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Sample records for arai masakuzu iwamoto

  1. 46. ARAI. Aerial view of ARAI buildings as they looked ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. ARA-I. Aerial view of ARA-I buildings as they looked in 1981. From left to right, buildings are tank (ARA-727), contaminated waste storage tank (ARA-629), trailer, hot cell building (ARA-626), fuel oil storage tank (ARA-728), guard house (ARA-628), shop and maintenance building (ARA-627), and two trailers. Ineel photo no. 81-297. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 110. ARAI support facilities. Index of drawings related to initial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. ARA-I support facilities. Index of drawings related to initial construction of hot cell building ARA-626, shop and maintenance building ARA-627, and other buildings at ARA-I. Date: Circa January 1959. Norman Engineering Company. Ineel index code no. 068-9999-80-613-102703. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 48. ARAI. Interior view of part of metallurgical laboratory in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. ARA-I. Interior view of part of metallurgical laboratory in ARA-626, hot cell building. This room houses metallurgical, polishing, cutting, and preparation equipment. Ineel photo no. 81-33. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 47. ARAI. Interior view of operating wall of hot cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. ARA-I. Interior view of operating wall of hot cell in ARA-626. Note stands for operators at viewing windows. Manipulators with hand grips extend cables and other controls into hot cell through ducts above windows. Ineel photo no. 81-27. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 125. ARAI Contaminated waste storage tank (ARA729). Shows location of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. ARA-I Contaminated waste storage tank (ARA-729). Shows location of tank on the ARA-I site, section views, connecting pipeline, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-301-3. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0301-00-613-102711. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 49. ARAI. Interior view of fatigue laboratory in ARA627, shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. ARA-I. Interior view of fatigue laboratory in ARA-627, shop and maintenance building. Ineel photo no. 82-7701. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 7. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627 interior view. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627 interior view. Camera facing down corridor toward south end of building. Ineel photo no. 1-10. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 111. ARAI Hot cell (ARA626) Building elevations of north, south, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. ARA-I Hot cell (ARA-626) Building elevations of north, south, east, and west sides. Includes details of personnel decontamination area, dark room, and other features. Norman Engineering Company: 961-area/SF-626-A-3. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0626-00-613-102723. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 116. ARAI Details of hot cell section of building ARA626. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. ARA-I Details of hot cell section of building ARA-626. Shows manipulator openings in operating face of hot cell, start/stop buttons, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961/area/SF-626-E-6. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0626-10-613-102731. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 114. ARAI Hot cell (ARA626) Building details of fuel storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. ARA-I Hot cell (ARA-626) Building details of fuel storage pit in plan and section. Spaces shown for 20 elements. Norman Engineering Company: 961-area/SF-626-S-4. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0626-60-613-102752. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 117. ARAI Shop and maintenance (ARA627) building roof and floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. ARA-I Shop and maintenance (ARA-627) building roof and floor plan. Includes room finish and equipment schedule. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-627-A-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0627-00-613-102759. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 4. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627. West side and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627. West side and north end. Camera facing southeast. Shows original (lower roofed section) and later addition. Metal building next to south end is related to decontamination and demolition activities. Ineel photo no. 1-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 9. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627 interior view. Metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627 interior view. Metal roll-up door on north end (rear) of building. Camera facing northeast. Ineel photo no. 1-12. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 118. ARAI Shop and maintenance (ARA627) building elevations of north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. ARA-I Shop and maintenance (ARA-627) building elevations of north, south, east, and west sides and other details of door and window types. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-627-A-2. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0627-00-613-102760. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. 119. ARAI Shop and maintenance (ARA627) building sections and details ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. ARA-I Shop and maintenance (ARA-627) building sections and details of interior mesh partitions. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-627-A-3. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0627-00-613-102761. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 5. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627. West side and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627. West side and south end. Camera facing east. Corner of ARA-626 is at left margin of view. Ineel photo no. 1-8. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 3. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627. South end and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627. South end and east side. Camera facing northwest. Stacks protrude from addition. Building ARA-626 in view at left margin of photograph. Ineel photo no. 1-6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 10. ARAI Shop and maintenanace building ARA627 interior view. Northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ARA-I Shop and maintenanace building ARA-627 interior view. Northwest corner room of older section of building. Camera facing northwest. Ineel photo no. 1-13. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 8. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627 interior view. Remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627 interior view. Remains of cabinetry and electrical switch panel in one of rooms. Ineel photo no. 1-11. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 6. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627 interior view. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627 interior view. Camera facing south end of older section of building. West side is on right of view, with wall adjoining newer section is at left. Ineel photo no. 1-9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 50. ARAI. Interior view of laboratory room in ARA627 shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. ARA-I. Interior view of laboratory room in ARA-627 shop and maintenance building addition. Operator is at panel with scanning auger spectrometer. Ineel photo no. 82-8355. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 121. ARAI Guard house (ARA628). Drawing shows north, south, east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. ARA-I Guard house (ARA-628). Drawing shows north, south, east, and west elevations, floor plan, counter details, and roof plan. Norman Engineering Corporation 961-area/SF-628-A-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 063-0628-00-613-102772. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 123. ARAI Substation (ARA726) plan, elevation, security fence details, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. ARA-I Substation (ARA-726) plan, elevation, security fence details, and sections. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-726-E-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0726-10-613-102778. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 112. ARAI Hot cell (ARA626) Building roof plan and details ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. ARA-I Hot cell (ARA-626) Building roof plan and details of roof ventilating equipment and parapet. Norman Engineering Company: 961-area/SF-626-A-2. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0626-00-613-102722. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 115. ARAI Details of hot cell section of building ARA626. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. ARA-I Details of hot cell section of building ARA-626. Shows location of high density concrete, viewing windows, filters, monorail crane, bridge crane, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-626-MS-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0626-40-613-102737. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 120. ARAI Expansion of ARA627 shop and maintenance building for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. ARA-I Expansion of ARA-627 shop and maintenance building for new use as materials and metallurgy laboratory. Shows ground floor plan addition of gas analyzer room, fatigue testing room, microscope room, and offices. Idaho Nuclear Corporation 1230-ARA-627-A-5. Date: June 1970. Ineel index code no. 068-0627-00-400-154062. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 122. ARAI Pump House (ARA629). Drawing shows north, south, east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. ARA-I Pump House (ARA-629). Drawing shows north, south, east, and west elevations, floor plan, foundation plan, and other details. Note small enclosure at southwest corner of building to contain chlorination equipment. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-629-A-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0629-00-613-102774. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 113. ARAI Hot cell (ARA626) Building wall sections and details ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. ARA-I Hot cell (ARA-626) Building wall sections and details of radio chemistry lab. Shows high-bay roof over hot cells and isolation rooms below grade storage pit for fuel elements. Norman Engineering Company: 961-area/SF-626-A-4. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0626-00-613-102724. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Palaeointensities from Pliocene lava sequences in Iceland: emphasis on the problem of Arai plot with two linear segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidefumi; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2016-05-01

    Palaeointensity experiments were carried out to a sample collection from two sections of basalt lava flow sequences of Pliocene age in north central Iceland (Chron C2An) to further refine the knowledge of the behaviour of the palaeomagnetic field. Selection of samples was mainly based on their stability of remanence to thermal demagnetization as well as good reversibility in variations of magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization with temperature, which would indicate the presence of magnetite as a product of deuteric oxidation of titanomagnetite. Among 167 lava flows from two sections, 44 flows were selected for the Königsberger-Thellier-Thellier experiment in vacuum. In spite of careful pre-selection of samples, an Arai plot with two linear segments, or a concave-up appearance, was often encountered during the experiments. This non-ideal behaviour was probably caused by an irreversible change in the domain state of the magnetic grains of the pseudo-single-domain (PSD) range. This is assumed because an ideal linear plot was obtained in the second run of the palaeointensity experiment in which a laboratory thermoremanence acquired after the final step of the first run was used as a natural remanence. This experiment was conducted on six selected samples, and no clear difference between the magnetic grains of the experimented and pristine sister samples was found by scanning electron microscope and hysteresis measurements, that is, no occurrence of notable chemical/mineralogical alteration, suggesting that no change in the grain size distribution had occurred. Hence, the two-segment Arai plot was not caused by the reversible multidomain/PSD effect in which the curvature of the Arai plot is dependent on the grain size. Considering that the irreversible change in domain state must have affected data points at not only high temperatures but also low temperatures, fv ≥ 0.5 was adopted as one of the acceptance criteria where fv is a vectorially defined

  11. A mutation of RNA polymerase β' subunit (RpoC) converts heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) into "slow VISA".

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Miki; Hishinuma, Tomomi; Katayama, Yuki; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2015-07-01

    Various mutations in the rpoB gene, which encodes the RNA polymerase β subunit, are associated with increased vancomycin (VAN) resistance in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogeneously VISA (hVISA) strains. We reported that rpoB mutations are also linked to the expression of the recently found "slow VISA" (sVISA) phenotype (M. Saito, Y. Katayama, T. Hishinuma, A. Iwamoto, Y. Aiba, K Kuwahara-Arai, L. Cui, M. Matsuo, N. Aritaka, and K. Hiramatsu, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:5024-5035, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02470-13). Because RpoC and RpoB are components of RNA polymerase, we examined the effect of the rpoC(P440L) mutation on the expression of the sVISA phenotype in the Mu3fdh2*V6-5 strain (V6-5), which was derived from a previously reported hVISA strain with the VISA phenotype. V6-5 had an extremely prolonged doubling time (DT) (72 min) and high vancomycin MIC (16 mg/liter). However, the phenotype of V6-5 was unstable, and the strain frequently reverted to hVISA with concomitant loss of low growth rate, cell wall thickness, and reduced autolysis. Whole-genome sequencing of phenotypic revertant strain V6-5-L1 and comparison with V6-5 revealed a second mutation, F562L, in rpoC. Introduction of the wild-type (WT) rpoC gene using a multicopy plasmid resolved the sVISA phenotype of V6-5, indicating that the rpoC(P440L) mutant expressed the sVISA phenotype in hVISA. To investigate the mechanisms of resistance in the sVISA strain, we independently isolated an additional 10 revertants to hVISA and VISA. In subsequent whole-genome analysis, we identified compensatory mutations in the genes of three distinct functional categories: the rpoC gene itself as regulatory mutations, peptidoglycan biosynthesis genes, and relQ, which is involved in the stringent response. It appears that the rpoC(P440L) mutation causes the sVISA phenotype by augmenting cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis and through the control of the stringent response.

  12. Statistical Description of Cluster Emission Including Direct Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Betak, Emil

    2006-04-26

    The coalescence idea of the Iwamoto-Harada-Bisplinghoff model within the pre-equilibrium (exciton model) approach to nuclear reactions has been generalized and the links to direct reactions have been outlined.

  13. DNA sequences and morphological variation in Lophiodes iwamotoi Ho, Serét & Shao, 2011 based on new material from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Iwamoto's anglerfish Lophiodes iwamotoi is recorded from New Caledonia for the first time. Study of molecular features further support the validity of the species. Moloecular sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit-I and Rhodopsin loci, along with morphological variation are provided, as well as information on its fresh coloration. PMID:25243316

  14. National Strategies for Developing Human Resources through Technical and Vocational Education and Training. The 2001 KRIVET International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 21-23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 19 papers and case studies, in English and Korean, from a conference on national strategies for developing human resources through technical and vocational education and training. The following are representative: "The Need to Innovate and Optimize Resources [Keynote]" (Wataru Iwamoto); "School to Work Transition in…

  15. Edinburgh Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Brian, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Papers on applied linguistics and language pedagogy include: "Non-Exact Quantification in Slide Presentations of Medical Research" (Ron Howard); "Modality and Point of View: A Contrastive Analysis of Japanese Wartime and Peacetime Newspaper Discourse" (Noriko Iwamoto); "Classroom Transcripts and 'Noticing' in Teacher Education" (Tony Lynch);…

  16. Possible risks to human lungs from magnetometric dust clearance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, T. D.

    1981-03-01

    Cohen, Arai and Brain did a magnetization study on smokers and nonsmokers from which they conclude that the dust clearance ability of the cigarette smoker's lungs is markedly impaired. Their conclusion may be incorrect because they overlooked that during the magnetization phase of their experiment, iron oxide clusters were preferentially formed in smoker's bronchi because of their high mucus content and consequent low resistance to redistribution of particles. Prudence dictates avoidance of the Cohen, Arai, Brain type study until health hazards related to this work are investigated.

