Science.gov

Sample records for aracatuba region sao

  1. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  2. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study - the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study - were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  3. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  4. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  5. Sao Paulo Map Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, G. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Describes geographical, subject, and chronological aspects of 25 cartographic collections housed in university, public, special, state, and semi-state libraries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three size categories of map holdings (more than 10,000, 1,000-10,000, less than 1,000) are distinguished. A list of 27 Sao Paulo institutions housing map collections…

  6. The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R; Gondo, C T

    1984-08-01

    This discussion of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil focuses on: administrative divisions; diversity and population growth; households, fertility, and mortality; migration; ethnicity, race, and religion; housing; transport; labor and income; and consumption. Currently, the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, or Greater Sao Paula, is considered the 2nd largest urban agglomeration in Latin America after Mexico City. An estimated 9.5 million people live within the 583 square mile area of the central city. Another 5 million people live in 1 of the 36 other municipalities included in the metropolitan area which includes all 37 municipalities. Central city refers to the municipalities of Sao Paulo and Osasco. The city of Sao Paulo refers only to the municipality of Sao Paulo. The metropolitan area contains 3110 square miles in total and is still the smallest of the 11 administrative regions that comprise the State of Sao Paulo. The population, urban infrastructure, and economic activities are unevenly spread among the 37 municipalities. Greater Sao Paulo's population grew an average of 4.5 year during the 1970, down slightly from a peak of 5.9 year in the 1950s. The central city has a current growth rate of 3.7, a year, with the increase concentrated mainly in the southern and eastern districts that are removed from the city center and where land prices are still relatively low. Mortality plays a minor role in the population trends of Sao Paulo. Fertility is now slowly becoming the dominant factors in its natural increase. The average number of children a woman will bear is 3.3 in the metropolitan area and 3 in the city, low compared with the Brazilian national average of 4.2 children. According to a 1978 survey, 60% of the women use some form of birth control. The most common methods are oral contraceptives 27%, and sterilization, 15%. Despite declining fertility, the birthrate of the metropolitan area increased from 26 in 1970 to 30 in 1980 because of the changes

  7. University of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Acquadro, J.C.; Added, N.; Ferraretto, M.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has agreed to assist the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in the construction of a small superconducting heavy-ion linac to serve as an energy booster for projectiles from their 8-MV tandem. This booster will be similar in many respects to the ANL booster linac built in the late 1970s. The ANL contribution to this project will be (1) to build (at USP expense) 14 split-ring niobium resonators and some of the associated rf electronics, (2) to provide technical information, and (3) to train USP staff members in several phases of superconducting-linac technology. Two Brazilian engineers worked at Argonne for one year, gaining experience in cryogenics and in superconducting-resonator technology. Another engineer worked on the new control system at ATLAS for two years, the first year supported by Sao Paulo and the second with direct ANL support. Sao Paulo personnel returned to ANL in 1993 for assembly and testing of the first batch of completed resonators. The fabrication of the resonators will be completed by early 1995 when the Sao Paulo personnel will come back for final assembly and testing. Fabrication of electronics modules at ANL is still in progress.

  8. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  9. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  10. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  11. Observations of gravity waves from satellite and implications for the wave driving of the SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics at low latitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere is governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. It is known that tropical dynamics has significant influence on the atmosphere over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in simulating a realistic QBO and SAO. One main uncertainty is the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs). We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and potential GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data in the stratopause region. These observations are compared with the SAO driving due to planetary waves, as well as the zonal wind tendencies, both determined from the ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis. HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to selective filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. However, during SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated by planetary waves, probably of extratropical origin. Still, we find indications in both satellite observations and ERAI that sometimes GW drag is important also during SAO westward wind shear.

  12. The SAO {AXAF} Simulation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerius, D.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Hughes, J. P.; Podgorski, W.

    As part of our efforts to support the AXAF program, the SAO AXAF Mission Support Team has developed a software suite to simulate the AXAF telescope. The software traces the fate of photons through the telescope, from the X-ray source through apertures, baffles, the telescope optics, and finally to the photons' ultimate interactions with the focal plane detectors. We model relevant physical processes, including geometrical reflection, scattering due to surface microroughness, distortions of the optics due to the mirror mounts, attenuation through baffles, etc. The software is composed of programs and scripts, each specialized to a given task, which communicate through UNIX pipes. Software tasks are centered about functional components of the telescope (e.g., apertures, mirrors, detectors) and provide a comfortable and flexible paradigm for performing simulations. The use of separate programs and the UNIX pipe facility allows great flexibility in building different configurations of the telescope and distilling diagnostics from the photon stream through the telescope. We are able to transparently use symmetric multi-processing (e.g., SPARCStation 10s and SGI Challenges) and can easily use sequential multi-processing (via workstation clusters). Some of the tasks are amenable to parallel processing and have been implemented using the MPI standard.

  13. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  14. HD-SAO-DM cross index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, T. A.; Mead, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table of correspondence SAO-HD-DM-GC was prepared by Morin (1973). The machine-readable version of this cross identification was obtained from the Centre de Donnees Stellaires (Strasbourg, France). The table was sorted at the Goddard Space Flight Center by HD number and all blank HD number records were removed to produce the HD-SAO-DM table presented. There were 258997 entries in the original table; there are 180411 entries after removing the blank HD records. The Boss General Catalogue (GC) numbers were retained on the machine-readable version after the sort.

  15. The young active star SAO 51891 (V383 Lacertae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazzo, K.; Frasca, A.; Marilli, E.; Covino, E.; Alcalã, J. M.; Ćakirli, Ö.; Klutsch, A.; Meyer, M. R.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to investigate the surface inhomogeneities of a young, late-type star, SAO 51891, at different atmospheric levels, from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere, analyzing contemporaneous optical high-resolution spectra and broad-band photometry. Methods: The full spectral range of FOCES@CAHA (R ≃ 40 000) is used to perform the spectral classification and to determine the rotational and radial velocities. The lithium abundance is measured to obtain an age estimate. The {BVRIJHK}s photometric bands are used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED). The variations in the observed BV fluxes and effective temperature are used to infer the presence of photospheric spots and observe their behavior over time. The chromospheric activity is studied applying the spectral subtraction technique to Hα, Ca ii H & K, Hɛ, and Ca ii IRT lines. Results: We find SAO 51891 to be a young K0-1V star with a lithium abundance close to the Pleiades upper envelope, confirming its youth ( 100 Myr), which is also inferred from its kinematical membership of the Local Association. No infrared excess is detected from analysis of its SED, limiting the amount of remaining circumstellar dust. We detect a rotational modulation of the luminosity, effective temperature, Ca ii H & K, Hɛ, and Ca ii IRT total fluxes. A simple spot model with two main active regions, about 240 K cooler than the surrounding photosphere, fits the observed light and temperature curves very well. The small-amplitude radial velocity variations are also well reproduced by our spot model. The anti-correlation of light curves and chromospheric diagnostics indicates chromospheric plages spatially associated with the spots. The largest modulation amplitude is observed for the Hɛ flux suggesting that this line is very sensitive to the presence of chromospheric plages. Conclusions: SAO 51891 is a young active star, lacking significant amounts of circumstellar dust or any evidence of low

  16. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  17. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  18. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  19. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  20. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  1. Seismic Tomography of Central Sao Miguel, Azores Islands (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, J.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Saccorotti, G.; Barclay, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    region. The Sao Bras high Vp is instead interpreted in terms of high-density deposits. These interpretations are supported by distribution of Vp/Vs in the area.

  2. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  3. SAO HMC photodetector/event timer engineering model test report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-05

    The test unit is a custom photodetector/event timer, PET, built for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, SAO, by Los Alamos which records elapsed time in 10 ps steps. The 1 Kg, 12 cm diameter PET unit uses 10 watts of electrical power and was tested to SAO`s specified flight conditions. The event timer has two inputs -- a reference clock oscillator input and a stop signal. Like a stop watch with split timing capability, the event timer records the instant a stop signal arrives. At that sample instant, the number of elapsed clock cycles are stored and the sample instant position between two reference clock edges is interpolated and stored. Then that stored data can be shifted serially to an external computer. The photodetector part of the PET responds to an optical input and provides the electrical output signal to the event timer specifying the sample instant. This test report discusses the event timer test results. Test equipment is shown for most of the operational tests. The relay rack contains test pursers and clocks. The environmental chamber controls temperature. The computer reads and records the serial data from the PET. Reported testing topics include: Pulse shapes to be used as test inputs, test results obtained using the electrical source`s input, optical test results which are the best simulation of specified operational conditions, heat sink operation in vacuum. Vibration tests performed to SAO`s specification.

  4. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  5. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) star catalog (Sao staff 1966, edition ADC 1989): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Nancy G.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An updated, corrected, and extended machine readable version of the catalog is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version were corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications were added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers were added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) were flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians were added.

  6. Prevalence of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in cattle in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira, Adriana; De Stefano, Eliana; de Souza Nunes Martins, Maira; Okuda, Liria Hiromi; Dos Santos Lima, Michele; da Silva Garcia, Thais; Heinz Hellwig, Otto; Alves de Lima, José Eduardo; Savini, Giovanni; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2016-09-30

    Bluetongue (BT) is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. The State of Sao Paulo was divided into 7 cattle production regions (circuits) according the different systems of breeding, operational and logistical capacity of the state veterinary service. At least 1 animal from each property (a total of 1,716 farms) was tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of antibodies against BTV. Sero‑positive sera were subsequently also tested by virus neutralization tests (VNT) using serial dilutions from 1:10 (cutoff) up to 1:640 (in MEM). BTV‑4 neutralizing antibodies were detected in 86% (1,483/1,716) of the animals tested. These results show that BTV‑4 is endemic and widespread in the State of San Paulo and indirectly confirm that in the State there are favourable conditions for the multiplication of competent vectors. However, as no clinical signs have ever been reported in cattle in the region, BTV‑4 infection is likely to occur silently in the State of Sao Paulo.

  7. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  8. Constructing a Public Popular Education in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Pia Lindquist

    1995-01-01

    Examines school reform implemented by Paulo Freire and the Workers' Party in Sao Paulo during 1989-92. Focuses on various institutional mechanisms created to support teachers' efforts to learn the skills necessary for realization of reform objectives. Appendices list reform objectives and outline phases and activities in a teacher-directed…

  9. Automation in the Libraries of the City of Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty selected Sao Paulo, Brazil, librarians who were interviewed indicated that, in their opinion, the development of library automation in this city is hampered by poor resources and cooperation, lack of professional and technical automation expertise, communication, and other psychological, organizational, and human related factors.…

  10. Prelimary Photoelectric Light Curve for DHK29=SAO 70629

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Daniel H.; Gunn, Jerry B.; Lamb, Charles F.; Sullivan, Philip

    The newly discovered eclipsing binary star DHK 29 = SAO 70629 has been observed photoelectrically from October 1992 to October 1993. With the light curve coverage 75% complete, it is apparent that the initial 1.9-day period reported in IB VS 3815 is the half-period. Three times of primary minima have been determined. New light elements are given.

  11. Biological effects of air pollution in Sao Paulo and Cubatao

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.S.; Saldiva, P.H.; Pasqualucci, C.A.; Massad, E.; Martins M de, E.; Zin, W.A.; Cardoso, W.V.; Criado, P.M.; Komatsuzaki, M.; Sakae, R.S. )

    1989-08-01

    Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal air spaces, and general morphological alterations. The results showed lesions of the distal and upper airways in rats exposed in Cubatao, whereas the animals from Sao Paulo showed only alterations of the upper airways but of greater intensity than those observed in the Cubatao group. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pollutants of these places: in Sao Paulo automobile exhaust gases dominate and in Cubatao the pollution is due mainly to particulates of industrial sources. The correlation of the pathological findings with the pollutants is discussed and it is concluded that biological indicators are useful to monitor air pollutions which reached dangerous levels in Sao Paulo and Cubatao.

  12. Sclerostin expression is induced by BMPs in human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells but not via direct effects on the sclerostin gene promoter or ECR5 element.

    PubMed

    Yu, Longchuan; van der Valk, Marissa; Cao, Jin; Han, Chun-Ya E; Juan, Todd; Bass, Michael B; Deshpande, Chetan; Damore, Michael A; Stanton, Richard; Babij, Philip

    2011-12-01

    Sclerostin is a secreted inhibitor of Wnt signaling and plays an essential role in the regulation of bone mass. The expression of sclerostin is largely restricted to osteocytes although its mode of transcriptional regulation is not well understood. We observed regulated expression of sclerostin mRNA and protein that was directly correlated with the mineralization response in cultured human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells and rat primary calvarial cells. Sclerostin mRNA and protein levels were increased following treatment of cells with BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7. Analysis of deletion mutants from the -7.4 kb upstream region of the human sclerostin promoter did not reveal any specific regions that were responsive to BMPs, Wnt3a, PTH, TGFβ1 or Activin A in Saos-2 cells. The downstream ECR5 element did not show enhancer activity in Saos-2 cells and also was not affected when Saos-2 cells were treated with BMPs or PTH. Genome-wide microarray analysis of Saos-2 cells treated with BMP2 showed significant changes in expression of several transcription factors with putative consensus DNA binding sites in the region of the sclerostin promoter. However, whereas most factors tested showed either a range of inhibitory activity (DLX family, MSX2, HEY1, SMAD6/7) or lack of activity on the sclerostin promoter including SMAD9, only MEF2B showed a positive effect on both the promoter and ECR5 element. These results suggest that the dramatic induction of sclerostin gene expression by BMPs in Saos-2 cells occurs indirectly and is associated with late stage differentiation of osteoblasts and the mineralization process.

  13. Establishment and characterization of a new highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line derived from Saos2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Fan, Qiming; Tu, Bing; Yan, Wei; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in adolescents and young adults. There is a shortage of tumorigenic and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell lines that can be used for metastasis study. Here we establish and characterize a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that is derived from Saos2 cell line based on bioluminescence. The occasional pulmonary metastatic cells developed from Saos2 were isolated, harvested, characterized and named Saos2-l. The parental Saos2 and Saos2-l cells were further characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that Saos2-l cells demonstrated increased cell adhesion, migration and invasion compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Conversely, Saos2-l cells grew at a slightly slower rate than that of the parental cells. When injected into nude mice, Saos2-l cells had a greater increase in developing pulmonary metastases compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Further transcriptional profiling analysis revealed that some gene expression were up-regulated or down-regulated in the highly metastatic Saos2-l cells, indicating possible influencing factors of metastasis. Thus, we have established and characterized a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that should serve as a valuable tool for future investigations on the pathogenesis, metastasis and potential treatments of human osteosarcoma. PMID:25031706

  14. Case studies on the geological application of LANDSAT imagery in Brazil. [Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demendonca, F. (Principal Investigator); Correa, A. C.; Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers in Brazil were selected as test sites for LANDSAT imagery. The satellite images were analyzed using conventional photointerpretation techniques, and the results indicate the application of small scale image data in regional structural data analysis, geological mapping, and mineral exploration.

  15. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  16. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, Gonzalo; Vasilkov, Alexander; Seftor, Colin; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    are 23 % between OMI SAO and OMPS SAO and 28 % between OMI BIRA and OMPS SAO for eight selected regions.

  17. Application of echinoid sperm and embryo bioassays for the pollution assessment of Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, A.J.; Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located on the Southeastern Brazilian coast, encompasses the largest oil terminal in the country and is also a highly touristic area. Frequent oil spills are responsible for chronic contamination problems and sewage disposal in the waters of the channel is also common practice. the water and sediment quality in different sites along Sao Sebastiao Channel was evaluated quarterly throughout a year, by toxicity testing with sperm cells and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Water samples were collected from two depths (1 m below surface and 1 m above the bottom). Sediments, collected by a grab sampler, had their pore water extracted by centrifuging. It was then analyzed for toxicity. The results showed that the pore water from most sites impaired sperm viability and embryo development of the test organisms. Sediments were further characterized for particle size distribution, TOC, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons content. They contained baseline concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, but the hydrocarbons levels were above the average for nearby coastal areas. The overlying water from the deeper layer was of better quality than the surface, but very fast changes were observed along time and space. This seems to be intimately associated with the predominant hydrodynamic and meteorological phenomena in that region. The results showed that these toxicity test methods can be applied in association with other forms of analysis, for the establishment of quality criteria for Brazilian coastal environments.

  18. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Wang, H.; Kurosu, T. P.; Suleiman, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde (H2CO) retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high-resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated air mass factor (AMF) calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The setup of the retrieval is discussed in detail. We compare the results of the updated retrieval with the results from the previous SAO H2CO retrieval. The improvement in the slant column fit increases the temporal stability of the retrieval and slightly reduces the noise. The change in the AMF calculation has increased the AMFs by 20%, mainly due to the consideration of the radiative cloud fraction. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 45 and 100%. In high-concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 1 × 1016 molecules cm-2.

  19. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  20. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  1. SEISMIC STUDY OF THE AGUA DE PAU GEOTHERMAL PROSPECT, SAO MIGUEL, AZORES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio; Iyer, H.M.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 station array was operated over the 200 km**2 central portion of Sao Miguel utilizing 8 permanent Instituto Nacional de Meterologia e Geofisica stations and 8 USGS portable stations. Forty four local events with well constrained solutions and 15 regional events were located. In addition, hundreds of unlocatable seismic events were recorded. The most interesting seismic activity occurred in a swarm on September 6 and 7, 1983 when over 200 events were recorded in a 16 hour period. The seismic activity around Agua de Pau was centered on the east and northeast slopes of the volcano. The data suggest a boiling hydrothermal system beneath the Agua de Pau volcano, consistent with a variety of other data.

  2. Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.

  3. Transcriptional activation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 by 17beta-estradiol in SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-yan; Guo, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-juan; Liu, Hong; Lei, Tian; Ma, Dong-jie; Gao, Xiao-yu

    2009-07-31

    Osteoblasts can synthesize the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), which may either enhance or attenuate IGF-stimulated bone cell proliferation. Since estrogen induced osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation through an estrogen-responsive gene in target cells, we investigated the effects of estrogen on IGFBP-6 expression in the human osteoblastic-like cell line SaOS-2. Expressions of IGFBP-6 protein and mRNA increased 2.8 and 2-fold, respectively, in the presence of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) (0.01 to 1 micronM) and estrogen receptor (ER) in SaOS-2 cells. On the other hand, E2 induced a 2-fold increase in SaOS-2 cell proliferation. To identify genomic sequences associated with estrogen responsiveness, the 5'-promoter region (-44 to +118) of the IGFBP-6 gene was cloned into a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter vector. E2 induced a 3-fold increase in CAT activity in SaOS-2 cells transiently transfected with this construct. Identification of the estrogen-responsive element (ERE) [5-CCTTCA CCTG-3] (-9 to +1) in this IGFBP-6 gene promoter region was confirmed using electromobility shift assays and deletion analysis. This functional ERE was important for E2-induced trans-activation of the IGFBP-6 gene. These results demonstrate that E2 exhibits a positive effect on IGFBP-6 gene transcription through estrogen-liganded ER binding to the functional ERE in the IGFBP-6 gene promoter in SaOS-2 cells.

  4. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  5. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-12-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  6. Smad7 mediates inhibition of Saos2 osteosarcoma cell differentiation by NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Roman A. . E-mail: Roman_Eliseev@urmc.rochester.edu; Schwarz, Edward M.; Zuscik, Michael J.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Drissi, Hicham; Rosier, Randy N.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor NF{kappa}B is constitutively activated in various tumor cells where it promotes proliferation and represses apoptosis. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) delay cell proliferation and promote differentiation and apoptosis of bone cells through activation of Smad downstream effectors and via Smad-independent mechanisms. Thus, NF{kappa}B and BMP pathways play opposing roles in regulating osteoblastic cell fate. Here, we show that in osteosarcoma Saos2 osteoblasts, NF{kappa}B regulates the activity of the BMP/Smad signaling. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B by overexpression of mI{kappa}B leads to the induction of osteoblast differentiation. Saos2 cells overexpressing mI{kappa}B (Saos2-mI{kappa}B) exhibit higher expression of osteoblast phenotypic genes such as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin and are more responsive to BMP2 in comparison to wild-type cells (Saos2-wt) or empty vector infected controls (Saos2-EV). Furthermore, BMP-2 signaling and Smad phosphorylation are significantly increased in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells in comparison to Saos2-EV cells. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B signaling in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells is associated with decreased expression of the BMP signaling inhibitor Smad7. While gain of Smad7 function in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells results in inhibition of BMP signaling, anti-sense knockdown of Smad7 in Saos2-EV cells leads to upregulation of BMP signaling. We therefore conclude that in osteosarcoma Saos2 cells, NF{kappa}B represses BMP/Smad signaling and BMP2-induced differentiation through Smad7.

  7. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Vasilkov, A.; Seftor, C.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-09-01

    % between OMI BIRA and OMPS SAO for eight selected regions.

  8. A Cooperative Project for Electrical Engineering Education at UNESP--Sao Paulo State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akamatsu, Janio Itiro; Torres, Germano Lambert; Origa de Oliveira, Luiz C.; Loyolla, Waldomiro

    UNESP--Sao Paulo State University--is a successful experiment at the Multicampus University in Brazil, maintaining intense and diversified education activities in the most developed state of the Federation, the Sao Paulo State. The multicampus structure that consists of 15 university campuses and two advanced ones, distributed throughout the State…

  9. Sickle cell disease in a Brazilian population from Sao Paulo: a study of the beta s haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M S; Nechtman, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Kerbauy, J; Arruda, V R; Sonati, M F; Saad, S O; Costa, F F; Stoming, T A

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of beta S haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5' flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the gamma globin genes. This association between sequence differences and beta s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot blot analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. We studied 148 beta s chromosomes, and found that haplotype 20 (CAR or Bantu) significantly predominated in this population. This is in agreement with the findings of the historical Portuguese Atlantic slave trade from Africa to South America.

  10. [Sanitary battles and scientific clashes: Emilio Ribas and yellow fever in Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Almeida, M

    Emilio Ribas, an administrative physician and sanitarian from Sao Paulo, was an advocate of the microbiological conception during the long period when he directed the Servico Sanitario de Sao Paulo (1898-1917). This article offers a brief analysis of his stance in the flight against yellow fever during the early 20th century, considered a highlight of his career. The scientists and professionals linked to this sanitary agency in Sao Paulo found themselves in a tense, unstable work environment, where experimental proof played an important role in corroborating new medical-sanitary conceptions and practices. The article takes a close look at the medical experiments on yellow fever directed by Emilio Ribas and conducted at Sao Paulo's Hospital de Isolamento in 1902-03. It examines these same studies in an effort to better understand how the significance of yellow fever was transformed and to explore its implications regarding the history of public health in Sao Paulo.

  11. Inactivation of the WNT5A Alternative Promoter B Is Associated with DNA Methylation and Histone Modification in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines U2OS and SaOS-2.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Himani; Rumph, Candie; Katula, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    WNT5A is a secreted ligand involved in Wnt pathway signaling and has a role in cell movement and differentiation. Altered WNT5A expression is associated with various cancers, although in most studies the focus has been on only one of the known WNT5A isoforms. In this study, we analyzed expression from two of the major WNT5A promoters, termed promoter A and promoter B, in normal human osteoblasts, SaOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, and osteosarcoma tumor tissue. We found that both promoters A and B are active in normal osteoblasts with nearly 11-fold more promoter B than A transcripts. Promoter B but not promoter A transcripts are decreased or nearly undetectable in the SaOS-2 and U2OS cell lines and osteosarcoma tumor tissues. Transient transfection of promoter A and promoter B reporter constructs confirmed that SaOS-2 cells have the necessary factors to transcribe both promoters. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that three CpG enriched regions upstream of the promoter B exon 1βare highly methylated in both SaOS-2 and U2OS cells. The CpG island sub-region R6 located in promoter B exon 1β was approximately 51% methylated in SaOS-2 and 25% methylated in U2OS. Region 3 was approximately 28% methylated in normal osteoblasts, whereas the others were unmethylated. Promoter B was re-activated by treatment of SaOS-2 cells with 1 μM 5-azacytidine, which was associated with only a small insignificant change in methylation of sub-region R6. ChIP analysis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells indicated that the promoter B region is less enriched in the active histone mark H3K4me3, in comparison to promoter A and that there is increased enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 in association with the promoter B genomic region in the cell line SaOS-2. These findings show that epigenetic inactivation of the WNT5A promoter B involves both DNA methylation and histone modifications and suggest that differential expression of the WNT5A alternative promoters A and B is a

  12. Incidence of Leptospirosis infection in the East Zone of Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area. Method The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis. Results We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation. Conclusion The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community. PMID:23672682

  13. The Sao Paulo Microtron: Equipment and Planned Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, M. N.; Maidana, N. L.; Vanin, V. R.

    2007-10-26

    The Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP) is building a two-stage racetrack microtron, which will generate continuous wave electron beams with energies up to 38 MeV. This paper describes the characteristics of the accelerator, and reports on the experimental equipment that will be available in order to pursue the photonuclear physics research program. Operation will begin with the first stage (5 MeV), and concentrate on NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) measurements and radiation physics studies. Planned experiments for the second stage explore the cw character of the beam on coincidence experiments. A photon tagger has been already tested with radioactive sources and is ready to be installed. Gamma and neutron detector arrays are being developed for the detailed study of photoneutron reactions. Plans include the study of NRF and pygmy resonances, near the neutron binding energy.

  14. Properties of QBO and SAO Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Reddy, C. A.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are

  15. Tiering strategic environmental assessment and project environmental impact assessment in highway planning in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Luis E. Silva-Sanchez, Solange S.

    2008-10-15

    Constructing highways in dense urban areas is always a challenge. In Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, heavy truck traffic contributes to clog streets and expressways alike. As part of the traffic neither originates nor head to the region, a peripheral highway has been proposed to reduce traffic problems. This project, called Rodoanel, is an expressway approximately 175 km long. The fact that the projected south and north sections would cross catchments that supply most of the metropolis water demand was strongly disputed and made the environmental permitting process particularly difficult. The agency in charge commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of a revamped project, and called it the Rodoanel Programme. However, the SEA report failed to satisfactorily take account of significant strategic issues. Among these, the highway potential effect of inducing urban sprawl over water protection zones is the most critical issue, as it emerged later as a hurdle to project licensing. Conclusion is that, particularly where no agreed-upon framework for SEA exists, when vertical tiering with downstream project EIA is sought, then a careful scoping of strategic issues is more than necessary. If an agreement on 'what is strategic' is not reached and not recognized by influential stakeholders, then the unsettled conflicts will be transferred to project EIA. In such a context, SEA will have added another loop to the usually long road to project approval.

  16. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  17. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  18. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Thompson, D.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-03-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.

  19. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  20. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts.

  1. Implementing Technology for Science Classrooms in Sao Tome and Principe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Maria Dolores Rodrigues

    This qualitative bounded case study was designed to understand how technology integration in schools could be addressed in a first-wave country. The integration of educational technology in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), a first-wave agricultural civilization, can narrow the divide between STP and third-wave information age societies. The conceptual framework was based on theories of change, learning, and context. Toffler's wave theory described how societies changed while Fullan's change theory examined how the people might change. Roger's diffusion of innovations addressed how processes change. Bandura, Vygotsky, and Siemen provided the framework for the learning within the model of change. Finally, the context theories of Tessmer and Richey's instructional design, Lave and Wenger's situated learning, and Sticht's functional context theory were applied. Twenty five individuals from 5 schools, including teachers, school directors, key educational stakeholders, and the minister of education were involved in a pilot project to integrate technology into the science curriculum. The data were collected via interviews, reflective summaries, and confidential narratives. The resulting data were analyzed to find emerging patterns. The results of this analysis showed that a first-wave civilization can adopt a third-wave civilization's features in terms of technology integration, when there is the support of opinion leaders and most of the necessary contextual requirements are in place. The study contributes to social change by providing access to knowledge through technology integration, which empowers both teachers and students.

  2. Dynamic study of the upper Sao Francisco River and the Tres Marias reservoir using MSS/LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral ban scanner imagery to verify the relationship between the behavior of the Tres Marias reservoir and the dynamics of the Sao Francisco River supply basin is described. The dispersion of suspended sediments and their concentration in the surface layers of the water are considered. A five year survey of the region during both dry and rainy seasons was performed. The drainage network was analyzed based on the patterns of dessication, water rises and soil use in the supply basin. Surface layers of the reservoir were tabulated as a function of the levels of gray in the imagery. In situ observations of water depth and reflectance were performed. Ground truth and LANDSAT data were correlated to determine the factors affecting the dynamics of the supply basin.

  3. Optical properties of rare earth doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshatri, D. S.; Khare, A.

    2014-11-01

    After the first news on rare earth (RE) doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors in late 1990s, researchers all over the world geared up to develop stable and efficient persistent phosphors. Scientists studied various features of long lasting phosphors (LLP) and tried to earmark appropriate mechanism. However, about two decades after the discovery of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+, the number of persistent luminescent materials is not significant. In this review, we present an overview of the optical characteristics of RE doped SAO phosphors in terms of photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and afterglow spectra. Also, we refresh the work undertaken to study diverse factors like dopant concentration, temperature, surface energy, role of activator, etc. Simultaneously, some of our important findings on SAO are reported and discussed in the end.

  4. Genistein modulates the effects of parathyroid hormone in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Fang; Wong, Man-Sau

    2006-06-01

    Genistein and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are anabolic agents that stimulate bone formation through their direct actions in osteoblastic cells. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether genistein modulates the actions of PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells in an oestrogen-depleted condition. The present results showed that genistein (10(-8) to 10(-6) m) induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteoprotegrin (OPG) expression in SaOS-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These effects could be completely abolished by co-treatment with oestrogen antagonist ICI 182780 (7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentyl)sulfonyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17beta-diol). Genistein (at 1 microM) could stimulate the mRNA expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). As OPG and RANKL are known to modulate osteoclastogenesis, the ability of genistein to modulate OPG and RANKL expression in SaOS-2 cells suggested that it might modulate osteoclastogenesis through its direct actions on osteoblastic cells. PTH (at 10 nM) stimulated ALP activity, induced RANKL mRNA expression and suppressed OPG mRNA expression in SaOS-2 cells, confirming its bi-directional effects on osteoblastic cells. Pre-treatment of SaOS-2 cells with genistein and oestrogen not only enhanced PTH-induced ALP activity, but also attenuated PTH up regulation of RANKL mRNA expression and PTH down regulation of OPG mRNA expression. Taken together, the present study provides the first evidence that genistein could modulate the actions of PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells in an oestrogen-depleted condition.

  5. The Tropical Semiannual Oscillation (SAO) in Temperature and Ozone as Observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E.; Holton, J. R.; Fishbein, E. F.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    The first two years of MLS temperature and ozone data are used to examine the tropical upper stratospheric SAO. Time series analysis revealed the strongest amplitudes of the SAO to occur near the equator at 2 mb for temperature and 5 mb for ozone, consistent with previous observations.

  6. Chemical-mineralogical characterization of C and D waste recycled aggregates from Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Angulo, S.C. Ulsen, C. John, V.M. Kahn, H. Cincotto, M.A.

    2009-02-15

    This study presents a methodology for the characterization of construction and demolition (C and D) waste recycled aggregates based on a combination of analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soluble ions, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) selective dissolution). These combined analytical techniques allow for the estimation of the amount of cement paste, its most important hydrated and carbonated phases, as well as the amount of clay and micas. Details of the methodology are presented here and the results of three representative C and D samples taken from the Sao Paulo region in Brazil are discussed. Chemical compositions of mixed C and D aggregate samples have mostly been influenced by particle size rather than the visual classification of C and D into red or grey and geographical origin. The amount of measured soluble salts in C and D aggregates (0.15-25.4 mm) is lower than the usual limits for mortar and concrete production. The content of porous cement paste in the C and D aggregates is around 19.3% (w/w). However, this content is significantly lower than the 43% detected for the C and D powders (<0.15 mm). The clay content of the powders was also high, potentially resulting from soil intermixed with the C and D waste, as well as poorly burnt red ceramic. Since only about 50% of the measured CaO is combined with CO{sub 2}, the powders have potential use as raw materials for the cement industry.

  7. Validation of 10 years of SAO OMI Ozone Profiles with Ozonesonde and MLS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and long-term stability of the SAO OMI ozone profile product, we validate ~10 years of ozone profile product (Oct. 2004-Dec. 2014) against collocated ozonesonde and MLS data. Ozone profiles as well stratospheric, tropospheric, lower tropospheric ozone columns are compared with ozonesonde data for different latitude bands, and time periods (e.g., 2004-2008/2009-2014 for without/with row anomaly. The mean biases and their standard deviations are also assessed as a function of time to evaluate the long-term stability and bias trends. In the mid-latitude and tropical regions, OMI generally shows good agreement with ozonesonde observations. The mean ozone profile biases are generally within 6% with up to 30% standard deviations. The biases of stratospheric ozone columns (SOC) and tropospheric ozone columns (TOC) are -0.3%-2.2% and -0.2%-3%, while standard deviations are 3.9%-5.8% and 14.4%-16.0%, respectively. However, the retrievals during 2009-2014 show larger standard deviations and larger temporal variations; the standard deviations increase by ~5% in the troposphere and ~2% in the stratosphere. Retrieval biases at individual levels in the stratosphere and upper troposphere show statistically significant trends and different trends for 2004-2008 and 2009-2014 periods. The trends in integrated ozone partial columns are less significant due to cancellation from various layers, except for significant trend in tropical SOC. These results suggest the need to perform time dependent radiometric calibration to maintain the long-term stability of this product. Similarly, we are comparing the OMI stratospheric ozone profiles and SOC with collocated MLS data, and the results will be reported.

