transformed with the clone StMet3-1 displayed ATP-sulfurylase activity. RNA blot analysis demonstrated the expression of both genes in potato leaves, root and stem, but not in tubers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA of SmPP1cb encoding turbot protein phosphatase 1 beta catalytic subunit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Fei; Guo, Huarong; Wang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, is an important and versatile mechanism by which eukaryotic cells regulate almost all the signaling processes. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is the first and well-characterized member of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase family. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the beta isoform of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1(PP1cb), was for the first time isolated and sequenced from the skin tissue of flatfish turbot Scophthalmus maximus, designated SmPP1cb, by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The cDNA sequence of SmPP1cb we obtained contains a 984 bp open reading frame (ORF), flanked by a complete 39 bp 5' untranslated region and 462 bp 3' untranslated region. The ORF encodes a putative 327 amino acid protein, and the N-terminal section of this protein is highly acidic, Met-Ala-Glu-Gly-Glu-Leu-Asp-Val-Asp, a common feature for PP1 catalytic subunit but absent in protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B). And its calculated molecular mass is 37 193 Da and pI 5.8. Sequence analysis indicated that, SmPP1cb is extremely conserved in both amino acid and nucleotide acid levels compared with the PP1cb of other vertebrates and invertebrates, and its Kozak motif contained in the 5'UTR around ATG start codon is GXXAXXGXX ATGG, which is different from mammalian in two positions A-6 and G-3, indicating the possibility of different initiation of translation in turbot, and also the 3'UTR of SmPP1cb is highly diverse in the sequence similarity and length compared with other animals, especially zebrafish. The cloning and sequencing of SmPP1cb gene lays a good foundation for the future work on the biological functions of PP1 in the flatfish turbot.

  3. Characterization of a wheat cDNA encoding mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11: qualitative and quantitative tissue-specific differences in its expression.

    PubMed

    Handa, H; Kobayashi-Uehara, A; Murayama, S

    2001-06-01

    We have cloned a cDNA for a ribosomal protein of wheat that is similar to the bacterial ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11). To determine the subcellular localization of the gene product, we fused the whole cDNA sequence to the coding sequence for Green Fluorescent Protein, and expressed the fusion product transiently in epidermal cells of pea hypocotyls or dayflower leaves. Localized fluorescence was detectable in mitochondria, indicating that this nuclear cDNA encodes a mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 (MRPL11). In lower protists, mitochondrial RPL11 is encoded by the mitochondrial genome, but higher organisms, including animals, fungi and plants, do not have genes for RPL11 in their mitochondrial genomes, suggesting that transfer of the genetic information for RPL11 from the mitochondrial genome to the nucleus was a very early event in evolution. Transcripts of this wheat gene (TaMRPL11) for mitochondrial RPL11 were found in all tissues examined, although qualitative and quantitative differences in expression were noted. The transcript sizes were different in different plant tissues: 1.0 kb in flowers and roots, and 1.5 kb in shoots. Cold stress transiently increased the steady-state level of TaMRPL11 mRNA in shoots, but the transcription of TaMRPL11 was completely inhibited by cold treatment for longer periods. However, the transcript level in flowers decreased gradually on exposure to low temperature. On the other hand, the accumulation of TaMRPL11 transcripts in roots was not affected by low temperature. These results suggest that the expression of MRPL11 in wheat is regulated precisely, in a tissue-specific manner.

  4. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future.

  5. A cDNA cloned from Physarum polycephalum encodes new type of family 3 beta-glucosidase that is a fusion protein containing a calx-beta motif.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Akinori; Hayase, Masato; Yubisui, Toshitsugu; Minami, Yoshiko

    2006-01-01

    The microplasmodia of Physarum polycephalum express three types of beta-glucosidases: secretory enzyme, a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme. We are interested in the physiological role of three enzymes. We report the sequence of cDNA for membrane beta-glucosidase 1, which consists of 3825 nucleotides that includes an open reading frame encoding 1248 amino acids. The molecular weight of membrane beta-glucosidase 1 was calculated to be 131,843 based on the predicted amino acid composition. Glycosyl hydrolase family 3 N-terminal and C-terminal domains were found within the N-terminal half of the membrane beta-glucosidase 1 sequence and were highly homologous with the primary structures of fungal beta-glucosidases. Notably, the C-terminal half of membrane beta-glucosidase 1 contains two calx-beta motifs, which are known to be Ca(2+) binding domains in the Drosophila Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger; an RGD sequence, which is known to be a cell attachment sequence; and a transmembrane region. In this way, Physarum membrane beta-glucosidase 1 differs from all previously identified family 3 beta-glucosidases. In addition to cDNA for membrane beta-glucosidase 1, two other distinctly different mRNAs were also isolated. Two sequences were largely identical to cDNA for membrane beta-glucosidase 1, but included a long insert sequence having a stop codon, leading to truncation of their products, which could account for other beta-glucosidase forms occurred in Physarum poycephalum. Thus, the membrane beta-glucosidase is a new type family 3 enzyme fused with the Calx-beta domain. We propose that Calx-beta domain may modulate the beta-glucosidase activity in response to changes in the Ca(2+) concentration.

  6. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future. PMID:25038276

  7. A cDNA clone encoding an IgE-binding protein from Brassica anther has significant sequence similarity to Ca(2+)-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Toriyama, K; Okada, T; Watanabe, M; Ide, T; Ashida, T; Xu, H; Singh, M B

    1995-12-01

    Thirteen cDNA clones encoding IgE-binding proteins were isolated from expression libraries of anthers of Brassica rapa L. and B. napus L. using serum IgE from a patient who was specifically allergic to Brassica pollen. These clones were divided into two groups, I and II, based on the sequence similarity. All the group I cDNAs predicted the same protein of 79 amino acids, while the group II predicted a protein of 83 amino acids with microheterogeneity. Both of the deduced amino acid sequences contained two regions with sequence similarity to Ca(2+)-binding sites of Ca(2+)-binding proteins such as calmodulin. However flanking sequences were distinct from that of calmodulin or other Ca(2+)-binding proteins. RNA-gel blot analysis showed the genes of group I and II were preferentially expressed in anthers at the later developmental stage and in mature pollen. The recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli was recognized in immunoblot analysis by the IgE of a Brassica pollen allergic patient, but not by the Ige of a non-allergic patient. The cDNA clones reported here, therefore, represent pollen allergens of Brassica species.

  8. Identification and characterization of a cDNA encoding a crustin-like, putative antibacterial protein from the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Rus, Szymon; Goiney, Christopher C; Smith, Christine M; Towle, David W; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2007-07-01

    Pathogenic challenges in decapod crustaceans are combated by innate immune responses, including the production and secretion of soluble antibacterial proteins into the hemolymph. Among the antibacterials that have been identified in decapod species are the crustins, a group of four-disulfide core/whey-acidic-protein (WAP) domain-containing proteins, which target marine/salt tolerant Gram-positive bacteria. To begin to assess the possible role of crustins in combating bacterial invasion in the American lobster Homarus americanus, we identified and sequenced a 744 base pair cDNA that encodes a novel 96 amino acid crustin-like protein. Comparison of H. americanus crustin (Hoa-crustin) with crustins from other decapod species showed that it is most similar to an isoform predicted from the European lobster Homarus gammarus ( approximately 86% identity). With our identification of the Hoa-crustin cDNA, we are positioned to begin molecular and physiological investigations of the regulation and function of this putative antibacterial protein in H. americanus. PMID:17418897

  9. Identification of cDNA clones encoding valosin-containing protein and other plant plasma membrane-associated proteins by a general immunoscreening strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, J; Dixon, R A; Gonzales, R A; Kjellbom, P; Bhattacharyya, M K

    1995-01-01

    An approach was developed for the isolation and characterization of soybean plasma membrane-associated proteins by immunoscreening of a cDNA expression library. An antiserum was raised against purified plasma membrane vesicles. In a differential screening of approximately 500,000 plaque-forming units with the anti-(plasma membrane) serum and DNA probes derived from highly abundant clones isolated in a preliminary screening, 261 clones were selected from approximately 1,200 antiserum-positive plaques. These clones were classified into 40 groups by hybridization analysis and 5'- and 3'-terminal sequencing. By searching nucleic acid and protein sequence data bases, 11 groups of cDNAs were identified, among which valosin-containing protein (VCP), clathrin heavy chain, phospholipase C, and S-adenosylmethionine:delta 24-sterol-C-methyltransferase have not to date been cloned from plants. The remaining 29 groups did not match any current data base entries and may, therefore, represent additional or yet uncharacterized genes. A full-length cDNA encoding the soybean VCP was sequenced. The high level of amino acid identity with vertebrate VCP and yeast CDC48 protein indicates that the soybean protein is a plant homolog of vertebrate VCP and yeast CDC48 protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7753826

  10. Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: definition of a family of DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Demple, B; Herman, T; Chen, D S

    1991-01-01

    Abasic (AP) sites are common, potentially mutagenic DNA damages that are attacked by AP endonucleases. The biological roles of these enzymes in metazoans have not been tested. We have cloned the human cDNA (APE) that encodes the main nuclear AP endonuclease. The predicted Ape protein, which contains likely nuclear transport signals, is a member of a family of DNA repair enzymes that includes two bacterial AP endonucleases (ExoA protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae and exonuclease III of Escherichia coli) and Rrp1 protein of Drosophila melanogaster. Purified Ape protein lacks the 3'-exonuclease activity against undamaged DNA that is found in the bacterial and Drosophila enzymes, but the lack of obvious amino acid changes to account for this difference suggests that the various enzyme functions evolved by fine tuning a conserved active site. Expression of the active human enzyme in AP endonuclease-deficient E. coli conferred significant resistance to killing by the DNA-alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. The APE cDNA provides a molecular tool for analyzing the role of this central enzyme in maintaining genetic stability in humans. Images PMID:1722334

  11. Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a putative nucleotide-binding protein related to Escherichia coli MinD.

    PubMed

    Shahrestanifar, M; Saha, D P; Scala, L A; Basu, A; Howells, R D

    1994-09-30

    A novel human cDNA encoding a putative nucleotide-binding protein (NBP) was obtained by screening a human SHSY5Y neuroblastoma library. The deduced protein contains 320 amino acids (aa) with a M(r) of 34,540. NBP displays sequence similarity with the product of the minD gene from Escherichia coli. MinD is involved in the proper placement of the division septum, and has ATPase activity. NBP and MinD contain consensus nucleotide (nt)-binding domains. The NBP mRNA is approx. 1500 nt in length and is expressed in several human cell lines and in all rat tissues examined, with the highest levels in lung and testis.

  12. Characterization of a cDNA encoding a 34-kDa Purkinje neuron protein recognized by sera from patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Furneaux, H.M.; Dropcho, E.J.; Barbut, D.; Chen, Yaotseng; Rosenblum, M.K.; Old, L.J.; Posner, J.B. )

    1989-04-01

    Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a neurological disorder of unknown cause occurring in patients with an identified or occult cancer. An autoimmune etiology is likely since autoantibodies directed against the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum have been found in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of some patients. Two Purkinje cell-specific antigens are recognized by these autoantibodies, a major antigen of 62 kDa (CDR 62, cerebellar degeneration-related 62-kDa protein) and a minor antigen of 34 kDa (CDR 34). Previous studies have described the isolation and characterization of a human cerebellar cDNA that encodes an epitope recognized by sera from patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. The authors have now established by two independent methods that this gene is uniquely expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and corresponds to the minor antigen CDR 34. This antigen is also expressed in tumor tissue from a patient with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.

  13. Cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding a novel human pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Samal, B.; Sun, Yinghao; Stearns, G.

    1994-02-01

    A novel gene coding for the pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) has been isolated from a human peripheral blood lymphocyte cDNA library. The expression of this gene is induced by pokeweed mitogen and superinduced by cycloheximide. It is also induced in the T-lymphoblastoid cell line HUT 78 after phorbol ester (phorbol myristate acetate) treatment. The predominant mRNA for PBEF is approximately 2.4 kb long and codes for a 52-kDa secreted protein. The 3{prime} untranslated region of the mRNA has multiple TATT motifs, usually found in cytokine and oncogene messages. The PBEF gene is mainly transcribed in human bone marrow, liver tissue, and muscle. We have expressed PBEF in COS 7 and PA317 cells and have tested the biological activities of the conditioned medium as well as the antibody-purified protein in different in vitro assays. PBEF itself had no activity but synergized the pre-B-cell colony formation activity of stem cell factor and interleukin 7. In the presence of PBEF, the number of pre-B-cell colonies was increased by at least 70% above the amount stimulated by stem cell factor plus interleukin 7. No effect of PBEF was found with cells of myeloid or erythroid lineages. These data define PBEF as a novel cytokine which acts on early B-lineage precursor cells. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Molecular cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding polyoma medium tumor antigen-associated 61-kDa protein.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, G; Ferre, F; Espiritu, O; Carbone-Wiley, A

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus medium tumor antigen forms specific complexes with several cellular proteins; among these is a protein of approximately 61 kDa. With antibodies directed against medium tumor antigen, the 61-kDa protein was purified from human 293 cells that were infected with a hybrid adenovirus and overexpressed medium tumor antigen. The purified 61-kDa protein was partially digested with protease V8, and one of the protease V8 fragments was isolated and partially sequenced. The amino acid sequence information was used to design mixed oligonucleotide probes for screening a cDNA library from human placenta. A clone was isolated that hybridized with two separate probes; the clone contained an insert with an open reading frame for 589 amino acids. By in vitro translation of the transcript from this insert, a protein was generated that had the same size and yielded the same pattern of protease V8 fragments as the original 61-kDa protein. Its amino acid sequence reveals 15 repeats, the majority of which are 39 amino acids long. This protein bears no resemblance to proteins in the data bank that was searched. Images PMID:2554323

  15. cDNA sequence and mapping of the mouse Copb gene encoding the beta subunit of the COPI coatomer complex.

    PubMed

    LI, W; Elliott, R W; Novak, E K; Swank, R T

    1999-05-01

    COPI-coated vesicles are involved in retrograde-directed selective transport of proteins from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as mediate anterograde transport of cargo proteins within the Golgi or in endosomal trafficking. The COPI protein complex contains an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF1) and seven coatamer subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta-COP). The localization and function of human beta subunit of coatamer (COPB) suggests it is likely a candidate gene of ruby-eye-2 (ru2), which is a mouse model of human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome characterized by the dysfunction of several subcellular organelles. In this study, we determined the entire coding sequence of mouse (Copb) cDNA by combining an overlapping mouse EST contig with EST walking. beta-COP was found highly conserved in mouse, rat, and human, and it is ubiquitously expressed in mouse. The Copb gene was mapped to mouse Chr 7 at a position of 53.3 cM by radiation hybrid mapping. Our RH mapping data, sequencing of RT-PCR products, and Western blotting exclude the Copb gene as a candidate for ru2.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding the rabbit ileal villus cell basolateral membrane Na+/H+ exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Tse, C M; Ma, A I; Yang, V W; Watson, A J; Levine, S; Montrose, M H; Potter, J; Sardet, C; Pouyssegur, J; Donowitz, M

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a rabbit ileal villus cell Na+/H+ exchanger was isolated and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The cDNA is 4 kb long and contains 322 bp of 5'-untranslated region, 2451 bp of open reading frame and 1163 bp of 3'-untranslated area, with 70%, 91% and 40% identity to the human sequence, respectively. Amino acid sequence deduced from the longest open reading frame indicated a protein of 816 residues (predicted Mr 90,716) which exhibits 95% amino acid identity to the human Na+/H+ exchanger. The two putative glycosylation sites in the human Na+/H+ exchanger are conserved in this protein, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Stable transfection of the cDNA into an Na+/H+ exchanger deficient fibroblast cell line, established Na+/H+ exchange. The Na+/H+ exchanger was stimulated by serum and a phorbol ester but not by 8-Br-cAMP. In Northern blot analysis, the cDNA hybridized to a 4.8 kb message in rabbit ileal villus cells, kidney cortex, kidney medulla, adrenal gland, brain and descending colon and to a 5.2 kb message in cultured human colonic cancer cell lines, HT29-18 and Caco-2. In immunoblotting, a polyclonal antibody raised against a fusion protein of beta-galactosidase and the C-terminal 158 amino acids of the human Na+/H+ exchanger identified a rabbit ileal basolateral membrane protein of 94 kd and only weakly interacted with the ileal brush border membrane. In immunocytochemical studies using ileal villus and crypt epithelial cells, the same antibody identified basolateral and not brush border epitopes. Restriction analysis of genomic DNA with a 462 bp PstI-AccI fragment of the rabbit Na+/H+ exchanger strongly suggests the existence of closely related Na+/H+ exchanger genes. The near identity of the basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger and the human Na+/H+ exchanger plus the ubiquitous expression of this message suggests that the ileal basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger is the 'housekeeping' Na+/H+ exchanger. Images PMID:1712287

  17. Characterisation of three cDNA clones encoding different mRNAs for the precursor to the small subunit of wheat ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S M; Bedbrook, J; Speirs, J

    1983-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced three cDNA clones for the nuclear-encoded precursor to the small subunit of the chloroplast enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase of wheat. The nucleotide sequences of these clones are different, indicating that they are probably derived from three different mRNAs. This finding is consistent with the proposal that this polypeptide is encoded by a multigene family in wheat, in support of similar data reported by Broglie et al. (Bio/Technology 1:55-61, 1983). We deduce that the mature small subunit polypeptide is comprised of 128 amino acids and that its precursor contains an N-terminal transit peptide sequence. The sequences of both the mature small subunit and its transit peptide differ at several positions from those determined by Broglie et al, (1983) from a different wheat cultivar. Different wheat cultivars might therefore contain different small subunit polypeptides. A comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the small subunit from wheat, pea, soybean and spinach shows that these sequences are not highly conserved, particularly between monocotyledon and dicotyledon species. Images PMID:6324097

  18. Cloning of a cDNA encoding cytosolic acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase from radish by functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Vollack, K U; Bach, T J

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA coding for radish (Raphanus sativus L.) acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase (AACT) was cloned by complementation of the erg10 mutation affecting AACT in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The longest reading frame encodes a protein of 406 amino acids with a predicted relative molecular weight of 42,032, with significant similarities to eukaryotic and prokaryotic thiolases. There is no evidence for the presence of a leader peptide characteristic, e.g. of glyoxysomal thiolase. Yeast transformants expressing the radish AACT gene placed under the control of the GAL1 promoter exhibited a 10-fold higher enzyme activity than a wild-type yeast strain after induction by galactose. This enzyme activity is exclusively localized in the soluble fraction but not in membranes. These data indicate that we have cloned a gene encoding cytoplasmic (biosynthetic) AACT. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis suggests the presence of a single AACT gene, which is expressed in all parts of the seedling. Expression in cotyledons appears to be light-stimulated. We present preliminary evidence that a smaller transcript represents an antisense species being read from the same gene. PMID:8756496

  19. Characterization and expression of two cDNA encoding 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase isoforms in coffee (Coffea arabica L.).

    PubMed

    Tiski, Iris; Marraccini, Pierre; Pot, David; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2011-10-01

    In higher plants there are two independent pathways for isoprenoid biosynthesis, located in the cytosol (mevalonic acid or MVA pathway) or in the plastids [methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway]. The 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the first committed step in the MVA pathway. Using the information available from the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project, we found 13 ESTs that originated two isoforms, CaHMGR1 and CaHMGR2, for the enzyme HMGR of Coffea arabica. A complementary DNA encoding the isoform CaHMGR1 was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. The full-length cDNA of CaHMGR1 was 2,242 bp containing a 1,812-bp ORF encoding 604 amino acids. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced CaHMGR1 had extensive homology with other plant HMGRs and contained two transmembrane domains and two putative HMGR binding sites and two NADP(H)-binding sites. Under normal growth conditions, transcripts of isoform CaHMRG1 were detected in fruit tissues (pulp, perisperm, and endosperm) only at the initial stages of development, flower buds and leaves. CaHMRG2 was expressed in all tissues and during all fruit development stages examined. These results suggest a constitutive expression of isoform CaHMGR2, while the isoform CaHMGR1 shows temporal and tissue-specific transcriptional activation.

  20. Cloning of the cDNA encoding human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) and mapping of the TIMP3 gene to chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, S.S.; Olsen, B.R. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1994-01-01

    The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases, a group of zinc-binding endopeptidases involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix. The authors have isolated overlapping cDNAs encoding a novel human TIMP, TIMP-3. The cDNAs contain a 591-bp-long open reading frame encoding 9 amino acid residues of the signal peptide and 188 residues of the mature TIMP-3 polypeptide. Both the nucleotide sequence and the conceptual translation product of the human TIMP3 cDNA have a high degree of similarity to ChIMP-3, a recently cloned metalloproteinase inhibitor in the chicken, and to the TIMP1 and TIMP2 gene products, including 12 conserved cysteinyl residues at the same relative positions. The TIMP3 gene is expressed in many tissues, with highest expression in the placenta. Upon hybridization with a panel of human-hamster somatic cell hybrid DNAs, the TIMP3 gene segregated with clones containing chromosome 22. Using in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes, the authors have assigned the locus for the TIMP3 gene to the q12.1-q13.2 region of human chromosome 22. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Identification, characterization, and analysis of cDNA and genomic sequences encoding two different small heat shock proteins in Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, N; Pavesi, A; Di Cola, G; Hartings, H; Raho, G; Conte, M R; Perrotta, C

    1993-12-01

    In vitro translation of mRNAs prepared from barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings (cv. Onice) exposed at 40 degrees C directed the synthesis of major heat shock proteins (HSPs) with molecular masses of 80-90, 70, 42 and 16-22 kDa. A cDNA library prepared from the 40 degrees C mRNAs and screened by differential hybridization led to the isolation of heat shock specific sequences. One of these (Hv hsp18) was confirmed by hybrid-arrested and hybrid-released translation as encoding for an 18-kDa HSP. The barley hsp18 sequence has an open reading frame encoding a 160 amino acid residue 18-kDa protein that is 63% identical to wheat 16.9-kDa HSP (clone C5-8), 54% identical to soybean (Glycine max) 17.5-kDa HSP, and 49% identical to Arabidopsis thaliana 17.6-kDa HSP. Lower similarities were found with class II plant small HSPs such as soybean 17.9-kDa HSP (27%), Pisum sativum 17.7-kDa HSP (30%), wheat (Triticum aestivum) 17.3-kDa HSP (clone Ta hsp 17.3) (30%), and with animal small HSPs and alpha-crystallins. The Hv hsp18 sequence was used to pick up Hv hsp17 genomic sequence encoding for another class I 17-kDa HSP. By computer analysis of the nucleotide sequence the TATA box, two heat shock promoter elements, a metal-ion response element, and the polyadenylation signals were identified. Barley HSP18 has an additional cysteine-rich region when compared with HSP17 mapping at the carboxy terminal end. PMID:8112573

  2. Cloning of the cDNA encoding adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase 1 and its mRNA expression in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Keyong; Sun, Shujuan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    AMP deaminase catalyzes the conversion of AMP into IMP and ammonia. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of AMPD1 from skeletal muscle of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was cloned and characterized. The 2 526 bp cDNA contains a 5'-UTR of 78 bp, a 3'-UTR of 237 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 211 bp, which encodes a protein of 736 amino acids. The predicted protein contains a highly conserved AMP deaminase motif (SLSTDDP) and an ATP-binding site sequence (EPLMEEYAIAAQVFK). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AMPD1 and AMPD3 genes originate from the same branch, but are evolutionarily distant from the AMPD2 gene. RT-PCR showed that the flounder AMPD1 gene was expressed only in skeletal muscle. QRT-PCR analysis revealed a statistically significant 2.54 fold higher level of AMPD1 mRNA in adult muscle (750±40 g) compared with juvenile muscle (7.5±2 g) ( P<0.05). HPLC analysis showed that the IMP content in adult muscle (3.35±0.21 mg/g) was also statistically significantly higher than in juvenile muscle (1.08±0.04 mg/g) ( P<0.05). There is a direct relationship between the AMPD1 gene expression level and IMP content in the skeletal muscle of juvenile and adult flounders. These results may provide useful information for quality improvement and molecular breeding of aquatic animals.

  3. Characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel human Golgi alpha 1, 2-mannosidase (IC) involved in N-glycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, L O; Herscovics, A

    2000-10-13

    A human cDNA encoding a 70.9-kDa type II membrane protein with sequence similarity to class I alpha1,2-mannosidases was isolated. The enzymatic properties of the novel alpha1,2-mannosidase IC were studied by expressing its catalytic domain in Pichia pastoris as a secreted glycoprotein. alpha1,2-Mannosidase IC sequentially hydrolyzes the alpha1,2-linked mannose residues of [(3)H]mannose-labeled Man(9)GlcNAc to form [(3)H]Man(6)GlcNAc and a small amount of [(3)H]Man(5)GlcNAc. The enzyme requires calcium for activity and is inhibited by both 1-deoxymannojirimycin and kifunensine. The order of mannose removal was determined by separating oligosaccharide isomers formed from pyridylaminated Man(9)GlcNAc(2) by high performance liquid chromatography. The terminal alpha1,2-linked mannose residue from the middle branch is the last mannose removed by the enzyme. This residue is the mannose cleaved from Man(9)GlcNAc(2) by the endoplasmic reticulum alpha1, 2-mannosidase I to form Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B. The order of mannose hydrolysis from either pyridylaminated Man(9)GlcNAc(2) or Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B differs from that previously reported for mammalian Golgi alpha1,2-mannosidases IA and IB. The full-length alpha1,2-mannosidase IC was localized to the Golgi of MDBK and MDCK cells by indirect immunofluorescence. Northern blot analysis showed tissue-specific expression of a major transcript of 3.8 kilobase pairs. The expression pattern is different from that of human Golgi alpha1,2-mannosidases IA and IB. Therefore, the human genome contains at least three differentially regulated Golgi alpha1, 2-mannosidase genes encoding enzymes with similar, but not identical specificities. PMID:10915796

  4. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase, a betanidin- and flavonoid-specific enzyme with high homology to inducible glucosyltransferases from the Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Vogt, T; Grimm, R; Strack, D

    1999-09-01

    Based on protein sequence data and RT-PCR, a full length cDNA encoding betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5-GT) was obtained from a cDNA library of Dorotheanthus bellidiformis (Burm.f.) N.E.Br. (Aizoaceae). 5-GT catalyses the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to the 5-hydroxyl group of the chromogenic betanidin. Betanidin and its conjugates, referred to as betacyanins, are characteristic fruit and flower pigments in most members of the Caryophyllales, which fail to synthesise anthocyanins. The 5-GT cDNA displayed homology to previously published glucosyltransferase sequences and exhibited high identity to sequences of several inducible glucosyltransferases of tobacco and tomato (Solanaceae). The open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 489 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.24 kDa. The corresponding cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein displayed identical substrate specificity compared to the native enzyme purified from D. bellidiformis cell suspension cultures. In addition to the natural substrate betanidin, ortho-dihydroxylated flavonols and flavones were glycosylated preferentially at the B-ring 4'-hydroxyl group. 5-GT is the first enzyme of betalain biosynthesis in plants, of which the corresponding cDNA has been cloned and expressed. The results are discussed in relation to molecular evolution of plant glucosyl- transferases. PMID:10504573

  5. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding epitopes shared by 15- and 60-kilodalton proteins of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, M C; Fayer, R; Tilley, M; Upton, S J

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA (CP15/60) encoding epitopes of Cryptosporidium parvum 15- and 60-kDa sporozoite proteins was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli toward the goal of developing an immunogen for producing high-titer anticryptosporidial colostrum. Antisera prepared in rats to native C. parvum 15-kDa protein and used to identify the CP15/60 bacteriophage clone recognized both 15- and 60-kDa in vitro translation products derived from sporozoite RNA. Antisera specific for recombinant CP15/60 antigen recognized native 15- and 60-kDa C. parvum sporozoite proteins by immunoblotting and identified both surface and internal antigens on C. parvum sporozoites by immunofluorescence staining. Northern (RNA) and Southern blot hybridization experiments using sporozoite RNA and DNA indicated that CP15/60 DNA is transcribed as a single 1.4-kb RNA species from a single-copy gene. Recombinant CP15/60 antigen was recognized by hyperimmune colostrum from cows immunized with C. parvum oocyst-sporozoite protein and by convalescent-phase sera from C. parvum-infected calves. Images PMID:7684726

  6. Cloning of the cDNA encoding a myosin heavy chain B isoform of Xenopus nonmuscle myosin with an insert in the head region.

    PubMed

    Bhatia-Dey, N; Adelstein, R S; Dawid, I B

    1993-04-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of Xenopus laevis nonmuscle myosin heavy chain B (MHC-B) has been deduced from overlapping cDNA clones isolated from an XTC cell library. RNA blots of various developmental stages, adult tissues, and XTC cells detect a single transcript of 7.5 kb which is expressed at similar levels throughout development. MHC-B mRNA was detected in XTC cells, heart, lung, spleen, and brain, at lower levels in ovary, testis, pancreas, stomach, liver, and eye, but not in kidney and skeletal muscle. Protein expression in adult tissues, as detected by immunoblot analysis, correlates well with mRNA expression. In chickens and humans, a fraction of the mRNA encoding the MHC-B isoform was found previously to contain a 10-amino acid insert at amino acid 211 near the ATP-binding site. As reported elsewhere, in the chicken this insert-bearing isoform is nervous system-specific. The Xenopus sequence shows a 16-amino acid insertion at the same position; 7 of 16 residues are identical to those in the chicken and human insertion, and these identical residues include a consensus target sequence for cyclin-p34cdc2 kinase. In contrast to chicken, all frog tissues and embryonic stages tested contained the insert-bearing form, and no evidence for a non-insert-bearing MHC-B isoform was found in Xenopus.

  7. Identification, sequence and mRNA expression pattern during metamorphosis of a cDNA encoding a glycine-rich cuticular protein in Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Mathelin, J; Bouhin, H; Quennedey, B; Courrent, A; Delachambre, J

    1995-04-24

    The study of insect cuticular proteins and their sequences is of interest because they are involved in protein-protein and protein-chitin interactions which confer the mechanical properties and fine architecture of the cuticle. Moreover, in the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor there is a dramatic change in cuticular architecture between pre- and postecdysial secretion. We report the isolation, by differential screening, and the sequence characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a cuticular protein of T. molitor, ACP17. After insertion in the expression vector pEX1, the recognition of the fusion protein by an anti-cuticular monoclonal antibody confirmed the cuticular nature of ACP17. Northern hybridization analysis showed that ACP17 mRNA expression begins weakly 3 days before adult ecdysis and strongly increases during the secretion of postecdysial adult cuticle, with a maximum just after ecdysis. In situ hybridization revealed that the ACP17 mRNA is only present in the epidermis which secretes hard cuticle. The deduced amino acid (aa) composition exhibits a high content of Gly (28%) and Ala (20%) and, particularly, two poly(Gx) stretches separated by repetitive motifs with proline AAPVA. A comparison is made with other cuticle aa sequences.

  8. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a pollen extracellular protein as a potential source of a pollen allergen in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Toriyama, K; Hanaoka, K; Okada, T; Watanabe, M

    1998-03-13

    A polyclonal antiserum was raised against the extracellular pollen proteins of Brassica rapa and used for screening the expression cDNA libraries made from immature anthers. We obtained five groups of cDNA clones, including cDNAs similar to PCP1, thioredoxin, and lipid transfer protein (LTP). Recombinant protein of the cDNA clone showing sequence similarity to LTP was demonstrated to bind IgE of a patient allergic to Brassica pollen. The cDNA clone reported here, therefore, represents a novel pollen allergen of Brassica rapa.

  9. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression analysis of cDNA encoding metalloprotein II (MP II) induced by single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) in polychaeta Perinereis aibuhitensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dazuo; Zhou, Yibing; Zhao, Huan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Na; Wang, Bin; Yuan, Xiutang

    2012-11-01

    We amplified and analyzed the complete cDNA of metalloprotein II (MP II) from the somatic muscle of the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis, the full length cDNA is 904 bp encoding 119 amino acids. The MP II cDNA sequence was subjected to BLAST searching in NCBI and was found to share high homology with hemerythrin of other worms. MP II expression of P. aibuhitensis exposed to single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) was analyzed using real time-PCR. MP II mRNA expression increased at the start of Cu(II) exposure, then decreased and finally return to the normal level. Expression pattern of MP II under Cd(II) exposure was time- and dose-dependent. MP II expression induced by a combination of Cd(II) and Cu(II) was similar to that induced by Cd(II) alone.

  10. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA encoding the Jerusalem artichoke cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, a major plant cytochrome P450 involved in the general phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, H G; Hasenfratz, M P; Lesot, A; Stoltz, C; Garnier, J M; Jeltsch, J M; Durst, F; Werck-Reichhart, D

    1993-01-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase [CA4H; trans-cinnamate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.13.11] is a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the first oxygenation step of the general phenylpropanoid metabolism in higher plants. The compounds formed are essential for lignification and defense against predators and pathogens. We recently reported the purification of this enzyme from Mn(2+)-induced Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber tissues. Highly selective polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified protein were used to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library from wound-induced Jerusalem artichoke, allowing isolation of a 1130-base-pair insert. Typical P450 domains were identified in this incomplete sequence, which was used as a probe for the isolation of a 1.7-kilobase clone in a lambda gt10 library. A full-length open reading frame of 1515 base pairs, encoding a P450 protein of 505 residues (M(r) = 57,927), was sequenced. The N terminus, essentially composed of hydrophobic residues, matches perfectly the microsequenced N terminus of the purified protein. The calculated pI is 9.78, in agreement with the chromatographic behavior and two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of CA4H. Synthesis of the corresponding mRNA is induced in wounded plant tissues, in correlation with CA4H enzymatic activity. This P450 protein exhibits the most similarity (28% amino acid identity) with avocado CYP71, but also good similarity with CYP17 and CYP21, or with CYP1 and CYP2 families. According to current criteria, it qualifies as a member of a new P450 family. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8097885

  11. [Cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding key enzyme gene (dxr) of the non-MVA pathway in Taxus chinensis cells].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing-Ping; Yu, Long-Jiang; Liu, Zhi; Li, Mo-Yi; Xiang, Fu; Yang, Qin

    2004-07-01

    Two distinct routes (classical mevalonate pathway and a novel mevalonate-independent pathway) are utilized by plants for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the universal precursor of isoprenoids (Fig. 1). Present researches indicated that taxol was synthesized mainly via non-mevalonate pathway, but not genetic evidence was showed. The second step in non-mevalonate pathway involves an intramolecular rearrangement and subsequent reduction of deoxyxylulose phosphate to yield 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate, and 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) with responsibility for this reaction was considered as a key enzyme. As a tool for the isolation of genes in terpenoid biosynthesis in plants, total RNA was prepared from Taxus chinensis suspension cells, a cell type highly specialized for diterpene (taxol). A reverse transcription-PCR strategy based on the design of degenerated oligonucleotides was developed for isolating the gene encoding a gymnosperm homolog of this enzyme from Taxus chinensis. Through sequence analysis by Blast P online, the resulting cDNA showed highly homologous to 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerases, with 95% identification compared with Arabidopsis thaliana (Q9XFS9), 94% with Mentha x piperita (Q9XESO), 80% with Synechococcus elongatus (Q8DK30), 78% with Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Q55663) and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Q8YP49), and 73% with Synechococcus leopoliensis (Q9RKT1). Deduced amino acid sequences were also analyzed by PROSITE, ClustalX (1.81) and Phylio (3.6 alpha), and data present evidence for the existence of this deoxyxyluose phosphate reductoisomerase in Taxus chinensis. This is the first report of the dxr gene cloned from gymnosperm. PMID:15968987

  12. Mechanistic Strategies for Catalysis Adopted by Evolutionary Distinct Family 43 Arabinanases*

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Camila R.; Polo, Carla C.; Costa, Maria C. M. F.; Nascimento, Andrey F. Z.; Meza, Andreia N.; Cota, Junio; Hoffmam, Zaira B.; Honorato, Rodrigo V.; Oliveira, Paulo S. L.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Gilbert, Harry J.; Prade, Rolf A.; Ruller, Roberto; Squina, Fabio M.; Wong, Dominic W. S.; Murakami, Mário T.

    2014-01-01

    Arabinanases (ABNs, EC 3.2.1.99) are promising catalysts for environmentally friendly biomass conversion into energy and chemicals. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the α-1,5-linked l-arabinofuranoside backbone of plant cell wall arabinans releasing arabino-oligosaccharides and arabinose, the second most abundant pentose in nature. In this work, new findings about the molecular mechanisms governing activation, functional differentiation, and catalysis of GH43 ABNs are presented. Biophysical, mutational, and biochemical studies with the hyperthermostable two-domain endo-acting ABN from Thermotoga petrophila (TpABN) revealed how some GH43 ABNs are activated by calcium ions via hyperpolarization of the catalytically relevant histidine and the importance of the ancillary domain for catalysis and conformational stability. On the other hand, the two GH43 ABNs from rumen metagenome, ARN2 and ARN3, presented a calcium-independent mechanism in which sodium is the most likely substituent for calcium ions. The crystal structure of the two-domain endo-acting ARN2 showed that its ability to efficiently degrade branched substrates is due to a larger catalytic interface with higher accessibility than that observed in other ABNs with preference for linear arabinan. Moreover, crystallographic characterization of the single-domain exo-acting ARN3 indicated that its cleavage pattern producing arabinose is associated with the chemical recognition of the reducing end of the substrate imposed by steric impediments at the aglycone-binding site. By structure-guided rational design, ARN3 was converted into a classical endo enzyme, confirming the role of the extended Arg203–Ala230 loop in determining its action mode. These results reveal novel molecular aspects concerning the functioning of GH43 ABNs and provide new strategies for arabinan degradation. PMID:24469445

  13. Mechanistic strategies for catalysis adopted by evolutionary distinct family 43 arabinanases.

    PubMed

    Santos, Camila R; Polo, Carla C; Costa, Maria C M F; Nascimento, Andrey F Z; Meza, Andreia N; Cota, Junio; Hoffmam, Zaira B; Honorato, Rodrigo V; Oliveira, Paulo S L; Goldman, Gustavo H; Gilbert, Harry J; Prade, Rolf A; Ruller, Roberto; Squina, Fabio M; Wong, Dominic W S; Murakami, Mário T

    2014-03-14

    Arabinanases (ABNs, EC 3.2.1.99) are promising catalysts for environmentally friendly biomass conversion into energy and chemicals. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the α-1,5-linked L-arabinofuranoside backbone of plant cell wall arabinans releasing arabino-oligosaccharides and arabinose, the second most abundant pentose in nature. In this work, new findings about the molecular mechanisms governing activation, functional differentiation, and catalysis of GH43 ABNs are presented. Biophysical, mutational, and biochemical studies with the hyperthermostable two-domain endo-acting ABN from Thermotoga petrophila (TpABN) revealed how some GH43 ABNs are activated by calcium ions via hyperpolarization of the catalytically relevant histidine and the importance of the ancillary domain for catalysis and conformational stability. On the other hand, the two GH43 ABNs from rumen metagenome, ARN2 and ARN3, presented a calcium-independent mechanism in which sodium is the most likely substituent for calcium ions. The crystal structure of the two-domain endo-acting ARN2 showed that its ability to efficiently degrade branched substrates is due to a larger catalytic interface with higher accessibility than that observed in other ABNs with preference for linear arabinan. Moreover, crystallographic characterization of the single-domain exo-acting ARN3 indicated that its cleavage pattern producing arabinose is associated with the chemical recognition of the reducing end of the substrate imposed by steric impediments at the aglycone-binding site. By structure-guided rational design, ARN3 was converted into a classical endo enzyme, confirming the role of the extended Arg(203)-Ala(230) loop in determining its action mode. These results reveal novel molecular aspects concerning the functioning of GH43 ABNs and provide new strategies for arabinan degradation.

  14. l-Arabinose production from sugar beet arabinan by immobilized endo- and exo-arabinanases from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus in a packed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Su; Lim, Yu-Ri; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2012-02-01

    The immobilized endo- and exo-arabinanases from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus produced continuously an average of 16.5 gl(-1)l-arabinose from 20 gl(-1) sugar beet arabinan at pH 5.0 and 75°C for 216 h, with a productivity of 9.9 gl(-1)h(-1) and a conversion yield of 83%.

  15. Identification of a cDNA clone encoding a mature blood stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum by immunization of mice with bacterial lysates.

    PubMed Central

    Coppel, R L; Brown, G V; Mitchell, G F; Anders, R F; Kemp, D J

    1984-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed in pBR322 using mRNA from blood stages of a Papua New Guinean isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. Expression of parasite antigens was not directly detectable by conventional immunological assays. To circumvent this, mice were immunized with lysates of cDNA clones, and the antisera raised were assayed for anti-parasite reactivity. One cDNA clone was identified which reliably elicited antibodies to P. falciparum. The mouse antisera were used to characterize the native P. falciparum protein as a 120-kd protein, which is antigenic during natural infection. The protein occurs in late trophozoite and schizont stages and is found in isolates of the parasite from widely separated geographical areas. The genomic context of the antigen gene is conserved in the different isolates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6370681

  16. Nuclear-encoded chloroplast ribosomal protein L12 of Nicotiana tabacum: characterization of mature protein and isolation and sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding its cytoplasmic precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, G A; Thomas, F J; McCreery, T P; Bourque, D P

    1992-01-01

    Poly(A)+ mRNA isolated from Nicotiana tabacum (cv. Petite Havana) leaves was used to prepare a cDNA library in the expression vector lambda gt11. Recombinant phage containing cDNAs coding for chloroplast ribosomal protein L12 were identified and sequenced. Mature tobacco L12 protein has 44% amino acid identity with ribosomal protein L7/L12 of Escherichia coli. The longest L12 cDNA (733 nucleotides) codes for a 13,823 molecular weight polypeptide with a transit peptide of 53 amino acids and a mature protein of 133 amino acids. The transit peptide and mature protein share 43% and 79% amino acid identity, respectively, with corresponding regions of spinach chloroplast ribosomal protein L12. The predicted amino terminus of the mature protein was confirmed by partial sequence analysis of HPLC-purified tobacco chloroplast ribosomal protein L12. A single L12 mRNA of about 0.8 kb was detected by hybridization of L12 cDNA to poly(A)+ and total leaf RNA. Hybridization patterns of restriction fragments of tobacco genomic DNA probed with the L12 cDNA suggested the existence of more than one gene for ribosomal protein L12. Characterization of a second cDNA with an identical L12 coding sequence but a different 3'-noncoding sequence provided evidence that at least two L12 genes are expressed in tobacco. Images PMID:1542565

  17. Characterization of cDNA encoding mouse DNA repair protein O sup 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and high-level expression of the wild-type and mutant proteins in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Shiota, Susumu; Tano, Keizo ); von Wronski, M.A.; Brent, T.P. ); Bigner, D.D. ); Mitra, S. )

    1992-02-25

    A mouse cDNA clone encoding O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), responsible for repair of mutagenic O{sup 6}-alkylguanine in DNA, was cloned from a {lambda}gt11 library. On the basis of an open reading frame in cDNA, the mouse protein contains 211 amino acids with a molecular mass of 22 kDa. The size and the predicted N-terminal sequence of the mouse protein were confirmed experimentally. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse MGMT is 70% homologous to that of the human MGMT. Cysteine-149 was shown to be the only alkyl acceptor residue in the mouse protein, in confirmation of the prediction based on conserved sequences of different MGMTs. Mouse MGMT protein is recognized by some monoclonal antibodies specific for human MGMT. Site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to reclone the mouse cDNA in a T7 promoter-based vector for overexpression of the native repair protein in Escherichia coli. The mouse protein has a tetrapeptide sequence, Pro-Glu-Gly-Val at positions 56-59, absent in the human protein. Neither deletion of this tetrapeptide nor substitution of valine-169 with alanine affected the activity of the mutant proteins.

  18. Synergistic production of L-arabinose from arabinan by the combined use of thermostable endo- and exo-arabinanases from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yu-Ri; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Young-Su; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2011-03-01

    The optimum conditions for the production of L-arabinose from debranched arabinan were determined to be pH 6.5, 75°C, 20 g l(-1) debranched arabinan, 42 Um l(-1) endo-1,5-α-L-arabinanase, and 14 U ml(-1) α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and the conditions for sugar beet arabinan were pH 6.0, 75°C, 20 g l(-1) sugar beet arabinan, 3 U ml(-1) endo-1,5-α-L-arabinanase, and 24 U ml(-1) α-L-arabinofuranosidase. Under the optimum conditions, 16 g l(-1)l-arabinose was obtained from 20 g l(-1) debranched arabinan or sugar beet arabinan after 120 min, with a hydrolysis yield of 80% and a productivity of 8 g l(-1)h(-1). This is the first reported trial for the production of L-arabinose from the hemicellulose arabinan by the combined use of endo- and exo-arabinanases.

  19. cDNA cloning of a human RAB26-related gene encoding a Ras-like GTP-binding protein on chromosome 16p13.3 region.

    PubMed

    Seki, N; Yoshikawa, T; Hattori, A; Miyajima, N; Muramatsu, M; Saito, T

    2000-01-01

    Members of the RAB protein family are important regulators of vesicular fusion and trafficking. A putative new member of the RAB family of genes was identified through a public database search, and its full-length cDNA was isolated from a human fetal brain cDNA library. The predicted protein product of the gene consists of 190 amino acid residues and has 87% identity with rat Rab26. Thus, we designated this gene as the human RAB26-related gene. Reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated that the RAB26-related messenger RNA was predominantly expressed in adult and fetal brain. Furthermore, an RT-PCR experiment for brain subregions showed that the mRNA was highly expressed in the amygdala, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, and hippocampus. By PCR-based analysis with both a human/rodent monochromosomal hybrid cell panel and a radiation hybrid panel, the gene was mapped to the chromosome 16p13.3 region between markers WI-7742 and WI-3061. The RAB26-related gene consists of eight exons that span about 44kb of the genome DNA.

  20. Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Deschampsia antarctica and its expression regulated by cold and UV stresses

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Venegas, Jaime R; Dinamarca, Jorge; Moraga, Ana Gutiérrez; Gidekel, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background The Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) gene, SOD gene, was isolated from a Deschampsia antarctica Desv. by cDNA library screening. The expression of SOD gene in the leaves of D. antarctica was determined by RT-PCR and its differential expression of gene transcripts in conditions of cold and UV radiation stresses was revealed by northern blot. Findings The molecular characterization shows that SOD cDNA is 709 bp in length, which translates an ORF of 152 amino acids that correspond to a protein of predicted molecular mass of 15 kDa. The assay shows that the expression of SOD gene increases when D. antarctica is acclimatised to 4°C and exposed to UV radiation. These results indicate that the SOD gene of D. antarctica is involved in the antioxidative process triggered by oxidative stress induced by the conditions of environmental change in which they live. Conclusion The present results allow us to know the characteristics of Cu/ZnSOD gene from D. antarctica and understand that its expression is regulated by cold and UV radiation. PMID:19785762

  1. Characterization and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a protein related to the murine 102-kDa cadherin-associated protein ([alpha]-catenin)

    SciTech Connect

    Claverie, J.M. ); Hardelin, J.P.; Legouis, R.; Levilliers, J.; Petit, C. ); Bougueleret, L. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1993-01-01

    We report the characterization of a human cDNA encompassing the complete coding region of a 945-residue putative protein (CAP-R) 80% identical to the recently described murine 102-kDa [alpha]-catenin (CAP102). The CAP-R protein mostly differs from CAP102 by the presence of a 48-residue insert. This insert exhibits similarity with a segment of the type 1 neurofibromatosis gene product. The analysis of a publicly available human [open quote]expressed sequence tag[close quotes] collection revealed the existence of another human cDNA more closely related (89% identical) to CAP 102. This strongly suggests that CAP-R is not the human homologue of the murine 102- kDa [alpha]-catenin but a new closely related gene of the vinculin family. This is further supported by the computed mutation rates falling outside the range observed for mammalian orthologous genes. Using in situ hybridization, the CAP-R gene could be mapped to the pll.l-pl2 region of human chromosome 2 and to the homologous B3-D region of mouse chromosome 6. 32 refs., 4 fig.