  17. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Kida Y, Morihara T, Kotoura Y, Hojo T, Tachiiri H, Sukenari T, Iwata Y, Furukawa R, Oda R, Arai Y, Fujiwara H, Kubo T. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum among adolescent baseball players. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(8):1963-1971. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0363546514536843).

  18. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Kida Y, Morihara T, Kotoura Y, Hojo T, Tachiiri H, Sukenari T, Iwata Y, Furukawa R, Oda R, Arai Y, Fujiwara H, Kubo T. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum among adolescent baseball players. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(8):1963-1971. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0363546514536843). PMID:27481824

  19. Effect of static pressure on absolute paleointensity recording with implications for meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Michael W. R.; Gilder, Stuart A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic stress on the recording process of magnetic field intensity with particular relevance for meteorites that experienced pressures lower than 5 GPa corresponding to the lowest shock stage classification (S1) in meteorites. Thermal remanent magnetizations were imparted on natural obsidian samples containing pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite, analogous to some achondritic meteorites. Thellier-type paleointensity experiments were carried out at ambient conditions after pressure cycling to 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 GPa. Each experiment used 10 samples to assess reproducibility, which is better than ±5%. The recorded paleointensity decreased 10%/GPa under hydrostatic stress and 20%/GPa under nonhydrostatic stress, leading to the fundamental conclusion that paleointensity results from meteorites may be appreciably underestimated. Pressure cycling shifts the blocking and unblocking spectra, thereby producing more linear slopes on an Arai diagram with increasing strain. We explain why, for samples with a single magnetization component that does not alter, a two-step paleointensity protocol sufficiently resolves the true paleointensity. Moreover, we propose that pressure cycling of pseudo-single domain bearing samples will remove the inherent curvature of the Arai slope, thereby allowing one to obtain a more accurate estimate of the true paleointensity. This likely also holds true for samples possessing multidomain grains. Conversely, linear trends on Arai plots in meteorites might have their origin in a pressure effect that does not necessarily reflect the ubiquitous presence of single domain particles.

  20. Pre-Equilibrium Cluster Emission with Pickup and Knockout

    SciTech Connect

    Betak, E.

    2005-05-24

    We present a generalization of the Iwamoto-Harada-Bisplinghoff pre-equilibrium model of light cluster formation and emission, which is enhanced by allowing for possible admixtures of knockout for strongly coupled ejectiles, like {alpha}'s. The model is able to attain the Weisskopf-Ewing formula for compound-nucleus decay at long-time limit; it keeps the philosophy of pre-equilibrium decay during the equilibration stage and it describes the initial phase of a reaction as direct process(es) expressed using the language of the exciton model.

  1. Origin of Neoproterozoic ophiolitic peridotites in south Eastern Desert, Egypt, constrained from primary mantle mineral chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedr, Mohamed Zaki; Arai, Shoji

    2013-10-01

    The ophiolitic peridotites in the Wadi Arais area, south Eastern Desert of Egypt, represent a part of Neoproterozoic ophiolites of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). We found relics of fresh dunites enveloped by serpentinites that show abundances of bastite after orthopyroxene, reflecting harzburgite protoliths. The bulk-rock chemistry confirmed the harzburgites as the main protoliths. The primary mantle minerals such as orthopyroxene, olivine and chromian spinel in Arais serpentinites are still preserved. The orthopyroxene has high Mg# [=Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)], ~0.923 on average. It shows intra-grain chemical homogeneity and contains, on average, 2.28 wt.% A12O3, 0.88 wt.% Cr2O3 and 0.53 wt.% CaO, similar to primary orthopyroxenes in modern forearc peridotites. The olivine in harzburgites has lower Fo (93-94.5) than that in dunites (Fo94.3-Fo95.9). The Arais olivine is similar in NiO (0.47 wt.% on average) and MnO (0.08 wt.% on average) contents to the mantle olivine in primary peridotites. This olivine is high in Fo content, similar to Mg-rich olivines in ANS ophiolitic harzburgites, because of its residual origin. The chromian spinel, found in harzburgites, shows wide ranges of Cr#s [=Cr/(Cr + Al)], 0.46-0.81 and Mg#s, 0.34-0.67. The chromian spinel in dunites shows an intra-grain chemical homogeneity with high Cr#s (0.82-0.86). The chromian spinels in Arais peridotites are low in TiO2, 0.05 wt.% and YFe [= Fe3+/(Cr + Al + Fe3+)], ~0.06 on average. They are similar in chemistry to spinels in forearc peridotites. Their compositions associated with olivine’s Fo suggest that the harzburgites are refractory residues after high-degree partial melting (mainly ~25-30 % partial melting) and dunites are more depleted, similar to highly refractory peridotites recovered from forearcs. This is in accordance with the partial melting (>20 % melt) obtained by the whole-rock Al2O3 composition. The Arais peridotites have been possibly formed in a sub-arc setting (mantle wedge), where

  2. Enigmatic 'TRM relaxation' in non-single-domain recorders: apparent bias in paleointensity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    The Thellier-type paleointensity method and its derivatives are based on an assumption that the ancient process of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) acquisition is entirely reproducible in the laboratory. This means that, theoretically, if viscous and alteration effects are ignored, a "fresh TRM" (acquired in the laboratory), and an "ancient TRM" (TRM after a long time) are the same physical phenomenon. Here we show new experimental evidence showing that this is not necessarily the case for non-single-domain (SD) recorders. In our experiments we collected 95 samples from various sources (volcanic, plutonic, and archaeological) that demonstrated pseudo-single-domain (PSD) or small multi-domain (MD) behavior in initial paleointensity experiments. Each sample was split to two sister specimens and was given a "fresh TRM". The first specimen was analyzed using the Thellier-type IZZI protocol immediately after TRM acquisition. The other sister specimen was kept in a fixed magnetic field equal to the original "fresh TRM" field for two years ("aged TRM" hereafter). After two years the specimens with the "aged TRM" were subjected to exactly the same Thellier experiment as the "fresh TRM" specimens. We compared the Arai plots of the "fresh TRM", the "aged TRM", and original "ancient TRM", and identified some striking effects: 1) The more "aged" is the TRM, the more curved and zigzaggy is the Arai plot, i.e. the "ancient TRM" yielded the worst Arai plot, the "fresh TRM" yielded the best Arai plot, and the "aged TRM" was in-between. 2) The "fresh TRM" and "aged TRM" had different unblocking temperature spectrum. 3) Paleointensity estimates of the "aged TRM" were consistently biased. We conclude that TRM properties, in particular the unblocking temperature spectrum, are time dependent. Hence, TRM stability is much more complicated than previously assumed. As a result, paleointensity investigation of non-ideal paleomagnetic recorders should be designed and analyzed with extra

  3. The properties of Q-deformed hyperbolic and trigonometric functions in quantum deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Deta, U. A. E-mail: utamadeta@unesa.ac.id; Suparmi

    2015-09-30

    Quantum deformation has been studied due to its relation with applications in nuclear physics, conformal field theory, and statistical-quantum theory. The q-deformation of hyperbolic function was introduced by Arai. The application of q-deformed functions has been widely used in quantum mechanics. The properties of this two kinds of system explained in this paper including their derivative. The graph of q-deformed functions presented using Matlab. The special case is given for modified Poschl-Teller plus q-deformed Scarf II trigonometry potentials.

  4. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  5. Calculation of pre-equilibrium effects in neutron-induced cross section on 32,34S isotopes using the EMPIRE 3.2 code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yettou, Leila; Belgaid, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a new version EMPIRE 3.2 code was used in the cross section calculations of (n,p) reactions and in the calculation of proton emission spectra produced by (n,xp) reactions. Exciton model predictions combined with the Kalbach angular distribution systematics were used and some parameters such as those of mean free path, cluster emission in terms of Iwamoto-Harada model, optical model potentials of Morillon for neutrons and protons in the energy range up to 20 MeV, level density for spherical nuclei of Gilbert-Cameron model and width fluctuation correction in terms of compound nucleus have been investigated our calculations. The excitation functions and the proton emission spectra for 32,34S nuclei were calculated, discussed and found in good agreement with available experimental data.

  6. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  7. Mineral chemistry of the chromian spinels and chromitites in mafic and ultramafic rocks sampled from oceanic floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, N.

    2014-12-01

    Chromite or chromian spinel (simply called "spinel" after this) is common a mineral in mafic and ultramafic deep-seated rocks. The chemistry, especially Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio and Mg/(Me+Fe2+) ratio, is well known index of degree of melting of the mantle source. The chromitite composed of high density of spinel is explained as a reaction product between different degrees of fractionation of basaltic melts (Arai and Yurimoto, 1994). Therefore, tracing spinel chemistry helps to reveal complex processes of the petrogenesis. Contrary to its common occurrence in ophiolites, there are few chromitite samples reported from the ocean floor, although spinel are very common mineral in the mafic and ultramafic samples. A chromitite "minipod" included in a troctolite with a hybrid origin of melt-impregnated dunite was reported from Hess Deep at the junction of East Pacific Rise and Galapagos Rift (Site 895, ODP Leg 147; Arai and Matsukage, 1996). A Spinel-rich seam (2-3 cm thick) in dunite at Atlantis Bank, Southwestern Indian Ridge was sampled during a dive investigation using by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 (Morishita et al., 2007) and some dredged samples (Payot et al., 2014). A few samples are reported from Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Site 1271 during ODP Leg 209 (Abe, 2011). Some of them show high temperature metamorphism up to the mid-amphibolite facies. Here shows the comparison of chromitites and spinel in the different ocean and will be assumed the petrogenesis.

  8. Compositional Evidence for Launch Pairing of the YQ and Elephant Moraine Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jollitt, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Arai and Warren provide convincing evidence that QUE (Queen Alexandra Range) 94281 derives from the same regolith as Y (Yamato) 793274 and, therefore, that the two meteorites were likely ejected from the Moon by the same impact. Recently discovered Y981031 is paired with Y793274. The "YQ" meteorites (Y793274/Y981031 and QUE 94281 are unique among lunar meteorites in being regolith breccias composed of subequal amounts of mare volcanic material (a VLT [very-low-Ti] basalt or gabbro) and feldspathic highland material. EET (Elephant Moraine) 87521 and its pair EET 96008 are fragmental breccias composed mainly of VLT basalt or gabbro. Warren, Arai, and colleagues note that the volcanic components of the YQ and EET meteorites are texturally similar more similar to each other than either is to mare basalts of the Apollo collection. Warren and colleagues address the issue of possible launch pairing of YQ and EET, but note compositional differences between EET and the volcanic component of YQ, as inferred from extrapolations of regressions to high FeO concentration. We show here that: (1) EET 87/96 consists of fragments of a differentiated magma body, (2) subsamples of EET represent a mixing trend between Fe-rich and Mg-rich differentiates, and (3) the inferred volcanic component of YQ is consistent with a point on the EET mixing line. Thus, there is no compositional impediment to the hypothesis that YQ is launch paired with EET.