  8. The People Speak Their Word: Learning to Read and Write in Sao Tome and Principe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Paulo

    1981-01-01

    Freire reflects on his role as consultant to the Adult Literacy Program in Sao Tome and Principe. Emphasizing the political aspects of pedagogy, he describes how adults learn to read and write, as well as to think critically and participate in national development. (SK)

  9. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) activity regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in the SAOS-2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoxue; Chen, Zhongqiang; Liu, Zhongjun; Song, Chunli

    2012-08-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2) has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 with osteo-inductive conditioned medium and set up three time points (culture days 4, 7, and 14) to represent different stages of SAOS-2 differentiation. Osteoblast markers, mineralization, as well as TG2 expression and activity, were then assayed in each stage. Furthermore, we inhibited TG activity with cystamine and then checked SAOS-2 differentiation and mineralization in each stage. The results showed that during the progression of osteoblast differentiation SAOS-2 cells presented significantly high levels of osteocalcin (OC) mRNA, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and collagen I, significantly high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the increased formation of calcified matrix. With the same tendency, TG2 expression and activity were up-regulated. Furthermore, inhibition of TG activity resulted in a significant decrease of OC, collagen I, and BMP-2 mRNA and of ALP activity and mineralization. This study demonstrated that TG2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and may play a role in the initiation and regulation of the mineralization processes. Moreover, the modulating effects of TG2 on osteoblasts may be related to BMP-2.

  10. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialiang; Zu, Jianing; Xu, Gongping; Zhao, Wei; Jinglong, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein, acts as an early modulator of integrin signaling cascade, regulating basic cellular functions. In transformed cells, unopposed FAK signaling has been considered to promote tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. The aim of this study was to assess the role of focal adhesion kinase in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. SAOS-2 cells were transfected with PGPU6/GFP/shNC, and PGPU6/GFP/FAK-334 (shRNA-334), respectively. Expression of FAK was detected by real-time PCR and western blots. MTT assay was used to examine changes in cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of caspase-3,-7,-9 was measured by Western blots. The expression of FAK in SAOS-2 cells significantly decreased in shRNA-334 group contrast to the control group (P < 0.01). Cells proliferation was inhibited by shRNA-334 and shRNA-334 + cisplatin, and the effects were clearly enhanced when cells treated with the anticancer agents. The level of cell apoptosis in shRNA-334 and shRNA-334 + cisplatin group was higher than in the control group (P < 0.01). The current data support evidence that down-regulation of FAK could induce SAOS-2 apoptosis through the caspase-dependent cell death pathway. Inhibition of the kinases may be important for therapies designed to enhance the apoptosis in osteosarcoma.

  11. Contemporary Art at School: The Educational Sector at the Sao Paulo Biennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Almeida, Ana Cristina Pereira

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Sector of the Sao Paulo Biennial assists art teachers in introducing contemporary art into the schools. Outlines how students were observed viewing the exhibition and creating artworks. Describes how training programs and materials were provided to help the schools. (KM)

  12. Paulo Freire as Secretary of Education in the Municipality of Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Examines educational policy formation in Sao Paulo, 1989-92, under the leadership of Paulo Freire. Explores theoretical and policy controversies surrounding the diminishing role of the state in Latin America, the impact of social movements on educational policymaking, and the limits and possibilities of democratic-socialist perspectives in…

  13. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  14. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  15. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally…

  16. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  17. The diameter of 88 Thisbe from its occultation of SAO 187124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; White, N. M.; Bowell, E.; Klemola, A.; Elliott, R. C.; Smethells, W. G.; Price, P. M.; Mckay, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The 7 October, 1981 occultation of SAO 187124 by 88 Thisbe was observed at twelve sites. The occultation observations, together with information about the asteroid's light curve, gives a mean diameter for Thisbe of 232 + or - 10 km. This value is 10 percent larger than the previously published radiometric diameter of Thisbe.

  18. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  19. A proteomic study on a human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 treated with diallyl trisulfide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong Kui; Zhang, Xu Hua; Li, Jian Min; Sun, De Sheng; Yang, Qiang; Diao, Dong Mei

    2009-09-01

    Garlic is generally used as a therapeutic reagent against various diseases, and numerous studies have indicated that garlic and its derivatives can reduce the risk of various types of human cancer. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a major member of garlic derivatives, could inhibit the cell proliferation by triggering either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines as shown in many studies. However, whether DATS has the same effect on human osteosarcoma cells remains unknown. In this study, we have attempted to analyze the effects of DATS on cell proliferation, cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, global protein expression pattern in a human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 cells, and the potential molecular mechanisms of the action of DATS. Saos-2 cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, were treated with or without 25, 50, and 100 micromol/l DATS for various time intervals. The cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis were examined in this study. Then, after treatment with or without 50 micromol/l DATS for 48 h, protein add pattern in Saos-2 cells were systematically studied using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. DATS could inhibit the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cell and cell arrest in G0/G1 phase was also dose-dependent and time-dependent upon DATS treatment. A total of 27 unique proteins in Saos-2 cells, including 18 downregulated proteins and nine upregulated proteins, were detected with significant changes in their expression levels corresponding to DATS administration. Interestingly, almost half of these proteins (13 of 27) are related to either the cell cycle or apoptosis. DATS has the ability to suppress cell proliferation of Saos-2 cells by blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis in a dose and time-dependent manner. The proteomic results presented, therefore, provide additional support to the hypothesis

  20. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  1. SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells bind fibroblasts via ICAM-1 and this is increased by tumour necrosis factor-α.

    PubMed

    David, Manu S; Kelly, Elizabeth; Cheung, Ivan; Xaymardan, Munira; Moore, Malcolm A S; Zoellner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported exchange of membrane and cytoplasmic markers between SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells and human gingival fibroblasts (h-GF) without comparable exchange of nuclear markers, while similar h-GF exchange was seen for melanoma and ovarian carcinoma cells. This process of "cellular sipping" changes phenotype such that cells sharing markers of both SAOS-2 and h-GF have morphology intermediate to that of either cell population cultured alone, evidencing increased tumour cell diversity without genetic change. TNF-α increases cellular sipping between h-GF and SAOS-2, and we here study binding of SAOS-2 to TNF-α treated h-GF to determine if increased cellular sipping can be accounted for by cytokine stimulated SAOS-2 binding. More SAOS-2 bound h-GF pe-seeded wells than culture plastic alone (p<0.001), and this was increased by h-GF pre-treatment with TNF-α (p<0.001). TNF-α stimulated binding was dose dependent and maximal at 1.16 nM (p<0.05) with no activity below 0.006 nM. SAOS-2 binding to h-GF was independent of serum, while the lipopolysaccharide antagonist Polymyxin B did not affect results, and TNF-α activity was lost on boiling. h-GF binding of SAOS-2 started to increase after 30min TNF-α stimulation and was maximal by 1.5 hr pre-treatment (p<0.001). h-GF retained maximal binding up to 6 hrs after TNF-α stimulation, but this was lost by 18 hrs (p<0.001). FACS analysis demonstrated increased ICAM-1 consistent with the time course of SAOS-2 binding, while antibody against ICAM-1 inhibited SAOS-2 adhesion (p<0.04). Pre-treating SAOS-2 with TNF-α reduced h-GF binding to background levels (p<0.003), and this opposite effect to h-GF cytokine stimulation suggests that the history of cytokine exposure of malignant cells migrating across different microenvironments can influence subsequent interactions with fibroblasts. Since cytokine stimulated binding was comparable in magnitude to earlier reported TNF-α stimulated cellular sipping, we conclude that TNF

  2. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star catalogue (SAO) version 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version have been corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been blanked out, but the records themselves have been retained and flagged so that sequencing and record count are identical to the published catalog.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide overload increases adriamycin-induced apoptosis of SaOS(2)FM, a manganese superoxide dismutase-overexpressing human osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yadi; Kuroda, Masahiro; Gao, Xian-Shu; Asaumi, Jun-Ichi; Shibuya, Kohichi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Akaki, Shiro; St Clair, Daret; Hiraki, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-05-01

    We previously developed a new microscopic observation system that enables time-lapse quantitative analysis of apoptosis and necrosis. With this system we quantitatively analyzed adriamycin (ADR)-induced cell death using manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)- and wild-type p53-gene transfectants on SaOS(2), a p53-deficient human osteosarcoma cell line. A highly MnSOD-overexpressing cell line, SaOS(2)FM(H), acquired ADR-tolerance compared to the parent cell line SaOS(2). The ADR-tolerance of SaOS(2)FM(H) diminished by L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), which did not change ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2), to the similar ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2). A wild-type p53-expressing cell line, SaOS(2)wtp53, significantly increased in ADR-sensitivity compared to SaOS(2). This ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2)wtp53 was enhanced by BSO. When isosorbide 5-mononitrate was combined with BSO, isosorbide 5-mononitrate increased ADR sensitivity of a moderately MnSOD-overexpressing cell line, SaOS(2)FM(L), decreased that of SaOS(2) FM(H), and did not change those of SaOS(2) and SaOS(2)wtp53 compared to BSO alone. Time-lapse microscopic observations during ADR treatment for 24 h indicated that the most cells of each cell line underwent apoptosis, and a few cells (less than 11%) died by necrosis. When cells were treated with iso-concentration of ADR, apoptosis of SaOS(2)FM(H) was less than that of SaOS(2). BSO, which did not change ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2), increased appearance rate of ADR-induced apoptosis, but not necrosis of MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. When iso-survival dose of ADR, which reduced surviving fraction to 0.01, was given for each cell line, no difference was observed in appearance of either apoptosis or necrosis between SaOS(2) and MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. On the other hands, appearance of both apoptosis and the following secondary necrosis of SaOS(2) wtp53 was significantly accelerated compared to those of SaOS(2). These findings indicate that hydrogen peroxide

  4. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (Sao Vicente Channel is included) would be important to confirm if this pattern of bioaccumulation can be extended to the population of C. danae of this estuary.

  5. Nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells on rhombic µ-pillars.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Melanie; Stannard, Cleo; Anselme, Karine; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    It has been previously shown that osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cells respond to micropillared surfaces consisting of poly-L-lactic acid with strong deformation of the cell body and nucleus. Until now, cell nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells was only studied by exposing them to square shaped micropillars in an isotropic pattern. Here we report on experiments of the cell nucleus response of such cells to rhombic structures of different topographies generated from a rubbery polymer, namely poly(n-butyacrylate). It is observed that cells orientate themselves perpendicular to the long axis of the rhombi. While their spreading on the surface is not influenced by the opening angle of the structures, rhombic structures with sharper angles induce stronger deformation of the cells and accordingly more elongated nuclei.

  6. Phenotypic instability of Saos-2 cells in long-term culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hausser, Heinz-Juergen . E-mail: heinz-juergen.hausser@medizin.uni-ulm.de; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2005-07-22

    The human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 is widely used as a model system for human osteoblastic cells, though its phenotypic stability has not been ascertained. We therefore propagated these cells over 100 passages and compared relevant phenotypic properties. In general, higher passage cells exhibited higher proliferation rates and lower specific alkaline phosphatase activities, though mineralization was significantly more pronounced in cultures of late passage cells. Whereas expression of most genes investigated did not vary profoundly, some genes exhibited remarkable differences. Decorin, for instance, that has been discussed as a regulator of proliferation and mineralization, is strongly expressed only in early passage cells, and two receptors for pleiotrophin and midkine exhibited an almost mutually exclusive expression pattern in early and late passage cells, respectively. Our observations indicate that special care is required when results obtained with Saos-2 cells with different culture history are to be compared.

  7. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  8. p27kip1 overexpression promotes paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gabellini, Chiara; Pucci, Bruna; Valdivieso, Paola; D'Andrilli, Giuseppina; Tafani, Marco; De Luca, Antonio; Masciullo, Valeria

    2006-08-15

    p27kip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, which controls several cellular processes in strict collaboration with pRb. We evaluated the role of p27kip1 in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in the pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells. Following 48 h of exposure of SaOs-2 cells to 100 nM paclitaxel, we observed an increase in p27kip1 expression caused by the decrease of the ubiquitin-proteasome activity. Such increase was not observed in SaOs-2 cells treated with the caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that p27kip1 enhancement at 48 h is strictly related to apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that SaOs-2 cells transiently overexpressing the p27kip1 protein are more susceptible to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis than SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with the empty vector. Indeed, after 48 h of paclitaxel treatment, 41.8% of SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with a pcDNA3-p27kip1 construct were Annexin V-positive compared to 30.6% of SaOs-2 cells transfected with the empty vector (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that transfection of the pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells with the p27kip1 gene via plasmid increases their susceptibility to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. The promoting effect of p27kip1 overexpression on apoptosis makes p27kip1 and proteasomal inhibitors interesting tools for therapy in patients with pRb-defective cancers.

  9. Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-12-01

    Biosilica is a natural polymer, synthesized by the poriferan enzyme silicatein from monomeric silicate substrates. Biosilica stimulates mineralizing activity and gene expression of SaOS-2 cells. To study its effect on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), SaOS-2 cells were grown on different silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates (bone slices, Ca-P-coated coverslips, glass coverslips). Growth on these substrates induced the formation of HA nodules, organized in longitudinal arrays or spherical spots. Nodules of sizes above 1 μm were composed of irregularly arranged HA prism-like nanorods, formed by aggregates of three to eight SaOS-2 cells. Moreover, growth on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates elicited increased [(3)H]dT incorporation into DNA, indicative of enhanced cell proliferation. Consequently, an in vitro-based bioassay was established to determine the ratio between [(3)H]dT incorporation and HA formation. This ratio was significantly higher for cells that grew on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates than for cells on Ca-P-coated coverslips or plain glass slips. Hence, we propose that this ratio of in vitro-determined parameters reflects the osteogenic effect of different substrates on bone-forming cells. Finally, qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that growth of SaOS-2 cells on a silicatein/biosilica matrix upregulated BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2, inducer of bone formation) expression. In contrast, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, modulator of bone resorption) expression remained unaffected. We conclude that biosilica shows pronounced osteogenicity in vitro, qualifying this material for studies of bone replacement also in vivo.

  10. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  11. Preliminary Goddard geopotential using optical tracking data and a comparison with SAO models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Putney, B. H.; Nickerson, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geopotential and center of mass station coordinate solution was obtained from satellite orbital data using numerical integration theory. This geodetic solution is a prelude to a more general solution which will combine the 1971 International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) laser data with the present data being employed. The present GSFC geopotential solution consists of the spherical harmonic coefficients through degree and order eight with higher order satellite resonant coefficients. The solution represents a first iteration result from 17 satellites with approximately 150 weekly orbital arcs containing some 40,000 optical observations. The GSFC preliminary result is compared with final results from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) solutions including the 1969 SAO Standard Earth II solution. One aspect of interest for the comparison is that SAO uses an analytic theory for the orbital solution whereas GSFC uses a numerical integration theory. The comparison of geopotential results shows that good agreement exists in general but that there are some areas of minor differences.

  12. Changes in the spatial distribution of O3, NO and CO in different vehicular emission scenarios in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiquetto, J. B.; Silva, M. E. S.; Ynoue, R.; Cabral-Miranda, W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) has been investigated using the WRF/Chem model version 3.2.1 in a 1X1 km emission grid. Based on a local emission inventory, a control simulation (CTRL) was performed for the period 28/01-02/02/2014, during a summer season characterized by intense solar radiation and temperature positive anomalies, which resulted in high pollutant concentration. Sensitivity tests were performed using different vehicular emission scenarios and CTRL. In scenario A), emissions were removed from a region which encompasses almost the entire urban area of the SPMA, only roads in the outskirts had regular emissions. Comparing scenario A) to CTRL, sharp decreases in CO, NO and NO2 were observed inside the SPMA. Ozone decreased slighlty during the day, probably due to the significant absence of precursor emissions which form ozone during the day in the presence of sunlight. On the other hand, ozone concentrations increased at night, influenced by the absence of ozone-consuming precursors inside the densely urbanized SPMA, in the absence of sunlight. In scenario B), we removed emissions from a smaller area, corresponding roughly to an expanded downtown area (where a few traffic restriction laws operate). The goal of this scenario was to observe possible impacts if more strict traffic restriction laws were implemented. In scenario C), emissions were decreased by 50% in the same area, in an attempt to characterize concentrations in an urban toll scenario. Results from scenarios B) and C) showed a decrease in NO, NO2 and CO, but less intense than in scenario A). On the other hand, a higher increase in ozone was detected both during the day and at night compared to the CTRL and scenario A). These results suggests that, along with lower concentrations of precursor gases and CO, higher ozone concentrations are likely to be expected in downtown Sao Paulo if more severe traffic restriction laws should be implemented. This is concerning

  13. Effects of targeted modulation of miR-762 on expression of the IFITM5 gene in Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xinkai; Lu, Yanqin; Han, Jinxiang

    2014-02-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5 (IFITM5) is an osteoblast-specific membrane protein that plays an important role in the mineralization of the matrix in mature osteoblasts. However, understanding of the regulatory mechanism of IFITM5 expression is limited. Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as pivotal regulators in various biological processes including osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of miRNAs on IFITM5 expression. Bioinformatic analyses predicted that miR-762 would be a potential regulator of IFITM5. A Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System indicated that miR-762 could bond with the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of IFITM5 via wild-type or mutant recombinant vectors and Western blotting verified that miR-762 negatively regulated IFITM5 expression. Collectively, these data indicate that miR-762 is a novel regulator of IFITM5 and that it suppresses the expression of IFITM5 in Saos-2 cells.

  14. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  15. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs.

  16. A comparative proteomics study on matrix vesicles of osteoblast-like Saos-2 and U2-OS cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaoying; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-05-01

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) play an important role in the initial stage of the process of bone mineralization, and are involved in multiple rare skeletal diseases with pathological mineralization or calcification. The aim of the study was to compare the proteomic profiling of osteoblast-like cells with and without mineralization ability (Saos-2 and U2-OS), and to identify novel mineralization-associated MV proteins. MVs were extracted using ExoQuick solution from mineralization-induced Saos-2 and U2-OS cells, and then were validated by transmission electron microscopy. A label-free quantitative proteomic method was used to compare the protein profiling of MVs from Saos-2 and U2-OS cells. Western-blots were used to confirm the expression of MVs proteins identified in proteomic studies. In our proteomic studies, we identified that 89 mineralization-related proteins were significantly up-regulated in Saos-2 MVs compared with U2-OS MVs. We further validated that two MVs proteins, protein kinase C α and ras-related protein Ral-A, were up-regulated in MVs of Saos-2 cells compared to those of U2-OS cells under mineralization-induction. Our findings suggest that protein kinase C α and ras-related protein Ral-A might be involved in bone mineralization as MVs components.

  17. [Comparison between nutritional status of school children of low socioeconomic level from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Amigo, H; Leone, C; Bustos, P; Gallo, P

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the anthropometric profiles of schoolchildren from low income household from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brasil. A total of 1779 children from Santiago and 2210 from Sao Paulo were evaluated. Z-score distribution of the height/age (H/A), weight/age (W/A) and weight/height (W/H) indicators were utilized to assess the children. As a reference, the pattern recommended by WHO was used. The distribution of the H/A curves from both cities were deviated to the left. This deviation was more evident in Santiago. This situation points out the existence of a greater prevalence of growth retardation of the children from this city. In relation to the W/A indicator, both groups showed a similar distribution curves, Sao Paulo group however, had an increment of cases in the left extreme of the curve, under -2 . According to the W/H indicator the profile of both groups are different; one-Santiago-is deviated to the excess and Sao Paulo to the deficit. The differences observed in both groups of children studied indicated higher deficit of height, but lower current undernutrition in Santiago and increased wasting with conservated height in Sao Paulo. The observed situation suggests that the distinct patterns are consequences of socioeconomic factors at different stages of the growing process of the children and/or etnic differences of the population.

  18. Cytoprotective role of autophagy during paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Seung Gee; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Ji-Eun; Lee, Kyu Yeol; Yoo, Young Hyun; Kim, Jong-Min

    2013-06-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents. Although paclitaxel (PCX) has been considered one of the most important cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, the current protocols for OS treatment do not incorporate this agent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the induction of cell death in OS cells after exposure to PCX, to identify the cell death mechanism(s) activated by PCX and to investigate whether autophagy is associated with PCX-induced apoptosis. The results of the present study confirmed that exposure to low PCX concentrations can induce apoptotic cell death in Saos-2 cells; furthermore, caspase-3 activation, PARP degradation and XIAP downregulation were observed in combination with PCX-induced apoptosis. The potential involvement of mitochondrial events (intrinsic apoptotic pathway) in PCX-induced apoptosis in OS cells was verified by the alteration (depolarization) of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a specific inhibitor of autophagy, significantly increased PCX-induced apoptotic cell death in Saos-2 cells. The augmentation of PCX-induced apoptosis by 3-MA was accompanied by increase in the cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, caspase-3 activity and XIAP downregulation, which suggests that inhibiting autophagy further stimulates the PCX-induced mitochondrion-related (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway by provoking caspase-3 activation. Thus, autophagy observed during PCX-induced apoptosis in Saos-2 OS cells represents the role of cytoprotection in cellular homeostatic processes. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that PCX exposure effectively induces OS cell death by apoptosis associated with the mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway. PCX can increase autophagic activity and suppressing autophagy enhances PCX-induced apoptosis in OS cells. Therefore, it is suggested that combination treatment involving low

  19. Large-scale Asymmetries in the Transitional Disks of SAO 206462 and SR 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.; Chandler, Claire J.

    2014-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and 12CO J = 6-5 spectral line emission of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disk structures with a ring and an azimuthal Gaussian, where the azimuthal Gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra & Lin. Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHα 330, these are low-contrast (lsim 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21, respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 M Jup of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (~20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.

  20. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  1. LARGE-SCALE ASYMMETRIES IN THE TRANSITIONAL DISKS OF SAO 206462 AND SR 21

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.

    2014-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and {sup 12}CO J = 6-5 spectral line emission of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disk structures with a ring and an azimuthal Gaussian, where the azimuthal Gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra and Lin. Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHα 330, these are low-contrast (≲ 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21, respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 M {sub Jup} of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (∼20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.

  2. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  3. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  4. GABPβ2 expression during osteogenic differentiation from human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyuan; Xiong, Jianjun; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Meirong; Wu, Ping; Wang, Xinping; Jiang, He; Yi, Benyi; Lang, Bin; Li, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    The E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation. Whether GA-binding protein β2 (GABPβ2), a member of the ETS family, is involved in osteogenic differentiation has not been previously reported. In the present study, directed differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells was induced and validated by examining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, presence of mineralized nodule and other phenotypic characteristics of the cells on days 0, 3, 6 and 9, thus establishing their osteogenic potential. Real-time PCR revealed that similarly to the bone-specific transcription factor Runx2, the expression of Gabpb2 in Saos-2 cells also peaked on day 3 and was significantly reduced on days 6 and 9. Immunocytochemical staining showed that changes in the immunoreactivity of GABPβ2 also exhibited a similar trend to that of Runx2. Initially, Runx2 was predominantly localized in the nuclei, while GABPβ2 was relatively diffuse. Both exhibited a significant increase in immunoreactivity on day 3, with presence in both the nuclei and cytoplasm. By day 6, both showed a significant decrease in immunoreactivity and were mainly localized in the nuclei. Therefore, we surmise that GABPβ2, as an ETS family member, may play a regulatory role in early osteoblastic differentiation and potentially act in synergy with Runx2.

  5. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  6. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, R; Lopes, D J H; Mexia, A M M; Mumford, J D

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010-2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance's sensitivity on Terceira Island.

  7. Wavefront alignment research of segmented mirror synthetic aperture optical (SAO) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian; An, Xiaoqiang; Tian, Hao

    2010-05-01

    Wavefront control technology and imaging experiment are introduced for a segmented mirror SAO system with deformable sub-mirrors. This system is a RC style with 300mm aperture, 4.5 F#, +/-0.4°FOV, 0.45~0.75μm wave band, and diffraction-limit design MTF. The primary mirror is composed by three sub-mirrors, with parabolic shape, and each deformable sub-mirror has 19 actuators to control and keep the surface shape, and 5 actuators to align sub-mirrors location in 5 degree of freedom. Interferometer is used to feed back and control exit wavefront error, and base on measurement and finite element analysis, location and quanitity of actuators are optimized, making the surface shape and misadjustment errors interact and compensate each other, and the synthetic system exit pupil wavefront error is controlled. The integrated exit pupil wavefront errors are gotten by ZYGO interferometer, and central FOV is 0.077λRMS, and edge FOV is 0.093λRMS. At the end, an imaging experiment is executed, and good results are obtained, which proves, the deformable sub-mirrors have the ability to meliorate alignment and the latter can retroact the former, and this relationship iterate make system exit pupil wavefront error convergence and improve segmented mirror SAO system imaging ability.

  8. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, R.; Lopes, D.J.H.; Mexia, A.M.M.; Mumford, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010–2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance’s sensitivity on Terceira Island. PMID:28082349

  9. Evaluation of antisera used for detecting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Sao Paulo.

    PubMed Central

    Guth, B E; Trabulsi, L R

    1985-01-01

    The usefulness of antisera in detecting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains in Sao Paulo was evaluated. Polyvalent antisera detected 49% of ETEC isolates and were more effective in identifying E. coli that produced heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins and in strains that produced only heat-stable enterotoxin. ETEC strains not detected by the antisera belonged to different serogroups not isolated in Sao Paulo before; 34% of these strains had undetermined O antigens, and most of them produced only heat-labile toxin. A variation of serogroups over time was especially observed among strains that produced heat-stable toxin. The importance of H-antigen determinations in the effectiveness of ETEC diagnosis by serological methods became evident, as non-ETEC strains were also detected by polyvalent antisera, but their serotypes were different from those of ETEC strains. Although antisera can be used to identify O:H types of ETEC strains with accuracy, serotyping cannot be recommended for routine diagnosis. However, such a procedure may be useful for studying outbreaks of ETEC diarrhea if the involved serotypes are already known. PMID:3908475

  10. High resolution spectroscopy of the high latitude rapidly evolving post-AGB star SAO 85766 (= IRAS 18062+2410)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, P.; Sivarani, T.; Manchado, A.; Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, L.

    2000-05-01

    SAO 85766 (b = +20o) is an IRAS source with far-infrared colours similar to planetary nebulae. According to the HDE catalogue, its spectrum in 1940 was that of an A5 star. The UV fluxes and colours derived from data obtained by the TD1 satellite in 1972 also indicate that SAO 85766 was an A-type supergiant at that epoch. However, high resolution spectra of SAO 85766 obtained in 1993 in the wavelength interval 4350Ä to 8820Ä shows that now it is similar to that of an early B type post-AGB supergiant. In addition to the absorptions lines typical of a B1I type star, the spectrum of SAO 85766 is found to show numerous permitted and forbidden emission lines of several elements, typically observed in the spectra of young high density low excitation planetary nebulae. From an analysis of the absorption lines we have estimated Teff=22000+/-500 K, log g=3.0+/-0.5, xi t=15+/-2km s-1 and [M/H]=-0.6. Carbon is found to be strongly underabundant ([C/Fe] = -1.0), similarly to what has been observed in other high galactic latitude hot post-AGB stars. The underabundance of carbon and metals, high galactic latitude, high radial velocity (46 km s-1), the presence of planetary nebula type detached cold circumstellar dust shell and also the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines in the spectrum indicate that SAO 85766 is a low mass star in the post-AGB stage of evolution. The above mentioned characteristics and the variations observed in the spectrum of SAO 85766 suggest that it has rapidly evolved during the past 50 years and it is now in the early stages of the planetary nebula phase. The central star may just have become hot enough to photoionize the circumstellar envelope ejected during the previous AGB phase. >From an analysis of the nebular emission lines we find Te=10000+/- 500K and Ne=2.5 104 cm-3. The nebula also shows an abundance pattern similar to that of the central star. The rapid post-AGB evolution of SAO 85766 appears to be similar to that observed in the

  11. Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho

    2005-01-01

    There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First…

  12. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  13. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  14. [Effects of the PROALCOOL program on migratory behavior in the state of Sao Paulo: the case of Ribeirao Preto].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Sao Paulo, particularly in the region of Ribeiros Preto.

  15. SAO and Kelvin Waves in the EuroGRIPS GCMS and the UK Meteorological Offices Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amodei, M.; Pawson, S.; Scaife, A. A.; Lahoz, W.; Langematz, U.; Li, Ding Min; Simon, P.

    2000-01-01

    This work is an intercomparison of four tropospheric-stratospheric climate models, the Unified Model (UM) of the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO), the model of the Free University in Berlin (FUB). the ARPEGE-climat model of the National Center for Meteorological Research (CNRM), and the Extended UGAMP GCM (EUGCM) of the Center for Global Atmospheric Modelling (CGAM), against the UKMO analyses. This comparison has been made in the framework of the "GSM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC" (GRIPS). SPARC (Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate) aims are to investigate the effects of the middle atmosphere on climate and the GRIPS purpose is to organized a comprehensive assessment of current Middle Atmosphere-Climate Models (MACMs). The models integrations were made without identical contraints e.g. boundary conditions, incoming solar radiation). All models are able to represent the dominant features of the extratropical circulation. In this paper, the structure of the tropical winds and the strengths of the Kelvin waves are examined. Explanations for the differences exhibited. between the models. as well as between models and analyses, are also proposed. In the analyses a rich spectrum of waves (eastward and westward) is present and contributes to drive the SAO (SemiAnnual Oscillation) and the QBO (Quasi-Biennal Oscillation). The amplitude of the Kelvin waves is close to the one observed in UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) data. In agreement with observations, the Kelvin waves generated in the models propagate into the middle atmosphere as wave packets which underlines convective forcing origin. In most models, slow Kelvin waves propagate too high and are hence overestimated in the upper stratosphere and in the mesosphere, except for the UM which is more diffusive. These waves are not sufficient to force realistic westerlies of the QBO or SAO westerly phases. If the SAO is represented by all models only two of them are able to generate

  16. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  17. Tumstatin induces apoptosis and stimulates phosphorylation of p65NF-κB in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yin, Ruo-Feng; Teng, Jia-Song

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of tumstatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells and to understand the mechanism involved. Inhibition of cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis through nuclear fragmentation assay. Viability of Saos-2 cells was reduced to 19% on treatment with 25 µM concentration of tumstatin after 48 h. Presence of characteristic apoptotic nuclei, rounded cell shape and shrunken size were caused by tumstatin treatment at 25 µM concentration. The level of mRNA corresponding to PTEN, FasR and FasL was increased significantly in tumstatin treated Saos-2 cells compared to untreated control. Investigation of the mechanism revealed NF-κB activation by phosphorylation on serine 536. The activated NF-κB was translocated into the nucleus from the cytoplasm on treatment with tumstatin. Degradation of the IκBα by tumstatin was found to be much slower compared to that induced by treatment with TNF-α. Thus, tumstatin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Saos-2 cells through activation of NF-κB and its translocation to the nucleus. Therefore, tumstatin can play an important role in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  18. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusami, Sridhar; Senthilkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Vignesh, Chandragandan; Ilangovan, Ramachandran; Stanley, Jone; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Srinivasan, Narasimhan

    2011-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a public health problem which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The repair of bone defect is still a big challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Traditional use of Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) in the treatment of bone disorders has been documented. The present study was employed to delineate the effects of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. Lactate dehydrogenase assayed in the conditioned medium of control and C. quadrangularis treated cells did not differ significantly indicating that ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis is nontoxic to osteoblastic cells. [(3)H] Thymidine incorporation assay revealed that C. quadrangularis treatment has increased the DNA synthesis of human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells indicating increased proliferation of these cells. The data on alizarin red and ALP staining revealed increased matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. The study also revealed that the anabolic actions of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis in human osteoblast like cells are mediated through increased mRNA and protein expression of Runx2, a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of bone matrix proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed increased transcriptional activity of Runx2 on the promoter of osteocalcin after C. quadrangularis treatment. These results indicate positive regulation of C. quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.

  19. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  20. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  1. Validation of OMI Total Ozone Retrievals from the SAO Ozone Profile Algorithm and Three Operational Algorithms 3 with Brewer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Juseon; Kim, Jae H.; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The optimal estimation (OE) based ozone profile algorithm developed at Smithsonian 3 Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is assessed as to its accuracy to extract total ozone amount from 4 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements through the validation using Brewer ground 5 based measurements between January 2005 and December 2008. We compare it against the quality of 6 three OMI operational ozone products, derived from NASA TOMS, KNMI DOAS, and KNMI OE 7 algorithms, respectively. The validation demonstrates that the SAO ozone profile algorithm generally 8 has the best total ozone retrieval performance compared to the three OMI operational ozone products. 9 The individual station comparisons show an agreement between SAO and Brewer within ± 1% except 10 at polar stations (~ -2 %), with a high correlation coefficient of ~ 0.99 at most stations. The KNMI OE 11 algorithm systematically overestimates the true total ozone value at all stations with a bias from 2 % 12 at low/mid latitude stations to 5 % at high latitude stations. On the other hand, TOMS/DOAS 13 algorithm underestimates total ozone by ~ -1.7 % on average. The standard deviations of differences 14 are ~ 1.8 % for SAO and TOMS while DOAS and KNMI show the standard deviation values of 2.2 15 and 2.5 %, respectively. The remarkable stability of SAO OE algorithm is found with no significant 16 dependency on algorithmic variables such as viewing geometries, cloud parameters, and time. In 17 comparison, the severe dependency on both solar and viewing zenith angles is found in KNMI OE 18 algorithm, which is characterized with a negative (positive) correlation with smaller (larger) solar 19 zenith angles and the strong cross-track dependent biases ranging from 4% at nadir and 1% at off-20 nadir positions. The dependence of DOAS and TOMS algorithms on the algorithmic variables is 21 marginal compared to KNMI OE algorithm, but distinct compared to SAO OE algorithm. Relative 22 differences between SAO/DOAS and

  2. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Leslie A.; Peters, Sandra J.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  3. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  4. APPLICATION OF AUDIO-MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS ON SAO MIGUEL ISLAND, AZORES PORTUGAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  5. SAO/NASA joint investigation of astronomical viewing quality at Mount Hopkins Observatory: 1969-1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bufton, J. L.; Hogan, D.; Kurtenbach, D.; Goodwin, K.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the astronomical seeing conditions have been made with a stellar-image monitor system at the Mt. Hopkins Observatory in Arizona. The results of this joint SAO-NASA experiment indicate that for a 15-cm-diameter telescope, image motion is typically 1 arcsec or less and that intensity fluctuations due to scintillation have a coefficient of irradiance variance of less than 0.12 on the average. Correlations between seeing quality and local meteorological conditions were investigated. Local temperature fluctuations and temperature gradients were found to be indicators of image-motion conditions, while high-altitude-wind conditions were shown to be somewhat correlated with scintillation-spectrum bandwidth. The theoretical basis for the relationship of atmospheric turbulence to optical effects is discussed in some detail, along with a description of the equipment used in the experiment. General site-testing comments and applications of the seeing-test results are also included.