  2. Cloning and characterisation of cDNA sequences encoding for anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) in Brazilian palaemonid and penaeid shrimps.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Diego; Stoco, Patricia Hermes; Barracco, Margherita Anna

    2008-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are antimicrobial peptides found in limulids and crustaceans that have a potent and broad range of antimicrobial activity. We report here the identification and molecular characterisation of new sequences encoding for ALFs in the haemocytes of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi and also in two Brazilian penaeid species, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti. All obtained sequences encoded for highly cationic peptides containing two conserved cysteine residues flanking a putative LPS-binding domain. They exhibited a significant amino acid similarity with crustacean and limulid ALF sequences, especially with those of penaeid shrimps. This is the first identification of ALF in a freshwater prawn. PMID:18778778

  3. Cloning and characterisation of cDNA sequences encoding for anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) in Brazilian palaemonid and penaeid shrimps.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Diego; Stoco, Patricia Hermes; Barracco, Margherita Anna

    2008-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are antimicrobial peptides found in limulids and crustaceans that have a potent and broad range of antimicrobial activity. We report here the identification and molecular characterisation of new sequences encoding for ALFs in the haemocytes of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi and also in two Brazilian penaeid species, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti. All obtained sequences encoded for highly cationic peptides containing two conserved cysteine residues flanking a putative LPS-binding domain. They exhibited a significant amino acid similarity with crustacean and limulid ALF sequences, especially with those of penaeid shrimps. This is the first identification of ALF in a freshwater prawn.

  4. Partial purification of the chloroplast ATP synthase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the gamma subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase was partially purified from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by extracting membranes with deoxycholate and KCl, followed by centrifugation and ammonium sulfate fractionation of the supernatant. The enzyme assay involved the reconstitution of such fractions with bacteriorhodopsin and soybean phospholipids to form vesicles capable of light-dependent ({sup 32}P)-phosphate esterification. A cDNA for the gamma subunit from Chlamydomonas was isolated, expressed in vitro and sequenced. It contains the entire coding region for the gamma subunit precursor. A 35 amino acid long transit peptide resides at the NH{sub 2}-terminus of a 323 amino acid long mature peptide that is 77% similar to the spinach gamma subunit. Six cysteines were found; three were conserved in Chlamydomonas and spinach.

  5. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane-associated, uronide binding phosphoprotein with physical properties similar to viral movement proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, P; Kunz, B; Paul-Pletzer, K; Grimm, R; Eckerskorn, C; Farmer, E E

    1996-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides are structural and regulatory homopolymers from the extracellular pectic matrix of plants. In vitro micromolar concentrations of oligogalacturonates and polygalacturonates were shown previously to stimulate the phosphorylation of a small plasma membrane-associated protein in potato. Immunologically cross-reactive proteins were detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions from all angiosperm subclasses in the Cronquist system. Polygalacturonate-enhanced phosphorylation of the protein was observed in four of the six dicotyledon subclasses but not in any of the five monocotyledon subclasses. A cDNA for the protein was cloned from potato. The deduced protein is extremely hydrophilic and has a proline-rich N terminus. The C-terminal half of the protein was predicted to be a coiled coil, suggesting that the protein interacts with other macromolecules. The recombinant protein was found to bind both simple and complex galacturonides. The behavior of the protein suggests several parallels with viral proteins involved in intercellular communication. PMID:8989883

  6. Isolation of an additional soybean cDNA encoding Ypt/Rab-related small GTP-binding protein and its functional comparison to Sypt using a yeast ypt1-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Cheong, N E; Lee, D C; Lee, K O; Je, D Y; Bahk, J D; Cho, M J; Lee, S Y

    1996-07-01

    We have previously reported the isolation of a gene from a soybean cDNA library encoding a Ypt/Rab-related small GTP-binding protein, Sypt. Here, we report the isolation of a second Ypt/Rab-related gene, designated Srab2, from the same soybean cDNA library. And we compare the in vivo function of the two soybean genes utilizing a yeast ypt1-1 mutant. The Srab2 gene encodes 211 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 23 169 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Srab2 is closely related to the rat (76%) and human (75%) Rab2 proteins, but it shares relatively little homology to Sypt (46%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypt proteins (41%). Genomic Southern blot analysis using the cDNA insert of Srab2 revealed that it belongs to a multigene family in the soybean genome. The protein encoded by Srab2 gene, when expressed in Escherichia coli, disclosed a GTP-binding activity. The expression pattern of the Srab2 gene is quite different from that of the Sypt gene. The Srab2 gene is predominantly expressed in the plumule region, while expression was very low in the other areas in soybean seedlings. On the other hand, the Sypt mRNA is not detectable in any tissues of soybean seedlings grown in the dark. However, light significantly suppressed the Srab2 gene expression, but enhanced the transcript levels of the Sypt gene in leaf and, at even higher levels, in root tissues. When the Srab2 and Sypt genes are introduced separately into a S cerevisiae defective in vesicular transport function, the Srab2 gene cannot complement the temperature-sensitive yeast ypt1-1 mutation at all, in contrast to the Sypt gene. In conclusion, the difference of functional complementation of the yeast mutation together with differential expression of the two genes suggest that the in vivo roles of the Srab2 and Sypt genes may be different in soybean cells.

  7. Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Tetsuji; Ota, Toshio; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi; Wakamatsu, Ai; Kimura, Kouichi; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Hatano, Naoto; Kawai, Yuri; Ishii, Shizuko; Saito, Kaoru; Kojima, Shin-ichi; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Ono, Tetsuyoshi; Okano, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Aotsuka, Satoshi; Sasaki, Naokazu; Hattori, Atsushi; Okumura, Koji; Nagai, Keiichi; Sugano, Sumio; Isogai, Takao

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an in silico method of selection of human full-length cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. Fullness rates were increased to about 80% by combination of the oligo-capping method and ATGpr, software for prediction of translation start point and the coding potential. Then, using 5'-end single-pass sequences, cDNAs having the signal sequence were selected by PSORT ('signal sequence trap'). We also applied 'secretion or membrane protein-related keyword trap' based on the result of BLAST search against the SWISS-PROT database for the cDNAs which could not be selected by PSORT. Using the above procedures, 789 cDNAs were primarily selected and subjected to full-length sequencing, and 334 of these cDNAs were finally selected as novel. Most of the cDNAs (295 cDNAs: 88.3%) were predicted to encode secretion or membrane proteins. In particular, 165(80.5%) of the 205 cDNAs selected by PSORT were predicted to have signal sequences, while 70 (54.2%) of the 129 cDNAs selected by 'keyword trap' preserved the secretion or membrane protein-related keywords. Many important cDNAs were obtained, including transporters, receptors, and ligands, involved in significant cellular functions. Thus, an efficient method of selecting secretion or membrane protein-encoding cDNAs was developed by combining the above four procedures.

  8. Subunit organization of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 2 (HtH2), and the cDNA sequence encoding its functional units d, e, f, g and h.

    PubMed

    Lieb, B; Altenhein, B; Lehnert, R; Gebauer, W; Markl, J

    1999-10-01

    We have developed a HPLC procedure to isolate the two different hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, PAGE, N-terminal protein sequencing and cDNA sequencing, we have identified eight different 40-60-kDa functional units (FUs) in HtH2, termed HtH2-a to HtH2-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated 400-kDa subunit. From a Haliotis cDNA library, we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone which encodes the five C-terminal FUs d, e, f, g and h of HtH2. As shown by multiple sequence alignments, defg of HtH2 correspond structurally to defg from Octopus dofleini hemocyanin. HtH2-e is the first FU of a gastropod hemocyanin to be sequenced. The new Haliotis hemocyanin sequences are compared to their counterparts in Octopus, Helix pomatia and HtH1 (from the latter, the sequences of FU-f, FU-g and FU-h have recently been determined) and discussed in relation to the recent 2.3 A X-ray structure of FU-g from Octopus hemocyanin and the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the Megathura crenulata hemocyanin didecamer from electron micrographs. This data allows, for the first time, an insight into the evolution of the two functionally different hemocyanin isoforms found in marine gastropods. It appears that they evolved several hundred million years ago within the Prosobranchia, after separation of the latter from the branch leading to the Pulmonata. Moreover, as a structural explanation for the inefficiency of the type 1 hemocyanin to form multidecamers in vivo, the additional N-glycosylation sites in HtH1 compared to HtH2 are discussed. PMID:10491167

  9. Functional expression of a cDNA encoding pea (Pisum sativum L.) raffinose synthase, partial purification of the enzyme from maturing seeds, and steady-state kinetic analysis of raffinose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Peterbauer, Thomas; Mach, Lukas; Mucha, Jan; Richter, Andreas

    2002-09-01

    Raffinose (O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)- O-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl-(1<-->2)- O-beta- D-fructofuranoside) is a widespread oligosaccharide in plant seeds and other tissues. Raffinose synthase (EC 2.4.1.82) is the key enzyme that channels sucrose into the raffinose oligosaccharide pathway. We here report on the isolation of a cDNA encoding for raffinose synthase from maturing pea ( Pisum sativum L.) seeds. The coding region of the cDNA was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 insect cells. The recombinant enzyme, a protein of glycoside hydrolase family 36, displayed similar kinetic properties to raffinose synthase partially purified from maturing seeds by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Apart from the natural galactosyl donor galactinol ( O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->1)- L- myo-inositol), p-nitrophenyl alpha- D-galactopyranoside, an artificial substrate, was utilized as a galactosyl donor. An equilibrium constant of 4.1 was determined for the galactosyl transfer reaction from galactinol to sucrose. Steady-state kinetic analysis suggested that raffinose synthase is a transglycosidase operating by a ping-pong reaction mechanism and may also act as a glycoside hydrolase. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, a potent inhibitor for alpha-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.22). The physiological implications of these observations are discussed.

  10. Amino acid sequence of Coprinus macrorhizus peroxidase and cDNA sequence encoding Coprinus cinereus peroxidase. A new family of fungal peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Baunsgaard, L; Dalbøge, H; Houen, G; Rasmussen, E M; Welinder, K G

    1993-04-01

    Sequence analysis and cDNA cloning of Coprinus peroxidase (CIP) were undertaken to expand the understanding of the relationships of structure, function and molecular genetics of the secretory heme peroxidases from fungi and plants. Amino acid sequencing of Coprinus macrorhizus peroxidase, and cDNA sequencing of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase showed that the mature proteins are identical in amino acid sequence, 343 residues in size and preceded by a 20-residue signal peptide. Their likely identity to peroxidase from Arthromyces ramosus is discussed. CIP has an 8-residue, glycine-rich N-terminal extension blocked with a pyroglutamate residue which is absent in other fungal peroxidases. The presence of pyroglutamate, formed by cyclization of glutamine, and the finding of a minor fraction of a variant form lacking the N-terminal residue, indicate that signal peptidase cleavage is followed by further enzymic processing. CIP is 40-45% identical in amino-acid sequence to 11 lignin peroxidases from four fungal species, and 42-43% identical to the two known Mn-peroxidases. Like these white-rot fungal peroxidases, CIP has an additional segment of approximately 40 residues at the C-terminus which is absent in plant peroxidases. Although CIP is much more similar to horseradish peroxidase (HRP C) in substrate specificity, specific activity and pH optimum than to white-rot fungal peroxidases, the sequences of CIP and HRP C showed only 18% identity. Hence, CIP qualifies as the first member of a new family of fungal peroxidases. The nine invariant residues present in all plant, fungal and bacterial heme peroxidases are also found in CIP. The present data support the hypothesis that only one chromosomal CIP gene exists. In contrast, a large number of secretory plant and fungal peroxidases are expressed from several peroxidase gene clusters. Analyses of three batches of CIP protein and of 49 CIP clones revealed the existence of only two highly similar alleles indicating less

  11. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase from opium poppy, a key enzyme in sanguinarine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-02-15

    Sanguinarine is a benzo[c]phenenthridine alkaloid with potent antimicrobial properties found commonly in plants of the Papaveraceae, including the roots of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Sanguinarine is formed from the central 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediate (S)-reticuline via the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, which undergoes five enzymatic oxidations and an N-methylation. The first four oxidations from (S)-scoulerine are catalyzed by cytochromes P450, whereas the final conversion involves a flavoprotein oxidase. All but one gene in the biosynthetic pathway from (S)-reticuline to sanguinarine has been identified. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase (MSH) from opium poppy based on the transcriptional induction in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures and root-specific expression of the corresponding gene. Along with protopine 6-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the subsequent and penultimate step in sanguinarine biosynthesis, MSH is a member of the CYP82N subfamily of cytochromes P450. The full-length MSH cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the recombinant microsomal protein was tested for enzymatic activity using 25 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids representing a wide range of structural subgroups. The only enzymatic substrates were the N-methylated protoberberine alkaloids N-methylstylopine and N-methylcanadine, which were converted to protopine and allocryptopine, respectively.

  13. Cloning of the cDNA encoding the large subunit of human RNase HI, a homologue of the prokaryotic RNase HII.

    PubMed

    Frank, P; Braunshofer-Reiter, C; Wintersberger, U; Grimm, R; Büsen, W

    1998-10-27

    Two RNases H of mammalian tissues have been described: RNase HI, the activity of which was found to rise during DNA replication, and RNase HII, which may be involved in transcription. RNase HI is the major mammalian enzyme representing around 85% of the total RNase H activity in the cell. By using highly purified calf thymus RNase HI we identified the sequences of several tryptic peptides. This information enabled us to determine the sequence of the cDNA coding for the large subunit of human RNase HI. The corresponding ORF of 897 nt defines a polypeptide of relative molecular mass of 33,367, which is in agreement with the molecular mass obtained earlier by SDS/PAGE. Expression of the cloned ORF in Escherichia coli leads to a polypeptide, which is specifically recognized by an antiserum raised against calf thymus RNase HI. Interestingly, the deduced amino acid sequence of this subunit of human RNase HI displays significant homology to RNase HII from E. coli, an enzyme of unknown function and previously judged as a minor activity. This finding suggests an evolutionary link between the mammalian RNases HI and the prokaryotic RNases HII. The idea of a mammalian RNase HI large subunit being a strongly conserved protein is substantiated by the existence of homologous ORFs in the genomes of other eukaryotes and of all eubacteria and archaebacteria that have been completely sequenced.

  14. Cloning of the cDNA encoding the large subunit of human RNase HI, a homologue of the prokaryotic RNase HII

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Peter; Braunshofer-Reiter, Christa; Wintersberger, Ulrike; Grimm, Rudolf; Büsen, Werner

    1998-01-01

    Two RNases H of mammalian tissues have been described: RNase HI, the activity of which was found to rise during DNA replication, and RNase HII, which may be involved in transcription. RNase HI is the major mammalian enzyme representing around 85% of the total RNase H activity in the cell. By using highly purified calf thymus RNase HI we identified the sequences of several tryptic peptides. This information enabled us to determine the sequence of the cDNA coding for the large subunit of human RNase HI. The corresponding ORF of 897 nt defines a polypeptide of relative molecular mass of 33,367, which is in agreement with the molecular mass obtained earlier by SDS/PAGE. Expression of the cloned ORF in Escherichia coli leads to a polypeptide, which is specifically recognized by an antiserum raised against calf thymus RNase HI. Interestingly, the deduced amino acid sequence of this subunit of human RNase HI displays significant homology to RNase HII from E. coli, an enzyme of unknown function and previously judged as a minor activity. This finding suggests an evolutionary link between the mammalian RNases HI and the prokaryotic RNases HII. The idea of a mammalian RNase HI large subunit being a strongly conserved protein is substantiated by the existence of homologous ORFs in the genomes of other eukaryotes and of all eubacteria and archaebacteria that have been completely sequenced. PMID:9789007

  15. A role for glutamate decarboxylase during tomato ripening: the characterisation of a cDNA encoding a putative glutamate decarboxylase with a calmodulin-binding site.

    PubMed

    Gallego, P P; Whotton, L; Picton, S; Grierson, D; Gray, J E

    1995-03-01

    A tomato fruit cDNA library was differentially screened to identify mRNAs present at higher levels in fruit of the tomato ripening mutant rin (ripening inhibitor). Complete sequencing of a unique clone ERT D1 revealed an open reading frame with homology to several glutamate decarboxylases. The deduced polypeptide sequence has 80% overall amino acid sequence similarity to a Petunia hybrida glutamate decarboxylase (petGAD) which carries a calmodulin-binding site at its carboxyl terminus and ERT D1 appears to have a similar domain. ERT D1 mRNA levels peaked at the first visible sign of fruit colour change during normal tomato ripening and then declined, whereas in fruit of the ripening impaired mutant, rin, accumulation of this mRNA continued until at least 14 days after the onset of ripening. This mRNA was present at much lower levels in other tissues, such as leaves, roots and stem, and was not increased by wounding. Possible roles for GAD, and its product gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in fruit, are discussed.

  16. Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a CDC2-related kinase by complementation of a budding yeast cdc28 mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya-Tsuji, Jun ); Nomoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kunihiro ); Yasuda, Hideyo ); Reed, S.I. )

    1991-10-15

    The authors have cloned two different human cDNAs that can complement cdc28 mutations of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One corresponds to a gene encoding human p34{sup CDC2} kinase, and the other to a gene (CDK2; cell division kinase) that has not been characterized previously. The CDK2 protein is highly homologous to p34{sup CDC2} kinase and more significantly is homologous to Xenopus Eg1 kinase, suggesting that CDK2 is the human homolog of Eg1. The human CDC2 and CDK2 genes were both able to complement the inviability of a null allele of S. cerevisiae CDC28. This result indicates that the CDK2 protein has a biological activity closely related to the CDC28 and p34{sup CDC2} kinases. However, CDK2 was unable to complement cdc2 mutants in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the condition where the human CDC2 gene could complement them. CDK2 mRNA appeared late in G{sub 1} or in early S phase, slightly before CDC2 mRNA, after growth stimulation in normal human fibroblast cells. These results suggest that in human cells, two different CDC2-like kinases may regulate the cell cycle at distinct stages.

  17. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of cDNA encoding cis-prenyltransferases from Hevea brasiliensis. A key factor participating in natural rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Asawatreratanakul, Kasem; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Wititsuwannakul, Dhirayos; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun; Takahashi, Seiji; Rattanapittayaporn, Atiya; Koyama, Tanetoshi

    2003-12-01

    Natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is a high molecular mass polymer of isoprene units with cis-configuration. The enzyme responsible for the cis-1,4-polymerization of isoprene units has been idengified as a particle-bound rubber transferase, but no gene encoding this enzyme has been cloned from rubber-producing plants. By using sequence information from the conserved regions of cis-prenyl chain elongating enzymes that were cloned recently, we have isolated and characterized cDNAs from H. brasiliensis for a functional factor participating in natural rubber biosynthesis. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the five highly conserved regions among cis-prenyl chain elongating enzymes were found in the protein sequences of the Hevea cis-prenyltransferase. Northern blot analysis indicated that the transcript(s) of the Hevea cis-prenyltransferase were expressed predominantly in the latex as compared with other Hevea tissues examined. In vitro rubber transferase assays using the recombinant gene product overexpressed in Escherichia coli revealed that the enzyme catalyzed the formation of long chain polyprenyl products with approximate sizes of 2 x 103-1 x 104 Da. Moreover, in the presence of washed bottom fraction particles from latex, the rubber transferase activity producing rubber product of high molecular size was increased. These results suggest that the Hevea cis-prenyltransferase might require certain activation factors in the washed bottom fraction particles for the production of high molecular mass rubber.

  18. Overproduction, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Abn2, an endo-1,5-α-arabinanase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanctis, Daniele de Bento, Isabel; Inácio, José Manuel; Custódio, Sónia; Sá-Nogueira, Isabel de; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    2008-07-01

    Native and selenomethionine-derivative Abn2 have been expressed, purified and crystallized. Solution of the selenium substructure allowed the calculation of an initial experimental map at 2.7 Å resolution. Two Bacillus subtilis extracellular endo-1,5-α-l-arabinanases, AbnA and Abn2, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 have been identified. The recently characterized Abn2 protein hydrolyzes arabinan and has low identity to other reported 1,5-α-l-arabinanases. Abn2 and its selenomethionine (SeMet) derivative have been purified and crystallized. Crystals appeared in two different space groups: P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.9, b = 57.6, c = 86.2 Å, α = 82.3, β = 87.9, γ = 63.6°, and P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.9, b = 163.3, c = 202.0 Å. X-ray data have been collected for the native and the SeMet derivative to 1.9 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively. An initial model of Abn2 is being built in the SeMet-phased map.

  19. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein/Apolipoprotein E receptor and assignment of the gene to chromosome 9pter-p23[sup 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gafvels, M.E.; Strauss, J.F. III ); Caird, M.; Patterson, D. ); Britt, D.; Jackson, C.L. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors report the cloning of a 3656-bp cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor. The gene encoding this protein was mapped to chromosome 9pter-p23. Northern analysis of human RNA identified cognate mRNAs of 6.0 and 3.8 kb with most abundant expression in heart and skeletal muscle, followed by kidney, placenta, pancreas, and brain. The pattern of expression generally paralleled that of lipoprotein lipase mRNA but differed from that of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/[alpha][sub 2]-macroglobulin receptor (LRP), which are members of the same gene family. VLDL/ApoE receptor message was not detected in liver, whereas mRNAs for both LDL receptor and LRP were found in hepatic tissue. In mouse 3T3-L1 cells, VLDL/ApoE receptor mRNA was induced during the transformation of the cells into adipocytes. Expression was also detected in human choriocarcinoma cells, suggesting that at least part of the expression observed in placenta may be in trophoblasts, cells which would be exposed to maternal blood. Expression in brain may be related to high levels of ApoE expression in that organ, an observation of potential relevance to the recently hypothesized role for ApoE in late onset Alzheimer disease. The results suggest that the putative VLDL/ApoE receptor could play a role in the uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles by specific organs including striated and cardiac muscle and adipose tissue and in the transport of maternal lipids across the placenta. The findings presented here, together with recent observations from other laboratories, bring up the possibility that a single gene, the VLDL/ApoE receptor, may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and obesity.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding an auxin influx carrier in carnation cuttings. Expression in different organs and cultivars and its relationship with cold storage.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Valenzuela, María Del Rocío; Reyes, David; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Acosta, Manuel; Nicolás, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) is necessary for the formation of adventitious roots in the base of leafy stem cuttings, as has been demonstrated in several studies in which the application of PAT inhibitors strongly inhibited the rooting of cuttings. However, unlike in the case of lateral roots, there is almost no information on the molecular mechanism that controls PAT in the formation of adventitious roots. A novel cDNA encoding an auxin influx carrier has been isolated and characterized from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cuttings. The full length of DcAUX1 was obtained and the deduced aminoacid sequence revealed a high degree of identity with the corresponding auxin carrier proteins from several species. The expression of this gene depended on the organ, the carnation cultivar and the length of time cuttings had been stored in a cold chamber. As a rule, expression was higher in stem than in leaves, in the basal than in the first internode and in mature than in young leaves irrespective of the cultivar and the duration of the storage. This pattern of expression agrees with the results of a previous study showing that auxin from mature leaves was essential for rooting, while exogenous auxin applied to mature leaves was polarly transported in the stem and accumulated in the basal internode (the rooting zone). Variations in the expression observed during storage (depending of the cultivar) might be related to the variation in PAT and rooting reported in previous studies.

  1. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding human SPH-binding factor, a conserved protein that binds to the enhancer-like region of the U6 small nuclear RNA gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J C; Engler, S K; Hargrove, B W; Kunkel, G R

    1998-11-01

    Many vertebrate small nuclear RNA gene promoters contain an SPH motif in their distal control regions that can confer transcriptional stimulation by RNA polymerase II or RNA polymerase III. Using the human U6 gene SPH motif as a probe, we isolated a cDNA encoding human SPH-binding factor (hSBF) from a HeLa cell expression library. The coding region of hSBF is almost identical to ZNF143, a 626 amino acid, seven zinc finger protein of previously unknown function. Furthermore, the predicted amino acid sequence of hSBF is highly homologous to Xenopus laevis and mouse Staf proteins, that bind to SPH motifs and stimulate transcription of selenocysteine tRNA gene promoters. Recombinant hSBF expressed in vitro or from Escherichia coli bound specifically to the human U6 gene SPH motif as shown by DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays using various mutant SPH sites as competitors. Antibodies prepared against recombinant hSBF inhibited assembly of native SBF-DNA complexes. Immunodepleted HeLa S100 transcription extract no longer supported elevated levels of transcription by RNA polymerase III from a U6 promoter containing an SPH motif, whereas addition of recombinant hSBF protein to the immunodepleted extract reconstituted stimulated transcription.

  2. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  3. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  4. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  5. Cloning and analysis of a cDNA encoding an endo-polygalacturonase expressed during the desiccation period of the silique-valves of turnip-tops (Brassica rapa L. cv. Rapa).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gacio, María del Carmen; Nicolás, Carlos; Matilla, Angel J

    2004-02-01

    During zygotic embryogenesis of turnip-tops (Brassica rapa L. cv. Rapa), the polygalacturonase activity (PG; EC 3.2.1.15), measured as a decrease in viscosity of polygalacturonic acid, reached a high when the desiccation process in the seeded silique was triggered and the valves had lost more than 70-75% of their moisture (45-50 DPA). The PG activity was not detected in any phases of developing seeds. This work also characterizes a cDNA with an open reading frame of 1303 bp and that codes for a putative PG called BrPG1. This falls into the category of clade-B, which includes PG related to shattering and abscission processes. The deduced BrPG1 sequence predicted a 434-residue-long precursor protein (46.7kDa) with a transit peptide sequence 23 amino acids long. A molecular mass of 44.3 kDa was calculated for the mature form of BrPG1, which showed high sequence similarity to PGA1 (97%) of B. napus (X98373) and ADPG1 (87%) of Arabidopsis thaliana (AJ002532). All conserved amino acids at the catalytic site of PGs belonging to clade-B were preserved on BrPG1. This BrPG1 gene was specifically expressed in the silique valves of turnip-tops and was temporally expressed at the beginning of its desiccation.

  6. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

  7. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  8. Cloning of cDNA and genomic DNA encoding human type XVIII collagen and localization of the [alpha]1 (XVIII) collagen gene to mouse chromosome 10 and human chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, S.P.; Warman, M.L.; Timmons, S.; Olsen, B.R.; Knoll, J.H.M. ); Seldin, M.F. ); Cheng, Sou-De )

    1994-02-01

    Types XV and XVIII collagen belong to a unique and novel subclass of the collagen superfamily for which the authors have proposed the name the MULTIPLEXIN family. Members of this class contain polypeptides with multiple triple-helical domains separated and flanked by non-triple-helical regions. In this paper, they report the isolation of human cDNAs and genomic DNAs encoding the [alpha]1 (XVIII) collagen chain. Utilizing a genomic clone as probe, they have mapped the COL18A1 gene to chromosome 21q22.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, using an interspecific backcross panel, they have shown that the murine Col18a1 locus is on chromosome 10, close to the loci for Col6a1 and Col6a2. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Molecular Cloning of cDNA Encoding an Aquaglyceroporin, AQP-h9, in the Japanese Tree Frog, Hyla japonica: Possible Roles of AQP-h9 in Freeze Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Atsushi; Takiya, Yu; Sakamoto, Joe; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Okada, Reiko

    2015-06-01

    In order to study the freeze-tolerance mechanism in the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica, wecloned a eDNA encoding aquaporin (AQP) 9 from its liver. The predicted amino acid sequence ofH. japonica AQP9 (AQP-h9) contained six putative transmembrane domains and two conservedAsn-Pro-Aia motifs, which are characteristic of AQPs. A swelling assay using Xenopus laevisoocytes injected with AQP-h9 cRNA showed that AQP-h9 facilitated water and glycerol permeation,confirming its property as an aquaglyceroporin. Subsequently, glycerol concentrations in serumand tissue extracts were compared among tree frogs that were hibernating, frozen, or thawed afterfreezing. Serum glycerol concentration of thawed frogs was significantly higher than that of hibernatingfrogs. Glycerol content in the liver did not change in the freezing experiment, whereas thatin the skeletal muscle was elevated in thawed frogs as compared with hibernating or frozen frogs. Histological examination of the liver showed that erythrocytes aggregated in the sinusoids during hibernation and freezing, and immunoreactive AQP-h9 protein was detected over the erythrocytes. The AQP-h9 labeling was more intense in frozen frogs than in hibernating frogs, but nearly undetectable in thawed frogs. For the skeletal muscle, weak labels for AQP-h9 were observed in the cytoplasm of myocytes of hibernating frogs. AQP-h9 labeling was markedly enhanced by freezing and was decreased by thawing. These results indicate that glycerol may act as a c;:ryoprotectant in H. japonica and that during hibernation, particularly during freezing, AQP-h9 may be involved in glycerol uptake in erythrocytes in the liver and in intracellular glycerol transport in the skeletal muscle cells. PMID:26402924

  10. Rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase. CDNA cloning, primary structure and detection of human homologues.

    PubMed

    Putney, S; Herlihy, W; Royal, N; Pang, H; Aposhian, H V; Pickering, L; Belagaje, R; Biemann, K; Page, D; Kuby, S

    1984-12-10

    A cDNA library was constructed from rabbit muscle poly(A) RNA. Limited amino acid sequence information was obtained on rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase and this was the basis for design and synthesis of two oligonucleotide probes complementary to a creatine kinase cDNA sequence which encodes a pentapeptide. Colony hybridizations with the probes and subsequent steps led to isolation of two clones, whose cDNA segments partially overlap and which together encode the entire protein. The primary structure was established from the sequence of two cDNA clones and from independently determined sequences of scattered portions of the polypeptide. The reactive cysteine has been located to position 282 within the 380 amino acid polypeptide. The rabbit cDNA hybridizes to digests of human chromosomal DNA. This reveals a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with the human homologue(s) which hybridizes to the rabbit cDNA.

  11. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  12. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  13. Tilapia growth hormone: molecular cloning of cDNA and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rentier-Delrue, F; Swennen, D; Philippart, J C; L'Hoir, C; Lion, M; Benrubi, O; Martial, J A

    1989-05-01

    A cDNA library was prepared from poly(A)+RNA extracted from tilapia Oreochromis niloticus anterior pituitaries. The recombinant clones carrying the cDNA sequence of tilapia growth hormone (tiGH) were selected using a fragment of the trout growth hormone (tGH) cDNA as hybridization probe. The nucleotide sequence of the full-length tiGH cDNA was determined. This cDNA encodes a protein of 204 amino acids, including the putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. Mature tiGH cDNA was inserted in an Escherichia coli expression vector which led to the production of tiGH protein with a yield estimated to be 20% of the total bacterial proteins. PMID:2670496

  14. Cloning and expresion of cDNA for rat O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sakumi, K; Shiraishi, A; Hayakawa, H; Sekiguchi, M

    1991-10-25

    cDNA for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was isolated by screening rat liver cDNA libraries, using as a probe the human cDNA sequence for methyltransferase. The rat cDNA encodes a protein with 209 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of the rat methyltransferase exhibits considerable homology with those of the human, yeast and bacterial enzymes, especially around putative methyl acceptor sites. When the cDNA was placed under control of the lac promoter and expressed in methyltransferase-deficient Escherichia coli (ada-, ogt-) cells, a characteristic methyltransferase protein was produced. The rat DNA methyltransferase thus expressed could complement the biological defects of the E. coli cell caused by lack of its own DNA methyltransferases; e.g. increased sensitivity to alkylating agents in terms of both cell death and mutation induction.

  15. Encoding Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes problems in devising a Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) encoding format for dictionaries. Asserts that the high degree of structuring and compression of information are among the most complex text types treated in the TEI. Concludes that the source of some TEI problems lies in the design of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). (CFR)

  16. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Permutt, M.A.; Koranyi, L.; Keller, K.; Lacy, P.E.; Scharp, D.W.; Mueckler, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-K{sub m}, low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  17. Molecular cloning of lungfish proopiomelanocortin cDNA.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Y; Takahashi, A; Meguro, H; Kawauchi, H

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the evolution of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) from fish to tetrapods, nucleotide sequence of POMC cDNA from a lobe-finned fish, the African lungfish, was determined. POMC cDNA was prepared from lungfish pituitary glands. The POMC cDNA is composed of 1114 bp, excluding a poly-A tail, and encodes 255 amino acids (aa) including a signal peptide of 25 aa. The lungfish POMC contains the segment corresponding to gamma-melanotropin (MSH), corticotropin, alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, and beta-endorphin at positions (50-61), (108-146), (108-120), (178-194), and (197-230), respectively. The lungfish POMC shows greater sequence identity on average with amphibian (62%), ancient ray-finned fishes including acipenseriformes and semionotiformes (62%), and mammalian POMC (52%) than with teleostean (49%), elasmobranch (46%), and agnathan POMC (31%). Thus, the overall structural feature of lungfish POMC is close to the tetrapod POMCs which contain gamma-MSH and the ancient ray-finned fishes POMCs containing gamma-MSH-like sequence. However, amino acid sequence of lungfish beta-endorphin exhibits properties which are specifically observed in the ray-finned fishes and the elasmobranchs.

  18. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for carrot extensin and a proline-rich 33-kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Varner, J.E.

    1985-07-01

    Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins associated with most dicotyledonous plant cell walls. To isolate cDNA clones encoding extensin, the authors started by isolating poly(A) RNA from carrot root tissue, and then translating the RNA in vitro, in the presence of tritiated leucine or proline. A 33-kDa peptide was identified in the translation products as a putative extensin precursor. From a cDNA library constructed with poly(A) RNA from wounded carrots, one cDNA clone (pDC5) was identified that specifically hybridized to poly(A) RNA encoding this 33-kDa peptide. They isolated three cDNA clones (pDC11, pDC12, and pDC16) from another cDNA library using pCD5 as a probe. DNA sequence data, RNA hybridization analysis, and hybrid released in vitro translation indicate that the cDNA clones pDC11 encodes extensin and that cDNA clones pDC12 and pDC16 encode the 33-kDa peptide, which as yet has an unknown identity and function. The assumption that the 33-kDa peptide was an extensin precursor was invalid. RNA hybridization analysis showed that RNA encoded by both clone types is accumulated upon wounding.

  19. Human DNA ligase I cDNA: Cloning and functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.E.; Kodama, Kenichi; Tomkinson, A.E.; Lindahl, T.; Lasko, D.D. ); Johnston, L.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Human cDNA clones encoding the major DNA ligase activity in proliferating cells, DNA ligase I, were isolated by two independent methods. In one approach, a human cDNA library was screened by hybridization with oligonucleotides deduced from partial amino acid sequence of purified bovine DNA ligase I. In an alternative approach, a human cDNA library was screened for functional expression of a polypeptide able to complement a cdc9 temperature-sensitive DNA ligase mutant of Saccharomuces cerevisiae. The sequence of an apparently full-length cDNA encodes a 102-kDa protein, indistinguishable in size from authentic human DNA ligase I. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human DNA ligase I cDNA is 40% homologous to the smaller DNA ligases of S. cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, homology being confined to the carboxyl-terminal regions of the respective proteins. Hybridization between the cloned sequences and mRNA and genomic DNA indicates that the human enzyme is transcribed from a single-copy gene on chromosome 19.

  20. cDNA cloning of rat and human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Y.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-05-01

    MCAD is one of three mitochondrial flavoenzymes which catalyze the first step in the ..beta..-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. It is a tetramer with a subunit Mr of 45 kDa. MCAD is synthesized in the cytosol as a 49 kDa precursor polypeptide (pMCAD), imported into mitochondria, and cleaved to the mature form. Genetic deficiency of MCAD causes recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic coma accompanied by medium chain dicarboxylic aciduria. Employing a novel approach, the authors now report isolation of partial rat and human cDNA clones encoding pMCAD. mRNA encoding pMCAD was purified to near homogeneity by polysome immunoadsorption using polyclonal monospecific antibody. Single-stranded (/sup 32/P)labeled cDNA probe was synthesized using the enriched mRNA as template, and was used to screen directly 16,000 colonies from a total rat liver cDNA library constructed in pBR322. One clone (600 bp) was detected by in situ hybridization. Hybrid-selected translation with this cDNA yielded a 49 kDa polypeptide indistinguishable in size from rat pMCAD and immunoprecipitable with anti-MCAD antibody. Using the rat cDNA as probe, 43,000 colonies from a human liver cDNA library were screened. Four identical positive clones (400 bp) were isolated and positively identified by hybrid-selected translation and immunoprecipitation. The sizes of rat and human mRNAs encoding pMCAD were 2.2 kb and 2.4 kb, respectively, as determined by Northern blotting.

  1. Cloning and Expression of cDNA for Rat Heme Oxygenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahara, Shigeki; Muller, Rita; Taguchi, Hayao; Yoshida, Tadashi

    1985-12-01

    Two cDNA clones for rat heme oxygenase have been isolated from a rat spleen cDNA library in λ gt11 by immunological screening using a specific polyclonal antibody. One of these clones has an insert of 1530 nucleotides that contains the entire protein-coding region. To confirm that the isolated cDNA encodes heme oxygenase, we transfected monkey kidney cells (COS-7) with the cDNA carried in a simian virus 40 vector. The heme oxygenase was highly expressed in endoplasmic reticulum of transfected cells. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cDNA was determined and the primary structure of heme oxygenase was deduced. Heme oxygenase is composed of 289 amino acids and has one hydrophobic segment at its carboxyl terminus, which is probably important for the insertion of heme oxygenase into endoplasmic reticulum. The cloned cDNA was used to analyze the induction of heme oxygenase in rat liver by treatment with CoCl2 or with hemin. RNA blot analysis showed that both CoCl2 and hemin increased the amount of hybridizable mRNA, suggesting that these substances may act at the transcriptional level to increase the amount of heme oxygenase.

  2. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.D.; Scott-Craig, J.S.

    1999-10-26

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with vectors and seeds from the plants.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a calreticulin cDNA from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xundong; Zhuo, Kan; Luo, Mei; Sun, Longhua; Liao, Jinling

    2011-06-01

    The cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a calreticulin from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is described herein. The full-length cDNA (Bx-crt-1) contained a 1200 bp open reading frame that could be translated to a 399 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced protein contained highly conserved regions of a calreticulin gene and had 66.2-70.1% amino acid sequence identity to other calreticulin sequences from nematodes. RNAi, RT-PCR amplification, and southern blot suggest that Bx-crt-1 may be important for the development of B. xylophilus. PMID:21371475

  4. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA coding for dianthin 30, a ribosome inactivating protein from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    PubMed

    Legname, G; Bellosta, P; Gromo, G; Modena, D; Keen, J N; Roberts, L M; Lord, J M

    1991-08-27

    Rabbit antibodies raised against dianthin 30, a ribosome inactivating protein from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) leaves, were used to identify a full length dianthin precursor cDNA clone from a lambda gt11 expression library. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of purified dianthin 30 and dianthin 32 confirmed that the clone encoded dianthin 30. The cDNA was 1153 basepairs in length and encoded a precursor protein of 293 amino acid residues. The first 23 N-terminal amino acids of the precursor represented the signal sequence. The protein contained a carboxy-terminal region which, by analogy with barley lectin, may contain a vacuolar targeting signal.

  5. Screening a cDNA Library for Protein–Protein Interactions Directly in Planta[W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lan-Ying; Wu, Fu-Hui; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Shen, Shu-Chen; Yeh, Hsuan-Yu; Liao, De-Chih; Fang, Mei-Jane; Liu, Nien-Tze; Yen, Yu-Chen; Dokládal, Ladislav; Sýkorová, Eva; Gelvin, Stanton B.; Lin, Choun-Sea

    2012-01-01

    Screening cDNA libraries for genes encoding proteins that interact with a bait protein is usually performed in yeast. However, subcellular compartmentation and protein modification may differ in yeast and plant cells, resulting in misidentification of protein partners. We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation technology to screen a plant cDNA library against a bait protein directly in plants. As proof of concept, we used the N-terminal fragment of yellow fluorescent protein– or nVenus-tagged Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirE2 and VirD2 proteins and the C-terminal extension (CTE) domain of Arabidopsis thaliana telomerase reverse transcriptase as baits to screen an Arabidopsis cDNA library encoding proteins tagged with the C-terminal fragment of yellow fluorescent protein. A library of colonies representing ∼2 × 105 cDNAs was arrayed in 384-well plates. DNA was isolated from pools of 10 plates, individual plates, and individual rows and columns of the plates. Sequential screening of subsets of cDNAs in Arabidopsis leaf or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 protoplasts identified single cDNA clones encoding proteins that interact with either, or both, of the Agrobacterium bait proteins, or with CTE. T-DNA insertions in the genes represented by some cDNAs revealed five novel Arabidopsis proteins important for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. We also used this cDNA library to confirm VirE2-interacting proteins in orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis) flowers. Thus, this technology can be applied to several plant species. PMID:22623495

  6. Screening a cDNA library for protein-protein interactions directly in planta.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lan-Ying; Wu, Fu-Hui; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Shen, Shu-Chen; Yeh, Hsuan-Yu; Liao, De-Chih; Fang, Mei-Jane; Liu, Nien-Tze; Yen, Yu-Chen; Dokládal, Ladislav; Sykorová, Eva; Gelvin, Stanton B; Lin, Choun-Sea

    2012-05-01

    Screening cDNA libraries for genes encoding proteins that interact with a bait protein is usually performed in yeast. However, subcellular compartmentation and protein modification may differ in yeast and plant cells, resulting in misidentification of protein partners. We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation technology to screen a plant cDNA library against a bait protein directly in plants. As proof of concept, we used the N-terminal fragment of yellow fluorescent protein- or nVenus-tagged Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirE2 and VirD2 proteins and the C-terminal extension (CTE) domain of Arabidopsis thaliana telomerase reverse transcriptase as baits to screen an Arabidopsis cDNA library encoding proteins tagged with the C-terminal fragment of yellow fluorescent protein. A library of colonies representing ~2 × 10(5) cDNAs was arrayed in 384-well plates. DNA was isolated from pools of 10 plates, individual plates, and individual rows and columns of the plates. Sequential screening of subsets of cDNAs in Arabidopsis leaf or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 protoplasts identified single cDNA clones encoding proteins that interact with either, or both, of the Agrobacterium bait proteins, or with CTE. T-DNA insertions in the genes represented by some cDNAs revealed five novel Arabidopsis proteins important for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. We also used this cDNA library to confirm VirE2-interacting proteins in orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis) flowers. Thus, this technology can be applied to several plant species. PMID:22623495

  7. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of opine dehydrogenases from the polychaete rockworm Marphysa sanguinea.

    PubMed

    Endo, Noriyuki; Kan-no, Nobuhiro; Nagahisa, Eizoh

    2007-06-01

    Alanopine dehydrogenase (AlDH) and three isoforms of strombine/alanopine dehydrogenase (St/AlDH) were purified from muscle tissue of the polychaete rockworm Marphysa sanguinea. The four enzymes, which can be distinguished by the isoelectric point, are monomeric 42 kDa proteins, possess similar pH-activity profiles, and display specificity for pyruvate and NAD(H). The three isoforms of St/AlDH show equivalent Km and Vmax for glycine and L-alanine and for D-strombine and meso-alanopine. Free amino acid levels in the muscle and D-strombine accumulation in vivo during muscle activity suggest that St/AlDHs function physiologically as StDH. AlDH shows specificity for L-alanine and meso-alanopine, but not for glycine or D-strombine. The amino acid sequences of AlDH and one of the St/AlDH isoforms were determined by a combination of amino acid sequence analysis and cDNA cloning. St/AlDH cDNA consisted of 1586 bp nucleotides that encode a 399-residue protein (43,346.70 Da), and AlDH cDNA consisted of 1587 bp nucleotides that encode a 399-residue protein (43,886.68 Da). The two amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNA displayed 67% amino acid identity, with greatest similarity to that of tauropine dehydrogenase from the polychaete Arabella iricolor. PMID:17350870

  8. Expression cloning of the murine interferon gamma receptor cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, S; Maniatis, T

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a receptor for murine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was isolated from an expression library made from murine thymocytes. The clone was identified by transfecting the library into monkey COS cells and probing the transfected monolayer with radiolabeled murine IFN-gamma. Cells expressing the receptor were identified by autoradiography and plasmids encoding the receptor were directly rescued from those cells producing a positive signal. A partial cDNA so obtained was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from mouse L929 cells by conventional means. When this cDNA was expressed in COS cells it produced a specific binding site for murine IFN-gamma with an affinity constant similar to that of the receptor found on L929 cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of the murine IFN-gamma receptor shows homology to that previously reported for the human IFN-gamma receptor. However, although the two proteins are clearly related, they show less than 60% identity in both the putative extracellular domain and the intracellular domain. Images PMID:2531896

  9. Infectious Japanese encephalitis virus RNA can be synthesized from in vitro-ligated cDNA templates.

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, H; Hoke, C H; Trent, D W

    1992-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a positive-stranded enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. Genomic JEV RNA is approximately 11 kb long and encodes 10 proteins, 3 structural and 7 nonstructural. A full-length cDNA copy of the JEV genome was constructed by in vitro ligation of two cDNA fragments which encode the 5' (nucleotide positions 1 to 5576) and 3' (nucleotide positions 5577 to 10976) halves of the genome. T7 RNA polymerase transcripts of the ligated full-length cDNA template were infectious when transfected into BHK-21 cells. To identify the recombinant virus, a silent mutation was introduced into the clone encoding the 3' half of the genome, which abolished an XbaI site at nucleotide position 9131. Virus recovered by transfection with the transcripts contained this silent mutation, confirming its identity. Recombinant and parent viruses were identical with respect to growth and plaque production in BHK-21 cells, envelope protein expression in C6/36 cells, and neurovirulence and immunogenicity in mice. Repeated attempts to obtain infectious RNA by transcription from full-length JEV genome cDNA templates cloned into plasmid vectors were unsuccessful. Synthesis of infectious JEV RNA from in vitro-ligated JEV cDNA templates will be useful for molecular and genetic studies of flavivirus replication and virulence. Images PMID:1501281

  10. Lysosomal {beta}-mannosidase: cDNA cloning and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Leipprandt, J.R.; Traviss, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-mannosidase is an exoglycosidase that cleaves the single {beta}-linked mannose residue from the non-reducing end of all N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharides. Deficiency of this enzyme results in {beta}-mannosidosis, a severe neurodegenerative disease in goats and cattle. The human cases described have a milder, highly variable presentation. Study of the molecular pathology of this disease in ruminants and humans and development of the animal model for gene therapy studies required cloning of the gene for {beta}-mannosidase has been cloned. {beta}-Mannosidase cDNA were obtained from a bovine thyroid cDNA library by screening with mixed oligonucleotides derived from peptide sequences resulting from microsequencing of bovine {beta}-mannosidase peptides. A total of six independent positive clones were identified from 5 x 10{sup 5} plaques, covering about 80% of the C-terminal region. The missing 5{prime} region was obtained using 5{prime} RACE. The full-length construct contains 3852-bp nucleotides, encoding 879 amino acids. The initiation codon is followed by 17 amino acids containing the characteristics of a typical signal peptide sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence is colinear with all peptide sequences determined by protein microsequencing. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.2 kb single transcript in various tissues from both normal and affected goats and calves. The mRNA level was decreased in affected {beta}-mannosidosis animals. The gene encoding {beta}-mannosidase was localized on human chromosome 4 by Southern analysis of rodent/human somatic cell hybrids. The mutation in bovine {beta}-mannosidosis has been identified. This is the first report of cloning of the {beta}-mannosidase gene.

  11. (Structure and expression of nuclear genes encoding rubisco activase)

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Our activities during the past year have centered around two basic aspects of the project: describing more thoroughly the diurnal and light irradiance effects on activase gene expression in barley; and isolating and structurally characterizing cDNA and genomic DNA sequences encoding activase from barley. Three appendices are included that summarize these activities.