  9. Lessons from natural and artificial polyploids in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, M; Coate, J; Sherman-Broyles, S; Abbott, R; Hiscock, S; Doyle, J

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidy in higher plants is a major source of genetic novelty upon which selection may act to drive evolution, as evidenced by the widespread success of polyploid species in the wild. However, research into the effects of polyploidy can be confounded by the entanglement of several processes: genome duplication, hybridisation (allopolyploidy is frequent in plants) and subsequent evolution. The discovery of the chemical agent colchicine, which can be used to produce artificial polyploids on demand, has enabled scientists to unravel these threads and understand the complex genomic changes involved in each. We present here an overview of lessons learnt from studies of natural and artificial polyploids, and from comparisons between the 2, covering basic cellular and metabolic consequences through to alterations in epigenetic gene regulation, together with 2 in-depth case studies in Senecio and Glycine. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Arai and Fujimoto in this themed issue. PMID:23816545

  10. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  11. Textural and petrological characteristics of ultrahigh-pressure chromitites, indicating a mantle recycling origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Shoji; Miura, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinji; Shmelev, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Podiform chromitites, which occur as irregular to lens-like chromite-rich bodies within mantle peridotite in ophiolites, show various petrological characteristics, suggesting various origins. Some of them contain ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) minerals such as diamond, moissanite and Fe silicides (= UHP chromitites) (e.g., Robinson et al., 2004; Yang et al., 2007). Their origin is highly enigmatic, because the podiform chromitites have been widely understood as low-P (uppermost mantle level) products (e.g., Arai and Yurimoto, 1994; Zhou et al., 1994). Ordinary podiform chromitites show various lines of evidence for low-P genesis. Chromian spinel (or chromite) frequently contains solid mineral inclusions, and one of their main phases is pargasite, which is stable up to 3 GPa (e.g., Niida and Green, 1999), one of typical low-P minerals. The melt-harzburgite intereaction is a fundamental process in podiform chromitite genesis (e.g., Arai and Yurimoto, 1994), and associated with incongruent melting of orthopyroxene in harzburgite to form dunite and relatively Si-rich melt, which is operative at low-P conditions (e.g., Kushiro, 1969). We are strongly required to incorporate the genesis UHP chromitite into the framework of podiform chromitite genesis. Arai (2010) proposed a hypothesis of deep mantle recycling of ordinary low-P chromitite for the genesis of UHP chromitite. We try to examine petrographical and petrological characteristics of UHP chromitites to check the hypothesis of Arai (2010). Some peculiar textures of podiform chromities, such as orbicular, nodular and anti-nodular textures, are interpreted to be primary igneous and particular to ordinary low-P igneous chromitites (cf. Nicolas, 1989). To be interesting, the nodular texture, characterized by oval aggregates of chromian spinel (= chromite nodules; ~1 cm across) set in olivine-rich matrix, is also observed in some of UHP chromitites from the Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet (e.g., Yamamoto et al., 2009). We carefully

  12. Estimating Paleointensity Reliability Based on the Physical Mechanism of Natural Remanence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Tarduno, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Data on the long-term evolution of Earth's magnetic field intensity are crucial for understanding the geodynamo and planetary evolution. However, paleointensity remains one of the most difficult quantities to determine. The conventional Thellier method is based on the assumption that the paleointensity signal is carried by non- interacting single-domain (SD) magnetic grains that hold a thermal remanent magnetization (TRM). Most bulk rock samples, however, deviate from this ideal case. This departure, coupled with the desire to tap the relatively plentiful potential record held by bulk rocks has led to the development of reliability criteria that largely rely on the observed NRM/TRM characteristics (Arai plots). While such methods may identify effects such as non-SD behavior and laboratory alteration, they assume that the paleointensity signal is a TRM. However, many paleointensity estimates in the current database are probably held by thermochemical remanent magnetizations (TCRMs) or crystallization remanent magnetizations (CRMs). Common processes that form such magnetizations include subsolidus reactions in magnetic grains during initial lava cooling (e.g., oxyexsolution), subsequent low- temperature oxidation (e.g., maghemitization), and the formation of secondary magnetic phases (e.g., hydrothermal magnetite). If unrecognized, such magnetizations can lead to large paleointensity underestimates or overestimates. In most cases, these processes cannot be identified using the Arai-based reliability controls. We suggest that additional criteria based on the physical mechanisms of recording and preserving the paleointensity signal should be utilized in order to assess the reliability of data. We introduce criteria based on whether the magnetization represents a TRM, TCRM or/and CRM based on rock magnetic and other analytical techniques. While such a categorization is needed to make further progress in understanding the nominal paleointensity signal of bulk rocks, we

  13. Geomagnetic field behaviour preceding a Superchron: new evidence for a weak Devonian geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, L.; Anwar, T.; Scherbakova, V.; Biggin, A. J.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Shatsillo, A.; Holt, J.; Pavlov, V.

    2015-12-01

    The ~50 million year transition from the peak in reversal frequency in the Middle Jurassic (~170Ma), associated with a weak geomagnetic field, to the stable and apparently strong field during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (84-121Ma), represents a dramatic change in time-averaged geomagnetic field behaviour during the Mesozoic Era. New evidence from Siberian samples suggests there is a similar transition in geomagnetic field behaviour during the Palaeozoic, with a weak geomagnetic field in the Upper Devonian preceding the Permo-Carboniferous Superchron (262-318Ma). Both sites, the Viluy Traps and the Zharovsk complex of the Patom Margin, have seemingly reliable, published palaeomagnetic directions and new age constraints, 364.4 ± 1.7Ma (40Ar/39A) 371-377Ma (U-Pb) respectively. The samples were measured using the Thermal Thellier-Coe protocol with partial thermo-remanent magnetisation (pTRM) and tail checks and the Microwave Thellier-IZZI protocol with pTRM checks. Accepted Arai plots show positive pTRM checks, a clear relation between distinct primary directional and palaeointensity components and little to no zig-zagging. Three distinct magneto-mineralogical types were identified from SEM and rock magnetic techniques; low Ti- and intermediate Ti- titanomagnetite and possible maghemite, with mineral type affecting the success rate of samples but resulting in no significant variation in palaeointensity results. The Arai plots also commonly have a distinct two-slope concave-up shape, although non-heating, pseudo-Thellier experiments have supported this resulting from a strong overprint component rather than alteration or multi-domain effects. Results from these experiments give low site mean values between 2.3-29.9μT (Virtual Dipole Moments 4-50.6 ZAm2). The apparently periodic (~180 million years) transitions in geomagnetic field behaviour may indicate the influence of mantle convection changing heat flow across the Core Mantle Boundary.

  14. Structural changes in the O-decay accelerated mutants of pharaonis phoborhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Yuki; Furutani, Yuji; Iwamoto, Masayuki; Kamo, Naoki; Kandori, Hideki

    2008-03-01

    pharaonis phoborhodopsin ( ppR, also called pharaonis sensory rhodopsin II, psRII) is a receptor for negative phototaxis in Natronomonas pharaonis. The X-ray crystallographic structure of ppR is very similar to those of the ion-pumping rhodopsins, bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and halorhodopsin (hR). However, the decay processes of the photocycle intermediates such as M and O are much slower than those of BR and hR, which is advantageous for the sensor function of ppR. Iwamoto et al. previously found that, in a quadruple mutant (P182S/P183E/V194T/T204C; denoted as SETC) of ppR, the decay of the O intermediate was accelerated by approximately 100 times ( t 1/2 approximately 6.6 ms vs 690 ms for the wild type of ppR), being almost equal to that of BR (Iwamoto, M., et al. (2005) Biophys. J. 88, 1215-1223). The mutated residues are located on the extracellular surface (Pro182, Pro183, and Val194) and near the Schiff base (Thr204). The present Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of SETC revealed that protein structural changes in the K and M states were similar to those of the wild type. In contrast, the ppR O minus ppR infrared difference spectra of SETC are clearly different from those of the wild type in amide-I (1680-1640 cm (-1)) and S-H stretching (2580-2520 cm (-1)) vibrations. The 1673 (+) and 1656 (-) cm (-1) bands newly appear for SETC in the frequency region typical for the amide-I vibration of the alpha II- and alpha I-helices, respectively. The intensities of the 1673 (+) cm (-1) band of various mutants were well correlated with their O-decay half-times. Since the alpha II-helix possesses a considerably distorted structure, the result implies that distortion of the helix is required for fast O-decay. In addition, the characteristic changes in the S-H stretching vibration of Cys204 were different between SETC and T204C, suggesting that structural change near the Schiff base was induced by mutations of the extracellular surface. We conclude that the

  15. Direct numerical simulation of drag reduction in a turbulent channel flow using spanwise traveling wave-like wall deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Nobuhito; Fukagata, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Drag reduction effects by a spanwise traveling wave of wall deformation in a turbulent channel flow are investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. The flow rate is kept constant at the bulk Reynolds number of Reb = 5600. A parametric study is performed by varying three parameters of the wave (i.e., the amplitude, the wavenumber, and the phase speed). Within the range of parameters investigated, the maximum drag reduction rate and the maximum net energy saving rate are found to be 13.4% and 12.2%, respectively. The drag reduction rate is found to be reasonably scaled by a product of the magnitude of the induced velocity and the thickness of the Stokes layer. An analysis using the FIK identity [K. Fukagata, K. Iwamoto, and N. Kasagi, "Contribution of Reynolds stress distribution to the skin friction in wall-bounded flows," Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)] with a three-component decomposition reveals that the drag reduction is mainly attributed to a decrease in the random component of the Reynolds shear stress. The turbulence statistics are investigated in detail and the drag reduction mechanism is explained by the induced spanwise flow due to the traveling wave rather than the riblet-like geometric structure. Although the amount of drag reduction rate is comparable to that of the conventional riblets, the quasi-streamwise vortices are found to be suppressed even when the spanwise wavelength is larger than the typical diameter of quasi-streamwise vortices.

  16. 3D finite element simulation of effects of deflection rate on energy absorption for TRIP steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Asuka; Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, with the requirement of lighter weight and more safety for a design of automobile, energy absorption capability of structural materials has become important. TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is expected to apply to safety members because of excellent energy absorption capability and ductility. Past studies proved that such excellent characteristics in TRIP steel are dominated by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during plastic deformation. Because SIMT strongly depends on deformation rate and temperature, an investigation of the effects of deformation rate and temperature on energy absorption in TRIP is essential. Although energy absorption capability of material can be estimated by J-integral experimentally by using pre-cracked specimen, it is difficult to determine volume fraction of martensite and temperature rise during the crack extension. In addition, their effects on J-integral, especially at high deformation rate in experiment might be quite hard. Thus, a computational prediction needs to be performed. In this study, bending deformation behavior of pre-cracked specimen until the onset point of crack extension are predicted by 3D finite element simulation based on the transformation kinetics model proposed by Iwamoto et al. (1998). It is challenged to take effects of temperature, volume fraction of martensite and deformation rate into account. Then, the mechanism for higher energy absorption characteristic will be discussed.

  17. Distribution, morphology, and biochemical genetics of Coryphaenoides armatus and C. yaquinae (Pisces:Macrouridae) in the central and eastern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Raymond R.; Waples, Robin S.

    1983-11-01

    A morphological and electrophoretic analysis of Coryphaenoides armatus (Hector) and C. yaquinae Iwamoto and Stein was made because their morphological similarity has led to their confusion by previous workers and generated uncertainty about their specific distinctness. The results show that C. armatus and C. yaquinae are closely related but distinct species and are distinguihable by differences in the number and arrangement of premaxillary and mandibular rows of teeth, and by fixed differences in electromorphs at five presumptive gene loci: Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Sod, Gdh, and Gpi-A. The respective distribution in the central and eastern North Pacific are also distinct. C. armatus ranges mostly along the continental rise and slope of western North America between about 2000 and 4300 m, whereas C. yaquinae ranges mostly in the North Pacific basin to at least 5825 m and co-occurs with C. armatus between about 3400 and 4300 m on the continental rise. The distributions are explained by suggesting that C. yaquinae is adapted for life beneath the North Pacific central gyre by virtue of a reduced metabolic rate relative to C. armatus.

  18. Seismic ambient noise H/V spectral ratio using the ACA (autocorrelations of coda of autocorrelations) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Piña, J.; Campillo, M.; Luzón, F.; García-Jerez, A.; Albarello, D.; Lunedei, E.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic ambient noise horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (NHVSR) are valuable for microzonation, and seismic prospecting. This is particularly true for low-cost dense spatial sampling projects. Arai and Tokimatsu (2004) proposed to use average energy densities to compose the ratios. It means that H/V comes from the square root of the ratio of averages. On the other hand, a popular approach makes the average of spectral ratios. For ergodic processes peak values are usually the same using these two approaches. Sometimes however, the observations are insufficient and computed values for low frequencies display large variability and the corresponding H/V estimates may be inaccurate. The bias caused by localized sources may be the source of errors in the estimates. In this work we propose to compute the NHVSR using the Autocorrelations of Coda of Autocorrelations. This ACA approach is inspired in the work by Stehly et al. (2008). They used the Correlations of Coda of Correlations (C3) to isotropize the field. In our ACA approach the whole time series, say of 30 minutes, for each component is autocorrelated and the averages of the spectral density of selected windows (late coda windows are eliminated) are then improved estimates of directional energy densities. The computation of NHVSR using ACA appears more stable and free of transient effects. It remains to establish how this may be accounted for in forward calculation of H/V spectral ratios for models like a layered medium (e.g. Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011; Albarello and Lunedei, 2011). This will require further scrutiny. References. Albarello, D. & E. Lunedei (2011). Structure of ambient vibration wavefield in the frequency range of engineering interest ([0.5, 20] Hz): insights from numerical modelling. Near Surface Geophysics 9, 543-559. Arai, H. & K. Tokimatsu (2004). S-wave velocity profiling by inversion of microtremor H/V spectrum, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94, 53-63. Sánchez-Sesma, F. J., M. Rodr

  19. New archaeomagnetic data recovered from the study of celtiberic remains from central Spain (Numantia and Ciadueña, 3rd-1st centuries BC). Implications on the fidelity of the Iberian paleointensity database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Catanzariti, G.; Jimeno, A.; Campuzano, S. A.; Benito-Batanero, J. P.; Tabernero-Galán, C.; Roperch, P.