  6. Upgrading and performance of the SAO laser ranging system in Matera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, J.; Pearlman, M.; Throp, J.; Wohn, J.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the SAO lasers was improved considerably in terms of accuracy, range noise, data yield, and reliability. With the narrower laser pulse (2.5-3.0 nsec) and a new analog pulse processing system, the systematic range errors were reduced to 3-5 cm and range noise has been reduced to 5-15 cm on low satellites and 10-18 cm on Lageos. Pulse repetition rate was increased to 30 ppm and considerable improvement has been made in signal-to-noise ratio by using a 3 Angstrom interference filter and by reducing the range gate window down to 200-400 nsec. The first upgraded system was installed in Arequipa, Peru in the spring of 1982. The second upgraded system is now in operation in Matera, Italy. The third system is expected to be installed in Israel during 1984.

  7. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow.

  8. IS THE POST-AGB STAR SAO 40039 MILDLY HYDROGEN-DEFICIENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. Sumangala; Pandey, Gajendra; Giridhar, Sunetra; Lambert, David L. E-mail: pandey@iiap.res.in E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2011-08-10

    We have conducted an LTE abundance analysis for SAO 40039, a warm post-AGB star whose spectrum is known to show surprisingly strong He I lines for its effective temperature and has been suspected of being H-deficient and He-rich. High-resolution optical spectra are analyzed using a family of model atmospheres with different He/H ratios. Atmospheric parameters are estimated from the ionization equilibrium set by neutral and singly ionized species of Fe and Mg, the excitation of Fe I and Fe II lines, and the wings of the Paschen lines. On the assumption that the He I lines are of photospheric and not chromospheric origin, a He/H ratio of approximately unity is found by imposing the condition that the adopted He/H ratio of the model atmosphere must equal the ratio derived from the observed He I triplet lines at 5876, 4471, and 4713 A, and singlet lines at 4922 and 5015 A. Using the model with the best-fitting atmospheric parameters for this He/H ratio, SAO 40039 is confirmed to exhibit mild dust-gas depletion, i.e., the star has an atmosphere deficient in elements of high condensation temperature. The star appears to be moderately metal-deficient with [Fe/H] = -0.4 dex. But the star's intrinsic metallicity as estimated from Na, S, and Zn, elements of a low condensation temperature, is [Fe/H]{sub o} {approx_equal} -0.2 ([Fe/H]{sub o} refers to the star's intrinsic metallicity). The star is enriched in N and perhaps O as well, changes reflecting the star's AGB past and the event that led to He enrichment.

  9. The Impact of Antipsychotic Polytherapy Costs in the Public Health Care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. Objective To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider´s perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. Results 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Conclusion Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money

  10. The synergistic effect of SaOS-2 cell extract and other bone-inducing agents on human bone cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Saif, Ashraf; Wende, Kristian; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2012-12-01

    Human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2 is an osteoblastic cell model that contains factors like bone morphogenetic proteins necessary for initiating bone formation. The cell line also expresses high levels of osteoinductive activity. In contrast to highly complicated and expensive ways to identify, purify, and separate specific bone-inducing agents from SaOS-2 cells, lysate can be used as an alternative to isolated bone-stimulating factors. Lysates of SaOS-2 stimulate the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of human osteoblastic cells HOS 58 in vitro. In other words, they probably possess osteoinductive activity. Different serial concentrations of substances like dexamethasone and insulin were tested with and without a lysate of SaOS-2 cells to assay their synergistic action. Results showed that a lysate of the SaOS-2 cell line acts as a synergistic agent and increases the osteoinductive activity of known bone-inducing agents. SaOS-2 cell lysate could be used in the future as a clinical agent to promote bone repair and possibly enhance osteointegration. Using SaOS-2 total cellular extract offers the possibility of lowering the effective dose of other bone-inducing agents.

  11. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  12. Label-free quantification proteomics reveals novel calcium binding proteins in matrix vesicles isolated from mineralizing Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Genglin; Zhang, Xiumei; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-06-01

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) involved in the initiation of mineralization by deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) in their lumen are released by the budding of mineralization-competent cells during skeletogenesis and bone development. To identify additional mineralization-related proteins, MVs were isolated from non-stimulated and stimulated Saos-2 cells in culture via an Exoquick™ approach and the corresponding proteomes were identified and quantified with label-free quantitative proteome technology. The isolated MVs were confirmed by electron microscopy, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), biomarkers, and mineral formation analyses. Label-free quantitative proteome analysis revealed that 19 calcium binding proteins (CaBPs), including Grp94, calnexin, calreticulin, calmodulin, and S100A4/A10, were up-regulated in MVs of Saos-2 cells upon stimulation of mineralization. This result provides new clues to study the mechanism of the initiation of MV-mediated mineralization.

  13. Inorganic polyphosphate triggers upregulation of interleukin 11 in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lui, Eric Lik-Hang; Ao, Carl Ka-Leong; Li, Lina; Khong, Mei-Li; Tanner, Julian Alexander

    2016-10-28

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is abundant in bone but its roles in signaling and control of gene expression remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of extracellular polyP on proliferation, migration, apoptosis, gene and protein expression in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Extracellular polyP promoted SaOS-2 cell proliferation, increased rates of migration, inhibited apoptosis and stimulated the rapid phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) directly through basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (bFGFR). cDNA microarray revealed that polyP induced significant upregulation of interleukin 11 (IL-11) at both RNA and protein levels.

  14. Species determination within Staphylococcus genus by extended PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of saoC gene.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Michal; Polakowska, Klaudia; Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Sitarska, Agnieszka; Nytko, Kinga; Kosecka, Maja; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Dubin, Adam; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2015-01-01

    Genetic methods based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are widely used for microbial species determination. In this study, we present the application of saoC gene as an effective tool for species determination and within-species diversity analysis for Staphylococcus genus. The unique sequence diversity of saoC allows us to apply four restriction enzymes to obtain RFLP patterns, which appear highly distinctive even among closely related species as well as atypical isolates of environmental origin. Such patterns were successfully obtained for 26 species belonging to Staphylococcus genus. What is more, tracing polymorphisms detected by different restriction enzymes allowed for basic phylogeny analysis for Staphylococcus aureus, which is potentially applicable for other staphylococcal species.

  15. Reconnaissance for uranium in the coal of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.; White, Max G.

    1958-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale of the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age have been found in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarlna and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The uranium oxide content of the samples collected in the State of Sao Paulo ranges from 0.001 percent to 0.082 percent. The samples collected in Santa Catarina averaged about 0.002 percent uranium oxide; those collected in Rio Grande do Sul, about 0.003 percent uranium oxide. Since the field and laboratory investigations are still in their initial stages, only raw data on the radioactivity and uranium content of Brazilian coals are given in this report.

  16. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  17. Fluoride promotes viability and differentiation of osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells via BMP/Smads signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huo, Liangliang; Liu, Kangkang; Pei, Junrui; Yang, Yanmei; Ye, Yan; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Han, Hepeng; Xu, Weimin; Gao, Yanhui

    2013-10-01

    The BMP/Smad signaling pathway plays an important role in the viability and differentiation of osteoblast; however, it is not clear whether this pathway is involved in the fluoride-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of BMP/Smad signaling pathway in fluoride-induced osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells differentiation. Cells were exposed to fluoride of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mM), and cell proliferation was determined using WST assays. The expression of osteoblast marker genes such as osteocalcin (BGP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were detected by qRT-PCR. We found that fluoride enhanced the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and 0.2 mM of fluoride resulted in a higher expression of osteoblast marker genes. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis showed that the promotion effects of 0.2 mM of fluoride on Saos-2 cells differentiation were associated with the activation of the BMP/Smad pathway. Expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5(p-Smad1/5) was higher in cells exposed to 0.2 mM of fluoride. Plasmid expression vectors encoding the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Smad4 gene were used to block the BMP/Smad pathway, which resulted in a significantly reduced expression of BGP and BALP as well as their corresponding mRNA. The mRNA levels after transfection remained low even in the presence of fluoride. The present results reveal that BMP/Smad signaling pathway was altered during the period of osteogenesis, and that the activities of p-Smad1/5 were required for Saos-2 cells viability and differentiation induced by fluoride.

  18. RUNX2 regulates the effects of TNFalpha on proliferation and apoptosis in SaOs-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Olfa, Ghali; Christophe, Chauveau; Philippe, Lencel; Romain, Salomez; Khaled, Hani; Pierre, Hardouin; Odile, Broux; Jean-Christophe, Devedjian

    2010-04-01

    The runt-related transcriptional factor RUNX2 is an essential mediator of the osteoblast phenotype and plays a pivotal role in the process of osteoblast differentiation. The involvement of RUNX2 includes the regulation of genes that are important in committing cells to the osteoblast lineage. Increasing evidences are consistent with a requirement of RUNX2 for stringent control of osteoblast proliferation and recent data even suggested that RUNX2 might act as a proapoptotic factor. Among the cytokines described as modulators of osteoblast functions, TNFalpha affects both apoptosis and the differentiation rate from mesenchymal precursor cells of osteoblast. Thus we evaluated on the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 stably transfected with a RUNX2 dominant negative construct (DeltaRUNX2) the effects of serum and TNFalpha on proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we showed that SaOs-2 clones expressing high levels of DeltaRUNX2 presented a higher proliferation rate than clones transfected with an empty vector. This increase in cell growth was accompanied by a rise in cyclins A1, B1 and E1 expression and a decrease in the cyclin inhibitor p21. Moreover we observed that the expression of the RUNX2 transgene protected the SaOs-2 cells from the antiproliferative and the apoptotic effects induced by TNFalpha. This was accompanied by the inhibition of Bax and activation of Bcl2 expression. Experiments done on SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with siRNA confirmed that RUNX2 represents a critical link between cell fate, proliferation and growth control. This study also suggested that RUNX2 might control osteoblastic growth depending on the differentiation stage of the cells by regulating expression of elements involved in hormones and cytokines sensitivity.

  19. Human mesenchymal stem cells promote growth of osteosarcoma: involvement of interleukin-6 in the interaction between human mesenchymal stem cells and Saos-2.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Qi-Ming; Li, Gang; Xu, Wen-Ting; Tang, Ting-Ting

    2010-12-01

    Our previous study showed that exogenous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) targeted established osteosarcoma and promoted its growth and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. As a follow-up, the present study aimed to investigate how hMSCs would interact with Saos-2 through autocrine/paracrine communication. The results showed that co-injection of hMSCs with Saos-2 into the proximal tibia of nude mice could promote tumor growth and progression. In vitro, the proliferation of Saos-2 and hMSCs was promoted by each other's conditioned medium, in which interleukin-6 (IL-6) played an important role. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs could be inhibited by conditioned medium of Saos-2, in which IL-6 was also involved. Furthermore, decreased IL-6 secretion by hMSCs during its osteogenesis and increased IL-6 secretion in response to conditioned medium of Saos-2 were observed. Based on these data, we suggest that there was a positive feedback loop of IL-6 in the interaction between hMSCs and Saos-2.

  20. Water Soluble Components of 'Osteocare' Promote Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Matrix Mineralization in Human Osteoblast-Like SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sharath Kumar, L M; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-01-01

    Osteocare, a herbal formulation, has been found to be very effective in bone mineralization and support of the microstructure of bone tissue. The water-soluble components of Osteocare (WSCO) induced osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. The addition of WSCO (100 μg/ml) to SaOS-2 cells was effective in increasing the cell proliferation by 41.49% and DNA content by 1.9-fold. WSCO increased matrix mineralization in SaOS-2 cells by increased alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium-rich deposits as observed by Alizarin red staining. WSCO markedly increased mRNA expression for osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells, and it down-regulated IL-6 mRNA levels in SaOS-2 cells. The present study showed that WSCO plays an important role in osteoblastic bone formation through enhanced activities of ALP, Col I, bone matrix proteins such as OPN and OCN, down-regulation of cytokines like IL-6, as well as promoting mineralization in SaOS-2 cells.

  1. Effect of low level laser therapy and zoledronate on the viability and ALP activity of Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Hilal; Kenar, Halime; Taşar, Ferda; Hasırcı, Vasıf

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of clinical studies indicate the supportive role of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on medical and/or surgical approaches carried out in treatment modalities for bisphosphonate related necrosis of jaws (BRONJ), the most common side effect of bisphosphonates used to inhibit bone resorption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of LLLT on cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) treated with different doses of zoledronate, the most potent bisphosphonate. Saos-2 cells were treated with different concentrations of zoledronate and were irradiated with diode laser (wavelength 808 nm, 10 s, 0.25 or 0.50 W). Cell numbers and ALP activity of the cells were determined. LLLT mildly increased the proliferation rate or ALP activity, while zoledronate reduced both. When applied together, LLLT lessened the detrimental effects of zoledronate and improved cell function and/or proliferation. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that LLLT has biostimulative effects on Saos-2 cells, even after treatment with zoledronate. LLLT may serve as a useful supportive method for BRONJ treatment through enhancement of healing by osteoblasts.

  2. Systematically organized nanopillar arrays reveal differences in adhesion and alignment properties of BMSC and Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Hayriye; Padeste, Celestino; Hasirci, Vasif

    2014-07-01

    Polymeric test surfaces of P(L-D,L)LA and of a P(L-D,L)LA:PLGA blend decorated with 25 nanopillar covered fields, were used to investigate differences in growth of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2). The fields were populated with pillars (ca. 900 nm tall, 200 nm×200 nm area) separated systematically from each other with 1-10 μm gaps. Saos-2 cells populated fields decorated with pillars 1 μm apart but they avoided pillar-free surfaces. In contrast, BMSCs avoided fields with interpillar distances <2 μm. Both BMSCs and Saos-2 cells aligned in the direction of the shorter distance when at least one of the interpillar distances was greater than 1.5 μm. Coating the P(L-D,L)LA surfaces with cell adhesive protein fibronectin enabled the BMSC to populate fields with high pillar density which they had avoided when uncoated. Decreasing the stiffness of the film surface by using a blend of (P(L-D,L)LA and PLGA) made them more acceptable for attachment by the BMSC cells.

  3. Adenosine Triphosphate stimulates differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cutarelli, Alessandro; Marini, Mario; Tancredi, Virginia; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Murdocca, Michela; Frank, Claudio; Tarantino, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    In the last years adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and subsequent purinergic system activation through P2 receptors were investigated highlighting their pivotal role in bone tissue biology. In osteoblasts ATP can regulate several activities like cell proliferation, cell death, cell differentiation and matrix mineralization. Since controversial results exist, in this study we analyzed the ATP effects on differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. We showed for the first time the altered functional activity of ATP receptors. Despite that, we found that ATP can reduce cell proliferation and stimulate osteogenic differentiation mainly in the early stages of in vitro maturation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin (OC) genes and by the increased ALP activity. Moreover, we found that ATP can affect mineralization in a biphasic manner, at low concentrations ATP always increases mineral deposition while at high concentrations it always reduces mineral deposition. In conclusion, we show the osteogenic effect of ATP on both early and late stage activities like differentiation and mineralization, for the first time in human osteoblastic cells.

  4. Enhancement of uranium 234 in springwaters of Aguas da Prata, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Bonotto, D.M. )

    1993-07-01

    In this study, the effect of combined chemical etch and leach processes on the generation of enhanced activity ratios (ARs) was investigated for mineral water samples from several spring of Aguas de Prata. Aguas de Prata is an important tourist site in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, located at the western edge of the Pocos de Caldas alkaline complex. Results show that active uranium dissolution is occurring in the springwaters. Enhanced Uranium 234/Uranium 238 activity ratios for dissolved U are explained in terms of combined chemical etch and leach processes responsible for the bulk dissolution of rock matrix rather than by alpha recoil effects. Several direct correlations support the effectiveness of etch/leach mechanisms, for example, between AR and total dissolved solids, ionic strength, carbon dioxide partial pressure, traditional index of base exchange, and new index of base exchange. A higher AR value is found to be directly related to a higher value of dissolution rate and a higher value of Radon 222 content is found to be related to a higher value of specific surface area. These relationships explain a good inverse logarithmic correlation between AR and Radon 22 content of the studied waters.

  5. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  6. Imaging polarimetry of distant comets at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Oleksandra; Afanasiev, Viktor; Rosenbush, Vera; Kiselev, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Results of the recent polarimetric observations of distant comets C/2013 V4 (Catalina), C/2014 A4 (SONEAR), C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), C/2010 R1 (LINEAR), and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are presented together with analysis of their photometry and spectroscopy. Observations were carried out at the 6-m telescope BTA of the SAO RAS with the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO-2 from 2011 to 2015. Comets were observed in the range of heliocentric distances from 4.2 to 7.0 AU and phase angles from 4.9 to 9.4 degrees. The maps of intensity and linear polarization over the coma are derived. The comets observed show a considerable activity at heliocentric distances far exceeding a zone of water sublimation. Molecular emissions were only detected in the spectra of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The linear polarization of distant comets with a high level of activity is the first ever measured at the heliocentric distances larger than 5 AU. The degree of linear polarization (from -2 to -3.7%) for these comets is significantly higher (in absolute value) than the typical value of the whole coma polarization (about -1.5 %) at the minimum of negative polarization branch for close to the Sun comets.

  7. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide

  8. Quantitative comparison of PTH1R in breast cancer MCF7 and osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Alokail, Majed S; Peddie, Margaret J

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the classical parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH/PTHrP) receptors in MCF7 breast cancer cells with SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line. Quantitative binding showed that (125)I-PTHrP-1-34(Tyr) binds with a single binding site in both cells. However (125)I-PTHrP-1-34(Tyr) has higher affinity binding in MCF7 (K(D) = 1.88 +/- 0.08 nM) than in SaOS-2 cells (K(D) = 4.4 +/- 0.185 nM). The competitive binding using 3.3 nM (125)I-PTHrP-1-34(Tyr) with increasing amounts (0.33-33 nM) of unlabelled human PTHrP-1-34, PTHrP-7-34, PTHrP-1-86 His(5)-PTHrP-1-36, His(5)-Phe(23)-PTHrP-1-36 or PTH-1-34 revealed different displacements. In SaOS-2 the PTHrP-7-34 and PTHrP-1-86 caused similar displacement compared with 73% by PTH-1-34 and 70% by PTHrP-1-34. However, in MCF7, PTHrP-7-34, PTHrP-1-86 and PTH-1-34 displaced by 54%, 72% and 67%, respectively, compared to 87% by PTHrP-1-34. The His(5)-Phe(23)-PTHrP-1-36 caused an increase in the K(D) from 2.0 +/- 0.03 nM to 2.75 +/- 0.045 nM in MCF7 cells, but had no significant effect in SaOS-2 cells. The PTH/PTHrP receptor in both cell lines revealed a single 85 KDa band with different intensity. Our results suggest that the PTH/PTHrP receptor in MCF7 cells has higher binding affinity for PTHrP than PTH compared to the receptor in SaOS-2 cells.

  9. Effect of Bioglass on Growth and Biomineralization of SaOS-2 Cells in Hydrogel after 3D Cell Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C.; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP•Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2∶CaO∶P2O5 of 55∶40∶5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP•Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide a

  10. Variability of Disk Emission in Pre-Main Sequence and Related Stars. II. Variability in the Gas and Dust Emission of the Herbig Fe Star SAO 206462

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N.; Kimes, Robin L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Martus, Cameron; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Schneider, Glenn; Lisse, Carey M.; Nuth, Joseph A.; Cure, Michel; Henden, Arne A.; Kraus, Stefan; Motta, Veronica; Tamura Motohide; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Williger, Gerard M.; Fugazza, Dino

    2011-01-01

    We present thirteen epochs of near-infrared (0.8-5 microns) spectroscopic observations of the pre-transitional, "gapped" disk system in SAO 206462 (=HD 135344B). In all, six gas emission lines (Br(alpha) , Br(gamma), Pa(beta), Pa(delta), Pa(epsilon), and the 0.8446 microns line of O I) along with continuum measurements made near the standard J, H, K, and L photometric bands were measured. A mass accretion rate of approximately 2 x 10(exp 8)Solar Mass/yr was derived from the Br(gamma) and Pa(beta) lines. However, the fluxes of these lines varied by a factor of over two during the course of a few months. The continuum also varied, but by only approx.30%, and even decreased at a time when the gas emission was increasing. The H I line at 1.083 microns was also found to vary in a manner inconsistent with that of either the hydrogen lines or the dust. Both the gas and dust variabilities indicate significant changes in the region of the inner gas and the inner dust belt that may be common to many young disk systems. If planets are responsible for defining the inner edge of the gap, they could interact with the material on time scales commensurate with what is observed for the variations in the dust, while other disk instabilities (thermal, magneto-rotational) would operate there on longer time scales than we observe for the inner dust belt. For SAO 206462, the orbital period would likely be 1-3 years. If the changes are being induced in the disk material closer to the star than the gap, a variety of mechanisms (disk instabilities, interactions via planets) might be responsible for the changes seen. The He I feature is most likely due to a wind whose orientation changes with respect to the observer on time scales of a day or less. To further constrain the origin of the gas and dust emission will require multiple spectroscopic and interferometric observations on both shorter and longer time scales that have been sampled so far.

  11. Equatorial electrojet irregularities investigations using a 50MHz back-scatter radar and a digisonde at Sa~o Luís: some initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Denardini, C. M.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.; Muralikrishna, P.; de Paula, E. R.

    2002-08-01

    A new 50MHz coherent back-scatter radar has recently become operational at the Equatorial Space Observatory of INPE at Sa~o Luís (/2.33°S, /44.2°W, dip: /-0.5°), in Brazil, located close to the center of the equatorial electrojet. Preliminary results from a 12-day campaign in December 1999 involving this radar and a nearby digisonde are presented in this paper. The range-time-intensity (RTI) maps of electrojet irregularities show short-period (~5min or larger) fluctuations and significant day-to-day variability. A notable characteristic is the midday descent in the altitude of the RTI pattern observed on some days when the dominant Doppler spectra are of type-2. This feature is similar to the diurnal variation of the base height of the /q-type sporadic-/E-layer (h'Es-q) simultaneously observed by the digisonde. Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the RTI and type-1 and type-2 spectral intensities seem to indicate electric field modulation from winds associated with typical gravity wave periods. Large surges in the westward irregularity drift velocity, presenting a higher velocity tail to the Doppler spectral distribution, is observed at sunset concurrent with the evening /F-layer vertical uplift as observed by the digisonde. Some implications of these results on the /E- and /F-region electrodynamics are discussed.

  12. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  13. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies promote apoptosis of mature human Saos-2 osteoblasts via cell-surface binding to citrullinated heat shock protein 60.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Yu, Chia-Li; Yu, Hui-Chun; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) react with osteoblast surface citrullinated proteins and affect cell function, leading to joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). First, we purified ACPAs by cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)-conjugated affinity column chromatography. The cognate antigens of ACPAs on Saos-2 cells, a sarcoma osteogenic cell line generated from human osteoblasts, were probed by ACPAs, and the reactive bands were analyzed using proteomic analyses. We found that ACPAs bind to Saos-2 cell membrane, and several protein candidates, including HSP60, were identified. We then cloned and purified recombinant heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and citrullinated HSP60 (citHSP60) and investigated the effect of ACPAs on Saos-2 cell. We confirmed that HSP60 obtained from Saos-2 cell membrane were citrullinated and reacted with ACPAs, which induces Saos-2 cells apoptosis via binding to surface-expressed citHSP60 through Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. ACPAs promoted interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 expression in Saos-2 cells. Finally, sera from patients with RA and healthy controls were examined for their titers of anti-HSP60 and anti-citHSP60 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The radiographic change in patients with RA was evaluated using the Genant-modified Sharp scoring system. Patients with RA showed higher sera titers of anti-citHSP60, but not anti-HSP60, antibodies when compared with controls. In addition, the anti-citHSP60 level was positively associated with increased joint damage in patients with RA. In conclusion, Saos-2 cell apoptosis was mediated by ACPAs via binding to cell surface-expressed citHSP60 and the titer of anti-citHSP60 in patients with RA positively associated with joint damage.

  14. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization on collagen gels: Effect of densification and bioglass incorporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gengbo; Pastakia, Meet; Fenn, Michael B; Kishore, Vipuil

    2016-05-01

    Plastic compression is a collagen densification process that has been widely used for the development of mechanically robust collagen-based materials. Incorporation of bioglass within plastically compressed collagen gels has been shown to mimic the microstructural properties of native bone and enhance in vitro cell-mediated mineralization. The current study seeks to decouple the effects of collagen densification and bioglass incorporation to understand the interplay between collagen packing density and presence of bioglass on cell-mediated mineralization. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization was assessed as a measure of the osteoconductivity of four different collagen gels: (1) uncompressed collagen gel (UC), (2) bioglass incorporated uncompressed collagen gel (UC + BG), (3) plastically compressed collagen gel (PC), and (4) bioglass incorporated plastically compressed collagen gel (PC + BG). The results indicated that collagen densification enhanced mineralization as shown by SEM, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and produced significantly higher amounts of mineralized nodules on PC gels compared to UC gels. Further, the amount of nodule formation on PC gels was significantly higher compared to UC + BG gels indicating that increase in matrix stiffness due to collagen densification had a greater effect on cell-mediated mineralization compared to bioglass incorporation into loosely packed UC gels. Incorporation of bioglass into PC gels further enhanced mineralization as evidenced by significantly larger nodule size and higher amount of mineralization on PC + BG gels compared to PC gels. In conclusion, collagen densification via plastic compression improves the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. Further, incorporation of bioglass within PC gels has an additive effect and further enhances the osteoconductivity of collagen gels.

  15. Evolution models from the AGB to the PNe and the rapid evolution of SAO 244567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, Timothy M.; Sebzda, Steven; Peterson, Zach

    2015-08-01

    We present evolution calculations from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to the Planetary Nebula (PNe) phase for models of mass 1 M⊙ over a range of metallicities from primordial, Z = 10-14, through near solar, Z = 0.02. Using our grid of models, we determine a central star mass dependence on initial metallicity. We also present a range of low masses for our low to very low metal models. The understanding of these objects is an important part of galactic evolution and the evolution of the composition of the universe over a broad range of red shits. For our low Z models, we find key differences in how they cross the HR diagram to the PNe phase, compared with models with higher initial Z. Some of our models experience the so called AGB Final Thermal Pulse (AFTP), which is a helium pulse that occurs while leaving the AGB and causes a rapid looping evolution while evolving between the AGB and PN phase. We use these models to make comparisons to the central star of the Stingray Nebula, SAO 244567. This object has been observed to be rapidly evolving (heating) over more than the last 50 years and is the central star of the youngest known planetary nebula. These two characteristics are similar to what is expected for AFTP models. It is a short lived phase that is related to, but different than, very late thermal pulse objects such as Sakurai’s Object, FG Sge, and V605 Aql. These objects experienced a similar thermal pulse, but later on the white dwarf cooling track.

  16. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increase sensitivity of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells to cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Bi, Haiyong; Gao, Ji; Lu, Xing; Zheng, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, can activate cannabinoid receptors, which has proven anti-tumour effects in several tumour types. Studies showed that WIN can inhibit tumour cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in diverse cancers. However, the role and mechanism of WIN in osteosarcoma are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of WIN55,212-2 on osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we further explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the cell proliferation of Saos-2 was inhibited by WIN55,212-2 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. WIN55,212-2-induced Saos-2 apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, WIN55,212-2 can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in Saos-2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increased apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2 in Saos-2 cells. These findings indicated that WIN55,212-2 in combination with autophagic inhibitor or endoplasmic reticulum stress activator may shed new light on osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Limitations and drawbacks of using Preliminary Environmental Reports (PERs) as an input to Environmental Licensing in Sao Paulo State: A case study on natural gas pipeline routing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, Denis . E-mail: dkirchho@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Montano, Marcelo . E-mail: minduim@sc.usp.br; Ranieri, Victor Eduardo Lima . E-mail: vranieri@sc.usp.br; Dutra de Oliveira, Isabel Silva . E-mail: beldutra@sc.usp.br; Doberstein, Brent . E-mail: bdoberst@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Pereira de Souza, Marcelo . E-mail: mps@sc.usp.br

    2007-05-15

    This article discusses the limitations and implications to environmental management issues posed by the Environmental Licensing approach adopted in Sao Paulo State. In Brazil, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an essential precondition to the Environmental Licensing of activities and, in fact, it has been the most important and required tool for the licensing of projects. However, in 1994 the State of Sao Paulo implemented a simplified instrument called a 'Preliminary Environmental Report' in order to make the environmental licensing process faster. Since then, the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) has had the role of indicating whether an EIA needs to be elaborated upon or not. The positives and negatives regarding technical, institutional and legal aspects related to the use of Preliminary Environmental Reports (rather than EIA) are discussed using the case study of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline between the cities of Sao Carlos and Porto Ferreira in the State of Sao Paulo. The main conclusion is that the Environmental Licensing process in Sao Paulo should not use PERs as the sole input to decision making about proposed activities, since the PER approach does not guarantee that the proposed activity is environmentally suitable, does not address locational issues or comparison of alternatives, and risk assessment issues are not considered in the earliest stages of assessment.

  18. Induction of carbonic anhydrase in SaOS-2 cells, exposed to bicarbonate and consequences for calcium phosphate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Grebenjuk, Vlad A; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-11-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite crystals constitute the mineralic matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate dominates the inorganic matrix of otoliths. In addition, Ca-carbonate has been identified in lower percentage in apatite crystals. By using the human osteogenic SaOS-2 cells it could be shown that after exposure of the cells to Ca-bicarbonate in vitro, at concentrations between 1 and 10 mm, a significant increase of Ca-deposit formation results. The crystallite nodules formed on the surfaces of SaOS-2 cells become denser and larger in the presence of bicarbonate if simultaneously added together with the mineralization activation cocktail (β-glycerophosphate/ascorbic acid/dexamethasone). In parallel, with the increase of Ca-deposit formation, the expression of the carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) gene becomes upregulated. This effect, measured on transcriptional level is also substantiated by immunohistological studies. The stimulatory effect of bicarbonate on Ca-deposit formation is prevented if the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide is added to the cultures. Mapping the surface of the Ca-deposit producing SaOS-2 cells by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis revealed an accumulation of the signals for the element carbon and, as expected, also for phosphorus. Finally, it is shown that ortho-phosphate and hydrolysis products of polyphosphate inhibit CA-II activity, suggesting a feedback regulatory system between the CA-driven Ca-carbonate deposition and a subsequent inactivation of this process by ortho-phosphate. Based on the presented data we suggest that Ca-carbonate deposits act as bioseeds for a downstream Ca-phosphate deposition process. We propose that activators for CA, especially for CA-II, might be beneficial for the treatment of bone deficiency diseases.

  19. Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, I. I.; Balega, Y. Y.; Maksimov, A. F.; Pluzhnik, E. A.; Shkhagosheva, Z. U.; Vasyuk, V. A.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary stars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m Big Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89 observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on the smaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. The measured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTA diffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

  20. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  1. [Polarization reversal in the development of Brazilian metropolises? An analysis based on demographic indicators, using the example of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Bahr, J; Wehrhahn, R

    1995-01-01

    "Using the example of Sao Paulo, this paper addresses itself to the question of how far the decrease in growth rates one observes in large Brazilian metropolises can be interpreted as a process of polarization reversal. The analysis is carried out on the basis of demographic data from small area units, which include the results from the most recent 1991 census. Although it had already been possible in the 1970s to discern first indications of such a process setting in, in the decade 1981-91 indicators of population growth and migration balances agree in pointing to a polarization reversal." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  2. Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sato, Maria Ines Z; Galvani, Ana Tereza; Padula, Jose Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Hachich, Elayse Maria

    2013-01-01

    A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk.

  3. Downward Link of Solar Activity Variations Through Wave Driven Equatorial Oscillations (QBO and SAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Signatures of the 11-year solar activity/irradiance cycle are observed in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the lower stratosphere. At these altitudes, the QBO is understood to be the result of "downward control" exerted by the wave mean flow interactions that drive the phenomenon. It is reasonable then to speculate that the QBO is a natural conduit to lower altitudes of solar activity variations in radiance (SAV). To test this hypothesis, we conducted experiments with a 2D version of our Numerical Spectral Model that incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). To account for the SAV, we change the solar heating rate on a logarithmic scale from 0.1% at the surface to 1% at 50 kin to 10% at 100 km. With the same GW flux, we then conduct numerical experiments to evaluate the magnitude of the solar activity irradiance effect (SAE) on the zonal circulation at low latitudes. The numerical results obtained show that, under certain conditions, the SAE is significant in the zonal circulation and does extend to lower altitudes where the SAV is small. The differences in the wind velocities can be as large as 5 m/s at 20 kin. We carried out two numerical experiments with integrations over more than 20 years: 1) With the QBO period "tuned" to be 30 months, of academic interest but instructive, the seasonal cycle in the solar forcing [through the Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO)] acts as a strong pacemaker to produce a firm lock on the period and phase of the QBO. The SAE then shows up primarily as a distinct but relatively weak amplitude modulation. 2) With the QBO period between 30 and 34 (or less than 30, presumably) months, the seasonal phase lock is weak compared with (1). The SAV in the seasonal cycle then causes variations in the QBO period and phase, and this amplifies the SAE to produce relatively large variations in the wind field. We conclude that, under realistic conditions as in (2), the solar seasonal forcing, with

  4. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  5. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  6. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Guenther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  7. Green tea polyphenols-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells involves a caspase-dependent mechanism with downregulation of nuclear factor-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Wang, Naizhen; Gupta, Sanjay; Zhang, Ailin; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2006-10-01

    Development of chemotherapy resistance and evasion from apoptosis in osteosarcoma, a primary malignant bone tumor, is often correlated with constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Here, we investigated the ability of a polyphenolic fraction of green tea (GTP) that has been shown to have antitumor effects on various malignant cell lines to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with GTP (20-60 microg/ml) resulted in reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which correlated with decreased nuclear DNA binding of NF-kappaB/p65 and lowering of NF-kappaB/p65 and p50 levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus. GTP treatment of cells reduced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation but had no effect on its protein expression. Furthermore, GTP treatment resulted in the inhibition of IKK-alpha and IKK-beta, the upstream kinases that phosphorylate IkappaB-alpha. The increase in apoptosis in SAOS-2 cells was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 and concomitant increase in the levels of Bax. GTP treatment of SAOS-2 cells also resulted in significant activation of caspases as was evident by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 in these cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with a specific caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO) and general caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) rescued SAOS-2 cells from GTP-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that GTP is a candidate therapeutic for osteosarcoma that mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-kappaB.