  12. DNA encoding for plant digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Benning, Christoph; Doermann, Peter

    2003-11-04

    The cDNA encoding digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase (DGD1) is provided. The deduced amino acid sequence is also provided. Methods of making and using DGD1 to screen for new herbicides and alter a plant's leaf lipid composition are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNA clones isolated from pea cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D; Penton, A; Dunsmuir, P; Dooner, H

    1997-02-01

    Three ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPG-PPase) cDNA clones have been isolated and characterized from a pea cotyledon cDNA library. Two of these clones (Psagps1 and Psagps2) encode the small subunit of ADPG-PPase. The deduced amino acid sequences for these two clones are 95% identical. Expression of these two genes differs in that the Psagps2 gene shows comparatively higher expression in seeds relative to its expression in other tissues. Psagps2 expression also peaks midway through seed development at a time in which Psagps1 transcripts are still accumulating. The third cDNA isolated (Psagp11) encodes the large subunit of ADPG-PPase. It shows greater selectivity in expression than either of the small subunit clones. It is highly expressed in sink organs (seed, pod, and seed coat) and undetectable in leaves.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for a harvest-induced asparagine synthetase from Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, K M; King, G A

    1993-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone (pTIP27) encoding asparagine synthetase (AS; EC 6.3.5.4) was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the tip section (apex to 30 mm) of Asparagus officinalis L. spears. The cDNA clone encodes an mRNA of 1978 bp, giving a derived protein of 66.5 kD molecular mass. The derived amino acid sequence is 81% homologous to AS from Pisum sativum. Only low levels of transcript for AS could be detected in growing spears, roots, or ferns. However, AS mRNA levels began to increase in the tips of harvested spears after 2 h at 20 degrees C, and in the other sections of the spear after 4 h, suggesting that all sections of the spear were responding to the same postharvest signal. The results are discussed in relation to metabolic changes occurring in harvested spears. PMID:7904077

  15. cDNA cloning and characterization of a gibberellin-responsive gene in hypocotyls of Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Chono, M; Yamauchi, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yamane, H; Murofushi, N

    1996-07-01

    A cDNA clone corresponding to a gibberellin-responsive gene (CRG16) was isolated from cucumber hypocotyls. CRG16 was deduced to encode an extremely hydrophobic protein of 65 amino acids. The deduced sequence exhibited no significant homology to other proteins. Levels of CRG16 mRNA reflected the gibberellin-induced elongation of cucumber hypocotyls.

  16. Isolation of human cDNA clones of ski and the ski-related gene, sno.

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, N; Sasamoto, S; Ishii, S; Date, T; Matsui, M; Ishizaki, R

    1989-01-01

    cDNA clones of ski and the ski-related gene, sno, were obtained by screening human cDNA libraries. The predicted open reading frame of h-ski could encode a protein of 728 amino acid residues. The h-ski protein is highly homologous with the v-ski protein. The overall homology between h-ski and v-ski is 91% at the amino acid level. DNA sequencing analysis revealed two types of cDNA clones from the sno (ski-related novel gene) gene, possibly due to alternative splicing. The first type, named snoN (non Alu-containing), encoded a protein of 684 amino acid residues. The second type, named snoA (Alu-containing), encoded a protein of 415 amino acid residues. The first 366 amino acid residues of snoN and snoA are the same, but subsequent amino acids show divergence. Several transcripts of h-ski (6.0, 4.7, 3.8, 3.0, 2.1 and 1.8 kb) were detected. The mRNAs of h-sno were 6.2, 4.4 and 3.2kb. Images PMID:2762147

  17. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    DOEpatents

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

  18. Purification and cDNA Cloning of Isochorismate Synthase from Elicited Cell Cultures of Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    van Tegelen, Léon J.P.; Moreno, Paolo R.H.; Croes, Anton F.; Verpoorte, Robert; Wullems, George J.

    1999-01-01

    Isochorismate is an important metabolite formed at the end of the shikimate pathway, which is involved in the synthesis of both primary and secondary metabolites. It is synthesized from chorismate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme isochorismate synthase (ICS; EC 5.4.99.6). We have purified ICS to homogeneity from elicited Catharanthus roseus cell cultures. Two isoforms with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kD were purified and characterized. The Km values for chorismate were 558 and 319 μm for isoforms I and II, respectively. The isoforms were not inhibited by aromatic amino acids and required Mg2+ for enzyme activity. Polymerase chain reaction on a cDNA library from elicited C. roseus cells with a degenerated primer based on the sequence of an internal peptide from isoform II resulted in an amplification product that was used to screen the cDNA library. This led to the first isolation, to our knowledge, of a plant ICS cDNA. The cDNA encodes a protein of 64 kD with an N-terminal chloroplast-targeting signal. The deduced amino acid sequence shares homology with bacterial ICS and also with anthranilate synthases from plants. Southern analysis indicates the existence of only one ICS gene in C. roseus. PMID:9952467

  19. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human argininosuccinate lyase.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, W E; McInnes, R; Kalumuck, K; Adcock, M

    1986-01-01

    Using antibodies specific for argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1), we isolated two cDNA clones by screening a human liver cDNA library constructed in the lambda gt11 expression vector. The identity of these isolates was confirmed by in vitro translation of plasmid-selected mRNA. One of these isolates was used to rescreen the cDNA library and a 1565-base-pair (bp) clone was identified. The entire nucleotide sequence of this clone was determined. An open reading frame was identified which encoded a protein of 463 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 51,663. The clone included 115 bp of 5' untranslated sequence and 46 bp of 3' untranslated sequence. A canonical poly(A) addition site was present in the 3' end, 16 bp from the beginning of the poly(A) tract. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the human enzyme with that of the yeast enzyme revealed a 56% homology, when conservative amino acid changes were taken into consideration. The yeast protein is also 463 amino acids long, with a molecular weight of 51,944. By use of a genomic DNA panel from human-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids, the human gene was mapped to chromosome 7. Another hybridizing region, corresponding to a portion of the 5' end of the cDNA, was found on chromosome 22. Images PMID:3463959

  20. Cloning and characterization of the lectin cDNA clones from onion, shallot and leek.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, E J; Smeets, K; Engelborghs, I; Aelbers, H; Balzarini, J; Pusztai, A; van Leuven, F; Goldstein, I J; Peumans, W J

    1993-10-01

    Characterization of the lectins from onion (Allium cepa), shallot (A. ascalonicum) and leek (A. porrum) has shown that these lectins differ from previously isolated Alliaceae lectins not only in their molecular structure but also in their ability to inhibit retrovirus infection of target cells. cDNA libraries constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA isolated from young shoots of onion, shallot and leek were screened for lectin cDNA clones using colony hybridization. Sequence analysis of the lectin cDNA clones from these three species revealed a high degree of sequence similarity both at the nucleotide and at the amino acid level. Apparently the onion, shallot and leek lectins are translated from mRNAs of ca. 800 nucleotides. The primary translation products are preproproteins (ca. 19 kDa) which are converted into the mature lectin polypeptides (12.5-13 kDa) after post-translational modifications. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA has shown that the lectins are most probably encoded by a family of closely related genes which is in good agreement with the sequence heterogeneity found between different lectin cDNA clones of one species.

  1. A compilation of partial sequences of randomly selected cDNA clones from the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Y; Nakashima, M; Amizuka, N; Warshawsky, H; Goltzman, D; Yamada, K M; Yamada, Y

    1995-01-01

    The formation of tooth organs is regulated by a series of developmental programs. We have initiated a genome project with the ultimate goal of identifying novel genes important for tooth development. As an initial approach, we constructed a unidirectional cDNA library from the non-calcified portion of incisors of 3- to 4-week-old rats, sequenced cDNA clones, and classified their sequences by homology search through the GenBank data base and the PIR protein data base. Here, we report partial DNA sequences obtained by automated DNA sequencing on 400 cDNA clones randomly selected from the library. Of the sequences determined, 51% represented sequences of new genes that were not related to any previously reported gene. Twenty-six percent of the clones strongly matched genes and proteins in the data bases, including amelogenin, alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen chains, osteonectin, and decorin. Nine percent of clones revealed partial sequence homology to known genes such as transcription factors and cell surface receptors. A significant number of the previously identified genes were expressed redundantly and were found to encode extracellular matrix proteins. Identification and cataloging of cDNA clones in these tissues are the first step toward identification of markers expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner, as well as the genetic linkage study of tooth anomalies. Further characterization of the clones described in this paper should lead to the discovery of novel genes important for tooth development. PMID:7876422

  2. Isolation and cDNA cloning of somatolactin in rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus).

    PubMed

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    1999-08-01

    We report the isolation and cDNA cloning of somatolactin (SL) from rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus. Rabbitfish SL was isolated from an alkaline extract of the pituitary glands by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. SL was monitored by immunoblotting with flounder SL antiserum. The preparation (yield: 0.86 mg/g wet tissues) contained two immunoreactive bands of 24 and 28 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Overlapping partial cDNA clones corresponding to teleost SLs were amplified by PCR from single-strand cDNA from pituitary glands. Excluding the poly(A) tail, rabbitfish SL cDNA is 1605 bp long. It contains a 693-bp open reading frame encoding a signal peptide of 24 amino acids (aa) and a mature protein of 207 aa. Rabbitfish SL has two possible N-glycosylation sites at positions 11 and 121 and seven half Cys residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows over 80% identity with those of advanced teleosts like sea bream, red drum, and flounder, 76% with the salmonids, 57% with the eel, and 46% with the goldfish SL.

  3. 1,4-Benzoquinone reductase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium: cDNA cloning and regulation of expression

    SciTech Connect

    Akileswaran, L.; Brock, B.J.; Cereghino, J.L.; Gold, M.H.

    1999-02-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a quinone reductase (QR) from the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was isolated and sequenced. The cDNA consisted of 1,007 nucleotides and a poly(A) tail and encoded a deduced protein containing 271 amino acids. The experimentally determined eight-amino-acid N-germinal sequence of the purified QR protein from P. chrysosporium matched amino acids 72 to 79 of the predicted translation product of the cDNA. The M{sub r} of the predicted translation product, beginning with Pro-72, was essentially identical to the experimentally determined M{sub r} of one monomer of the QR dimer, and this finding suggested that QR is synthesized as a proenzyme. The results of in vitro transcription-translation experiments suggested that QR is synthesized as a proenzyme with a 71-amino-acid leader sequence. This leader sequence contains two potential KEX2 cleavage sites and numerous potential cleavage sites for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. The QR activity in cultures of P. chrysosporium increased following the addition of 2-dimethoxybenzoquinone, vanillic acid, or several other aromatic compounds. An immunoblot analysis indicated that induction resulted in an increase in the amount of QR protein, and a Northern blot analysis indicated that this regulation occurs at the level of the qr mRNA.

  4. Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom: its cDNA and genomic organization.

    PubMed

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Kumar, Sanjeed Vijaya; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Fry, Bryan G; Kumar, Prakash P; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2006-04-26

    Ohanin, from king cobra venom, is a novel protein which induces hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mice [Pung, Y.F., Wong, P.T.H., Kumar, P.P., Hodgson W.C., Kini, R.M., 2005. Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom induces hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 13137-13147.]. It is weakly similar to PRY-SPRY domains (B30.2-like domain). Here we report the complete cDNA and genomic organization of ohanin. Interestingly, cDNA sequence does not show significant sequence similarity to any known sequences, including those of B30.2-like domain-containing proteins. Its full-length cDNA sequence of 1558 bp encodes for prepro-ohanin with a propeptide segment at the C-terminal. Ohanin is the first member of a new subfamily of proteins containing B30.2-like domain with short N-terminal segment. We named this subfamily as vespryns. There are two mRNA subtypes differing in their 5'-untranslated regions. Southern hybridization study shows that ohanin is encoded by a single gene. Its genomic sequence is 7086 bp with five exons and four introns, and the two types of mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing of exon 2. Our results indicate that ohanin and vespryns may have evolved from the same ancestral gene as B30.2 domain. PMID:16472942

  5. Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom: its cDNA and genomic organization.

    PubMed

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Kumar, Sanjeed Vijaya; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Fry, Bryan G; Kumar, Prakash P; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2006-04-26

    Ohanin, from king cobra venom, is a novel protein which induces hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mice [Pung, Y.F., Wong, P.T.H., Kumar, P.P., Hodgson W.C., Kini, R.M., 2005. Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom induces hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 13137-13147.]. It is weakly similar to PRY-SPRY domains (B30.2-like domain). Here we report the complete cDNA and genomic organization of ohanin. Interestingly, cDNA sequence does not show significant sequence similarity to any known sequences, including those of B30.2-like domain-containing proteins. Its full-length cDNA sequence of 1558 bp encodes for prepro-ohanin with a propeptide segment at the C-terminal. Ohanin is the first member of a new subfamily of proteins containing B30.2-like domain with short N-terminal segment. We named this subfamily as vespryns. There are two mRNA subtypes differing in their 5'-untranslated regions. Southern hybridization study shows that ohanin is encoded by a single gene. Its genomic sequence is 7086 bp with five exons and four introns, and the two types of mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing of exon 2. Our results indicate that ohanin and vespryns may have evolved from the same ancestral gene as B30.2 domain.

  6. Characterization and cDNA cloning of androgenic gland hormone of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Hasegawa, Y; Ohira, T; Katakura, Y; Nagasawa, H

    1999-10-22

    The sex differentiation in crustaceans is known to be controlled by a peptide hormone called androgenic gland hormone (AGH). AGH was extracted and purified from the androgenic glands (AGs) of the male isopod Armadillidium vulgare by high-performance liquid chromatography. AGH consisted of two peptide chains and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. A cDNA encoding AGH was cloned by PCR and sequenced. The cDNA had an open reading frame of 432 bp, which encoded a preproAGH consisting of a signal peptide (21 residues), B chain (44 residues), C peptide (46 residues), and A chain (29 residues). Through processing, the A and B chains might form a heterodimer interlinked by disulfide bonds. The A chain possessed a putative N-linked glycosylation site. A Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe detected a hybridization signal with 0.8 kb in the RNA preparation only from the AGs. PMID:10529379

  7. Molecular cloning and functional identification of a plant ornithine decarboxylase cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, A J; Furze, J M; Rhodes, M J; Burtin, D

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA for a plant ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key enzyme in putrescine and polyamine biosynthesis, has been isolated from root cultures of the solanaceous plant Datura stramonium. Reverse transcription-PCR employing degenerate oligonucleotide primers representing conserved motifs from other eukaryotic ODCs was used to isolate the cDNA. The longest open reading frame potentially encodes a peptide of 431 amino acids and exhibits similarity to other eukaryotic ODCs, prokaryotic and eukaryotic arginine decarboxylases (ADCs), prokaryotic meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylases and the product of the tabA gene of Pseudomonas syringae cv. tabaci. Residues involved at the active site of the mouse ODC are conserved in the plant enzyme. The plant ODC does not possess the C-terminal extension found in the mammalian enzyme, implicated in rapid turnover of the protein, suggesting that the plant ODC may have a longer half-life. Expression of the plant ODC in Escherichia coli and demonstration of ODC activity confirmed that the cDNA encodes an active ODC enzyme. This is the first description of the primary structure of a eukaryotic ODC isolated from an organism where the alternative ADC routine to putrescine is present. PMID:8660289

  8. Cloning and expression analysis of a prion protein encoding gene in guppy ( Poecilia reticulata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Suihan; Wei, Qiwei; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Dengqiang; Zou, Guiwei; Chen, Daqing

    2008-11-01

    The full length cDNA of a prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of guppy ( Poecilia reticulata) and the corresponding genomic DNA were cloned. The cDNA was 2245 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1545 bp encoding a protein of 515 amino acids, which held all typical structural characteristics of the functional PrP. The cloned genomic DNA fragment corresponding to the cDNA was 3720 bp in length, consisting of 2 introns and 2 exons. The 5' untranslated region of cDNA originated from the 2 exons, while the ORF originated from the second exon. Although the gene was transcribed in diverse tissues including brain, eye, liver, intestine, muscle and tail, its transcript was most abundant in the brain. In addition, the transcription of the gene was enhanced by 5 salinity, implying that it was associated with the response of guppy to saline stress.

  9. Fabrication of high quality cDNA microarray using a small amount of cDNA.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hee; Jeong, Ha Jin; Jung, Jae Jun; Lee, Gui Yeon; Kim, Sang-Chul; Kim, Tae Soo; Yang, Sang Hwa; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young

    2004-05-01

    DNA microarray technology has become an essential part of biological research. It enables the genome-scale analysis of gene expression in various types of model systems. Manufacturing high quality cDNA microarrays of microdeposition type depends on some key factors including a printing device, spotting pins, glass slides, spotting solution, and humidity during spotting. UsingEthe Microgrid II TAS model printing device, this study defined the optimal conditions for producing high density, high quality cDNA microarrays with the least amount of cDNA product. It was observed that aminosilane-modified slides were superior to other types of surface modified-slides. A humidity of 30+/-3% in a closed environment and the overnight drying of the spotted slides gave the best conditions for arraying. In addition, the cDNA dissolved in 30% DMSO gave the optimal conditions for spotting compared to the 1X ArrayIt, 3X SSC and 50% DMSO. Lastly, cDNA in the concentration range of 100-300 ng/ micro l was determined to be best for arraying and post-processing. Currently, the printing system in this study yields reproducible 9000 spots with a spot size 150 mm diameter, and a 200 nm spot spacing. PMID:15067369

  10. Characterization of a cDNA from Beta maritima that confers nickel tolerance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gonensin O; Kaya, Alaattin; Koc, Ahmet; Noll, Gundula A; Prüfer, Dirk; Karakaya, Hüseyin Caglar

    2014-04-01

    Nickel is an essential micronutrient due to its involvement in many enzymatic reactions as a cofactor. However, excess of this element is toxic to biological systems. Here, we constructed a cDNA library from Beta maritima and screened it in the yeast system to identify genes that confer resistance to toxic levels of nickel. A cDNA clone (NIC6), which encodes for a putative membrane protein with unknown function, was found to help yeast cells to tolerate toxic levels of nickel. A GFP fused form of Nic6 protein was localized to multivesicular structures in tobacco epidermal cells. Thus, our results suggest a possible role of Nic6 in nickel and intracellular ion homeostasis.

  11. Human kidney amiloride-binding protein: cDNA structure and functional expression

    SciTech Connect

    Barbry, P.; Chassande, O.; Champigny, G.; Lingueglia, E.; Frelin, C.; Lazdunski, M. ); Champe, M.; Munemitsu, S.; Ullrich, A. ); Maes, P.; Tartar, A. Institut Pasteur de Lille )

    1990-10-01

    Phenamil, an analog of amiloride, is a potent blocker of the epithelial Na{sup plus} channel. It has been used to purify the porcine kidney amiloride-binding protein. Synthetic oligonucleotides derived from partial sequences have been used to screen a human kidney cDNA library and to isolate the cDNA encoding the human amiloride-binding protein. The primary structure was deduced from the DNA sequence analysis. The protein is 713 residues long, with a 19-amino acid signal peptide. The mRNA was expressed in 293-S and NIH 3T3 cells, yielding a glycoprotein (i) that binds amiloride and amiloride analogs with affinities similar to the amiloride receptor associated with the apical Na{sup plus} channel in pig kidney membranes and (ii) that is immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies raised against pig kidney amiloride-binding protein.

  12. Human kidney amiloride-binding protein: cDNA structure and functional expression.

    PubMed Central

    Barbry, P; Champe, M; Chassande, O; Munemitsu, S; Champigny, G; Lingueglia, E; Maes, P; Frelin, C; Tartar, A; Ullrich, A

    1990-01-01

    Phenamil, an analog of amiloride, is a potent blocker of the epithelial Na+ channel. It has been used to purify the porcine kidney amiloride-binding protein. Synthetic oligonucleotides derived from partial sequences have been used to screen a human kidney cDNA library and to isolate the cDNA encoding the human amiloride-binding protein. The primary structure was deduced from the DNA sequence analysis. The protein is 713 residues long, with a 19-amino acid signal peptide. The mRNA was expressed in 293-S and NIH 3T3 cells, yielding a glycoprotein (i) that binds amiloride and amiloride analogs with affinities similar to the amiloride receptor associated with the apical Na+ channel in pig kidney membranes and (ii) that is immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies raised against pig kidney amiloride-binding protein. Images PMID:2217167

  13. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of an Acetylcholinesterase cDNA in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhifan; Chen, Jun; Chen, Yongqin; Jiang, Sijing

    2010-01-01

    A full cDNA encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) was cloned and characterized from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). The complete cDNA (2467 bp) contains a 1938-bp open reading frame encoding 646 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of the AChE deduced from the cDNA consists of 30 residues for a putative signal peptide and 616 residues for the mature protein with a predicted molecular weight of 69,418. The three residues (Ser242, Glu371, and His485) that putatively form the catalytic triad and the six Cys that form intra-subunit disulfide bonds are completely conserved, and 10 out of the 14 aromatic residues lining the active site gorge of the AChE are also conserved. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA showed an approximately 2.6-kb transcript, and Southern blot analysis revealed there likely was just a single copy of this gene in N. lugens. The deduced protein sequence is most similar to AChE of Nephotettix cincticeps with 83% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic analysis constructed with 45 AChEs from 30 species showed that the deduced N. lugens AChE formed a cluster with the other 8 insect AChE2s. Additionally, the hypervariable region and amino acids specific to insect AChE2 also existed in the AChE of N. lugens. The results revealed that the AChE cDNA cloned in this work belongs to insect AChE2 subgroup, which is orthologous to Drosophila AChE. Comparison of the AChEs between the susceptible and resistant strains revealed a point mutation, Gly185Ser, is likely responsible for the insensitivity of the AChE to methamidopho in the resistant strain. PMID:20874389

  14. Human {beta}2 chain of laminin (formerly S chain): cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression in carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wewer, U.M.; Durkin, M.E.; Albrechtsen, R.

    1994-11-15

    Overlapping cDNA clones that encode the full-length human laminin {beta}2 chain, formerly called the S chain, were isolated. The cDNA of 5680 nt contains a 5391-nt open reading frame encoding 1797 amino acids. At the amino terminus is a 32-amino-acid signal peptide that is followed by the mature {beta}2 chain polypeptide of 1765 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 192,389 Da. The human {beta}2 chain is predicted to have all of the seven structural domains typical of the {beta} chains of laminin, including the short cysteine-rich {alpha} region. The amino acid sequence of human {beta}2 chain showed 86.1% sequence identity to the rat {beta}2 chain, 50.0% to human {beta}1 chain, and 36.3% to the human {beta}3 chain. The greatest sequence identity was in domains VI, V, and III. The sequence of a 24-amino-acid peptide fragment isolated from the {beta}2 chain of laminin purified from human amniotic basement membrane matched the sequence predicted from the cDNA, confirming that the cDNA encodes human {beta}2 laminin. The cDNA was used to assign the gene (LAMB2) to human chromosome 3p21 by in situ hybridization. It is not linked to genes for human laminin chains {alpha}1, {beta}1, and {gamma}1 or other known laminin genes. Immunostaining showed that the {beta}2 chain is localized to the smooth muscle basement membranes of the arteries, while the homologous {beta}1 chain is confined to the subendothelial basement membranes. The {beta}2 chain was found in the basement membranes of ovarian carcinomas but not colon carcinomas. These results indicate that the expression of the {beta}2 chain gene is tightly regulated in normal human tissues and in disease. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Characterization and chromosomal localization of a cDNA encoding brain amyloid of Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goldgaber, D.; Lerman, M.I.; McBride, O.W.; Saffiotti, U.; Gajdusek, D.C.

    1987-02-20

    Four clones were isolated from an adult human brain complementary DNA library with an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the first 20 amino acids of the ..beta.. peptide of brain amyloid from Alzheimer's disease. The open reading frame of the sequenced clone coded for 97 amino acids, including the known amino acid sequence of this polypeptide. The 3.5-kilobase messenger RNA was detected in mammalian brains and human thymus. The gene is highly conserved in evolution and has been mapped to human chromosome 21.

  16. Characterization of cDNA encoding resveratrol synthase and accumulation of resveratrol in tartary buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Yeo, Sun Kyung; Lee, Chanhui; Park, Sang Un

    2013-11-01

    Resveratrol synthase (RS) is the key enzyme for biosynthesis of resveratrol which come from coumaroyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and malonyl-CoA. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a RS gene and accumulation of resveratrol in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum). FtRS was composed of 1173 bp open reading frame and 390 amino acid residues and had a theoretical molecular weight and isoelectric point value of 43.70 kDa and 6.24, respectively. The FtRS expression levels were examined in sprouts and different organs of two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 (T8) and Hokkai T10 (T10). FtRS transcript levels and resveratrol contents were higher under the dark condition compared with light condition. The expression levels of different organs of T10 was not observed significant variations compared to different organs of T8. Interestingly, resveratrol was detected in the sprouts developmental stages, but no resveratrol could not detect in any other organs of both T8 and T10. Therefore, we suggest that the resveratrol content in tartary buckwheat sprouts may be attributed mainly to the dark condition. The characterization of FtRS will be helpful for better understanding of the resveratrol biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat. PMID:24427944

  17. Isolation of a cDNA for HSF 2: Evidence for two heat shock factor genes in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, T.J.; Gallo, G.J.; Sheldon, L.; Kingston, R.E. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Tempst, P. )

    1991-08-15

    The heat shock response is transcriptionally regulated by an evolutionarily conserved protein termed heat shock factor (HSF). The authors report the purification to homogeneity and the partial peptide sequence of HSF from HeLa cells. The peptide sequence was used to isolate a human cDNA with a predicted open reading frame that has homology to the DNA binding domains of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila HSFs. The cDNA directs the synthesis of a protein that binds to the heat shock element with specificity identical to HeLa HSF and stimulates transcription from a heat shock promoter. The expressed protein cross-reacts with anti-HSF antibodies. Surprisingly, however, this cDNA does not encode all of the peptides obtained from purified HeLa HSF. These peptides are encoded by a distinct human cDNA. HSF1. It therefore appears that there is a human heat shock factor gene family and that at least two separate but related HSF proteins regulate the stress response in humans.

  18. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a full-length cDNA for human alpha enolase.

    PubMed Central

    Giallongo, A; Feo, S; Moore, R; Croce, C M; Showe, L C

    1986-01-01

    We previously purified a 48-kDa protein (p48) that specifically reacts with an antiserum directed against the 12 carboxyl-terminal amino acids of the c-myc gene product. Using an antiserum directed against the purified p48, we have cloned a cDNA from a human expression library. This cDNA hybrid-selects an mRNA that translates to a 48-kDa protein that specifically reacts with anti-p48 serum. We have isolated a full-length cDNA that encodes p48 and spans 1755 bases. The coding region is 1299 bases long; 94 bases are 5' noncoding and 359 bases are 3' noncoding. The cDNA encodes a 433 amino acid protein that is 67% homologous to yeast enolase and 94% homologous to the rat non-neuronal enolase. The purified protein has been shown to have enolase activity and has been identified to be of the alpha type by isoenzyme analysis. The transcriptional regulation of enolase expression in response to mitogenic stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and in response to heat shock is also discussed. Images PMID:3529090

  19. ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Cricket A; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Malladi, Venkat S; Strattan, J Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T; Rowe, Laurence D; Dreszer, Timothy R; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments.

  20. Rapid and Efficient cDNA Library Screening by Self-Ligation ofInverse PCR Products (SLIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Stapleton, Mark; George, Reed A.; Yu, Charles; Wan, Kenneth H.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2005-04-22

    The production of comprehensive cDNA clone collections is an important goal of the human and model organism genome projects. cDNA sequences are used to determine the structures of transcripts, including splice junctions, polyadenylation sites, and 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). cDNA collections are also valuable resources for functional studies of genes and proteins. Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)sequencing is the method of choice for recovering cDNAs representing a majority of the transcripts encoded in a eukaryotic genome. However, EST sequencing samples a library at random, so it realizes diminishing returns as the project progresses. To drive cDNA collections toward completion new methods are needed to recover cDNAs representing specific genes and alternative transcripts, including transcripts with low expression levels. We describe a simple and effective inverse-PCR-based method for screening plasmid libraries to recover intact cDNAs for specific transcripts. We tested the method by screening libraries used in our Drosophila EST projects for 153 transcription factor genes that were not yet represented by full-length cDNAs. We recovered target-specific clones for 104 of the genes: 46 exactly match, 30 improve and 28partially match current gene annotations. Successful application of the screening method depends on cDNA library complexity and quality of the gene models. The approach should be effective for improving cDNA collections for other model organisms and the human. It also provides a simple and rapid method for isolating cDNAs of interest in any system for which plasmid cDNA libraries and complete or partial gene sequences are available.

  1. Cloning, characterisation and bacterial expression of full length cDNA for the mouse liver microsomal glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Raza, H; Mullick, J; John, A; Bhagwat, S V; Avadhani, N G

    2000-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA encoding full length microsomal glutathione S-transferase (MGST) from mouse liver. The cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using primers designed from published cDNA sequence of rat MGST with the addition of 5' Nde-1 and 3' HindIII sites, and cloned into bacterial expression vector pSP19T7LT. Deduced amino acid sequence (155 amino acids, calculated mol.mass 17512 Dalton) confirmed the identity of microsomal GST from mouse liver which has sequence homology with that of rat and human liver MGST1. Recombinant GST cDNA (Genbank accession # 159050) was expressed in BL21(DE3) in the presence of 1 mM IPTG at 30 degrees C. The expressed GST protein was found to be localised in the bacterial membrane as determined by measuring catalytic activity using CDNB and cumene hydroperoxide substrates, SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. We have demonstrated the cloning and expression of full length cDNA for MGST from mouse liver and have characterised the functionally active product as MGST protein. These results should facilitate studies on the role of MGST in the regulation of chemical carcinogenesis and in the prevention of oxidative stress caused by endogenous and exogenous chemicals.

  2. Hamster cytochrome P-450 IA gene family, P-450IA1 and P-450IA2 in lung and liver: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Sagami, I; Ohmachi, T; Fujii, H; Kikuchi, H; Watanabe, M

    1991-10-01

    Two cDNA clones, 2C19 and 4C1, were isolated from a lung cDNA library of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-treated hamster by using rat P-450c cDNA as a probe. The cDNA determined from 2C19 and 4C1 was 2,916 bp long and contained an entire coding region for 524 amino acids with a molecular weight of 59,408. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a 85% identity with that of rat P-450c indicating 2C19 and 4C1 encode the hamster P-450IA1 protein. Another cDNA clone, designated H28, was isolated from a MC-induced hamster liver cDNA library by using the hamster lung 2C19 or 4C1 cDNA clone as a probe. H28 was 1,876 bp long and encoded a polypeptide of 513 amino acids with a molecular weight of 58,079. The N-terminal 20 residues deduced from nucleotide sequence of H28 were identical to those determined by sequence analysis of purified hamster hepatic P-450MCI. The high similarity of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences between H28 and P-450IA2 of other species indicated that H28 encoded a P-450 protein which belongs to the P-450IA2 family. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNAs for hamster P-450IA1 and IA2 were about 2.9 and 1.9 kb long, respectively. Hamster P-450IA1 mRNA was induced to the same level in lungs as in livers by MC treatment, whereas hamster P-450IA2 mRNA was induced and expressed only in hamster liver.

  3. Cloning and mapping of a novel human cDNA homologous to DROER, the enhancer of the Drosophila melanogaster rudimentary gene

    SciTech Connect

    Isomura, Minoru; Okui, Keiko; Nakamura, Yusuke

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the isolation and localization to human chromosome 7q34 of a human cDNA clone that encodes a protein which is homologous to DROER, the enhancer of the Drosophila melanogaster rudimentary gene. The structure and expression of this gene is also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Characterization of novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the endangered frog Odorrana ishikawae by shotgun cDNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Soga, Miyuki; Okada, Genya; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sumida, Masayuki; Ukena, Kazuyoshi

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported the primary structures, antimicrobial activities and cDNA precursors of nine novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the endangered anuran species, Odorranaishikawae. Their cDNA clones revealed a highly conserved approximately 60 bp region upstream of the start codon. This conserved region was used in the "shotgun" cDNA cloning method to reveal additional cDNAs encoding novel antimicrobial peptides of O.ishikawae. After sequencing 344 clones, we identified novel 13 cDNAs encoding dermal peptides in addition to the previously identified nine antimicrobial peptides. These 13 unique cDNAs encoded precursor proteins each containing a signal peptide, an N-terminal acidic spacer domain, a Lys-Arg/Lys processing site and a dermal peptide at the C-terminus. The dermal peptides were members of the palustrin-2 (two peptides; termed palustrin-2ISc and palustrin-2ISd), nigrocin-2 (one peptide; nigrocin-2ISc), brevinin-1 (one peptide; brevinin-1ISa), odorranain-M (one peptide; odorranain-MISa) and entirely novel peptides (eight peptides; ishikawain-1-8). Although palustrin-2ISd and odorranain-MISa had few antimicrobial activities, palustrin-2ISc and nigrocin-2ISc possessed a broad-spectrum of growth inhibition against bacteria. Brevinin-1ISa had the most potent antimicrobial activities against the Gram-positive bacteria and the fungus but not the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichiacoli. However, eight novel peptides showed no growth inhibition against these microorganisms. PMID:21867685

  5. Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the T-cell-activating protein TAP.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, H; Coligan, J; Palmer, E; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1988-01-01

    The T-cell-activating protein TAP is a murine phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein whose expression is controlled by the Ly-6 locus. Previous studies have suggested an important role for this protein in physiological T-cell activation. Using oligonucleotide probes, we have now isolated a cDNA clone whose predicted sequence would encode a protein with an NH2-terminal sequence identical to that of the TAP molecule. Further analysis of the predicted protein sequence revealed a cysteine-rich protein with a hydrophobic domain at the COOH terminus and without N-linked glycosylation sites--all features consistent with our previous analysis of the TAP protein. In Southern blot analysis, the Ly-6.2 cDNA clone detects a multigene family and a restriction fragment length polymorphism that maps precisely to the Ly-6 locus. Expression of the cDNA clone in COS cells demonstrates that it codes for TAP and clarifies the relationship between the epitopes recognized by various alpha Ly-6 monoclonal antibodies. Finally, we have studied the expression of Ly-6 mRNA in a variety of cell lineages. Ly-6 transcripts were detected in all organs examined, including spleen, kidney, lung, brain, and heart. This demonstrates that the Ly-6 locus is transcriptionally active in a wide range of organs and suggests that the role of TAP or TAP-like proteins might extend to other tissues. Images PMID:2895473

  6. Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V.

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, R J; Pittman, D D; Toole, J J; Kriz, R W; Aldape, R A; Hewick, R M; Kaufman, R J; Mann, K G

    1987-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding human factor V have been isolated from an oligo(dT)-primed human fetal liver cDNA library prepared with vector Charon 21A. The cDNA sequence of factor V from three overlapping clones includes a 6672-base-pair (bp) coding region, a 90-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 163-bp 3' untranslated region within which is a poly(A) tail. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 2224 amino acids inclusive of a 28-amino acid leader peptide. Direct comparison with human factor VIII reveals considerable homology between proteins in amino acid sequence and domain structure: a triplicated A domain and duplicated C domain show approximately equal to 40% identity with the corresponding domains in factor VIII. As in factor VIII, the A domains of factor V share approximately 40% amino acid-sequence homology with the three highly conserved domains in ceruloplasmin. The B domain of factor V contains 35 tandem and approximately 9 additional semiconserved repeats of nine amino acids of the form Asp-Leu-Ser-Gln-Thr-Thr/Asn-Leu-Ser-Pro and 2 additional semiconserved repeats of 17 amino acids. Factor V contains 37 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 25 of which are in the B domain, and a total of 19 cysteine residues. Images PMID:3110773

  7. Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny, R.J.; Pittman, D.D.; Toole, J.J.; Kriz, R.W.; Aldape, R.A.; Hewick, R.M.; Kaufman, R.J.; Mann, K.G.

    1987-07-01

    cDNA clones encoding human factor V have been isolated from an oligo(dT)-primed human fetal liver cDNA library prepared with vector Charon 21A. The cDNA sequence of factor V from three overlapping clones includes a 6672-base-pair (bp) coding region, a 90-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 163-bp 3' untranslated region within which is a poly(A)tail. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 2224 amino acids inclusive of a 28-amino acid leader peptide. Direct comparison with human factor VIII reveals considerable homology between proteins in amino acid sequence and domain structure: a triplicated A domain and duplicated C domain show approx. 40% identity with the corresponding domains in factor VIII. As in factor VIII, the A domains of factor V share approx. 40% amino acid-sequence homology with the three highly conserved domains in ceruloplasmin. The B domain of factor V contains 35 tandem and approx. 9 additional semiconserved repeats of nine amino acids of the form Asp-Leu-Ser-Gln-Thr-Thr/Asn-Leu-Ser-Pro and 2 additional semiconserved repeats of 17 amino acids. Factor V contains 37 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 25 of which are in the B domain, and a total of 19 cysteine residues.

  8. cDNA cloning and expression of a collectin from red-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus akaara)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shaoxiong; Wang, Ying; Mao, Yong; Su, Yongquan; Wang, Jun

    2009-09-01

    Lectins play a crucial role in the innate immunity of invertebrates and vertebrates by recognizing and disposing of pathogens. We obtained the complete cDNA of a C-type lectin (EALec1) from Epinephelus akaara using RACE. The complete EALec1 cDNA sequence was 827 bp. The 5-UTR and 3-UTR were 28 bp and 151 bp, respectively, in length. The sequence also contained a polyadenylation signal AATAAA and a poly(A) tail. The EALec1 cDNA encodes polypeptides with 215 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 31 amino acids. The protein has a cysteine-rich region at the N terminal, a collagenous region characterized by G-X-Y repeats, a neck region, and a typical carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), indicating that EALec1 is a collectin. The key recognition positions of this CRD are EPD, isolated for the first time in fish. These are likely the interim types, between mannan-binding lectin and galactose-binding lectin. We evaluated the expression pattern of EALec1 in 12 different tissues using RT-PCR. EALec1 was expressed in all tissues, though at different levels. In addition, we inserted EALec1 into an expression vector (pET-28a) for transformation into the BL21 engineering bacteria. Based on enzyme digestion and sequencing of the positive clone, we successfully constructed the EALec1 recombinant expression vector.

  9. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte. beta. -spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    Prchal, J.T.; Morley, B.J.; Yoon, S.H.; Coetzer, T.L.; Palek, J.; Conboy, J.G.; Kan, Y.W.

    1987-11-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical ..cap alpha.. (M/sub r/ 240,000) and ..beta.. (M/sub r/ 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific ..beta..-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the ..beta..-9 through ..beta..-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the ..beta..-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte ..beta..-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the ..beta..-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities.

  10. Isolation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase cDNA and Basal Regulatory Region from Metroxylon sagu.

    PubMed

    Wee, Ching Ching; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) is a versatile enzyme involved in many biochemical pathways in plants such as in germination and stress tolerance. Sago palm is plant with much importance to the state of Sarawak as one of the most important crops that bring revenue with the advantage of being able to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses such as heat, pathogens, and water logging. Here we report the isolation of sago palm Adh cDNA and its putative promoter region via the use of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and genomic walking. The isolated cDNA was characterized and determined to be 1464 bp long encoding for 380 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed that the Adh is similar to the Adh1 group with 91% and 85% homology with Elaeis guineensis and Washingtonia robusta, respectively. The putative basal msAdh1 regulatory region was further determined to contain promoter signals of TATA and AGGA boxes and predicted amino acids analyses showed several Adh-specific motifs such as the two zinc-binding domains that bind to the adenosine ribose of the coenzyme and binding to alcohol substrate. A phylogenetic tree was also constructed using the predicted amino acid showed clear separation of Adh from bacteria and clustered within the plant Adh group.

  11. Cloning and characterization of the Dictyostelium discoideum cycloartenol synthase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Godzina, S M; Lovato, M A; Meyer, M M; Foster, K A; Wilson, W K; Gu, W; de Hostos, E L; Matsuda, S P

    2000-03-01

    Cycloartenol synthase converts oxidosqualene to cycloartenol, the first carbocyclic intermediate en route to sterols in plants and many protists. Presented here is the first cycloartenol synthase gene identified from a protist, the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The cDNA encodes an 81-kDa predicted protein 50-52% identical to known higher plant cycloartenol synthases and 40-49% identical to known lanosterol synthases from fungi and mammals. The encoded protein expressed in transgenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae converted synthetic oxidosqualene to cycloartenol in vitro. This product was characterized by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The predicted protein sequence diverges sufficiently from the known cycloartenol synthase sequences to dramatically reduce the number of residues that are candidates for the catalytic difference between cycloartenol and lanosterol formation.

  12. Cloning, structure and expression of cDNA for mouse contrapsin and a related protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ohkubo, K; Ogata, S; Misumi, Y; Takami, N; Sinohara, H; Ikehara, Y

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone (lambda MC-2) for contrapsin, a serine-proteinase inhibitor, was isolated from a lambda ZAP mouse liver cDNA library. The 1.6 kb cDNA insert of lambda MC-2 contained an open reading frame that encodes a 418-residue polypeptide (46,970 Da), in which a signal peptide of 21 residues was identified by comparison with the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein. The predicted structure (MC-2) also contained other peptide sequences determined by Edman degradation. Four potential sites for N-linked glycosylation were found in the molecule, accounting for the difference in molecular mass between the predicted form and the purified protein (63 kDa). Further screening of the cDNA library with an EcoRI-EcoRI fragment (510 bp) of lambda MC-2 as a probe yielded another cDNA clone (lambda MC-7), which encodes a 418-residue polypeptide (MC-7) with a calculated mass of 47,010 Da. MC-2 showed 83% similarity at the amino acid level to MC-7, in contrast with 44% similarity to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. The possible reactive site (P1-P'1) for serine proteinase is suggested to be Lys-Ala for MC-2 and Ser-Arg for MC-7. Northern-blot analysis revealed that both MC-2 and MC-7 mRNAs have the same size of 1.8 kb and are markedly induced in response to acute inflammation. Construction of the expression plasmids pSVMC-2 and pSVMC-7 and their transfection into COS-1 cells demonstrated that pSVMC-2 directs the synthesis of a 63 kDa form whereas pSVMC-7 expresses a 56 kDa form. The difference in molecular mass between the two may be explained by the fact that the MC-7 sequence contains three potential sites for N-glycosylation, one site less than that of MC-2. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2049065

  13. Ribosomal proteins are encoded by single copy genes in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Steel, L F; Jacobson, A

    1986-01-01

    Five recombinant plasmids which encode ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) from Dictyostelium discoideum have been isolated. Poly(A) + RNA was size-fractionated by preparative agarose gel electrophoresis and a fraction encoding proteins of less than 35 kDa was used to construct a cDNA library in the plasmid vector pBR322. Individual clones from the library were screened by hybrid-selected translation and those encoding r-proteins were identified by co-migration of the translation products in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with marker proteins purified from Dictyostelium ribosomes. Initial characterization using the five cDNA plasmids indicates that these r-proteins are encoded by single copy genes and that they are not tightly clustered in the genome.

  14. [Cloning and identification of recombinant cDNA to a rabbit oviductin "DPF-1"].

    PubMed

    Liu, C J; Shen, H; Gu, Z; Lu, J N; Cheng, G X; Tso, J K

    1996-12-01

    A recombinant cDNA library to polyA + RNA isolated from rabbit oviduct epithelial cells was constructed, and screened with a polyclonal antibody against DPF-1 (64 kDa). 4 immunopositive plaques (DPF-1.1, DPF-1.2, DPF-1.3 and DPF-1.4) were purified. The polyclonal antibodies were epitope-selected respectively against the fused proteins produced by these positive recombinant plaques. Identification of recombinant clones by epitope selection revealed that the epitope-selected antibodies from DPF-1.1, DPF-1.2 and DPF-1.3 could recognise not only DPF-1, but 44 kDa protein also (Fig. 2). By using EcoRI-Not1 digestion method, the insert cDNA fragment size of these three recombinants was revealed to be 0.8 kb, 1.2 kb and 1.2 kb respectively (Fig. 3). These cDNA fragments were then isolated and subcloned into pBluescriptKS, and recombinant plasmids (pDPF-1.1, pDPF-1.2 and pDPF-1.3) were constructed (Fig. 4). Dot blot hybridization with a 32p-labeled 1.2 Kb-insert of cDNA from pDPF-1.3 indicated that these recombinant plasmids could cross-hybridized (Fig. 5), further indicating that they all possessed a common nucleic acid sequence. Dot and Northern blotting analysis of total RNA prepared from eight different tissues (skeleton muscle, heart, kidney, oviduct, liver, spleen, lung and small intestine) showed that the gene encoding DPF-1 was expressed specifically in the oviduct tissue (Fig. 6, Fig. 7).

  15. Molecular characterization of the murine interferon gamma receptor cDNA.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C S; Muthukumaran, G; Frost, L J; Noe, M; Ahn, Y H; Mariano, T M; Pestka, S

    1989-10-25

    Interferon gamma receptors (IFN-gamma R) exhibit remarkable species specificity. In order to understand the basis for this phenomenon, we have isolated a recombinant cDNA clone corresponding to the mouse (Mu) IFN-gamma R. Microinjection of the mRNA synthesized in vitro corresponding to the cloned cDNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in the synthesis of a protein that specifically binds Mu-IFN-gamma. Analysis of murine genomic and RNA blots with the cDNA probe indicates the presence of a single gene and a single mRNA species of about 2300 bases. Sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding the Mu-IFN-gamma R and comparison with the corresponding human IFN-gamma R sequence shows about 68% conservation of the extracellular domains and 51% conservation of the cytoplasmic domains at the nucleotide level. The results indicate that, as expected, the sequence of the receptor confers species specificity for the binding of IFN-gamma to the cell surface receptor. Moreover, it was previously shown that a human factor is required in addition to the receptor for the human IFN-gamma to function in hamster or mouse cells (Jung, V., Rashidbaigi, A., Jones, C., Tischfield, J.A., Shows, T.B., and Pestka, S. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 4151-4155). These results suggest an explanation for the second species-specific event required for function of the human receptor in mouse or hamster cells in that the intracellular domains are significantly different and thus cannot interact with the corresponding heterologous factor. PMID:2530216

  16. Molecular characterization of the murine interferon gamma receptor cDNA.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C S; Muthukumaran, G; Frost, L J; Noe, M; Ahn, Y H; Mariano, T M; Pestka, S

    1989-10-25

    Interferon gamma receptors (IFN-gamma R) exhibit remarkable species specificity. In order to understand the basis for this phenomenon, we have isolated a recombinant cDNA clone corresponding to the mouse (Mu) IFN-gamma R. Microinjection of the mRNA synthesized in vitro corresponding to the cloned cDNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in the synthesis of a protein that specifically binds Mu-IFN-gamma. Analysis of murine genomic and RNA blots with the cDNA probe indicates the presence of a single gene and a single mRNA species of about 2300 bases. Sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding the Mu-IFN-gamma R and comparison with the corresponding human IFN-gamma R sequence shows about 68% conservation of the extracellular domains and 51% conservation of the cytoplasmic domains at the nucleotide level. The results indicate that, as expected, the sequence of the receptor confers species specificity for the binding of IFN-gamma to the cell surface receptor. Moreover, it was previously shown that a human factor is required in addition to the receptor for the human IFN-gamma to function in hamster or mouse cells (Jung, V., Rashidbaigi, A., Jones, C., Tischfield, J.A., Shows, T.B., and Pestka, S. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 4151-4155). These results suggest an explanation for the second species-specific event required for function of the human receptor in mouse or hamster cells in that the intracellular domains are significantly different and thus cannot interact with the corresponding heterologous factor.

  17. Structural features of cartilage matrix protein deduced from cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Argraves, W S; Deák, F; Sparks, K J; Kiss, I; Goetinck, P F

    1987-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the Mr 54,000 chicken cartilage matrix protein (CMP) were selected from a cartilage cDNA expression library by immunological means. Antibodies elicited against insert-encoded protein purified from one of the clones reacted specifically with chicken CMP in immunoblots of total cartilage extract, providing positive identification of the cDNA clones isolated. The cDNAs detect a 3.4-kilobase transcript that was present in sternal cartilage and in cartilaginous but not in precartilaginous embryonic limb tissues. The cDNAs code for 416 amino acids of the chicken CMP, including its COOH terminus. There are two striking features in the deduced CMP amino acid sequence: first, it contains a region with significant homologies to repeat sequences in the precursor for epidermal growth factor; and second, it is made up of two large homologous repeat sequences. These results provide the first detailed structural information on the CMP and establish it as a developmentally regulated marker of cartilage differentiation. Images PMID:3025875

  18. cDNA sequences of two inducible T-cell genes

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S. Guthrie Research Institute, Sayre, PA ); Weissman, S.M. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors have previously described a set of human T-lymphocyte-specific cDNA clones isolated by a modified differential screening procedure. Apparent full-length cDNAs containing the sequences of 14 of the 16 initial isolates were sequenced and were found to represent five different species of mRNA; three of the five species were identical to previously reported cDNA sequences of preproenkephalin, T-cell-replacing factor, and a serine esterase, respectively. The other two species, 4-1BB and L2G25B, were inducible sequences found in mRNA from both a cytolytic T-lymphocyte and a helper T-lymphocyte clone and were not previously described in T-cell mRNA; these mRNA sequences encode peptides of 256 and 92 amino acids, respectively. Both peptides contain putative leader sequences. The protein encoded by 4-1BB also has a potential membrane anchor segment and other features also seen in known receptor proteins.