    2016-11-01

    Variations of geomagnetic field in the Iberian Peninsula prior to roman times are poorly constrained. Here we report new archaeomagnetic results from four ceramic collections and two combustion structures recovered in two pre-roman (celtiberic) archaeological sites in central Spain. The studied materials have been dated by archaeological evidences and supported by five radiocarbon dates. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the characteristic remanent manetization (ChRM) is carried by a low coercivity magnetic phase with Curie temperatures of 530-575 °C, most likely Ti-poor titanomagnetite/titanomaghemite. Archaeointensity determinations were carried out by using the classical Thellier-Thellier protocol including tests and corrections for magnetic anisotropy and cooling rate dependency. Two magnetic behaviours were depicted during the laboratory treatment. Black potsherds and poor heated samples from the kilns, presented two magnetization components, alterations or curved Arai plots and were therefore rejected. In contrast, well heated specimens (red ceramic fragments and well heated samples from the kilns) show one single well defined component of magnetization going through the origin and linear Arai plots providing successful archaeointensity determinations. The effect of anisotropy of the thermoremanent magnetization (ATRM) on paleointensity analysis was systematically investigated obtaining very high ATRM corrections on fine pottery specimens. In some cases, differences between the uncorrected and ATRM corrected paleointensity values reached up to 86 %. The mean intensity values obtained from three selected set of samples were 64.3 ± 5.8 μT; 56.8 ± 3.8 and 56.7 ± 4.6 μT (NUS2, CI2 and CIA, respectively), which contribute to better understand the evolution of the palaeofield intensity in central Iberia during the 3rd-1st centuries BC. The direction of the field at first century BC has also been determined from oriented samples from CIA kilns (D = 357

  20. PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

    2000-09-01

    Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

  1. Effects of mutations in the {beta} subunit hinge domain on ATP synthase F{sub 1} sector rotation: Interaction between Ser 174 and Ile 163

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, Sachiko; Iwamoto-Kihara, Atsuko; Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Futai, Masamitsu Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi

    2008-01-11

    A complex of {gamma}, {epsilon}, and c subunits rotates in ATP synthase (F{sub o}F{sub 1}) coupling with proton transport. Replacement of {beta}Ser174 by Phe in {beta}-sheet4 of the {beta} subunit ({beta}S174F) caused slow {gamma} subunit revolution of the F{sub 1} sector, consistent with the decreased ATPase activity [M. Nakanishi-Matsui, S. Kashiwagi, T. Ubukata, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, Y. Wada, M. Futai, Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F1 sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the {beta} subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 20698-20704]. Modeling of the domain including {beta}-sheet4 and {alpha}-helixB predicted that the mutant {beta}Phe174 residue undergoes strong and weak hydrophobic interactions with {beta}Ile163 and {beta}Ile166, respectively. Supporting this prediction, the replacement of {beta}Ile163 in {alpha}-helixB by Ala partially suppressed the {beta}S174F mutation: in the double mutant, the revolution speed and ATPase activity recovered to about half of the levels in the wild-type. Replacement of {beta}Ile166 by Ala lowered the revolution speed and ATPase activity to the same levels as in {beta}S174F. Consistent with the weak hydrophobic interaction, {beta}Ile166 to Ala mutation did not suppress {beta}S174F. Importance of the hinge domain [phosphate-binding loop (P-loop)/{alpha}-helixB/loop/{beta}-sheet4, {beta}Phe148-{beta}Gly186] as to driving rotational catalysis is discussed.

  2. Eruptive History of Ikeda Caldera, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inakura, H.; Naruo, H.; Okuno, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Tamura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ikeda caldera is a small-scale caldera (about 4 km in diameter), located in the southern tip of the Satsuma Peninsula, southern Kyushu, Japan. The information on the onset of the caldera-forming eruption is gone due to the catastrophic eruption, but Ikeda caldera is a relatively small-scale eruption that the information before the eruption may have been conserved. We conducted a geological research to understand the eruptive history of Ikeda caldera, including a study of the processes leading to the catastrophic eruption. Pre-caldera activity began at about 20 cal kBP by Iwamoto ash and the effusion of Senta lava, which may have similar composition as the caldera-forming eruption. The caldera-forming eruption began at 6.4 cal kBP with a phreatic explosion that produced the Ikezaki tephra. The phreatic eruption was followed by Osagari scoria, Mizusako scoria and Ikeda pumice plinian eruption. During the climactic stage, Ikeda ignimbrite was erupted and reclaimed the coastal area at that time, and formed the ignimbrite plateau along the coast. Immediately after this event, four maars were formed to the southeast of the caldera. Yamagawa maar, which is the largest and is located at the southeastern end of the fissure vent, erupted pumiceous base surge (Yamagawa base surge), but other maars ejected small amount of accidental materials. During the late stage of the Ikeda eruption, phreatomagmatic eruption occurred at the bottom of the caldera floor, and erupted the Ikedako ash which covered a wide area. The Central lava dome was generated at the late stage of this eruption. After Ikedako ash deposition, secondary explosion of Ikeda ignimbrite occurred mainly along the coastal area, generating small-scale base surge deposits. About two thousand years after the caldera-forming eruption at 4.8 cal kBP, new magmatic activity began on the margin of the caldera rim, and generated Nabeshimadake lava dome.

  3. Vehicular pollution modeling using the operational street pollution model (OSPM) for Chembur, Mumbai (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awkash; Ketzel, Matthias; Patil, Rashmi S; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Hertel, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Megacities in India such as Mumbai and Delhi are among the most polluted places in the world. In the present study, the widely used operational street pollution model (OSPM) is applied for assessing pollutant loads in the street canyons of Chembur, a suburban area just outside Mumbai city. Chembur is both industrialized and highly congested with vehicles. There are six major street canyons in this area, for which modeling has been carried out for NOx and particulate matter (PM). The vehicle emission factors for Indian cities have been developed by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) for PM, not specifically for PM10 or PM2.5. The model has been applied for 4 days of winter season and for the whole year to see the difference of effect of meteorology. The urban background concentrations have been obtained from an air quality monitoring station. Results have been compared with measured concentrations from the routine monitoring performed in Mumbai. NOx emissions originate mainly from vehicles which are ground-level sources and are emitting close to where people live. Therefore, those emissions are highly relevant. The modeled NOx concentration compared satisfactorily with observed data. However, this was not the case for PM, most likely because the emission inventory did not contain emission terms due to resuspended particulate matter. PMID:27178051

  4. Vehicular pollution modeling using the operational street pollution model (OSPM) for Chembur, Mumbai (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awkash; Ketzel, Matthias; Patil, Rashmi S; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Hertel, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Megacities in India such as Mumbai and Delhi are among the most polluted places in the world. In the present study, the widely used operational street pollution model (OSPM) is applied for assessing pollutant loads in the street canyons of Chembur, a suburban area just outside Mumbai city. Chembur is both industrialized and highly congested with vehicles. There are six major street canyons in this area, for which modeling has been carried out for NOx and particulate matter (PM). The vehicle emission factors for Indian cities have been developed by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) for PM, not specifically for PM10 or PM2.5. The model has been applied for 4 days of winter season and for the whole year to see the difference of effect of meteorology. The urban background concentrations have been obtained from an air quality monitoring station. Results have been compared with measured concentrations from the routine monitoring performed in Mumbai. NOx emissions originate mainly from vehicles which are ground-level sources and are emitting close to where people live. Therefore, those emissions are highly relevant. The modeled NOx concentration compared satisfactorily with observed data. However, this was not the case for PM, most likely because the emission inventory did not contain emission terms due to resuspended particulate matter.

  5. Chemical reactions between CF2HCl and NH3 induced by IR double-beam excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigüenza, C. L.; Simeonov, S. A.; Díaz, L.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    1993-06-01

    Infrared multiphoton dissociation experiments with two wavelengths in different mixtures of chlorodifluoromethane and ammonia have been carried out. It is shown that the presence of ammonia in the sample induces a decrease in the chlorodifluoromethane dissociation yield. It has been observed that the distinct chemical reaction channels are differently activated as the time delay between the two laser pulses is varied. The ratio of the obtained products in the infrared multiphoton dissociation changes with the composition of the initial mixture and are not compatible with the mechanism suggested by Sugita and Arai for this reaction in single IR wavelength excitation if it is assumed to be the only contributing mechanism other than that for direct CF2HCl dissociation and subsequent C2F4 formation from the resulting CF2 radicals. It appears that, although for simultaneous two-wavelength irradiation the presence of an accumulated solid NH4Cl deposit does not significantly influence the reaction, this is no longer the case when time delays are introduced between the two beams.

  6. Insights on the atomistic origin of X and W photoluminescence lines in c-Si from ab initio simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Iván; Aboy, María; López, Pedro; Marqués, Luis A.; Pelaz, Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    We have used atomistic simulations to identify and characterize interstitial defect cluster configurations candidate for W and X photoluminescence centers in crystalline Si. The configurational landscape of small self-interstitial defect clusters has been explored through nanosecond annealing and implantation recoil simulations using classical molecular dynamics. Among the large collection of defect configurations obtained, we have selected those defects with the trigonal symmetry of the W center, and the tetrahedral and tetragonal symmetry of the X center. These defect configurations have been characterized using ab initio simulations in terms of their donor levels, their local vibrational modes, the defect induced modifications of the electronic band structure, and the transition amplitudes at band edges. We have found that the so-called I 3-V is the most likely candidate for the W PL center. It has a donor level and local vibrational modes in better agreement with experiments, a lower formation energy, and stronger transition amplitudes than the so-called I 3-I, which was previously proposed as the W center. With respect to defect candidates for the X PL center, our calculations have shown that none of the analyzed defect candidates match all of the experimental characteristics of the X center. Although the Arai tetra-interstitial configuration previously proposed as the X center cannot be excluded, the other defect candidates for the X center found, I 3-C and I 3-X, cannot be discarded either.

  7. Improvements to the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Paleo and Rock Magnetic Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetic Information Consortium (MagIC) database (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) continues to improve the ease of data uploading and editing, the creation of complex searches, data visualization, and data downloads for the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities. Online data editing is now available and the need for proprietary spreadsheet software is therefore entirely negated. The data owner can change values in the database or delete entries through an HTML 5 web interface that resembles typical spreadsheets in behavior and uses. Additive uploading now allows for additions to data sets to be uploaded with a simple drag and drop interface. Searching the database has improved with the addition of more sophisticated search parameters and with the facility to use them in complex combinations. A comprehensive summary view of a search result has been added for increased quick data comprehension while a raw data view is available if one desires to see all data columns as stored in the database. Data visualization plots (ARAI, equal area, demagnetization, Zijderveld, etc.) are presented with the data when appropriate to aid the user in understanding the dataset. MagIC data associated with individual contributions or from online searches may be downloaded in the tab delimited MagIC text file format for susbsequent offline use and analysis. With input from the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities, the MagIC database will continue to improve as a data warehouse and resource.

  8. A New Interface for the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Paleo and Rock Magnetic Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Shaar, R.; Jonestrask, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Magnetic Information Consortium (MagIC) database (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) continues to improve the ease of uploading data, the creation of complex searches, data visualization, and data downloads for the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities. Data uploading has been simplified and no longer requires the use of the Excel SmartBook interface. Instead, properly formatted MagIC text files can be dragged-and-dropped onto an HTML 5 web interface. Data can be uploaded one table at a time to facilitate ease of uploading and data error checking is done online on the whole dataset at once instead of incrementally in an Excel Console. Searching the database has improved with the addition of more sophisticated search parameters and with the ability to use them in complex combinations. Searches may also be saved as permanent URLs for easy reference or for use as a citation in a publication. Data visualization plots (ARAI, equal area, demagnetization, Zijderveld, etc.) are presented with the data when appropriate to aid the user in understanding the dataset. Data from the MagIC database may be downloaded from individual contributions or from online searches for offline use and analysis in the tab delimited MagIC text file format. With input from the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities, the MagIC database will continue to improve as a data warehouse and resource.

  9. Holocene archeointensities from mid European ceramics, slags, burned sediments and cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapper, Kathrin Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Hirt, Ann M.