  8. Green tea polyphenols-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells involves a caspase-dependent mechanism with downregulation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Hafeez, Bilal; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Wang, Naizhen; Gupta, Sanjay; Zhang Ailin; Haqqi, Tariq M. . E-mail: txh5@case.edu

    2006-10-01

    Development of chemotherapy resistance and evasion from apoptosis in osteosarcoma, a primary malignant bone tumor, is often correlated with constitutive nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) activation. Here, we investigated the ability of a polyphenolic fraction of green tea (GTP) that has been shown to have antitumor effects on various malignant cell lines to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with GTP (20-60 {mu}g/ml) resulted in reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which correlated with decreased nuclear DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and lowering of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and p50 levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus. GTP treatment of cells reduced I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation but had no effect on its protein expression. Furthermore, GTP treatment resulted in the inhibition of IKK-{alpha} and IKK-{beta}, the upstream kinases that phosphorylate I{kappa}B-{alpha}. The increase in apoptosis in SAOS-2 cells was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 and concomitant increase in the levels of Bax. GTP treatment of SAOS-2 cells also resulted in significant activation of caspases as was evident by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 in these cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with a specific caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO) and general caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) rescued SAOS-2 cells from GTP-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that GTP is a candidate therapeutic for osteosarcoma that mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor-2 inhibits mineralization of osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells by inhibiting the functioning of matrix vesicles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhenxing; Han, Jinxiang

    2014-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) inhibits osteoblast mineralization, but the mechanism by which it does so is not fully understood. Matrix vesicles (MVs) play an essential role in the initiation of mineralization, so the current study examined the effect of FGF2 on the functioning of MVs to investigate this mechanism. This study found that FGF2 significantly inhibited differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, as indicated by down-regulation of mRNA expression of the osteogenic master regulator runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and collagen 1 alpha 1 (Colla1), and by decreasing the formation of bone nodules. MVs were isolated from Saos-2 cells cultured in osteogenic medium supplemented with and without FGF2 and their presence was verified using electron microscopy and Western blotting. FGF2 markedly reduced the ALP activity of and in vitro mineralization by MVs. These findings suggest that FGF2 inhibits osteoblast mineralization by limiting the capacity of MVs.

  10. MicroRNA-21 Inhibits the Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cell Line SAOS-2 Via Targeting Caspase-8.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Xia, Hehuan; Cao, Junming; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yipeng; Lin, Yongsheng

    2017-01-20

    Currently, multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found play vital roles in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. This studywas aimed to investigate the role of miR-21 in osteosarcoma. The level of miR-21 in 20 pairs of osteosarcoma and correspondingly adjacent tissues were monitored by qPCR. Human osteosarcoma cells line SAOS-2 was transfected with either miR-21 mimic or miR-21 inhibitor, and then cell viability, survival and apoptosis were respectively measured by MTT, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry. A target of miR-21 was predicted by microRNA.org database and verified in vitro by using luciferase reporter, qPCR and Western blot analyses. Finally, cells were co-transfected with siRNA against caspase-8 and miR-21 inhibitor, and the apoptotic cells rate was determined again. Results showed that, the mRNA level of miR-21 was highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissues compared with in adjacent tissues. Overexpression of miR-21 improved cell viability and survival, but suppressed apoptosis. Caspase-8 was a direct target of miR-21, and it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Moreover, miR-21 suppression attenuated caspase-8 silencing-induced the decrease of apoptosis. In conclusion, overexpression of miR-21 suppressed SAOS-2 cells apoptosis via directly targeting caspase-8.

  11. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Arbon, Kate S; Christensen, Cody M; Harvey, Wendy A; Heggland, Sara J

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10μM CdCl(2) for 2-72h. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl(2) and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl(2) and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl(2) exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl(2). Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity.

  12. [Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?].

    PubMed

    Takitane, Juliana; de Oliveira, Lucio Garcia; Endo, Ligia Góes; de Oliveira, Keziah Cristina Barbosa Gruber; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Yonamine, Mauricio; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-05-01

    The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134) were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to traffic accidents and the related effects.

  13. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  14. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  15. SaOS-2 cell response to macro-porous boron-incorporated TiO2 coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianli; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Liu, Xujie; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop boron-incorporated TiO2 coating (B-TiO2 coating) through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently evaluate the effect of boron incorporation on the in vitro biological performance of the coatings. The physicochemical properties of B-TiO2 coating and its response to osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2) were investigated compared to the control group without boron (TiO2 coating). The morphological and X-ray diffraction results showed that both coatings exhibited similar surface topography and phase composition, respectively. However, the incorporation of B led to an enhancement in the surface hydrophilicity of B-TiO2 coating. The spreading of SaOS-2 cells on B-TiO2 coating was faster than that on TiO2 coating. The proliferation rate of SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 decreased after 5days of culture compared to that on TiO2 coating. SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 coating exhibited an enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Collagen I synthesis and in vitro mineralization compared to those on TiO2 coating. The present findings suggest that B-TiO2 coating is a promising candidate surface for orthopedic implants.

  16. The regulatory role of B cell maturation antigen on the toxic effect of chromium ions on human SaOS-2 osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D H; Yang, Q; Zhou, J S; Zhang, Z W; Miao, M Y; Yang, S S; Xu, W D

    2015-05-25

    Metal prostheses of artificial joints undergo wear, producing numerous metal particles and ions, such as Cr(3+) . Cr(3+) is considered a key factor leading to aseptic loosening. Many studies focus on the effect of Cr(3+) on osteoblasts; however, little is known about the effect of Cr(3+) on the B cell maturation antigen in the osteoblasts. In this study, we first demonstrated the B cell maturation antigen expressed in human SaOS-2 osteoblasts through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunocytochemical analyses. Cr(3+) decreased alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, cell mineralization, and collagen type I mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, Cr(3+) has an inhibitive effect on the expression of the B cell maturation antigen in human SaOS-2 osteoblasts. However, after we up-regulated the expression of the B cell maturation antigen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, cell mineralization, and collagen type I mRNA and protein expression were increased. Overall, this study demonstrates that the B cell maturation antigen is involved in human SaOS-2 osteoblast osteogenetic metabolism and plays a regulatory role on the toxic effect of chromium ions on human SaOS-2 osteoblasts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The Preparation for the Equivalence Examinations, First and Second Levels in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Traditional Means and Educational Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Bernardete A.

    1988-01-01

    Yearly in Sao Paulo (Brazil), official external examinations allow students outside the regular school system to obtain a certificate of education equivalent to grade 8 or 11. A television program that prepares candidates for the examinations and other forms of preparation are compared, using data collected for three years. (TJH)

  18. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  19. Ozone modeling in an ethanol, gasoline and diesel fuels environment: The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, M.F.; Miguel, A.H.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Over the past several years, in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), ambient ozone concentrations have reached over five times the concentration considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization, with routine occurrence of levels that exceed Brazil`s 1 hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard (160 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). For the past 19 years, ethanol has been used both as fuel (E95) and as gasoline additive (E20G80) in light duty vehicles. This talk will discuss the results of the application of the CIT photochemical airshed model to the February 16-17, 1989 meteorological experiment carried out in the MASP. Simulated hourly ozone concentrations for the 1989 vehicular fleet included three cases: (1) the actual fleet (F.95, E20G80, and diesels), (2) a light duty fleet fueled with E95 only, and (3) entirely with gasoline.

  20. [Journal of the Nursing School of the University of Sao Paulo -- 36 years looking after the quality of nursing care].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Angelo, Margareth; Castilho, Valéria; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo; Trzeniak, Piotr

    2004-03-01

    REEUSP has been a trimestrial journal since 1998, which publishes 11 to 13 articles per issue on different nursing subareas; most of them on teaching, health technology, adult health (in its different specialties), mental and psychiatric health. The article and research emphasis keeps on the hospital. For being linked to a teaching unit, it presents quality on its publishing; many times produced from thesis and dissertations. It faces the challenge of stimulating the publishing of authors from other institutions; for not becoming endogenous. On the last 10 years, it received and published articles from 18 Brazilian states and several country cities from Sao Paulo State. Its graphic design was also remodeled for 2003, allowing higher clearness and easiness for reading. It accepts exchange with other journals and it is indexed on many basis. It was gotten a C international classification by CAPES.

  1. Characteristics of minerals in vesicles produced by human osteoblasts hFOB 1.19 and osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells stimulated for mineralization.

    PubMed

    Strzelecka-Kiliszek, Agnieszka; Bozycki, Lukasz; Mebarek, Saida; Buchet, Rene; Pikula, Slawomir

    2017-03-29

    Bone cells control initial steps of mineralization by producing extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and releasing vesicles that trigger apatite nucleation. Using transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (TEM-EDX) we compared the quality of minerals in vesicles produced by two distinct human cell lines: fetal osteoblastic hFOB 1.19 and osteosarcoma Saos-2. Both cell lines, subjected to osteogenic medium with ascorbic acid (AA) and β-glycerophosphate (β-GP), undergo the entire osteoblastic differentiation program from proliferation to mineralization, produce the ECM and spontaneously release vesicles. We observed that Saos-2 cells mineralized better than hFOB 1.19, as probed by Alizarin Red-S (AR-S) staining, tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) activity and by analyzing the composition of minerals in vesicles. Vesicles released from Saos-2 cells contained and were surrounded by more minerals than vesicles released from hFOB 1.19. In addition, there were more F and Cl substituted apatites in vesicles from hFOB 1.19 than in those from Saos-2 cells as determined by ion ratios. Saos-2 and h-FOB 1.19 cells revealed distinct mineralization profiles, indicating that the process of mineralization may proceed differently in various types of cells. Our findings suggest that TNAP activity is correlated with the relative proportions of mineral-filled vesicles and mineral-surrounded vesicles. The origin of vesicles and their properties predetermine the onset of mineralization at the cellular level.

  2. Silicate modulates the cross-talk between osteoblasts (SaOS-2) and osteoclasts (RAW 264.7 cells): inhibition of osteoclast growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H C; Wang, X H; Wiens, M; Diehl-Seifert, B; Kropf, K; Schloßmacher, U; Müller, W E G

    2012-10-01

    It has been shown that inorganic monomeric and polymeric silica/silicate, in the presence of the biomineralization cocktail, increases the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in osteogenic SaOS-2 sarcoma cells in vitro. In contrast, silicate does not affect the steady-state gene expression level of the osteoclastogenic ligand receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). In turn it can be expected that the concentration ratio of the mediators OPG/RANKL increases in the presence of silicate. In addition, silicate enhances the growth potential of SaOS-2 cells in vitro, while it causes no effect on RAW 264.7 cells within a concentration range of 10-100 µM. Applying a co-cultivation assay system, using SaOS-2 cells and RAW 264.7 cells, it is shown that in the presence of 10 µM silicate the number of RAW 264.7 cells in general, and the number of TRAP(+) RAW 264.7 cells in particular markedly decreases. The SaOS-2 cells retain their capacity of differential gene expression of OPG and RANKL in favor of OPG after exposure to silicate. It is concluded that after exposure of the cells to silicate a factor(s) is released from SaOS-2 cells that causes a significant inhibition of osteoclastogenesis of RAW 264.7 cells. It is assumed that it is an increased secretion of the cytokine OPG that is primarily involved in the reduction of the osteoclastogenesis of the RAW 264.7 cells. It is proposed that silicate might have the potential to stimulate osteogenesis in vivo and perhaps to ameliorate osteoporotic disorders.

  3. Morphogenetic activity of silica and bio-silica on the expression of genes controlling biomineralization using SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Boreiko, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaohong; Krasko, Anatoli; Geurtsen, Werner; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Winkler, Thomas; Lukić-Bilela, Lada; Link, Thorben; Schröder, Heinz C

    2007-11-01

    In a previous study (Schröder et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 75:387-392, 2005) we demonstrated that human SaOS-2 cells, when cultivated on bio-silica matrices, respond with an increased hydroxyapatite deposition. In the present contribution we investigate if silica-based components (Na-silicate, tetraethyl orthosilicate [TEOS], silica-nanoparticles) (1) change the extent of biomineralization in vitro (SaOS-2 cells) and (2) cause an alteration of the expression of the genes amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin, which are characteristic for an early stage of osteogenesis. We demonstrate that the viability of SaOS-2 cells was not affected by the silica-based components. If Na-silicate or TEOS was added together with ss-glycerophosphate, an organic phosphate donor, a significant increase in biomineralization was measured. Finally, expression levels of the amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin genes were determined in SaOS-2 cells during exposure to the silica-based components. After exposure for 2 days, expression levels of amelogenin and enamelin strongly increased in response to the silica-based components, while no significant change was seen for ameloblastin. In contrast, exposure of SaOS-2 cells to ss-glycerophosphate resulted in increased expression of all three genes. We conclude that the levels of the structural molecules of the enamel matrix, amelogenin and enamelin, increase in the presence of silica-based components and substantially contribute to the extent of hydroxyapatite crystallite formation. These results demonstrate that silica-based components augment hydroxyapatite deposition in vitro and suggest that enzymatically synthesized bio-silica (via silicatein) might be a promising route for tooth reconstruction in vivo.

  4. A Comparison between Cytotoxicity Induced by Two Resin Based Sealers (2Seal and AH Plus) in Saos-2 and MG-63 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Gharouee, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity induced by two resin-based sealers, 2Seal and AH Plus, in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and Saos-2. Using sterile discs of both sealers in complete media, 24- and 72-h extracts were prepared. The extracts were exchanged with Saos-2 or MG-63 cell culture media at 75% confluence, and after 24 h incubation, cell viability tests were performed for each extract and cell line using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Corresponding incubated media were used as negative control groups. For both extracts and sealers, cytotoxicity was observed in both cell lines. For Saos-2, there was no statistical difference in toxicity between the sealers for either extract (p > 0.05). For MG-63, the 2Seal 24-h extract and the AH Plus 72-h extract had greater cytotoxicity than the other extracts (p < 0.05(. Both AH Plus and 2Seal demonstrated significant cytotoxicity in these two cell lines. In contrast to 2Seal, the cytotoxicity of AH Plus in the MG-63 cell line increased with extraction time from 24 to 72 h. The AH Plus and 2Seal 24-h extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cell line, while in the Saos-2 cell line there were no detectable differences. This may reflect higher sensitivity of the MG-63 cell line compared to Saos-2 toward cytotoxicity induced by these two sealers, or different kinetics of toxicant release from the sealers.

  5. Upregulation of cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on magnesium alloy surface coating with tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianlong; Guo, Lei; Ni, Shenghui; Zhao, Yuyan

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been demonstrated to be viable orthopedic implants because of mechanical and biocompatible properties similar to natural bone. In order to improve its osteogenic properties, a porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was coated on the Mg-3AI-1Zn alloy by alkali-heat treatment technique. The human bone-derived cells (SaOS-2) were cultured on (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn in vitro, and the osteoblast response, the morphology and the elements on this alloy surface were investigated. Also, the regulation of key intracellular signalling proteins was investigated in the SaOS-2 cells cultured on alloy surface. The results from scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn induced significant osteogenesis. SaOS-2 cell proliferation was improved by β-TCP coating. Moreover, the (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn surface induced activation of key intracellular signalling proteins in SaOS-2 cells. We observed an enhanced activation of Src homology and collagen (Shc), a common point of integration between bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation was also upregulated, suggesting a role in mediating osteoblastic cell interactions with biomaterials. The signalling pathway involving c-fos (member of the activated protein-1) was also shown to be upregulated in osteoblasts cultured on the (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn. These results suggest that β-TCP coating may contribute to successful osteoblast function on Mg alloy surface. (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn may upregulate cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on Mg alloy surface.

  6. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  7. Validation of OMI total ozone retrievals from the SAO ozone profile algorithm and three operational algorithms with Brewer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.; Chance, K.; Haffner, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of total ozone computed from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) optimal estimation (OE) ozone profile algorithm (SOE) applied to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is assessed through comparisons with ground-based Brewer spectrometer measurements from 2005 to 2008. We also compare the three OMI operational ozone products, derived from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) algorithm, the KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm, and KNMI's Optimal Estimation (KOE) algorithm. The best agreement is observed between SAO and Brewer, with a mean difference of within 1% at most individual stations. The KNMI OE algorithm systematically overestimates Brewer total ozone by 2% at low and mid-latitudes and 5% at high latitudes while the TOMS and DOAS algorithms underestimate it by ~1.65% on average. Standard deviations of ~1.8% are calculated for both SOE and TOMS, but DOAS and KOE have higher values of 2.2% and 2.6%, respectively. The stability of the SOE algorithm is found to have insignificant dependence on viewing geometry, cloud parameters, or total ozone column. In comparison, the KOE-Brewer differences are significantly correlated with solar and viewing zenith angles and show significant deviations depending on cloud parameters and total ozone amount. The TOMS algorithm exhibits similar stability to SOE with respect to viewing geometry and total column ozone, but has stronger cloud parameter dependence. The dependence of DOAS on observational geometry and geophysical conditions is marginal compared to KOE, but is distinct compared to the SOE and TOMS algorithms. Comparisons of all four OMI products with Brewer show no apparent long-term drift, but seasonal features are evident, especially for KOE and TOMS. The substantial differences in the KOE vs. SOE algorithm performance cannot be sufficiently explained by the use of soft calibration (in SOE) and the use of

  8. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05). Genera Pen/Asp were correlated to the total mass of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05) and colorless ascospores were correlated to humidity ( p < 0.05). Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  9. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  10. Comparison of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and in situ sea level data at Sao Tome Island, Gulf of Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Jean-Marc; Park, Young-Hyang

    1995-12-01

    In situ sea level data from a shallow pressure tide gauge (mean depth 3.21 m) at Sao Tome Island, Gulf of Guinea, and altimeter data from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) were analyzed and compared. The Texas model, a T/P-derived tide model, is used for the tidal correction of altimeter data. Sea level anomaly time series from both data sets were low-pass filtered by using a Gaussian recurrent interpolation scheme, suppressing high-frequency fluctuations of periods much less than 2 months. According to the 1992-1993 Sao Tome tide gauge data, a clear seasonal signal was observed both in 1992 and in 1993, presenting two sea level maxima in February and October and two minima in June and December. These sea level variations are consistent with the known seasonal mean sea level cycle of the area, most of which can be explained by steric sea level changes due to the seasonal cycle of upper 500-m water column properties in the Gulf of Guinea. On the basis of the 60-day low-passed tide gauge time series, significant year to year variations were observed as well, with a 6.3-cm sea level difference in February (+8.1 cm in 1992 versus +1.8 cm in 1993) and a 4.4-cm difference in October (+4.6 cm in 1992 versus +9.0 cm in 1993). Minimum sea levels, occurring just prior to the upwelling season (July-August), were almost the same for both years (-9 to -10 cm) but lasted much longer in 1992 (2 months) than in 1993 (2 weeks). During the 15-month period of concomitant observations, from October 1992 to December 1993, these seasonal and year to year sea level variations are remarkably well reproduced by the T/P sea level time series, with an rms difference of 2.2 cm and a correlation coefficient of 0.88. This result in the equatorial Atlantic is consistent with other intercomparisons in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This excellent recovery of the oceanic signal is undoubtedly the result of unprecedented high precision of T/P measurements and the reliable T/P-derived tide model that is used in

  11. Influence of SaOS-2 cells on corrosion behavior of cast Mg-2.0Zn0.98Mn magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Yamamoto, Akiko; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the effect of the presence of living cells (SaOS-2) on in vitro degradation of Mg-2.0Zn-0.98Mn (ZM21) magnesium alloy was examined by two methods simple immersion/cell culture tests and electrochemical measurements (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization) under cell culture conditions. In immersion/cell culture tests, when SaOS-2 cells were cultured on ZM21 samples, pH of cell culture medium decreased, therefore weight loss and Mg(2+) ion release from the samples increased. Electrochemical measurements revealed the presence of living cells increased corrosion rate (Icorr) and decreased polarization resistance (Rp) after 48h of incubation. This acceleration of ZM21 corrosion can mainly be attributed to the decrease of medium pH due to cellular metabolic activities.

  12. Development of a morphogenetically active scaffold for three-dimensional growth of bone cells: biosilica-alginate hydrogel for SaOS-2 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Schlossmacher, Ute; Link, Thorben; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    Polymeric silica is formed from ortho-silicate during a sol-gel formation process, while biosilica is the product of an enzymatically driven bio-polycondensation reaction. Both polymers have recently been described as a template that induces an increased expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoprotegerin in osteoblast-related SaOS-2 cells; simultaneously or subsequently the cells respond with enhanced hydroxyapatite formation. In order to assess whether the biocompatible polymeric silica/biosilica can serve as a morphogenetically active matrix suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cell growth, or even for 3D cell bioprinting, SaOS-2 cells were embedded into a Na-alginate-based hydrogel. Four different gelatinous hydrogel matrices were used for suspending SaOS-2 cells: (a) the hydrogel alone; (b) the hydrogel with 400 μM ortho-silicate; (c) the hydrogel supplemented with 400 μM ortho-silicate and recombinant silicatein to allow biosilica synthesis to occur; and (d) the hydrogel with ortho-silicate and BSA. The SaOS-2 cells showed an increased growth if silica/biosilica components were present in the hydrogel. Likewise intensified was the formation of hydroxyapatite nodules in the silica-containing hydrogels. After an incubation period of 2 weeks, cells present in silica-containing hydrogels showed a significantly higher expression of the genes encoding the cytokine BMP-2, the major fibrillar structural protein collagen 1 and likewise of carbonic anhydrase. It is concluded that silica, and to a larger extent biosilica, retains its morphogenetic/osteogenic potential after addition to Na-alginate-based hydrogels. This property might qualify silica hydrogels to be also used as a matrix for 3D cell printing.

  13. Dietary diversity, socioeconomic status and maternal body mass index (BMI): quantile regression analysis of nationally representative data from Ghana, Namibia and Sao Tome and Principe

    PubMed Central

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Dimbuene, Zacharie T; Bakibinga, Pauline; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Mberu, Blessing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To (a) assess the association between dietary diversity (DD) score, socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal body mass index (BMI), and (b) the variation of the effects of DD and SES at different points of the conditional distribution of the BMI. Methods The study used Demographic and Health Surveys round 5 data sets from Ghana, Namibia and Sao Tome and Principe. The outcome variable for the analysis was maternal BMI. The DD score was computed using 24-hour dietary recall data. Quantile regression (QR) was used to examine the relationship between DD and SES, and maternal BMI, adjusting for other covariates. The QR allows the covariate effects to vary across the entire distribution of maternal BMI. Results Women who consumed an additional unit of DD achieved an increase of 0.245 in BMI for those in the 90th quantile in Ghana. The effect of household wealth increases for individuals across all quantiles of the BMI distribution and in all the 3 countries. A unit change in the household wealth score was associated with an increase of 0.038, 0.052 and 0.065 units increase in BMI for individuals in the 5th quantile in Ghana, Namibia and Sao Tome and Principe, respectively. Also, 0.237, 0.301 and 0.174 units increased for those in the 90th quantile in Ghana, Namibia and Sao Tome and Principe, respectively. Education had a significant positive effect on maternal BMI across all quantiles in Namibia and negative effect at the 5th, 10th and 90th quantiles in Sao Tome and Principe. Conclusions There is heterogeneity in the effects of DD and SES on maternal BMI. Studies focusing on the effects of diet and socioeconomic determinants on maternal BMI should examine patterns of effects at different points of the conditional distribution of the BMI and not just the average effect. PMID:27678544

  14. Determinación de la orientación global SAO-Hipparcos mediante una expansión en armónicos vectoriales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, R. G.; Vucetich, H.; Orellana, R.; Arias, E. F.

    En base a las diferencias de posición y movimientos propios de 101352 estrellas con posición SAO observadas por HIPPARCOS y utilizando la naturaleza vectorial de esas diferencias, determinamos 6 parámetros de orientación global (3 de rotación y 3 de desplazamiento axial), para los sistemas de referencia asociados a los marcos mencionados, mediante una descomposición en serie de armónicos vectoriales ortogonales.

  15. Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the protocol for an epidemiological and genetic survey

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Quintana, Maria Ines; Guindalini, Camila; Breen, Gerome; Blay, Sergio Luis; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Harpham, Trudy; Jorge, Miguel Roberto; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Moriyama, Tais S; Quarantini, Lucas C; Gadelha, Ary; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Yeh, Mary SL; Prince, Martin; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mello, Marcelo F; Dewey, Michael E; Ferri, Cleusa P; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Background violence is a public health major concern, and it is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric outcomes. Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world, and has an extreme social inequality. Research on the association between violence and mental health may support public health policy and thus reduce the burden of disease attributable to violence. The main objectives of this project were: to study the association between violence and mental disorders in the Brazilian population; to estimate the prevalence rates of exposure to violence, post-traumatic stress disorder, common metal disorder, and alcohol hazardous use and dependence: and to identify contextual and individual factors, including genetic factors, associated with the outcomes. Methods/design one phase cross-sectional survey carried out in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A multistage probability to size sampling scheme was performed in order to select the participants (3000 and 1500 respectively). The cities were stratified according to homicide rates, and in Sao Paulo the three most violent strata were oversampled. The measurements included exposure to traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses (CIDI 2.1), contextual (homicide rates and social indicators), and individual factors, such as demographics, social capital, resilience, help seeking behaviours. The interviews were carried between June/2007 February/2008, by a team of lay interviewers. The statistical analyses will be weight-adjusted in order to take account of the design effects. Standardization will be used in order to compare the results between the two centres. Whole genome association analysis will be performed on the 1 million SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays, and additional association analysis will be performed on additional phenotypes. The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of Sao Paulo approved the study, and participants who matched diagnostic criteria have been

  16. Assessing the Health Benefits of Urban Air Pollution Reductions Associated with Climate Change Mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the potential local health benefits of adopting greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, developed scenarios of GHG mitigation for Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and New York, New York, USA using air pollution health impact factors appropriate to each city. These findings illustrated that GHG mitigation can provide considerable local air pollution-related public health benefits to countries that choose to abate GHG emissions by reducing fossil fuel combustion.

  17. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  18. In Vitro Effects of PDGF Isoforms (AA, BB, AB and CC) on Migration and Proliferation of SaOS-2 Osteoblasts and on Migration of Human Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Casati, Lavinia; Giancola, Rinaldo; Castano, Stefano M; Antonini, Guido; Sacchi, Maria Cristina; Negri-Cesi, Paola

    2009-12-01

    PDGF is a major constituent of platelet rich plasma (PRP), responsible of chemotactic and possibly of mitogenic effects of PRP on osteoblasts. PDGF family includes 5 isoforms: PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC and PDGF-DD, all expressed in platelets except PDGF-DD. Aim of this study was to analyze the effect of recombinant hPDGF-A, -AB, -B and -C, on migration and proliferation of a human osteoblastic cell line, SaOS-2. Preliminary observations on cell migration were also done in primary cultures of human osteoblasts. In vitro microchemotaxis and (3)H-thymidine mitogenic assays were used. While PDGF-AB is active at concentrations present in PRP, PDGF-AA and BB are chemotactic only at much higher doses. PDGF-C is totally inactive alone or together with the active isoforms. PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB and PDGF-C stimulate SaOS-2 proliferation only at the highest dose tested, while PDGF-AB is ineffective. Primary osteoblasts are less sensitive than SaOS-2 and progressively lose responsiveness with increasing passages in culture, in line with loss of cell differentiation. The different PDGF isoforms act differentially on osteoblasts, the-AB isoform appearing the major responsible of the PRP chemiotaxis. PDGF, at the concentrations present in PRP, does not affect cell proliferation.

  19. Expression of extracellular calcium (Ca2 + o)-sensing receptor in the clonal osteoblast-like cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Kifor, O.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2 + o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. More recent data have suggested the presence of this receptor in additional tissues, such as brain, intestine and skin. In this study, we examined the expression of the CaR in the rat and human osteosarcoma cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2, respectively, which possess osteoblast-like characteristics. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using a polyclonal antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in UMR-106 and SAOS-2 cells. The use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products, also identified CaR transcripts in each cell line. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblast-like cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2, possess both CaR protein and mRNA very similar if not identical to those in parathyroid and kidney.

  20. Effects of tick saliva on the migratory and invasive activity of Saos-2 osteosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Poole, Nina M; Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Kramer, Carolyn; Coons, Lewis B; Cole, Judith A

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies we showed that tick saliva modulates the migratory activity of cells involved in the wound healing response. Since cell migration is a prerequisite for tumor invasion and metastasis, we examined the effects of tick saliva on the migratory and invasive activity of Saos-2 osteosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 (MB-231) breast cancer cells and the potential signaling pathways that may be affected. Saliva inhibited basal and agonist-induced Saos-2 and MB-231 migration and invasion through a matrigel-coated filter. In the Saos-2 cells, saliva suppressed epidermal growth factor (EGF)-activation of Akt/Protein Kinase B, however, only basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity was affected in MB-231 cells. EGF receptor (EGFR) overexpression masked the effect of saliva on MB-231 cells, but its ability to inhibit MB-231 migration was enhanced by the EGFR inhibitor PD 168393 and MEK inhibitor U0126. Our data indicate that the mechanisms ticks have evolved to regulate the wound healing response have generalized effects on the migratory and invasive activities of metastatic cancer cells.

  1. HMGB1 Osteo-Modulatory Action on Osteosarcoma SaOS-2 Cell Line: An Integrated Study From Biochemical and -Omics Approaches.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Simona; Patrone, Mauro; Manfredi, Marcello; Gosetti, Fabio; Pedrazzi, Marco; Marengo, Emilio; Ranzato, Elia

    2016-11-01

    High mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is released from cells under various pathological conditions and it plays a pivotal role as an alarmin signaling tissue damage. Little is known about the impact of HMGB1 in bone repair and remodeling. To this aim, we focused on HMGB1-induced effects on the in vitro osteoblast model SaOS-2. Cell proliferation was stimulated with a maximum at concentration of 2.5 nM, and such a dose also stimulated cell migration and scratch wound healing. We then characterized the modulatory effect of HMGB1 on bone biology, by using osteogenesis/mineralization assays, a PCR array, and the analysis of a series of osteogenic markers. We performed also a proteomic screening using SWATH-MS on SaOS-2 cell exposed to HMGB1 and we provide evidence for proteins modulated in HMGB1 exposed cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that SaOS-2 cell proliferation, migration, and osteogenic differentiation were increased by HMGB1. We, therefore, propose that HMGB1 could be a potent bone-remodeling signal but the physiological meaning of this property remains to be more ascertained. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2559-2569, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modulation of the initial mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells by carbonic anhydrase activators and polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-05-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals constitute the mineral matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate is the predominant mineral of many invertebrates, like mollusks. Recent results suggest that CaCO₃ is also synthesized during early bone formation. We demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase-driven CaCO₃ formation in vitro is activated by organic extracts from the demosponge Suberites domuncula as well as by quinolinic acid, one component isolated from these extracts. Further results revealed that the stimulatory effect of bicarbonate (HCO₃ (-)) ions on mineralization of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is strongly enhanced if the cells are exposed to inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a linear polymer of phosphate linked by energy-rich phosphodiester bonds. The effect of polyP, administered as polyP (Ca²⁺ salt), on HA formation was found to be amplified by addition of the carbonic anhydrase-activating sponge extract or quinolinic acid. Our results support the assumption that CaCO₃ deposits, acting as bio-seeds for Ca-carbonated phosphate formation, are formed as an intermediate during HA mineralization and that the carbonic anhydrase-mediated formation of those deposits is under a positive-negative feedback control by bone alkaline phosphatase-dependent polyP metabolism, offering new targets for therapy of bone diseases/defects.

  3. Estrogenic activity of osthole and imperatorin in MCF-7 cells and their osteoblastic effects in Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Min; Li, Yuan; Xin, Hai-Liang; Hou, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Nai-Dai; Xu, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in phytoestrogens due to their potential medical usage in hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro effects of estrogen-like activities of two widespread coumarins, osthole and imperatorin, using the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay and their alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in osteoblasts Saos-2 cells. The two compounds were found to strongly stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The estrogen receptor-regulated ERα, progesterone receptor (PR) and PS2 mRNA levels were increased by treatment with osthole and imperatorin. All these effects were significantly inhibited by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182, 780. Cell cycle analysis revealed that their proliferation stimulatory effect was associated with a marked increase in the number of MCF-7 cells in S phase, which was similar to that observed with estradiol. It was also observed that they significantly increased ALP activity, which was reversed by ICI182,780. These results suggested that osthole and imperatorin could stimulate osteoblastic activity by displaying estrogenic properties or through the ER pathway. In conclusion, osthole and imperatorin may represent new pharmacological tools for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  4. Response of SAOS-2 cells to simulated microgravity and effect of biocompatible sol-gel hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.

    2016-05-01

    The health of astronauts, during space flight, is threatened by bone loss induced by microgravity, mainly attributed to an imbalance in the bone remodeling process. In the present work, the response to the microgravity of bone cells has been studied using the SAOS-2 cell line grown under the condition of weightlessness, simulated by means of a Random Positioning Machine (RPM). Cell viability after 72 h of rotation has been evaluated by means of WST-8 assay and compared to that of control cells. Although no significant difference between the two cell groups has been observed in terms of viability, F-actin staining showed that microgravity environment induces cell apoptosis and altered F-actin organization. To investigate the possibility of hindering the trend of the cells towards the death, after 72 h of rotation the cells have been seeded onto biocompatible ZrO2/PCL hybrid coatings, previously obtained using a sol-gel dip coating procedure. WST-8 assay, carried out after 24 h, showed that the materials are able to inhibit the pro-apoptotic effect of microgravity on cells.