  19. Full-length cDNA cloning and structural characterization of preproinsulin in Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Zhang, S Z; Li, E; Wang, C; Wang, C L; Wu, X B

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is an important endocrine hormone that plays a critical physiological role in regulating metabolism and glucostasis in vertebrates. In this study, the complete cDNA of Alligator sinensis preproinsulin gene was cloned for the first time by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods; the amino acid sequence encoded and protein structure were analyzed. The full-length of preproinsulin cDNA sequence consists of 528 base pairs (bp), comprising a 34-bp 5'-untranslated region, a 170-bp 3'-untranslated region and an open reading frame that is 324 bp in length. The open reading frame encodes a 107-amino acid preproinsulin with a molecular weight of approximately 12,153.8 Da, theoretical isoelectric point of 5.68, aliphatic index of 92.06, and grand average of hydropathicity of -0.157, from which a signal peptide, a B-chain, a C-peptide, and an A-chain are derived. Online analysis suggested that the deduced preproinsulin amino acid sequence contains a transmembrane region, and that it has a signal peptide whose cleavage site occurs between alanine 24 and alanine 25. Comparative analysis of preproinsulin amino acid sequences indicated that the A-chain and B-chain sequences of preproinsulins are highly conserved between reptiles and birds, and that the preproinsulin amino acid sequence of Alligator sinensis shares 89% similarity to that of Chelonia mydas, but low similarity of 48-63% to those of mammals and fishes. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method revealed that preproinsulin of Alligator sinensis had high homology with reptiles and birds, such as Chelonia mydas, Gallus gallus, and Columba livia. PMID:25366775

  20. Analysis of beta-carotene hydroxylase gene cDNA isolated from the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp tissue cDNA library

    PubMed Central

    Bhore, Subhash J; Kassim, Amelia; Loh, Chye Ying; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the nutritional quality of the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp oil is superior to that of African oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) mesocarp oil. Therefore, it is of important to identify the genetic features for its superior value. This could be achieved through the genome sequencing of the oil-palm. However, the genome sequence is not available in the public domain due to commercial secrecy. Hence, we constructed a cDNA library and generated expressed sequence tags (3,205) from the mesocarp tissue of the American oil-palm. We continued to annotate each of these cDNAs after submitting to GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL. A rough analysis turned our attention to the beta-carotene hydroxylase (Chyb) enzyme encoding cDNA. Then, we completed the full sequencing of cDNA clone for its both strands using M13 forward and reverse primers. The full nucleotide and protein sequence was further analyzed and annotated using various Bioinformatics tools. The analysis results showed the presence of fatty acid hydroxylase superfamily domain in the protein sequence. The multiple sequence alignment of selected Chyb amino acid sequences from other plant species and algal members with E. oleifera Chyb using ClustalW and its phylogenetic analysis suggest that Chyb from monocotyledonous plant species, Lilium hubrid, Crocus sativus and Zea mays are the most evolutionary related with E. oleifera Chyb. This study reports the annotation of E. oleifera Chyb. Abbreviations ESTs - expressed sequence tags, EoChyb - Elaeis oleifera beta-carotene hydroxylase, MC - main cluster PMID:21364789

  1. Human TOP3: a single-copy gene encoding DNA topoisomerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, R; Caron, P R; Wang, J C

    1996-01-01

    A human cDNA encoding a protein homologous to the Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I subfamily of enzymes has been identified through cloning and sequencing. Expressing the cloned human cDNA in yeast (delta)top1 cells lacking endogenous DNA topoisomerase I yielded an activity in cell extracts that specifically reduces the number of supercoils in a highly negatively supercoiled DNA. On the basis of these results, the human gene containing the cDNA sequence has been denoted TOP3, and the protein it encodes has been denoted DNA topoisomerase III. Screening of a panel of human-rodent somatic hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization of cloned TOP3 genomic DNA to metaphase chromosomes indicate that human TOP3 is a single-copy gene located at chromosome 17p11.2-12. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8622991

  2. Cytotoxic Cyplasin of the Sea Hare, Aplysia punctata, cDNA Cloning, and Expression of Bioactive Recombinants in Insect Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Petzelt, Christian; Joswig, Gaby; Stammer, Hermann; Werner, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    Abstract A 56-kDa protein isolated from the mucus of the European sea hare Aplysia punctata shows a preferential toxicity to autonomously growing transformed mammalian cells. Cell death induced by this protein differs from both apoptosis and necrosis. The cytotoxic effects are irreversible and become apparent at nanomolar concentrations in a cell type-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of micromolar concentrations into mice is tolerated without apparent negative consequences. Microsequencing of the 56-kDa protein released a peptide sequence whose corresponding nucleotide sequence was used as probe to screen A. punctata RNA-based cDNA and to select cDNA clones encoding polypeptides comprising the target peptide. Two closely related cDNA were detected. The cDNA encoding a polypeptide 558 aa in length was considered to reflect a bona fide clone encoding the cytotoxic protein. Its protein-coding section was recloned in vectors suitable for expression in Escherichia coli, in mammalian cells, and in insect cells, respectively. The E. coli-expressed polypeptide was biologically inactive. Transfected mammalian cells expressed a cytotoxic factor and died thereof as if treated with the genuine cytotoxic protein. In contrast, transfected insect cells, which proved to be much less sensitive when treated with the genuine protein, expressed the cytotoxic factor and continued to proliferate, allowing to establish stable insect cell lines expressing sufficient amounts of the cytotoxic factor for further characterization. PMID:11922391

  3. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone of UDP-galactose: flavonoid 3-O-galactosyltransferase (UF3GaT) expressed in Vigna mungo seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mato, M; Ozeki, Y; Itoh, Y; Higeta, D; Yoshitama, K; Teramoto, S; Aida, R; Ishikura, N; Shibata, M

    1998-11-01

    Four cDNA clones were isolated from Vigna mungo seedlings by the screening with cDNA encoding UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) of Antirrhinum majus as a probe; the product of the gene corresponding to one cDNA was more highly expressed in the first simple leaves than in stems. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed 1,691 bp (including 326 bp non-reading) containing an open reading frame of 455 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 42% and 23% identity with those of A. majus UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) and Petunia hybrida UDP-rhamnose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside rhamnosyltransferase (RT), respectively. One region of the cDNA (amino acids 325 to 387) showed similarity to ceramide UDP-galactosyltransferases of mice, rats and humans. A crude extract from Escherichia coli, in which the protein was expressed from the cDNA, showed high UF3GaT activity but low UF3GT activity, and was similar in K(m), optimal pH and substrate specificity to UF3GaT from V. mungo. We conclude that we have obtained UDP-galactose:flavonoid 3-O-galactosyltransferase (UF3GaT) cDNA from V. mungo.

  4. cDNA cloning and characterisation of an alpha-glucosidase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; George, L A; Ross, H A; Davies, H V

    1998-02-01

    Using an Arabidopsis thaliana expressed sequence tag with sequence similarity to human lysosomal alpha-glucosidase as a probe, a potato cDNA was isolated. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide with an Mr value of 105,400 and the most significant matches of the deduced amino acid sequence are with members of family 31 of glucosyl transferase. The potato cDNA was expressed in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is deficient in maltase activity and unable to grow using maltose as a carbon source (ABYSMAL81). Expression of the potato cDNA in the mutant yeast strain restores its ability to use maltose as a carbon source for growth. Additionally, alpha-glucosidase activity could be measured in extracts of the yeast cells following complementation. A range of maltodextrins were substrates for this activity. The steady-state expression level of the potato alpha-glucosidase gene was low in most tissues examined, the highest levels occurring in sprouting tubers and source leaves.

  5. The Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius heat shock protein 90α: cDNA cloning, characterization and expression.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham; Shalaby, Manal; Embaby, Amira; Ismael, Mohammad; Pathan, Akbar; Ataya, Farid; Alanazi, Mohammad; Bassiouny, Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved ubiquitous molecular chaperone contributing to assisting folding, maintenance of structural integrity and proper regulation of a subset of cytosolic proteins. In the present study, a heat shock protein 90α full length coding cDNA was isolated and cloned from the Arabian one-humped camel by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The full length cDNA sequence was submitted to NCBI GeneBank under the accession number KF612338. The sequence analysis of the Arabian camel Hsp90α cDNA showed 2202bp encoding a protein of 733 amino acids with estimated molecular mass of 84.827kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.31. Blast search analysis revealed that the C. dromedarius Hsp90α shared high similarity with other known Hsp90α. Comparative analyses of camel Hsp90α protein sequence with other mammalian Hsp90s showed high identity (85-94%). Heterologous expression of camel Hsp90α cDNA in E. coli JM109 (DE3) gave a fusion protein band of 86.0kDa after induction with IPTG for 4h.

  6. cDNA cloning and characterization of a mannose-binding lectin from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonghai; Kai, Guoyin; Liu, Xiaojun; Lin, Juan; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2005-03-01

    Using RNA extracted from Zingiber officinale rhizomes and primers designed according to the conservative regions of monocot mannose-binding lectins, the full-length cDNA of Z. officinale agglutinin (ZOA) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of zoa was 746 bp and contained a 510 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a lectin precursor of 169 amino acids with a signal peptide. ZOA was a mannose-binding lectin with three typical mannose-binding sites (QDNY). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that zoa expressed in all the tested tissues of Z. officinale including leaf, root and rhizome, suggesting it to be a constitutively expressing form. ZOA protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with the molecular weight expected. To our knowledge, this is the first mannose-binding lectin cDNA cloned from the family Zingiberaceae. Our results demonstrate that monocot mannose-binding lectins also occur within the family Zingiberaceae. PMID:15886457

  7. Sequence analysis of the cDNA for the human casein kinase I {delta} (CSNK1D) gene and its chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuda, Jun; Hidari, Nobuko; Hirai, Momoki; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the genetic mapping of a cDNA clone encoding human casein kinase I (CK1) using fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis of human-rodent hybrid cell panels. When compared to the amino acid sequence in the kinase domain of the rat, this cDNA seems to be a human homologue of the CK1 {delta} isoform. Sequence similarity to the kinase domains and function in DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pombe are discussed. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Barley arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases: purification, characterization and determination of primary structures from cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R C; Burton, R A; Hrmova, M; Fincher, G B

    2001-01-01

    A family 51 arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase, designated AXAH-I, has been purified from extracts of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings by fractional precipitation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa and releases L-arabinose from cereal cell wall arabinoxylans with a pH optimum of 4.3, a catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of 6.9 s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency factor (k(cat)/K(m)) of 0.76 (ml x s(-1) x mg(-1)). Whereas the hydrolysis of alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues linked to C(O)3 of backbone (1-->4)-beta-xylosyl residues proceeds at the fastest rate, alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues on doubly substituted xylosyl residues are also hydrolysed, at lower rates. A near full-length cDNA encoding barley AXAH-I indicates that the mature enzyme consists of 626 amino acid residues and has a calculated pI of 4.8. A second cDNA, which is 81% identical with that encoding AXAH-I, encodes another barley AXAH, which has been designated AXAH-II. The barley AXAHs are likely to have key roles in wall metabolism in cereals and other members of the Poaceae. Thus the enzymes could participate in the modification of the fine structure of arabinoxylan during wall deposition, maturation or expansion, or in wall turnover and the hydrolysis of arabinoxylans in germinated grain. PMID:11336650

  9. cDNA cloning, gene organization and expression analysis of human peptidylarginine deiminase type I.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrin, Marina; Ishigami, Akihito; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Nachat, Rachida; Valmary, Séverine; Sebbag, Mireille; Simon, Michel; Senshu, Tatsuo; Serre, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyse a post-translational modification of proteins through the conversion of arginine residues into citrullines. The existence of four isoforms of PAD (types I, II, III and IV) encoded by four different genes, which are distinct in their substrate specificities and tissue-specific expression, was reported in rodents. In the present study, starting from epidermis polyadenylated RNA, we cloned by reverse transcriptase-PCR a full-length cDNA encoding human PAD type I. The cDNA was 2711 bp in length and encoded a 663-amino-acid sequence. The predicted protein shares 75% identity with the rat PAD type I sequence, but displays only 50-57% identity with the three other known human isoforms. We have described the organization of the human PAD type I gene on chromosome 1p36. A recombinant PAD type I was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to be enzymically active. Human PAD type I mRNAs were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR not only in the epidermis, but also in various organs, including prostate, testis, placenta, spleen and thymus. In human epidermis extracts analysed by Western blotting, PAD type I was detected as a 70 kDa polypeptide, in agreement with its predicted molecular mass. As shown by immunohistochemistry, the enzyme was expressed in all the living layers of human epidermis, with the labelling being increased in the granular layer. This is the first description of the human PAD type I gene and the first demonstration of its expression in epidermis. PMID:12416996

  10. Conditional poliovirus mutants made by random deletion mutagenesis of infectious cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkegaard, K; Nelsen, B

    1990-01-01

    Small deletions were introduced into DNA plasmids bearing cDNA copies of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus RNA. The procedure used was similar to that of P. Hearing and T. Shenk (J. Mol. Biol. 167:809-822, 1983), with modifications designed to introduce only one lesion randomly into each DNA molecule. Methods to map small deletions in either large DNA or RNA molecules were employed. Two poliovirus mutants, VP1-101 and VP1-102, were selected from mutagenized populations on the basis of their host range phenotype, showing a large reduction in the relative numbers of plaques on CV1 and HeLa cells compared with wild-type virus. The deletions borne by the mutant genomes were mapped to the region encoding the amino terminus of VP1. That these lesions were responsible for the mutant phenotypes was substantiated by reintroduction of the sequenced lesions into a wild-type poliovirus cDNA by deoxyoligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The deletion of nucleotides encoding amino acids 8 and 9 of VP1 was responsible for the VP1-101 phenotype; the VP1-102 defect was caused by the deletion of the sequences encoding the first four amino acids of VP1. The peptide sequence at the VP1-VP3 proteolytic cleavage site was altered from glutamine-glycine to glutamine-methionine in VP1-102; this apparently did not alter the proteolytic cleavage pattern. The biochemical defects resulting from these mutations are discussed in the accompanying report. Images PMID:2152811

  11. Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones coding for cholinesterase from fetal human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Prody, C.A.; Zevin-Sonkin, D.; Gnatt, A.; Goldberg, O.; Soreq, H.

    1987-06-01

    To study the primary structure and regulation of human cholinesterases, oligodeoxynucleotide probes were prepared according to a consensus peptide sequence present in the active site of both human serum pseudocholinesterase and Torpedo electric organ true acetylcholinesterase. Using these probes, the authors isolated several cDNA clones from lambdagt10 libraries of fetal brain and liver origins. These include 2.4-kilobase cDNA clones that code for a polypeptide containing a putative signal peptide and the N-terminal, active site, and C-terminal peptides of human BtChoEase, suggesting that they code either for BtChoEase itself or for a very similar but distinct fetal form of cholinesterase. In RNA blots of poly(A)/sup +/ RNA from the cholinesterase-producing fetal brain and liver, these cDNAs hybridized with a single 2.5-kilobase band. Blot hybridization to human genomic DNA revealed that these fetal BtChoEase cDNA clones hybridize with DNA fragments of the total length of 17.5 kilobases, and signal intensities indicated that these sequences are not present in many copies. Both the cDNA-encoded protein and its nucleotide sequence display striking homology to parallel sequences published for Torpedo AcChoEase. These finding demonstrate extensive homologies between the fetal BtChoEase encoded by these clones and other cholinesterases of various forms and species.

  12. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1996-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  13. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1996-01-09

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  14. Miniaturised optical encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, John; Desmulliez, Marc P. Y.; Weston, Nick; McKendrick, David; Cunningham, Graeme; McFarland, Geoff; Meredith, Wyn; McKee, Andrew; Langton, Conrad; Eddie, Iain

    2008-08-01

    Optical encoders are pervasive in many sectors of industry including metrology, motion systems, electronics, medical, scanning/ printing, scientific instruments, space research and specialist machine tools. The precision of automated manufacture and assembly has been revolutionised by the adoption of optical diffractive measurement methods. Today's optical encoders comprise discrete components: light source(s), reference and analyser gratings, and a photodiode array that utilise diffractive optic methods to achieve high resolution. However the critical alignment requirements between the optical gratings and to the photodiode array, the bulky nature of the encoder devices and subsequent packaging mean that optical encoders can be prohibitively expensive for many applications and unsuitable for others. We report here on the design, manufacture and test of a miniaturised optical encoder to be used in precision measurement systems. Microsystems manufacturing techniques facilitate the monolithic integration of the traditional encoder components onto a single compound semiconductor chip, radically reducing the size, cost and set-up time. Fabrication of the gratings at the wafer level, by standard photo-lithography, allows for the simultaneous alignment of many devices in a single process step. This development coupled with a unique photodiode configuration not only provides increased performance but also significantly improves the alignment tolerances in both manufacture and set-up. A National Research and Development Corporation type optical encoder chip has been successfully demonstrated under test conditions on both amplitude and phase scales with pitches of 20 micron, 8 micron and 4 micron, showing significantly relaxed alignment tolerances with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 60:1. Various reference mark schemes have also been investigated. Results are presented here.

  15. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1998-11-03

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

  16. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  17. cDNA cloning, functional expression and antifungal activities of a dimeric plant defensin SPE10 from Pachyrrhizus erosus seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaomin; Wang, Jing; Wu, Fang; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun; Gong, Weimin

    2005-01-01

    SPE10 is an antifungal protein isolated from the seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus. cDNA encoding a 47 amino acid peptide was cloned by RT-PCR and the gene sequence proved SPE10 to be a new member of plant defensin family. The synthetic cDNA with codons preferred in yeast was cloned into the pPIC9 plasmid directly in-frame with the secretion signal alpha-mating factor, and highly expressed in methylotrophic Pichia pastoris. Activity assays showed the recombinant SPE10 inhibited specifically the growth of several pathogenic fungi as native SPE10. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy analysis indicated that the native and recombinant protein should have same folding, though there are eight cystein residues in the sequence. Several evidence suggested SPE10 should be the first dimeric plant defensin reported so far. PMID:15821865

  18. Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica: cDNA cloning of a histone H3 with a divergent primary structure.

    PubMed

    Födinger, M; Ortner, S; Plaimauer, B; Wiedermann, G; Scheiner, O; Duchêne, M

    1993-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica has an unusual nuclear structure characterized by a low degree of chromatin condensation and the absence of stainable metaphase chromosomes. Although nucleosome-like particles were observed, no information about histones was available so far. In this paper we describe a cDNA clone with significant homology to H3 histones that was isolated from a library of pathogenic E. histolytica. The complete cDNA encodes a 15-kDa polypeptide, which like the histone sequence from Volvox carteri is shorter by one residue than the human homologue. The amino acid sequence has only 69% identity with human H3.3 histone and 67% identity with the human H3.1 histone. This is the highest degree of sequence divergence observed for any eukaryote H3 histone sequence. Our results indicate that this divergence may contribute to the unusual chromatin structure of E. histolytica. PMID:8341328

  19. Human {gamma}-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH9): cDNA sequence, genomic organization, polymorphism, chromosomal localization, and tissue expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.W.; Chen, J.C.; Hsu, L.C.

    1996-06-15

    The cDNA and the gene (ALDH9) for a human aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme, which has a high activity for oxidation of {gamma}-aminobutyraldehyde and other amino aldehydes, were cloned and characterized. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 1479 bp encoding 493 amino acid residues. The gene is about 45 kb and consists of 10 coding exons interrupted by nine introns. The gene was assigned to chromosome 1q22-q23, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Northern blot hybridization indicated that the size of the mRNA is about 2.4 kb and that the gene is expressed at high levels in adult liver, skeletal muscle, and kidney and low levels in heart, pancreas, lung, and brain. The gene is polymorphic, i.e., C or T at nt 327 and C or G at nt 344. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Constructing and detecting a cDNA library for mites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Cheng, Juan; Yang, YuanJun; Li, Chen; Lu, ZhaoHui

    2015-10-01

    RNA extraction and construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) library for mites have been quite challenging due to difficulties in acquiring tiny living mites and breaking their hard chitin. The present study is to explore a better method to construct cDNA library for mites that will lay the foundation on transcriptome and molecular pathogenesis research. We selected Psoroptes cuniculi as an experimental subject and took the following steps to construct and verify cDNA library. First, we combined liquid nitrogen grinding with TRIzol for total RNA extraction. Then, switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique was used to construct full-length cDNA library. To evaluate the quality of cDNA library, the library titer and recombination rate were calculated. The reliability of cDNA library was detected by sequencing and analyzing positive clones and genes amplified by specific primers. The results showed that the RNA concentration was 836 ng/μl and the absorbance ratio at 260/280 nm was 1.82. The library titer was 5.31 × 10(5) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/ml and the recombination rate was 98.21%, indicating that the library was of good quality. In the 33 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of P. cuniculi, two clones of 1656 and 1658 bp were almost identical with only three variable sites detected, which had an identity of 99.63% with that of Psoroptes ovis, indicating that the cDNA library was reliable. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that the 553-bp Pso c II gene sequences of P. cuniculi had an identity of 98.56% with those of P. ovis, confirming that the cDNA library was not only reliable but also feasible.

  1. Polarization encoded color camera.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  2. High-Throughput Plasmid cDNA Library Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Kenneth H.; Yu, Charles; George, Reed A.; Carlson, JosephW.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Svirskas, Robert; Stapleton, Mark; Celniker, SusanE.

    2006-05-24

    Libraries of cDNA clones are valuable resources foranalysing the expression, structure, and regulation of genes, as well asfor studying protein functions and interactions. Full-length cDNA clonesprovide information about intron and exon structures, splice junctionsand 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). Open reading frames (ORFs)derived from cDNA clones can be used to generate constructs allowingexpression of native proteins and N- or C-terminally tagged proteins.Thus, obtaining full-length cDNA clones and sequences for most or allgenes in an organism is critical for understanding genome functions.Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing samples cDNA libraries at random,which is most useful at the beginning of large-scale screening projects.However, as projects progress towards completion, the probability ofidentifying unique cDNAs via EST sequencing diminishes, resulting in poorrecovery of rare transcripts. We describe an adapted, high-throughputprotocol intended for recovery of specific, full-length clones fromplasmid cDNA libraries in five days.

  3. Molecular cloning of the flavin-containing monooxygenase (form II) cDNA from adult human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Lomri, N; Gu, Q; Cashman, J R

    1992-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the adult human liver flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; dimethylaniline N-oxidase, EC 1.14.13.8) were isolated from lambda gt10 and lambda gt11 libraries. The cDNA libraries were screened with three synthetic 36-mer oligonucleotide probes derived from the nucleic acid sequence of the pig liver FMO cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence for the adult human liver FMO was quite distinct from the pig liver FMO, and adult human liver FMO was designated form II (HLFMO II). The full-length cDNA sequence of HLFMO II [2119 base pairs (bp)] had an open reading frame of 1599 nucleotides, which encoded a 533-amino acid protein of Mr 59,179, a 5'-noncoding region of 136 nucleotides and a 3'-noncoding region of 369 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail. The deduced amino acid sequence of HLFMO II had 80% similarity with the rabbit liver FMO II but only a 52%, 55%, and 53% amino acid similarity with the rabbit liver (form I), the pig liver (form I), and fetal human liver (form I) FMOs, respectively. RNA analysis of adult human liver RNA showed that there was one HLFMO II mRNA species. Analysis of genomic DNA indicated that HLFMO II was the product of a single gene. These results indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence for HLFMO II contained highly conserved residues and suggested that FMO enzymes were closely related and, undoubtedly, derived from the same ancestral gene. Images PMID:1542660

  4. Isolation of a Histoplasma capsulatum cDNA that complements a mitochondrial NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase subunit I-deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C H; McEwen, J E

    1999-06-30

    A cDNA library was prepared from Histoplasma capsulatum strain G-217B yeast cells and an apparently full-length cDNA for a subunit of the citric acid cycle enzyme NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase was identified by sequence analysis. Its predicted amino acid sequence is more similar to the IDH1 regulatory subunit of S. cerevisiae NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase than to the IDH2 catalytic subunit. After expression in S. cerevisiae from an S. cerevisiae promoter, it was shown to functionally complement an S. cerevisiae idh1 mutant, but not an idh2 mutant, for growth on acetate as a carbon source and for production of NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. These results confirm that the H. capsulatum cDNA encodes a homologue of subunit I of the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme that functions in the citric acid cycle.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a full length cDNA for dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Oyake, M.; Onodera, O.; Ikeuchi, T.

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration characterized by anticipation and variable combination of symptoms including myoclonus, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, choleoathetosis, and dementia. Recently, we discovered that DRPLA is caused by unstable expansion of a CAG repeat of a B37 gene on chromosome 12. To characterize functions of the DRPLA gene product, we isolated several cDNA clones for the DRPLA gene from human adult and fetus brain cDNA libraries, using an oligonucleotide flanking the CAG repeat. The cDNA spans 4247 bp in length and there is only an open reading frame coding for 986 amino acids. The CAG repeat, which is expanded in DRPLA, is located 291 bp downstream from the initiation methionine and encodes a polyglutamine tract. The deduced amino acid sequence from amino acids residues 582 to 707 has a high homology to published human hippocampus derived expressed sequence (M78755) located at chromosome 1p (63.8% identity), and 3{prime}-untranslated region of the DRPLA cDNA revealed homology to the mouse small nuclear RNA U7 gene (X54165). Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.7 knt transcript which is widely expressed in various tissues including heart, lung, kidney, placenta, skeletal muscle, and brain. In human adult brain, the transcript was broadly expressed including amygdala, caudate nucleus, corpus callosum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus and thalamus, and was not specific to the dentatorubral-pallidoluysian system. The availability of a full length cDNA will be highly useful for analyzing the pathogenesis of this unique neurodegenerative disease as well as for analyzing other CAG repeat related neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  7. Video Time Encoding Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value. PMID:21296708

  8. Video time encoding machines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  9. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  10. Hypoxically inducible barley lactate dehydrogenase: cDNA cloning and molecular analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hondred, D. ); Hanson, A.D. Univ. de Montreal, Quebec )

    1990-09-01

    In the roots of barley and other cereals, hypoxia induces a set of five isozymes of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; (S)-lactate:NADH oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27). Biochemical and genetic data indicate that the five LDH isozymes are tetramers that arise from random association of the products of two Ldh loci. To investigate this system, cDNA clones of LDH were isolated from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library derived from hypoxically treated barley roots. The library was screened with antiserum raised against barley LDH purified {approx}3,000-fold by an improved three-step procedure. Immunopositive clones were rescreened with a cDNA probe synthesized by the polymerase chain reaction using primers modeled from the amino acid sequences of two tryptic LDH peptides. Two types of LDH clones were found. Nucleotide sequence analysis of one representative insert of each type (respectively, 1,305 and 1,166 base pairs) revealed open reading framed encoding 10 peptide fragments of LDH. The 1,305-base-pair insert included the entire coding region of a 356-residue LDH monomer. The nucleotide sequences of the two LDH cDNAs were 92% identical in the coding region, but highly divergent in the 3{prime} noncoding region, and thus probably correspond to the two postulated Ldh loci. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two barley LDHs were 96% identical to each other and very similar to those from vertebrate and bacterial LDHs. RNA blot hybridization showed a single mRNA band of 1.5 kilobases whose level rose about 8-fold in roots during hypoxic induction, as did the level of translatable LDH message.

  11. Insights into corn genes derived from large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Nickolai N; Brover, Vyacheslav V; Freidin, Stanislav; Troukhan, Maxim E; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Hongyu; Swaller, Timothy J; Lu, Yu-Ping; Bouck, John; Flavell, Richard B; Feldmann, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    We present a large portion of the transcriptome of Zea mays, including ESTs representing 484,032 cDNA clones from 53 libraries and 36,565 fully sequenced cDNA clones, out of which 31,552 clones are non-redundant. These and other previously sequenced transcripts have been aligned with available genome sequences and have provided new insights into the characteristics of gene structures and promoters within this major crop species. We found that although the average number of introns per gene is about the same in corn and Arabidopsis, corn genes have more alternatively spliced isoforms. Examination of the nucleotide composition of coding regions reveals that corn genes, as well as genes of other Poaceae (Grass family), can be divided into two classes according to the GC content at the third position in the amino acid encoding codons. Many of the transcripts that have lower GC content at the third position have dicot homologs but the high GC content transcripts tend to be more specific to the grasses. The high GC content class is also enriched with intronless genes. Together this suggests that an identifiable class of genes in plants is associated with the Poaceae divergence. Furthermore, because many of these genes appear to be derived from ancestral genes that do not contain introns, this evolutionary divergence may be the result of horizontal gene transfer from species not only with different codon usage but possibly that did not have introns, perhaps outside of the plant kingdom. By comparing the cDNAs described herein with the non-redundant set of corn mRNAs in GenBank, we estimate that there are about 50,000 different protein coding genes in Zea. All of the sequence data from this study have been submitted to DDBJ/GenBank/EMBL under accession numbers EU940701-EU977132 (FLI cDNA) and FK944382-FL482108 (EST). PMID:18937034

  12. The complete cDNA sequence of laminin alpha 4 and its relationship to the other human laminin alpha chains.

    PubMed

    Richards, A; Al-Imara, L; Pope, F M

    1996-06-15

    We previously localised the gene (LAMA4) encoding a novel laminin alpha 4 chain to chromosome 6q21. In this study, we describe the complete coding sequence and compare the protein with the other three known human laminin alpha chains. Although closely linked to LAMA2, the LAMA4 product most closely resembles laminin alpha 3, a constituent of laminin 5. Like laminin alpha 3A, the alpha 4 chain is a truncated version of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains, with a much reduced short arm. While the alpha 4 molecule is most similar to alpha 3, it shares some features of the C-terminal domains G4 and G5 in common with alpha 2. Unlike the LAMA3 gene, LAMA4 appears to encode only a single transcript, as determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA sequence encodes 1816 amino acids, which include a 24-residue signal peptide. The gene is expressed in skin, placenta, heart, lung, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. We have also shown that the mRNA can be readily reverse transcribed and amplified from cultured dermal fibroblasts. PMID:8706685

  13. Purification, characterization, cDNA cloning, and expression of a xyloglucan endoglucanase from Geotrichum sp. M128.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2004-02-27

    A novel xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (XEG), xyloglucanase, with a molecular mass of 80 kDa and a pI of 4.8, was isolated from the fungus Geotrichum sp. M128. It was found to be an endoglucanase active toward xyloglucan and not active toward carboxymethylcellulose, Avicel, or barley 1,3-1,4-beta-glucan. Analysis of the precise substrate specificity using various xyloglucan oligosaccharide structures revealed that XEG has at least four subsites (-2 to +2) and specifically recognizes xylose branching at the +1 and +2 sites. The full-length cDNA encoding XEG was cloned and sequenced. It consists of a 2436-bp open reading frame encoding a 776-amino acid protein. From its deduced amino acid sequence, XEG can be classified as a family 74 glycosyl hydrolase. The cDNA encoding XEG was then expressed in Escherichia coli, and enzymatically active recombinant XEG was obtained. PMID:14987996

  14. Structure and sequence of the gene encoding human keratocan.

    PubMed

    Tasheva, E S; Funderburgh, J L; Funderburgh, M L; Corpuz, L M; Conrad, G W

    1999-01-01

    Keratocan is one of the three major keratan sulfate proteoglycans characteristically expressed in cornea. We have isolated cDNA and genomic clones and determined the sequence of the entire human keratocan (Kera) gene. The gene is spread over 7.65 kb of DNA and contains three exons. An open reading frame starting at the beginning of the second exon encodes a protein of 352 aa. The amino acid sequence of keratocan shows high identity among mammalian species. This evolutionary conservation between the keratocan proteins as well as the restricted expression of Kera gene in cornea suggests that this molecule might be important in developing and maintaining corneal transparency.

  15. Construction and characterization of a normalized cDNA library of Nannochloropsis oculata (Eustigmatophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jianzhong; Ma, Xiaolei; Pan, Kehou; Yang, Guanpin; Yu, Wengong

    2010-07-01

    We constructed and characterized a normalized cDNA library of Nannochloropsis oculata CS-179, and obtained 905 nonredundant sequences (NRSs) ranging from 431-1 756 bp in length. Among them, 496 were very similar to nonredundant ones in the GenBank ( E ≤1.0e-05), and 349 ESTs had significant hits with the clusters of eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOG). Bases G and/or C at the third position of codons of 14 amino acid residues suggested a strong bias in the conserved domain of 362 NRSs (>60%). We also identified the unigenes encoding phosphorus and nitrogen transporters, suggesting that N. oculata could efficiently transport and metabolize phosphorus and nitrogen, and recognized the unigenes that involved in biosynthesis and storage of both fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which will facilitate the demonstration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) biosynthesis pathway of N. oculata. In comparison with the original cDNA library, the normalized library significantly increased the efficiencies of random sequencing and rarely expressed genes discovering, and decreased the frequency of abundant gene sequences.

  16. Purification, characterisation and cDNA cloning of an antimicrobial peptide from Macadamia integrifolia.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J P; Goulter, K C; Green, J L; Harrison, S J; Manners, J M

    1997-03-15

    An antimicrobial peptide with no significant amino acid sequence similarity to previously described peptides has been isolated from the nut kernels of Macadcamia integrifolia. The peptide, termed MiAMP1, is highly basic with an estimated pI of 10.1, a mass of 8.1 kDa and contains 76 amino acids including 6 cysteine residues. A cDNA clone containing the entire coding region corresponding to the peptide was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA indicated a 26-amino-acid signal peptide at the N-terminus of the preprotein. Purified MiAMP1 inhibited the growth of a variety of fungal, oomycete and gram-positive bacterial phytopathogens in vitro. Some pathogens exhibited close to 100% inhibition in less than 1 microM peptide (5 microg/ml). Antimicrobial activity was diminished against most, but not all, microbes in the presence of calcium and potassium chloride salts (1 mM and 50 mM, respectively). MiAMP1 was active against bakers yeast, was inactive against Escherichia coli and was non-toxic to plant and mammalian cells. Analysis of genomic DNA indicated that MiAMP1 was encoded on a single copy gene containing no introns. The MiAMP1 gene may prove useful in genetic manipulations to increase disease resistance in transgenic plants.

  17. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the alpha-galactosidase cDNA from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar).

    PubMed

    Overbeeke, N; Fellinger, A J; Toonen, M Y; van Wassenaar, D; Verrips, C T

    1989-11-01

    Polyadenylated mRNA was purified from the aleurone cells of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar) seeds germinated for 18 h and used for the construction of a cDNA library. Clones with the alpha-galactosidase encoding gene were identified using oligo-nucleotide mixed probes based on the NH2 terminal amino acid sequence and on the sequence of an internal peptide. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA clone showed that the enzyme is synthesized as a precursor with a 47 amino acid NH2 terminal extension. This pre-sequence most likely functions to target the protein outside the aleurone cells into the endosperm. Based upon structural features, it is proposed to divide the precursor into a pre-(signal sequence) part and a glycosylated pro-part comparable with those of the yeast mat A/alpha factor and killer factor. A comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of this alpha-galactosidase from plant origin revealed significant stretches of homology with respect to the amino acid sequences of the enzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and from human origin but only to a minor extent compared with the alpha-galactosidase from Escherichia coli.

  18. Murine muscle-specific enolase: cDNA cloning, sequence, and developmental expression.

    PubMed Central

    Lamandé, N; Mazo, A M; Lucas, M; Montarras, D; Pinset, C; Gros, F; Legault-Demare, L; Lazar, M

    1989-01-01

    In vertebrates, the glycolytic enzyme enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) is present as homodimers and heterodimers formed from three distinct subunits of identical molecular weight, alpha, beta, and gamma. We report the cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the beta subunit of murine muscle-specific enolase. The corresponding amino acid sequence shows greater than 80% homology with the beta subunit from chicken obtained by protein sequencing and with alpha and gamma subunits from rat and mouse deduced from cloned cDNAs. In contrast, there is no homology between the 3' untranslated regions of mouse alpha, beta, and gamma enolase mRNAs, which also differ greatly in length. The short 3' untranslated region of beta enolase mRNA accounts for its distinct length, 1600 bases. It is known that a progressive transition from alpha alpha to beta beta enolase occurs in developing skeletal muscle. We show that this transition mainly results from a differential regulation of alpha and beta mRNA levels. Analysis of myogenic cell lines shows that beta enolase gene is expressed at the myoblast stage. Moreover, transfection of premyogenic C3H10T1/2 cells with MyoD1 cDNA shows that the initial expression of beta transcripts occurs during the very first steps of the myogenic pathway, suggesting that it could be a marker event of myogenic lineage determination. Images PMID:2734297

  19. cDNA cloning of luteinizing hormone subunits from brushtail possum and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G A; Deane, E M; Cooper, D W

    1998-08-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) plays an important role in the reproductive cycles of all mammals. There is a large amount of both nucleotide and amino acid sequence data available for LH from eutherian mammals, but little is known about the primary structure of LH in marsupials. We have used consensus PCR primers to generate specific probes for screening pituitary cDNA libraries and report the cloning of the cDNAs encoding the alpha-subunit of LH (also shared by a number of other glycoprotein hormones) and the LH-specific beta-subunit, from the common brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, and the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus. Southern blotting experiments indicated that both genes are probably present as single copies. Comparison of the deduced marsupial protein sequences with homologous sequences from other vertebrates revealed a high degree of conservation, especially for the alpha-subunit. These sequences represent the first complete primary structures for a marsupial glycoprotein hormone to have been elucidated.

  20. A jojoba beta-Ketoacyl-CoA synthase cDNA complements the canola fatty acid elongation mutation in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Lassner, M W; Lardizabal, K; Metz, J G

    1996-02-01

    beta-Ketoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (KCS) catalyzes the condensation of malonyl-CoA with long-chain acyl-CoA. This reaction is the initial step of the microsomal fatty acyl-CoA elongation pathway responsible for formation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, or fatty acids with chain lengths > 18 carbons). Manipulation of this pathway is significant for agriculture, because it is the basis of conversion of high erucic acid rapeseed into canola. High erucic acid rapeseed oil, used as an industrial feedstock, is rich in VLCFAs, whereas the edible oil extracted from canola is essentially devoid of VLCFAs. Here, we report the cloning of a cDNA from developing jojoba embryos involved in microsomal fatty acid elongation. The jojoba cDNA is homologous to the recently cloned Arabidopsis FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene that has been suggested to encode KCS. We characterize the jojoba enzyme and present biochemical data indicating that the jojoba cDNA does indeed encode KCS. Transformation of low erucic acid rapeseed with the jojoba cDNA restored KCS activity to developing embryos and altered the transgenic seed oil composition to contain high levels of VLCFAs. The data reveal the key role KCS plays in determining the chain lengths of fatty acids found in seed oils.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a cowpea seed lipid transfer protein cDNA: expression analysis during seed development and under fungal and cold stresses in seedlings' tissues.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A O; Souza-Filho, G A; Ferreira, B S; Branco, A T; Araújo, I S; Fernandes, K V S; Retamal, C A; Gomes, V M

    2006-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) involved in the defense of plants against pathogens. Our group has previously characterized and purified a LTP from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seeds which caused the inhibition of growth of fungal pathogens in vitro. The aim of this work was to obtain the cDNA encoding the cowpea LTP and after cloning, to use the cDNA as a probe for studying its expression profile during the development of cowpea seeds. In this work, the N-terminal sequence of the mature LTP peptide from cowpea was used to produce a degenerated oligonucleotide. This primer allowed the amplification of the LTP cDNA by RT-PCR from mRNA of cowpea seeds. The sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA, named VULTP, showed 494 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 91 amino acids. The deduced peptide presented high homology of similarity to plant LTPs of Vigna radiata var. radiate (94%), Prunus domestica (82%) and Zea mays (72%). The expression profile of the VULTP gene in cowpea was analyzed by Northern blot and revealed that the transcript is not accumulated in adult tissues. Conversely, VULTP mRNA is early and strongly accumulated during seed development. The results obtained to seedling of cowpea demonstrate that the VULTP gene presents differential expression in response to different stress. Further studies will be conducted to try to gain better understanding about the physiological role of this gene in cowpea.

  2. Development of infectious cDNA clones of Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is a widespread pathogen in European aquaculture of salmonid fish. Distinct viral subtypes have been suggested based on sequence comparisons and some of these have different geographical distributions. In Norway, only SAV subtype 3 have so far been identified. Little is known about viral mechanisms important for pathogenesis and transmission. Tools for detailed exploration of SAV genomes are therefore needed. Results Infectious cDNA clones in which a genome of subtype 3 SAV is under the control of a CMV promoter were constructed. The clones were designed to express proteins that are putatively identical to those previously reported for the SAVH20/03 strain. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a part of the E2 glycoprotein in order to detect expression of the subgenomic open reading frame (ORF) encoding structural viral proteins. Transfection of the cDNA clone revealed the expression of the E2 protein by IFAT, and in serial passages of the supernatant the presence of infectious recombinant virus was confirmed through RT-PCR, IFAT and the development of a cytopathic effect similar to that seen during infection with wild type SAV. Confirmation that the recovered virus originated from the infectious plasmid was done by sequence identification of an introduced genetic tag. The recombinant virus was infectious also when an additional ORF encoding an EGFP reporter gene under the control of a second subgenomic alphavirus promoter was added. Finally, we used the system to study the effect of selected point mutations on infectivity in Chinook salmon embryo cells. While introduced mutations in nsP2197, nsP3263 and nsP3323 severely reduced infectivity, a serine to proline mutation in E2206 appeared to enhance the virus titer production. Conclusion We have constructed infectious clones for SAV based on a subtype 3 genome. The clones may serve as a platform for further functional studies. PMID:20858233

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human folate-binding protein cDNA from placenta and malignant tissue culture (KB) cells.

    PubMed

    Elwood, P C

    1989-09-01

    Human folate-binding proteins (FBPs) are single chain glycoproteins that contain a high affinity binding site for folates and methotrexate and occur in a soluble or membrane-associated form. The membrane-associated FBP is involved in the uptake of physiologic folates and methotrexate. In this study, human FBP cDNA clones were isolated from human malignant nasopharyngeal carcinoma (KB) cell and placental cDNA libraries by means of oligonucleotide probes derived from determined internal amino acid sequences. The longest cDNA nucleotide sequence is 1126 base pairs and encodes a polypeptide that contains 257 amino acid residues (calculated molecular mass = 29,817). The deduced amino acid sequence is 80% homologous to a bovine soluble FBP, is greater than 99% homologous to the reported partial amino acid sequence of the human soluble FBP, contains three potential N-linked glycosylation sites, and has hydrophobic amino- and carboxylterminal regions which are consistent with a signal peptide and a potential membrane-anchoring domain, respectively. On Northern blot analysis, radiolabeled cDNA probes hybridize to a single 1100-base pair mRNA species that is expressed to a variable degree in human KB cells, placenta, brain, and epithelial mRNA but is not detectable in human liver mRNA. In vitro translation of RNA transcripts from the FBP cDNA inserts yields a 30-kDa and a 42-kDa polypeptide in the absence and presence of microsomal membranes, respectively. PMID:2768245

  4. Chemical ligation methods for the tagging of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Anthony D; Clark, Matthew A; Hupp, Christopher D; Litovchick, Alexander; Zhang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    The generation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries requires the unimolecular association of multiple encoding oligonucleotides with encoded chemical entities during combinatorial synthesis processes. This has traditionally been achieved using enzymatic ligation. We discuss a range of chemical ligation methods that provide alternatives to enzymatic ligation. These chemical ligation methods include the generation of modified internucleotide linkages that support polymerase translocation and other modified linkages that while not supporting the translocation of polymerases can also be used to generate individual cDNA molecules containing encoded chemical information specifying individual library members. We also describe which of these approaches have been successfully utilized for the preparation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries and those that were subsequently used for the discovery of inhibitors.

  5. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima; Soares, Marcelo Bento

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  6. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

    1997-12-30

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

  7. cDNA microarray screening in food safety.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K

    2006-04-01

    The cDNA microarray technology and related bioinformatics tools presents a wide range of novel application opportunities. The technology may be productively applied to address food safety. In this mini-review article, we present an update highlighting the late breaking discoveries that demonstrate the vitality of cDNA microarray technology as a tool to analyze food safety with reference to microbial pathogens and genetically modified foods. In order to bring the microarray technology to mainstream food safety, it is important to develop robust user-friendly tools that may be applied in a field setting. In addition, there needs to be a standardized process for regulatory agencies to interpret and act upon microarray-based data. The cDNA microarray approach is an emergent technology in diagnostics. Its values lie in being able to provide complimentary molecular insight when employed in addition to traditional tests for food safety, as part of a more comprehensive battery of tests.

  8. Isolation of a cDNA coding for L-galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in plants. Purification, characterization, cDNA cloning, and expression in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, J; Persiau, G; Davey, M W; Bauw, G; Van Montagu, M

    1997-11-28

    L-Galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.2.3; GLDase), an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid was purified 1693-fold from a mitochondrial extract of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea, var. botrytis) to apparent homogeneity with an overall yield of 1.1%. The purification procedure consisted of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration, and fast protein liquid chromatography. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 56 kDa estimated by gel filtration chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed a pH optimum for activity between pH 8.0 and 8.5, with an apparent Km of 3.3 mM for L-galactono-gamma-lactone. Based on partial peptide sequence information, polymerase chain reaction fragments were isolated and used to screen a cauliflower cDNA library from which a cDNA encoding GLDase was isolated. The deduced mature GLDase contained 509 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 57,837 Da. Expression of the cDNA in yeast produced a biologically active protein displaying GLDase activity. Furthermore, we identified a substrate for the enzyme in cauliflower extract, which co-eluted with L-galactono-gamma-lactone by high-performance liquid chromatography, suggesting that this compound is a naturally occurring precursor of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis in vivo.

  9. The Text Encoding Initiative: Flexible and Extensible Document Encoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David T.; Ide, Nancy M.

    1997-01-01

    The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), an international collaboration aimed at producing a common encoding scheme for complex texts, examines the requirement for generality versus the requirement to handle specialized text types. Discusses how documents and users tax the limits of fixed schemes requiring flexible extensible encoding to support…

  10. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, A H; Rubinstein, A L; Chay, C H; Klapper, D G; Bedinger, P A

    1993-09-15

    Sequence analysis of a pollen-specific cDNA from maize has identified a homolog (Zea mI) of the gene (Lol pI) encoding the major allergen of rye-grass pollen. The protein encoded by the partial cDNA sequence is 59.3% identical and 72.7% similar to the comparable region of the reported amino acid sequence of Lol pIA. Southern analysis indicates that this cDNA represents a member of a small multigene family in maize. Northern analysis shows expression only in pollen, not in vegetative or female floral tissues. The timing of expression is developmentally regulated, occurring at a low level prior to the first pollen mitosis and at a high level after this postmeiotic division. Western analysis detects a protein in maize pollen lysates using polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies directed against purified Lolium perenne allergen.

  11. Restriction landmark cDNA scanning (RLCS): a novel cDNA display system using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Yaoi, T; Kawai, J; Hara, A; Kuwajima, G; Wantanabe, S

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new method, designated restriction landmark cDNA scanning (RLCS), which displays many cDNA species quantitatively and simultaneously as two-dimensional gel spots. In this method cDNA species of uniform length were prepared for each mRNA species using restriction enzymes. After the restriction enzyme sites were radiolabeled as landmarks, the labeled fragments were subjected to high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In analyses of cDNA samples from adult mouse liver and brain (cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brain stem) we detected approximately 500 and >1000 discrete gel spots respectively of various intensities at a time. The spot patterns of the three brain regions were very similar, although not identical, but were quite different from the pattern for the liver. RNA blot hybridization analysis using several cloned spot DNAs as probes showed that differences in intensity of the spots among RLCS profiles correlated well with expression levels of the corresponding mRNA species in the brain regions. Because the spots and their intensities reflect distinct mRNA species and their expression level respectively, the RLCS is a novel cDNA display system which provides a great deal of information and should be useful for systematic documentation of differentially expressed genes. PMID:8628652

  12. Cystic Fibrosis Gene Encodes a cAMP-Dependent Chloride Channel in Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Padraig; Warth, John D.; Levesque, Paul C.; Collier, Mei Lin; Geary, Yvonne; Horowitz, Burton; Hume, Joseph R.