    2015-04-01

    The Earth's geomagnetic field intensity in the past can be determined from archeological artifacts. These archeointensity data are important inputs for geomagnetic field models and local reference curves of Earth's magnetic field. Although archeointensities have been measured on materials for more than half a century ago, data are still scarce before 1000 BC and for the Alpine area in general. This investigation presents new absolute archeointensity data from a time period of 5000-700 BC from Italy and Switzerland. The archeological materials that were studied are ceramics, copper slag, and burned sediments from fireplaces. In addition, we investigated archeointensities from burned cherts, in order to uncover if they are a suitable material for paleomagnetism. Rock magnetic properties of all samples indicate magnetite, and small amounts of maghemite and hematite in the pseudosingle domain range as the ferromagnetic carriers. The IZZI protocol was used for 96 specimens to obtain absolute intensities; 23 ceramics, slags and burned cherts passed the threshold criteria, which we applied. The choice of the threshold values allowed us to obtain the linear part in the Arai diagram, which corresponds to the characteristic remanent magnetization. Burned sediments did not pass the threshold criteria, most probably because they acquired a thermochemical remanent magnetization during their formation. We demonstrate that magnetic susceptibility and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization can be used to select cherts that are suitable for paleointensity determinations. After applying anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, the new archeointensity values are lower for some samples, but fit well with available models and other archeomagnetic data.

  10. Education in acoustics and speech science using vocal-tract models.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Several vocal-tract models were reviewed, with special focus given to the sliding vocal-tract model [T. Arai, Acoust. Sci. Technol. 27(6), 384-388 (2006)]. All of the models have been shown to be excellent tools for teaching acoustics and speech science to elementary through university level students. The sliding three-tube model is based on Fant's three-tube model [G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production (Mouton, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2006)] and consists of a long tube with a slider simulating tongue constriction. In this article, the design of the sliding vocal-tract model was reviewed. Then a science workshop was discussed where children were asked to make their own sliding vocal-tract models using simple materials. It was also discussed how the sliding vocal-tract model compares to our other vocal-tract models, emphasizing how the model can be used to instruct students at higher levels, such as undergraduate and graduate education in acoustics and speech science. Through this discussion the vocal-tract models were shown to be a powerful tool for education in acoustics and speech science for all ages of students.

  11. Palaeointensity and palaeodirectional studies of early Riphaean dyke complexes in the Lake Ladoga region (Northwestern Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Mertanen, S.; Zhidkov, G. V.; Vasilieva, T. I.; Tsel'movich, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    Results of palaeointensity and palaeomagnetic studies for the volcanic rocks of 1450 Ma, from Early Riphaean Baltic shield dyke complex sampled in Lake Ladoga region (Karelia, Northwestern Russia) are reported. Electron microscope observations, thermomagnetic and hysteresis measurements indicate the presence of single domain (SD) to pseudo-single domain (PSD) titanomagnetite (TM) with low Ti content as the main magnetic mineral. Stepwise alternating field (AF) and/or thermal demagnetization revealed a two-component natural remanent magnetization (NRM) for most of the samples. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) component was isolated between 440 and 590 °C. Note that the ChRM amounts to 95 per cent of the NRM intensity. The geographic position of the ChRM palaeopoles does not contradict the `key poles' of the [1270 1580] Myr time interval, testifying anticlockwise rotation of whole East Europe Craton between 1450 and 1500 Ma. Palaeointensity determinations were performed by Coe-modified Thellier procedure. 35 samples passed our palaeointensity selection criteria and show large linear segments on Arai-Nagata plots. The site mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) varies from 2.00 to 3.91 (×1022 Am2). Based on these and other observations, we suggest that the Palaeo- and MezoProterozoic was dominated by low VDMs.

  12. Nova Sco 2011 No. 2 = PNV J16364440-4132340 = PNV J16364300-4132460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2011-09-01

    Announcement of discovery of Nova Sco 2011 No. 2 = PNV J16364440-4132340 = PNV J16364300-4132460. Discovered independently by John Seach (Chatsworth Island, NSW, Australia, on 2011 Sep. 06.37 UT at mag=9.8 (DSLR)) and by Yuji Nakamura (Kameyama, Mie, Japan, on 2011 Sep. 06.4313 UT at mag=9.7 C (CCD)). Posted on the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams Transient Object Confirmation Page (TOCP) as PNV J16364440-4132340 (Nakamura) and PNV J16364300-4132460 (Seach); identifications consolidated in VSX under PNV J16364440-4132340. Spectra obtained by A. Arai et al. on 2011 Sep. 7.42 UT suggest a highly reddened Fe II-type classical nova. Spectra by F. Walter and J. Seron obtained Sep. 2011 8.091 UT confirm a young galactic nova; they report spectra are reminiscent of an early recurrent nova. Initially announced in AAVSO Special Notice #251 (Matthew Templeton) and IAU Central Bureau Electronic Telegram 2813 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  13. V5588 SGR = Nova Sagittarii 2011 No. 2 = Pnv J18102135-2305306

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2011-04-01

    Announces the discovery of Nova Sgr 2011 No. 2 = V5588 SGR = PNV J18102135-2305306 by Koichi Nishiyama (Kurume, Japan) and Fujio Kabashima (Miyaki, Japan) on ~ 2011 March 27.832 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude mag 11.7. Spectra obtained by A. Arai, M. Nagashima, T. Kajikawa, and C. Naka (Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University) on Mar. 28.725 UT suggest that the object is a classical nova reddened by interstellar matter. The object was designated PNV J18102135-2305306 when posted on the Central Bureau's Transient Objects Confirmation Page (TOCP) webpage. E. Kazarovets, on behalf of the GCVS team, reports that the name V5588 Sgr has been assigned to this nova. It was nitially announced in CBET 2679 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.) and AAVSO Special Notice #237 (Waagen). Additional information published in IAU Circular 9203 (Green, ed.). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  14. Nova Scorpii 2011 = PNV J16551100-3838120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2011-06-01

    Announces the discovery of Nova Scorpii 2011 = PNV J16551100-3838120 by John Seach (Chatsworth Island, NSW, Australia) on 2011 June 1.40 UT at magnitude 9.5 (DSLR + orange filter). Spectra by Bernard Heathcote (South Yarra, Vic, Australia) on Jun 2.4896 UT, A. Arai, T. Kajikawa, and M. Nagashima (Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan) on 2011 June 2.68 UT, and Masayuki Yamanaka and Ryosuke Itoh (Hiroshima University, Japan) on Jun 2 UT indicate a highly-reddened classical nova. Initially reported to the AAVSO by Seach and announced in AAVSO Special Notice #240 (Arne Henden) and IAU CBET 2735 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.). The object was designated PNV J18102135-2305306 when posted on the Central Bureau's Transient Objects Confirmation Page (TOCP) webpage. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details, observations, and links to images. [Nova Sco 2011 subsequently assigned the name V1312 Sco

  15. Growth of cyanobacteria on Martian Regolith Simulant after exposure to vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Mayumi; Sato, Seigo; Ohmori, Masayuki; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation on Mars is one of our challenges in this century. The growth of cyanobacteria on Martian Regolith Simulant (MRS) was studied with two species of terrestrial cyanobacteria, Nostoc, and one species of other cyanobacterium, Synechosystis. Their vacuum tolerances was examined in order to judge feasibility of the use of cyanobacteria to creat habitable environment on a distant planet. The viability of cyanobacteria tested was evaluated by the microscopic observation after staining by FDA (fluorescein diacetate). A part of them were also re-incubated again in a liquid culture medium, and viability and the chlorophyll production were examined in detail. Nostoc was found to grow for over 140 days with their having normal function of chlorophyll synthesis on the MRS. After the exposure to high vacuum environment (10-5 Pa) for a year, Nostoc sp. started growth. Chlorophyll was produced after this vacuum exposure as well. The A'MED (Arai's Mars Ecosystem Dome, A'MED) is designed to install on Mars for conducting agricultural production in it. We performed the fundamental experiment with MRS. These results show a possibility that cyanobacteria could adapt to MRS, and grow under the low pressure environment expected on Mars.

  16. Comparison between two methods for forward calculation of ambient noise H/V spectral ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Jerez, A.; Luzón, F.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Santoyo, M. A.; Albarello, D.; Lunedei, E.; Campillo, M.; Iturrarán-Viveros, U.

    2011-12-01

    The analysis of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of ambient noise (NHVSR) is a valuable tool for seismic prospecting, particularly if both a dense spatial sampling and a low-cost procedure are required. Unfortunately, the computation method still lacks of a unanimously accepted theoretical basis and different approaches are currently being used for inversion of the ground structure from the measured H/V curves. Two major approaches for forward calculation of NHVSRs in a layered medium are compared in this work. The first one was developed by Arai and Tokimatsu (2004) and recently improved by Albarello and Lunedei (2011). It consists of a description of the wavefield as generated by Far Surface point Forces (FSF method). The second one is based on the work of Sánchez-Sesma et al. (2011) who consider ambient noise as a Diffuse WaveField (DWF method), taking advantage of the proportionality between its Fourier-transformed autocorrelation (power spectrum) and the imaginary part of the Green function when source and receiver are the same. In both methods, the NHVSR is written as (PH/PV)1/2, where PH and PV are the horizontal and vertical power spectra. In the FSF method these quantities are given by PV∝⊙m(1+1/2χm2α2)(ARm/kRm)2 PH∝⊙m{(1+1/2χm2α2)(ARm/kRm)2χm2+1/2α2(ALm/kLm)2} where kRm, χm and ARm are wavenumber, ellipticity and medium response of the m-th Rayleigh wave mode; kLm and ALm correspond to the m-th Love wave mode and α is the horizontal-to-vertical load ratio of the ambient noise sources. Some common factors are omitted in the expressions of PV and PH. On the other hand, the DWF method deals with the full wavefield including both surface and body waves. In order to make the comparison easier, and taking into account that surface waves are often the dominant components in wide spectral ranges, body wave contributions are neglected here. In this case, the PH and PV power spectra for the DWF method are reduced to the simple expressions: PV

  17. Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5 by Containerless Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Kentei Yu, Yu; Kumar, Vijaya; Kameko, Masashi

    metastable a-and b-BaTi2 O5 are constructed with non-centrosymmetric geometry TiO5 polyhedra, which provides higher potential for yielding high dielectric constants, pyroelectric and nonlinear op-tical properties than that of normal 4-or 6-coordinate Ti-O polyhedra. In addition, all lanthanide elements can be doped into the unusual glassy BaTi2 O5 structure to open up new possibilities for creating new bulk glasses, metastable phases and nano-crystalline ceramics with peculiar electronic and optical properties, such as giant permittivity and strong upconversion luminescence. References [1] Y. Akishige, K. Fukano, and H. Shigematsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. p2, 42, L946 (2003). [2] J. Yu, Y. Arai, T. Masaki, T. Ishikawa, S. Yoda, S. Kohara, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, and Y. Kuroiwa, Chem. Matter. 18 p.2169 (2006) [3] J. Yu, S. Kohara, S. Nozawa, K. Itoh, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, Chem. Matter. 21, p259 (2009).

  18. Chemical variations of mineral inclusions in Neoproterozoic high-Cr chromitites from Egypt: Evidence of fluids during chromitite genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedr, Mohamed Zaki; Arai, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the mode of occurrence, petrography, and chemistry of mineral inclusions hosted in chromian spinels of the Neoproterozoic chromitites in the Southern Eastern Desert of Egypt. Neoproterozoic podiform chromitites from the Arais, Balamhindit, and Abu Dahr areas, in the Southern Eastern Desert, can be texturally and chemically classified into two main types: primary high-Al (spinel Cr# < 0.67) and high-Cr (spinel Cr# > 0.75) chromitites. The former, being free of primary-mineral inclusions, was crystallized mainly from the MORB-like tholeiitic melt generated during proto-forearc spreading at the initiation of subduction, whereas the latter was formed from boninitic melts resulting from the high-degree melting of the sub-arc depleted mantle in the presence of slab-derived fluids at a mature-arc stage. The primary mineral inclusions, such as Na- and K-phlogopites, pargasite-edenite and olivine with subordinate pyroxenes, millerite, and laurite, were trapped within the chromian spinel during the magmatic precipitation of the chromitites. The Abu Dahr chromitites are free of primary hydrous inclusions; on the other hand, Arais and Balamhindit high-Cr chromitites are enriched in Na- and K-phlogopites, respectively, as a result of a difference in the K/Na ratio of the magma responsible for chromitite crystallization at different mantle depths. This difference in the K/Na ratio can possibly be attributed to fractionation of the upward-migrating hydrous fluids/melts by the crystallization of K- or Na-rich minerals. The Balamhindit complex, where the chromitite showed K-phlogopite inclusions within the chromian spinel, was probably derived from a deeper part of the mantle than the other areas, where the chromitite shows inclusions of Na-rich hydrous phases. Both K- and Na-phlogopites were possibly formed from alkali-rich hydrous fluids/melts trapped within the chromian spinels during the chromitite formation at different mantle depths, where the K/Na ratio

  19. Critical Power in 7-Rod Tight Lattice Bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has recently becomes of great concern. The RMWR is expected to promote the effective utilization of uranium recourse. The RMWR is based on water-cooled reactor technology, with achieved under lower core water volume and water flow rate. In comparison with the current light water reactors whose water-to-fuel volume ratio is about 2-3, in the RMWR, this value is reduced to less than 0.5. Thereby, there is a need to research its cooling characteristics. Experimental research on critical power in tight lattice bundle that simulates the RMWR has been carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The bundle consists one center rod and six peripheral rods. The 7 rods are arranged on a 14.3mm equilateral triangular pitch. Each rod is 13mm in outside diameter. An axial 12-step power distribution is employed to simulate the complicate heating condition in RMWR. Experiments are carried out under G=100-1400kg/m2s, Pex=2-8.5MPa. Effects of mass velocity, inlet temperature, pressure, radial peaking factor and axial peaking factor on critical power and critical quality are discussed. Compared with axial uniform heating condition, the axial non-uniform heating condition causes an obvious decrease in critical quality. Arai correlation, which is the only correlation that has been optimized for tight lattice condition, is verified with the present experimental data. The correlation is found to be able to give reasonable prediction only around RMWR nominal operating condition.