  5. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods.

  6. Seroprevalence of antibodies against dengue virus among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tsai-Ying; Trovoada dos Santos, Maria de Jesus; Tseng, Lien-Feng; Chang, Shu-Feng; Cheng, Chien-Fu; Carvalho, Arlindo Vicente de Assunção; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lien, Jih-Ching; Tsai, Kun-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever has become a worldwide public health concern, threatening an estimated 40% of the world's population. However, most resources and attention are still focused on malaria, while dengue statuses are poorly recognized in many African countries. In this serological survey, dengue virus (DENV) transmission was demonstrated by using serum samples collected from 78 pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) during 2003 to 2004. Immunofluorescence assay was performed and 31 samples (39.74%) were found positive for DENV antibodies. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 53 samples (67.95%) were positive for dengue E IgG, and 38 samples (48.72%) were positive for NS1 IgG. A prevalence of 35.90% was therefore determined for dengue IgG by considering samples that yielded positive results by all three tests. Cross-reactions with other flaviviruses were examined by indirect ELISA against Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. Only one sample exhibited stronger absorbance against Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. Moreover, one sample was positive for dengue IgM. These results agreed with the previous researches in neighboring countries and suggested DENV exposure. The study contributes to raising public awareness of dengue and supporting future control strategies.

  7. The effects of direct factor Xa inhibitor (Rivaroxaban) on the human osteoblastic cell line SaOS2.

    PubMed

    Gigi, Roy; Salai, Moshe; Dolkart, Oleg; Chechik, Ofir; Katzburg, Sarah; Stern, Naftali; Somjen, Dalia

    2012-01-01

    Thromboprophylaxis reduces the risk of surgery-related deep vein thrombosis, but anticoagulants were associated with systemic osteoporosis, a known risk factor for poor fracture healing. Rivaroxaban (XARELTO(®)) is a novel anticoagulant with specific ability to inhibit factor Xa, a serine endopeptidase, which plays a key role in coagulation. This study investigated the direct effects of rivaroxaban on bone biology using an in vitro cell culture model from the human female osteoblastic cell line SaOS2. Cells at subconfluence were treated for 24 hr with different concentrations of rivaroxaban and analyzed for DNA synthesis and creatine kinase- and alkaline phosphatase-specific activities, and were treated 21 days for analyzing mineralization. Rivaroxaban (0.01-50 μg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited up to 60% DNA synthesis of the cells. Creatine kinase-specific activity was also inhibited dose-dependently to a similar extent by the same concentrations. Alkaline phosphatase-specific activity was dose-dependently inhibited but only up to 30%. Cell mineralization was unaffected by 10 μg/ml rivaroxaban. This model demonstrated a significant rivaroxaban-induced reduction in osteoblastic cell growth and energy metabolism, and slight inhibition of the osteoblastic marker, alkaline phosphatase, while osteoblastic mineralization was unaffected. These findings might indicate that rivaroxaban inhibits the first stage of bone formation but does not affect later stages (i.e., bone mineralization).

  8. In vitro enhancement of SAOS-2 cell calcified matrix deposition onto radio frequency magnetron sputtered bioglass-coated titanium scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Saino, Enrica; Maliardi, Valentina; Quartarone, Eliana; Fassina, Lorenzo; Benedetti, Laura; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Facchini, Alessandro; Visai, Livia

    2010-03-01

    In bone tissue engineering, bioglass coating of titanium (Ti) scaffolds has drawn attention as a method to improve osteointegration and implant fixation. In this in vitro study, bioactive glass layers with an approximate thickness of 1 microm were deposited at 200 degrees C onto a three-dimensional Ti-6Al-4V scaffold using a radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering system. After incubation with SAOS-2 human osteoblasts, in comparison with the uncoated scaffolds, the bioglass-coated scaffolds showed a twofold increase in cell proliferation (p < 0.05) up to 68.4 x 10(6), and enhanced the deposition of extracellular matrix components such as decorin, fibronectin, osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, and type-I and -III collagens (p < 0.05). Calcium deposition was twofold greater on the bioglass-coated scaffolds (p < 0.05). The immunofluorescence related to the preceding bone matrix proteins and calcium showed their colocalization to the cell-rich areas. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased twofold (p < 0.001) and its protein content was threefold higher with respect to the uncoated sample. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed upregulated transcription specific for type-I collagen and osteopontin (p < 0.001). All together, these results demonstrate that the bioglass coating of the three-dimensional Ti scaffolds by the r.f. magnetron sputtering technique determines an in vitro increase of the bone matrix elaboration and may potentially have a clinical benefit.

  9. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  10. Using Cluster Analysis and ICP-MS to Identify Groups of Ecstasy Tablets in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maione, Camila; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Togni, Loraine Rezende; da Costa, José Luiz; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando; Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço

    2017-02-15

    The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results. We found a better number of two clusters within the data, which can refer to the approximated number of sources of the drug which supply the cities of seizures. The C4.5 model was capable of differentiating the ecstasy samples from the two clusters with high prediction accuracy using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The model used only Nd, Ni, and Pb concentration values in the classification of the samples.

  11. Effects of chronic exposure to air pollution from Sao Paulo city on coronary of Swiss mice, from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Akinaga, Lícia Mioko Yoshizaki; Lichtenfels, Ana Julia; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Bueno, Heloisa Maria De Siqueira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Garcia, Maria Lúcia Bueno

    2009-04-01

    To explore the hypothesis that air pollution promotes cardiovascular changes, Swiss mice were continuously exposed, since birth, in two open-top chambers (filtered and nonfiltered for airborne particles Sao Paulo, twenty-four hours per day for four months. Fine particle (PM(2.5)) concentration was determined gravimetrically; hearts were analyzed by morphometry. There was a reduction of the PM(2.5) inside the filtered chamber (filtered = 8.61+/-0.79 microg/m(3), nonfiltered = 18.05+/-1.25 microg/m(3), p < .001). Coronary arteries showed no evidence of luminal narrowing in the exposed group but presented higher collagen content in the adventitia of LV large-sized and RV midsized vessels (p = .001) and elastic fibers in both tunicae adventitia and intima-media of almost all sized arterioles from both ventricles (p = .03 and p = .001, respectively). We concluded that chronic exposure to urban air since birth induces mild but significant vascular structural alterations in normal individuals, presented as coronary arteriolar fibrosis and elastosis. These results might contribute to altered vascular response and ischemic events in the adulthood.

  12. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Naccarato, Kleber; Saba, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  13. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather

  14. RUNX2 controls human IPO8 basal transcription in Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianjun; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Ting; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Jianyun; Wu, Ping; Che, Xiangxin; Li, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is a vital regulatory factor that controls osteoblast-specific gene expression; however, RUNX2‑regulated genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis of RUNX2 in hMSCs demonstrated that importin 8 (IPO8) may be a novel target gene. The 5' flanking region of the IPO8 gene, which is ~3,300 bp in length, was cloned and inserted into the pGL3‑basic luciferase reporter vector. The results of dual luciferase reporter assays indicated that this segment possessed strong basal promoter activity. Furthermore, the RUNX2 binding site, which encompasses positions ‑496 to ‑501 bp, was required to achieve maximal IPO8 promoter activity in Saos‑2 human osteosarcoma cells. In addition, ChIP analysis indicated that RUNX2 uniquely binds to this specific IPO8 sequence motif. Cells with a knockdown in RUNX2 expression exhibited downregulated IPO8 transcription. Finally, synchronization of IPO8 and RUNX2 expression was observed in Saos‑2 cells cultured in osteoblast‑induction medium. Taken together, these results indicated that RUNX2 regulates IPO8 gene transcription, and may have a contributory role in osteoblast differentiation.

  15. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  16. Adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells on chromium-doped diamond-like carbon coatings.

    PubMed

    Filova, Elena; Vandrovcova, Marta; Jelinek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Houdkova, Jana; Jan Remsa; Kocourek, Tomas; Stankova, Lubica; Bacakova, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are promising for use in coating orthopaedic, dental and cardiovascular implants. The problem of DLC layers lies in their weak layer adhesion to metal implants. Chromium is used as a dopant for improving the adhesion of DLC films. Cr-DLC layers were prepared by a hybrid technology, using a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from a graphite target and magnetron sputtering. Depending on the deposition conditions, the concentration of Cr in the DLC layers moved from zero to 10.0 at.%. The effect of DLC layers with 0.0, 0.9, 1.8, 7.3, 7.7 and 10.0 at.% Cr content on the adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells was assessed in vitro. The DLC samples that contained 7.7 and 10.0 at.% of Cr supported cell spreading on day 1 after seeding. On day three after seeding, the most apparent vinculin-containing focal adhesion plaques were also found on samples with higher concentrations of chromium. On the other hand, the expression of type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase at the mRNA and protein level was the highest on Cr-DLC samples with a lower concentration of Cr (0-1.8 at.%). We can conclude that higher concentrations of chromium supported cell adhesion; however DLC and DLC doped with a lower concentration of chromium supported osteogenic cell differentiation.

  17. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leyton, V; Sinagawa, D M; Oliveira, K C B G; Schmitz, W; Andreuccetti, G; De Martinis, B S; Yonamine, M; Munoz, D R

    2012-02-10

    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake. These drugs can be obtained without prescription easily on Brazilian roads. The use of these stimulants can result in health problems and can be associated with traffic accidents. There are Brazilian studies that show that drivers use drugs. However, these studies are questionnaire-based and do not always reflect real-life situations. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drug use by truck drivers on the roads of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, during 2009. Drivers of large trucks were randomly stopped by police officers on the interstate roads during morning hours. After being informed of the goals of the study, the drivers gave written informed consent before providing a urine sample. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Urine samples were screened for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabinoids by immunoassay and the confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of the 488 drivers stopped, 456 (93.4%) provided urine samples, and 9.3% of them (n=42) tested positive for drugs. Amphetamines were the most commonly found (n=26) drug, representing 61.9% of the positive samples. Ten cases tested positive for cocaine (23.8%), and five for cannabinoids (11.9%). All drivers were male with a mean age of 40 ± 10.8 years, and 29.3% of them reported some health problem (diabetes, high blood pressure and/or stress). A high incidence of truck drivers who tested positive for drug use was found, among other reported health problems. Thus, there is an evident need to promote a healthier lifestyle among professional drivers and a need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  18. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil▿

    PubMed Central

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from <3 to 105 most probable number (MPN)/g. Densities correlated significantly with water temperature (r = 0.48; P < 0.001) but not with salinity (r = −0.09; P = 0.34). The effect of harvest site on counts was not significant (P > 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  19. Amorphous Ca²⁺ polyphosphate nanoparticles regulate the ATP level in bone-like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Tolba, Emad; Feng, Qingling; Schröder, Heinz C; Markl, Julia S; Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiologically occurring polyanion that is synthesized especially in bone-forming osteoblast cells and blood platelets. We used amorphous polyP nanoparticles, complexed with Ca(2+), that have a globular size of ∼100 nm. Because polyP comprises inorganic orthophosphate units that are linked together through high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, we questioned whether the observed morphogenetic effect, elicited by polyP, is correlated with the energy-generating machinery within the cells. We show that exposure of SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells to polyP results in a strong accumulation of mitochondria and a parallel translocation of the polyP-degrading enzyme alkaline phosphatase to the cell surface. If SaOS-2 cells are activated by the mineralization activation cocktail (comprising β-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid and dexamethasone) and additionally incubated with polyP, a tenfold intracellular increase of the ATP level occurs. Even more, in those cells, an intensified release of ATP into the extracellular space is also seen. We propose and conclude that polyP acts as metabolic fuel after the hydrolytic cleavage of the phosphoanhydride linkages, which contributes to hydroxyapatite formation on the plasma membranes of osteoblasts.

  20. The structurally effect of surface coated rhamnogalacturonan I on response of the osteoblast-like cell line SaOS-2.

    PubMed

    Svava, Rikke; Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Yihau, Yu; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Dirscherl, Kai; Levery, Steven B; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Damager, Iben; Ulvskov, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Osseointegration is important when implants are inserted into the bone and can be improved by biochemical surface coating of the implant. In this paper enzymatically modified rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) from apple and lupin was used for biochemical coating of aminated surfaces and the importance of the quality of RG-I, the nature of the binding, the fine structure of RG-I, and its effect on SaOS-2 cell line cultured on coated surfaces was investigated. SaOS-2 cells are osteoblast-like cells and a well-established in vitro model of bone-matrix forming osteoblasts. Purification by gel filtration could remove small fragments of galacturonic acid (GalA) and binding studies showed that the purity of the RG-I molecules was important for the quality of the coating. The structure of RG-I and osteoblast-like cells' viability were positively correlated so that high content of 1,4-linked galactose (Gal) and a low content of arabinose in the RG-I molecules favored cell viability. These results indicate that coating of implants with RG-I affect osseointegration positively.

  1. Platelet-rich plasma induces mixed osteogenic/osteoclastogenic phenotype in osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells: role of TGF-beta.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Simona; Mazzucco, Laura; Balbo, Valeria; Patrone, Mauro; Mozzati, Marco; Ranzato, Elia; Burlando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used to promote tissue repair and accelerate osteogenesis, but there is no agreement about its mechanism of action. We characterized the modulatory effect of PRP on the in vitro osteoblast model SaOS-2, by using cell motility/chemoattraction and osteogenesis/mineralization assays, and a series of osteogenic/ osteoclastogenic genomic markers. Scratch wound assay showed that PRP stimulates cell motility, while transwell assay revealed a strong chemoattraction. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red-S assays showed that PRP induces slight, but significant, stimulations of ALP activity and mineralization. The TGF-β inhibitor SB431542 reversed these effects, showing a main role for TGF-β1 released by PRP. Analyses of gene expression by qRT-PCR, showed the upregulation of osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of NFκB (RANK), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) genes, with a total reversion by SB431542 for osteoprotegerin and RANK, and a partial reversion for ostecalcin, osteopontin, and RUNX2. The use of PCR array technique revealed the upregulation of the cathepsin K gene. These data show that PRP induces the development of mixed osteogenic/osteoclastogenic traits in the SaOS-2 model. Such a behavior may favour in vivo bone resorption and reconstitution at post-surgery or post-traumatic sites.

  2. Hydrolysis of substance P in the presence of the osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2: release of free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Antonella; Marini, Mario; Roda, L Giorgio; Tarantino, Umberto; Valenti, Angela

    2011-12-01

    The possible hydrolysis of substance P (Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met) in presence of the osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2 was measured by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass detection. The results obtained indicate that a very rapid disappearance of the intact undecapeptide was associated to a slower appearance of seven of its eight component amino acids. These results can be interpreted as indicating that an extremely fast hydrolysis of substance P by endopeptidases, which released peptidic by-products, was followed by a noticeably slower secondary degradation which released free amino acids. In decreasing quantitative importance, these phenomena appear to originate by the hydrolysis of the Pro(4)-Gln(5) bond, followed by C-terminal sequential degradation of the Arg(1)-Pro(4) tetrapeptide; by the hydrolysis of or Phe(7)-Phe(8) bond (or, possibly, of Gln(6)-Phe(7)) leading to release of free Phe and Gln; by hydrolysis of the Gly(9)-Leu(10) bond with subsequent release of Met and Leu. Results obtained appear to be compatible with the expression by SaOS-2 cells of enzymes already known to catalyze substance P hydrolysis, together with an apparent low efficiency of aminopeptidases. Because of the activity of C-terminal fragments on NK1 receptors, the delay between primary hydrolysis of substance P and secondary hydrolysis of its peptidic fragments indicated by the data shown implies a possible persistence of substance P physiological effects even after degradation of the intact peptide.

  3. [Current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil: effects and problems associated with the introduction of ethanol-fueled motor vehicles].

    PubMed

    Kabuto, M; Tsugane, S; Hamada, G S

    1990-05-01

    Recently suggestions have been advanced that alternative fuels including ethanol, methanol or methane instead of so called "fossil fuels" may help improve the current conditions of air pollution. According to results of general survey in Sao Paulo, since their introduction in 1978, ethanol-fueled cars have increased their share to almost 50% of all light vehicles in 1983. The current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (SPMA) is described in relation to the use of such alternative fuel. The average concentrations in air of SO2 and lead have been decreasing drastically during the period of 1982-88, whereas non-methane hydrocarbon, NO2 and O3 levels have been increasing to attain the worst levels in the world as indicated in Fig. 2. The use of ethanol-fuel, which contains less sulphate and lead, is thought to have contributed more or less to the above reductions of SO2 and lead in the air. However, the pollutants that have increased may derive mainly from diesel and gasoline exhausts of heavy vehicles. The general state of air pollutions appears not to have been improved, suggesting the difficulty in resolving air pollution issues. On the other hand, a current problem specific to ethanol-fuel is the aldehydes or other carcinogenic components in exhaust. Peak formaldehyde concentration, for example, have been reported to have reached 159 ppb in SPMA, which may be one of the highest levels shown in ambient air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli. Results Of the 300 bovine milk samples that were processed, 24 were positively identified as Mycobacterium spp. Molecular identification detected 15 unique mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. flavescens, M. duvalii, M. haemophilum, M. immunogenum, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, M. novocastrense, M. parafortuitum, M. smegmatis, M. terrae and M. vaccae. The isolation of bacteria from the various locations occurred in the following proportions: 9 percent of the individual bulk-tank samples, 7 percent of the collective bulk-tank samples and 8 percent of the informal-trade samples. No statistically significant difference was observed between the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in the three types of samples collected, the milk production profiles, the presence of veterinary assistance and the reported concerns about bovine tuberculosis prevention in the herds. Conclusion The microbiological cultures associated with PCR-based identification tests are possible tools for the investigation of the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in milk samples. Using these methods, we found that the Brazilian population may be regularly exposed to mycobacteria by consuming raw bovine milk and related dairy products. These evidences reinforces the need to optimize quality programs of dairy products, to intensify the sanitary inspection of these products and the necessity of further studies on the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in milk and milk-based products. PMID:23618368

  5. A report from the 4th biennial conference of the international society of bipolar disorder (March 17-20, 2010 - Sao Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2010-06-01

    Bipolar disorder has a significant prevalence in the overall population, and carries considerable functional impairment for sufferers as well as a very negative impact on their relatives and caregivers. These facts were widely accepted by attendees to this year's biannual conference of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder, as was the concept that, although less apparent due to the lack of overt mania, type II bipolar disorder is not a mild form of the disease, but an even worse condition with severe depressive episodes that carry a high risk for suicide. And suicide is, in fact, among the most fearful threats of bipolar disorder. Sao Paulo, and this year's ISBD meeting, offered an opportunity for discussing treatments for patients suffering from manic, depressive and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder, and this report will review and summarize findings directly related to pharmacotherapy for the disease.

  6. Comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, W.; Aguiar, J. G. De S.; Goiato, M.; Amorim, A.

    2012-01-01

    30.31 5.8 Aguiar 11x80 B Jan. 2.27 6.5 12' 10, p.a. 225 Goiato 7x50 B 2.29 6.3 Aguiar 11x80 B 3.28 6.6 Aguiar 11x80 B 4.31 8.1 5' Goiato 20x100 B Observers: W. Souza, Sao Paulo, Brazil J. G. de S. Aguiar, Campinas, Brazil M. Goiato, Aracatuba, Brazil A. Amorim, Florianopolis, Brazil

  7. Effects of Osteoporosis-Inducing Drugs on Vitamin D-Related Gene Transcription and Mineralization in MG-63 and Saos-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wegler, Christine; Wikvall, Kjell; Norlin, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D3 is important for calcium and phosphate homeostasis. To exert its effects, vitamin D3 has to be enzymatically activated into 1,25D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ). Regulation by endogenous vitamin D metabolites of the activation and inactivation of 1,25D3 is important to maintain adequate amounts of active vitamin D3 . Vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density have been linked to treatments with antiretroviral drugs and glucocorticoids. However, the causes of drug-induced osteoporosis remain unclear. The antiretroviral drugs efavirenz and ritonavir as well as the glucocorticoid dexamethasone were included in this study. Their effects on transcription of vitamin D-regulating enzymes in MG-63 cells were investigated. Ritonavir and dexamethasone both induced transcription of CYP27B1, the enzyme responsible for the formation of 1,25D3 . Efavirenz, however, suppressed CYP27B1 expression. When administered together with endogenous vitamin D metabolites, dexamethasone and efavirenz counteracted the 1,25D3 -mediated up-regulation of CYP24A1, which inactivates 1,25D3 . This suggests that the drugs may interfere with local regulation of the vitamin D metabolizing system in osteoblasts. Studies on mineralization were performed in MG-63 cells and Saos-2 cells by measuring calcium concentrations accumulated over time. The effects of efavirenz, ritonavir and dexamethasone and/or vitamin D metabolites were examined. 1,25D3 induced mineralization in both cell lines. Efavirenz administered alone did not affect mineralization but suppressed the inducing effects of 1,25D3 on mineralization in both MG-63 cells and Saos-2 cells. In summary, the results suggest that antiretroviral drugs and glucocorticoids may adversely affect bone by interference with the vitamin D system in osteoblasts.

  8. Using magnetotellurics in regional hydrocarbon exploration of Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, W.D.; Saad, R.A.; Ohofugi, W.

    1984-04-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method has been utilized in a multidisciplinary exploration program recently completed in the Parana basin by the State of Sao Paulo. In the deeper portions of the Parana basin, MT interpretations show that basalts have thicknesses of up to 2 km (6500 ft) and that basement may be as much as 6 km (19,700 ft) below the surface. In most of the basin, the basalts are covered by thin units of Upper Cretaceous to Holocene continental sediments and are underlain by 2-4 km (6500-13,000 ft) of prospective Paleozoic sediments. In addition, interpretation of the MT sounding data with layered and fault-dike models outlines a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. Permian Irati sediments are an important source unit classified as mostly in the oil window. Good electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that MT measurements can indicate the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments for use in interpretation of migration patterns and possible traps. In addition to providing this stratigraphic information, MT and aeromagnetic surveys have delineated the influence of the Sao Francisco craton in truncating uplift and tensional features of the Ponta Grossa arch.

  9. Mavale project: Sensor techniques applied to macrozoning of the Paraiba Valley and littoral north of the State of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    This project was designed with two basic objectives in mind. The first is to support the Consortium for Integrated Development of the Paraiba Valley and the Northern Littoral (CODIVAP) for preparation of regulatory guidelines for use of the regional lands. The second is to place at the disposal of the country's technical/scientific community a regional planning method based on the use of Remote Orbital Sensor data. This project involved studies on the following areas: maps - geological, pedological, geomorphological, ground cover, land use, urban area and urban expansion in the last decade, areas favorable for replenishment and concentration of ground water; compartmentation of the region into sub-basins and study of the relationships of land use to surface water quality; generation of a map indicating the suitability of land for civil engineering and urban expansion projects and projects subject to geological risk; preparation of a map showing suitability for agricultural use of the land; and social/economic/demographic analysis. The region of the study encompasses 40 municipalities and portions of 4 others, in an overall region of 18.111 sq. km. Imagery from MSS/Landsat, TM/Landsat, and HRV/SPOT was interpreted, exploring the multispectral, multitemporal, synoptic characteristics as well as the detail (compatible with spatial resolutions of the sensor systems). As a function of the objectives of the different thematic studies involved in the environmental and physical diagnostics, images were interpreted visually or processed digitally in alternate scales of 1:250,000, 1:100,000, or 1:50,000. These studies were complemented with pre-existing bibliographical and cartographic information, and the final mapping products are presented to the scale of 1:250,000, compatible with decisions at the regional level. Thematic studies relative to the physical/territorial, and social/economical reality were integrated in the search for holistic understanding of the region and

  10. Engineering a morphogenetically active hydrogel for bioprinting of bioartificial tissue derived from human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Ziebart, Thomas; Steffen, Renate; Wang, Shunfeng; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-10-01

    Sodium alginate hydrogel, stabilized with gelatin, is a suitable, biologically inert matrix that can be used for encapsulating and 3D bioprinting of bone-related SaOS-2 cells. However, the cells, embedded in this matrix, remain in a non-proliferating state. Here we show that addition of an overlay onto the bioprinted alginate/gelatine/SaOS-2 cell scaffold, consisting of agarose and the calcium salt of polyphosphate [polyP·Ca(2+)-complex], resulted in a marked increase in cell proliferation. In the presence of 100 μm polyP·Ca(2+)-complex, the cells proliferate with a generation time of approximately 47-55 h. In addition, the hardness of the alginate/gelatin hydrogel substantially increases in the presence of the polymer. The reduced Young's modulus for the alginate/gelatin hydrogel is approximately 13-14 kPa, and this value drops to approximately 0.5 kPa after incubation of the cell containing scaffolds for 5 d. In the presence of 100 μm polyP·Ca(2+)-complex, the reduced Young's modulus increases to about 22 kPa. The hardness of the polyP·Ca(2+)-complex containing hydrogel remains essentially constant if cells are absent in the matrix, but it drops to 3.2 kPa after a 5 d incubation period in the presence of SaOS-2 cells, indicating that polyP·Ca(2+)-complex becomes metabolized, degraded, by the cells. The alginate/gelatine-agarose system with polyP·Ca(2+)-complex cause a significant increase in the mineralization of the cells. SEM analyses revealed that the morphology of the mineral nodules formed on the surface of the cells embedded in the alginate/gelatin hydrogel do not significantly differ from the nodules on cells growing in monolayer cultures. The newly developed technique, using cells encapsulated into an alginate/gelatin hydrogel and a secondary layer containing the morphogenetically active, growth promoting polymer polyP·Ca(2+)-complex opens new possibilities for the application of 3D bioprinting in bone tissue engineering.

  11. Interaction of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 and MG-63 cells with thermally oxidized surfaces of a titanium-niobium alloy.

    PubMed

    Vandrovcova, Marta; Jirka, Ivan; Novotna, Katarina; Lisa, Vera; Frank, Otakar; Kolska, Zdenka; Stary, Vladimir; Bacakova, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was made of the adhesion, growth and differentiation of osteoblast-like MG-63 and Saos-2 cells on titanium (Ti) and niobium (Nb) supports and on TiNb alloy with surfaces oxidized at 165°C under hydrothermal conditions and at 600°C in a stream of air. The oxidation mode and the chemical composition of the samples tuned the morphology, topography and distribution of the charge on their surfaces, which enabled us to evaluate the importance of these material characteristics in the interaction of the cells with the sample surface. Numbers of adhered MG-63 and Saos-2 cells correlated with the number of positively-charged (related with the Nb2O5 phase) and negatively-charged sites (related with the TiO2 phase) on the alloy surface. Proliferation of these cells is correlated with the presence of positively-charged (i.e. basic) sites of the Nb2O5 alloy phase, while cell differentiation is correlated with negatively-charged (acidic) sites of the TiO2 alloy phase. The number of charged sites and adhered cells was substantially higher on the alloy sample oxidized at 600°C than on the hydrothermally treated sample at 165°C. The expression values of osteoblast differentiation markers (collagen type I and osteocalcin) were higher for cells grown on the Ti samples than for those grown on the TiNb samples. This was more particularly apparent in the samples treated at 165°C. No considerable immune activation of murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells on the tested samples was found. The secretion of TNF-α by these cells into the cell culture media was much lower than for either cells grown in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, or untreated control samples. Thus, oxidized Ti and TiNb are both promising materials for bone implantation; TiNb for applications where bone cell proliferation is desirable, and Ti for induction of osteogenic cell differentiation.

  12. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  13. Combined effect of grain refinement and surface modification of pure titanium on the attachment of mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, A E; Neumann, A; Ng, H P; Lapovok, R; Kasper, C; Lowe, T C; Anumalasetty, V N; Estrin, Y

    2017-02-01

    Surface modification is an important step in production of medical implants. Surface roughening creates additional surface area to enhance the bonding between the implant and the bone. Recent research provided a means to alter the microstructure of titanium by severe plastic deformation (SPD) in order to increase its strength, and thereby reduce the size of the implants (specifically, their diameter). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of bulk microstructure of commercially pure titanium with coarse-grained (CG) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk structure on the surface state of these materials after surface modification by sand blasting and acid etching (SLA). It was shown that SLA-modified surface characteristics, in particular, roughness, chemistry, and wettability, were affected by prior SPD processing. Additionally, biocompatibility of UFG titanium was examined using osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2 and primary human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (adMSC) cultures. Enhanced cell viability as well as increased matrix mineralization during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs on the surface of ultrafine-grained titanium was shown.

  14. Proinsulin C-peptide modulates the expression of ERK1/2, type I collagen and RANKL in human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2).

    PubMed

    Russo, Cristina; Lazzaro, Veronica; Gazzaruso, Carmine; Maurotti, Samantha; Ferro, Yvelise; Pingitore, Piero; Fumo, Francesca; Coppola, Adriana; Gallotti, Pietro; Zambianchi, Valentina; Fodaro, Mariangela; Galliera, Emanuela; Marazzi, Monica Gioia; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Giannini, Sandro; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2017-02-15

    A lower bone mass accompanied by a higher bone fragility with increased risk of fracture are observed in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Low C-peptide levels are associated with low lumbar mineral density in postmenopausal woman. In this work, we investigated the role of C-peptide on the osteoblast cell biology in vitro. We examined intracellular pathways and we found that C peptide activates ERK1/2 in human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2). We also observed that proinsulin C-peptide prevents a reduction of type I collagen expression and decreases, in combination with insulin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) levels. In this work we show for the first time that Cpeptide activates a specific intracellular pathway in osteoblasts and it modulates the expression of protein involved in bone remodeling. Our results suggest that both C-peptide may have a role in bone metabolism. Further studies are needing to fully clarify its role.

  15. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties.

  16. Investigation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs in sediments using geochemical markers. II. Sao Sebastião, SP--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2004-12-01

    The São Sebastião Channel, NE São Paulo State, Brazil, is an area of environmental interest of that state not only because of the tourism, but also because of the presence of the most important oil terminal of Brazil, the PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS). Sediment samples were collected at 15 sites in the channel, extracted and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS for composition and levels of the following organic geochemical markers: aliphatic hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes), petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 0.04 to 8.53 micorg g(-1) for aliphatics, from 51.1 to 422.0 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 12.6 to 27.7 ng g(-1) for LABs and from 20.4 to 200.3 ng g(-1) for PAHs. The PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS), Sao Sebastião Harbor and sewage outfalls along the area had clear influences on the geochemical marker concentrations, especially at locales in the central and north parts of the channel.

  17. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties. PMID:26648719

  18. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  19. Ameliorating Effects of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles on Glycated End Product Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Cellular Toxicity in Osteogenic Saos-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Sarbani; Nayak, Debasis; Kumari, Manisha; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-11-09

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that result from nonenzymatic glycation are one of the major factors involved in diabetes and its secondary complications and diseases. This necessitates our urge to discover new compounds that may be used as potential AGEs inhibitors without affecting the normal structure and function of biomolecules. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of AgNP (silver nanoparticles) on AGEs formation as well as their inhibitory effects on glycation mediated cell toxicity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage. The excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to investigate the interaction of AgNP during glycation. The values of conditional stability constant (log Ka = 4.44) derived from the Stern-Volmer equation indicate that AgNP have strong binding capacity for glycated protein. UV-vis, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectral data reveal complexation of AgNP with glycated bovine serum albumin, which significantly inhibits AGEs formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Cytotoxic evaluations suggest that simultaneous administration of AgNP and glycated product reduces cell death (42.82% ± 3.54) as compared to the glycated product alone. Similarly, ROS production in AgNP treated cells is significantly less compared to only glycated product treated cells. Although DNA damage studies show DNA damage in both GP and GP-AgNP treated cells, fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis demonstrates that glycated products induce cell death by necrosis, while AgNP cause cell death via apoptotic pathways. AgNP have a positive effect on restoring native protein structure deduced from spectral studies, and hence, inferences can be drawn that AgNP have ameliorating effects on glycated induced cytotoxicity observed in osteogenic Saos-2 cells.

  20. Effects of land-cover change on soil loss in the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disperati, Leonardo; Righini, Gaia; Salvini, Riccardo; Ciali, Alessandro; Coscini, Nicola; Fantozzi, Pier L.; Carmignani, Luigi; Fiori, Alberto P.; Paranhos Filho, Antonio C.; Bocci, Michele

    1999-12-01

    In the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Brazil), since the '60s, zootechnics and farming activities have developed and arable lands and pastures replaced shrubs and forests. The 1966 to 1996 land-cover change was investigated through Remote Sensing and GIS methodologies. The effect on soil loss was evaluated through the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). By integrating supervised classification and visual interpretation techniques, geo-coded land-cover data bases were built from aerial photographs and Landsat TM images (years 1966, 1985, 1996). Multi-temporal land-cover data bases were produced through 'post-classification comparison.' The application of the USLE in the ARC/INFO$CPY Grid environment enabled to perform the multi-temporal analysis of the potential soil loss. The R, K, C and P factors of such equation were assumed from the literature. The flowdirection and flowaccumulation Grid functions and the DEM allowed calculating the L and S factors. The results show that from 1966 to 1985 large extent of forest and shrubs were deforested. After 1985, deforestation rate decreased and part of burnt areas and pastures changed to secondary forest. The land-cover transformations induced a meaningful growth of the computed average soil loss per unit area (A) from 1966 to 1985 ((Delta) A approximately equals 3.7 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1). On the contrary, the reduction of A from 1985 to 1996 ((Delta) A approximately equals 0.8 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1) suggests that more recently the human impact became steady.

  1. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  2. Equatorial electrojet 3-M irregularity dynamics during magnetic disturbances over Brazil: results from the new VHF radar at Sa~o Luís

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Dinardini, C. M.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.; Muralikrishna, P.; Iyer, K. N.; Veliz, O.; de Paula, E. R.