    1996-06-01

    cAMP-dependent chloride channels in heart contribute to autonomic regulation of action potential duration and membrane potential and have been inferred to be due to cardiac expression of the epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. In this report, a cDNA from rabbit ventricle was isolated and sequenced, which encodes an exon 5 splice variant (exon 5-) of CFTR, with >90% identity to human CFTR cDNA present in epithelial cells. Expression of this cDNA in Xenopus oocytes gave rise to robust cAMP-activated chloride currents that were absent in control water-injected oocytes. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against CFTR significnatly reduced the density of cAMP-dependent chloride currents in acutely cultured myocytes, thereby establishing a direct functional link between cardiac expression of CFTR protein and an endogenous chloride channel in native cardiac myocytes.

  13. Characterisation of mRNAs encoding the precursor for human apolipoprotein CI.

    PubMed Central

    Knott, T J; Robertson, M E; Priestley, L M; Urdea, M; Wallis, S; Scott, J

    1984-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding human apolipoprotein CI have been isolated from an adult liver cDNA library. Apo CI mRNA was shown to have two species of approximately 580 and 560 bases by RNA blot hybridisation. The intracellular precursor of apo CI was inferred from the cDNA sequence to be an 83 amino acid polypeptide consisting of the 57 residue mature protein and an additional 26 residue amino terminal signal peptide. The 5' untranslated regions of the messages are 63 and 40 bases as determined by primer extension and the 3' untranslated region 111 bases. A polyadenylation signal is situated 10 bases 3' of the poly(A) tall. The mRNA level of apo CI in human liver was significantly greater than that of apo All and apo E. Images PMID:6328444

  14. Regulation of 4CL, encoding 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase, expression in kenaf under diverse stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We cloned the full length 4CL ortholog encoding 4-coumarate: coenzymeA ligase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabiuns) using degenerate primers and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) systems. The 4CL is a key regulatory enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that regulates the activation of cinnamic ac...

  15. Cloning of Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor cDNA and Expression of Recombinant Soluble TNF-Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Patrick W.; Barrett, Kathy; Chantry, David; Turner, Martin; Feldmann, Marc

    1990-10-01

    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNFα with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extra-cellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNFα with an affinity of 2.5 x 10-9 M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNFα or lymphotoxin (TNFβ).

  16. Cloning a Chymotrypsin-Like 1 (CTRL-1) Protease cDNA from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yunwi; Kwon, Young Chul; Bae, Seong Kyeong; Hwang, Duhyeon; Yang, Hye Ryeon; Choudhary, Indu; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Yum, Seungshic; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Yoon, Won Duk; Kang, Changkeun; Kim, Euikyung

    2016-01-01

    An enzyme in a nematocyst extract of the Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, caught off the coast of the Republic of Korea, catalyzed the cleavage of chymotrypsin substrate in an amidolytic kinetic assay, and this activity was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. We isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of this enzyme, which contains 850 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 801 encoding 266 amino acids. A blast analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed 41% identity with human chymotrypsin-like (CTRL) and the CTRL-1 precursor. Therefore, we designated this enzyme N. nomurai CTRL-1. The primary structure of N. nomurai CTRL-1 includes a leader peptide and a highly conserved catalytic triad of His(69), Asp(117), and Ser(216). The disulfide bonds of chymotrypsin and the substrate-binding sites are highly conserved compared with the CTRLs of other species, including mammalian species. Nemopilema nomurai CTRL-1 is evolutionarily more closely related to Actinopterygii than to Scyphozoan (Aurelia aurita) or Hydrozoan (Hydra vulgaris). The N. nomurai CTRL1 was amplified from the genomic DNA with PCR using specific primers designed based on the full-length cDNA, and then sequenced. The N. nomurai CTRL1 gene contains 2434 nucleotides and four distinct exons. The 5' donor splice (GT) and 3' acceptor splice sequences (AG) are wholly conserved. This is the first report of the CTRL1 gene and cDNA structures in the jellyfish N. nomurai. PMID:27399771

  17. Cloning a Chymotrypsin-Like 1 (CTRL-1) Protease cDNA from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Yunwi; Kwon, Young Chul; Bae, Seong Kyeong; Hwang, Duhyeon; Yang, Hye Ryeon; Choudhary, Indu; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Yum, Seungshic; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Yoon, Won Duk; Kang, Changkeun; Kim, Euikyung

    2016-01-01

    An enzyme in a nematocyst extract of the Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, caught off the coast of the Republic of Korea, catalyzed the cleavage of chymotrypsin substrate in an amidolytic kinetic assay, and this activity was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. We isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of this enzyme, which contains 850 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 801 encoding 266 amino acids. A blast analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed 41% identity with human chymotrypsin-like (CTRL) and the CTRL-1 precursor. Therefore, we designated this enzyme N. nomurai CTRL-1. The primary structure of N. nomurai CTRL-1 includes a leader peptide and a highly conserved catalytic triad of His69, Asp117, and Ser216. The disulfide bonds of chymotrypsin and the substrate-binding sites are highly conserved compared with the CTRLs of other species, including mammalian species. Nemopilema nomurai CTRL-1 is evolutionarily more closely related to Actinopterygii than to Scyphozoan (Aurelia aurita) or Hydrozoan (Hydra vulgaris). The N. nomurai CTRL1 was amplified from the genomic DNA with PCR using specific primers designed based on the full-length cDNA, and then sequenced. The N. nomurai CTRL1 gene contains 2434 nucleotides and four distinct exons. The 5′ donor splice (GT) and 3′ acceptor splice sequences (AG) are wholly conserved. This is the first report of the CTRL1 gene and cDNA structures in the jellyfish N. nomurai. PMID:27399771

  18. Transfection of C6 Glioma Cells with Connexin 43 cDNA: Analysis of Expression, Intercellular Coupling, and Cell Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Caveney, S.; Kidder, G. M.; Naus, C. C. G.

    1991-03-01

    C6 glioma cells express low levels of the gap junction protein connexin 43 and its mRNA and display very weak dye coupling. When implanted into the rat cerebrum, these cells quickly give rise to a large glioma. To investigate the role of gap junctions in the tumor characteristics of these cells, we have used Lipofectin-mediated transfection to introduce a full-length cDNA encoding connexin 43. Several transfected clones were obtained that exhibited various amounts of connexin 43 mRNA transcribed from the inserted cDNA. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed an increase in the amount of connexin 43 immunoreactivity in the transfected cells, being localized at areas of intercellular contact as well as in the cytoplasm. The level of dye coupling was also assessed and found to correlate with the amount of connexin 43 mRNA. When cell proliferation was followed over several days, cells expressing the transfected cDNA grew more slowly than nontransfected cells. These transfected cells will be useful in examining the role of gap junctions in tumorigenesis.

  19. Human uroporphyrinogen III synthase: Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a full-length cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Shihfeng; Bishop, D.F.; Desnick, R.J. )

    1988-10-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is responsible for conversion of the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane, to the cyclic tetrapyrrole, uroporphyrinogen III. The deficient activity of URO-synthase is the enzymatic defect in the autosomal recessive disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria. To facilitate the isolation of a full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase, the human erythrocyte enzyme was purified to homogeneity and 81 nonoverlapping amino acids were determined by microsequencing the N terminus and four tryptic peptides. Two synthetic oligonucleotide mixtures were used to screen 1.2 {times} 10{sup 6} recombinants from a human adult liver cDNA library. Eight clones were positive with both oligonucleotide mixtures. Of these, dideoxy sequencing of the 1.3 kilobase insert from clone pUROS-2 revealed 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of 196 and 284 base pairs, respectively, and an open reading frame of 798 base pairs encoding a protein of 265 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 28,607 Da. The isolation and expression of this full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase should facilitate studies of the structure, organization, and chromosomal localization of this heme biosynthetic gene as well as the characterization of the molecular lesions causing congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

  20. Cloning of the cDNA for U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle 70K protein from Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Czernik, A. J.; An, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1992-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a plant cDNA that encodes U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) 70K protein. The plant U1 snRNP 70K protein cDNA is not full length and lacks the coding region for 68 amino acids in the amino-terminal region as compared to human U1 snRNP 70K protein. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the plant U1 snRNP 70K protein with the amino acid sequence of animal and yeast U1 snRNP 70K protein showed a high degree of homology. The plant U1 snRNP 70K protein is more closely related to the human counter part than to the yeast 70K protein. The carboxy-terminal half is less well conserved but, like the vertebrate 70K proteins, is rich in charged amino acids. Northern analysis with the RNA isolated from different parts of the plant indicates that the snRNP 70K gene is expressed in all of the parts tested. Southern blotting of genomic DNA using the cDNA indicates that the U1 snRNP 70K protein is coded by a single gene.

  1. Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus in Brazil and synthesis of its biologically active full-length cDNA clone.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruimin; Niu, Shengniao; Dai, Weifang; Kitajima, Elliot; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-10-01

    A Brazilian isolate of Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV-BR) was firstly found in a hibiscus plant in Limeira, SP, Brazil. RACE PCR was carried out to obtain the full-length sequences of HLFPV-BR which is 6453 nucleotides and has more than 99.15 % of complete genomic RNA nucleotide sequence identity with that of HLFPV Japanese isolate. The genomic structure of HLFPV-BR is similar to other tobamoviruses. It includes a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by open reading frames encoding for a 128-kDa protein and a 188-kDa readthrough protein, a 38-kDa movement protein, 18-kDa coat protein, and a 3' UTR. Interestingly, the unique feature of poly(A) tract is also found within its 3'-UTR. Furthermore, from the total RNA extracted from the local lesions of HLFPV-BR-infected Chenopodium quinoa leaves, a biologically active, full-length cDNA clone encompassing the genome of HLFPV-BR was amplified and placed adjacent to a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The capped in vitro transcripts from the cloned cDNA were infectious when mechanically inoculated into C. quinoa and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This is the first report of the presence of an isolate of HLFPV in Brazil and the successful synthesis of a biologically active HLFPV-BR full-length cDNA clone. PMID:27139727

  2. Characterization of MMP-9 gene from a normalized cDNA library of kidney tissue of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Wang, Yun; Hong, Jun; Xu, Chen; Chen, Huan; Zhou, Shuai-Bang

    2015-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), one of members of the MMP family, is important for the cleaving of structural extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and involved in inflammatory processes. In this study, MMP-9 cDNA was isolated and characterized from a normalized cDNA library of kidney tissue of yellow catfish (designated as YcMMP-9). The complete sequence of YcMMP-9 cDNA consisted of 2561 nucleotides. The open reading frame potentially encoded a protein of 685 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 77.182 kDa. Amino acid sequence of YcMMP-9 have typical characteristics of MMP-9 family and showed highest identity (85.3%) to channel catfish MMP-9. The YcMMP-9 genomic DNA contains 13 exons and 12 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that YcMMP-9 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues in normal fish with high expression in head kidney, trunk kidney, blood, and spleen. However, expression of YcMMP-9 mRNA was induced by Aeromonas hydrophila stimulation, especially in these four tissues mentioned above. It indicated that YcMMP-9 was involved in innate immune responses against bacterial infection. PMID:25910849

  3. Primary structure of bovine pituitary secretory protein I (chromogranin A) deduced from the cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, T.G.; Cohn, D.V.; Gorr, S.U.; Ornstein, D.L.; Kashdan, M.A.; Levine, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    Secretory protein I (SP-I), also referred to as chromogranin A, is an acidic glycoprotein that has been found in every tissue of endocrine and neuroendocrine origin examined but never in exocrine or epithelial cells. Its co-storage and co-secretion with peptide hormones and neurotransmitters suggest that it has an important endocrine or secretory function. The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a bovine pituitary lambdagt11 expression library using an antiserum to parathyroid SP-I. The largest clone (SP4B) hybridized to a transcript of 2.1 kilobases in RNA from parathyroid, pituitary, and adrenal medulla. Immunoblots of bacterial lysates derived from SP4B lysognes demonstrated specific antibody binding to an SP4B/..beta..-galactosidase fusion protein (160 kDa) with a cDNA-derived component of 46 kDa. Radioimmunoassay of the bacterial lystates with SP-I antiserum yielded parallel displacement curves of /sup 125/I-labeled SP-I by the SP4B lysate and authentic SP-I. SP4B contains a cDNA of 1614 nucleotides that encodes a 449-amino acid protein (calculated mass, 50 kDa). The nucleotide sequences of the pituitary SP-I cDNA and adrenal medullary SP-I cDNAs are nearly identical. Analysis of genomic DNA suggests that pituitary, adrenal, and parathyroid SP-I are products of the same gene.

  4. Tissue-specific expression and cDNA cloning of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, G.; Amara, S.G.; Lerner, M.R. )

    1988-07-01

    Sera from some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases have antibodies against nuclear antigens. An example is anti-Sm sera, which recognize proteins associated with small nuclear RNA molecules (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles). In this paper anti-Sm sera were used to probe immunoblots of various rat tissues. A previously unidentified M{sub r} 28,000 polypeptide was recognized by these anti-Sm sera. This polypeptide, referred to as N, is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, being most abundant in rat brain, less so in heart, and undetectable in the other tissues examined. Immunoprecipitation experiments using antibodies directed against the cap structure of small nuclear RNAs have demonstrated that N is a snRNP-associated polypeptide. Anti-Sm serum was also used to isolate a partial cDNA clone ({lambda}rb91) from a rat brain phage {lambda}gt11 cDNA expression library. A longer cDNA clone was obtained by rescreening the library with {lambda}rb91. In vitro transcription and subsequent translation of this subcloned, longer insert (pGMA2) resulted in a protein product with the same electrophoretic and immunological properties as N, confirming that pGMA2 encodes N. The tissue distribution of N and the involvement of snRNP particles in nuclear pre-mRNA processing may imply a role for N in tissue-specific pre-mRNA splicing.

  5. Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.D.; Funk, L.B.; Kennedy, M.E.; Pong, A.S.; Fitzgerald, G.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Platelets metabolize arachidonic acid to thromboxane A{sub 2}, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor compound. The first step of this transformation is catalyzed by prostaglandin (PG) G/H synthase, a target site for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We have isolated the cDNA for both human platelet and human erythroleukemia cell PGG/H synthase using the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein was expressed in COS-M6 cells. Microsomal fractions from transfected cells produced prostaglandin endoperoxide derived products which were inhibited by indomethacin and aspirin. Mutagenesis of the serine residue at position 529, the putative aspirin acetylation site, to an asparagine reduced cyclooxygenase activity to barely detectable levels, an effect observed previously with the expressed sheep vesicular gland enzyme. Platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol ester differentially regulated the expression of PGG/H synthase mRNA levels in the megakaryocytic/platelet-like HEL cell line. The PGG/H synthase gene was assigned to chromosome 9 by analysis of a human-hamster somatic hybrid DNA panel. The availability of platelet PGG/H synthase cDNA should enhance our understanding of the important structure/function domains of this protein and it gene regulation.

  6. Disorders of phonological encoding.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, B

    1992-03-01

    Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic speech are reviewed. It is argued that failure to test for error consistency in individual patients makes it generally improper to draw inferences about specific disorders of phonological encoding. A minimalist interpretation of available data on phonological errors is therefore proposed that involves variable loss of information in transmission between processing subsystems. Proposals for systematic loss or corruption of phonological information in lexical representations or in translation subsystems is shown to be inadequately grounded. The review concludes with some simple methodological prescriptions for future research.

  7. [Full-length cDNA cloning of flavonol synthase genes of Carthamus tinctorius and construction plant expression vector].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-ting; Liu, Xiu-ming; Wan, Qiu; Yao, Na; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Xue-meng; Jiao, Zhong-da; Li, Hai-yan; Li, Xiao-kun

    2015-02-01

    Flavonol synthase (FLS) is one of the key enzymes in flavonoids metabolic pathways. In this study, middle sequence was obtained from Carthamus tinctorius transcriptome sequencing results. Full-length cDNAs of FLS was cloned from petals of C. tinctorius to FLS by using RT-PCR and RACE technology. Its full-length cDNA was 1,201 bp, with an open reading frame of 1,101 bp and 336 encoded amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis showed that, FLS gene encoded amino acids in C. tinctorius were highly homologous with amino acids in congeneric Compositae species, especially Rudbeckia laciniata. The pBASTA-FLS plant expression vector was successfully built by the molecular biology method, which lays a foundation for further studying biology functions of the gene and biosynthesis mechanism of flavonoids.

  8. cDNA sequence, mRNA expression and genomic DNA of trypsinogen from the indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y C; Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; McGaughey, W H; Dowdy, A K

    2000-02-01

    Trypsin-like enzymes are major insect gut enzymes that digest dietary proteins and proteolytically activate insecticidal proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Resistance to Bt in a strain of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was linked to the absence of a major trypsin-like proteinase (Oppert et al., 1997). In this study, trypsin-like proteinases, cDNA sequences, mRNA expression levels and genomic DNAs from Bt-susceptible and -resistant strains of the Indianmeal moth were compared. Proteinase activity blots of gut extracts indicated that the susceptible strain had two major trypsin-like proteinases, whereas the resistant strain had only one. Several trypsinogen-like cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced from cDNA libraries of both strains using a probe deduced from a conserved sequence for a serine proteinase active site. cDNAs of 852 nucleotides from the susceptible strain and 848 nucleotides from the resistant strain contained an open reading frame of 783 nucleotides which encoded a 261-amino acid trypsinogen-like protein. There was a single silent nucleotide difference between the two cDNAs in the open reading frame and the predicted amino acid sequence from the cDNA clones was most similar to sequences of trypsin-like proteinases from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. The encoded protein included amino acid sequence motifs of serine proteinase active sites, conserved cysteine residues, and both zymogen activation and signal peptides. Northern blotting analysis showed no major difference between the two strains in mRNA expression in fourth-instar larvae, indicating that transcription was similar in the strains. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the restriction sites for the trypsinogen genes from the susceptible and resistant strains were different. Based on an enzyme size comparison, the cDNA isolated in this study corresponded to the gene for the smaller of two

  9. Expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins: a macroarray study.

    PubMed

    Futyma, Konrad; Miotła, Paweł; Różyńska, Krystyna; Zdunek, Małgorzata; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Wojcierowski, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in Poland, with well-established risk factors. Genetic instability and molecular alterations responsible for endometrial carcinogenesis have been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of cDNA macroarrays, the expression profiles of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in ECs. Tissue specimens were collected during surgical procedures from 40 patients with EC, and control tissue was collected from 9 patients with uterine leiomyomas. RNA was isolated and RT-PCR with radioisotope-labeled cDNA was performed. The levels of ECM protein gene expression in normal endometrial tissues were compared to the expression of these genes in EC specimens. Statistically significant differences in gene expression, stratified by clinical stage of the ECs, were detected for aggrecan, vitronectin, tenascin R, nidogen and two collagen proteins: type VIII chain α1 and type XI chain α2. All of these proteins were overexpressed in stage III endometrial carcinomas compared to levels in stage I and II uterine neoplasms. In conclusion, increased expression of genes encoding ECM proteins may play an important role in facilitating accelerated disease progression of human ECs.

  10. cDNA sequence of a human skeletal muscle ADP/ATP translocator: lack of a leader peptide, divergence from a fibroblast translocator cDNA, and coevolution with mitochondrial DNA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Neckelmann, N.; Li, K.; Wade, R.P.; Shuster, R.; Wallace, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    The authors have characterized a 1400-nucleotide cDNA for the human skeletal muscle ADP/ATP translocator. The deduced amino acid sequence is 94% homologous to the beef heart ADP/ATP translocator protein and contains only a single additional amino-terminal methionine. This implies that the human translocator lacks an amino-terminal targeting peptide, a conclusion substantiated by measuring the molecular weight of the protein synthesized in vitro. A 1400-nucleotide transcript encoding the skeletal muscle translocator was detected on blots of total RNA from human heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and HeLa cells by hybridization with oligonucleotide probes homologous to the coding region and 3' noncoding region of the cDNA. However, the level of this mRNA varied substantially among tissues. Comparison of our skeletal muscle translocator sequence with that of a recently published human fibroblast translocator cognate revealed that the two proteins are 88% identical and diverged about 275 million years ago. Hence, tissues vary both in the level of expression of individual translocator genes and in differential expression of cognate translocator genes. Comparison of the base substitution rates of the ADP/ATP translocator and the oxidative phosphorylation genes encoded by mitochondrial DNA revealed that the mitochondrial DNA genes fix 10 times more synonymous substitutions and 12 times more replacement substitutions; yet, these nuclear and cytoplasmic respiration genes experience comparable evolutionary constraints. This suggest that the mitochondrial DNA genes are highly prone to deleterious mutations.

  11. [Characterization of cDNA of T-cell receptor beta chain in rainbow trout].

    PubMed

    Partula, S; Fellah, J S; de Guerra, A; Charlemagne, J

    1994-08-01

    Using a two-step PCR strategy, we have cloned several cDNA segments encoding the T-cell receptor beta chain in a Teleost fish, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The nine clones analyzed encode identical N-terminal-truncated V beta regions which present limited sequence similarities with several mammalian TcR V beta chains, from residue Tyr-35 to residue Ser-95. These V beta regions are followed by V beta-D beta-J beta-like regions which are different in all the sequenced clones, and by identical C beta regions. The trout C beta domain (156 amino acids) is most related to the chicken and to amphibian (axolotl) C beta domains but no cysteine residue appears in the hinge region. Like in other vertebrate C beta s, the TM region carries a positively charged lysine residue (Lys-271). The intracytoplasmic domain is virtually absent. The possibility to analyze the structure, expression and diversity of a T-cell receptor chain in a Teleost fish model will be important for our future understanding of the evolution of specific immune recognition in vertebrates. PMID:7882160

  12. Mouse annexin V chromosomal localization, cDNA sequence conservation, and molecular evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Garcia, M.I.; Morgan, R.O.; Kozak, C.A.

    1996-01-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding mouse annexin V (ANX5) was cloned, sequenced, and utilized for chromosomal mapping. The gene lies on mouse chromosome 3 in close linkage with the fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic) gene and is syntenic with other genes known to have orthologous counterparts on human chromosome 4q. The open reading frame encoded a protein of 319 amino acids (aa), with 92-96% identity to ANX5 in other species. Internal repeat 3 of mouse ANX5 exhibited the highest level of nonconservative aa replacements with respect to other annexin subfamilies, but the greatest sequence conservation among ANX5 species members. This region may thus contain features that distinguish ANX5 from other annexins in properties or function. Phylogenetic analysis and homology testing of ANX5 members indicated that the 34-kDa annexin from Torpedo marmorata may also belong to this subfamily. Comparison of nine species of ANX5 led to an estimation of the unit evolutionary mutation rate at 1% aa replacements every 8 million years, comparable to other annexins. 46 refs., 4 figs.

  13. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  14. A BIOINFORMATIC STRATEGY TO RAPIDLY CHARACTERIZE CDNA LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Bioinformatic Strategy to Rapidly Characterize cDNA Libraries

    G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2 and Stephen A. Krawetz1.
    1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wayne State Univer...

  15. cDNA expression cloning in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, B J

    2001-05-01

    This unit contains protocols for expression cloning in mammalian cells. Either calcium phosphate- or liposome-mediated transfection of mammalian cells, or virus infection and liposome-mediated transfection are used to screen pools derived from a cDNA library. cDNA pools are prepared for cloning from library-transformed E. coli grown in liquid culture medium or on antibiotic-containing selection plates. Results of screening assays for expression can be detected using autoradiography of dishes of cultured cells to identify clones, direct visualization of radiolabeled cells on emulsion-coated and developed chamber slides, detection and quantification of gene activity by a functional (transport) assay with scintillation counting, or detection using a filter-based assay for binding of radioligand to membranes or whole cells. The most critical step of any cDNA cloning project is the establishment of the screening protocol. Therefore, the bioassay for the gene product must be established prior to executing any of these protocols, including construction of the cDNA library. PMID:18428491

  16. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN FISH USING CDNA ARRAYS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing cDNA macroarrays to measure the induction of gene expression in sheepshead minnows and largemouth bass exposed to anthropogenic chemicals that can mimic the action of endogenous hormones. For sheepshead minnows exposed in aqua, we observed similar genetic profil...

  17. Rescue of mumps virus from cDNA.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D K; Sidhu, M S; Johnson, J E; Udem, S A

    2000-05-01

    A complete DNA copy of the genome of a Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps virus (15,384 nucleotides) was assembled from cDNA fragments such that an exact antigenome RNA could be generated following transcription by T7 RNA polymerase and cleavage by hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. The plasmid containing the genome sequence, together with support plasmids which express mumps virus NP, P, and L proteins under control of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter, were transfected into A549 cells previously infected with recombinant vaccinia virus (MVA-T7) that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Rescue of infectious virus from the genome cDNA was demonstrated by amplification of mumps virus from transfected-cell cultures and by subsequent consensus sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products generated from infected-cell RNA to verify the presence of specific nucleotide tags introduced into the genome cDNA clone. The only coding change (position 8502, A to G) in the cDNA clone relative to the consensus sequence of the Jeryl Lynn plaque isolate from which it was derived, resulting in a lysine-to-arginine substitution at amino acid 22 of the L protein, did not prevent rescue of mumps virus, even though an amino acid alignment for the L proteins of paramyxoviruses indicates that lysine is highly conserved at that position. This system may provide the basis of a safe and effective virus vector for the in vivo expression of immunologically and biologically active proteins, peptides, and RNAs.

  18. A murine fer testis-specific transcript (ferT) encodes a truncated Fer protein.

    PubMed Central

    Fischman, K; Edman, J C; Shackleford, G M; Turner, J A; Rutter, W J; Nir, U

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA for a potential tyrosine kinase-encoding mRNA was isolated from a mouse testis cDNA library. In a survey of eight mouse tissues, a transcript of 2.4 kilobases restricted to testis tissue was found. The mRNA encodes a 453-amino-acid protein of 51,383 daltons, the smallest tyrosine kinase protein ever described. RNA synthesized from the cDNA template directs the synthesis of a 51,000-Mr protein in a cell-free translation system. The carboxy-terminal 409 amino acids are 98 and 90% identical to the carboxy halves of the rat and human Fer proteins, respectively. This suggests that the cDNA represents an alternatively spliced testis-specific fer mRNA and is therefore termed by us ferT. On the basis of the appearance time of the fer mRNA in the testis of maturing neonatal mice, we speculate on the role played by this protein in the development of this organ. Images PMID:2294399

  19. An analysis of expressed sequence tags of developing castor endosperm using a full-length cDNA library

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chaofu; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2007-01-01

    Background Castor seeds are a major source for ricinoleate, an important industrial raw material. Genomics studies of castor plant will provide critical information for understanding seed metabolism, for effectively engineering ricinoleate production in transgenic oilseeds, or for genetically improving castor plants by eliminating toxic and allergic proteins in seeds. Results Full-length cDNAs are useful resources in annotating genes and in providing functional analysis of genes and their products. We constructed a full-length cDNA library from developing castor endosperm, and obtained 4,720 ESTs from 5'-ends of the cDNA clones representing 1,908 unique sequences. The most abundant transcripts are genes encoding storage proteins, ricin, agglutinin and oleosins. Several other sequences are also very numerous, including two acidic triacylglycerol lipases, and the oleate hydroxylase (FAH12) gene that is responsible for ricinoleate biosynthesis. The role(s) of the lipases in developing castor seeds are not clear, and co-expressing of a lipase and the FAH12 did not result in significant changes in hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Only one oleate desaturase (FAD2) gene was identified in our cDNA sequences. Sequence and functional analyses of the castor FAD2 were carried out since it had not been characterized previously. Overexpression of castor FAD2 in a FAH12-expressing Arabidopsis line resulted in decreased accumulation of hydroxy fatty acids in transgenic seeds. Conclusion Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation of FAD2 and FAH12 genes maybe one of the mechanisms that contribute to a high level of ricinoleate accumulation in castor endosperm. The full-length cDNA library will be used to search for additional genes that affect ricinoleate accumulation in seed oils. Our EST sequences will also be useful to annotate the castor genome, which whole sequence is being generated by shotgun sequencing at the Institute for Genome

  20. cDNA Library Screening Identifies Protein Interactors Potentially Involved in Non-Telomeric Roles of Arabidopsis Telomerase.

    PubMed

    Dokládal, Ladislav; Honys, David; Rana, Rajiv; Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B; Sýkorová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase-reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays an essential catalytic role in maintaining telomeres. However, in animal systems telomerase plays additional non-telomeric functional roles. We previously screened an Arabidopsis cDNA library for proteins that interact with the C-terminal extension (CTE) TERT domain and identified a nuclear-localized protein that contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM). This RRM-protein forms homodimers in both plants and yeast. Mutation of the gene encoding the RRM-protein had no detectable effect on plant growth and development, nor did it affect telomerase activity or telomere length in vivo, suggesting a non-telomeric role for TERT/RRM-protein complexes. The gene encoding the RRM-protein is highly expressed in leaf and reproductive tissues. We further screened an Arabidopsis cDNA library for proteins that interact with the RRM-protein and identified five interactors. These proteins are involved in numerous non-telomere-associated cellular activities. In plants, the RRM-protein, both alone and in a complex with its interactors, localizes to nuclear speckles. Transcriptional analyses in wild-type and rrm mutant plants, as well as transcriptional co-analyses, suggest that TERT, the RRM-protein, and the RRM-protein interactors may play important roles in non-telomeric cellular functions. PMID:26617625

  1. cDNA cloning and functional expression of the alpha-D-galactose-binding lectin frutalin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla; Costa, Sofia; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2009-11-01

    cDNA clones encoding frutalin, the alpha-D-galactose-binding lectin expressed in breadfruit seeds (Artocarpus incisa), were isolated and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated that frutalin may be encoded by a family of genes. The NCBI database searches revealed that the frutalin sequence is highly homologous with jacalin and mornigaG sequences. Frutalin cDNA was re-amplified and cloned into the commercial expression vector pET-25b(+) for frutalin production in Escherichia coli. An experimental factorial design was employed to maximise the soluble expression of the recombinant lectin. The results indicated that temperature, time of induction, concentration of IPTG and the interaction between the concentration of IPTG and the time of induction had the most significant effects on the soluble expression level of recombinant frutalin. The optimal culture conditions were as follows: induction with 1 mM IPTG at 22 degrees C for 20 h, yielding 16 mg/l of soluble recombinant frutalin. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis revealed that recombinant frutalin was successfully expressed by bacteria with the expected molecular weight (17 kDa). These analyses also showed that recombinant frutalin was mainly produced as insoluble protein. Recombinant frutalin produced by bacteria revealed agglutination properties and carbohydrate-binding specificity similar to the native breadfruit lectin.

  2. Structure and regulated expression of genes encoding fructose biphosphate aldolase in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, C E

    1985-01-01

    Low stringency hybridisation with a rabbit aldolase cDNA was used to select cDNA clones encoding fructose biphosphate aldolase in Trypanosoma brucei. A clone which is almost full length encodes a protein of 41 027 daltons which has 50% identity with rabbit aldolase A and slightly lower homology with B-type aldolases. The homologous mRNA is at least 6-fold more abundant in bloodstream trypomastigotes than in procyclic forms, as expected from measurements of enzyme activity. Genomic mapping results indicate that trypanosomes have four copies of the aldolase gene arranged as two copies of a tandem repeat. The protein has a short N-terminal extension (relative to other known aldolases) which could be involved in the glycosomal localisation of the enzyme. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. PMID:2998772

  3. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) mitochondrial ATP synthase ATP5G1.

    PubMed

    Hou, W-R; Hou, Y-L; Ding, X; Wang, T

    2012-09-03

    The ATP5G1 gene is one of the three genes that encode mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c of the proton channel. We cloned the cDNA and determined the genomic sequence of the ATP5G1 gene from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology and touchdown-PCR, respectively. The cloned cDNA fragment contains an open reading frame of 411 bp encoding 136 amino acids; the length of the genomic sequence is of 1838 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Alignment analysis revealed that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced protein sequence are highly conserved compared to Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus, and Sus scrofa. The homologies for nucleotide sequences of the giant panda ATP5G1 to those of these species are 93.92, 92.21, 92.46, 93.67, and 92.46%, respectively, and the homologies for amino acid sequences are 90.44, 95.59, 93.38, 94.12, and 91.91%, respectively. Topology prediction showed that there is one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one casein kinase II phosphorylation site, five N-myristoylation sites, and one ATP synthase c subunit signature in the ATP5G1 protein of the giant panda. The cDNA of ATP5G1 was transfected into Escherichia coli, and the ATP5G1 fused with the N-terminally GST-tagged protein gave rise to accumulation of an expected 40-kDa polypeptide, which had the characteristics of the predicted protein.

  4. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) mitochondrial ATP synthase ATP5G1.

    PubMed

    Hou, W-R; Hou, Y-L; Ding, X; Wang, T

    2012-01-01

    The ATP5G1 gene is one of the three genes that encode mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c of the proton channel. We cloned the cDNA and determined the genomic sequence of the ATP5G1 gene from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology and touchdown-PCR, respectively. The cloned cDNA fragment contains an open reading frame of 411 bp encoding 136 amino acids; the length of the genomic sequence is of 1838 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Alignment analysis revealed that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced protein sequence are highly conserved compared to Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus, and Sus scrofa. The homologies for nucleotide sequences of the giant panda ATP5G1 to those of these species are 93.92, 92.21, 92.46, 93.67, and 92.46%, respectively, and the homologies for amino acid sequences are 90.44, 95.59, 93.38, 94.12, and 91.91%, respectively. Topology prediction showed that there is one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one casein kinase II phosphorylation site, five N-myristoylation sites, and one ATP synthase c subunit signature in the ATP5G1 protein of the giant panda. The cDNA of ATP5G1 was transfected into Escherichia coli, and the ATP5G1 fused with the N-terminally GST-tagged protein gave rise to accumulation of an expected 40-kDa polypeptide, which had the characteristics of the predicted protein. PMID:23007995

  5. Recovery of Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C from cDNA: Cross-Recognition of Avian and Human Metapneumovirus Support Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Samal, Siba K.

    2006-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an acute respiratory disease in turkeys and is associated with “swollen head syndrome” in chickens, contributing to significant economic losses for the U.S. poultry industry. With a long-term goal of developing a better vaccine for controlling AMPV in the United States, we established a reverse genetics system to produce infectious AMPV of subgroup C entirely from cDNA. A cDNA clone encoding the entire 14,150-nucleotide genome of AMPV subgroup C strain Colorado (AMPV/CO) was generated by assembling five cDNA fragments between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme of a transcription plasmid, pBR 322. Transfection of this plasmid, along with the expression plasmids encoding the N, P, M2-1, and L proteins of AMPV/CO, into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase resulted in the recovery of infectious AMPV/CO. Characterization of the recombinant AMPV/CO showed that its growth properties in tissue culture were similar to those of the parental virus. The potential of AMPV/CO to serve as a viral vector was also assessed by generating another recombinant virus, rAMPV/CO-GFP, that expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a foreign protein. Interestingly, GFP-expressing AMPV and GFP-expressing human metapneumovirus (HMPV) could be recovered using the support plasmids of either virus, denoting that the genome promoters are conserved between the two metapneumoviruses and can be cross-recognized by the polymerase complex proteins of either virus. These results indicate a close functional relationship between AMPV/CO and HMPV. PMID:16731918

  6. Rotary encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a light beam is directed towards the facets is presented. The facets of the polygonal mirror reflect the light beam such that a light spot is created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spot on the linear array detector. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  7. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOEpatents

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  8. Linear encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A Linear Motion Encoding device for measuring the linear motion of a moving object is disclosed in which a light source is mounted on the moving object and a position sensitive detector such as an array photodetector is mounted on a nearby stationary object. The light source emits a light beam directed towards the array photodetector such that a light spot is created on the array. An analog-to-digital converter, connected to the array photodetector is used for reading the position of the spot on the array photodetector. A microprocessor and memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the linear displacement of the moving object based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  9. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Tada, S; Volrath, S; Guyer, D; Scheidegger, A; Ryals, J; Ohta, D; Ward, E

    1994-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase (IGPD; EC 4.2.1.19) from Arabidopsis thaliana were isolated by complementation of a bacterial auxotroph. The predicted primary translation product shared significant identity with the corresponding sequences from bacteria and fungi. As in yeast, the plant enzyme is monofunctional, lacking the histidinol phosphatase activity present in the Escherichia coli protein. IGPD mRNA was present in major organs at all developmental stages assayed. The Arabidopsis genome appears to contain two genes encoding this enzyme, based on DNA gel blot and polymerase chain reaction analysis. PMID:8066131

  10. Space vehicle onboard command encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A flexible onboard encoder system was designed for the space shuttle. The following areas were covered: (1) implementation of the encoder design into hardware to demonstrate the various encoding algorithms/code formats, (2) modulation techniques in a single hardware package to maintain comparable reliability and link integrity of the existing link systems and to integrate the various techniques into a single design using current technology. The primary function of the command encoder is to accept input commands, generated either locally onboard the space shuttle or remotely from the ground, format and encode the commands in accordance with the payload input requirements and appropriately modulate a subcarrier for transmission by the baseband RF modulator. The following information was provided: command encoder system design, brassboard hardware design, test set hardware and system packaging, and software.

  11. Retroviral transduction of interferon-γ cDNA into a nonimmunogenic murinefibrosarcoma: generation of T cells in draining lymph nodes capable of treating established parental metastatic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Shiloni, Eitan; Karp, Stephen E.; Custer, Mary C.; Shilyansky, Joel; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Mulé, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Gene modification of tumor cells with the cDNA for interferon γ (IFNγ) has been shown to increase the immunogenicity of some tumor cells. In order to explore further the possible therapeutic relevance of these previous findings, two clones of the nonimmunogenic MCA-102 fibrosarcoma of C57BL/6 origin were retrovirally transduced with the cDNA encoding murine IFNγ. 102.4JK (4JK), a clone with relatively high major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression, and 102.24JK (24JK), a clone with low expression of surface MHC class I molecules. Retroviral transduction of tumor cells with the cDNA encoding for IFNγ resulted in a substantial up-regulation of MHC class I surface expression in the 24JK clone but little change of class I in the 4JK clone. In an attempt to generate antitumor lymphocytes, these gene-modified cells were inoculated into mouse footpads and draining lymph nodes (DLN) were removed, dispersed, and cultured in vitro for 10 days with irradiated tumor cells and interleukin-2. DLN from mice bearing either unmodified tumor or tumor transduced with cDNA encoding neomycin resistance (NeoR) or IFNγ, were used to treat recipients harboring 3-day pulmonary metastases induced by the parental, unmodified tumor. Treatment with DLN cells obtained following the injection of 24JK tumor cells modified with the gene for IFNγ significantly reduced the number of pulmonary metastases in four separate experiments, compared to groups treated by DLN cells generated from inoculation of either the unmodified, parental 24JK clone or the same clone transduced with the NeoR gene only. In contrast, DLN cells induced either by IFNγ-transduced 4JK (high expression of MHC class I) or an unmodified 4JK tumor (moderate expression of MHC class I) had significant but equal therapeutic efficacy. Although the in vitro growth rate of tumor cell lines was unaffected by the insertion of the mouse IFNγ cDNA, their in vivo (s.c.) growth rates were significantly slower than those

  12. N-Consecutive-Phase Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Lee, Ho-Kyoung; Weber, Charles

    1995-01-01

    N-consecutive-phase encoder (NCPE) is conceptual encoder for generating alphabet of N consecutive full-response continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) signals. Enables use of binary preencoder of higher rate than used with simple continuous-phase encoder (CPE). NCPE makes possible to achieve power efficiencies and bandwidth efficiencies greater than conventional trellis coders with continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK).

  13. cDNA cloning of a serotonin 5-HT1C receptor by electrophysiological assays of mRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lübbert, H; Hoffman, B J; Snutch, T P; van Dyke, T; Levine, A J; Hartig, P R; Lester, H A; Davidson, N

    1987-01-01

    We describe a strategy for the cloning of neurotransmitter-receptor and ion-channel cDNAs that is based on electrophysiological assays of mRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes. This procedure circumvents the purification of these membrane proteins, which is hindered by their low abundance and their hydrophobic nature. It involves methods for RNA fractionation by high-resolution gel electrophoresis, directional cDNA cloning in a single-stranded vector, and screening of the cDNA library by voltage-clamp measurements of currents induced by serotonin in mRNA-injected oocytes. The applicability of our approach is demonstrated by the isolation of a serotonin receptor cDNA clone from a mouse choroid plexus papilloma. The clone was identified by hybrid-depletion and hybrid-selection procedures. The receptor expressed in oocytes injected with hybrid-selected RNA is fully functional, indicating that it is composed of a single subunit encoded by a 5-kilobase RNA. The pharmacology of the hybrid-selected receptor confirms that we have successfully cloned a serotonin 5-HT1C receptor cDNA. Images PMID:3473504

  14. Purification of a jojoba embryo fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase and expression of its cDNA in high erucic acid rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Metz, J G; Pollard, M R; Anderson, L; Hayes, T R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    The jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. This is in contrast to the triglycerides found in seeds of other plants. We purified an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) from developing embryos and cloned the cDNA encoding the enzyme. Expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coli confers FAR activity upon those cells and results in the accumulation of fatty alcohols. The FAR sequence shows significant homology to an Arabidopsis protein of unknown function that is essential for pollen development. When the jojoba FAR cDNA is expressed in embryos of Brassica napus, long-chain alcohols can be detected in transmethylated seed oils. Resynthesis of the gene to reduce its A plus T content resulted in increased levels of alcohol production. In addition to free alcohols, novel wax esters were detected in the transgenic seed oils. In vitro assays revealed that B. napus embryos have an endogenous fatty acyl-coenzyme A: fatty alcohol acyl-transferase activity that could account for this wax synthesis. Thus, introduction of a single cDNA into B. napus results in a redirection of a portion of seed oil synthesis from triglycerides to waxes.

  15. [Construction of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library of copepod Pseudodiaptomous annandalei and its ferritin cDNA cloning and differential expression under nickel stress].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie-Lan; Wang, Gui-Zhong; Wu, Li-Sheng; Li, Shao-Jing

    2012-07-01

    To study the molecular response mechanisms of copepod to nickel stress, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Pseudodiaptomous annandalei under nickel stress was constructed by using SSH technique, and a total of 140 clones were randomly picked from the growing colonies and identified by PCR. The recombinant rate of the library was 98.6%, and the volume of the library was 1.12 x 10(6) cfu. After the recombinant plasmids were sequenced, a partial cDNA fragment of ferritin was recognized based on BLAST searches in NCBI, with a size of 859 bp and continuously encoding 170 amino acid residues. The semi-quantitative PCR results showed that the ferritin cDNA under 24 h nickel stress was distinctly up-regulated. The successful construction of the SSH library and the obtaining of ferritin cDNA fragment would supply basis for the further study of the molecular response mechanisms of copepod to nickel stress.

  16. Purification of a Jojoba Embryo Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase and Expression of Its cDNA in High Erucic Acid Rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Metz, James G.; Pollard, Michael R.; Anderson, Lana; Hayes, Thomas R.; Lassner, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    The jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. This is in contrast to the triglycerides found in seeds of other plants. We purified an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) from developing embryos and cloned the cDNA encoding the enzyme. Expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coli confers FAR activity upon those cells and results in the accumulation of fatty alcohols. The FAR sequence shows significant homology to an Arabidopsis protein of unknown function that is essential for pollen development. When the jojoba FAR cDNA is expressed in embryos of Brassica napus, long-chain alcohols can be detected in transmethylated seed oils. Resynthesis of the gene to reduce its A plus T content resulted in increased levels of alcohol production. In addition to free alcohols, novel wax esters were detected in the transgenic seed oils. In vitro assays revealed that B. napus embryos have an endogenous fatty acyl-coenzyme A: fatty alcohol acyl-transferase activity that could account for this wax synthesis. Thus, introduction of a single cDNA into B. napus results in a redirection of a portion of seed oil synthesis from triglycerides to waxes. PMID:10712526

  17. Molecular cloning of the cDNA and chromosomal localization of the gene for a putative seven-transmembrane segment (7-TMS) receptor isolated from human spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Federsppiel, B.; Melhado, I.G.; Delaney, A.; Clark-Lewis, I. ); Duncan, A.M.V. ); Jirik, F.R. )

    1993-06-01

    A family of proinflammatory cytokines sharing several structural features has been described and includes, for example, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and melanocyte growth stimulatory activity. Recently, the receptors for interleukin-8 have been isolated and found to belong to the seven-transmembrane domain class of G protein-coupled receptors. As other members of this cytokine family likely interact with similar receptors, the polymerase chain reaction was employed to isolate related receptors from human peripheral blood adherent cells. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the rabbit interleukin-8 receptor sequence were used. The corresponding full-length cDNA was isolated from a human spleen cDNA library. The predicted protein sequence of this clone, designated pBE1.3, was 93% identical to that of a cDNA isolated from bovine locus coeruleus, which apparently encodes a neuropeptide Y receptor, and also shows similarity with the interleukin-8 receptor and the human cytomegalovirus US28 sequences. The gene, designated D2S201E, was localized to human chromosome 2q21. By Northern blotting, transcripts hybridizing to this cDNA were present in a variety of tissues and cells, including those of hemopoietic origin. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Structure and characterization of a cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from cut-injured roots of sweet potato

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yamanoto, Naoki; Ohashi, Yuko; Kano-Murakami, Yuriko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro Univ. of Tokyo )

    1989-08-01

    A cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) induced in wounded sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) root was obtained by immunoscreening a cDNA library. The protein produced in Escherichia coli cells containing the plasmid pPAL02 was indistinguishable from sweet potato PAL as judged by Ouchterlony double diffusion assays. The M{sub r} of its subunit was 77,000. The cells converted ({sup 14}C)-L-phenylalanine into ({sup 14}C)-t-cinnamic acid and PAL activity was detected in the homogenate of the cells. The activity was dependent on the presence of the pPAL02 plasmid DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contained a 2,121-base pair (bp) open-reading frame capable of coding for a polypeptide with 707 amino acids (M{sub r} 77,137), a 22-bp 5{prime}-noncoding region and a 207-bp 3{prime}-noncoding region. The results suggest that the insert DNA fully encoded the amino acid sequence for sweet potato PAL that is induced by wounding. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of a PAL cDNA fragment from Phaseolus vulgaris revealed 78.9% homology. The sequence from amino acid residues 258 to 494 was highly conserved, showing 90.7% homology.

  19. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  20. The mammalian single-minded (SIM) gene: Mouse cDNA structure and diencephalic expression indicate a candidate gene for Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaki, Akiko |; Kudoh, Jun; Shindoh, Nobuaki

    1996-07-01

    We have recently isolated a human homolog (hSIM) of the Drosophila single-minded (sim) gene from the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21 using the exon trapping method. The Drosophila sim gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates the development of the central nervous system midline cell lineage. To elucidate the structure of the mammalian SIM protein, we have isolated cDNA clones from a mouse embryo cDNA library. The cDNA clones encode a polypeptide of 657 amino acids with a bHLH (basic-helix-loop-helix) domain, characteristic of a large family of transcription factors, and a PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domain in the amino-terminal half region. Both of these domains have striking sequence homology with human SIM and Drosophila SIM proteins. In contrast, the carboxy-terminal half of the mouse SIM protein consists of a proline-rich region with no sequence homology to the Drosophila SIM provator domain of a number of transcription factors. Whole-mount embryo in situ hybridization experiments revealed that the SIM mRNA is expressed prominently in the diencephalon during embryogenesis strongly suggest that the newly isolated mammalian SIM homolog may play a critical role in the development of the mammalian central nervous system. We propose that the human SIM gene may be one of the pathogenic genes of Down syndrome. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Cloning, molecular characterization and expression analysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) cDNA in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Li, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Li, Mengjie

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) was cloned from the liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The goldfish IGFBP-2 cDNA sequence was 1,513 bp long and had an open reading frame of 825 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 274 amino acid residues. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results revealed that goldfish IGFBP-2 mRNA was expressed in all detected tissues. In liver, central nervous system and pituitary gland, goldfish IGFBP-2 expressed at high levels, followed by anterior intestine, middle intestine and kidney. In posterior intestine, ovary, skin, fat, spleen, muscle and gill, the goldfish IGFBP-2 expression levels were very low. Fasting and refeeding experiment showed that the mRNA expression of goldfish IGFBP-2 was up-regulated significantly in liver compared to the fed group and restored rapidly to normal level after refed. However, the mRNA expressions of IGFBP-2 in hypothalamus and pituitary of goldfish were insensitive to fasting. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of IGFBP-2 in hypothalamus, pituitary and liver were varied in periprandial changes and significantly down-regulated at 2 and 4 h after meal. These results imply that the IGFBP-2 mRNA expression may be associated with anabolic and catabolic metabolism and regulated by metabolic factors in goldfish.