  20. Effect of Static Pressure on Absolute Paleointesity Determinations with Implications for Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, M.; Gilder, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorites store information about the magnetic fields present in the solar system. However, most meteorites have experienced pressure/shock, which will influence the magnetic properties of the remanence carrying minerals. Here, we quantify the effect that relatively low pressure has on paleointensity recording with relevance to meteorites that have no petrographic evidence for shock. Thellier-type experiments were carried out on 40 samples containing thermally stable titanomagnetite similar to that found in some achondrites. Pressure cycling was performed under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic conditions. We also tested the effect of pressure cycling when the maximum compression axis was imposed parallel and perpendicular to the magnetization direction. The initial zero pressure experiment correctly reproduced the laboratory field imparted on the samples. Paleointensity values decrease 10%/GPa under hydrostatic conditions with no observable directional dependence between the direction of the magnetization with the maximum compression axis. Non-hydrostatic pressures have a significantly greater effect - paleointensity decreases 20%/GPa on average, with only a slight difference when pressure is imposed parallel to the magnetization direction, whereas the pressure demagnetization effect is more substantial. Interestingly, the data become more linear (higher quality factors) as pressure increases. We explain this phenomenon through a numerical model that shows the mean blocking temperatures become lower with increasing pressure. This reduces the difference between mean blocking and unblocking, which eliminates the sagging (curvature) seen in Arai plots.Considering that samples from meteorites classified as unshocked may have experienced pressures up to 5 GPa, paleointensity estimates derived from meteorites should be considered as minimum values.

  1. Protection from inactivation of the adenine nucleotide translocator during hypoglycaemia-induced apoptosis by mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hirotaka; Koumura, Tomoko; Nakajima, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Nakagawa, Yasuhito

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrated that mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) first suppressed the dissociation of cytochrome c (cyt c) from cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondrial inner membranes and then apoptosis caused by the hypoglycaemia by the prevention of peroxidation of CL [Nomura, Imai, Koumura, Arai and Nakagawa (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 29294-29302; Nomura, Imai, Koumura, Kobayashi and Nakagawa (2000) Biochem. J. 351, 183-193]. The present study shows the involvement of peroxidation of CL in the inactivation of adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and the opening of permeability transition pores by using the system of ANT-reconstituted liposome and isolated mitochondria. ANT activity appeared in dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine proteoliposome containing 10% (mol/mol) CL or phosphatidylglycerol (PG), but not other classes of phospholipids. ANT activity was competitively inhibited by the addition of cardiolipin hydroperoxide (CLOOH) in reconstituted liposomes containing CL. However, phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide failed to inactivate the activity of ANT. The activity of ANT in reconstituted liposomes, including CLOOH, recovered when CLOOH in reconstituted liposome was reduced to hydroxycardiolipin by incubation with PHGPx. The activity of ANT was determined in rat basophil leukaemia RBL2H3 cells after their exposure to 2-deoxyglucose. ANT activity decreased to 50% of the control level by 4 h in response to apoptosis. In parallel, cyt c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were released from mitochondria. Suppression of the accumulation of CLOOH by overexpression of PHGPx in mitochondria effectively prevented the inactivation of ANT, the opening of permeability transition pores and the release of cyt c and AIF from mitochondria in hypoglycaemia-induced apoptotic cells. These findings suggest that mitochondrial PHGPx might be involved in the modulation of the activity of ANT and the opening of pores for the release of cyt c via the modulation of

  2. Introducing a New Interface for the Online MagIC Database by Integrating Data Uploading, Searching, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Constable, C.; Koppers, A. A.; Tauxe, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is dedicated to supporting the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities through the development and maintenance of an online database (http://earthref.org/MAGIC/), data upload and quality control, searches, data downloads, and visualization tools. While MagIC has completed importing some of the IAGA paleomagnetic databases (TRANS, PINT, PSVRL, GPMDB) and continues to import others (ARCHEO, MAGST and SECVR), further individual data uploading from the community contributes a wealth of easily-accessible rich datasets. Previously uploading of data to the MagIC database required the use of an Excel spreadsheet using either a Mac or PC. The new method of uploading data utilizes an HTML 5 web interface where the only computer requirement is a modern browser. This web interface will highlight all errors discovered in the dataset at once instead of the iterative error checking process found in the previous Excel spreadsheet data checker. As a web service, the community will always have easy access to the most up-to-date and bug free version of the data upload software. The filtering search mechanism of the MagIC database has been changed to a more intuitive system where the data from each contribution is displayed in tables similar to how the data is uploaded (http://earthref.org/MAGIC/search/). Searches themselves can be saved as a permanent URL, if desired. The saved search URL could then be used as a citation in a publication. When appropriate, plots (equal area, Zijderveld, ARAI, demagnetization, etc.) are associated with the data to give the user a quicker understanding of the underlying dataset. The MagIC database will continue to evolve to meet the needs of the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities.

  3. New archaeomagnetic data recovered from the study of celtiberic remains from central Spain (Numancia and Ciadueña, III-I BC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, María Luisa; Chauvin, Annick; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Jimeno, Alfredo; Campuzano, Saioa A.; Benito-Batanero, Juan Pedro; Roperch, Pierrick

    2016-04-01

    Variation of geomagnetic field changes in the Iberian Peninsula between prior to roman times remain very poorly constrained. Here we report results from the archeomagnetic study carried out on four set of ceramics and one combustion structure recovered in two pre-roman (celtiberic) archeological sites in central Spain. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the ChRM is carried by magnetite. Archaeointensity determinations were carried out by using the classical Thellier-Thellier experiment including tests and corrections for magnetic anisotropy and magnetic cooling rate dependency. Well heated specimens (red ceramic fragments and well heated samples from the kiln) show one single well defined component of magnetisation going through the origin and a linear arai plot providing successful archaeointensity determinations. The effect of anisotropy of the termoremanent magnetization (ATRM) on paleointensity analysis was specially investigated obtaining very high ATRM corrections on fine pottery specimens. With differences between the uncorrected and ATRM corrected paleointensity values that reached up to 80-100%. Mean intensity values obtained from three selected groups were 61.1 ±5.9μT; 57.6±3.3 and 56.4± 4.7μT which allows delineate the evolution of the paleofield intensity in central Iberia during the III-I centuries BC. The new archaeointensity data disagrees with previous results from Iberian ceramics which were not corrected by the ATRM effect. But they are in agreement with the most recent French paleointensity curve and latest European intensity model. Both based on a selection of high quality paleointensity data. This result reinforces the idea that the puzzling scatter often observed in the global paleointensity database is likely due to differences in the laboratory protocol. Further data from well contrasted laboratory protocols are still necessary to delineate confidently the evolution of the geomagnetic paleofield during the first millennium BC.

  4. Long-term continuous observation of vertical gradient of water temperature on the deep seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Hino, R.; Ito, Y.; Kubota, T.; Inazu, D.

    2015-12-01

    We have conducted ocean bottom pressure observations near the Japan Trench and the Kuril Trench using self-pop-up type instruments to detect seafloor vertical displacement accompanied by slip events along the plate boundary faults. Recently, we have started similar observation campaigns in the Hikurangi subduction zone, off the North Island of New Zealand since 2013. As a result of the observations, we have observed an uplift of 5 m due to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Ito et al., 2011) and transient crustal deformations accompanied by slow slip events preceding the earthquake (Ito et al., 2013). Precision thermometer, usually used for temperature compensation of the pressure readings, occasionally recorded strange temperature changes related to occurrence of submarine earthquakes or tsunamis. Arai et al. (2013) interpreted noticeable temperature changes observed after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and interpreted it as the result of the turbidity current induced by massive tsunami. Inazu et al. (2015) pointed out a possibility that the temperature disturbance recorded just after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake above the large coseismic slip zone was due to the discharged of submarine groundwater associated with the earthquake. In order to describe these strange temperature signals more quantitatively, we started trial observations allowing investigation of water temperature field on the deep seafloor. In this study, we installed two precision temperature loggers top and bottom of the ocean bottom pressure recorders, with ~ 60 cm in height, to measure vertical gradients of seawater temperature as well as the ocean bottom pressures. Here, we report about 1-year continuous records retrieved from the Japan Trench and off New Zealand. During the observation off New Zealand, an evident slow slip event was identified by the onshore geodetic observations near the locations of our seafloor pressure-temperature monitoring. We are now exploring possible thermal and pressure

  5. Priming of Early Closure: Evidence for the Lexical Boost during Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Two self-paced reading experiments investigated priming in sentences containing “early” vs. “late closure” ambiguities. Early closure sentences impose relatively large processing costs at the point of syntactic disambiguation (Frazier & Rayner, 1982). The current study investigated a possible way to reduce processing costs. Target sentences were temporarily ambiguous and were disambiguated towards either the preferred “late” closure analysis or the dispreferred “early” closure analysis. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime that was either structurally identical or that required a different syntactic analysis. In Experiment 1, all of the prime sentences shared the same critical verb as the target (Arai et al., 2007; Carminati et al., 2008; Tooley et al., 2009, in press; Traxler et al., in press; Weber & Indefrey, 2009). In Experiment 2, verb repetition was eliminated by reorganizing the stimuli from Experiment 1. In Experiment 1, processing of the disambiguating verb was facilitated when an “early” closure target sentence followed an “early” closure prime. In Experiment 2, there were no significant priming effects, although an overall difference in processing time favored “late closure” targets. Combined analyses verified that the pattern of results in Experiment 1 differed significantly from Experiment 2. These experiments provide the first indication that “early” closure analyses can be primed and that such priming is more robust when a critical verb appears in both the prime and the target sentence. The results add to the body of data indicating a “lexical boost” for syntactic priming effects during comprehension. They have implications for theories of syntactic representation and processing (e.g., Boland & Blodgett, 2006; Vosse & Kempen, 2009; Sag et al., 2003). PMID:25750915

  6. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  7. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    For juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric projects, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, survival estimates are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. Many management strategies were based on estimates of system survival (Raymond 1979; Sims and Ossiander 1981) derived in a river system considerably different from today's (Williams and Matthews 1995; Williams et al. 2001). Knowledge of the magnitude, locations, and causes of smolt mortality under present passage conditions, and under conditions projected for the future, are necessary to develop strategies that will optimize smolt survival during migration. From 1993 through 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the University of Washington (UW) demonstrated the feasibility of using three statistical models to estimate survival of PIT-tagged (Prentice et al. 1990a) juvenile salmonids passing through Snake River dams and reservoirs (Iwamoto et al. 1994; Muir et al. 1995, 1996, 2001a, 2003; Smith et al. 1998, 2000a,b; Hockersmith et al. 1999; Zabel et al. 2001, 2002). Evaluation of assumptions for these models indicated that all were generally satisfied, and accurate and precise survival estimates were obtained. In 2003, NMFS and UW completed the eleventh year of the study. Flow levels during the early portion of the 2003 spring migration were similar to 2002, and only slightly higher than in the drought conditions during 2001. However, flow levels were much greater during the later part of the migration in 2003. Spill levels were similar to 2002, much higher than in 2001. Research objectives were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate

  8. A Wind-Driven, Hybrid Latent and Sensible Heat Coastal Polynya at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, D.; Fukamachi, Y.; Watanabe, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Shimizu, D.; Ohshima, K. I.; Tamura, T.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of the Barrow Coastal Polynya (BCP) formed off the Alaska Coast in winter is examined using mooring data (temperature, salinity, and ocean current), atmospheric re-analysis data (ERA-Interim), and AMSR-E-derived sea-ice concentration and production data (Iwamoto et al., 2014). Previously, the BCP has been considered to be a latent heat polynya formed by predominantly offshore winds resulting in sea-ice divergence. Recently, it has been suggested that the sea-ice production rate in the BCP is suppressed by warm Pacific- or Atlantic-origin waters distributed beneath the BCP (e.g. Itoh et al., 2012). In this study, we focus on the oceanographic conditions such as water mass distribution and ocean current structure beneath the BCP, which have not been fully documented. A mooring was deployed off Barrow, Alaska in the northeast Chukchi Sea (71.23°N, 157.65°W, water depth 55 m) from August 2009 to July 2010. During the freeze-up period from December to May, five BCP events occurred in the same manner; 1) dominant wind parallel to Barrow Canyon, with an offshore component near Barrow, 2) high sea-ice production followed by sudden cessation of ice growth, 3) upwelling of warm (>2 K above freezing point) and saline (>34) Atlantic Water (AW) beneath the BCP, 4) strong up-canyon flow (>100cm/s) associated with density fluctuations. A baroclinic current structure, established after the upwelling, resulted in enhanced vertical shear, promoting vertical mixing. The mixing event and open water formation occurred simultaneously, once sea-ice production had stopped. Thus, mixing events accompanied by ocean heat flux from AW into the surface layer were likely to form/maintain the open water area that is a sensible heat polynya. The transition from a latent to a sensible heat polynya was well reproduced by a pan-Arctic ice-ocean model (COCO). We propose that the BCP is a hybrid latent and sensible heat polynya, with both processes driven by the same offshore wind.

  9. [Health examination in future at the era of low tuberculosis incidence--from contacts examination toward active epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideo; Shirai, Chika

    2013-03-01

    NAKANISHI, Tomotada IWAMOTO (Kobe Institute of Health). The population based molecular epidemiological studies should be made good use of contacts examination. In future, we expect the tuberculosis molecular epdimiological study improve search for the process of tuberculosis infection. The QFT positive rates correlated well with closeness of contact. QFT test is considered useful for diagnosing tuberculosis infection. However, in the judgment of tuberculosis infection, we should consider the total result of contact investigation not only QFT test but also the contact situation. 5. Insights into the TB epidemiology through population based molecular epidemiological studies: Tomotada IWAMOTO (Kobe Institute of Health) The population based molecular epidemiological studies unveiled the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis at bacterial clone level. This provides scientific evidences for achieving better TB control programs. In the advanced stage of the tuberculosis molecular epidemiological study, we expect to change the current geno-typing based molecular epidemiology to whole genome-typing based molecular epidemiology on the basis of the rapid innovation of next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:23672174

  10. Palaeogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: palaeotopographic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, A. C.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.; Rohais, S.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.

    2012-04-01

    influences were clearly occurring since the Early Aptian in the Northern domain and the Campos Basin. They seem sharp, brief flooding coming from the North, i.e. from the Tethys-Central Atlantic, trough a seaway crossing South America from Sao Luis, Parnaiba, Araripe and Almada basins (Arai, 1989). In the absence of data, the importance of those marine flooding during the Middle Aptian in the Santos Basin is still discussed. Keywords: South Atlantic Ocean, Early Cretaceous, Rift, Palaeogeography, Geodynamic

  11. A whole rock absolute paleointensity determination of dacites from the Duffer Formation (ca. 3.467 Ga) of the Pilbara Craton, Australia: An impossible task?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Krasa, David; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2016-09-01

    We have conducted a whole-rock type magnetic and absolute paleointensity determination of the red dacite of the Duffer Formation from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The age of the dated rock unit is 3467 ± 5 Ma (95% confidence). Vector analyses results of the step-wise alternating field demagnetization (NRM up to 100 mT) and thermal demagnetization (from NRM up to 650 °C) yield three components of magnetization. Curie point determinations indicate three characteristic temperatures, one at 150-200 °C, a second one at ∼450 °C and a third one at ∼580 °C. Magnetic grain-size experiments were performed on small specimens with a variable field translation balance (VFTB). The coercivity of remanence (Hcr) suggests that the NRM is carried by low-coercivity grains that are associated with a magnetite fraction as is shown by the high-temperature component with blocking temperatures above 450 °C and up to at least 580 °C. The ratios of the hysteresis parameters plotted as a modified Day diagram show that most grain sizes are scattered within the Single Domain (SD) and the Superparamagnetic and Single Domain SP-SD domain ranges. In addition to the rock magnetic experiments we have performed absolute paleointensity experiments on the samples using the modified Thellier-Coe double heating method to determine the paleointensities. Partial-TRM (p-TRM) checks were performed systematically to document magnetomineralogical changes during heating. The temperature was incremented by steps of 50 °C between room temperature and 590 °C. The paleointensity determinations were obtained from the slope of Arai diagrams. Our paleointensity results indicate that the paleofield obtained was ∼6.4 ± 0.68 (N = 11) micro-Teslas with a Virtual Dipole Moment (VDM) of 1.51 ± 0.81 × 1022 Am2, from a medium-to high-temperature component ranging from 300 to 590 °C that has been interpreted to be the oldest magnetization yet recorded in paleomagnetic studies of the Duffer Formation. The

  12. Petrogenesis and structure of oceanic crust in the Lau back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Deborah E.; Dunn, Robert A.

    2015-11-01

    Oceanic crust formed along spreading centers in the Lau back-arc basin exhibits a dramatic change in structure and composition with proximity to the nearby Tofua Arc. Results from recent seismic studies in the basin indicate that crust formed near the Tofua Arc is abnormally thick (8-9 km) and compositionally stratified, with a thick low-velocity (3.4-4.5 km/s) upper crust and an abnormally high-velocity (7.2-7.4+ km/s) lower crust (Arai and Dunn, 2014). Lava samples from this area show arc-like compositional enrichments and tend to be more vesicular and differentiated than typical mid-ocean ridge basalts, with an average MgO of ∼3.8 wt.%. We propose that slab-derived water entrained in the near-arc ridge system not only enhances mantle melting, as commonly proposed to explain high crustal production in back-arc environments, but also affects magmatic differentiation and crustal accretion processes. We present a petrologic model of Lau back-arc crustal formation that successfully predicts the unusual crustal stratification imaged in the near-arc regions of the Lau basin, as well as the highly fractionated basaltic andesites and andesites that erupt there. Results from phase equilibria modeling using MELTS indicate that the high water contents found in near-arc parental melts can lead to crystallization of an unusually mafic, high velocity cumulate layer. Best-fit model runs contain initial water contents of ∼0.5-1.0 wt.% H2O in the parental melts, and successfully reproduce geochemical trends of the erupted lavas while crystallizing a cumulate assemblage with calculated seismic velocities consistent with those observed in the near-arc lower crust. Modeled residual melts are also lower density than their dry equivalents, which aids in melt segregation from the cumulate layer. Low-density, water-rich residual melts can lead to the eruption of vesicular lavas that are unusually evolved for an oceanic spreading center.

  13. Subsurface structure around Omi basin using borehole database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, N.; Ito, H.; Takemura, K.; Mitamura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Kansai Geo-informatics Network (KG-NET) is organized as a new system of management of GI-base in 2005. This organization collects the geotechnical and geological information of borehole data more than 60,000 data. GI-base is the database system of the KG-NET and platform to use these borehole data. Kansai Geo-informatics Research Committee (KG-R) is tried to explain the geotechnical properties and geological environment using borehole database in Kansai area. In 2014, KG-R established the 'Shin-Kansai Jiban Omi plain', and explain the subsurface geology and characteristics of geotechnical properties. In this study we introduce this result and consider the sedimental environment and characteristics in this area. Omi Basin is located in the central part of Shiga Prefecture which includes the largest lake in Japan called Lake Biwa. About 15,000 borehole data are corrected to consider the subsurface properties. The outline of topographical and geological characteristics of the basin is divided into west side and east side. The west side area is typical reverse fault called Biwako-Seigan fault zone along the lakefront. From Biwako-Seigan fault, the Omi basin is tilting down from east to west. Otherwise, the east areas distribute lowland and hilly area comparatively. The sedimentary facies are also complicate and difficult to be generally evaluated. So the discussion has been focused about mainly the eastern and western part of Lake Biwa. The widely dispersed volcanic ash named Aira-Tn (AT) deposited before 26,000-29,000 years ago (Machida and Arai, 2003), is sometimes interbedded the humic layers in the low level ground area. However, because most of the sediments are comprised by thick sand and gravels whose deposit age could not be investigated, it is difficult to widely identify the boundary of strata. Three types of basement rocks are distributed mainly (granite, sediment rock, rhyolite), and characteristics of deposit are difference of each backland basement rock

  14. The influence of changes in soil moisture in association with geomorphic change on the formation of a subalpine coniferous forest on Mt. Akita-Komagatake, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coniferous forest (largely composed of Abies mariesii) is presently the typical vegetation of the subalpine zone in Japan. Pollen analysis revealed that few A. mariesii were present during the last glacial period, and the species began to expand to the subalpine zone during the Holocene (Morita, 1992). However, on Mt. Akita-Komagatake in northern Japan, the expected predominance of A. mariesii is not extensively observed, and the predominant vegetation is instead the dwarf bamboo (Sasa kurilensis). It is unknown why the area under coniferous forest is small in this region. Therefore, I examined this issue from the perspectives of (1) distribution of vegetation, (2) geomorphology, (3) soil moisture, and (4) vegetation history. (1) Precise digital elevation model data and photographic interpretation showed that this coniferous forest was densely distributed in a flat segment considered to be formed by a landslide; (2) this landslide is thought to have occurred up to 3,699 ± 26 yr BP because a boring-core specimen from the landslide included the AK-3 tephra layer (2,300-2,800 yr BP: Wachi et al, 1997) and the radiocarbon date of the lowermost humic soil layer was 3,699 ± 26 yr BP; (3) the soil in the forest area had higher volumetric water content than that in the non-forest area; and (4) phytolith analysis revealed that the main species in the study site was initially dwarf bamboo, but coniferous forest replaced it after the Towada-a tephra (1035 cal. BP, Machida and Arai, 1992) layer fell. These results suggest that soil water conditions changed because of the formation of the flat segment by the landslide, and the coniferous forest was consequently established. However, the landslide only indirectly affected the formation of the coniferous forest, because the forest developed over several thousand years after the landslide occurred. In other words, more direct reasons for the establishment of the coniferous forest may involve changes in soil moisture. This

  15. Microwave paleointensities indicate a low paleomagnetic dipole moment at the Permo-Triassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Taslima; Hawkins, Louise; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Biggin, Andrew J.; Pavlov, Vladimir E.