    2003-09-01

    Data collected during the first two observational campaigns, conducted in August 1998 and December 1999, using the new 50MHz coherent back-scatter radar, developed at INPE, that became operational at the magnetic equatorial site at Sa~o Luís, (2.33°S,44.2°W), Brazil, are analyzed in this paper. The spatial and temporal distribution of 3-m irregularity power in the form of range-time-intensity maps and spectral distribution in the form of spectrograms are analyzed for `quiet' conditions and during geomagnetic storm disturbances. The analysis has brought out some new findings, besides confirming some of the already known storm response features of the EEJ and its plasma instabilities. Among the highlights of the results are: the electrical coupling between the equatorial and auroral electrojets is important even on a `quiet' day, and gets very strong during magnetic storm disturbances; disturbance prompt penetration electric field, and the delayed electric field from disturbance dynamo, control the 3-m plasma wave development and inhibition in different degrees during the storm main phase and recovery phase; the amplitudes of the disturbance are larger during the morning hours than in the afternoon, in agreement with theoretical models; the height dependence of the relative dominance of the type-1 and type-2 waves generated by disturbance electric field is different from that of quiet conditions, the relative power of the type-2 getting enhanced at higher levels in the former case. A few other results are also discussed in this paper.

  3. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  4. Regionalized Rayleigh wave group velocities in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. L.; Dos Santos, N. P.; Pacheco, R. P.

    2003-04-01

    Damped least-square inversion was used to regionalize a large quantity of source-station Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from digital seismograms, which were recorded at twenty-three IRIS seismological stations located either in or around South America continent. The region including all source-station Rayleigh wave paths (defined by geographical coordinates : -125,45 and 25,-75) was divided into cells of 2 by 2 degrees, and a group velocity for each cell (visited by at least one Rayleigh wave path) of the grid was computed. The estimated group velocities were then related to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) and their percentual deviation from PREM were used to construct velocity maps at different periods (from 10 to 102 sec). The group velocity anomalies maps show a strong correlation with the superficial limits of the main geologic provinces in the region. Both Tocantis and Sao Francisco cratonic nuclei were clearly identified and they have deep roots. Several group velocity anomalies in the maps also have a direct correlation with recent studies about geoid anomalies in the southeastern Brazil and adjacent regions. The high density of Rayleigh wave paths across southeastern Brazil has provided high resolutions throughout the region under investigation. In general, the spatial resolution in the grid is of two degrees or 200km.

  5. SAO RAS SN candidates classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkhullin, T. A.; Moskvitin, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    We observed SN candidates (AT 2016eow, AT 2016enu and AT 2016enf) with the BTA/Scorpio-I on August, 4. Direct images in the R band and long-slit spectra in the range of 3600-7600AA (resolution FWHM = 10A) were obtained.

  6. A Sclerostin super-producer cell line derived from the human cell line SaOS-2: a new tool for the study of the molecular mechanisms driving Sclerostin expression.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Campo, Flor M; Sañudo, Carolina; Delgado-Calle, Jesús; Arozamena, Jana; Zarrabeitia, María T; Riancho, José A

    2014-08-01

    Sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, is a key regulator of bone homeostasis. Sclerostin interferes with the Wnt signalling pathway and, therefore, has a negative effect on bone formation. Although the importance of sclerostin in bone homeostasis is well established, many aspects of its biology are still unknown. Due to its restricted pattern of expression, in vitro studies of SOST gene regulation are technically challenging. Furthermore, a more profound investigation of the molecular mechanism controlling sclerostin expression has been hampered by the lack of a good human in vitro model. Here, we describe two cell lines derived from the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2 that produce elevated levels of sclerostin. Analysis of the super-producer cell lines showed that sclerostin levels were still reduced in response to parathyroid hormone treatment or in response to mechanical loading, indicating that these regulatory mechanisms were not affected in the presented cell lines. In addition, we did not find differences between the promoter or ECR5 sequences of our clones and the SaOS-2 parental line. However, the methylation of the proximal CpG island located at the SOST promoter was lower in the super-producer clones, in agreement with a higher level of SOST transcription. Although the underlying biological causes of the elevated levels of sclerostin production in this cell line are not yet clear, we believe that it could be an extremely useful tool to study the molecular mechanisms driving sclerostin expression in humans.

  7. Evolution of elastic properties and acoustic emission, during uniaxial loading of rocks, from the Fogo Volcano in the island of Sao Miguel, Azores; Preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M.; Wallenstein, N.

    2012-04-01

    A Computerized Uniaxial Press working up to 250 kN was installed in the middle 2011 in the Laboratory of Microseismic Monitoring of ISEL. The system is able to record continuous time, pressure and axial strain (1 µm resolution) at 1s sampling rate. The loading platens were designed to integrate acoustic emission (AE) transducers. Signals are acquired and processed through an 8-channel ESG Hyperion Ultrasonic Monitoring System (10 MSPS, 14/16-bit ADC). The first experiments, presented here, were applied to a set of rock samples from the Fogo, an active central volcano in the island of Sao Miguel. Two different volcanic rock types were studied: a fine grained alkali basaltic rock with a porphyritic texture, a porosity of 4.5% and bulk density of 2700 kg m-3 (sample #3); and a benmoreitic rock with a trachytic texture, a porosity of 8.1 %, and bulk density of 2400 kg m-3 (sample #4). Cores from sample #3 were subjected to continuous increasing pressure, until failure. They show a uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) spanning from 60 to 85 MPa and a stress-strain curve with two phases: a first one with relative low Young's Module (YM) followed by a second phase were the YM increases roughly 3 times. The stress transition value occurs broadly in a stress level 50% of the UCS. The AE produced in the process is almost negligible until the YM transition stress level and increases after that. Important pulses of high AE rate occur, (> 100 s-1), associated with the occurrence and propagation of fractures, which are always parallel to the principal stress, showing an evident pattern of tensile fractures. About 20s before the failure, very important deformation rate is observed, the YM strongly decrease, and continuous AE events, with low rate, usually <50 s-1. The failure is accompanied with a sudden rise of AE events with rate > 200 s-1. Cycling stress experiences were also performed showing reversible stress-strain relation for axial pressure below the YM transition level

  8. Isoquercitrin and polyphosphate co-enhance mineralization of human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells via separate activation of two RUNX2 cofactors AFT6 and Ets1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-06-01

    Isoquercitrin, a dietary phytoestrogen, is a potential stimulator of bone mineralization used for prophylaxis of osteoporotic disorders. Here we studied the combined effects of isoquercitrin, a cell membrane permeable 3-O-glucoside of quercetin, and polyphosphate [polyP], a naturally occurring inorganic polymer inducing bone formation, on mineralization of human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Both compounds isoquercitrin and polyP induce at non-toxic concentrations the mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells. Co-incubation experiments revealed that isoquercitrin (at 0.1 and 0.3μM), if given simultaneously with polyP (as Ca(2+) salt; at 3, 10, 30 and 100μM) amplifies the mineralization-enhancing effect of the inorganic polymer. The biomineralization process induced by isoquercitrin and polyP is based on two different modes of action. After incubation of the cells with isoquercitrin or polyP the expression of the Runt-related transcription factor 2 [RUNX2] is significantly upregulated. In addition, isoquercitrin causes a strong increase of the steady-state-levels of the two co-activators of RUNX2, the activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6] and the Ets oncogene homolog 1 [Ets1]. The activating effect of isoquercitrin occurs via a signal transduction pathway involving ATF6, and by that, is independent from the induction cascade initiated by polyP. This conclusion is supported by the finding that isoquercitrin upregulates the expression of the gene encoding for osteocalcin, while polyP strongly increases the expression of the Ets1 gene and of the alkaline phosphatase. We show that the two compounds, polyP and isoquercitrin, have a co-enhancing effect on bone mineral formation and in turn might be of potential therapeutic value for prevention/treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. An in vitro evaluation of the responses of human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells on SLA titanium surfaces irradiated by different powers of CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Ayubianmarkazi, Nader; Karimi, Mohammadreza; Koohkan, Shima; Sanasa, Armand; Foroutan, Tahereh

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial biofilms have been identified as the primary etiological factor for the development and progression of peri-implantitis. Lasers have been shown to remove bacterial plaque from titanium surfaces effectively and can restore its biocompatibility without damaging these surfaces. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the responses (i.e., the cell viability and morphology) of human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells to sandblasted, large grit, and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces irradiated by CO2 lasers at two different power outputs. A total of 24 SLA disks were randomly radiated by CO2 lasers at either 6 W (group 1, 12 disks) or 8 W (group 2, 12 disks). Non-irradiated disks were used as a control group (four disks). The cell viability rates of the SaOs-2 cells in the control and study groups (6 and 8 W) were 0.33 ± 0.00, 0.24 ± 0.11, and 0.2372 ± 0.09, respectively (P < 0.6). Cells with cytoplasmic extensions and spreading morphology were most prominent in the control group (141.00 ± 29.00), while in the study groups (6 and 8 W), the number of cells with such morphology was 60.40 ± 26.00 and 35.20 ± 5.40, respectively (P < 0.005). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the use of CO2 lasers with the aforementioned setting parameters could not be recommended for decontamination of SLA titanium surfaces.

  10. An in vitro evaluation of the responses of human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells to SLA titanium surfaces irradiated by erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) lasers.

    PubMed

    Ayobian-Markazi, Nader; Fourootan, Tahereh; Zahmatkesh, Atieh

    2014-01-01

    Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment is an effective option for the removal of bacterial plaques. Many studies have shown that Er:YAG lasers cannot re-establish the biocompatibility of titanium surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses of the human osteoblast-like cell line, SaOs-2, to sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surface irradiation using different energy settings of an Er:YAG laser by examining cell viability and morphology. Forty SLA titanium disks were irradiated with an Er:YAG laser at a pulse energy of either 60 or 100 mJ with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz under water irrigation and placed in a 24-well plate. Human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells were seeded onto the disks in culture media. Cells were then kept in an incubator with 5% carbon dioxide at 37 °C. Each experimental group was divided into two smaller groups to evaluate cell morphology by scanning electron microscope and cell viability using 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test. In both the 60 and the 100 mJ experimental groups, spreading morphologies, with numerous cytoplasmic extensions, were observed prominently. Similarly, a majority of cells in the control group exhibited spreading morphologies with abundant cytoplasmic extensions. There were no significant differences among the laser and control groups. The highest cell viability rate was observed in the 100 mJ laser group. No significant differences were observed between the cell viability rates of the two experimental groups (p = 1.00). In contrast, the control group was characterized by a significantly lower cell viability rate (p < 0.001). Treatments with an Er:YAG laser at a pulse energy of either 60 or 100 mJ do not reduce the biocompatibility of SLA titanium surfaces. In fact, modifying SLA surfaces with Er:YAG lasers improved the biocompatibility of these surfaces.

  11. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  12. Contrasting regional versus global radiative forcing by megacity pollution emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H.; Unger, N.

    2015-10-01

    We assess the regional and global integrated radiative forcing on 20- and 100-year time horizons caused by a one-year pulse of present day pollution emissions from 10 megacity areas: Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York City, Sao Paulo, Lagos, Cairo, New Delhi, Beijing, Shanghai and Manila. The assessment includes well-mixed greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4); and short-lived climate forcers: tropospheric ozone (O3) and fine mode aerosol particles (sulfate, nitrate, black carbon, primary and secondary organic aerosol). All megacities contribute net global warming on both time horizons. Most of the 10 megacity areas exert a net negative effect on their own regional radiation budget that is 10-100 times larger in magnitude than their global radiative effects. Of the cities examined, Beijing, New Delhi, Shanghai and New York contribute most to global warming with values ranging from +0.03 to 0.05 Wm-2yr on short timescales and +0.07-0.10 Wm-2yr on long timescales. Regional net 20-year radiative effects are largest for Mexico City (-0.84 Wm-2yr) and Beijing (-0.78 Wm-2yr). Megacity reduction of non-CH4 O3 precursors to improve air quality offers zero co-benefits to global climate. Megacity reduction of aerosols to improve air quality offers co-benefits to the regional radiative budget but minimal or no co-benefits to global climate with the exception of black carbon reductions in a few cities, especially Beijing and New Delhi. Results suggest that air pollution and global climate change mitigation can be treated as separate environmental issues in policy at the megacity level with the exception of CH4 action. Individual megacity reduction of CO2 and CH4 emissions can mitigate global warming and therefore offers climate safety improvements to the entire planet.

  13. Biosilica-loaded poly(ϵ-caprolactone) nanofibers mats provide a morphogenetically active surface scaffold for the growth and mineralization of the osteoclast-related SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Link, Thorben; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Bioprinting/3D cell printing procedures for the preparation of scaffolds/implants have the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. Besides biocompatibility and biodegradability, the hardness of the scaffold material is of critical importance to allow sufficient mechanical protection and, to the same extent, allow migration, cell-cell, and cell-substrate contact formation of the matrix-embedded cells. In the present study, we present a strategy to encase a bioprinted, cell-containing, and soft scaffold with an electrospun mat. The electrospun poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers mats, containing tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), were subsequently incubated with silicatein. Silicatein synthesizes polymeric biosilica by polycondensation of ortho-silicate that is formed from prehydrolyzed TEOS. Biosilica provides a morphogenetically active matrix for the growth and mineralization of osteoblast-related SaOS-2 cells in vitro. Analysis of the microstructure of the 300-700 nm thick PCL/TEOS nanofibers, incubated with silicatein and prehydrolyzed TEOS, displayed biosilica deposits on the mats formed by the nanofibers. We conclude and propose that electrospun PCL nanofibers mats, coated with biosilica, may represent a morphogenetically active and protective cover for bioprinted cell/tissue-like units with a suitable mechanical stability, even if the cells are embedded in a softer matrix.

  14. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r approximates 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0".2 (approx 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations.

  15. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B)(exp 1): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muto, T.; Grady, C. A.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Hornbeck, J. B.; Sitko, M.; Russell, R.; Werren, C.; Cure, M; Currie, T.; Ohashi, N.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Honda, M.; Inutsuka, S.; Takeuchi, T.; Dong, R.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Brandt, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Fukue, T.; Goto, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru /HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 1353448). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r <= 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as O".2 (approx 28 AU) from the star. Moreover , we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx. 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes. independently from sub-nun observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations,

  16. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  17. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  18. [Evaluation of a program for the control of schistosomiasis in municipalities located on the basin of the Sao Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima e Costa, M F; Guerra, H L; Pimenta, F G; Firmo, J O; Uchoa, E

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the control program on schistosomiasis (PCE/PCDEN) was performed in the region of São Francisco river in MInas Gerais. The study area comprises six municipalities, with 130,000 inhabitants and 916 localities situated in an area with 10,722 km2. The activities initiated in 1983-85 in four municipalities and in 1987 in the other two. The main measures of control were repeated treatment with oxamniquine and use of niclosamide. The prevalence of infection by Schistosoma mansoni in the first four municipalities, that was initially around 18 and 32%, dropped abruptly after the first intervention (1983/85) and remained in levels below the initial ones until the last assessment (1990-94); similar trends were observed for the proportion of infected snails. In these municipalities, the proportion of localities without infection or with prevalence below 5% increased in relation to those with higher prevalence. In the other two municipalities, with initial prevalence below 5%, there were no substantial changes in S. mansoni prevalence or proportion of infected snails; the cost benefit of the program in these municipalities need to be assessed and the priorities redirected to eradicate focal areas and prevent spread to non infected localities. The authors call attention to the difficulties in the long term of a control program based on repeated treatments. Information on factors associated with S. mansoni infection in each locality, or in groups of similar localities, would allow to develop additional measures to treatment that could last longer and be less dependent on the continuous use of chemotherapy.

  19. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  20. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows

  1. A Detailed Analysis of the Physical Conditions in the Infrared Dark Clouds in the Region IGGC 16/23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Tolls, Volker

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about why the star formation rate is low in the Galactic Center and Galactic Bar region of the Milky Way. Clump 2 is located at a distance of ~400 pc from the Galactic Center in the Galactic Bar region near the edge of the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). Molecular clouds in this region are too distant to be influenced by the central black hole. However, despite of its location, Clump 2 is comprised of molecular clouds that show the same low star formation rate as those in the Galactic Center. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE and APEX dust continuum emission data, our measurements indicate that cores in the IGGC 16/23 region have dust masses and densities comparable to those of more typical star-forming molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. In addition, we analyzed Herschel HIFI high-J 12CO emission line observations supplemented by MOPRA molecular line observations. We find that the IGGC 16/23 region is composed of many smaller cores with different systemic velocities in the same line of sight advocating that additional analysis should be done to provide better constraints on the core sizes and masses to confirm that the core masses are below their virial masses and, thus, are not collapsing.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  2. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  3. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  4. SAO RAS spectral classification of SN candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkhullin, T. A.; Moskvitin, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    We observed five SN candidates (AT 2016eld, AT 2016eku, MASTER OT J225939.54+020859.6, AT 2016ekw and AT 2016elw) with the BTA/Scorpio-I on the night of August, 2/3. Direct images in the V band and long-slit spectra in the range of 3600-7600AA (resolution FWHM = 10A) were obtained.

  5. Long-Term Observation of Small and Medium-Scale Gravity Waves over the Brazilian Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essien, Patrick; Buriti, Ricardo; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Takahashi, Hisao; Campos, Jose Andre

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the long term observations of small and medium-scale gravity waves over Brazilian equatorial region. Coordinated optical and radio measurements were made from OLAP at Sao Joao do Cariri (7.400S, 36.500W) to investigate the occurrences and properties and to characterize the regional mesospheric gravity wave field. All-sky imager measurements were made from the site. for almost 11 consecutive years (September 2000 to November 2010). Most of the waves propagated were characterized as small-scale gravity. The characteristics of the two waves events agreed well with previous gravity wave studies from Brazil and other sites. However, significant differences in the wave propagation headings indicate dissimilar source regions. The observed medium-scale gravity wave events constitute an important new dataset to study their mesospheric properties at equatorial latitudes. These data exhibited similar propagation headings to the short period events, suggesting they originated from the same source regions. It was also observed that some of the medium-scale were capable of propagating into the lower thermosphere where they may have acted directly as seeds for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability development. The wave events were primarily generated by meteorological processes since there was no correlation between the evolution of the wave events and solar cycle F10.7.

  6. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brazil-I. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Leite, W.B.; Payolla, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapakivi granites and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern Amazonian craton, Brazil were emplaced during six discrete episodes of magmatism between ca 1600 and 970 Ma. The seven rapakivi granite suites emplaced at this time were the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1606 and 1532 Ma); Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1406 Ma); Teotonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1387 Ma); Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1346 and 1338 Ma); Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1314 and 1309 Ma); Santa Clara Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1082 and 1074 Ma); and Younger Granites of Rondonia (U-Pb ages between 998 and 974 Ma). The Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite intruded the Paleoproterozoic (1.80 to 1.70 Ga) Rio Negro-Juruena crust whereas the other suites were emplaced into the 1.50 to 1.30 Ga Rondonia-San Ignacio crust. Their intrusion was contemporaneous with orogenic activity in other parts of the southwestern Amazonian craton, except for the oldest, Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite. Orogenic events coeval with emplacement of the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite are not clearly recognized in the region. The Santo Antonio, Teotonio, Alto Candeias and Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suites are interpreted to represent extensional anorogenic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of the Rondonian-San Ignacio orogeny. At least the Sao Lourenco-Caripunas rapakivi granites and coeval intra-continental rift sedimentary rocks may, in contrast, represent the products of extensional tectonics and rifting preceding the Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny (1.25 to 1.0 Ga). The two youngest rapakivi suites, the Santa Clara Intrusive Suite and Younger Granites of Rondonia, seemingly represent inboard magmatism in the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province during a younger episode of reworking in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province during the waning stages of the collisional 1.1 to 1.0 Ga

  7. ERLN Regional Support

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional labs play important roles in the Environmental Response Laboratory Network. They can serve as point of contact; coordinate sample flow, special analytical service requests, or training exercises; and partner with regional emergency/disaster staff.

  8. Region 9 RTOC Charter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    U.S. EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9) Regional Tribal Operations Committee (RTOC) Charter as amended 11/13/2014: Mission, Goals, Scope, Structure & Membership, Meetings, Administration, Charter Amendment/Review, and Current Working Draft.

  9. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  10. Region 9 Tribal Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 9 helps tribes strengthen management of environmental programs in Indian country, and ensure that tribes have a voice in decisions. The region serves 148 federally recognized tribes with the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada.

  11. Regional Smart Growth Alliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the Urban Land Institute regional smart growth alliances that received funding from EPA to help support economic development, accommodate growth, enhance quality of, and protect the environment in regions across the country.

  12. Alfvén Wave Heating Model of an Active Region and Comparisons with the EIS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, A. P.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2013-12-01

    We study the generation and dissipation of Alfvén waves in open and closed field lines using the images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) (van Ballegouijen et al. 2011; Asgari-Targhi & van Ballegouijen 2012; Asgari et al. 2013). The goal is to search for observational evidence of Alfvén waves in the solar corona and to understand their role in coronal heating. We focus on one particular active region on the 10th of December 2007. Using the MDI magnetogram and the potential field modeling of this region, we create three-dimensional MHD models for several open and closed field lines in different locations in the active region. For each model, we compute the temperature, pressure, magnetic field strength, average heating rate, and other parameters along the loop. We then compare these results with the EIS observations. This research is supported by the NSF grant for the Solar physics REU Program at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (AGS-1263241) and contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed-Martin to SAO.

  13. Submarine Sedimentation Transport Processes in the South-Eastern Terceira Rift / São Miguel Region (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The south-eastern Terceira Rift comprises a rift basin, igneous ridges, seamounts and São Miguel, the main island of the volcanic Azores Archipelago. It is located ~1500 km west of continental Portugal within the convergence zone of the American, African and Eurasian plate. Due to submarine and subaerial volcanism, the sedimentation rate is higher than usually assumed in such a segregated submarine region. Multi-beam and high-resolution multi-channel seismic data reveal a wide variety of sediment transport processes. Volcanic fall-out sediments are abundant in the entire area. Along the northern slope of Sao Miguel terrestrial volcanic sediments are drained by rain water gullies which connect to submarine channels. Turbidity currents created some 10 km long erosional channels which transported the sediments more than 40 km downslope. Several regional accumulations of talus and/or pyroclastic material get instable resulting in gravitational gliding, creeping or slide events. Volcanic ridges partly collapse due to tectonic stress and/or gravity spreading. Oceanic currents remobilize sediments and form drift deposits. Infilling drifts developed on top of hangingwall blocks of step faults. Therefore, the São Miguel region is a good example of a sedimentary system with strong time-variant and locally defined sediment support. Sedimentation is controlled by volcanism and tectonics, since these processes affect sedimentation pathways and oceanographic conditions.

  14. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  15. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up…

  16. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  17. On the Dependence of the Ionospheric E-Region Electric Field of the Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Moro, Juliano; Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Chen, Sony Su; Costa, D. Joaquim

    2016-07-01

    We have being studying the zonal and vertical E region electric field components inferred from the Doppler shifts of type 2 echoes (gradient drift irregularities) detected with the 50 MHz backscatter coherent (RESCO) radar set at Sao Luis, Brazil (SLZ, 2.3° S, 44.2° W) during the solar cycle 24. In this report we present the dependence of the vertical and zonal components of this electric field with the solar activity, based on the solar flux F10.7. For this study we consider the geomagnetically quiet days only (Kp <= 3+). A magnetic field-aligned-integrated conductivity model was developed for proving the conductivities, using the IRI-2007, the MISIS-2000 and the IGRF-11 models as input parameters for ionosphere, neutral atmosphere and Earth magnetic field, respectively. The ion-neutron collision frequencies of all the species are combined through the momentum transfer collision frequency equation. The mean zonal component of the electric field, which normally ranged from 0.19 to 0.35 mV/m between the 8 and 18 h (LT) in the Brazilian sector, show a small dependency with the solar activity. Whereas, the mean vertical component of the electric field, which normally ranges from 4.65 to 10.12 mV/m, highlight the more pronounced dependency of the solar flux.

  18. Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcela G; Colasso, Camilla G; Monteiro, Paula P; Pedreira Filho, Walter R; Yonamine, Maurício

    2012-02-01

    In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk.

  19. Transition Region Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The SOLAR TRANSITION REGION comprises the PLASMA between the CHROMOSPHERE and the CORONA. In both of these regions the temperature is fairly uniform. The transition region, by contrast, is believed to be characterized by a very steep temperature rise from a chromospheric temperature of slightly less than 104 K to coronal temperatures on the order of 106 K. The goal of modeling the transition regi...

  20. The Regional Educational Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination.

    The Regional Educational Laboratory Program is the U.S. Department of Education's largest research and development investment designed to help educators, policymakers, and communities improve schools and help all students attain their potential. The network of 10 regional laboratories works to ensure that those involved in education improvement at…

  1. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  2. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  3. MC-6 Casius Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-6 quadrangle, Casius region of Mars. Except for the highly dissected southwestern part, which contains faults, mesas, and buttes of Nilosyrtis Mensae, the Casius region is dominated by light-colored and dark, relatively smooth plains. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -120 to -60 degrees.

  4. Regions and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

  5. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  6. Regional ocean data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  7. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify Region 7 subject to Maximum Achievable Control Technologiy (MACT) standards. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 4) for Healthy Communities & Ecosystems, which are to reduce chemical and/or pesticide risks at facilities.

  8. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  9. Fast and ultrafast Kelvin wave modulations of the equatorial evening F region vertical drift and spread F development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Brum, Christiano GM; Batista, Paulo P.; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Pancheva, Dora; Bageston, Jose V.; Batista, Inez S.; Takahashi, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of eastward and upward propagating fast (FK) and ultrafast Kelvin (UFK) waves in the day-to-day variability of equatorial evening prereversal vertical drift and post sunset generation of spread F/plasma bubble irregularities. Meteor wind data from Cariri and Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil) and medium frequency (MF) radar wind data from Tirunelveli (India) are analyzed together with Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (TIMED/SABER) temperature in the 40- to 100-km region to characterize the zonal and vertical propagations of these waves. Also analyzed are the F region evening vertical drift and spread F (ESF) development features as diagnosed by Digisonde (Lowell Digisonde International, LLC, Lowell, MA, USA) operated at Fortaleza and Sao Luis in Brazil. The SABER temperature data permitted determination of the upward propagation characteristics of the FK (E1) waves with propagation speed in the range of 4 km/day. The radar mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) winds in the widely separated longitude sectors have yielded the eastward phase velocity of both the FK and UFK waves. The vertical propagation of these waves cause strong oscillation in the F region evening prereversal vertical drift, observed for the first time at both FK and UFK periodicities. A delay of a few (approximately 10) days is observed in the F region vertical drift perturbation with respect to the corresponding FK/UFK zonal wind oscillations, or temperature oscillations in the MLT region, which has permitted a direct identification of the sunset electrodynamic coupling process as being responsible for the generation of the FK/UFK-induced vertical drift oscillation. The vertical drift oscillations are found to cause significant modulation in the spread F/plasma bubble irregularity development. The overall results highlight the role of FK/UFK waves in the day

  10. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  11. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  12. Regional Hearing Clerk

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Regional Hearing Clerk receives filings for proceedings under the Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 22

  13. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  14. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL Home Page introduces risk assessors to Chemical Risk Assessment preliminary remediation goals PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculations for the assessment of human Health.

  15. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... regional pain syndrome is an uncommon form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a leg. ... exercises may be. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) . Chronic pain is sometimes eased by applying electrical impulses to ...

  16. Regional Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne

    1997-01-01

    Abstract In general, there is agreement that robust integrated information systems are the foundation for building successful regional health care delivery systems. Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) institutions that, over the years, have developed strategies for creating cohesive institutional information systems and services are finding that IAIMS strategies work well in the even more complex regional environment. The key elements of IAIMS planning are described and lessons learned are discussed in the context of regional health information systems developed. The challenges of aligning the various information agencies and agendas in support of a regional health information system are complex ; however, the potential rewards for health care in quality, efficacy, and cost savings are enormous. PMID:9067887

  17. Regionalism and Secession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    strong independence movements in Spain, but not in Gennany? How have state fonna.tion and the relationship betv.re.en the center and the region...affected independence movements ? This thesis provides a historical analysis of Bavarian and Catalan regionalism and argues that autonomy mitigates...Catalonians struggle actively and adamantly for autonomy. Why are there strong independence movements in Spain, but not in Germany? How have state

  18. MC-16 Memnonia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-16 quadrangle, Memnonia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands in the southern two-thirds are cut in the northeastern part by a large outflow channel, Mangala Vallis. The highlands are bounded to the north by undulating wind-eroded deposits and to the east by lava flows of the Tharsis region. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 135 to 180 degrees.

  19. On regional geomagnetic charts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  20. Modeling the transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Bart A.

    1994-04-01

    The calculation of engineering flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition presents special problems. Mean-flow quantities obey neither the fully laminar nor the fully turbulent correlations. In addition, local maxima in skin friction, wall temperature, and heat transfer often occur near the end of the transition region. Traditionally, modeling this region has been important for the design of turbine blades, where the transition region is long in relation to the chord length of the blade. More recently, the need for better transition-region models has been recognized by designers of hypersonic vehicles where the high Mach number, the low Reynolds number, and the low-disturbance flight environment emphasize the importance of the transition region. Needless to say, a model that might work well for the transitional flows typically found in gas turbines will not necessarily work well for the external surface of a hypersonic vehicle. In Section 2 of this report, some of the important flow features that control the transition region will be discussed. In Section 3, different approaches to the modeling problem will be summarized and cataloged. Fully turbulent flow models will be discussed in detail in Section 4; models specifically designed for transitional flow, in Section 5; and the evaluation of models, in Section 6.

  1. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  2. Ultrasound in regional anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, J; Nicholls, B

    2010-04-01

    Ultrasound guidance is rapidly becoming the gold standard for regional anaesthesia. There is an ever growing weight of evidence, matched with improving technology, to show that the use of ultrasound has significant benefits over conventional techniques, such as nerve stimulation and loss of resistance. The improved safety and efficacy that ultrasound brings to regional anaesthesia will help promote its use and realise the benefits that regional anaesthesia has over general anaesthesia, such as decreased morbidity and mortality, superior postoperative analgesia, cost-effectiveness, decreased postoperative complications and an improved postoperative course. In this review we consider the evidence behind the improved safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia, before discussing its use in pain medicine, paediatrics and in the facilitation of neuraxial blockade. The Achilles' heel of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia is that anaesthetists are far more familiar with providing general anaesthesia, which in most cases requires skills that are achieved faster and more reliably. To this ends we go on to provide practical advice on ultrasound-guided techniques and the introduction of ultrasound into a department.

  3. Regional anesthesia at home

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gloria S.; Choy, Lynna P.; Ilfeld, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the recently published peer-reviewed literature involving regional anesthesia and analgesia in patients at home. Recent findings The potential benefits and risks of regional anesthesia and analgesia at home are pertinent queries, and increased data regarding these topics are rapidly becoming available. Of particular interest is the use of continuous peripheral nerve blocks at home and their potential effect upon hospitalization duration and recovery profile. Summary Advantages of regional techniques include site-specific anesthesia and decreased postoperative opioid use. For shoulder surgeries, the interscalene block provides effective analgesia with minimal complications, whereas the impact and risks of intraarticular injections remain unclear. Perineural catheters are an analgesic option that offer improved pain relief among other benefits. They are now being used at home in both adult and pediatric populations. PMID:18660659

  4. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  5. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Megacities around the world show distinctly different emission patterns in terms of absolute amounts and emission ratios of individual chemical compounds due to varying socio-economic developments and technological standards. The emission patterns influence the chemical reactivity of the urban pollution plume, and hence determine air quality in and around megacity areas. In this study, which is part of the European project CITYZEN (megaCITY - Zoom for the ENvironment), the effects of emission changes in four selected megacity areas on air pollution were investigated: BeNeLux (BNL), Istanbul (IST), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Sao Paulo (SAP). The study aims at answering the question: how would air pollution in megacity X change if it had the same urban emissions per capita as megacity Y? Model simulations with the global chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ were carried out for the year 2001 using a resolution of about 2 degrees in the horizontal and of 31 levels (surface to 10 hPa) in the vertical. The model was driven by meteorological input data from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis. Emissions were taken from the gridded global ACCMIP emission inventory recently established for use in chemistry-climate simulations in connection to the IPCC-AR5 assessments (Lamarque et al. 2010). We carried out sensitivity simulations where emission patterns from each of the megacity areas were replaced by those from all others. This was done on the basis of the per capita emissions for each species and sector averaged over the respective region. Total per capita CO and NMVOC emissions are highest in PRD and lowest in SAP while total per capita NOx emissions are highest in BNL and lowest in SAP. There are strong differences in the relative contribution of the urban sectors to total emissions of individual compounds. As a result, each of the four megacity areas exhibits a very characteristic NMVOC speciation profile which determines the NMVOC-related photochemical ozone (O_3

  6. Cryptosporidium spp. infection in mares and foals of the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Sandra Valéria; de Brito, Roberta Lomonte Lemos; Zucatto, Anaiza Simão; Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the occurrence of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in mares and their respective foals. This study was carried out in 11 farms located in the municipalities of Araçatuba, Birigui, Guararapes and Santo Antônio do Aracangua, in the northwest region of the State of Sao Paulo, from November 2010 to March 2011. A total of 98 mares and 98 foals of several breeds were analyzed; among foals, 59 were males and 39 females, aged from three to 330 days. Feces were collected directly from the rectal ampulla, purified and processed according to modified Kinyoun stain. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 21.4% (21/98) for foals and 18.4% (18/98) for mares. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. had significant association with breeds and age of animals. Results obtained led to the conclusion that foals older than two months and Mangalarga animals are less susceptible to the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp.

  7. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  8. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  9. Regional cancer pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Janjan, Nora; Jain, Subash; Chau, Chi

    2006-12-01

    Cancer pain often presents in a body region. This review summarizes articles from 1999-2004 relevant to cancer pain syndromes in the head and neck, chest, back, abdomen, pelvis, and limbs. Although the evidence is limited, progress is being made in further development of the evidence base to support and guide current practice.

  10. Norway's Regional Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    1974-01-01

    Created in 1969 as a 3-college system coordinated by the Regional College section of the Ministry of Education, the current 6 institutions represent Norway's attempt to extend equal opportunity and employment-oriented education to rural and remote areas. (Editor)

  11. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  12. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  13. TVA and regional development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Although TVA is best known as a producer of electric power, its mission, in the words of Franklin D. Roosevelt, called for a program that touches and gives life to all forms of human concerns. This booklet provides general information about the scores of ways - beyond the electric power generation - in which the agency serves the region and nation.