  2. The human beta-subunit of rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase: complete retinal cDNA sequence and evidence for expression in brain.

    PubMed

    Collins, C; Hutchinson, G; Kowbel, D; Riess, O; Weber, B; Hayden, M R

    1992-07-01

    We have identified and sequenced cDNA clones that encode for the human beta-subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEB). A single 2565-bp open reading frame that codes for an 854-amino-acid protein was identified. The human beta-subunit protein is 90% identical to the bovine beta-subunit and 91% identical to the mouse protein. Northern blot analysis indicates that the gene is expressed as an abundant 3.5-kb transcript in retina and as a rare 2.9-kb transcript in brain. The isolation of cDNAs from human brain cDNA libraries confirms the brain as a site of expression for this gene. The molecular defect underlying retinal degeneration in the rd mouse has been found to be a nonsense mutation in the beta-subunit of the mouse cGMP PDE, resulting in a truncated protein (Pittler et al., 1991b, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88: 8322-8326). The molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding for the PDEB represents the first step in establishing whether this gene plays a causative role in any one of the several human hereditary retinopathies or, based on its localization to chromosome 4p 16.3, in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease.

  3. [Cloning and expression regulation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase cDNA from Alpinia officinarum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Rong; Yang, Quan; Chen, Hu-Biao; Pang, Yu-Xin; Tang, Xiao-Min; Cheng, Xuan-Xuan; Wu, Wen-Ya; Chen, Shi-Min

    2012-11-01

    The rhizome of Alpinia officinarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine. The essential oil in A. officinarum rhizome is mainly composed of 1, 8-cineole and other monoterpenes, as the major bioactive ingredients. In plants, monoterpenes are synthesized through the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in the plastids, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) is an enzyme catalyzing a committed step of the MEP pathway. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding DXR was cloned from the rhizome of A. officinarum, using homology-based RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The new cDNA was designated as AoDXR and submitted to GenBank to be assigned with an accession number HQ874658. The full-length cDNA of AoDXR was 1 670 bp containing a 1 419 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 472 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 51.48 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.15. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that AoDXR showed extensive homology with DXRs from other plant species and contained a conserved plastids transit peptide, a Pro-rich region and two highly conserved NADPH-binding motifs in its N-terminal region characterized by all plant DXRs. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that AoDXR belonged to angiosperm DXRs. The structural modeling of AoDXR showed that AoDXR had the typical V-shaped structure of DXR proteins. The tissue expression pattern analysis indicated that AoDXR expressed strongly in leaves, weak in rhizomes of A. officinarum. Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could enhance the expression of AoDXR and the production of 1, 8-cineole in A. officinarum rhizomes. The cloning and characterization of AoDXR will be helpful to reveal the molecular regulation mechanism of monoterpene biosynthesis in A. officinarum and provides a candidate gene for metabolic engineering in improving the medicinal quality of A. officinarum rhizome.

  4. Stable yeast transformants that secrete functional. cap alpha. -amylase encoded by cloned mouse pancreatic cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, S.A.; Galembeck, E.V.; Faria, J.B.; Frascino, A.C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Mouse pancreatic ..cap alpha..-amylase complementary DNA was inserted into a yeast shuttle vector after the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MF..cap alpha..1 promoter and secretion signals coding sequences. When transformed with the recombinant plasmid, S. cerevisiae cells were able to synthesize and secrete functional ..cap alpha..-amylase, efficiently hydrolyzing starch present in the culture medium. Stable amylolytic cells were obtained from different yeast strains. This work represents a significant step towards producing yeast that can convert starchy materials directly to ethanol.

  5. Generation of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from Cloned cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kun; Vakharia, Vikram N.

    1998-01-01

    We developed a reverse genetics system for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a prototype virus of the Birnaviridae family, with the use of plus-stranded RNA transcripts derived from cloned cDNA. Full-length cDNA clones of the IPNV genome that contained the entire coding and noncoding regions of RNA segments A and B were constructed. Segment A encodes a 106-kDa precursor protein which is cleaved to yield mature VP2, nonstructural protease, and VP3 proteins, whereas segment B encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase VP1. Plus-sense RNA transcripts of both segments were prepared by in vitro transcription of linearized plasmids with T7 RNA polymerase. Transfection of chinook salmon embryo (CHSE) cells with combined transcripts of segments A and B generated infectious IPNV particles 10 days posttransfection. Furthermore, a transfectant virus containing a genetically tagged sequence was generated to confirm the feasibility of this system. The presence and specificity of the recovered virus were ascertained by immunofluorescence staining of infected CHSE cells with rabbit anti-IPNV serum and by nucleotide sequence analysis. In addition, 3′-terminal sequence analysis of RNA from the recovered virus showed that extraneous nucleotides synthesized at the 3′ end during in vitro transcription were precisely trimmed or excluded during replication, and hence these were not incorporated into the genome. An attempt was made to determine if RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of IPNV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), another birnavirus, can support virus rescue in heterologous combinations. Thus, CHSE cells were transfected with transcripts derived from IPNV segment A and IBDV segment B and Vero cells were transfected with transcripts derived from IBDV segment A and IPNV segment B. In either case, no infectious IPNV or IBDV particles were generated even after a third passage in cell culture, suggesting that viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is species specific

  6. Construction, characterization and expression of full length cDNA clone of sheep YAP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Li, Da; Su, Rui; Musa, Hassan H; Chen, Ling; Zhou, Hong

    2014-02-01

    RT-PCR, 5'RACE, 3'RACE were used to clone sheep full length cDNA sequence of YAP1 (Yes-associated protein 1), eukaryotic expression plasmid and a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated at Ser42 was successfully constructed. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that sheep YAP1 gene encoded water-soluble protein and its relative molecular weight and isoelectric point was 44,079.0 Da and 4.91, respectively. Sub-cellular localization of YAP1 was in the nucleus, it is hydrophilic non-transmembrane and non-secreted protein. YAP1 protein contained 33 phosphorylation sites, seven glycosylation sites and two WW domains. The secondary structure of YAP1 was mainly composed of random coil, while the tertiary structure of domain area showed a forniciform helix structure. YAP1 gene was expressed in different tissues, the highest expression was in kidney and the lowest was in hypothalamus. The CDS of sheep YAP1was amplified by RT-PCR from healthy sheep longissimus dorsi muscle, cloned into pMD19-T simple vector by T/A ligation. YAP1 coding region was further sub-cloned into pEGFP-C1 vector by T4 Ligase to construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid and then make the eukaryotic expression vector as the template to construct the phosphorylation site mutant. PCR, restriction enzyme and sequencing were used to confirm the recombinant plasmid. The sheep full-length YAP1 cDNA sequence is 1712 in length encoding 403 amino acids. It was confirmed that the sheep YAP1 CDS was correctly inserted into eukaryotic expression vector and serine had been mutated to alanine by PCR, restriction digestion and sequencing. The result showed that the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-C1-YAP1 and pEGFP-C1-YAP1 S42A was constructed correctly, this will help for further studies on the YAP1 protein expression and its biological activities. PMID:24381103

  7. Prosodic Encoding in Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenfeld, Deborah

    In silent reading, short-memory tasks, such as semantic and syntactic processing, require a stage of phonetic encoding between visual representation and the actual extraction of meaning, and this encoding includes prosodic as well as segmental features. To test for this suprasegmental coding, an experiment was conducted in which subjects were…

  8. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Samuel Lee; Miller, William Michael; McWhorter, Paul Jackson

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals.

  9. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.L.; Miller, W.M.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals. 32 figs.

  10. Structure of the gene encoding columbid annexin Icp35.

    PubMed

    Hitti, Y S; Horseman, N D

    1991-07-22

    The cp35 gene, encoding an annexin I (AnxI) cropsac 35-kDa protein (cp35) from the pigeon, consists of 13 exons and twelve introns. The borders of exons 2-13 were mapped by comparison with the known cDNA sequence. A 5-kb sequence containing exons 1, 2, and 3, and 1.4 kb of 5'-flanking DNA, is presented. The transcription start point was mapped by S1 nuclease protection. The region of the cp35 mRNA sequence, which we had previously shown to be profoundly different from mammalian anxI, is located in the first half of exon 3. Whereas human anxI is known to be single copy, Southern analysis of pigeon genomic DNA and genomic clones demonstrated multiple anxI genes in the pigeon, diverging significantly in their 5'-termini. Pigeon vimentin, on the other hand, is encoded by a single-copy gene as it is in other birds and mammals. These experiments have demonstrated that the cp35 mRNA is transcribed from its individual gene and is not a product of alternative processing of the pigeon homolog of mammalian anxI. We speculate that the diversification of anxI genes in Columbid birds allowed the recruitment of one of these genes (cp35) for unique regulation by prolactin in the absence of post-translational regulation via residues encoded by exons 2 and 3.

  11. Construction of a muscle cDNA library of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and sequence analysis of the troponin I gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jitao; Chen, Ping; Li, Jian; Liu, Ping; He, Yuying; Wang, Qingyin

    2010-03-01

    A muscle cDNA library of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) was constructed with the SMART™ cDNA Library Construction Kit. The titer of optimal primary library was 7.7×105 pfu mL-1 and that of the amplified library was 3.0×109 pfu mL-1. The percentages of the recombinant clones of primary and amplified libraries were over 98%. The insert sizes were longer than 400 bp with an average of 1000 bp. A positive clone containing a 794 bp insert was sequenced and identified encoding fast skeletal troponin I gene. This library provided a useful resource for the functional genomic research of F. chinensis.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a potato cDNA corresponding to a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase gene differentially activated by stress.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, María Eugenia; Terrile, María Cecilia; Arce, Débora; Godoy, Andrea Verónica; Segundo, Blanca San; Casalongué, Claudia

    2002-12-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase enzyme catalyses the final step in ethylene biosynthesis, converting 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to ethylene. A cDNA clone encoding an ACC oxidase, ST-ACO3, was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by differential screening of a Fusarium eumartii infected-tuber cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited similarity to other ACC oxidase proteins from several plants species. Northern blot analysis revealed that the ST-ACO3 mRNA level increased in potato tubers upon inoculation with F. eumartii, as well as after treatment with salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid, suggesting a cross-talk between different signalling pathways involved in the defence response of potato tubers against F. eumartii attack.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression profile analysis of interleukin-10 and interleukin-18 cDNA of Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Premraj, Avinash; Sreekumar, E; Nautiyal, Binita; Rasool, T J

    2005-09-15

    The cDNAs encoding the interleukin-10 and interleukin-18 of Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were cloned and sequenced. A 537 bp IL-10 cDNA fragment and a 623 bp IL-18 cDNA fragment were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from concanavalin A stimulated splenocytes. Sequence analysis of these cytokines revealed high level conservation at nucleic acid and protein level. Both these cytokines also showed strict conservation in the predicted secondary structure and critical amino acid residues compared to the ruminant homologues. Basal level expression of both IL-10 and IL-18 was observed in liver, lung and spleen. The expression level of IL-10 was not affected by mitogenic stimulation, whereas IL-18 was up regulated upon stimulation. The availability of these cytokine molecules will aid in the study of their role in the immunology and pathogenesis of infections in water buffalo.

  14. cDNA clone for the alpha-chain of human beta-hexosaminidase: deficiency of alpha-chain mRNA in Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Myerowitz, R; Proia, R L

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone containing sequences complementary to mRNA encoding the alpha-chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. RNA from a human lung fibroblast strain, IMR90, was enriched for beta-hexosaminidase messenger by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase A. This preparation was used to construct cDNA recombinant plasmids by the Okayama-Berg vector primer procedure. After transformation of Escherichia coli, 385 ampicillin-resistant colonies were obtained, 44 of which contained inserts in the plasmid DNA. Differential hybridization, with cDNA probes prepared from polysomal RNA enriched or depleted for beta-hexosaminidase messenger, was used to screen the recombinant plasmids for sequences encoding beta-hexosaminidase. One clone, p beta H alpha-1, containing a cDNA insert of approximately equal to 240 base pairs, was identified in this manner. The plasmid hybrid-selected a messenger from placental RNA that programed a translation system to synthesize the alpha-chain of beta-hexosaminidase. p beta H alpha-1 hybridized to an mRNA of approximately equal to 1.9 kilobases in preparations enriched separately in messenger for the alpha-chain or for both alpha- and beta-chains (by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against isolated alpha-chain or against beta-hexosaminidase A, respectively). It did not hybridize to an RNA preparation enriched for messenger of beta-chain by immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase B. The 1.9-kilobase mRNA was observed in poly(A)+ RNA preparations from control fibroblasts and from fibroblasts of a Tay-Sachs patient that synthesize an altered alpha-chain; however, it was not seen in similar preparations from fibroblasts of four Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs patients. Images PMID:6236461

  15. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka; Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Bielawski, Wieslaw

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  16. Organization, structure and alternate splicing of the murine RFC-1 gene encoding a folate transporter.

    PubMed

    Tolner, B; Roy, K; Sirotnak, F M

    1997-04-11

    The structural organization of the murine RFC-1 gene encoding a folate transporter has been determined. The entire nucleotide sequence of the L1210 cell RFC-1 cDNA, the 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions and the coding sequence were found to be distributed in eight exons, including six primary exons and alternates to exon 1 and exon 5, spanning 10.4 kb. Splice variants were identified in an L1210 cell cDNA library. The most common incorporates exons 1 through 6, encoding a 58-kDa polypeptide. The two least common incorporate exons 1 and 2, a truncated version of exon 3 and exons 4 through 6; or exons 1 through 4, an alternate to exon 5, and exon 6, encoding polypeptides of 53.6 and 43.4 kDa, respectively. A fourth variant reported earlier (GenBank/EMBL accession No. L36539) by others incorporates what we have found to be an alternate of exon 1 and exons 2 through 6. A relatively GC-rich region of the genome just 5' of exon 1 as well as exon 1a appears to be distinctly promoter-like and encodes a number of putative cis-acting elements. The findings pertaining to alternates of exon 1 suggest that the transcription of RFC-1 variants results from two different promoters.

  17. Expression cloning of genes encoding human peroxisomal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Spathaky, J.M.; Tate, A.W.; Cox, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous metabolic disorders associated with diverse peroxisomal defects have been identified but their molecular characterization has been hampered by difficulties associated with the purification of proteins from this fragile organelle. We have utilized antibodies directed against the C-terminal tripeptide peroxisomal targeting signal to detect hitherto unknown peroxisomal proteins in tissue fractions and to isolate genes encoding peroxisonal proteins from human expression libraries. We immunized rabbits with a peptide conjugate encompassing the C-terminal nine amino acids of rat peroxisomal acyl CoA oxidase. Immunoprecipitation assays using radio-labelled peptide showed that the antibody specifically recognizes the terminal SKL motif as well as C-terminal SHL and SRL but not SHL at an internal position. Affinity-purified antibody was used to probe Western blots of crude and peroxisome-enriched monkey liver preparations and detected 8-10 proteins specifically in the peroxisome fractions. 100 positive clones were identified on screening a human liver cDNA expression library in {lambda}-gt11. Sequence analysis has confirmed the identity of cDNA clones for human acyl CoA oxidase and epoxide hydrolase. Four clones show no sequence identity and their putative role in the human peroxisome is being explored.

  18. Isolation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from artichoke and expression analysis in wounded artichoke heads.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Angela; Mita, Giovanni; Durante, Miriana; Arlorio, Marco; De Paolis, Angelo

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme, which can catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, has been reported to be involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. This phenomenon is particularly severe in artichoke heads wounded during the manufacturing process. A full-length cDNA encoding for a putative polyphenol oxidase (designated as CsPPO) along with a 1432 bp sequence upstream of the starting ATG codon was characterized for the first time from [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. The 1764 bp CsPPO sequence encodes a putative protein of 587 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 65,327 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.50. Analysis of the promoter region revealed the presence of cis-acting elements, some of which are putatively involved in the response to light and wounds. Expression analysis of the gene in wounded capitula indicated that CsPPO was significantly induced after 48 h, even though the browning process had started earlier. This suggests that the early browning event observed in artichoke heads was not directly related to de novo mRNA synthesis. Finally, we provide the complete gene sequence encoding for polyphenol oxidase and the upstream regulative region in artichoke. PMID:23628925

  19. Isolation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from artichoke and expression analysis in wounded artichoke heads.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Angela; Mita, Giovanni; Durante, Miriana; Arlorio, Marco; De Paolis, Angelo

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme, which can catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, has been reported to be involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. This phenomenon is particularly severe in artichoke heads wounded during the manufacturing process. A full-length cDNA encoding for a putative polyphenol oxidase (designated as CsPPO) along with a 1432 bp sequence upstream of the starting ATG codon was characterized for the first time from [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. The 1764 bp CsPPO sequence encodes a putative protein of 587 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 65,327 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.50. Analysis of the promoter region revealed the presence of cis-acting elements, some of which are putatively involved in the response to light and wounds. Expression analysis of the gene in wounded capitula indicated that CsPPO was significantly induced after 48 h, even though the browning process had started earlier. This suggests that the early browning event observed in artichoke heads was not directly related to de novo mRNA synthesis. Finally, we provide the complete gene sequence encoding for polyphenol oxidase and the upstream regulative region in artichoke.

  20. PNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Zambaldo, Claudio; Barluenga, Sofia; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-encoded chemical libraries along with DNA-encoded libraries have provided a powerful new paradigm for library synthesis and ligand discovery. PNA-encoding stands out for its compatibility with standard solid phase synthesis and the technology has been used to prepare libraries of peptides, heterocycles and glycoconjugates. Different screening formats have now been reported including selection-based and microarray-based methods that have yielded specific ligands against diverse target classes including membrane receptors, lectins and challenging targets such as Hsp70.

  1. Two digital video encoder circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldon, John A.

    1992-11-01

    Central to `multimedia' image processing is the desire to encode computer graphics data into a standard television signal, complete with line, field, and color subcarrier synchronizing information. The numerous incompatibilities between television and computer display standards render this operation far less trivial than it sounds to anyone who hasn't worked with both types of signals. To simplify the task of encoding computer graphics signals into standard NTSC (North America and Japan) or PAL (most of Europe) television format for display, broadcast, or recording, TRW LSI Products Inc. has introduced the two newest members of it multimedia integrated circuit family, the TMC22090 and TMC22190 digital video encoders.

  2. Sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 1227 Felis catus cDNA sequences enriched for developmental, clinical and nutritional phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The feline genome is valuable to the veterinary and model organism genomics communities because the cat is an obligate carnivore and a model for endangered felids. The initial public release of the Felis catus genome assembly provided a framework for investigating the genomic basis of feline biology. However, the entire set of protein coding genes has not been elucidated. Results We identified and characterized 1227 protein coding feline sequences, of which 913 map to public sequences and 314 are novel. These sequences have been deposited into NCBI's genbank database and complement public genomic resources by providing additional protein coding sequences that fill in some of the gaps in the feline genome assembly. Through functional and comparative genomic analyses, we gained an understanding of the role of these sequences in feline development, nutrition and health. Specifically, we identified 104 orthologs of human genes associated with Mendelian disorders. We detected negative selection within sequences with gene ontology annotations associated with intracellular trafficking, cytoskeleton and muscle functions. We detected relatively less negative selection on protein sequences encoding extracellular networks, apoptotic pathways and mitochondrial gene ontology annotations. Additionally, we characterized feline cDNA sequences that have mouse orthologs associated with clinical, nutritional and developmental phenotypes. Together, this analysis provides an overview of the value of our cDNA sequences and enhances our understanding of how the feline genome is similar to, and different from other mammalian genomes. Conclusions The cDNA sequences reported here expand existing feline genomic resources by providing high-quality sequences annotated with comparative genomic information providing functional, clinical, nutritional and orthologous gene information. PMID:22257742

  3. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin 5 gene in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Gao, Baoquan; Chen, Ping

    2013-12-01

    Peroxiredoxin is a superfamily of antioxidative proteins that play important roles in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. In this study, a full-length of peroxiredoxin 5 (designated EcPrx5) cDNA was cloned from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of the EcPrx5 was of 827 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 14 bp, a 3' UTR of 228 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 585 bp encoding a polypeptide of 194 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 20.83 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 7.62. BLAST analysis revealed that amino acids of EcPrx5 shared 89, 68, 66, 65, 53 and 51 % identity with that of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Megachile rotundata, Harpegnathos saltator, Acromyrmex echinatior, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens counterparts, respectively. The conserved Prx domain and the signature of peroxiredoxin catalytic center identified in EcPrx5 suggested that EcPrx5 belonged to the atypical 2-Cys Prx subgroup. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that EcPrx5 could be detected in all the tested tissues with highest expression level in hepatopancreas. As time progressed, the expression level of EcPrx5 both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased in the first 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus challenge, and showed different expression profiles. The results indicated that EcPrx5 involved in immune response against bacterial and viral infection in E. carinicauda. PMID:24141991

  4. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor 21 cDNA from Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Wu, Lian; Sun, Jin-Sheng; Geng, Xu-Yun; Pan, Bao-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) is believed to play crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immune system. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Paralichthys olivaceus Toll-like receptor 21 (Po-TLR21) was cloned by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The Po-TLR21 cDNA sequence was 3687 bp, containing an open reading frame of 2922 bp encoding 973 amino acids. TMHMM and SMART program analysis indicated that protein contained one transmembrane domain, eighteen leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), and one Toll/IL-1 receptor homology domain (TIR). Multiple alignment analysis of the Po-TLR21 protein-coding sequence with other known TLR21 from grouper, pufferfish, zebrafish, cod, catfish, carp and chicken showed the homology of 67%, 63%, 54%, 52%, 51%, 49%, and 39%, respectively. The Po-TLR21 mRNA expression patterns were measured by real-time PCR. The results revealed that TLR21 is widely expressed in various tested healthy tissues, and highly expressed in spleen and gill. In vivo immunostimulation experiments revealed that expression of TLR21 is modulated by Vibrio anguillarum (V. anguillarum), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) and poly I:C. Moreover, the inhibitor of homodimerization of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) could significantly reduce the up-regulation of TLR21, MyD88, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression in CpG ODN or poly I:C-treated head kidney cells in vitro. These results indicate that TLR21 may be involved in the pathogen recognition in the early innate immune. PMID:23880453

  5. Human liver apolipoprotein B-100 cDNA: complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Law, S W; Grant, S M; Higuchi, K; Hospattankar, A; Lackner, K; Lee, N; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), the ligand on low density lipoproteins that interacts with the low density lipoprotein receptor and initiates receptor-mediated endocytosis and low density lipoprotein catabolism, has been cloned, and the complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequences have been determined. ApoB-100 cDNAs were isolated from normal human liver cDNA libraries utilizing immunoscreening as well as filter hybridization with radiolabeled apoB-100 oligodeoxynucleotides. The apoB-100 mRNA is 14.1 kilobases long encoding a mature apoB-100 protein of 4536 amino acids with a calculated amino acid molecular weight of 512,723. ApoB-100 contains 20 potential glycosylation sites, and 12 of a total of 25 cysteine residues are located in the amino-terminal region of the apolipoprotein providing a potential globular structure of the amino terminus of the protein. ApoB-100 contains relatively few regions of amphipathic helices, but compared to other human apolipoproteins it is enriched in beta-structure. The delineation of the entire human apoB-100 sequence will now permit a detailed analysis of the conformation of the protein, the low density lipoprotein receptor binding domain(s), and the structural relationship between apoB-100 and apoB-48 and will provide the basis for the study of genetic defects in apoB-100 in patients with dyslipoproteinemias. PMID:3464946

  6. Characterization of cDNA for precursor of human luteinizing hormone releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Seeburg, P H; Adelman, J P

    Human reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis laid down early in fetal development. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), also termed gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), is a decapeptide and is a key molecule in this control circuit. It is produced by hypothalamic neurones, secreted in a pulsatile manner into the capillary plexus of the median eminence and effects the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary. The peptide may have further functions, including behavioural ones, as LHRH or LHRH-like immunoreactivity has been found in gonadal tissue, placenta and the central nervous system, and exogenously administered LHRH is shown to affect behaviour. To investigate the biosynthesis of LHRH, we have now isolated cloned genomic and cDNA sequences encoding the precursor form of LHRH, the existence of which had been suggested from chromatographic studies of hypothalamic and placental extracts. These DNA sequences code for a protein of 92 amino acids in which the LHRH decapeptide is preceded by a signal peptide of 23 amino acids and followed by a Gly-Lys-Arg sequence, as expected for enzymatic cleavage of the decapeptide from its precursor and amidation of the carboxy-terminal of LHRH.

  7. cDNA cloning and expression of carotenogenic genes during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Masashiro; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    All cDNAs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis leading to lycopene in yellow petals of Gentiana lutea have been cloned from a cDNA library. They encode a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, a phytoene synthase, a phytoene desaturase and a zeta-carotene desaturase. The indicated function of all cDNAs was established by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNAs were between 47.5% and 78.9% identical to those reported for the corresponding enzymes from other higher plants. Southern analysis suggested that the genes for each enzyme probably represent a small multi-gene family. Tissue-specific expression of the genes and expression during flower development was investigated. The expression of the phytoene synthase gene, psy, was enhanced in flowers but transcripts were not detected in stems and leaves by northern blotting. Transcripts of the genes for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (ggpps), phytoene desaturase (pds) and zeta-carotene desaturase (zds) were detected in flowers and leaves but not in stems. Analysis of the expression of psy and zds in petals revealed that levels of the transcripts were lowest in young buds and highest in fully open flowers, in parallel with the formation of carotenoids. Obviously, the transcription of these genes control the accumulation of carotenoids during flower development in G. lutea. For pds only a very slight increase of mRNA was found whereas the transcripts of ggpps decreased during flower development.

  8. Isolation of cDNA, chromosome mapping, and expression of the human TBP-like protein.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, T; Kishimoto, T; Makino, Y; Shimada, M; Nakadai, T; Aoki, T; Kawata, T; Niwa, S; Tamura, T

    1999-02-01

    TBP is an essential factor for eukaryotic transcription. In this study, we identified a human cDNA encoding 21-kDa TBP-like protein (TLP). The TLP ORF, carrying 186 amino acids, covered the entire 180 amino acids of the C-terminal conserved domain of human TBP with 39% identity and 76% similarity. FISH determined that human tlp gene was located at chromosome 6 region q22.1-22.3. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that TLP mRNAs were expressed in various human tissues ubiquitously. We found that the TLP proteins exist in multiple mammalian cells and chicken cells. Although the Drosophila TBP-related factor (TRF) is a neurogenesis-related transcription factor, expression of TLP was nearly constant throughout the neural differentiation of P19 cells. Unlike TRF, TLP did not bind to the TATA-box nor direct transcription initiation in vitro. Similarity between TRF and TLP was considerably lower (35 in alignment score) than that between Drosophila TBP and human TBP (88 in alignment score). Multiple amino acids critical for the TBP function were deleted or substituted in TLP. We suggest that TLP is not a bona fide vertebrate counterpart nor a direct descendant of TRF.

  9. Molecular impact of propiconazole on Daphnia magna using a reproduction-related cDNA array.

    PubMed

    Soetaert, Anneleen; Moens, Lotte N; Van der Ven, Karlijn; Van Leemput, Koen; Naudts, Bart; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim M

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a first version cDNA microarray of the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Through Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation PCR (SSH-PCR) 855 life stage-specific cDNAs were collected and used to document the toxicological mode of action of the pesticide propiconazole. DNA sequencing analysis revealed gene fragments related to important functional classes such as embryo development, energy metabolism, molting and cell cycle. Major changes in transcription were observed in organisms exposed for 4 and 8 days to 1 microg/mL. After 4 days a 3-fold down-regulation of the gene encoding the yolk protein, vitellogenin, was observed indicating impaired oocyte maturation. Moreover, genes such as a larval-specific gene and chaperonin were repressed, whereas the heat shock 90 protein and ATP synthase were induced. Organismal effects clearly confirmed the major molecular findings: at the highest concentration (1 microg/mL) adult growth was significantly (p < 0.05) impaired and increased developmental effects in the offspring could be noted. We have demonstrated the potential of microarray analysis in toxicity screening with D. magna. The use of vitellogenin mRNA as a rapid biomarker of reproductive effects in chronic toxicity studies with cladocerans is suggested. PMID:16311075

  10. Molecular impact of propiconazole on Daphnia magna using a reproduction-related cDNA array.

    PubMed

    Soetaert, Anneleen; Moens, Lotte N; Van der Ven, Karlijn; Van Leemput, Koen; Naudts, Bart; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim M

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a first version cDNA microarray of the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Through Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation PCR (SSH-PCR) 855 life stage-specific cDNAs were collected and used to document the toxicological mode of action of the pesticide propiconazole. DNA sequencing analysis revealed gene fragments related to important functional classes such as embryo development, energy metabolism, molting and cell cycle. Major changes in transcription were observed in organisms exposed for 4 and 8 days to 1 microg/mL. After 4 days a 3-fold down-regulation of the gene encoding the yolk protein, vitellogenin, was observed indicating impaired oocyte maturation. Moreover, genes such as a larval-specific gene and chaperonin were repressed, whereas the heat shock 90 protein and ATP synthase were induced. Organismal effects clearly confirmed the major molecular findings: at the highest concentration (1 microg/mL) adult growth was significantly (p < 0.05) impaired and increased developmental effects in the offspring could be noted. We have demonstrated the potential of microarray analysis in toxicity screening with D. magna. The use of vitellogenin mRNA as a rapid biomarker of reproductive effects in chronic toxicity studies with cladocerans is suggested.

  11. Isolation and characterization of homologous TRBP cDNA for RNA interference in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Li, Xiaolan; Huang, Jianhua; Zhou, Falin; Su, Tianfeng; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-02-01

    The transactivation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP) interacts with Dicer and binds to double-stranded RNA as a critical component of the RNA-induced silencing complex, which is a key complex in the RNA interference pathway. The full-length cDNA of TRBP from the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, (PmTRBP; 1548 bp long with a 1029 bp coding region) was isolated. The encoded polypeptide of 343 amino acids had a predicted molecular mass of 36.8 kDa. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis indicated that PmTRBP was evolutionarily closest to TRBP1 from Litopenaeus vannamei, with the three double-stranded RNA-binding motifs that were typical of the TRBP family. Tissue expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that PmTRBP1 was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues, with a predominant expression in the lymphatic organs and with the weakest expression in the ovaries. Significantly upregulated PmTRBP1 expression was elicited by systemic injections of Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, and white spot syndrome virus, thereby revealing its pathogen inducibility. Furthermore, exogenous viral nucleoside analogs (high-molecular-weight poly(I:C) dsRNAs as well as R484 single-stranded RNA) were remarkably induced PmTRBP1 transcription at 48 h and 9 h post-injection, respectively, which suggested that PmTRBP1 might function in tiger prawn antibacterial and antiviral response.

  12. Expression of somatostatin and cDNA cloning in the thymus of the African ostrich.

    PubMed

    Min, Chen; Min, He; Kemei, Peng; Ke, Xiao; Haibo, Huang; Daiyun, Zhu; Xinting, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The thymus in addition to being a central lymphoid organ is also an endocrine organ which produces various neuropeptides that influence the function of this gland. Somatostatin is a neuropeptide that was isolated initially in the hypothalamus and which inhibits the release of growth hormone. The distribution of somatostatin-producing cells and the sequence of somatostatin have been determined in many species. In the present study, we investigated the expression of somatostatin in the thymus of the African ostrich and its sequence by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that somatostatin mRNA was expressed in the thymus and somatostatin immunoreative cells were distributed in both the cortical and medullary regions of the thymus. Results of cDNA cloning revealed that the nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of African ostrich somatostatin were 348 bases and 116 amino acids in length and that it is highly conserved to that of other reported species. These findings indicated that the somatostatin expressed in the thymus of ostrich might play an important role in the function of the gland. In addition, this research has provided novel molecular data allowing further study of somatostatin in the ostrich.

  13. Rainbow trout prolactin cDNA cloning in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mercier, L; Rentier-Delrue, F; Swennen, D; Lion, M; Le Goff, P; Prunet, P; Martial, J A

    1989-03-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a cDNA for trout prolactin (tPrl). An extensive analysis of tPrl recombinant clones by restriction analysis and sequencing revealed the presence of only one form of tPrl mRNA. The deduced protein sequence consists of 210 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of the mature protein is compared among teleosts and mammals, showing two domains of strong similarity that may be involved in biological activity. PMID:2647439

  14. Nucleotide sequence of equine caspase-1 cDNA.

    PubMed

    Wardlow, S; Penha-Goncalves, M N; Argyle, D J; Onions, D E; Nicolson, L

    1999-01-01

    Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases which have important roles in activation of cytokines and in apoptosis. Caspase-1, or interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), promotes maturation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) by proteolytic cleavage of precursor forms to generate biologically active peptides. We report the cloning and sequencing of equine caspase-1 cDNA. Equine caspase-1 is 405 amino acids in length and has 72% and 63% identity to human and mouse caspase-1, respectively, at the amino acid level. Sites of proteolytic cleavage and catalytic activity as identified in human caspase-1, are conserved. PMID:10376217

  15. Wound induced Beta vulgaris polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein genes encode a longer leucine-rich repeat domain and inhibit fungal polygalacturonases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defense. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) PGIP genes, BvPGIP1, BvPGIP2 and BvPGIP3, were isolated from two breeding lines, F1016 and F1010. Full-length cDNA sequences of the three BvPGIP genes encod...

  16. Transcript encoded on the opposite strand of the human steroid 21-hydroxylase/complement component C4 gene locus.

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Y; Bristow, J; Gitelman, S E; Miller, W L

    1989-01-01

    The gene encoding human adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase (P450c21) and its highly similar pseudogene are duplicated in tandem with the two genes encoding the fourth component of human serum hemolytic complement (C4). This 60-kilobase gene complex, which lies within the major histocompatibility complex on the short arm of human chromosome 6, has been studied in considerable detail because genetic disorders in steroid 21-hydroxylation and in C4 are common. We have cloned a cDNA encoded by a previously unidentified gene in this region. This gene lies on the strand of DNA opposite from the strand containing the P450c21 and C4 genes, and it overlaps the last exon of P450c21. The newly identified gene encodes mRNAs of 3.5 and 1.8 kilobases that are expressed in the adrenal and in a Leydig cell tumor but are not expressed in nonsteroidogenic tissues. The sequence of the longest cDNA (2.7 kilobases) shows no similarity to known sequences available in two computerized data bases. The 5' end of this sequence is characterized by three repeats, each encoding about 100 amino acids flanked by potential sites for proteolytic cleavage. Although numerous studies have shown that gene deletions causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia occur in this region, none of these gene deletions extends into this newly identified gene, suggesting that it encodes an essential function. Images PMID:2475872

  17. Fig1, an interleukin 4-induced mouse B cell gene isolated by cDNA representational difference analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Charles C.; Paul, William E.

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that regulates growth and differentiation of lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells. To study the molecular basis of IL-4 function, we used a cDNA subtraction approach based on the representational difference analysis method. This subtractive amplification technique allowed us to use small amounts of RNA from lipopolysaccharide ± IL-4-stimulated normal B cells to obtain IL-4-induced genes from these cells. We report here on one such gene, Fig1 (interleukin-four induced gene 1), the first characterized immediate–early IL-4 inducible gene from B cells. Fig1 expression is strikingly limited to the lymphoid compartment. B cells, but not T cells or mast cells, express Fig1 in response to IL-4 within 2 hr in a cycloheximide resistant manner. IL-2, IL-5, and Il-6 do not induce Fig1 in culture. Fig1 maps between Klk1 and Ldh3 on mouse chromosome 7, near two loci involved with murine lupus, Sle3 and Lbw5. The Fig1 cDNA sequence encodes a predicted 70-kDa flavoprotein with best homology to the monoamine oxidases, particularly in domains responsible for FAD binding. PMID:9122225

  18. cDNA clone and expression analysis of α-Tropomyosin during Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hong-Mei; SU, Yan-Fang; SHI, Zhi-Yi; FU, Yuan-Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Tropomyosin (TM) plays a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle development and function. To assess the functional significance of α-TM in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) development and metamorphosis, cDNA from Japanese flounder was cloned and α-TM mRNA measured during development and metamorphosis. The full-length cDNA is 1 191 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 114 bp, a 3'-UTR of 222 bp, and an open reading frame of 855 bp encoding a polypeptide of 284 amino acids. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that α-TM mRNA is initially expressed in unfertilized ovum, indicating the α-TM gene is maternal. Relatively low mRNA levels were observed in different embryonic stages. A higher level of α-TM mRNA was detected 3 days post hatching (dph), while the highest level was measured at 29 dph (metamorphic climax) after which it declined towards the end of metamorphosis. The expression of α-TM mRNA was up-regulated in thyroid hormone-treated larvae at 36 dph, but there was no marked difference at other stages when compared to control animals. After thiourea treatment, the expression of α-TM mRNA declined slightly. These data provide basic information that can be utilized in further studies into the role of α-TM in P. olivaceus development and metamorphosis. PMID:25017750

  19. cDNA cloning, expression, and mutagenesis of a PR-10 protein SPE-16 from the seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Yan, Ming; Li, Yikun; Chang, Shaojie; Song, Xiaomin; Zhou, Zhaocai; Gong, Weimin

    2003-12-19

    SPE-16 is a new 16kDa protein that has been purified from the seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus. It's N-terminal amino acid sequence shows significant sequence homology to pathogenesis-related class 10 proteins. cDNA encoding 150 amino acids was cloned by RT-PCR and the gene sequence proved SPE-16 to be a new member of PR-10 family. The cDNA was cloned into pET15b plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli. The bacterially expressed SPE-16 also demonstrated ribonuclease-like activity in vitro. Site-directed mutation of three conserved amino acids E95A, E147A, Y150A, and a P-loop truncated form were constructed and their different effects on ribonuclease activities were observed. SPE-16 is also able to bind the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) in the native state. The ANS anion is a much-utilized "hydrophobic probe" for proteins. This binding activity indicated another biological function of SPE-16. PMID:14680830

  20. Cloning, expression, and characterization of soluble starch synthase I cDNA from taro (Colocasia esculenta Var. esculenta).

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-Gin; Jeang, Chii-Ling

    2005-10-01

    Soluble starch synthase I (SSSI) cDNA was isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends reaction. The transcript of this single-copy gene is 2340 bp and encodes 642 amino acids protein containing a putative transit peptide of 54 residues. Recombinant SSSI protein displayed both primer-dependent and primer-independent activities of starch synthase. More SSSI transcript was expressed in taro leaves than in tubers, with no evident expression in petioles; and more transcript and protein were found in tubers of 597 +/- 37 g of fresh weight than in smaller or larger ones. Two forms of SSSI, i.e., 72 and 66 kDa, exist in leaves, and only the 66 kDa form was found in tubers. The taro SSSI, proposed as a novel member, was located only in the soluble fraction of tuber extract, while SSSI from other sources exist in both soluble and granule-bound forms.

  1. Full-Length cDNA, Prokaryotic Expression, and Antimicrobial Activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Rongli; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin, which widely exists in all vertebrates and in some invertebrates, is possibly a precursor of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, AMPs in the hemoglobin of invertebrates have been rarely investigated. This study is the first to report the full-length cDNA, prokaryotic expression, and antimicrobial activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus. The full-length cDNA sequence of UuHb-F-I was 780 bp with an open-reading frame of 429 bp encoding 142 amino acids. MALDI-TOF-MS suggested that the recombinant protein of UuHb-F-I (rUuHb-F-I) yielded a molecular weight of 15,168.01 Da, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was MGLTGAQIDAIK. rUuHb-F-I exhibited different antimicrobial activities against microorganisms. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against Micrococcus luteus was 2.78–4.63 μM. Our results may help elucidate the immune defense mechanism of U. unicinctus and may provide insights into new AMPs in drug discovery. PMID:27471730

  2. cDNA clone and expression analysis of α-Tropomyosin during Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Su, Yan-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Yi; Fu, Yuan-Shuai

    2014-07-01

    Tropomyosin (TM) plays a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle development and function. To assess the functional significance of α-TM in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) development and metamorphosis, cDNA from Japanese flounder was cloned and α-TM mRNA measured during development and metamorphosis. The full-length cDNA is 1 191 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 114 bp, a 3'-UTR of 222 bp, and an open reading frame of 855 bp encoding a polypeptide of 284 amino acids. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that α-TM mRNA is initially expressed in unfertilized ovum, indicating the α-TM gene is maternal. Relatively low mRNA levels were observed in different embryonic stages. A higher level of α-TM mRNA was detected 3 days post hatching (dph), while the highest level was measured at 29 dph (metamorphic climax) after which it declined towards the end of metamorphosis. The expression of α-TM mRNA was up-regulated in thyroid hormone-treated larvae at 36 dph, but there was no marked difference at other stages when compared to control animals. After thiourea treatment, the expression of α-TM mRNA declined slightly. These data provide basic information that can be utilized in further studies into the role of α-TM in P. olivaceus development and metamorphosis.

  3. cDNA cloning of an intracellular form of the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist associated with epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Haskill, S; Martin, G; Van Le, L; Morris, J; Peace, A; Bigler, C F; Jaffe, G J; Hammerberg, C; Sporn, S A; Fong, S

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a receptor antagonist of interleukin 1 (IL-1ra), secreted from human monocytes, has recently been isolated and sequenced [Eisenberg, S. P., Evans, R. J., Arend, W. P., Verderber, E., Brewer, M. T., Hannum, C. H. & Thompson, R. C. (1990) Nature (London) 343, 341-346]. We have identified another version of this IL-1ra, which is predominantly expressed in epithelial cells. This IL-1ra lacks a leader sequence and, thus, is probably intracellular. Both proteins are derived from the same gene through use of an alternative transcriptional start site and internal splice-acceptor site. Expression of intracellular IL-1ra cDNA in COS cells demonstrated that the intracellular product specifically inhibited exogenous interleukin 1-dependent responses. Keratinocytes were shown to contain significant amounts of nonsecreted IL-1ra protein. Constitutive expression of the intracellular IL-1ra may be an intracellular defensive mechanism in exposed epithelial cells and/or may serve to regulate autocrine interleukin 1-mediated pathways of differentiation. Images PMID:1827201

  4. cDNA cloning, characterization, and pharmacologic evaluation of anticancer activity of a lectin gene in Pinellia integrifolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, L L; Yang, Z J; Peng, Z S

    2016-01-01

    Plant lectins are proteins that possess at least one non-catalytic domain, which could reversibly bind to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. The important roles played by plant lectins in immune regulation, signaling pathways, and plant defense could be attributed to their specific binding activities with carbohydrates. In this study, a Pinellia integrifolia lectin gene, designated pia, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame (ORF) of pia was constructed into the pET-28a vector, and a 33-kDa recombinant protein was induced in Escherichia coli BL21. The hemagglutination and anticancer properties of the purified recombinant protein were assayed in vitro. The results indicated that the full-length cDNA of pia was 1210 bp long, containing an 807-bp ORF encoding a 268-amino acid peptide. The putative P. integrifolia lectin protein (PIA) contained three mannose-binding sites. The agglutinating activity exhibited by PIA was inhibited by D-mannose. PIA was also shown to exert an anti-proliferative activity against nasopharyngeal carcinoma, human cervical carcinoma, and human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. These results could be applied to determine the function of PIA in the future. PMID:27525949

  5. Full-Length cDNA, Prokaryotic Expression, and Antimicrobial Activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus.

    PubMed

    Niu, Rongli; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin, which widely exists in all vertebrates and in some invertebrates, is possibly a precursor of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, AMPs in the hemoglobin of invertebrates have been rarely investigated. This study is the first to report the full-length cDNA, prokaryotic expression, and antimicrobial activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus. The full-length cDNA sequence of UuHb-F-I was 780 bp with an open-reading frame of 429 bp encoding 142 amino acids. MALDI-TOF-MS suggested that the recombinant protein of UuHb-F-I (rUuHb-F-I) yielded a molecular weight of 15,168.01 Da, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was MGLTGAQIDAIK. rUuHb-F-I exhibited different antimicrobial activities against microorganisms. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against Micrococcus luteus was 2.78-4.63 μM. Our results may help elucidate the immune defense mechanism of U. unicinctus and may provide insights into new AMPs in drug discovery. PMID:27471730

  6. Identification, cloning and characterisation of a novel copper-metallothionein in tetrahymena pigmentosa. Sequencing of cDNA and expression.

    PubMed

    Santovito, G; Irato, P; Palermo, S; Boldrin, F; Sack, R; Hunziker, P; Piccinni, E L

    2001-09-01

    The protist Tetrahymena pigmentosa accumulates large amounts of metal ions, particularly cadmium and copper. This capability is linked to the induction of metallothioneins (MTs), cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins found in protists, plants and animals. The present study focuses on a novel inducible MT-isoform isolated from Tetrahymena after exposure to a non-toxic dose of copper. The cDNA sequence was determined utilising the partial peptide sequence of purified protein. The Cu-MT cDNA encodes 96 amino acids containing 28 cysteine residues (29%) arranged in motifs characteristic of the metal-binding regions of vertebrate and invertebrate MTs. Both the amino acid and nucleotide sequences differ, not only from other animal MTs, but also from the previously characterised Tetrahymena Cd-MT. Both MTs contain the structural pattern GTXXXCKCXXCKC, which may be proposed as a conservative sequence of Tetrahymena MTs. Cu-dependent regulation of MT expression was also investigated by measuring MT-mRNA and MT levels. MT synthesis occurs very quickly and MT contents increase with Cu accumulation. The induction of Cu-MT mRNA is very rapid, with no observable lag period, and is characterised by transient fluctuation, similar to that described for Cd-MT mRNA. The data reported here indicate that, also in the unicellular organism Tetrahymena, two very different MT isoforms, which perform different biological functions, are expressed according to the inducing metal, Cu or Cd.

  7. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of canine pancreatic and duodenum homeobox 1 (Pdx-1).

    PubMed

    Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Lee, Peter; Ohta, Taizo; Mori, Nobuko; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-10-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx-1) is a critical insulin transcription factor expressed by pancreatic β-cells, and is crucial in the early stage of pancreas development. Unfortunately, nothing concerning Pdx-1 in canine has been elucidated yet. In this study, full length canine Pdx-1 cDNA was cloned and it was 1498 bp in length, consisting of a 99 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 849 bp coding region, and a 550 bp 3'-UTR region. A deduced 282 amino acid sequence of canine PDX-1 displayed high overall sequence identity with human, bovine, and mouse PDX-1. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that a high level of Pdx1 mRNA expression is exists in the duodenum and pancreas of canines. In addition, functional canine insulin promoter-luciferase reporter constructs with various canine insulin promoter region fragments revealed that our Pdx-1 isolated cDNA sequence encodes for a functionally active PDX-1 protein. Significant promoter activity was observed within the -583 bp 5'-upstream region of canine insulin gene with Chinese hamster ovary cells. In addition, Pdx-1 appears to have a synergistic effect with beta cell transactivator 2 (BETA2) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which also have important roles in the activation of the insulin gene promoter. Our results confirm that similar to humans, Pdx1 plays an important role in expression of insulin gene in canines.