  14. MC-24 Phaethontis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-24 quadrangle, Phaethontis region of Mars. The Phaethontis quadrangle is dominated by heavily cratered highlands and low-lying areas forming relatively smooth plains. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 120 to 180.

  15. MC-2 Diacria Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-2 quadrangle, Diacria region of Mars. The northern two-thirds is dominated by relatively smooth plains. The southeastern part is marked by aureole deposits of the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 120 to 180.

  16. MC-14 Amenthes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-14 quadrangle, Amenthes region of Mars. The southern part includes heavily cratered highlands. The northern part is dominated by relatively smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and the eastern half of the Isidis basin. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -135 to -90 degrees.

  17. MC-3 Arcadia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-3 quadrangle, Arcadia region of Mars. The southern part contains the large shield volcano, Alba Patera, and the highly faulted Tempe Terra province, which includes many small volcanoes. The northern part is dominated by relatively smooth plains. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 60 to 120 degrees.

  18. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  19. Regional Norms for English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    The debate continues about regional norms for English usage around the world, although the discussion has become more realistic and less didactic. Educated non-native varieties are increasingly accepted, distinctions are being made between national and international language uses, and localized varieties are no longer considered as necessarily…

  20. Recipe for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1994-01-01

    The Ceramics Corridor has created new jobs in New York's Appalachian region by fostering ceramics research and product development by small private companies. Corridor business incubators offer tenants low overhead costs, fiber-optic connections to Alfred University's mainframe computer, rental of lab space, and use of equipment small companies…

  1. Preliminary carbon isotope measurements of fossil fuel and biogenic emissions from the Brazilian Southeastern region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. M.; Santos, G.; Macario, K.; Muniz, M.; Queiroz, E.; Park, J.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have confirmed that the continuing global rising of atmospheric CO2 content is caused by anthropogenic CO2 contributions. Most of those contributions are essentially associated with burning of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas). However, deforestation, biomass burning, and land use changes, can also play important roles. Researchers have showed that 14C measurements of annual plants, such as corn leaf (Hsueh et al. 2007), annual grasses (Wang and Pataki 2012), and leaves of deciduous trees (Park et al. 2013) can be used to obtain time-integrated information of the fossil fuel ration in the atmosphere. Those regional-scale fossil fuel maps are essential for monitoring CO2 emissions mitigation efforts and/or growth spikes around the globe. However, no current data from anthropogenic contributions from both biogenic and fossil carbon has been reported from the major urban areas of Brazil. Here we make use of carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) to infer sources of CO2 in the highly populated Brazilian Southeastern region (over 80 million in 2010). This region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, vehicles, industries, and many other utilities and major infrastructures. For a starting point, we focus on collecting Ipê leaves (Tabebuia, a popular deciduous tree) from across Rio de Janeiro city and state as well as Sao Paulo city during May/June of 2014 to obtain the regional distribution of 13C and 14C of those urban domes. So far, Δ14C range from -10 to 32‰, when δ13C values are running from -26 to -35‰. The result of these preliminary investigations will be presented and discussed.Hsueh et al. 2007 Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America. Geophysical Research Letters. 34: L02816. doi:10.1029/2006GL027032 Wang and Pataki 2012 Drivers of spatial variability in urban plant and soil isotopic composition in the Los Angeles Basin. Plant and Soil 350: 323

  2. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  3. Regional Seismic Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-31

    Baikal to the Pamirs, earthquakes occuring in the Baikal region, Sinkiang , the Gobi desert, southwest China and the Himalayas generated Lg/P ratios...data were obtained from stations within the USSR from earthquake events occuring in Baikal, Sinkiang , the Gobi desert, Southwest China and the...earthquakes originating in the Sinkiang province and recorded by seismo- graphic stations along the Pamir-Lena River profile [25] 0 - recorded by short

  4. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschultz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  5. MC-7 Cebrenia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-7 quadrangle, Cebrenia region of Mars. The northwestern two-thirds is dominated by light-colored and dark, relatively smooth plains. The southeastern part is marked by one of three prominent Elysium shield volcanoes, Hecates Tholus, and the ridge system of Phlegra Montes. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -180 to -120 degrees.

  6. MC-23 Aeolis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-23 quadrangle, Aeolis region of Mars. The southern part is dominated by heavily cratered highlands that are cut by two large channels having features characteristic of terrestrial river beds. The highlands are separated from the northern plains of Elysium Planitia by a highly dissected, discontinuous northwest trending scarp. The northeastern part is marked by a large shield volcano, Apollinaris Patera. Latitude range - 30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -180 to -135 degrees.

  7. MC-12 Arabia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-12 quadrangle, Arabia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Arabia quadrangle. The northeastern part is marked by a large impact crater, Cassini. Cassini is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0 degrees.

  8. Mc-9 Tharsis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-9 quadrangle, Tharsis region of Mars. Three of the four largest shield volcanoes on Mars--Olympus, Ascraeus, and Pavonis Montes--lie within the Tharsis quadrangle, together with several smaller shields. The north-central part is marked by highly faulted terrain of Ceraunius Fossae. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 90 to 135 degrees.

  9. MC-26 Argyre Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-26 quadrangle, Argyre region of Mars. The west-central part is marked by the large Argyre impact basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across. The large basin is surrounded by heavily cratered highlands. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  10. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  11. Transition Region Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Ultraviolet emission lines emitted from the SOLAR TRANSITION REGION are often shifted from their expected rest wavelengths. Shifts of spectral lines are due to the so-called DOPPLER EFFECT, where the source of emission is moving either away from or towards the observer, causing a change in the apparent wavelength. The shifted emission lines are most often interpreted as a flow of plasma along ...

  12. Regional technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P H

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic threatens economic development in Asia because Asia offers fertile conditions for unchecked transmission and because the epidemic has the most impact on young adults who make up a large sector of the work force. Prevention is still possible, however, and should be viewed as an investment in the future. Effective prevention strategies will have regional as well as domestic components and will recognize the hierarchy of interventions and spread the burden among the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector in each country. The public sector should 1) ensure that markets function well and do not discriminate against infected individuals; 2) provide a supportive macroeconomic framework of fiscal, trade, and credit policies; and 3) provide public and quasipublic goods, such as information and training. The contribution of NGOs should are vital for reducing the suffering involved with HIV/AIDS. Private sector contributions can include care facilities, research and development, and funding. The private sector must realize that the threat to the stock of human capital posed by HIV/AIDS will reduce profits. The regional dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic relate 1) to factors that contribute to transmission and 2) to approaches that can be taken to prevent transmission and curb its impact. The Greater Mekong Subregion Work Program on HIV/AIDS is a good example of a cooperative regional effort to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The epidemic requires cooperation among sectors and among countries.

  13. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  14. Region counting algorithm based on region labeling automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sudi; Gu, Guoqing

    2007-12-01

    Region counting is a conception in computer graphics and image analysis, and it has many applications in medical area recently. The existing region-counting algorithms are almost based on filling method. Although filling algorithm has been improved well, the speed of these algorithms used to count regions is not satisfied. A region counting algorithm based on region labeling automaton is proposed in this paper. By tracing the boundaries of the regions, the number of the region can be obtained fast. And the proposed method was found to be fastest and requiring less memory.

  15. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  16. [Ultrasound and regional anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, L; Plantet, F; Jochum, D

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound is the latest major evolution in regional anaesthesia. Review of available literature shows significant changes in clinical practice. Ultrasound guidance allows the visualization of anatomical variations or unsuspected intraneural injections, reduces the volume of local anaesthetic injections and confirms correct local anaesthetic distribution or catheter placement. No study has found a statistical difference in success rates and safety because all studies were underpowered. However, the ability to visualize an invasive procedure that has been performed blindly in the past is an undeniable progress in terms of safety. The necessity to be familiar with the machine and the learning curve can be repulsive. The aim of this article is to demystify ultrasound guidance by explaining the fundamentals of the clinical use of ultrasound. With the help of different chapters, the authors explain the different adjustments and possible artefacts and give easy solutions for the use of bedside ultrasound. Training is essential and can be performed on manikins or training phantom. For each region the main anatomical landmarks are explained. One must be familiar with several imaging techniques: short axis (transverse) or long axis (longitudinal) nerve imaging, in-plane or out-of-plane imaging and hydrolocalization. Viewing the needle's tip position during its progression remains the main safety endpoint. Therefore, electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasound guidance should be combined, especially for beginners, to confirm proximity to neural structures and to help in case of difficulty. Optimizing safety and clinical results must remain a key priority in regional anaesthesia. Finally, specific regulations concerning the transducers are described. Paediatric specificities are also mentioned.

  17. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  18. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  19. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  20. MC-27 Noachis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-27 quadrangle, Noachis region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Noachis quadrangle. The northeastern part is marked by the western half of the ancient large Hellas basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains. The southeastern part is marked by the Peneus caldera and part of the Amphitrites shield volcano and associated ridged plains that may be basaltic flows. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range -60 to 0 degrees.

  1. MC-8 Amazonis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-8 quadrangle, Amazonis region of Mars. The central part, which is dominated by light-colored, relatively smooth to hummocky plains of Amazonis Planitia, is partly bounded to the east by the western flank of the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons, and its associated aureole deposits. Moderately cratered knobby terrain is west of the plains of Amazonis Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 135 to 180 degrees.

  2. MC-15 Elysium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-15 quadrangle, Elysium region of Mars. The Elysium quadrangle includes relatively smooth lowland plains immediately north of the more cratered highlands. The plains are interrupted on the northwest by two large shield volcanoes, Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus. The plains are also marked by an elongate crater, Orcus Patera, at the east boundary and a band of knobby terrain that extends northeastward through the eastern part. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -180 to -135 degrees.

  3. MC-18 Coprates Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-18 quadrangle, Coprates region of Mars. Moderately cratered and faulted highland ridged plains in the northern and southern parts are cut by the prominent Valles Marineris chasma system, which reaches depths of 10 km and extends in an east-southeast direction for about 2,500 km across the quadrangle. The long, central canyons appear to be large, fault-bounded rifts, whereas some of the isolated, northern canyons are the sources of large outflow channels. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  4. MC-21 Iapygia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-21 quadrangle, Iapygia region of Mars. Heavily cratered and in places dissected highlands dominate the Iapygia quadrangle. The west-central part is marked by a large impact crater, Huygens. Huygens is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. The southern one-third is characterized by mountainous and knobby terrain of the northern rim of the enormous Hellas impact basin. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -90 to -45 degrees.

  5. MC-29 Eridania Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-29 quadrangle, Eridania region of Mars. The quadrangle is dominated by heavily cratered highlands, with some moderately cratered plains in the central part and large ridge systems in the southern part. The west-central part is marked by a large impact crater, Kepler. Kepler is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -65 to 30 degrees, longitude range -180 to -120 degrees.

  6. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  7. Colorado Regional Faults

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Mountain regions in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The United Nations has declared 2002 the International Year of Mountains (IYM) to bring attention to a number of threats that affect ecosystems and human populations in mountainous and highland regions around the world.“More than half of humanity—3 billion people—relies on mountains for safe, fresh water, water to grow food, to produce electricity to sustain industries and, most important, water to drink,“ said Jacques Diouf, director-general of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the primary IYM sponsor. “Yet, mountain glaciers, the source of water for many of the world's river systems and people, are melting at unprecedented rates.”

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Emily S.; De La Cerda, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic disorder that often results in debilitating chronic pain, but the diagnosis may elude providers as it is one of exclusion. A history of trauma may be elucidated. We report a case of CRPS and review the clinical findings, appropriate workup, and treatment options for the patient. The patient we describe went through an extensive workup before receiving the correct diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis leads to prolonged suffering for the patient and, at times, unnecessary invasive debridement procedures. Raising awareness of this entity may help physicians make the correct diagnosis early, as well as initiate a collaborative effort between neurology, anesthesiology, and dermatology to provide the patient the most favorable outcome. PMID:27365892

  10. MC-28 Hellas Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-28 quadrangle, Hellas region of Mars. The northwestern part includes the eastern half of the ancient large Hellas basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains. The southwestern part is marked by part of the Amphitrites shield volcano and associated ridged plains that may be basaltic lava flows. The northern part includes a low, dissected shield volcano, Hadriaca Patera, and associated plains that may be basaltic lava flows. These plains are dissected in places by large sinuous channels. The eastern part is dominated by high-standing heavily cratered highlands, perhaps uplifted by the Hellas impact event. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range -120 to -60 degrees.

  11. MC-25 Thaumasia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-25 quadrangle, Thaumasia region of Mars. In the northern part, a prominent physiographic feature, Thaumasia plateau, includes a complex array of small- and large-scale faults and ridges and ancient volcanoes. Channel systems, upturned beds, and large troughs occur in places along the southern edge of the plateau. In the southern part, the lowlands that surround the plateau include heavily cratered highland terrain and relatively smooth, low plains. The east-central part is marked by a relatively young large impact crater, Lowell. Lowell is one of several large, relatively young impact events on Mars that followed the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 60 to 120 degrees.

  12. MC-17 Phoenicis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-17 quadrangle, Phoenicis Lacus region of Mars. Two of the four largest shield volcanoes on Mars are within the northwestern part, the south half of Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons. The eastern part includes Syria and Sinai Plana. Most of the quadrangle forms the Tharsis plateau--the highest plateau on Mars; its elevation, 10 km, is twice that of the Tibetan Plateau, the highest plateau on Earth. Also in the northeastern part is Noctis Labyrinthus, a complex system of fault valleys at the west end of Valles Marineris. The south-central part is marked by the large fault system, Claritas Fossae. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 90 to 135 degrees.

  13. Strengthening regional safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  14. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  15. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    See Sorg and Grothe (doi:10.1093/brain/awv302) for a scientific commentary on this article. In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer’s disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir (18F) positron emission tomography, 18F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake

  16. REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW DURING ACUTE HYPOXIA IN INDIVIDUALS SUSCEPTIBLE TO ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Edward AW; Hopkins, Susan R; Perthen, Joanna E; Buxton, Richard B; Dubowitz, David J

    2008-01-01

    Individuals susceptible to high altitude pulmonary edema show altered pulmonary vascular responses within minutes of exposure to hypoxia. We hypothesized that a similar acute-phase vulnerability to hypoxia may exist in the brain of individuals susceptible to acute mountain sickness (AMS). In established AMS and high-altitude cerebral edema, there is a propensity for vasogenic white matter edema. We therefore hypothesized that increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) during acute hypoxia would also be disproportionately greater in white matter (WM) than grey matter (GM) in AMS-susceptible subjects. We quantified regional CBF using arterial spin labeling MRI during 30-minutes hypoxia (FIO2=0.125) in 2 groups: AMS-susceptible (AMS-S, n=6) who invariably experienced AMS at altitude, and AMS-resistant (AMS-R, n=6) who never experienced AMS despite multiple rapid ascents. SaO2 during hypoxia did not differ between groups (AMS-S=87±4%, AMSR=89±3%, p=0.3). Steady-state whole-brain CBF increased in hypoxia (p<0.005), but did not differ between groups (Normoxia: AMS-S=42.7±14.0ml/100g/min, AMS-R=41.7±10.1ml/100g/min, Hypoxia: AMS-S=47.8±19.5ml/100g/min, AMS-R=48.2±10.1ml/100g/min, p=0.65), and cerebral oxygen delivery remained constant. The percent change in CBF did not differ between brain regions or between groups (although absolute CBF change was greater in GM): (GM: AMS-S=6.1±7.7ml/100g/min (10±11%), AMS-R=8.3±5.7ml/100g/min (17±11%) p=0.57; WM: AMS-S=4.3±5.1ml/100g/min (12±15%), AMS-R=4.8±2.9ml/100g/min (16±9%), p= 0.82). Conclusion: CBF increases in acute hypoxia, but is not different between WM and GM, irrespective of AMS susceptibility. Acute phase differences in regional CBF during acute hypoxia are not a primary feature of susceptibility to AMS. PMID:18088570

  17. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  18. USArray Regional Phase Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, J. S.; Shearer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The regional Pn and Sn phases, which are typically described as headwaves that propagate in the uppermost mantle, are sensitive to heterogeneities in the mantle lid and complement other seismic studies with poorer vertical resolution at this depth. We have experimented with a variety of approaches to image the velocity structure and anisotropy in the western U.S., starting with separate Pn and Sn time-term tomographies, but also localized cross-correlation and stacking approaches that benefit from the regular USArray station arrangement. Later we combined the data sets for joint Pn-Sn inversions and the resulting Vp/Vs maps provide further insight into the nature of the seismic anomalies. Now that USArray has reached the east coast, we are updating our models to include the cumulative station footprint. The sparser source distribution in the eastern U.S., and the resulting longer ray paths, provide new challenges and justify the inclusion of additional parameters that account for the velocity gradient in the mantle lid. Our results show generally higher Pn velocities in the eastern U.S., but we observe patches of lower velocities around the New Madrid seismic zone and below the eastern Appalachians. We find that the Pn fast axes generally do not agree with SKS splitting orientations, suggesting significant vertical changes in anisotropy in the upper mantle. For example, the circular pattern of the fast polarization direction of SKS in the western U.S. is much less pronounced in the Pn results, and in the eastern U.S. the dominant Pn fast direction is approximately north-south, whereas the SKS fast polarizations are oriented roughly parallel to the absolute plate motion direction. Since Pn and Sn travel through the crust, they can provide additional information on crustal thickness. In several regions our results and estimates from receiver function studies are inconsistent. For example, beneath the Colorado Plateau our crustal thickness estimates are about 35-40 km

  19. A Regional Resource: Appalachian Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Harry

    1975-01-01

    An Appalachian Regional Commission survey of 180 institutions of higher education in the Appalachian Region pinpoints which institutions offer technical assistance to state and local governments and officals. (Author)

  20. On Titan's Xanadu region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert H.; Barnes, Jason W.; Melosh, H. Jay

    2011-08-01

    A large, circular marking ˜1800 km across is seen in near-infrared images of Titan. The feature is centered at 10°S, 120°W on Titan, encompasses much of Titan's western Xanadu region, and has an off-center, quasi-circular, inner margin about 700 km across, with lobate outer margins extending 200-500 km from the inner margin. On the feature's southern flank is Tui Regio, an area that has very high reflectivity at 5 μm, and is hypothesized to exhibit geologically recent cryovolcanic flows (Barnes, J.W. et al. [2006]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33), similar to flows seen in Hotei Regio, a cryovolcanic area whose morphology may be controlled by pre-existing, crustal fractures resulting from an ancient impact (Soderblom, L.A. et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204). The spectral reflectivity of the large, circular feature is quite different than that of its surroundings, making it compositionally distinct, and radar measurements of its topography, brightness temperature and volume scattering also suggest that the feature is quite distinct from its surroundings. These and several other lines of evidence, in addition to the feature's morphology, suggest that it may occupy the site of an ancient impact.

  1. Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

  2. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  3. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  4. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Urban Landscapes: Global, Regional Dynamics and Case Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirejeva-Hopkins, A.; Nardoto, G. B.; Schellnhuber, H.

    2008-12-01

    The urban population has been growing rapidly in the last decades and is predicted to continue its exponential trend, especially in the developing countries, which would create additional pressure on the environment by overpopulated unsustainable cities and will continue to substantially change the main Biogeochemical cycles. Such disturbances in the main driving cycle of the Biosphere (global carbon cycle) and the nitrogen cycle, induced by sprawling urban human activities, lead to global, regional and local environmental problems, i.e. global warming, photochemical smog, stratospheric ozone depletion, soil acidification, nitrate pollution of surface and ground water, coastal ecosystem disturbances. Since urban areas are expected to continue their rapid expansion in the 21st century, accompanied by growing energy production, increased food demand, expanding transportation and industrialization it becomes more and more important to be able to describe and forecast the dynamics of biogeochemical functioning of these landscapes (which have altered characteristics compared to the natural ecosystems). Moreover, from the environmental policy perspective, a high density of people makes cities focal points of vulnerability to global environmental change. The model based on the forecasting the dynamics of urban area growth, allows us to forecast the dynamics of Carbon and Nitrogen on the urban territories at different scales. However, nitrogen cycle is very complex and is closely interlinked with the other major biogeochemical cycles, such as oxygen and water. The system of water supply and liquid waste carried by water out of the system 'city' is investigated. In order to better understand the mechanisms of cycling, we consider the case studies, when we investigated the detailed fluxes of Carbon and Nitrogen in Sao Paolo (Brazil) and Paris (France). When we know the yearly amounts of carbon and nitrogen, produced by a city, we should be capable of coming up with what

  5. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  6. An interactive region merging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rongteng

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents a novel region merging method based on the interactive information from users. An image firstly is partitioned into homogeneous regions by using an initial segmentation and the regions will be label by taking an interactive scheme. In this scheme, the users only roughly specify the position and main features of the object and background, then any region will belong to non-label region or label region i.e. object or background. A similarity rule is used to guide the merging process with the help of the users' markers. And then the object of interest is extracted from the image. Experiment results show that the proposed method is efficient for us to extract the object of interest from the complex background.

  7. Air Pollution in Megacities: Sources and Regional/Global Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.

    2007-12-01

    Air Pollution in Megacities is increasing significantly in all continents. The socio-economic and health problems are escalating, especially in developing countries. In terms of sources, urban transportation is relevant in most cities, as well as industrial pollution. In Latin American Cities such as Sao Paulo, Mexico City and Santiago, serious governmental efforts are being doing to reduce emissions and effects. Latin America has about 300 cities with population above 300.000 people. In Sao Paulo, the significant increase in the use of ethanol as fuel brings important increase in aldehyde concentrations. In all 3 Megacities, high aerosol concentrations are observed, with clear effects on population health. Large studies on aerosol source apportionment were done in these 3 cities, and detailed results will be presented. Quantification of aerosol sources is a problem, especially in the organic aerosol component that is high in most of Megacities. In Asia and Africa, the problems are similar as in Latin America, and the large emissions from these urban centers are relevant and needs to be taken into account in policies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  8. Regional Climate Tutorial: Assessing Regional Climate Change and Its Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E.; Fisher, A.

    2002-05-01

    Recent scientific progress now enables credible projections of global changes in climate over long time periods. But people will experience global climate change where they live and work, and have difficulty thinking of a future beyond their grandchildren's lifetime. Although the task of projecting climate change and its impacts is far more challenging for regional and relatively near-term time scales, these are the scales at which actions most easily can be taken to moderate negative impacts. This tutorial will summarize what is known about projecting changes in regional climate, and about assessing the impacts for sectors such as forests, agriculture, fresh water quantity and quality, coastal zones, human health, and ecosystems. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) is used to provide context and illustrate how adaptation within the region and feedback from other regions influence the impacts that might be experienced.

  9. Global and regional air quality responses to regional CO reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Adelman, Z.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence global and regional air quality and climate through changes in the tropospheric concentrations of O3, methane (CH4), and aerosols. Here we examine the influence of regional carbon monoxide (CO) emissions on air quality by simulating 50% reductions in anthropogenic CO emissions from 10 world regions (Australia/New Zealand, Southeast Asia, East Asia, India, Southern Africa, Northern Africa/Middle East, Former Soviet Union, Europe, South America, and North America), using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4. The IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emissions inventory for 2005 and global meteorology from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) for 2004-2005 are used as inputs to MOZART-4, run at 1.9 x 2.5 degree horizontal resolution. Base case global air quality is first simulated for the year 2005, and the resulting distributions of tropospheric O3 and related species are compared with observations. Then CO emission reductions from each of the 10 regions are simulated individually. We quantify global and regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 at the surface and within the troposphere, including the influence of each regional reduction on long-term O3 concentrations via CH4 and the long-range transport of O3 and CO. This analysis shows the sensitivity of global and regional air quality to anthropogenic CO emissions from many world regions, in contrast to previous studies of only a few regions. Beyond this study, these simulations will be used to estimate the net radiative forcing due to CO emission reductions from these world regions.

  10. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management: Regional Sediment Budget for the Poipu Region of Kauai, HI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    represent regular maintenance activities such as dredging, bypassing, or nourishment . The region addressed in this study has experienced one or more of these...Hawaii Coastal Geology Group US United States USACE US Army Corps of Engineers USGS US Geological Survey WIS Wave Information Study ERDC/CHL...This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) reviews the development of a regional sediment budget for the Poipu Region on the

  11. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    The Gulf of Guinea region is located on the Atlantic side of Africa; the sub region has a total population of approximately 190million people. It comprises of five different countries and their territorial waters, which are as follows: Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Cameroon. The sub region is blessed with so many types of natural resources ranging from petroleum, Natural gas, Bitumen, Uranium Diamond and Gold to mention but a few. However the region since the last two decades started attracting the World's attention as a result of the continuous increasing discoveries of new oil fields on both its on shores and off shores. In view of this extra ordinary increasing discoveries of new oil fields in the region, the Gulf of Guinea has become a "Gold rush" to the oil companies and it has so far attracted almost all the top oil firms in the world including; Exxon Mobil, Shell, Total, Texaco, Agip, Chevron, Slumberger, Stat Oil and Conoco Phillips among many other oil giants. In the more recent time even the U.S. Marine Corp have stationed their War Ship in the territorial waters of the Gulf in the name of providing protection to the "Liquid Gold" (Petroleum) underlying the beneath of the region. OIL ACTIVITIES AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS IN THE GULF OF GUINEA As a result of the geometrically increasing oil activities in the region ranging from Drilling, Gas flaring, Bunkering and Exploration activities, there was increase in the general pollution of the region. For example recent reports released in June, 2005 by the internationally renown nongovernmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice programme and the Nigeria's Environmental Rights Action, Under the aegis of friends of the Earth, had it that the region is ranked top on the world's total flare with Nigeria along accounting for 16 percent of the world's total flare. Another example is the increasing cases of oil spillages leading to the

  12. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  13. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  14. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  15. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  16. MISR Regional SAMUM Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... in the northern hemisphere (see the table at right). By design, the images show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed ...

  17. MISR Regional VBBE Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... in the northern hemisphere (see the table at right). By design, the images show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed ...

  18. Global forcing and regional interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1992-01-01

    The Climate System Modeling Program (CSMP) sponsored a “Global Forcing and Regional Interaction Workshop” from October 21 to 23, 1991, at Colorado State University's Pingree Park campus, to evaluate the relationship between global climate forcing and the response of the land surface on a regional scale. The general aim of the workshop was to develop specific action plans and preliminary science research strategies for regional-global interactions. Each participant was invited to identify tractable, high pay-off science issues related to global forcing and regional interactions. The workshop, with twenty-six participants about evenly split between atmospheric scientists, hydrologists, and ecologists, was also designed to facilitate a network of collaborators to prepare multidisciplinary research proposals. Discussion also focused on regional climate over the last 200 years and included the influence of atmosphere-land surface processes on natural climate variability. Several major recommendations were made on topics discussed.

  19. About Region 8’s Central Regional Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Region 8 laboratory plays a critical role in protecting people's health and the environment through the analysis of air, water, soil, and biota samples (plant, fish, and occasionally, mammalian tissue).

  20. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  1. Finding Distant Galactic HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Cunningham, V.

    2015-12-01

    The WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions contains ˜2000 H ii region candidates lacking ionized gas spectroscopic observations. All candidates have the characteristic H ii region mid-infrared morphology of WISE 12 μ {{m}} emission surrounding 22 μ {{m}} emission, and additionally have detected radio continuum emission. We here report Green Bank Telescope hydrogen radio recombination line and radio continuum detections in the X-band (9 GHz; 3 cm) of 302 WISE H ii region candidates (out of 324 targets observed) in the zone 225^\\circ ≥slant {\\ell }≥slant -20^\\circ , | {\\text{}}b| ≤slant 6^\\circ . Here we extend the sky coverage of our H ii region Discovery Survey, which now contains nearly 800 H ii regions distributed across the entire northern sky. We provide LSR velocities for the 302 detections and kinematic distances for 131 of these. Of the 302 new detections, 5 have ({\\ell },{\\text{}}b,v) coordinates consistent with the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (OSC), the most distant molecular spiral arm of the Milky Way. Due to the Galactic warp, these nebulae are found at Galactic latitudes >1° in the first Galactic quadrant, and therefore were missed in previous surveys of the Galactic plane. One additional region has a longitude and velocity consistent with the OSC but lies at a negative Galactic latitude (G039.183-01.422 -54.9 {km} {{{s}}}-1). With Heliocentric distances >22 kpc and Galactocentric distances >16 kpc, the OSC H ii regions are the most distant known in the Galaxy. We detect an additional three H ii regions near {\\ell }≃ 150^\\circ whose LSR velocities place them at Galactocentric radii >19 kpc. If their distances are correct, these nebulae may represent the limit to Galactic massive star formation.

  2. An evaluation of SAO sites for laser operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, J. M.; Bush, M. A.; Pearlman, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    Operational criteria are provided for the selection of laser tracking sites for the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program. A compilation of data is given concerning the effect of weather conditions on laser and Baker-Nunn camera operations. These data have been gathered from the Smithsonian astrophysical observing station sites occupied since the inception of the satellite tracking program. Also given is a brief description of each site, including its characteristic weather conditions, comments on communications and logistics, and a summary of the terms of agreement under which the station is or was operated.

  3. Further SAO RAS spectral classification of SN candidates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkhullin, T. A.; Moskvitin, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    We observed two SN candidates (AT 2016emj, AT 2016emb) with the BTA/Scorpio-I on the night of August, 3. Direct images in the V band and long-slit spectra in the range of 3600-7600AA (resolution FWHM = 10A) were obtained.

  4. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  5. SAO Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Satellite Instrument Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on our three-year program of research to refine the measurement capability for satellite-based instruments that monitor ozone and other trace species in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere, to retrieve global distributions of these and other constituents from the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments, and to conduct scientific studies for the ILAS instruments. This continues our involvements as a U.S. participant in GOME and SCIAMACHY since their inception, and as a member of the ILAS-II Science Team. These programs have led to the launch of the first satellite instrument specifically designed to measure height-resolved ozone, including the tropospheric component (GOME), and the development of the first satellite instrument that will measure tropospheric ozone simultaneously with NO2, CO, HCHO, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (SCIAMACHY). The GOME program now includes the GOME-2 instruments, to be launched on the Eumetsat Metop satellites, providing long-term continuity in European measurements of global ozone that complement the measurements of the TOMS, SBW, OMI, OMPS instruments. The research primarily focuses on two areas: Data analysis, including algorithm development and validation studies that will improve the quality of retrieved data products, in support for future field campaigns (to complement in situ and airborne campaigns with satellite measurements), and scientific analyses to be interfaced to atmospheric modeling studies.

  6. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  7. SAO Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Satellite Instrument Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest (Technical Monitor); Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on our three-year program of research to refine the measurement capability for satellite-based instruments that monitor ozone and other trace species in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere, to retrieve global distributions of these and other constituents h m the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments, and to conduct scientific studies for the ILAS instruments. This continues our involvements as a U.S. participant in GOME and SCIAMACHY since their inception, and as a member of the ILAS-II Science Team. These programs have led to the launch of the first satellite instrument specifically designed to measure height-resolved ozone, including the tropospheric component (GOME), and the development of the first satellite instrument that will measure tropospheric ozone simultaneously with NO2, CO, HCHO, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (SCIAMACHY). The GOME program now includes the GOME-2 instruments, to be launched on the Eumetsat Metop satellites, providing long-term continuity in European measurements of global ozone that complement the measurements of the TOMS, SBUV, OMI, OMPS instruments. The research primarily focuses on two areas: Data analysis, including algorithm development and validation studies that will improve the quality of retrieved data products, in support for future field campaigns (to complement in situ and airborne campaigns with satellite measurements), and scientific analyses to be interfaced to atmospheric modeling studies.

  8. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  9. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 3 (DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV) is provided here.

  10. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 10

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA) is provided here.

  11. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  12. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) is provided here.

  13. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX) is provided here.

  14. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN) is provided here.

  15. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 2 (NJ, NY, PR, VI) is provided here.

  16. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 3 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) is provided here.

  17. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 1

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT) is provided here.

  18. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition.

  19. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NV, AS, GU) is provided here.

  20. [Regional anesthesia and cancer immunology].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Toru; Mori, Katsuya; Inoue, Kei; Suzuki, Takeshi; Morisaki, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Regional anesthesia has been widely applied as an excellent method for perioperative analgesia. Recent studies suggested that regional anesthesia is a promising approach to minimize the risk of surgical site infection and postoperative cancer recurrence, subsequently providing the benefits to the long-term outcome. In particular, it is of great interest that regional anesthesia might be able to reduce cancer recurrence. In cancer patients, innate immunity against cancer could be depressed, resulting in the predisposition to evoke metastasis. Besides, during the perioperative periods, tumor immunity is significantly depressed due to surgical pain, activation of sympathetic nervous system, inflammatory responses, and others. In this review article, we discuss the tumor immunity during the perioperative period, with focus on the alterations of tumor immunity and regional anesthesia.

  1. Multimodal analgesia and regional anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tornero Tornero, C; Fernández Rodríguez, L E; Orduña Valls, J

    2017-03-24

    Multimodal analgesia provides quality analgesia, with fewer side effects due to the use of combined analgesics or analgesic techniques. Regional anaesthesia plays a fundamental role in achieving this goal. The different techniques of regional anaesthesia that include both peripheral and central blocks in either a single dose or in continuous infusion help to modulate the nociceptive stimuli that access the central level. The emergence of the ultrasound as an effective system to perform regional anaesthesia techniques has allowed the development of new regional anaesthesia techniques that formerly could not be carried out since only neurostimulation or skin references were used. It is essential to take into account that even with effective blocking it is advisable to associate other drugs by other routes, in this way we will be able to reduce the required doses individually and attempt to achieve a synergistic, not purely additive, effect.

  2. A regional technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenery, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the NC/STRC are reported. The background and organization of the regional dissemination center, and marketing methods are discussed along with the services provided, and available information resources.

  3. MC-10 Lanae Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-10 quadrangle, Lanae Palus region of Mars. The western part is dominated by lava flows of the Tharsis region. The central part includes ridged terrain of Lunae Planum. The west and north borders of Lunae Planum are dissected by the large, relatively young outflow channel, Kasei Vallis, which terminates in Chryse Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  4. ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    the Navy the capability to conduct short-term (1 week) to extended (2 weeks) coupled weather forecasts for the Arctic region. APPROACH To...sensitivity of the Arctic weather forecast to key numerical parameters; and 5) conduct extensive validation and verification of the coupled system and...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System 5a. CONTRACT

  5. MC-13 Syrtis Major Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-13 quadrangle, Syrtis Major region of Mars. The central part is dominated by dark dust and lava flows of the Syrtis Major Planitia region. These lava flows are partly bounded to the east by a large depression, Isidis basin, which contains smooth plains, and to the west and north by heavily cratered and moderately faulted highlands. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -90 to -45 degrees.

  6. Revisiting Health Regionalization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Barker, Paul; Church, John

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, many of Canada's provinces began to introduce regional health authorities to address problems with their health care systems. With this action, the provinces sought to achieve advances in community decision-making, the integration of health services, and the provision of care in the home and community. The authorities were also to help restrict health care costs. An assessment of the authorities indicates, however, that over the past two decades they have been unable to meet their objectives. Community representatives continue to play little role in determining the appropriate health services for their regions. Gains have been made towards integrating health services, but the plan for a near seamless set of health services has not been realized. Funding for health services remains focused on hospital and physician care, and health care expenditures have until very recently been little affected by regional authorities. This disappointing performance has caused some provinces to abandon their regional authorities, but this article argues that the provision of greater autonomy and a better public appreciation of their role and potential may lead to more successful regional authorities. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to reveal the shortcomings of regional health authorities in Canada while at the same time arguing that changes can be made to increase the chances of more workable authorities.

  7. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  8. Reproductive Characteristics of Rodent Assemblages in Cultivated Regions of Central Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Rosenkranz, andl~rdida de masa en animales adultos frente A. Moura Duarte, eds.). International Council forLaboratory Animal Science. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 331 a...The predom- inance of animals of smaller mass classes during the winter is thought to represent seasonal weight loss rather than juvenile recruitment...ofprenaal orperuitenata mort-bastd studies by de Villafafie (198 1 b): adults were those patterns ofsjuvenile recruitment, mass-based animals ?: 14.5 g

  9. Ig Constant Region Effects on Variable Region Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Bowen, Anthony; Greenspan, Neil S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural domains known as the variable and constant regions that are responsible for antigen binding and mediating effector functions such as opsonization and complement activation, respectively. These domains were thought to be structurally and functionally independent. Recent work has revealed however, that in some families of antibodies, the two regions can influence each other. We will discuss the body of work that led to these observations, as well as the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how these two different antibody regions may interact in the function of antigen binding. PMID:26870003

  10. Regional waveform calibration in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.; Saikia, Chandan K.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1997-10-01

    Twelve moderate-magnitude earthquakes (mb 4-5.5) in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are investigated to determine their focal mechanisms and to relocate them using their regional waveform records at two broadband arrays, the Kyrgyzstan Regional Network (KNET), and the 1992 Pakistan Himalayas seismic experiment array (PAKH) in northern Pakistan. We use the "cut-and-paste" source estimation technique to invert the whole broadband waveforms for mechanisms and depths, assuming a one-dimensional velocity model developed for the adjacent Tibetan plateau. For several large events the source mechanisms obtained agree with those available from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions. An advantage of using regional broadband waveforms is that focal depths can be better constrained either from amplitude ratios of Pnl to surface waves for crustal events or from time separation between the direct P and the shear-coupled P wave (sPn + sPmP) for mantle events. All the crustal events are relocated at shallower depths compared with their International Seismological Centre bulletin or Harvard CMT depths. After the focal depths are established, the events are then relocated horizontally using their first-arrival times. Only minor offsets in epicentral location are found for all mantle events and the bigger crustal events, while rather large offsets (up to 30 km) occur for the smaller crustal events. We also tested the performance of waveform inversion using only two broadband stations, one from the KNET array in the north of the region and one from the PAKH array in the south. We found that this geometry is adequate for determining focal depths and mechanisms of moderate size earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region.

  11. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  12. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management: Regional Sediment Budget for the Kekaha Region of Kauai, HI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    study regions, have been developed by the University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group (UH CGG) (Fletcher et al. 2012) for the US Geological Survey...maintenance activities such as dredging, bypassing, or nourishment . The region addressed in this study has experienced one or more of these activities... Coastal Geology Group US United States USACE US Army Corps of Engineers USGS US Geological Survey WIS Wave Information Study ERDC/CHL CHETN

  13. Correlation of regional breath sound with regional ventilation in emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Ploysongsang, Y.; Pare, J.A.; Macklem, P.T.

    1982-09-01

    We measured regional breath sound intensities (Ib) by a microphone amplifier system in 8 subjects with emphysema. We also measured regional white noise transmissions (Tn) from the same areas in all subjects. The recorded areas were 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the apex of the lung just lateral to the right anterior midclavicular line. Xenon ventilation indexes (xenon tidal raw counts, an index of total regional ventilation; xenon equilibration raw counts, an index of ventilating lung volume; xenon ventilation per unit volume (Vr), an index of ventilation per unit volume) were also recorded from the same areas. The Ib, Tn, Ib/Tn (an index of sound generation), and xenon ventilation indexes were all expressed as a fraction of the mean value of all four recorded areas. The Ib and Ib/Tn correlated best with the xenon tidal raw counts, correlated well with the xenon equilibration raw counts, and correlated poorly with Vr. We conclude that Ib and Ib/Tn can be used to quantify regional ventilation in subjects with emphysema.

  14. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  15. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  16. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  17. Regional Cooperation to Strengthen Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Minnini, Margot; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2016-06-06

    President Obama’s decision over four years ago to ”pivot” toward Asia represented an important strategic shift in American foreign policy and a rebalancing of U.S. economic and security engagement in the Asia-Pacific countries. The United States has since supported a variety of regional initiatives aimed at promoting nuclear security and safeguards. When a new regional organization, the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) was established in 2010, DOE/NNSA became an early member and enthusiastic advocate. Launched on the initiative of Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Indonesia, the APSN aims to strengthen the quality and effectiveness of safeguards implementation in the Asia-Pacific region.

  18. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  19. Floristic study of Mirabad region.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh Gorttapeh, A; Panahy, J

    2007-10-15

    The study area (Mirabad) is located between 36 degrees, 55' to 37 degrees north latitude and 45 degrees, 05' to 55 degrees, 44' east longitude in west Azerbaijan province. In this study, Flora of this region was determined by using available references. We encountered 192 species that belongs to 126 genera and 41 families. The largest family of region is Asteraceae with 31 sp. and the largest Genera is Astragalus with 7 sp. The main life forms are: Hemicryptophyte with 30.2% and Therophyte with 28.1%. The most extended chorotype with 62.5% is related to: Irano_Turanian.

  20. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data.

  1. Solitary neurilemmoma in postaural region.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Bivas; Sen, Indranil; Basu, Asim Jiban; Bandyopadhyay, Saumyendra Nath; Saha, Debdas; Basu, Sumit Kumar

    2007-05-01

    Neurilemmoma in postaural region arising from great auricular nerve is an extremely rare tumour. An 11 years boy presented with pain and swelling behind his left ear for last 3-4 years. The clinical examination revealed the swelling appeared to be diffuse with the margin being ill defined. On radiological examination a diffuse homogeneous mass was seen in the postaural region of the left side. The tumour was completely removed by an incision through postaural route. Histopathological study revealed neurilemmoma. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  2. Regional High School Senior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Philip R., Jr.

    In order to identify the educational needs and aspirations of graduating high school seniors in the service region of the University of Maine at Augusta, a survey instrument was designed and administered to 1,950 seniors at 19 institutions. In all, 1,744 completed surveys were returned, a 92 percent response rate. The data are sub-grouped into…

  3. Microinstabilities in the pedestal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, David; Dudson, Benjamin; Wilson, Howard; Roach, Colin

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of transport at the pedestal top is important for the inter-ELM pedestal dynamics. Linear gyrokinetic analysis of the pedestal region during an ELM cycle on MAST has shown kinetic ballooning modes to be unstable at the knee of the pressure profile and in the steep pedestal region whilst microtearing modes (MTMs) dominate in the shallow gradient region inboard of the pedestal top. The transition between these instabilities at the pedestal knee has been observed in low and high collisionality MAST pedestals, and is likely to play an important role in the broadening of the pedestal. Nonlinear simulations are needed in this region to understand the microturbulence, the corresponding transport fluxes, and to gain further insight into the processes underlying the pedestal evolution. Such gyrokinetic simulations are numerically challenging and recent upgrades to the GS2 gyrokinetic code help improve their feasibility. We are also exploring reduced models that capture the relevant physics using the plasma simulation framework BOUT + + . An electromagnetic gyrofluid model has recently been implemented with BOUT + + that has significantly reduced computational cost compared to the gyrokinetic simulations against which it will be benchmarked. This work was funded by the RCUK Energy programme, EURATOM and a EUROFusion fellowship WP14-FRF-CCFE/Dickinson and was carried out using: HELIOS at IFERC, Japan; ARCHER (EPSRC Grant No. EP/L000237/1); HECToR (EPSRC Grant No. EP/H002081/1).

  4. Future and present regional wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, T.; Vrac, M.; Drobinski, P.; Naveau, P.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate and rapid determination of near-surface wind fields in a complex area (orography, inhomogeneous surface properties) is a challenge for applications like the evaluation of wind energy production, the prediction of pollution transport and hazardous conditions for aeronautics and ship navigation, among others. This work presents a statistical downscaling approach for regional near-surface wind field in the region of southern France (characterized by the presence of major mountain ranges). It is based on generalized additive models (GAM, Salameh et al. 2008), relating large-scale upper air to local-scale surface atmospheric fields. We apply our statistical downscaling model conditionally on regional circulation patterns defined from measurements. Hence, near-surface wind components in southern France are simulated based on large-scale information from ERA-40 reanalyses (1991-2001) and from IPCC scenarios (1991-2001 and 2040-2050). The performances of our method are evaluated, (1) by comparing downscaled wind from ERA-40 and from IPCC, and (2) by comparing them with measurements, for the period 1991-2001. Then, we evaluate the change in regional atmospheric circulations in southern France, by comparing future and present downscaled wind.

  5. Biocapacity optimization in regional planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianjun; Yue, Dongxia; Li, Kai; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention.

  6. Regional Security Application and Checkmate!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    30 F. Time, Geo- Spatial , and Resource Constraints ................................................ 32 G. Summary...leverage human interactions and computer modeling and tools to provide participants with useful insights on complex multi -disciplinary issues. It’s...and interdependent multi -disciplinary issues associated with such challenges. In this regard: (a) A regional S.E.N.S.E. application that addresses

  7. Biocapacity optimization in regional planning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianjun; Yue, Dongxia; Li, Kai; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention. PMID:28112224

  8. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  9. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  10. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  11. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  12. MC-1 Mare Boreum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-1 quadrangle, Mare Boreum region of Mars. The central part is covered by a residual ice cap that is cut by spiral-patterned troughs exposing layered terrain. The cap is surrounded by broad flat plains and large dune fields. Latitude range 65 to 90, longitude range -180 to 180.

  13. MC-5 Ismenius Lacus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-5 quadrangle, Ismenius Lacus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands of the southern part are separated from the relatively smooth plains of the northern part by a belt of dissected terrain, containing mesas and buttes. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -60 to 0 degrees.

  14. Regional Expertise and Culture Proficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    for culture and language training and education Abbe (2008) Social initiative Willingness to communicate in cross-cultural settings; interest in... intercultural skills during officer formal education Montgomery, AL: Air War College, Air University. Russell et al. (1995, July). Intercultural communication ...JPEC) community with foreign language and regional expertise capabilities, integrate the capabilities into all force planning activities, and obtain

  15. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region Manager. 1605.7 Section 1605.7 National... ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.7 Region Manager. (a) Subject to the direction and control of the Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be...

  16. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  17. Regional Sediment Budgets for the Haleiwa Region, Oahu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Hawaii by Jessica H. Podoski PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) reviews the development of conceptual...morphology and coastal processes have on sediment pathways and transport volumes. In the Southeast Oahu Region, Mokapu Point to Makapuu Point RSB...and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory,3909 Halls Ferry Road,Vicksburg,MS,39180-6199 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  18. Numerical Simulation of Regional Circulation in the Monterey Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. H.; Dietrich, D. E.; Ferziger, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to produce a high-resolution numerical model of Mon- terey Bay area in which the dynamics are determined by the complex geometry of the coastline, steep bathymetry, and the in uence of the water masses that constitute the CCS. Our goal is to simulate the regional-scale ocean response with realistic dynamics (annual cycle), forcing, and domain. In particular, we focus on non-hydrostatic e ects (by comparing the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models) and the role of complex geometry, i.e. the bay and submarine canyon, on the nearshore circulation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the rst to simulate the regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay using a non-hydrostatic model. Section 2 introduces the high resolution Monterey Bay area regional model (MBARM). Section 3 provides the results and veri cation with mooring and satellite data. Section 4 compares the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models.

  19. [Regional clinical audit, guideline targets, and local and regional benchmarks].

    PubMed

    Casino, F G; Lopez, T

    2005-01-01

    Regional clinical Audit, guideline Targets and local and regional Benchmarks In order to improve the quality of dialysis treatment, we have devised some routines, particularly suitable for electronic data management systems. First, we suggest a systematic monthly analysis of 10 common clinical performance measures (CPM), with the following guideline based targets: predialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg; session length >/= 240 min; dialysis dose (spKt/V) >/=1.3; normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR) >/=1.2 g/kg/d; hemoglobin (Hb) >/=11 g/dL; serum calcium (Ca) 8.4-9.5 mg/dL; serum phosphorus (P) 3.5-5.5 mg/dL; Ca x P /=20 mmol/L; serum potassium (K) 3.5-6.0 mmol/L. The Hb target should be reached in at least 85% of all maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients in the unit; for all other targets, an arbitrary >/=80% is proposed. Since the above percentages are quite difficult to reach on a short-term basis, an intermediate local or regional standard (benchmark) could be devised as an average of the percentage of patients who actually reach the targets for each CPM at any dialysis unit in a given regional area; and therefore, from truly comparable patients. As an example, we simulated a regional audit by using the above targets with available data from 398 patients from southern Italy. A further step in this process was to find the cause(s) of failure in each patient who did not reach the targets. To this end, we suggest a systematic search of the well-known factors that could affect each CPM, for each failed patient. As an example, we screened all patients with Hb < 11 g/dL at a single unit, to establish the presence/absence of any common cause associated with inadequate response to epoetin treatment. Moreover, by using criteria for prescribing iron therapy or increasing epoetin dose, we found that some patients did not receive the appropriate therapy after blood sampling results. To avoid this possible

  20. Potential force of infection of human rabies transmitted by vampire bats in the Amazonian region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M C; Santos-Burgoa, C; Aron, J; Munoz, B; Ruiz-Velazco, S; Uieda, W

    1996-12-01

    Human rabies transmitted by bats has acquired greater epidemiologic relevance in various Latin American countries, just when cases transmitted by dogs have decreased. Concern has been heightened by reports of increased rates of bats biting humans in villages in the Amazonian region of Brazil. The aim of the present work was to estimate the potential force of infection (per capita rate at which susceptible individuals acquire infection) of human rabies transmitted by the common vampire bat if the rabies virus were to be introduced to a colony of bats close to a village with a high rate of human bites. The potential force of infection could be then used to anticipate the size of a rabies outbreak in control programs. We present an estimator of potential incidence, adapted from models for malaria. To obtain some of the parameters for the equation, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Mina Nova, a village of gold prospectors in the Amazonian region of Brazil with high rates of bates biting humans. Bats were captured near dwellings and sent to The Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory at the Center for Control of Zoonoses (Sao Paulo, Brazil) to be examined. To estimate the force of infection, a hypothetical rabies outbreak among bats was simulated using the actual data obtained in the study area. Of 129 people interviewed, 23.33% had been attacked by a vampire bat during the year prior to the study, with an average of 2.8 bites per attacked person. Males (29.41%) were attacked more often than females (11.36%); also, adults (29.35%) were attacked more often than children (8.33%). None of the 12 bats captured in Mina Nova tested positive for rabies, but the force of infection for a hypothetical outbreak was estimated to be 0.0096 per person per year. This risk represents 0.96 cases per 100 area residents, giving an incidence of 1.54 cases of bat-transmitted human rabies per year in the village of Mina Nova (160 inhabitants). The estimated risk is comparable with what has been

  1. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  2. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  3. [Health in Andean regional integration].

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of experiences in health has shown that integration depends on the countries' respective strengths and to a major extent on national political processes.

  4. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  5. Sustainable development: a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1988-12-01

    This article discusses sustainable development in Asia and current environmental problems in this region. Droughts and rainy seasons pose a major concern indicating environmental limitations: India's 1987 drought halted world grain production and China suffered US $435 million in flooding damage. Deforestation and land degradation are consequences of a rising population's demand for agriculture, fuelwood, irrigation, and hydroelectric projects; 1815 million hectares of forest are cleared/year and 40% of the land could possible be subjected to soil erosion. Although population growth is declining in some Asian countries, the continent inhabits the greatest proportion of world population; 300 million are underfed. Food production remains a problem for this region because of bad weather, highly populated areas, less cropland, soil erosion, and limited water supply. Efforts currently employed to conserve natural resources include community reforestation, providing available drinking water, substituting firewood for fuelwood, and delivering primary health care.

  6. EPA Region 3 Quality Management Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Has links to resources that describe the Region's Quality Assurance Program, which is a collection of the Region's ongoing quality assurance (QA) policies, procedures, responsibilities and management systems.

  7. Pollutant transport among California regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angevine, Wayne M.; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart; Holloway, John S.; Lerner, Brian M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guha, Abhinav; Andrews, Arlyn; Nowak, John B.; Evan, Stephanie; Fischer, Marc L.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Bon, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Several regions within California have significant air quality issues. Transport of pollutants emitted in one region to another region may add to the impact of local emissions. In this work, Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations show the amounts of tracers that are transported within and among four regions, Southern California, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Central Valley, and the rest of the state. The simulations cover May and June of 2010, the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change experiment period. Tracers of automobile emissions and one type of agricultural emission are used. Tracer mixing ratios are compared to airborne and ground-based measurements. The age of tracers in each location is also presented. Vertical profiles and diurnal cycles help to clarify the transport process. As is well known, Southern California emissions are transported to the east and affect the desert areas, and Bay Area automobile emissions are an important source of pollutants in the San Joaquin Valley. A novel result is that the Southern California Bight is filled with a mixture of well-aged carbon monoxide tracer from Southern California and the Bay Area. Air over the Bight is also affected by the agricultural emissions represented by the agricultural tracer, dominantly from the Central Valley where its sources are largest. There is no indication of transport from Southern California to the Central Valley. Emissions from the Central Valley do make their way to Southern California, as shown by the agricultural tracer, but automobile emissions from the Valley are insignificant in Southern California.

  8. Cold regions hydrology and hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.L. ); Crissman, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This monograph addresses a narrow aspect of cold regions engineering, namely the effects of cold weather on the traditional civil engineering disciplines of hydrology and hydraulics. Hydrologic and hydraulic considerations in the design, construction, and operation of civil works are very important. Many of the problems encountered in the design and construction of buildings, transportation systems, water supply facilities, waste treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities, for example are closely tied to the characteristics of the site hydrology.

  9. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    economic growth and op- portunities, and diminishes the quality of life for all. To support Latin American countries better in their quest to improve...the Middle East at the ground level, with private- sector civilian programs to help improve the quality of life and good governance in the region...more than just the virtual foundations of the postmodern information society. 4. Energy and environmental insecurity have reached a tipping point. The

  10. Indian Ocean Region - Superpower Interests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-21

    Arab-Israeli wars, the Iraq-Iran war dividing the Muslim world and the occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet troops, lead- ing to regional conflicts...with its policy of apartheid the Palestinian problem leading to Arab-Israeli wars, the Iraq-Iran war dividing the Muslim world and the occupation of...interested in the Malay archipelago--the Spice Islands. The Dutch also established themselves firmly at the Cape of Good Hope, in Mauritius, on the coast

  11. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  12. Source Contributions at Regional Distances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-14

    turbidity, and source excitation can in some instances be recovered. High frequency RSTN data with bandwidths as high as 7 Hz are analyzed. The coda Q values...observations used in this study are seismograms from Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosions and earthquakes in the California/Gulf of California region. The...Yield estimates of Nevada Test Site explosions obtained from seismic Lg waves, J.Geophys.Res., 91, 2137-2151 Nuttli, O.W. (1988): Lg magnitudes and yield

  13. MC-11 Oxia Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-11 quadrangle, Oxia Palus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands of the southeastern two-thirds are cut by several large outflow channels. These channels terminate at the dark large depression, Chryse basin, which contain relatively smooth plains in the northwestern part. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 0 to 45 degrees.

  14. MC-22 Mare Tyrrhenum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-22 quadrangle, Mare Tyrrhenum region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle. The central part is marked by a large shield volcano, Tyrrhena Patera, and associated ridged plains of Hesperia Planum that probably are made up of basaltic lava flows. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -135 to -90 degrees.

  15. MC-19 Margaritifer Sinus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-19 quadrangle, Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands, which dominate the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle, are marked by large expanses of chaotic terrain. In the northwestern part, the major rift zone of Valles Marineris connects with a broad canyon filled with chaotic terrain. Latitude range -30 to 0, longitude range 0 to 45 degrees.

  16. MC-20 Sinus Sabeus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-20 quadrangle, Sinus Sabeus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Sinus Sabeus quadrangle. The northern part is marked by a large impact crater, Schiaparelli. Schiaparelli is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0.

  17. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  18. Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2005-01-01

    We examine the record of sunspot group areas observed over a period of 100 years to determine the rate of decay of solar active regions. We exclude observations of groups when they are more than 60deg in longitude from the central meridian and only include data when at least three days of observations are available following the date of maximum area for a spot group's disk passage. This leaves data for some 24,000 observations of active region decay. We find that the decay rate is a constant 20 microHem/day for spots smaller than about 200 microHem (about the size of a supergranule). This decay rate increases linearly to about 90 microHem/day for spots with areas of 1000 microHem. We find no evidence for significant variations in active region decay from one solar cycle to another. However, we do find that the decay rate is slower at lower latitudes. This gives a slower decay rate during the declining phase of sunspot cycles.

  19. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  20. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  1. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  2. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  3. 50 CFR 2.2 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional offices. 2.2 Section 2.2 Wildlife... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND LOCATIONS § 2.2 Regional offices. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has eight... Complex, 911 NE. 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232. (b) Southwest Regional Office (Region...

  4. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working…

  5. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  6. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regional Offices. 1.61 Section 1.61... INFORMATION Field Installations § 1.61 Regional Offices. Regional Administrators are responsible to the... Headquarters Staff Offices; (b) Developing, proposing, and implementing approved Regional programs...

  7. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  8. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  9. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  10. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  11. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  12. Seismotectonics of the Iran Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engdahl, E. R.; Bergman, E. A.; Myers, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    More than 2000 instrumentally recorded earthquakes occurring in the Iran region during the period 1918- 2008 have been relocated using an advanced seismic location technique. Relocation sharpens the image of seismic activity in the region and - more importantly - significantly improves event focal depths. Iranian seismicity is largely a result of the early stages of continent/continent collision (25-35mm/yr of northwards overall shortening) between the Arabian Peninsula and Eurasia. Most earthquakes in the Iranian continental lithosphere occur in the upper crust (consistent with focal depths of available local seismic network hypocenters), with crustal shortening accommodated entirely by thickening and distributed deformation. This shortening across Iran results in thrust and strike-slip faulting. In the Zagros Mountains nearly all earthquakes are confined to the upper crust (depths < 20 km), and there is no evidence for a seismically active subducted slab dipping NE beneath central Iran. Moreover, the Zagros has many earthquakes but their magnitudes are all less than Mw 7.0 and nearly all the moment release occurs near the SW topographic edge (i.e., elevations between 500-1000m) of the belt. The moment release in the Zagros cannot account for the expected convergence across it, suggesting that the missing moment release is being accommodated aseismically. In southeastern Iran, where the Arabian seafloor is being subducted beneath the Makran coast, low-level earthquake activity occurs in the upper crust as well as to depths of at least 150 km within a northward-dipping subducting slab. Near the Oman Line, a region transitional between the Zagros and the Makran, seismicity extends to depths of up to 30-45 km in the crust, consistent with low-angle thrusting of Arabian basement beneath central Iran. In north-central Iran, along the Alborz mountain belt, seismic activity occurs primarily in the upper crust but with some infrequent events in the lower crust

  13. NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2001-01-01

    The Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) provided access to data from NASA planetary missions and expert assistance about the data sets and how to order subsets of the collections. This ensures that the benefit/cost of acquiring the data is maximized by widespread dissemination and use of the observations and resultant collections. The RPIF provided education and outreach functions that ranged from providing data and information to teachers, involving small groups of highly motivated students in its activities, to public lectures and tours. These activities maximized dissemination of results and data to the educational and public communities.

  14. [Health, marginality and regional development].

    PubMed

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Narro-Robles, J; Wolpert-Barraza, E; Meljem-Moctezuma, J

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the close link between marginality, regional development and health. In order to do so, reference is made to some health indicators like nutrition, causes of death and health infrastructure within the low as well as the high marginality areas. The paper also presents the strategies that the Ministry of Health has established to assist the population living in the high marginality areas. It specifies the related activities that are being carried out through the national institutes of health and the sanitary regulation offices.

  15. MC-30 Mare Australe Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-30 quadrangle, Mare Australe region of Mars. The central part is dominated by a permanent residual ice cap that is enclosed by layered and troughed terrain. This cap is much smaller than the northern ice cap due to differing amounts of solar heating. The layered and troughed terrain is encircled by heavily and moderately cratered terrains that include unique depositional and erosional landforms, including large pits, troughs, and complex ridge systems. Latitude range -90 to -60 degrees, longitude range -180 to 180 degrees.

  16. MC-4 Mare Acidalium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-4 quadrangle, Mare Acidalium region of Mars. The central part is characterized by dark depression--the northern Chryse basin, which contains relatively smooth plains where several large outflow channels terminate. The depression is partly bounded to the southwest by the highly faulted and heavily cratered Tempe Terra province, to the southeast by the heavily cratered Arabia Terra province, and to the north by relatively smooth plains of Vastitas Borealis. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  17. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Tia; Pollard, Megan

    2016-09-09

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today's learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions.

  18. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today’s learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions. PMID:27738573

  19. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  20. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  1. Nuclear weapons and regional conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

  2. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  3. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  4. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  5. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  6. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  7. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  8. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  9. Geomorphology of Titan's Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Dietrich, W. E.; Malaska, M. J.; Kirk, R. L.; Lucas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous lakes and seas have been observed in Titan's polar regions (Stofan et al., 2007), primarily at the north pole (Hayes et al., 2008), while evidence for channelized fluid flow has been found at all latitudes (Lorenz et al., 2008), though primarily at the poles as well. We construct a geomorphologic map of both poles at latitudes higher than 600 using a combination of the Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar images along with topographic data in the form of SARTopo (Stiles et al., 2009) and sparsely distributed Digital Terrain Models. Utilizing data from flybys Ta through T98, we define five governing morphologic units: plains, small depressions, large seas, mountains and ridge and valley networks. These units are subdivided according to their radar properties (bright or dark, uniformity), morphologies (degree of dissection, undulation, curvature and organization, regional slope), relative elevations and contact relations. These units are systematically mapped in a repeatable, quantitative manner along with various structural features such as remnant ridges, channels, alluvial fans and scarps. In combining SAR imagery with topographic data, our geomorphic map reveals a stratigraphic sequence from which we can infer processes. We find that the North Pole is dominated by an elevated, radar-dark plains unit, embedded by numerous filled, wet and dry small depressions with a sparse number of channels. The dark-plains unit transitions into a highly dissected radar-bright, lowland unit closer to the mare. A high density of radar-dark remnant ridges, channels and alluvial fans characterizes this unit. The South Pole is markedly different from the North, having far fewer lakes, no large filled seas, larger elevation gradients and a greater number of mountain regions while also being dominated by an organized ridge and valley network. Our work suggests the South Pole is not a drier version of the North. Rather the observed dichotomy between the two poles is likely the

  10. Reliability of regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, W.; Block, A.; Böhm, U.; Hauffe, D.; Keuler, K.; Kücken, M.; Nocke, Th.

    2003-04-01

    Quantification of uncertainty becomes more and more a key issue for assessing the trustability of future climate scenarios. In addition to the mean conditions, climate impact modelers focus in particular on extremes. Before generating such scenarios using e.g. dynamic regional climate models, a careful validation of present-day simulations should be performed to determine the range of errors for the quantities of interest under recent conditions as a raw estimate of their uncertainty in the future. Often, multiple aspects shall be covered together, and the required simulation accuracy depends on the user's demand. In our approach, a massive parallel regional climate model shall be used on the one hand to generate "long-term" high-resolution climate scenarios for several decades, and on the other hand to provide very high-resolution ensemble simulations of future dry spells or heavy rainfall events. To diagnosis the model's performance for present-day simulations, we have recently developed and tested a first version of a validation and visualization chain for this model. It is, however, applicable in a much more general sense and could be used as a common test bed for any regional climate model aiming at this type of simulations. Depending on the user's interest, integrated quality measures can be derived for near-surface parameters using multivariate techniques and multidimensional distance measures in a first step. At this point, advanced visualization techniques have been developed and included to allow for visual data mining and to qualitatively identify dominating aspects and regularities. Univariate techniques that are especially designed to assess climatic aspects in terms of statistical properties can then be used to quantitatively diagnose the error contributions of the individual used parameters. Finally, a comprehensive in-depth diagnosis tool allows to investigate, why the model produces the obtained near-surface results to answer the question if the

  11. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  12. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  13. Venus - Landslide in Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This Magellan radar image is centered about 25.4 degrees south latitude and 308 degrees east longitude in the southwestern Navka Region of Venus. The image shows a 17.4 kilometer (10.8 mile) diameter volcanic dome on the plains. The dome is approximately 1.86 kilometers (1.2 mile) in height and it has a slope of about 23 degrees. The northwest and northeast flanks of the dome have collapsed to form landslides that have deposited debris on the plains. The image shows an area 110 kilometers (68 miles) across and 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length.

  14. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  15. Adolescent pregnancy: a regional tragedy.

    PubMed

    Conner, S L

    1992-12-01

    Adolescent childbearing increased 16% over 1986-90 in the Southern region of the US from 38.4 to 44.6 births/1000 girls aged 15-17; adolescent birth rates declined only in Oklahoma at the rate of 1%. Southern states spent more than $5.7 billion in Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicaid, and food stamps in 1991 to support families started by adolescent mothers, but federal and state spending combined for the primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy totalled only $110 million in the same states. Public expenditures related to adolescent childbearing in Alabama in fiscal year 1991 totalled more than $117 million, yet less than $1.5 million is spent on preventing teen pregnancy. The author stresses the need for stronger state commitment, leadership, and funds for programs to prevent pregnancy. Thus far, Alabama has definitely not done enough to address the HIV and AIDS pandemic.

  16. Surface chemistry in photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplugues, G. B.; Cazaux, S.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The presence of dust can strongly affect the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. We model the chemistry in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using both gas-phase and dust-phase chemical reactions. Aims: Our aim is to determine the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium (gas/dust/ice) in regions with distinct (molecular) gas densities that are exposed to radiation fields with different intensities. Methods: We have significantly improved the Meijerink PDR code by including 3050 new gas-phase chemical reactions and also by implementing surface chemistry. In particular, we have included 117 chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces covering different processes, such as adsorption, thermal desorption, chemical desorption, two-body reactions, photo processes, and cosmic-ray processes on dust grains. Results: We obtain abundances for different gas and solid species as a function of visual extinction, depending on the density and radiation field. We also analyse the rates of the formation of CO2 and H2O ices in different environments. In addition, we study how chemistry is affected by the presence/absence of ice mantles (bare dust or icy dust) and the impact of considering different desorption probabilities. Conclusions: The type of substrate (bare dust or icy dust) and the probability of desorption can significantly alter the chemistry occurring on grain surfaces, leading to differences of several orders of magnitude in the abundances of gas-phase species, such as CO, H2CO, and CH3OH. The type of substrate, together with the density and intensity of the radiation field, also determine the threshold extinction to form ices of CO2 and H2O. We also conclude that H2CO and CH3OH are mainly released into the gas phase of low, far-ultraviolet illuminated PDRs through chemical desorption upon two-body surface reactions, rather than through photodesorption.

  17. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  18. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  19. 36 CFR 261.77 - Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region. 261.77 Section 261.77 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Regions § 261.77 Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region. (a)...

  20. Short-range ensemble predictions based on convection perturbations in the Eta Model for the Serra do Mar region in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, J. F. F.; Chou, S. C.; Gomes, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southeast Brazil, in the coastal and mountain region called Serra do Mar, between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, is subject to frequent events of landslides and floods. The Eta Model has been producing good quality forecasts over South America at about 40-km horizontal resolution. For that type of hazards, however, more detailed and probabilistic information on the risks should be provided with the forecasts. Thus, a short-range ensemble prediction system (SREPS) based on the Eta Model is being constructed. Ensemble members derived from perturbed initial and lateral boundary conditions did not provide enough spread for the forecasts. Members with model physics perturbation are being included and tested. The objective of this work is to construct more members for the Eta SREPS by adding physics perturbed members. The Eta Model is configured at 10-km resolution and 38 layers in the vertical. The domain covered is most of Southeast Brazil, centered over the Serra do Mar region. The constructed members comprise variations of the cumulus parameterization Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and Kain-Fritsch (KF) schemes. Three members were constructed from the BMJ scheme by varying the deficit of saturation pressure profile over land and sea, and 2 members of the KF scheme were included using the standard KF and a momentum flux added to KF scheme version. One of the runs with BMJ scheme is the control run as it was used for the initial condition perturbation SREPS. The forecasts were tested for 6 cases of South America Convergence Zone (SACZ) events. The SACZ is a common summer season feature of Southern Hemisphere that causes persistent rain for a few days over the Southeast Brazil and it frequently organizes over Serra do Mar region. These events are particularly interesting because of the persistent rains that can accumulate large amounts and cause generalized landslides and death. With respect to precipitation, the KF scheme versions have shown to be able to reach the