  8. Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Adam D; Mulley, John F

    2015-01-01

    Portable DNA sequencers such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION device have the potential to be truly disruptive technologies, facilitating new approaches and analyses and, in some cases, taking sequencing out of the lab and into the field. However, the capabilities of these technologies are still being revealed. Here we show that single-molecule cDNA sequencing using the MinION accurately characterises venom toxin-encoding genes in the painted saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. We find the raw sequencing error rate to be around 12%, improved to 0-2% with hybrid error correction and 3% with de novo error correction. Our corrected data provides full coding sequences and 5' and 3' UTRs for 29 of 33 candidate venom toxins detected, far superior to Illumina data (13/40 complete) and Sanger-based ESTs (15/29). We suggest that, should the current pace of improvement continue, the MinION will become the default approach for cDNA sequencing in a variety of species. PMID:26623194

  9. Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Portable DNA sequencers such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION device have the potential to be truly disruptive technologies, facilitating new approaches and analyses and, in some cases, taking sequencing out of the lab and into the field. However, the capabilities of these technologies are still being revealed. Here we show that single-molecule cDNA sequencing using the MinION accurately characterises venom toxin-encoding genes in the painted saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. We find the raw sequencing error rate to be around 12%, improved to 0–2% with hybrid error correction and 3% with de novo error correction. Our corrected data provides full coding sequences and 5′ and 3′ UTRs for 29 of 33 candidate venom toxins detected, far superior to Illumina data (13/40 complete) and Sanger-based ESTs (15/29). We suggest that, should the current pace of improvement continue, the MinION will become the default approach for cDNA sequencing in a variety of species. PMID:26623194

  10. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA of bovine neutrophil beta-defensin from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Bera, B C; Chaudhury, P; Bhattacharya, D; Bera, A K; Das, S K

    2007-06-01

    Neutrophil beta-defensins have been identified as naturally occurring potent antibacterial cationic peptides serving as effector molecules of innate immunity that provide a first line of defence against pathogens. Considering the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against microorganisms and role in innate immunity of the neutrophil beta-defensins, it has been characterized in many livestock species including cattle, sheep, caprine and porcines. Here we report the isolation, cloning, sequencing and expression of precursor bovine neutrophil beta-defensin isolated from Indian water buffalo. Full-length cDNA was amplified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 192 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 63 amino acids. Deduced amino acid sequence of buffalo BNBD4 showed varying amino acid identity with the published sequences of related beta-defensins of other domestic ruminant species ranging from 67.18 to 79.68%. Recombinant buffalo defensin was produced in Escherichia coli as fusion protein.

  11. Dictyostelium discoideum myosin: Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding the essential light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, R.L.; Rushforth, A.M.; Pollenz, R.S.; Kuczmarski, E.R.; Tafuri, S.R.

    1988-02-01

    The authors used an antibody specific for Dictyostelium discoideum myosin to screen a lambdagt11 cDNA expression library to obtain cDNA clones which encode the Dictyostelium essential myosin light chain (EMLC). The amino acid sequence predicted from the sequence of the cDNA clone showed 31.5% identity with the amino acid sequence of the chicken EMLC. Comparisons of the Dictyostelium EMLC, a nonmuscle cell type, with EMLC sequences from similar MLCs of skeletal- and smooth-muscle origin, showed distinct regions of homology. Much of the observed homology was localized to regions corresponding to consensus Ca/sup 2 +/-binding of E-F hand domains. Southern blot analysis suggested that the Dictyostelium genome contains a single gene encoding the EMLC. Examination of the pattern of EMLC mRNA expression showed that a significant increase in EMLC message levels occurred during the first few hours of development, coinciding with increased actin expression and immediately preceding the period of maximal chemotactic activity.

  12. The first nuclear-encoded complex I mutation in a patient with Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Loeffen, J; Smeitink, J; Triepels, R; Smeets, R; Schuelke, M; Sengers, R; Trijbels, F; Hamel, B; Mullaart, R; van den Heuvel, L

    1998-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH):ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest multiprotein enzyme complex of the respiratory chain. The nuclear-encoded NDUFS8 (TYKY) subunit of complex I is highly conserved among eukaryotes and prokaryotes and contains two 4Fe4S ferredoxin consensus patterns, which have long been thought to provide the binding site for the iron-sulfur cluster N-2. The NDUFS8 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 633 bp, coding for 210 amino acids. Cycle sequencing of amplified NDUFS8 cDNA of 20 patients with isolated enzymatic complex I deficiency revealed two compound heterozygous transitions in a patient with neuropathologically proven Leigh syndrome. The first mutation was a C236T (P79L), and the second mutation was a G305A (R102H). Both mutations were absent in 70 control alleles and cosegregated within the family. A progressive clinical phenotype proceeding to death in the first months of life was expressed in the patient. In the 19 other patients with enzymatic complex I deficiency, no mutations were found in the NDUFS8 cDNA. This article describes the first molecular genetic link between a nuclear-encoded subunit of complex I and Leigh syndrome. PMID:9837812

  13. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  14. Involvement of Gap Junctions in Tumorigenesis: Transfection of Tumor Cells with Connexin 32 cDNA Retards Growth In vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghbali, B.; Kessler, J. A.; Reid, L. M.; Roy, C.; Spray, D. C.

    1991-12-01

    Gap junction channels provide a pathway for exchange of ions and small molecules between coupled cells, and this exchange is believed to be critical for normal tissue growth and development. As a test for a role of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in control of cell growth, we have compared growth rates of communication-deficient human tumor cells (SKHep1) with clones stably transfected with cDNA encoding the rat liver gap junction protein connexin 32. In culture, growth rates for parental and transfected clones were similar. However, when sizes of tumors were evaluated following injection of these clones into athymic nude mice, growth rates for two well-coupled clones were significantly lower than for communication-deficient or poorly coupled clones. This study demonstrates that growth rate of these tumor cells in situ is negatively correlated with strength of intercellular communication.

  15. Cataloging of the genes expressed in human keratinocytes: analysis of 607 randomly isolated cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Konishi, K; Morishima, Y; Ueda, E; Kibe, Y; Nonomura, K; Yamanishi, K; Yasuno, H

    1994-07-29

    The partial nucleotide sequences of 607 cDNAs randomly isolated from a cDNA library of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were determined by single pass sequencing. Homology search of the sequences to the non-redundant nucleotide databases revealed that 27% of the cDNAs matched registered human-or non-human genes encoding not only keratinocyte specific genes, but also a variety of functional proteins, the expression of which had not been identified in keratinocytes. Non-matching cDNAs covering 49% of the cDNAs were not homologous even to ESTs from other organs, suggesting that these cDNAs include novel genes expressed in the cells. The large scale sequencing of keratinocyte cDNAs provides a useful molecular source for research into biology and diseases of the skin. PMID:8048971

  16. Cloning of the cDNA (DSC1) coding for human type 1 desmocollin and its assignment to chromosome 18

    SciTech Connect

    King, I.A.; Buxton, R.S. ); Spurr, N.K.; Arnemann, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Desmosomes are adhesive epithelial junctions that contain two distinct classes of cadherin-related glycoproteins (desmogleins and desmocollins), both of which occur as several different isoforms whose expression is related to epithelial differentiation. The authors have now isolated cDNA clones encoding a human desmocollin that is expressed in the more differentiated layers of human epidermis. The isoform has 53% amino acid identity with the previously isolated human (type 3) desmocollin, which is expressed in the basal layers of the epidermis. However, the N- and C-termini of the mature proteins are more highly conserved. Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids, human type 1 desmocollin (gene DSC1) has been assigned to chromosome 18, the same location as the other desmocollin gene (DSC3) and the three desmoglein (DSG) genes already mapped. 49 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Isolation and sequencing of a cDNA for an unusual hemoglobin from the parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova decipiens.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, B; Walker, B; Kimmins, W; Pohajdak, B

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a 333-amino acid hemoglobin was isolated from the nematode Pseudoterranova decipiens. The protein contains an 18-amino acid hydrophobic signal sequence and has a calculated mass of 37.6 kDa in the mature form. The predicted protein reveals an internal duplication of a 154-amino acid domain (51% identity). Both domains have significant sequence homology to other primitive hemoglobins, in agreement with a duplication event. Hydrophobicity plots reveal identical strongly hydrophobic regions in each domain, which are potential heme binding sites. This confirms previous suggestions that nematode hemoglobins can have two heme groups per molecule. In addition, each domain contains several conserved histidine motifs that may serve as potential copper binding sites. This result provides further evidence that hemoglobins may have evolved from a primitive cytochrome-like molecule. Images PMID:2062843

  18. Cloning of the genes encoding two murine and human cochlear unconventional type I myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Crozet, F.; El Amraoui, Z.; Blanchard, S.

    1997-03-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate a crucial role for unconventional myosins in the function of the sensory hair cells of the inner ear. We report here the characterization of the cDNAs encoding two unconventional type I myosins from a mouse cochlear cDNA library. The first cDNA encodes a putative protein named Myo1c, which is likely to be the murine orthologue of the bullfrog myosin I{beta} and which may be involved in the gating of the mechanotransduction channel of the sensory hair cells. This myosin belongs to the group of short-tailed myosins I, with its tail ending shortly after a polybasic, TH-1-like domain. The second cDNA encodes a novel type I myosin Myo1f which displays three regions: a head domain with the conserved ATP- and actin-binding sites, a neck domain with a single IQ motif, and a tail domain with the tripartite structure initially described in protozoan myosins I. The tail of Myo1f includes (1) a TH-1 region rich in basic residues, which may interact with anionic membrane phospholipids; (2) a TH-2 proline-rich region, expected to contain an ATP-insensitive actin-binding site; and (3) an SH-3 domain found in a variety of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that the genes encoding Myo1c and Myo1f display a widespread tissue expression in the adult mouse. Myo1c and Myo1f were mapped by in situ hybridization to the chromosomal regions 11D-11E and 17B-17C, respectively. The human orthologuous genes MYO1C and MYO1F were also characterized, and mapped to the human chromosomal regions 17p13 and 19p13.2- 19p1.3.3, respectively. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Identification of two suites of cyclotide precursor genes from metallophyte Viola baoshanensis: cDNA sequence variation, alternative RNA splicing and potential cyclotide diversity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liao, Bin; Craik, David J; Li, Jin-Tian; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2009-02-15

    Cyclotides are a novel family of plant-derived defense peptides that are biosynthetically produced via the processing of cyclotide precursor (CP) proteins containing one, two or three cyclotide domains. By screening a cDNA library of Viola baoshanensis roots and using RACE and RT-PCR methods, 23 cDNA clones were identified and then used to deduce full CP proteins containing one (VbCP1S-5), two (VbCP6S), or three (VbCP7S) cyclotide domains. RT-PCR and sequence analyses suggested that VbCP6S were resulted from the alternative splicing of VbCP7S RNA. The significance of VbCP7S RNA splicing is that it provides a mechanism for increasing the diversity of cyclotide expression via the recombination of N-terminal repeat (NTR) regions and cyclotide domains. After analyzing the full endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signals of known and novel CPs associated with RT-PCR tests, three primers encoding the conserved sequence ALVLIATFA, AAFALPA-LA and AAFALPA-AFA were proposed to be more efficient in cloning CP genes than the well-applied primer encoding AAFALPA. Cyclotide sequence analyses indicated that the cDNA clones encoded a variety of Möbius and bracelet cyclotides, which were likely involved in the known bioactivities of cyclotides, and also might play a previously unreported role in mediating the metal tolerance of V. baoshanensis. Overall, this study shows that CP genes are varied in V. baoshanensis and cyclotide expression is subject to transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in this plant.

  20. A drosophila full-length cDNA resource

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, Mark; Carlson, Joseph; Brokstein, Peter; Yu, Charles; Champe, Mark; George, Reed; Guarin, Hannibal; Kronmiller, Brent; Pacleb, Joanne; Park, Soo; Rubin, Gerald M.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2003-05-09

    Background: A collection of sequenced full-length cDNAs is an important resource both for functional genomics studies and for the determination of the intron-exon structure of genes. Providing this resource to the Drosophila melanogaster research community has been a long-term goal of the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project. We have previously described the Drosophila Gene Collection (DGC), a set of putative full-length cDNAs that was produced by generating and analyzing over 250,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a variety of tissues and developmental stages. Results: We have generated high-quality full-insert sequence for 8,921 clones in the DGC. We compared the sequence of these clones to the annotated Release 3 genomic sequence, and identified more than 5,300 cDNAs that contain a complete and accurate protein-coding sequence. This corresponds to at least one splice form for 40 percent of the predicted D. melanogaster genes. We also identified potential new cases of RNA editing. Conclusions: We show that comparison of cDNA sequences to a high-quality annotated genomic sequence is an effective approach to identifying and eliminating defective clones from a cDNA collection and ensure its utility for experimentation. Clones were eliminated either because they carry single nucleotide discrepancies, which most probably result from reverse transcriptase errors, or because they are truncated and contain only part of the protein-coding sequence.

  1. cDNA sequences of two apolipoproteins from lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.; Xu, X.; Graham, D.; Riley, M.; Doolittle, R.F.

    1987-03-24

    The messages for two small but abundant apolipoproteins found in lamprey blood plasma were cloned with the aid of oligonucleotide probes based on amino-terminal sequences. In both cases, numerous clones were identified in a lamprey liver cDNA library, consistent with the great abundance of these proteins in lamprey blood. One of the cDNAs (LAL1) has a coding region of 105 amino acids that corresponds to a 21-residue signal peptide, a putative 8-residue propeptide, and the 76-residue mature protein found in blood. The other cDNA (LAL2) codes for a total of 191 residues, the first 23 of which constitute a signal peptide. The two proteins, which occur in the high-density lipoprotein fraction of ultracentrifuged plasma, have amino acid compositions similar to those of apolipoproteins found in mammalian blood; computer analysis indicates that the sequences are largely helix-permissive. When the sequences were searched against an amino acid sequence data base, rat apolipoprotein IV was the best matching candidate in both cases. Although a reasonable alignment can be made with that sequence and LAL1, definitive assignment of the two lamprey proteins to typical mammalian classes cannot be made at this point.

  2. Characterization of a Neocallimastix patriciarum cellulase cDNA (celA) homologous to Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase II.

    PubMed Central

    Denman, S; Xue, G P; Patel, B

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a cellulase cDNA (celA) from the rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum and the primary structure of the protein which it encodes were characterized. The celA cDNA was 1.95 kb long and had an open reading frame of 1,284 bp, which encoded a polypeptide having 428 amino acid residues. A sequence alignment showed that cellulase A (CELA) exhibited substantial homology with family B cellulases (family 6 glycosyl hydrolases), particularly cellobiohydrolase II from the aerobic fungus Trichoderma reesei. In contrast to previously characterized N. patriciarum glycosyl hydrolases, CELA did not exhibit homology with any other rumen microbial cellulases described previously. Primary structure and function studies in which deletion analysis and a sequence comparison with other well-characterized cellulases were used revealed that CELA consisted of a cellulose-binding domain at the N terminus and a catalytic domain at the C terminus. These two domains were separated by an extremely Asn-rich linker. Deletion of the cellulose-binding domain resulted in a marked decrease in the cellulose-binding ability and activity toward crystalline cellulose. When CELA was expressed in Escherichia coli, it was located predominantly in the periplasmic space, indicating that the signal sequence of CELA was functional in E.coli. Enzymatic studies showed that CELA had an optimal pH of 5.0 and an optimal temperature of 40 degrees C. The specific activity of immunoaffinity-purified CELA against Avicel was 9.7 U/mg of protein, and CELA appeared to be a relatively active cellobiohydrolase compared with the specific activities reported for other cellobiohydrolases, such as T. reesei cellobiohydrolases I and II. PMID:8787388

  3. Three isoforms of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor identified from eyestalk cDNA library of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia; Luan, Weisha; Song, Chengwen; Nie, Qing; Wang, Shuangyan; Li, Qianqian

    2011-02-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs), as the potent antimicrobial peptides, can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. In this study, three isoforms of the ALF homologues (PtesALF1-3) were identified from eyestalk cDNA library of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. The full-length cDNA sequences of PtesALF1, 2 and 3 were 1138, 1052 and 1057 bp encoding 92, 108 and 123 amino acids, respectively. PtesALF1-3 contained two conserved cysteine residues and shared high similarity with other reported ALFs. Predicted tertiary structures of PtesALF2 and 3 containing four β-strands and three α-helix were similar to that described in Limulus polyphemus, while PtesALF1 had only one α-helix in its spatial structure. Sequence analysis revealed PtesALF1-3 were encoded by the same genomic locus and generated by alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. Totally 89 SNPs including 18 in coding region and 71 in noncoding region were detected by direct sequencing of 30 genomic samples. The mRNA expression of PtesALF1 and PtesALF1-3 transcripts was mainly detected in haemocytes but showed different expression pattern in other tissues including hepatopancreas, gill, eyestalk and muscle. After challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus, the temporal expression level of PtesALF1-3 transcripts in haemocytes showed a clear time-dependent response expression pattern with two peaks within the experimental period of 32 h, while PtesALF1 was up-regulated only once with obvious decrease at 6 h and significant increase at 24 h. These results suggest that the PtesALF isoforms have different tissue specificity and might provide multiple protective functions against invading bacteria in P. trituberculatus. PMID:21168510

  4. Molecular identification and expression analysis of natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) cDNA from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Song-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Xu, Mei-Yu; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2006-03-01

    Natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) controls partially innate resistance to intracellular parasites. Its function is to enhance the ability of macrophages to kill pathogens. However, little is known about the structure and function of Nramp in lower vertebrates such as teleosts. We have recently isolated a cDNA encoding Nramp from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The full-length cDNA of the Nramp is 3066 bp in length, including 224 bp 5' terminal UTR, 1662 bp encoding region and 1180 bp 3' terminal UTR. The 1662-nt open reading frame was found to code for a protein with 554 amino acid residues. Comparison of amino acid sequence indicated that Japanese flounder Nramp consists of 12 transmembrane (TM) domains. A consensus transport motif (CTM) containing 20 residues was observed between transmembrane domains 8 and 9. The deduced amino acid sequence of Japanese flounder had 77.30%, 82.71%, 82.67%, 79.64%, 80.72%, 90.97%, 91.16%, 60.14%, 71.48%, 61.69%, 72.37% identity with that of rainbow trout Nramp alpha and beta, channel catfish Nramp, fathead minnow Nramp, common carp Nramp, striped sea bass Nramp, red sea bream Nramp, mouse Nramp 1 and 2, human Nramp 1 and 2, respectively. RT-PCR indicated that Nramp transcripts were highly abundant in spleen, head kidney, abundant in intestine, liver and gill, and less abundant in heart. The level of Nramp mRNA in embryos gradually increases during embryogenesis from 4 h (8 cell stage) to 80 h (hatched stage) after fertilization.

  5. cDNA cloning of sesquiterpene cyclase and squalene synthase, and expression of the genes in potato tuber infected with Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, H; Yamada, N; Doke, N

    1999-09-01

    Sesquiterpene cyclase and squalene synthase are key branch point enzymes in isoprenoid pathway for the synthesis of sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins and sterols/steroid glycoalkaloids, respectively. cDNA clones encoding these enzymes were isolated from potato. A phylogenetic tree showed that the sesquiterpene cyclase is vetispiradiene synthase. Infection of Phytophthora infestans with potato tubers caused transient increases in the transcript level of vetispiradiene synthase in a compatible and an incompatible interactions. On the other hand, wound-induced expression of the squalene synthase was suppressed in favor of the expression of vetispiradiene synthase regardless of inoculated races. PMID:10588069

  6. Complementation cloning and sequence analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hemL gene encoding glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Matters, G.L.; Beale, S.I. )

    1993-05-01

    Glutamate-1-semialdehyde amino-transferase (GSAT) catalyzes formation of the tetrapyrrole precursor, [delta]-aminolevulinic acid. GSAT is encoded by the hemL gene. A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hemL cDNA was selected from a vegetative stage expression library by complementation of Escherichia coli hemL mutant GE 1377. In vitro GSAT activity was ten-fold higher in an extract of the complemented hemL cells than in an extract of uncomplemented mutant cells. The complementing cDNA is 2010 bp long and includes 591 bp of 3' noncoding DNA and an estimated 27 bp of 5' noncoding DNA. The coding region includes the sequence for a putative 30-amino acid chloroplast transit peptide and a 433-amino acid mature protein. The mature protein deduced from the Chlamydomonas cDNA sequence has a molecular weight of 45,880, compared to the value of 43,000 reported for purified Chlamydomonas GSAT (d. Jahn et al., 1991, J. Biol. Chem. 266:161-167). The deduced peptide is 74% identical to Synechococcus GSAT, 70% identical to barley GSAT and 66% identical to tobacco GSAT. The putative pyridoxal binding region has the sequence TTMGKVIGG, which differs somewhat from those reported for other aminotransferases. The deduced putative chloroplast transit peptide has recognizable similarity to barley GSAT transit peptide. Southern analysis of genomic DNA from Chlamydomonas strain CC124, using the cDNA as a probe, indicates that GSAT is probably encoded by a single gene.

  7. Characterization of a gene encoding a DNA binding protein with specificity for a light-responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, P M; Memelink, J; Hiratsuka, K; Kay, S A; Chua, N H

    1992-01-01

    The sequence element of box II (GTGTGGTTAATATG) is a regulatory component of a light-responsive element present within the upstream region of pea rbcS-3A. The nuclear protein GT-1 was defined previously as a DNA binding activity that interacts with box II. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA sequences that encode a DNA binding protein with specificity for this element. The recombinant protein, tobacco GT-1a, shows similar sequence requirements for DNA binding to nuclear GT-1, as assayed by its ability to interact with previously defined 2-bp scanning mutations of box II, and is shown to be immunologically related to nuclear GT-1. The predicted structure of the 43-kD protein derived from the cDNA sequence suggests the presence of a novel helix-helix-turn-helix (HHTH) motif. Comparison between the predicted protein sequence encoded by the tobacco GT-1a cDNA and that of another GT binding protein, rice GT-2, reveals strong amino acid conservation over the HHTH region; this motif appears to be involved in the interaction between the recombinant protein and box II. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of a small gene family of related sequences within the tobacco nuclear genome. RNA gel blot analysis of tobacco mRNA using the isolated cDNA as a probe showed that transcripts are present in several tissues, including both light-grown and dark-adapted leaves. PMID:1392598

  8. Molecular characterization of a gene encoding a cystatin expressed in the stems of American chestnut (Castanea dentata).

    PubMed

    Connors, Bernadette J; Laun, Nathan P; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2002-07-01

    A cDNA clone with similarity to genes encoding cystatin was recently isolated from a cDNA library created using mRNA extracted from stem tissues of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (CASde:Pic1). All of the requisite motifs for inhibitory activity were found upon examination of the deduced amino acid sequence. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the cystatin transcript in healthy stem, leaf and seed tissues, as well as in diseased tissues. Gene fragments encoding this putative cystatin were cloned from American and Chinese (Castanea mollissima Blume) chestnuts and a comparison of these sequences revealed significant differences within the intron, including deletions and alterations in restriction-enzyme sites. The long-term goal of this study is to determine whether the cystatin allele in Chinese chestnut correlates to a resistance gene and, if so, if this allele could be used to enhance resistance in American chestnut.

  9. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled.

  10. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  11. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

    PubMed

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  12. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Fusi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity). Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain. PMID:23641210

  13. c-DNA vaccination against parasitic infections: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Kofta, W; Wedrychowicz, H

    2001-09-12

    Recently developed technology for DNA vaccination appears to offer the good prospect for the development of a multivalent vaccines that will effectively activate both the humoral and cell mediated mechanisms of the immune system. Currently, DNA vaccination against such important parasitic diseases like malaria, leishmaniosis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, schistosomosis, fasciolosis offers several new opportunities. However, the outcome of vaccination depends very much on vaccine formulations, dose and route of vaccine delivery, and the species and even strain of the vaccinated host. To overcome these problems much research is still needed, specifically focused on cloning and testing of new c-DNA sequences in the following: genome projects: different ways of delivery: design of vectors containing appropriate immunostimulatory sequences and very detailed studies on safety. PMID:11522401

  14. Isolation and characterization of a chicken tyrosinase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Mochii, M; Iio, A; Yamamoto, H; Takeuchi, T; Eguchi, G

    1992-10-01

    Complementary DNA clones coding for chicken tyrosinase were isolated from retinal pigmented epithelium of chicken embryo. Sequence analysis shows that one of the cDNA clones consisting of 1,997 nucleotides has an open reading frame coding for 529 amino acids. The deduced protein has nine N-glycosylation sites and a transmembrane region. A sequence comparison of the deduced chicken tyrosinase with the mouse and human homologues revealed that amino acid sequences are conserved for the entire polypeptides. Seventy-two percent and 73% of amino acids in the chicken sequence are identical to that of the mouse and human tyrosinases, respectively. Histidines neighboring the postulated copper-binding sites and the cysteines are well conserved. RNA blotting analysis showed that a major transcript of 2.5 kb is detected in retinal pigmented epithelium of a 9-day-old chicken embryo.

  15. Characterization of Leukemia-Inducing Genes Using a Proto-Oncogene/Homeobox Gene Retroviral Human cDNA Library in a Mouse In Vivo Model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su Hwa; Lee, Sohyun; Chung, Hee Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method to screen a large number of potential driver mutations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a retroviral cDNA library and murine bone marrow transduction-transplantation system. As a proof-of-concept, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were transduced with a retroviral cDNA library encoding well-characterized oncogenes and homeobox genes, and the virus-transduced cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated mice. The proto-oncogenes responsible for leukemia initiation were identified by PCR amplification of cDNA inserts from genomic DNA isolated from leukemic cells. In an initial screen of ten leukemic mice, the MYC proto-oncogene was detected in all the leukemic mice. Of ten leukemic mice, 3 (30%) had MYC as the only transgene, and seven mice (70%) had additional proto-oncogene inserts. We repeated the same experiment after removing MYC-related genes from the library to characterize additional leukemia-inducing gene combinations. Our second screen using the MYC-deleted proto-oncogene library confirmed MEIS1and the HOX family as cooperating oncogenes in leukemia pathogenesis. The model system we introduced in this study will be valuable in functionally screening novel combinations of genes for leukemogenic potential in vivo, and the system will help in the discovery of new targets for leukemia therapy.

  16. Sequence of cDNA for rat cystathionine gamma-lyase and comparison of deduced amino acid sequence with related Escherichia coli enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, P F; Maxwell, I H; Su, L J; Baumann, M; Glode, L M

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA clone for cystathionine gamma-lyase was isolated from a rat cDNA library in lambda gt11 by screening with a monospecific antiserum. The identity of this clone, containing 600 bp proximal to the 3'-end of the gene, was confirmed by positive hybridization selection. Northern-blot hybridization showed the expected higher abundance of the corresponding mRNA in liver than in brain. Two further cDNA clones from a plasmid pcD library were isolated by colony hybridization with the first clone and were found to contain inserts of 1600 and 1850 bp. One of these was confirmed as encoding cystathionine gamma-lyase by hybridization with two independent pools of oligodeoxynucleotides corresponding to partial amino acid sequence information for cystathionine gamma-lyase. The other clone (estimated to represent all but 8% of the 5'-end of the mRNA) was sequenced and its deduced amino acid sequence showed similarity to those of the Escherichia coli enzymes cystathionine beta-lyase and cystathionine gamma-synthase throughout its length, especially to that of the latter. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2201285

  17. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA coding for a lectin from Helianthus tuberosus callus and its jasmonate-induced expression.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, R; Yasokawa, D; Okumura, Y; Nagashima, K

    2000-06-01

    Two lectins (designated as HTA I and HTA II) that seemed to be isolectins were found in Helianthus tuberosus callus. cDNA encoding HTA I was isolated from a ZAP Express expression library by immunoselection by using the anti-HTA antiserum. The sequence of this cDNA consisted of 432 bp nucleotides coding for a polypeptide of 143 amino acid residues (Mr, 15,314). When introduced into E. coli, the cDNA directed the synthesis of active HTA I as indicated by the hemagglutination activity. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with some lectins and jasmonate-induced proteins. When callus was cultured in the presence of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), the hemagglutination activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of expression of the HTA protein and of the corresponding mRNA also increased in the treated callus. In view of these results, HTA I is considered to be a jasmonate-induced protein. PMID:10923797

  18. Profiling of Epstein-Barr virus latent RNA expression in clinical specimens by gene-specific multiprimed cDNA synthesis and PCR.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Servi J C; Brink, Antoinette A T P; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2005-01-01

    We describe a two-step RT-PCR method for simultaneous detection of EBNA-1 (QK and Y3K splice variants), EBNA-2, LMP-1, LMP-2a and -2b, ZEBRA, and BARTs RNA encoded by Epstein-Barr virus. As a control for RNA integrity, the low-copy-number transcript derived from U1A snRNP, a cellular housekeeping gene, is coamplified. Copy DNA (cDNA) for these nine targets is simultaneously synthesized in a gene-specific, multiprimed cDNA reaction, which strongly reduces the amount of required clinical specimen and allows more sensitive detection than random hexamer or oligo-dT priming. For amplification, cDNA synthesis is followed by nine separate PCRs for the mentioned targets. Primers were designed either as intron-flanking, to avoid background DNA amplification, or in different exons, allowing identification of differentially spliced RNA molecules. To increase specificity, PCR products are detected by autoradiography after hybridization with radiolabeled internal oligonucleotide probes. The method described is highly suitable for profiling EBV latent RNA expression in tissue biopsies, cultured or isolated cells, and unfractionated whole blood and for definition of EBV latency type I, II, or III gene expression in these samples.

  19. Rat pristanoyl-CoA oxidase. cDNA cloning and recognition of its C-terminal (SQL) by the peroxisomal-targeting signal 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Vanhooren, J C; Fransen, M; de Béthune, B; Baumgart, E; Baes, M; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Mannaerts, G P; Van Veldhoven, P P

    1996-07-15

    The composite pristanoyl-CoA oxidase cDNA sequence, derived from two overlapping clones from a rat liver cDNA library and a 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) PCR fragment, consisted of 2600 bases and contained an open reading frame of 2100 bases, encoding a protein of 700 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 78445 Da. This value is somewhat larger than the reported molecular mass of 70 kDa as determined earlier by SDS-gel electrophoresis. The amino acid identity with rat palmitoyl-CoA oxidase was rather low (28%) and barely higher than that with the yeast acyl-CoA oxidases (20%), suggesting that the palmitoyl-CoA oxidase/pristanoyl-CoA oxidase duplication occurred early in evolution. The carboxy-terminal tripeptide of pristanoyl-CoA oxidase was SQL. In vitro studies with the bacterially expressed human peroxisomal-targeting signal-1 import receptor indicated that SQL functions as a peroxisome-targeting signal. Northern analysis of tissues from control and clofibrate treated rats demonstrated that the pristanoyl-CoA oxidase gene is transcribed in liver and extrahepatic tissues and that transcription is not enhanced by treatment of rats with peroxisome proliferators. No mRNA could be detected by northern analysis of human tissues, suggesting that the human pristanoyl-CoA oxidase gene, if present, is only poorly or not transcribed.

  20. Thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein (T/EBP): cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and structural identity with thyroid transcription factor TTF-1

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Kimio; Gonzalez, F.J.; Kimura, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein (T/EBP) was isolated from a rat thyroid-derived FRTL-5 cell {lambda}gt 11 expression library, using a double-stranded oligonucleotide probe. This oligonucleotide was previously demonstrated to have the strongest binding affinity among three cis-acting DNA elements within the thyroid-specific enhancer region located 5.5 kbp upstream of the human thyroid peroxidase gene transcription start site. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNA revealed that T/EBP is identical to the previously reported thyroid-specific transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), which binds to the promoter of the rat thyroglobulin gene and controls its thyroid-specific expression. Expression of the T/EBP cDNA under control of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene promoter conferred thyroid-specific enhancer activity of as high as 26-fold to nonpermissive human hepatoma HepG2 cells when cotransfected with a vector containing 6.3 kbp of upstream sequence of the human thyroid peroxidase gene connected to a luciferase reporter gene. These results clearly indicate that the binding of T/EBP (TTF-1) to the specific cis-acting enhancer element is largely responsible for thyroid-specific enhancer activity.

  1. The human mitochondrial elongation factor tu (EF-Tu) gene: cDNA sequence, genomic localization, genomic structure, and identification of a pseudogene.

    PubMed

    Ling, M; Merante, F; Chen, H S; Duff, C; Duncan, A M; Robinson, B H

    1997-09-15

    The human mitochondrial elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is nuclear-encoded and functions in the translational apparatus of mitochondria. The complete human EF-Tu cDNA sequence of 1677 base pairs (bp) with a 101 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 1368 bp coding region, and a 207 bp 3'-untranslated region, has been determined and updated. The predicted protein from this cDNA sequence is approximately 49.8 kDa in size and is composed of 455 amino acids (aa) with a putative N-terminal mitochondrial leader sequence of approximately 50 aa residues. The predicted amino acid sequence shows high similarity to other EF-Tu protein sequences from ox, yeast, and bacteria, and also shows limited similarity to human cystolic elongation factor 1 alpha. The complete size of this cDNA (1677 bp) obtained by cloning and sequencing was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, which showed a single transcript (mRNA) of approximately 1.7 kb in human liver. The genomic structure of this EF-Tu gene has been determined for the first time. This gene contains nine introns with a predicted size of approximately 3.6 kilobases (kb) and has been mapped to chromosome 16p11.2. In addition, an intronless pseudogene of approximately 1.7 kb with 92.6% nucleotide sequence similarity to the EF-Tu gene has also been identified and mapped to chromosome 17q11.2. PMID:9332382

  2. Expression of a full-length cDNA for the human MDR1 gene confers resistance to colchicine, doxorubicin, and vinblastine

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, K.; Cardarelli, C.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I.

    1987-05-01

    Intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important problem in cancer therapy. MDR in human KB carcinoma cells selected for resistance to colchicine, vinblastine, or doxorubicin (former generic name adriamycin) is associated with overexpression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes P-glycoprotein. The authors previously have isolated an overlapping set of cDNA clones for the human MDR1 gene from multidrug-resistant KB cells. Here they report the construction of a full-length cDNA for the human MDR1 gene and show that this reconstructed cDNA, when inserted into a retroviral expression vector containing the long terminal repeats of Moloney leukemia virus or Harvey sarcoma virus, functions in mouse NIH 3T3 and human KB cells to confer the complete multidrug-resistance phenotype. These results suggest that the human MDR1 gene may be used as a positive selectable marker to introduce genes into human cells and to transform human cells to multidrug resistance without introducing nonhuman antigens.

  3. Analysis of the human, bovine and rat 33-kDa proteins and cDNA in retina and pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Nakabayashi, H; Tamada, H; Takagi, T; Sakuragi, S; Yamaki, K; Shinohara, T

    1990-07-16

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced against a bovine retinal 33-kDa protein. Several clones of 33-kDa protein were isolated from each library of cDNA from human, bovine and rat retinas and rat pineal gland by mAb screening and by hybridization with cDNA probes. Each of the four cDNA sequences was determined and amino acid (aa) sequences were deduced from the nucleotide sequences. The latter were nearly identical in rat retina and rat pineal gland (99.6%) and were similar in human, bovine and rat retina (more than 87%). Each of these cDNAs had one long ORF and encoded 245 or 246 aa. The deduced aa sequences in rat retina and rat pineal gland were virtually identical and the sequences in human, bovine and rat retina were highly homologous (more than 88%). The predicted Mr for each of these proteins was 28,246 in the human, 28,176 in bovine, 28,143 in rat retina, and 28,129 in rat pineal gland. Each of the sequences has a putative site for phosphorylation by A kinase; we have confirmed that the putative site is Ser73. These results show that the 33-kDa proteins in the retina and pineal gland have the same sequences and the same phosphorylation site and suggest that the functional role of this protein is the same in the retina and pineal gland.

  4. Human cytoplasmic actin proteins are encoded by a multigene family

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.; Gunning, P.; Kedes, L.

    1982-06-01

    The authors characterized nine human actin genes that they isolated from a library of cloned human DNA. Measurements of the thermal stability of hybrids formed between each cloned actin gene and ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, and ..gamma..-actin mRNA demonstrated that only one of the clones is most homologous to sarcomeric actin mRNA, whereas the remaining eight clones are most homologous to cytoplasmic actin mRNA. By the following criteria they show that these nine clones represent nine different actin gene loci rather than different alleles or different parts of a single gene: (i) the restriction enzyme maps of the coding regions are dissimilar; (ii) each clone contains sufficient coding region to encode all or most of an entire actin gene; and (iii) each clone contains sequences homologous to both the 5' and 3' ends of the coding region of a cloned chicken ..beta..-actin cDNA. They conclude, therefore, that the human cytoplasmic actin proteins are encoded by a multigene family.

  5. Genomic organization of the human NSP gene, prototype of a novel gene family encoding reticulons

    SciTech Connect

    Roebroek, A.J.M.; Ayoubi, T.A.Y.; Velde, H.J.K. van de; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Pauli, I.G.L.; Van De Ven, W.J.M.

    1996-03-01

    Recently, cDNA cloning and expression of three mRNA variants of the human NSP gene were described. This neuroendocrine-specific gene encodes three NSP protein isoforms with unique amino-terminal parts, but common carboxy-terminal parts. The proteins, with yet unknown function, are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and therefore are named NSP reticulons. Potentially, these proteins are neuroendocrine markers of a novel category in human lung cancer diagnosis. Here, the genomic organization of this gene was studied by analysis of genomic clones isolated from lambda phage and YAC libraries. The NSP exons were found to be dispersed over a genomic region of about 275 kb. The present elucidation of the genomic organization of the NSP gene explains the generation of NSP mRNA variants encoding NSP protein isoforms. Multiple promoters rather than alternative splicing of internal exons seem to be involved in this diversity. Furthermore, comparison of NSP genomic and cDNA sequences with databank nucleotide sequences resulted in the discovery of other human members of this novel family of reticulons encoding genes. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Identification and expression of an encoding steroid receptor coactivator (SRA) in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum).

    PubMed

    Sun, Huanhuan; Gao, Lili; Pang, Qiuxiang; Sun, Lele; Wu, Di; Bai, Yun; Zhao, Bosheng; Dong, Juan

    2013-11-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator (SRA), a class of genes encoding both functional RNA and protein, has been shown to be present in vertebrates but little is known in invertebrates. Here we isolated a cDNA encoding a SRA homolog from amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, named AmphiSRA. The cDNA contained a 525 bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 174 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of ~21 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AmphiSRA was located at the base of its vertebrate counterparts, suggesting that it represents the archetype of vertebrate SRA. The genomic DNA sequence of AmphiSRA contained four exons and three introns, which was similar to B. floridae SRA exon/intron organization. The recombinant SRAP expressed in vitro shows a band with a molecular mass of 21 kDa and western blot confirmed it, which proved it is an encoding isoform. AmphiSRA is found to display a tissue specific expression pattern, with a predominant expression in gill, intestine, testis, neural tube and notochord. The whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated the expression of AmphiSRA in all the stages of development assayed. These implicated that SRA maybe play an important role during embryonic development of cephalochordate amphioxus.

  7. Identification and expression of an encoding steroid receptor coactivator (SRA) in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum).

    PubMed

    Sun, Huanhuan; Gao, Lili; Pang, Qiuxiang; Sun, Lele; Wu, Di; Bai, Yun; Zhao, Bosheng; Dong, Juan

    2013-11-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator (SRA), a class of genes encoding both functional RNA and protein, has been shown to be present in vertebrates but little is known in invertebrates. Here we isolated a cDNA encoding a SRA homolog from amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, named AmphiSRA. The cDNA contained a 525 bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 174 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of ~21 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AmphiSRA was located at the base of its vertebrate counterparts, suggesting that it represents the archetype of vertebrate SRA. The genomic DNA sequence of AmphiSRA contained four exons and three introns, which was similar to B. floridae SRA exon/intron organization. The recombinant SRAP expressed in vitro shows a band with a molecular mass of 21 kDa and western blot confirmed it, which proved it is an encoding isoform. AmphiSRA is found to display a tissue specific expression pattern, with a predominant expression in gill, intestine, testis, neural tube and notochord. The whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated the expression of AmphiSRA in all the stages of development assayed. These implicated that SRA maybe play an important role during embryonic development of cephalochordate amphioxus. PMID:24065542

  8. Characterization of Urtica dioica agglutinin isolectins and the encoding gene family.

    PubMed

    Does, M P; Ng, D K; Dekker, H L; Peumans, W J; Houterman, P M; Van Damme, E J; Cornelissen, B J

    1999-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) has previously been found in roots and rhizomes of stinging nettles as a mixture of UDA-isolectins. Protein and cDNA sequencing have shown that mature UDA is composed of two hevein domains and is processed from a precursor protein. The precursor contains a signal peptide, two in-tandem hevein domains, a hinge region and a carboxyl-terminal chitinase domain. Genomic fragments encoding precursors for UDA-isolectins have been amplified by five independent polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA from stinging nettle ecotype Weerselo. One amplified gene was completely sequenced. As compared to the published cDNA sequence, the genomic sequence contains, besides two basepair substitutions, two introns located at the same positions as in other plant chitinases. By partial sequence analysis of 40 amplified genes, 16 different genes were identified which encode seven putative UDA-isolectins. The deduced amino acid sequences share 78.9-98.9% identity. In extracts of roots and rhizomes of stinging nettle ecotype Weerselo six out of these seven isolectins were detected by mass spectrometry. One of them is an acidic form, which has not been identified before. Our results demonstrate that UDA is encoded by a large gene family. PMID:10080699

  9. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko

    1996-03-05

    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  10. cDNA cloning and expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin binding 120 kDa aminopeptidase N from Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, K; Nakanishi, K; Kadotani, T; Imamura, M; Koizumi, N; Iwahana, H; Sato, R

    1999-01-18

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin binds to a 120 kDa putative receptor protein in the Bombyx mori midgut. Recently, this protein was purified and identified as glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored aminopeptidase N (APN). In this study, a full-length cDNA thought to encode this 120 kDa APN was isolated and sequenced. It has a 2958 bp ORF encoding 986 amino acids. In the deduced amino acid sequence, we identified GPI-anchor and zinc-metallopeptidase signals, which are the same as those of APNs of other insects that are reported to be putative Cry1 toxin receptors. The B. mori APN amino acid sequence also has a high similarity with those of the other APNs. Subsequently, the recombinant APN was expressed by Escherichia coli and its Cry1Aa toxin binding ability was analyzed. Ligand blotting showed that Cry1Aa toxin bound to the recombinant APN. PMID:9931470

  11. Genomic and cDNA clones for maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase: Expression of different gene-family members in leaves and roots

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, Richard L.; Glackin, Carlotta A.; Bonner, James; Grula, John W.

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones for the maize leaf enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate (P-ePrv) carboxylase [orthophosphate:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (phosphorylating) EC 4.1.1.31] and pyruvate,orthophosphate (Prv,Pi) dikinase (ATP:pyruvate,orthophosphate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.9.1) by exploiting the light-inducibility and large size of the mRNAs (3.5 kilobases) that encode the two enzymes. The clones were identified by hybrid-selection and immunoprecipitation assays. From a maize genomic library, two different types of genomic clones were screened with both the P-ePrv carboxylase and the Prv,Pi dikinase cDNA clones. Information from these genomic clones and genome blots indicates that the P-ePrv carboxylase gene family has at least three members and the Prv,Pi dikinase family at least two. Transcripts for both enzymes were detected in green leaves, etiolated leaves, and roots. The results show that the P-ePrv carboxylase mRNAs in green leaves and roots are encoded by different genes. Whereas the P-ePrv carboxylase mRNAs in all three tissues appear to be the same size, the Prv,Pi dikinase mRNA in green leaves is about 0.5 kilobases longer than the Prv,Pi dikinase mRNAs in etiolated leaves and roots. It is possible that all these Prv,Pi dikinase transcripts are encoded by one gene, and the size differences may correspond to the presence or absence of a sequence encoding a chloroplast transit peptide. Images PMID:16593689

  12. How Infants Encode Spatial Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan; Duffy, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how infants encode an object's spatial extent. We habituated 6.5-month-old infants to a dowel inside a container and then tested whether they dishabituate to a change in absolute size when the relation between dowel and container is held constant (by altering the size of both container and dowel) and when the relation changes…

  13. Encoding Standards for Linguistic Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    The demand for extensive reusability of large language text collections for natural languages processing research requires development of standardized encoding formats. Such formats must be capable of representing different kinds of information across the spectrum of text types and languages, capable of representing different levels of…

  14. Subtractive cDNA cloning using oligo(dT)30-latex and PCR: isolation of cDNA clones specific to undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hara, E; Kato, T; Nakada, S; Sekiya, S; Oda, K

    1991-01-01

    The human embryonal carcinoma cell line NEC14 can be induced to differentiate by the addition of 10(-2)M N,N'-hexamethylene-bis-acetamide (HMBA). A subtractive cDNA library specific to undifferentiated NEC14 cells was constructed using oligo(dT)30-Latex and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method was designed to improve the efficiency of subtraction and the enrichment of cDNA clones corresponding to low abundance mRNAs. The single strand of cDNA was made from mRNA prepared from the HMBA-treated NEC14 cells using an oligo(dT)30 primer covalently linked to Latex particles. After removal of the mRNA template by heat-denaturation and centrifugation, the subtractive hybridization was carried out between the cDNA-oligo(dT)30-Latex and mRNA from untreated NEC14 cells. Unhybridized mRNA collected by centrifugation was hybridized repeatedly to the cDNA-oligo(dT)30-Latex and subtractive mRNA was converted to cDNA. The subtractive cDNA was then amplified by PCR and cloned into pBluescript II KS-. The cDNA library thus constructed consisted of approximately 10,000 independent clones with cDNA inserts of 1.7 Kb on average. Differential hybridization of these transformants indicated that approximately 3% of them contained cDNA inserts specific to the undifferentiated EC cells, some of which were derived from low abundance mRNAs. Images PMID:1766870

  15. Computational analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93) lycopene β-cyclase and β-carotene hydroxylase gene's cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Bhore, Subhash Janardhan; Amelia, Kassim; Wang, Edina; Priyadharsini, Sindhuja; Shah, Farida Habib

    2013-01-01

    The identification of genes and understanding of genes' expression and regulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is necessary in order to strategize its improvement using genetic engineering techniques. Generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is useful in rapid isolation, identification and characterization of the genes. To study the gene expression in P. vulgaris pods tissue, ESTs generation work was initiated. Early stage and late stage bean-pod-tissues cDNA libraries were constructed using CloneMiner cDNA library construction kit. In total, 5972 EST clones were isolated using random method of gene isolation. While processing ESTs, we found lycopene β-cyclase (PvLCY-β) and β-carotene hydroxylase (PvCHY-β) gene's cDNA. In carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, PvLCY-β catalyzes the production of carotene; and PvCHY-β is known to function as a catalyst in the production of lutein and zeaxanthin. To understand more about PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β, both strands of both cDNA clones were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primers. Nucleotide and deduced protein sequences were analyzed and annotated using online bioinformatics tools. Results showed that PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β cDNAs are 1639 and 1107 bp in length, respectively. Analysis results showed that PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β gene's cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes for 502 and 305 amino acid residues, respectively. The deduced protein sequence analysis results also showed the presence of conserved domains needed for PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β functions. The phylogenetic analysis of both PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β proteins showed it's closeness with the LCY-β and CHY-β proteins from Glycine max, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β gene's cDNA and it's annotation is reported in this paper. PMID:23519320

  16. Characterization of a full-length infectious cDNA clone and a GFP reporter derivative of the oncolytic picornavirus SVV-001.

    PubMed

    Poirier, John T; Reddy, P Seshidhar; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Li, Shawn S; Stump, Kristine L; Burroughs, Kevin D; Hallenbeck, Paul L; Rudin, Charles M

    2012-12-01

    Seneca Valley virus (SVV-001) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for a subset of human cancers with neuroendocrine differentiation. To characterize further the specificity of SVV-001 and its patterns and kinetics of intratumoral spread, bacterial plasmids encoding a cDNA clone of the full-length wild-type virus and a derivative virus expressing GFP were generated. The full-length cDNA of the SVV-001 RNA genome was cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the control of the T7 core promoter sequence to create an infectious cDNA clone, pNTX-09. A GFP reporter virus cDNA clone, pNTX-11, was then generated by cloning a fusion protein of GFP and the 2A protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus immediately following the native SVV-001 2A sequence. Recombinant GFP-expressing reporter virus, SVV-GFP, was rescued from cells transfected with in vitro RNA transcripts from pNTX-11 and propagated in cell culture. The proliferation kinetics of SVV-001 and SVV-GFP were indistinguishable. The SVV-GFP reporter virus was used to determine that a subpopulation of permissive cells is present in small-cell lung cancer cell lines previously thought to lack permissivity to SVV-001. Finally, it was shown that SVV-GFP administered to tumour-bearing animals homes in to and infects tumours whilst having no detectable tropism for normal mouse tissues at 1×10(11) viral particles kg(-1), a dose equivalent to that administered in ongoing clinical trials. These infectious clones will be of substantial value in further characterizing the biology of this virus and as a backbone for the generation of additional oncolytic derivatives. PMID:22971818

  17. Uroporphyrinogen-III synthase: Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, expression of a mouse full-length cDNA, and its localization on mouse chromosome 7

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Desnick, R.J.; Kozak, C.A.

    1995-04-10

    Uroporphyrinogen-III synthase, the fourth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is responsible for the conversion of hydroxymethylbilane to the cyclic tetrapyrrole, uroporphyrinogen III. The deficient activity of URO-S is the enzymatic defect in congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), an autosomal recessive disorder. For the generation of a mouse model of CEP, the human URO-S cDNA was used to screen 2 X 10{sup 6} recombinants from a mouse adult liver cDNA library. Ten positive clones were isolated, and dideoxy sequencing of the entire 1.6-kb insert of clone pmUROS-1 revealed 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated sequences of 144 and 623 bp, respectively, and an open reading frame of 798 bp encoding a 265-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 28,501 Da. The mouse and human coding sequences had 80.5 and 77.8% nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively. The authenticity of the mouse cDNA was established by expression of the active monomeric enzyme in Escherichia coli. In addition, the analysis of two multilocus genetic crosses localized the mouse gene on chromosome 7, consistent with the mapping of the human gene to a position of conserved synteny on chromosome 10. The isolation, expression, and chromosomal mapping of this full-length cDNA should facilitate studies of the structure and organization of the mouse genomic sequence and the development of a mouse model of CEP for characterization of the disease pathogenesis and evaluation of gene therapy. 38 refs., 1 tab.

  18. cDNA sequence and expression analysis of an antimicrobial peptide, theromacin, in the triangle-shell pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiaoqing; Wang, Gailing; Yuan, Hanwen; Chai, Yi; Xiao, Zhili

    2010-09-01

    Bivalve molluscs rely on the interaction between cellular and humoral factors for protection against potential pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proven to be one of the most important humoral components that afford resistance to pathogen infection. The AMP gene to be identified was that encoding theromacin in the triangle-shell pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (Hc theromacin); this gene was identified from a suppression subtractive hybridization library, and subsequently cloned by 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The full-length theromacin cDNA contains 547 bp, with a 294-bp open reading frame that encodes a 97-amino acid peptide, and the deduced peptide sequence contains a 61-amino acid putative mature peptide. The sequence also contains 10 cysteine residues. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis showed that Hc theromacin transcripts were constitutively expressed in the liver, foot, gill, adductor muscle, heart, mantle, intestine, and hemocytes, with the highest level in hemocytes. Theromacin mRNA levels were found to increase after challenge with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. After injection of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, Hc theromacin expression showed the highest fold-change at 48 and 36 h after infection, respectively, and its levels decreased gradually thereafter. PMID:20639135

  19. Human acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins P0, P1, and P2: Analysis of cDNA clones, in vitro synthesis, and assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, B.E.; Steitz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    cDNA clones encoding three antigenically related human ribosomal phosophoproteins (P-proteins) P0, P1, and P2 were isolated and sequenced. P1 and P2 are analogous to Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L7/L12, and P0 is likely to be an analog of L10. The three proteins have a nearly identical carboxy-terminal 17-amino-acid sequence (KEESEESD(D/E)DMGFGLFD-COOH) that is the basis of their immunological cross-reactivity. The identifies of the P1 and P2 cDNAs were confirmed by the strong similarities of their encoded amino acid sequences to published primary structures of the homologous rat, brine shrimp, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. The P0 cDNA was initially identified by translation of hybrid-selected mRNA and immunoprecipitation of the products. To demonstrate that the coding sequences are full length, the P0, P1, and P2 cDNAs were transcribed in vitro by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the resulting mRNAs were translated in vitro. The synthetic P0, P1, and P2 proteins were serologically and electrophoretically identical to P-proteins extracted from HeLa cells. These synthetic P-proteins were incorporated into 60S but not 40S ribosomes and also assembled into a complex similar to that described for E. coli L7/L12 and L10.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of two forms of trout growth hormone cDNA: expression and secretion of tGH-II by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rentier-Delrue, F; Swennen, D; Mercier, L; Lion, M; Benrubi, O; Martial, J A

    1989-03-01

    We constructed a cDNA library using mRNA isolated from rainbow trout pituitaries. Two types of cDNA clones encoding growth hormone (GH) were isolated and their complete nucleotide sequences determined. Twenty seven nucleotide substitutions in the coding region and 108 in the noncoding region distinguish the cDNAs of trout GH-I and II. Both cDNAs encode polypeptides of 210 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids, which differ by 12 residues. In both trout and salmon, GH-I mRNA is predominant, which suggests that the variation in the amount of secreted GH originates from a transcriptional event. Moreover, comparison of rainbow trout and chum salmon GH reveals that, in both cases, the predominant GH-I has mutated less than its GH-II counterpart. Mature tGH-II was expressed in Escherichia coli using the pIN-III-ompA-Hind secretion vector. PMID:2647438

  1. Human synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SCP1): Isolation and characterization of the cDNA and chromosomal localization of the gene

    SciTech Connect

    Meuwissen, R.L.J.; Meerts, I.; Heyting, C.

    1997-02-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) are structures that are formed between homologous chromosomes (homologs) during meiotic prophase. They consist of two proteinaceous axes, one along each homolog, that are connected along their length by numerous transverse filaments (TFs). The cDNA encoding one major component of TFs of SCs of the rat, rnSCP1, has recently been isolated and characterized. In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of the cDNA encoding the human protein homologous to rnSCP1, hsSCP1. hsSCP1 and rnSCP1 have 75% amino acid identity. The most prominent structural features and amino acid sequence motifs of rnSCP1 have been conserved in hsSCP1. Most probably, hsSCP1 is functionally homologous to rnSCP1. The hsSCP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p12-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 44 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Isolation of a cDNA clone for spinach lipid transfer protein and evidence that the protein is synthesized by the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, W.R.; Thoma, S.; Botella, J.; Somerville, C.R. )

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a nonspecific lipid transfer protein from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was isolated by probing a library with synthetic oligonucleotides based on the amino acid sequence of the protein. Determination of the DNA sequence indicated a 354-nucleotide open reading frame which encodes a 118-amino acid residue polypeptide. The first 26 amino acids of the open reading frame, which are not present in the mature protein, have all the characteristics of a signal sequence which is normally associated with the synthesis of membrane proteins or secreted proteins. In vitro transcription of the cDNA and translation in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes or microsomes from cultured maize endosperm cells indicated that proteolytic processing of the preprotein to the mature form was associated with cotranslational insertion into the microsomal membranes. Because there is no known mechanism by which the polypeptide could be transferred from the microsomal membranes to the cytoplasm, the proposed role of this protein in catalyzing lipid transfer between intracellular membranes is in doubt. Although the lipid transfer protein is one of the most abundant proteins in leaf cells, the results of genomic Southern analysis were consistent with the presence of only one gene. Analysis of the level of mRNA by Northern blotting indicated that the transcript was several-fold more abundant than an actin transcript in leaf and petiole tissue, but was present in roots at less than 1% of the level in petioles.

  3. kappa-Opioid receptor in humans: cDNA and genomic cloning, chromosomal assignment, functional expression, pharmacology, and expression pattern in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, F; Gavériaux-Ruff, C; Befort, K; Matthes, H; Lannes, B; Micheletti, G; Mattéi, M G; Charron, G; Bloch, B; Kieffer, B

    1995-01-01

    Using the mouse delta-opioid receptor cDNA as a probe, we have isolated genomic clones encoding the human mu- and kappa-opioid receptor genes. Their organization appears similar to that of the human delta receptor gene, with exon-intron boundaries located after putative transmembrane domains 1 and 4. The kappa gene was mapped at position q11-12 in human chromosome 8. A full-length cDNA encoding the human kappa-opioid receptor has been isolated. The cloned receptor expressed in COS cells presents a typical kappa 1 pharmacological profile and is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase. The expression of kappa-opioid receptor mRNA in human brain, as estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, is consistent with the involvement of kappa-opioid receptors in pain perception, neuroendocrine physiology, affective behavior, and cognition. In situ hybridization studies performed on human fetal spinal cord demonstrate the presence of the transcript specifically in lamina II of the dorsal horn. Some divergences in structural, pharmacological, and anatomical properties are noted between the cloned human and rodent receptors. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624359

  4. The c-myc-regulated gene mrl encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, G C; Diamond, L E; Dahl, D; Cole, M D

    1990-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the c-myc-regulated gene mrl (G. C. Prendergast and M. D. Cole, Mol. Cell. Biol. 9:124-134, 1989) reveals that it encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a regulator of extracellular proteolysis. Comparison of the human and mouse PAI-1 promoters and cDNA 3' noncoding regions revealed several highly conserved sequence domains, potential targets for c-myc and other factors influencing PAI-1 expression. We discuss possible roles for PAI-1 in normal and neoplastic cell growth control. PMID:2406566

  5. Preparation of microbial community cDNA for metatranscriptomic analysis in marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing and analysis of microbial community cDNA (metatranscriptomics) are providing valuable insight into in situ microbial activity and metabolism in the oceans. A critical first step in metatranscriptomic studies is the preparation of high-quality cDNA. At the minimum, preparing cDNA for sequencing involves steps of biomass collection, RNA preservation, total RNA extraction, and cDNA synthesis. Each of these steps may present unique challenges for marine microbial samples, particularly for deep-sea samples whose transcriptional profiles may change between water collection and RNA preservation. Because bacterioplankton community RNA yields may be relatively low (<500 ng), it is often necessary to amplify total RNA to obtain sufficient cDNA for downstream sequencing. Additionally, depending on the nature of the samples, budgetary considerations, and the choice of sequencing technology, steps may be required to deplete the amount of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcripts in a sample in order to maximize mRNA recovery. cDNA preparation may also involve the addition of internal RNA standards to biomass samples, thereby allowing for absolute quantification of transcript abundance following sequencing. This chapter describes a general protocol for cDNA preparation from planktonic microbial communities, from RNA preservation to final cDNA synthesis, with specific emphasis placed on topics of sampling bias and rRNA depletion. Consideration of these topics is critical for helping standardize metatranscriptomics methods as they become widespread in marine microbiology research.

  6. Sorbitol dehydrogenase. Full-length cDNA sequencing reveals a mRNA coding for a protein containing an additional 42 amino acids at the N-terminal end.

    PubMed

    Wen, Y; Bekhor, I

    1993-10-01

    A cDNA clone encoding rat sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) was isolated from a rat testis lambda ZAP II cDNA library. The full-length cDNA insert contained 2277 base pairs (bp), starting 182 bp upstream from an ATG codon where translation to the active enzyme SDH is presumed to be initiated. A second ATG codon, however, was found 126 bp upstream, aligned in the same reading frame as that of the active enzyme. Therefore, the coding sequence for SDH can be translated into an additional 42-amino-acid polypeptide linked to the N-terminal amino acid of the enzyme, generating a pre-sorbitol dehydrogenase. The sequence data indicate that the nucleotide environment around this ATG codon is more favorable towards it being the actual open reading frame (ORF) for a pre-SDH than the ATG codon preceding the nucleotide sequence for SDH. Since no known SDH starts with the additional 42 amino acids, it may be that post-translational removal of this polypeptide accompanies the release of the active enzyme. Next, the 3' untranslated region of the cDNA contained a non-coding 1021 bp downstream from the TAA stop codon. The latter sequence included three putative poly(A) signals: one at nucleotides 1362-1367, the second at nucleotides 1465-1470, and the third at nucleotides 2212-2217 [17 bp away from the poly(A) tail]. In addition to the above findings we also report a variance in one of the amino acids in the SDH cDNA sequence. This variance occurs at position 957-960, where threonine is coded for instead of aspartic acid; in the rat testis SDH cDNA, we find the sequence is ACG instead of GAC, as was reported for the rat liver SDH cDNA. Northern-blot hybridization analysis showed that SDH mRNA is a doublet, one band of 4 kb and the other of 2.3-2.4 kb, in both the rat liver and the rat lens, further confirming that the isolated SDH cDNA constituted a full-length cDNA.

  7. Global analysis of carbohydrate utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus using cDNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Duong, Tri; Conners, Shannon B.; Kelly, Robert M.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2006-01-01

    The transport and catabolic machinery involved in carbohydrate utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus was characterized genetically by using whole-genome cDNA microarrays. Global transcriptional profiles were determined for growth on glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, galactose, trehalose, raffinose, and fructooligosaccharides. Hybridizations were carried out by using a round-robin design, and microarray data were analyzed with a two-stage mixed model ANOVA. Differentially expressed genes were visualized by hierarchical clustering, volcano plots, and contour plots. Overall, only 63 genes (3% of the genome) showed a >4-fold induction. Specifically, transporters of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar transferase system were identified for uptake of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and trehalose, whereas ATP-binding cassette transporters were identified for uptake of raffinose and fructooligosaccharides. A member of the LacS subfamily of galactoside-pentose hexuronide translocators was identified for uptake of galactose and lactose. Saccharolytic enzymes likely involved in the metabolism of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides into substrates of glycolysis were also found, including enzymatic machinery of the Leloir pathway. The transcriptome appeared to be regulated by carbon catabolite repression. Although substrate-specific carbohydrate transporters and hydrolases were regulated at the transcriptional level, genes encoding regulatory proteins CcpA, Hpr, HprK/P, and EI were consistently highly expressed. Genes central to glycolysis were among the most highly expressed in the genome. Collectively, microarray data revealed that coordinated and regulated transcription of genes involved in sugar uptake and metabolism is based on the specific carbohydrate provided. L. acidophilus's adaptability to environmental conditions likely contributes to its competitive ability for limited carbohydrate sources available in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:16505367

  8. Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequence, and hybridization histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Aldred, P.; Fu, Ping; Barrett, G.; Penschow, J.D.; Wright, R.D.; Coghlan, J.P.; Fernley, R.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones coding for the human secreted carbonic anhydrase isozyme (CAVI) have been isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. These clones identify a 1.45-kb mRNA that is present in high levels in parotid submandibular salivary glands but absent in other tissues such as the sublingual gland, kidney, liver, and prostate gland. Hybridization histochemistry of human salivary glands shows mRNA for CA VI located in the acinar cells of these glands. The cDNA clones encode a protein of 308 amino acids that includes a 17 amino acid leader sequence typical of secreted proteins. The mature protein has 291 amino acids compared to 259 or 260 for the cytoplasmic isozymes, with most of the extra amino acids present as a carboxyl terminal extension. In comparison, sheep CA VI has a 45 amino acid extension. Overall the human CA VI protein has a sequence identity of 35 {percent} with human CA II, while residues involved in the active site of the enzymes have been conserved. The human and sheep secreted carbonic anhydrases have a sequence identity of 72 {percent}. This includes the two cysteine residues that are known to be involved in an intramolecular disulfide bond in the sheep CA VI. The enzyme is known to be glycosylated and three potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Thr/Ser) have been identified. Two of these are known to be glycosylated in sheep CA VI. Southern analysis of human DNA indicates that there is only one gene coding for CA VI.

  9. Cloning and characterization of goose interleukin-17A cDNA.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuangshi; Liu, Xiaomei; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhu, Yunhui; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2014-02-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17 or IL-17A) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. IL-17A plays important roles in inflammation and host defense. In this study, the cDNA of the goose IL-17A (GoIL-17A) gene was cloned from thymocytes. Recombinant GoIL-17A (rGoIL-17A) was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and then biologically characterized. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of GoIL-17A contains 510 base pairs that encode 169 amino acid residues, including a 29-amino acid signal peptide and a single potential N-linked glycosylation site. This protein has a molecular weight of 18.9kDa. The amino acid sequence showed 95.9%, 84.6%, 45.0% and 38.4% similarity with the corresponding duck, chicken, rat, and human IL-17A sequences, respectively. The six conserved cysteine residues were also observed in GoIL-17A. A recombinant, mature form of GoIL-17A was produced and its biological activities in goose embryonic fibroblasts were investigated. RT-PCR analysis revealed a marked up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in goose embryonic fibroblasts treated with 1-50 μg of rGoIL-17A for 12h. The GoIL-17A gene sequence and the biologically active recombinant protein may be useful for understanding the role of IL-17A in immune regulation.

  10. Cloning of the cDNA and functional expression of the 47-kilodalton cytosolic component of human neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Volpp, B D; Nauseef, W M; Donelson, J E; Moser, D R; Clark, R A

    1989-01-01

    Neutrophil NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme that is activated to generate superoxide anion and is defective in the cells of patients with chronic granulomatous disease. It requires both membrane and cytosolic components, the latter including 47- and 67-kDa proteins recognized by the polyclonal antiserum B-1. Immunoscreening of an induced HL-60 lambda ZAP cDNA library yielded seven cross-hybridizing cDNAs encoding the 47-kDa component. Fusion proteins of 22-50 kDa were recognized by B-1. Antiserum against a fusion protein recognized a 47-kDa protein in normal neutrophils but not in those from patients with autosomal chronic granulomatous disease who lack the 47-kDa cytosolic oxidase component. In a cell-free NADPH oxidase system full-length and C-terminal fusion proteins augmented superoxide generation and reconstituted the cytosolic defect of a patient missing the 47-kDa protein. The cDNA hybridized with a 1.4-kilobase mRNA from induced HL-60 cells. The longest cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 41,440 Da with a calculated pI of 10.4, an N-terminal glycine, sites favorable for phosphorylation, a nucleotide binding domain, and a region of homology to the src protein kinases, phospholipase C, and alpha-fodrin. These structural features are pertinent to proposed functional roles of the protein in the respiratory burst oxidase. Images PMID:2550933

  11. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

    PubMed Central

    Loit, Evelin; Melnyk, Charles W; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Scott, Fraser W; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s) encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health. PMID:19615078

  12. Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose:. beta. -D-galactoside 2-. alpha. -L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.D.; Ernst, L.K.; Nair, R.P.; Lowe, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors have previously used a gene-transfer scheme to isolate a human genomic DNA fragment that determines expression of a GDP-L-fucose:{beta}D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-L-fucosyltransferase. Although this fragment determined expression of an {alpha}(1,2)FT whose kinetic properties mirror those of the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT, their precise nature remained undefined. They describe here the molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human of cDNA corresponding to these human genomic sequences. When expressed in COS-1 cells, the cDNA directs expression of cell surface H structures and a cognate {alpha}(1,2)FT activity with properties analogous to the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT. The cDNA sequence predicts a 365-amino acid polypeptide characteristic of a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a domain structure analogous to that of other glycosyltransferases but without significant primary sequence similarity to these or other known proteins. To directly demonstrate that the cDNA encodes an {alpha}(1,2)FT, the COOH-terminal domain predicted to be Golgi-resident was expressed in COS-1 cells as a catalytically active, secreted, and soluble protein A fusion peptide. Southern blot analysis showed that this cDNA identified DNA sequences syntenic to the human H locus on chromosome 19. These results strongly suggest that this cloned {alpha}(1,2)FT cDNA represents the product of the human H blood group locus.

  13. Monolithic-integrated microlaser encoder.

    PubMed

    Sawada, R; Higurashi, E; Ito, T; Ohguchi, O; Tsubamoto, M

    1999-11-20

    We have developed an extremely small integrated microencoder whose sides are less than 1 mm long. It is 1/100 the size of conventional encoders. This microencoder consists of a laser diode, monolithic photodiodes, and fluorinated polyimide waveguides with total internal reflection mirrors. The instrument can measure the relative displacement between a grating scale and the encoder with a resolution of the order of 0.01 microm; it can also determine the direction in which the scale is moving. By using the two beams that were emitted from the two etched mirrors of the laser diode, by monolithic integration of the waveguide and photodiodes, and by fabrication of a step at the edge of the waveguide, we were able to eliminate conventional bulky optical components such as the beam splitter, the quarter-wavelength plate, bulky mirrors, and bulky photodetectors. PMID:18324228

  14. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-12-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  15. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  16. Lessons from modENCODE.

    PubMed

    Brown, James B; Celniker, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The modENCODE (Model Organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) Consortium aimed to map functional elements-including transcripts, chromatin marks, regulatory factor binding sites, and origins of DNA replication-in the model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. During its five-year span, the consortium conducted more than 2,000 genome-wide assays in developmentally staged animals, dissected tissues, and homogeneous cell lines. Analysis of these data sets provided foundational insights into genome, epigenome, and transcriptome structure and the evolutionary turnover of regulatory pathways. These studies facilitated a comparative analysis with similar data types produced by the ENCODE Consortium for human cells. Genome organization differs drastically in these distant species, and yet quantitative relationships among chromatin state, transcription, and cotranscriptional RNA processing are deeply conserved. Of the many biological discoveries of the modENCODE Consortium, we highlight insights that emerged from integrative studies. We focus on operational and scientific lessons that may aid future projects of similar scale or aims in other, emerging model systems. PMID:26133010

  17. The Late Developmental Pattern of Mu Transposon Excision Is Conferred by a Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S –Driven MURA cDNA in Transgenic Maize

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Manish N.; Walbot, Virginia

    2000-01-01

    The MuDR element responsible for Mutator activities in maize encodes two genes, mudrA and mudrB. Each encodes multiple transcripts hypothesized to regulate, directly or indirectly, the unique late timing and switch in transposition mechanism during maize development. mudrA, which encodes the MURA transposase, is unstable in bacterial plasmids, a technical problem solved by using phage M13 as a vector to prepare DNA for biolistic transformation. In transgenic maize, a single 2.7-kb mudrA cDNA predicted to encode an 823–amino acid protein is sufficient to catalyze late somatic excisions, despite removal of the native promoter, alternative transcription start sites, known introns, polymorphic 5′ and 3′ untranslated sequences, and the mudrB gene. These results suggest that post-translational regulation confers Mu excision timing. The transgene is active in lines containing silencing MuDR elements. This suggests that endogenous MuDR transposons do not measurably immunize the host against expression of a homologous transgene. PMID:10634904

  18. Full-Length cDNA Cloning, Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression Analysis of Lysophospholipase I from Ovis aries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Shi-Ying; Li, Yan-Song; Yang, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Song; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Lysophospholipase I (LYPLA1) is an important protein with multiple functions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the LYPLA1 gene from Ovis aries (OaLypla1) was cloned using primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology. The full-length OaLypla1 was 2457 bp with a 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of 24 bp, a 3′-UTR of 1740 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 693 bp encoding a protein of 230 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 24,625.78 Da. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the OaLypla1 protein shared a high amino acid identity with LYPLA1 of Bos taurus. The recombinant OaLypla1 protein was expressed and purified, and its phospholipase activity was identified. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against OaLypla1 that bound native OaLypla1 were generated. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that OaLypla1 was constitutively expressed in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and white blood cells of sheep, with the highest level in the kidney. Additionally, the mRNA levels of OaLypla1 in the buffy coats of sheep challenged with virulent or avirulent Brucella strains were down-regulated compared to untreated sheep. The results suggest that OaLypla1 may have an important physiological role in the host response to bacteria. The function of OaLypla1 in the host response to bacterial infection requires further study in the future. PMID:27483239

  19. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a lambdagt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused ..beta..-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)/sup +/ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states.

  20. RNA1-Independent Replication and GFP Expression from Tomato marchitez virus Isolate M Cloned cDNA.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, I; Turina, M; Zamora-Macorra, E J; Falk, B W

    2016-05-01

    Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV; synonymous with Tomato apex necrosis virus) is a positive-strand RNA virus in the genus Torradovirus within the family Secoviridae. ToMarV is an emergent whitefly-transmitted virus that causes important diseases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Mexico. Here, the genome sequence of the ToMarV isolate M (ToMarV-M) was determined. We engineered full-length cDNA clones of the ToMarV-M genomic RNA (RNA1 and RNA2), separately, into a binary vector. Coinfiltration of both triggered systemic infections in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, and tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) plants and recapitulated the biological activity of the wild-type virus. The viral progeny generated from tomato and tomatillo plants were transmissible by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B. Also, we assessed whether these infectious clones could be used for screening tomato cultivars for resistance to ToMarV and our results allowed us to differentiate resistant and susceptible tomato lines. We demonstrated that RNA1 of ToMarV-M is required for the replication of RNA2, and it can replicate independently of RNA2. From this, ToMarV-M RNA2 was used to express the green fluorescent protein in N. benthamiana plants, which allowed us to track cell-to-cell movement. The construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of ToMarV-M provides an excellent tool to investigate virus-host-vector interactions and elucidate the functions of torradovirus-encoded proteins or the mechanisms of replication of torradovirus genomic RNA. PMID:26756828

  1. cDNA cloning, bacterial expression, in vitro renaturation and affinity purification of the zinc endopeptidase astacin.

    PubMed Central

    Reyda, S; Jacob, E; Zwilling, R; Stöcker, W

    1999-01-01

    Astacin (EC 3.4.24.21) from the freshwater crayfish (Astacus astacus) is a prototype for the metzincin superfamily and for the astacin family of zinc peptidases, enzymes which are involved in hatching processes, embryonic patterning and tissue remodelling. Here we report on the cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli of an astacin cDNA which was reverse-transcribed from crayfish midgut-gland mRNA. A cDNA construct based on this clone was generated which comprised the nucleotide sequence encoding mature astacin devoid of the signal and propeptide. This construct was cloned into the pET3a vector and used to transform E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. Recombinant astacin was purified from inclusion bodies and dissolved under reducing conditions. For folding, the protein was diluted into neutral buffer containing l-arginine, GSH and EDTA. Eventually, Zn(2+) was added by dialysis and the fraction of active enzyme was affinity-purified on immobilized Pro-Leu-Gly hydroxamate. As shown by superimposition of the corresponding three-dimensional structures, this inhibitor binds to a region of the active-site cleft that is conserved in most metzincins. Therefore this principle behind this affinity technique, originally introduced for fibroblast collagenase by Moore and Spilburg [Biochemistry (1986) 25, 5189-5195], is applicable throughout the metzincin superfamily of metalloproteases, despite their otherwise differing cleavage specificities. Recombinant astacin is active on gelatine zymograms and in a quenched fluorescence assay, yielding kinetic parameters comparable with those of wild-type astacin purified from crayfish stomach. PMID:10585873

  2. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of a peroxiredoxin 1 cDNA from golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Zhang, Nan; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhang, Dianchang

    2015-08-01

    Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx 1) is an important antioxidant protein that can protect organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. In this study, a full-length Prx 1 cDNA sequence (ToPrx 1) was identified from golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus). The ToPrx 1 cDNA was 1049 base pairs (bp) long and contained a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 127 nucleotides, a 3'-UTR of 328 nucleotides, and a 594 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 197 amino acid polypeptide. The ToPrx 1 protein showed strong homology (79-91%) with Prx 1 proteins from other species and contained the conserved Prx domain and the signature of the peroxidase catalytic center. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ToPrx 1 was in the fish Prx 1 subgroup, which suggests that ToPrx 1 could belong to the 2-Cys Prx subgroup. ToPrx 1 mRNA was ubiquitously detected in all tested tissues, and its expression was comparatively high in the fin, spleen, kidney, intestine, eye, gill, and blood. The expression levels of ToPrx 1 mRNA were significantly up-regulated in liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine of golden pompano injected with Photobacterium damselae. The recombinant ToPrx 1 protein (rToPrx 1) was expressed and purified through affinity chromatography and refolded successfully using ion-exchange chromatography. The antioxidant activity assay of rToPrx 1 showed that it could reduce insulin in the presence of dithiothreitol, which suggests that the antioxidant function of rToPrx 1 is thiol dependent. This study provides useful information to help further understand the functional mechanism of Prx 1 in marine fish immunity.

  3. Characterization and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor 3 cDNA from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Vidal, R; González, R; Gil, F

    2015-06-10

    Innate pathway activation is fundamental for early anti-viral defense in fish, but currently there is insufficient understanding of how salmonid fish identify viral molecules and activate these pathways. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) is believed to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in the innate immune system. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Salmo salar TLR3 (ssTLR3) was cloned. The ssTLR3 cDNA sequence was 6071 bp long, containing an open reading frame of 2754 bp and encoding 971 amino acids. The TLR group motifs, such as leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains and Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, were maintained in ssTLR3, with sixteen LRR domains and one TIR domain. In contrast to descriptions of the TLR3 in rainbow trout and the murine (TATA-less), we found a putative TATA box in the proximal promoter region 29 bp upstream of the transcription start point of ssTLR3. Multiple-sequence alignment analysis of the ssTLR3 protein-coding sequence with other known TLR3 sequences showed the sequence to be conserved among all species analyzed, implying that the function of the TLR3 had been sustained throughout evolution. The ssTLR3 mRNA expression patterns were measured using real-time PCR. The results revealed that TLR3 is widely expressed in various healthy tissues. Individuals challenged with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and immunostimulated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid exhibited increased expression of TLR3 at the mRNA level, indicating that ssTLR3 may be involved in pathogen recognition in the early innate immune system.

  4. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: cloning and analysis of the Taenia solium gene and Taenia crassiceps cDNA.

    PubMed

    Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and β-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites.

  5. RNA1-Independent Replication and GFP Expression from Tomato marchitez virus Isolate M Cloned cDNA.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, I; Turina, M; Zamora-Macorra, E J; Falk, B W

    2016-05-01

    Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV; synonymous with Tomato apex necrosis virus) is a positive-strand RNA virus in the genus Torradovirus within the family Secoviridae. ToMarV is an emergent whitefly-transmitted virus that causes important diseases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Mexico. Here, the genome sequence of the ToMarV isolate M (ToMarV-M) was determined. We engineered full-length cDNA clones of the ToMarV-M genomic RNA (RNA1 and RNA2), separately, into a binary vector. Coinfiltration of both triggered systemic infections in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, and tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) plants and recapitulated the biological activity of the wild-type virus. The viral progeny generated from tomato and tomatillo plants were transmissible by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B. Also, we assessed whether these infectious clones could be used for screening tomato cultivars for resistance to ToMarV and our results allowed us to differentiate resistant and susceptible tomato lines. We demonstrated that RNA1 of ToMarV-M is required for the replication of RNA2, and it can replicate independently of RNA2. From this, ToMarV-M RNA2 was used to express the green fluorescent protein in N. benthamiana plants, which allowed us to track cell-to-cell movement. The construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of ToMarV-M provides an excellent tool to investigate virus-host-vector interactions and elucidate the functions of torradovirus-encoded proteins or the mechanisms of replication of torradovirus genomic RNA.

  6. Developmental expression of tobacco pistil-specific genes encoding novel extensin-like proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M H; Pezzotti, M; Seurinck, J; Mariani, C

    1992-01-01

    We have sought to identify pistil-specific genes that can be used as molecular markers to study pistil development. For this purpose, a cDNA library was constructed from poly(A)+ RNA extracted from tobacco stigmas and styles at different developmental stages. Differential screening of this library led to the isolation of cDNA clones that correspond to genes preferentially or specifically expressed in the pistil. Seven of these cDNA clones encode proteins containing repetitions of the pentapeptide Ser-Pro4, which is a typical motif found in extensins. Unlike extensin genes, the extensin-like genes described here are not induced under stress conditions. RNA gel blot hybridizations demonstrated the organ-specific expression of the extensin-like genes and their temporal regulation during pistil development. After pollination, the transcript levels of the pistil-specific extensin-like genes change relative to levels in unpollinated pistils. In situ hybridization experiments showed that at least one of these pistil-specific genes is specifically expressed in cells of the transmitting tissue. The possible roles of the extensin-like proteins in pistils are discussed. PMID:1392607

  7. Isolation and characterisation of two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Furnes, Clemens; Kileng, Øyvind; Jensen, Ingvill; Karki, Pralav; Eichacker, Lutz; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase (TG) were identified in a subtractive cDNA library prepared from the head kidney of poly I:C stimulated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Full-length TG-1 and TG-2 cDNA were cloned from the head kidney by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence for TG-1 was 695 aa with an estimated molecular mass of 78.3 kDa, while TG-2 was a 698 aa protein with an estimated molecular mass of 78.8 kDa. The two proteins were named TG-1 and TG-2 and both possess transglutaminase/protease-like homologous domains (TGc) and full conservation of amino acids cysteine, histidine, and aspartate residues that form the catalytic triad. Sequence analysis showed high similarity (93.1%) with Alaska pollock TG, and the TGs were grouped together with TGs from chum salmon, Japanese flounder, Nile tilapia, and red sea bream in addition to Alaska pollock in phylogenetic analysis. Interestingly, they showed different tissue distribution with highest constitutive expression in reproductive and immunological organs, indicating important roles in these organs. Furthermore, the up-regulation of TG-1 and TG-2 in head kidney after stimulating Atlantic cod with poly I:C suggested a role of TGs in immune response in Atlantic cod. PMID:24316498

  8. cDNA cloning and bacterial expression of a PL-14 alginate lyase from a herbivorous marine snail Littorina brevicula.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Wang, Ling; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2012-10-01

    Herbivorous marine snails like Littorina species are known to possess alginate lyases in their digestive tracts. The Littorina enzymes have been identified as endolytic polymannuronate (poly(M)) lyases (EC 4.2.2.3); however, it is still unclear which polysaccharide-lyase family (PL) the Littorina enzymes belong to, since no complete primary structure of Littorina enzymes has been determined. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed the primary structure of LbAly28, a 28kDa alginate lyase isozyme of Littorina brevicula, by the cDNA method. LbAly28 cDNAs were amplified by PCR followed by 5'- and 3'-RACE PCRs from the L. brevicula hepatopancreas cDNA. A cDNA covering entire coding region of LbAly28 consisted of 1129bp and encoded an amino-acid sequence of 291 residues. The deduced amino-acid sequence comprised an initiation methionine, a putative signal peptide of 14 residues, a propeptide-like region of 16 residues, and a mature LbAly28 domain of 260 residues. The mature LbAly28 domain showed 43-53% amino-acid identities with other molluscan PL-14 enzymes. The catalytically important residues in PL-14 enzymes, which were identified in the Chlorella virus glucuronate-specific lyase vAL-1 and Aplysia poly(M) lyase AkAly30, were also conserved in LbAly28. Site-directed mutagenesis regarding these residues, that is, replacements of Lys94, Lys97, Thr121, Arg 123, Tyr135, and Tyr137 to Ala, decreased the activity of recombinant LbAly28 to various degrees. From these results we concluded that LbAly28 is a member of PL-14 alginate lyases. Besides the effects of above mutations, we noticed that the replacement of T121 by Ala changed the substrate preference of LbAly28. Namely, the activities toward sodium alginate and poly(MG)-block substrate increased and became comparable with the activity toward poly(M)-block substrate. This suggests that the region including T121 of LbAly28 closely relates to the recognition of poly(MG) region of alginate. PMID:22940178

  9. Random rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RRACE) allows for cloning of multiple novel human cDNA fragments containing (CAG)n repeats.

    PubMed

    Carney, J P; McKnight, C; VanEpps, S; Kelley, M R

    1995-04-01

    We describe a new technique for isolating cDNA fragments in which (i) either a partial sequence of the cDNA is known or (ii) a repeat sequence is utilized. We have used this technique, termed random rapid amplification of cDNA ends (random RACE), to isolate a number of trinucleotide repeat (CAG)n-containing genes. Using the random RACE (RRACE) technique, we have isolated over a hundred (CAG)n-containing genes. The results of our initial analysis of ten clones indicate that three are identical to previously cloned (CAG)n-containing genes. Three of our clones matched with expressed sequence tags, one of which contained a CA repeat. The remaining four clones did not match with any sequence in GenBank. These results indicate that this approach provides a rapid and efficient method for isolating trinucleotide repeat-containing cDNA fragments. Finally, this technique may be used for purposes other than cloning repeat-containing cDNA fragments. If only a partial sequence of a gene is known, our system, described here, provides a rapid and efficient method for isolating a fragment of the gene of interest. PMID:7536696

  10. XPB mediated retroviral cDNA degradation coincides with entry to the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, Kristine E.; Roddick, William; Hoellerbauer, Pia; Fishel, Richard

    2011-02-20

    Retroviruses must integrate their cDNA to a host chromosome, but a significant fraction of retroviral cDNA is degraded before integration. XPB and XPD are part of the TFIIH complex which mediates basal transcription and DNA nucleotide excision repair. Retroviral infection increases when XPB or XPD are mutant. Here we show that inhibition of mRNA or protein synthesis does not affect HIV cDNA accumulation suggesting that TFIIH transcription activity is not required for degradation. Other host factors implicated in the stability of cDNA are not components of the XPB and XPD degradation pathway. Although an increase of retroviral cDNA in XPB or XPD mutant cells correlates with an increase of integrated provirus, the integration efficiency of pre-integration complexes is unaffected. Finally, HIV and MMLV cDNA degradation appears to coincide with nuclear import. These results suggest that TFIIH mediated cDNA degradation is a nuclear host defense against retroviral infection.

  11. Novel optical encoder for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Mueller, Ulrich; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    We are presenting a new optical encoder architecture for shaft encoding, both in incremental and absolute modes. This encoder is based on a diffractive optics technology platform. We have developed various disk based rotary diffractive encoders previously. This encoder is different in the way it is not a disk composed of successive gratings or computer generated holograms, but rather composed of a single element placed on the shaft. It is thus best suited for hollow shaft or end of shaft applications such as in encoder controlled electrical motors. This new architecture aims at solving some of the problems encountered with previous implementations of diffractive encoders such as disk wobble, disk to shaft centering and also encoding in harsh environments.

  12. Transcription Profiling of the Model Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 by Next-Gen (SOLiD™) Sequencing of cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The genome of the unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 encodes about 3200 proteins. Transcripts were detected for nearly all annotated open reading frames by a global transcriptomic analysis by Next-Generation (SOLiD™) sequencing of cDNA. In the cDNA samples sequenced, ∼90% of the mapped sequences were derived from the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs and ∼10% of the sequences were derived from mRNAs. In cells grown photoautotrophically under standard conditions [38°C, 1% (v/v) CO2 in air, 250 μmol photons m−2 s−1], the highest transcript levels (up to 2% of the total mRNA for the most abundantly transcribed genes; e.g., cpcAB, psbA, psaA) were generally derived from genes encoding structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. High-light exposure for 1 h caused changes in transcript levels for genes encoding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus, Type-1 NADH dehydrogenase complex and ATP synthase, whereas dark incubation for 1 h resulted in a global decrease in transcript levels for photosynthesis-related genes and an increase in transcript levels for genes involved in carbohydrate degradation. Transcript levels for pyruvate kinase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex decreased sharply in cells incubated in the dark. Under dark anoxic (fermentative) conditions, transcript changes indicated a global decrease in transcripts for respiratory proteins and suggested that cells employ an alternative phosphoenolpyruvate degradation pathway via phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (ppsA) and the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (nifJ). Finally, the data suggested that an apparent operon involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and fatty acid desaturation, acsF2–ho2–hemN2–desF, may be regulated by oxygen concentration. PMID:21779275

  13. Pneumolysin-dependent and -independent gene expression identified by cDNA microarray analysis of THP-1 human mononuclear cells stimulated by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P David; Thornton, Justin; Barker, Katherine S; McDaniel, D Olga; Sacks, Gordon S; Swiatlo, Edwin; McDaniel, Larry S

    2003-04-01

    Pneumolysin is an important virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, interacting with the membranes of host cells to elicit a multitude of inflammatory responses. We used cDNA microarrays to identify genes which are responsive to S. pneumoniae in a pneumolysin-dependent and -independent fashion. The THP-1 human monocytic cell line was coincubated for 3 h with medium alone, with the virulent type 2 S. pneumoniae strain D39, or with the isogenic strain PLN, which does not express pneumolysin. RNA was isolated from the monocytes and hybridized on cDNA microarrays. Of 4,133 genes evaluated, 142 were found to be responsive in a pneumolysin-dependent fashion, whereas 40 were found to be responsive independent of pneumolysin. Genes that were up-regulated in cells exposed to D39 relative to those exposed to PLN included genes encoding proteins such as mannose binding lectin 1, lysozyme, alpha-1 catenin, cadherin 17, caspases 4 and 6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (MIP-1beta), interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3), IL-2 receptor beta (IL-2Rbeta), IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Ralpha), interferon receptor 2, and prostaglandin E synthase. Down-regulated genes included those encoding complement component receptor 2/CD21, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1). Pneumolysin-independent responses included down-regulation of the genes encoding CD68, CD53, CD24, transforming growth factor beta2, and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1. These results demonstrate the striking effects of pneumolysin on the host cell upon exposure to S. pneumoniae.

  14. Characterization of cDNAs encoding human leukosialin and localization of the leukosialin gene to chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Pallant, A.; Eskenazi, A.; Frelinger, J.G. ); Mattei, M.G. ); Fournier, R.E.K. ); Carlsson, S.R.; Fukuda, M. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding human leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein of human leukocytes. Leukosialin is very closely related or identical to the sialophorin molecule, which is involved in T-cell proliferation and whose expression is altered in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-chromosome-linked immunodeficiency disease. Using a rabbit antiserum to leukosialin, a cDNA clone was isolated from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library constructed from human peripheral blood cells. The {lambda}gt11 clone was used to isolate longer cDNA clones that correspond to the entire coding sequence of leukosialin. DNA sequence analysis reveals three domains in the predicted mature protein. The extracellular domain is enriched for Ser, Thr, and Pro and contains four contiguous 18-amino acid repeats. The transmembrane and intracellular domains of the human leukosialin molecule are highly homologous to the rat W3/13 molecule. RNA gel blot analysis reveals two polyadenylylated species of 2.3 and 8 kilobases. Southern blot analysis suggests that human leukosialin is a single-copy gene. Analysis of monochromosomal cell hybrids indicates that the leukosialin gene is not X chromosome linked and in situ hybridization shows leukosialin is located on chromosome 16. These findings demonstrate that the primary mutation in WAS is not a defect in the structural gene for leukosialin.

  15. cDNA cloning and expression of potato polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M D; Eannetta, N T; Yu, H; Newman, S M; Steffens, J C

    1993-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) of plants are copper metalloproteins which catalyze the oxidation of mono- and o-diphenols to o-diquinones. Although PPOs are believed to be primarily responsible for the deleterious browning of many fruit and vegetable crops and are thought to be involved in plant-pest interactions, direct evidence for these roles is lacking. We report the cloning of two PPO cDNAs from Solanum tuberosum leaves. These cDNAs exhibit 97% and 98% sequence similarity at the DNA and deduced amino acid levels, respectively. Putative copper-binding regions of both cDNAs are very similar to those of mammalian, bacterial and Neurospora tyrosinases. Both leaf PPO cDNAs appear to encode polypeptides which are processed to a mature molecular weight of 57,000. In potato leaves, petioles, roots, and flowers, PPO is encoded by ca. 2 kb transcripts. Leaf PPO mRNA is developmentally regulated and only detectable in young foliage. In contrast, the protein profile of immunologically detectable PPO remains constant from the apical node through the eleventh leaf node. PMID:7678763

  16. Time Course of Grammatical Encoding in Agrammatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2011-01-01

    Producing a sentence involves encoding a preverbal message into a grammatical structure by retrieving lexical items and integrating them into a functional (semantic-to-grammatical) structure. Individuals with agrammatism are impaired in this grammatical encoding process. However, it is unclear what aspect of grammatical encoding is impaired and…

  17. Human renal carcinoma expresses two messages encoding a parathyroid hormone-like peptide: Evidence for the alternative splicing of a single-copy gene

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, M.A.; Strewler, G.J.; Nissenson, R.A.; Rosenblatt, M.; Rodan, G.A. )

    1988-07-01

    A peptide secreted by tumors associated with the clinical syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy was recently purified from human renal carcinoma cell line 786-0. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this peptide has considerable similarity with those of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and of peptides isolated from human breast and lung carcinoma (cell line BEN). In this study the authors obtained the nucleotide sequence of a 1595-base cDNA complementary to mRNA encoding the PTH-like peptide produced by 786-0 cells. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a leader sequence of 36 amino acids and a 139-residue peptide, in which 8 of the first 13 residues are identical to the N terminus of PTH. Through the first 828 bases the sequence of this cDNA is identical with one recently isolated from a BEN cell cDNA library; however, beginning with base 829 the sequences diverge, shortening the open reading frame by 2 amino acids. Differential RNA blot analysis revealed that 786-0 cells express two major PTH-like peptide mRNAs with different 3{prime} untranslated sequences, one of which hybridizes with the presently described sequence and the other one with that reported for the BEN cell PTH-like peptide cDNA. Primer-extension analysis of 786-0 poly(A){sup +} RNA together with Southern blot analysis of human DNA confirmed the presence of a single-copy gene coding for multiple mRNAs through alternate splicing. In addition, the 3{prime} untranslated sequence of the cDNA described here has significant similarity to the c-myc protooncogene.

  18. cDNA cloning, primary structure and gene expression for H-protein, a component of the glycine-cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase) of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Macherel, D; Lebrun, M; Gagnon, J; Neuburger, M; Douce, R

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding the H-protein of the glycine-cleavage system of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria. The deduced primary structure revealed that the 131-amino-acid polypeptide is cytoplasmically synthesized with a 34-amino-acid mitochondrial targeting peptide. The lipoate-binding site was assigned to be lysine-63, as deduced from a sequence comparison with several lipoate-bearing proteins. The expression of the gene encoding H-protein was shown to occur specifically in the leaf tissue, with light exerting an additional effect by increasing the mRNA levels severalfold. Two polyadenylation sites were found in the mRNA, and a single-copy gene encoding the H-protein was detected in pea genome. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2363710

  19. The human serotonin 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor: Complete cDNA, genomic structure, and alternatively spliced variant

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Enzhong; Zhu, Lingyu; Zhao, Lingyun

    1996-08-01

    The complete 4775-nt cDNA encoding the human serotonin 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor (5-HT{sub 2C}R), a G-protein-coupled receptor, has been isolated. It contains a 1377-nt coding region flanked by a 728-nt 5{prime}-untranslated region and a 2670-nt 3{prime}-untranslated region. By using the cloned 5-HT{sub 2C}R cDNA probe, the complete human gene for this receptor has been isolated and shown to contain six exons and five introns spanning at least 230 kb of DNA. The coding region of the human 5-HT{sub 2C}R gene is interrupted by three introns, and the positions of the intron/exon junctions are conserved between the human and the rodent genes. In addition, an alternatively spliced 5-HT{sub 2C}R RNA that contains a 95-nt deletion in the region coding for the second intracellular loop and the fourth transmembrane domain of the receptor has been identified. This deletion leads to a frameshift and premature termination so that the short isoform RNA encodes a putative protein of 248 amino acids. The ratio for the short isoform over the 5-HT{sub 2C}R RNA was found to be higher in choroid plexus tumor than in normal brain tissue, suggesting the possibility of differential regulation of the 5-HT{sub 2C}R gene in different neural tissues or during tumorigenesis. Transcription of the human 5-HT{sub 2C}R gene was found to be initiated at multiple sites. No classical TATA-box sequence was found at the appropriate location, and the 5{prime}-flanking sequence contains many potential transcription factor-binding sites. A 7.3-kb 5{prime}-flanking 5-HT{sub 2C}R DNA directed the efficient expression of a luciferase reported gene in SK-N-SH and IMR32 neuroblastoma cells, indicating that is contains a functional promoter. 69 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A corm-specific gene encodes tarin, a major globulin of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott).

    PubMed

    Bezerra, I C; Castro, L A; Neshich, G; de Almeida, E R; de Sá, M F; Mello, L V; Monte-Neshich, D C

    1995-04-01

    A gene encoding a globulin from a major taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm protein family, tarin (G1, ca. 28 kDa) was isolated from a lambda Charon 35 library, using a cDNA derived from a highly abundant corm-specific mRNA, as probe. The gene, named tar1, and the corresponding cDNA were characterized and compared. No introns were found. The major transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a precursor polypeptide of 255 residues that is post-translationally processed into two subunits of about 12.5 kDa each. The deduced protein is 45% homologous to curculin, a sweet-tasting protein found in the fruit pulp of Curculigo latifolia and 40% homologous to a mannose-binding lectin from Galanthus nivalis. Significant similarity was also found at the nucleic acid sequence level with genes encoding lectins from plant species of the Amaryllidaceae and Lilliaceae families.