    2016-11-01

    The quantity of igneous material comprising the Siberian Traps provides a uniquely excellent opportunity to constrain Earth's paleomagnetic field intensity at the Permo-Triassic boundary. There remains however, a contradiction about the strength of the magnetic field that is exacerbated by the limited number of measurement data. To clarify the geomagnetic field behavior during this time period, for the first time, a microwave paleointensity study has been carried out on the Permo-Triassic flood basalts in order to complement existing datasets obtained using conventional thermal techniques. Samples, which have been dated at ∼250 Ma, of the Permo-Triassic trap basalts from the northern extrusive (Maymecha-Kotuy region) and the southeastern intrusive (areas of the Sytikanskaya and Yubileinaya kimberlite pipes) localities on the Siberian platform are investigated. These units have already demonstrated reliable paleomagnetic directions consistent with the retention of a primary remanence. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscope analysis confirms the presence of iron oxides likely of primary origin. Microwave Thellier-type paleointensity experiments (IZZI protocol with partial thermoremanent magnetization checks) are performed on 50 samples from 11 sites, of which, 28 samples from 7 sites provide satisfactory paleointensity data. The samples display corresponding distinct directional components, positive pTRM checks and little or no zig-zagging of the Arai or Zijderveld plot, providing evidence to support that the samples are not influenced by lab-induced alteration or multi-domain behavior. The accepted microwave paleointensity results from this study are combined with thermal Thellier-type results from previously published studies to obtain overall estimates for different regions of the Siberian Traps. The mean geomagnetic field intensity obtained from the samples of the northern part is 13.4 ± 12.7 μT (Maymecha-Kotuy region), whereas from the southeastern part

  16. Multiple Collision and Subduction Structure of the Izu-Bonin Arc: Tectonics of the Arc-arc Collision in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, R.; Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Hirata, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Izu collision zone in central Japan provides a great research field for studying crustal evolution of island arcs associated with collision and subduction processes. Since the middle Miocene, an intraoceanic volcanic arc named the Izu-Bonin arc has been colliding from south with the Honshu arc along with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate. Intensive geological studies in the last few decades revealed that several crustal blocks derived from the Izu-Bonin arc, such as Koma Mountains, Misaka Mountains, Tanzawa Mountains and Izu Peninsula, were accreted onto the Honshu arc in the course of the multiple collision (e.g. Amano, 1991). In order to understand the whole crustal structure dominated by the active arc-arc collision, we carried out several seismic experiments using controlled sources (Sato et al., 2005, 2006; Arai et al., 2009). Structural models obtained by reflection and refraction/wide-angle reflection analyses show extremely complex collision styles characterized by obduction in the northernmost part (Misaka) and crustal stacking in the middle part (Tanzawa). Delamination structure is recognized at a mid-crustal level for these two blocks. On the other hand, a subduction style is dominant in the southern part (Izu). These differences may be attributed to the along-arc structural variation of the Izu-Bonin arc (Kodaira et al., 2007). It is also indicated that some portions of the Izu-Bonin middle crust were accreted at the bottom of the Honshu crust. Consideration of mass balance, however, suggests that the most Izu-Bonin crust has been subducting deep into the mantle without being accreted. So we can say that the dynamic process of this intraoceanic volcanic arc is essentially controlled by subduction rather than collision/accretion. A northwestward dipping reflector was found at depths of 25-35 km beneath the accreted crustal blocks of Misaka and Tanzawa, which is interpreted to be the upper surface of the subducting lower crust of the Izu

  17. Decisions, decisions: The selection of paleointensity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The appropriate selection of paleointensity data is a key issue if such data are to be used for long-term analyses of geomagnetic field behaviour. The current process of data selection, however, is somewhat arbitrary and there is no consensus as to which criteria are appropriate and what threshold values provide the best exclusion of non-ideal or inaccurate data. Using the original raw data from over 380 paleointensity measurements I have undertaken a detailed reassessment of all possible paleointensity selection criteria obtained from the published fits. The obtained criteria were divided into two groups, those that yielded accurate results (within a factor of 1.1 of the expected intensity) and those that did not. Statistical tests were used to identify any significant differences between the two groups to assess the efficacy of each criterion. Traditional Arai plot parameters f and β have significant differences between the two groups with accurate results tending to have lower β values and higher fractions. These differences suggest thresholds of β ≤ ~0.075 and f ≥ ~0.53.These values propagate into the quality factor (q) and suggest a threshold of q ≥ ~12.2. Considering pTRM checks both standard criteria, δCK and DRAT, can discriminate between both groups with threshold values of ≤ ~15.1 and ≤ ~10.7, respectively. The cumulative check CDRAT, however, cannot differentiate between the groups and alternate cumulative checks (e.g., DRATS or δpal) should be used. For pTRM tail checks no standard parameter can discrimination between accurate and inaccurate results. These parameters are traditionally calculated as scalar differences, if, however, they are calculated as vector differences significant differences emerge. Normalization by the NRM (δTR) or by the vector difference sum (MDVDS) yield similar results with threshold values of ≤ ~ 9. Given the complicated relations between various criteria (i.e., many parameters are correlated) the above

  18. Tabulation of comet observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-04-01

    Concerning comets: 1987 II Sorrells II, 1987 VII Wilson, 1987 XXIX Bradfield, 1988 V Liller, 1990 III Černis-Kiuchi-Nakamura, 1990 V Austin, 1990 IX P/Peters-Hartley, 1990 XIV P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdušáková, 1990 XV P/Shoemaker-Levy 1, 1990 XVII Tsuchiya-Kiuchi, 1990 X Levy, 1990 XXVI Arai, 1990 XXVIII P/Wild 2, 1991 I P/Metcalf-Brewington, 1991 IV P/Mrkos, 1991 V P/Wolf-Harrington, 1991 XI P/Levy, 1991 XV P/Hartley 2, 1991 XVI P/Wirtanen, 1991 XVIII P/Shoemaker-Levy 6, 1991 XXI P/Faye, 1991 XXIII P/Shoemaker 1, 1991 XXIV Shoemaker-Levy, 1992 I Helin-Lawrence, 1992 II P/Chernykh, 1992 III Zanotta-Brewington, 1992 VIII Mueller, 1992 X Tanaka-Machholz, 1992 XIV P/Brewington, 1992 XVIII P/Grigg-Skjellerup, 1992 XIX Shoemaker-Levy, 1992 XXV P/Giclas, 1992 XXVII Ohshita, 1992 XXVIII Swift-Tuttle, 1992c P/Howell, 1992h Spacewatch, 1992j P/Ashbrook-Jackson, 1992u P/Väisälä 1, 1992v P/Gehrels 3, 1992w P/Slaughter-Burnham, 1992x P/Shaumasse, 1992y Shoemaker, 1992z P/Kojima, 1993a Mueller, 1993b P/Bus, 1993c P/Tempel 1, 1993e P/Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1993f P/Forbes, 1993k P/Shajn-Schaldach, 1993m P/Hartley 3, 1993o P/West-Kohoutek-Ikemura, 1993p Mueller, 1993q P/Urata-Niijima, 1993r P/Spitaler, 1993s P/Mueller 5, 1993t P/Kushida-Muramatsu, 1993v McNaught-Russell, 1994a P/Kushida, 1994b P/Wild 3, 1994d Shoemaker-Levy, 1994e P/Russell 2, 1994f Takamizawa-Levy, P/Encke, P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 2, P/Lovas 2, P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1.

  19. The lepidocrocite-maghemite-haematite reaction chain-I. Acquisition of chemical remanent magnetization by maghemite, its magnetic properties and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendler, T. S.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Dekkers, M. J.; Gapeev, A. K.; Gribov, S. K.; McClelland, E.

    2005-03-01

    C enabling Thellier-Thellier experiments. This stability is also inferred from Arrhenius fitting that shows a comparatively high activation energy for the maghemite to haematite reaction. In Thellier-Thellier experiments the CRM showed a markedly downward convex Arai-Nagata plot while a second thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) showed perfect linear behaviour as expected. This feature may be used to recognize CRM in natural rocks.

  20. The effect of low-temperature demagnetization on paleointensity determinations from samples with different domain states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, E.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    It has been recently proposed that incorporation of low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) into the Thellier double-heating method increases the accuracy and success rate of paleointensity experiments by reducing the effects of magnetic remanence carried by large pseudo-singledomain (PSD) and multidomain (MD) grains (e.g., Celino et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L12306, 2007). However, it has been unclear to what degree the LTD affects the remanence carried by single-domain (SD) and small PSD. To investigate this problem, we carried out paleointensity experiments on synthetic magnetite-bearing samples containing nearly SD, PSD, and multidomain MD grains as well as mixtures of MD and SD grains. Before the experiments, a thermal remanent magnetization was imparted to the samples in a known laboratory field. Paleointensities were determined using both the LTD-Thellier and multi-specimen parallel pTRM methods. The samples were subjected to a series of three LTD treatments in liquid nitrogen after each heating. LTD significantly improved the quality of paleointensity determinations from the samples containing large PSD and MD magnetite as well as SD-MD mixtures. In particular, LTD resulted in a significant increase of the paleointensity quality factor, producing more linear Arai plots and reducing data scatter. In addition, field intensities calculated after LTD fell within 2-4% of the known laboratory field. On the other hand, the effect of LTD on paleointensity determinations from samples with nearly SD magnetite is negligible. Paleointensity values based on both pre- and post-LTD data were statistically indistinguishable of the laboratory field. LTD treatment significantly reduced the systematic paleofield overestimation using the multi-specimen method from samples containing PSD and MD grains, as well as SD-MD mixtures. The results of multi-specimen paleointensity experiments performed on the PSD and MD samples using different heating temperatures suggest

  1. The Kinetic Behavior of Benzaldehyde under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecteau, K.; Gould, I.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    , metamorphism, and other hydrothermal processes of interest occur in natural systems. References Ikushima, Y., K. Hatakeda, O. Sato, T. Yokoyama, and M. Arai. 2001. Structure and base catalysis of supercritical water in the noncatalytic benzaldehyde disproportionation using water at high temperatures and pressures. Angewandte Chemie, 40, 210-213. Tsao, C.C., Y. Zhou, X. Liu, and T.J. Houser. 1992. Reactions of supercritical water with benzaldehyde, benzylidenebenzylamine, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 5, 107-113.

  2. Mantle water contents beneath the Rio Grande Rift (NM, USA): FTIR analysis of Rio Puerco and Kilbourne Hole peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, L. A.; Peslier, A. H.; Brandon, A. D.; Selverstone, J.

    2015-12-01

    Peridotite xenoliths from the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) are being analyzed for H2O contents by FTIR as well as for major and trace element compositions. Nine samples are from the Rio Puerco Volcanic Field (RP) which overlaps the central RGR and southeastern Colorado Plateau; seventeen samples are from Kilbourne Hole (KH) in the southern RGR. Spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.08-0.46) and olivine Mg# (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.883-0.911) of samples fall within the olivine-spinel mantle array from [1], an indicator that these are residues of partial melting. Pyroxene H2O contents in KH correlate with bulk rock and pyroxene Al2O3 contents. The KH clinopyroxene rare earth element (REE) variations fit models of 0-13% fractional melting of a primitive upper mantle. Most KH peridotites have bulk-rock light REE depleted patterns, but five are enriched in light REEs consistent with metasomatism. Variation in H2O content seems unrelated to REE enrichment. Metasomatism is seen in RP pyroxenite xenoliths [2] and will be examined in the peridotites studied here. Olivine H2O contents are low (≤20 ppm), and decrease from core to rim within grains. This is likely due to H loss during xenolith transport by the host magma [3]. Diffusion models of H suggest that mantle H2O contents are still preserved in cores of KH olivine, but not those of RP olivine. The average H2O content of Colorado Plateau clinopyroxene (670 ppm) [4] is ~300 ppm higher than RGR clinopyroxene (350 ppm). This upholds the hypothesis that hydration-induced lithospheric melting occurred during flat-slab subduction of the Farallon plate [5]. Numerical models indicate hydration via slab fluids is possible beneath the plateau, ~600 km from the paleo-trench, but less likely ~850 km away beneath the rift [6]. [1]Arai, 1994 CG 113, 191-204.[2]Porreca et al., 2006 Geosp 2, 333-351.[3]Peslier and Luhr, 2006 EPSL 242, 302-319.[4]Li et al., 2008 JGR 113, 1978-2012.[5]Humphreys et al., 2003 Int Geol Rev 45, 575-595.[6]English et al., 2003 EPSL

  3. Tabulation of comet observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-01-01

    Concerning comets: 1973 XII Kohoutek, 1975 IX Kobayashi-Berger-Milon, 1976 VI West, 1976 XI P/d'Arrest, 1977 XIV Kohler, 1979 X Bradfield, 1980 X P/Stephan-Oterma, 1980 XV Bradfield, 1981 II Panther, 1982 VI Austin, 1983 V Sugano-Saigusa-Fujikawa, 1983 VII IRAS-Araki-Alcock, 1983 XIII P/Kopff, 1984 XIII Austin, 1984 XXIII Levy-Rudenko, 1985 XIII P/Giacobini-Zinner, 1985 XVII Hartley-Good, 1985 XIX Thiele, 1986 I P/Boethin, 1986 III P/Halley, 1986 XVIII Terasako, 1987 II Sorrells, 1987 III Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago, 1987 X P/Grigg-Skjellerup, 1987 XXIII Rudenko, 1987 XXIX Bradfield, 1987 XXXII McNaught, 1987 XXXIII P/Borrelly, 1988 IV Furuyama, 1988 V Liller, 1988 XIV P/Tempel 2, 1988 XV Machholz, 1988 XX Yanaka, 1988 XXIV Yanaka, 1989 X P/Brorsen-Metcalf, 1989 XV P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, 1989 XIX Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, 1989 XXI Helin-Roman-Alu, 1989 XXII Aarseth-Brewington, 1990 III Černis-Kiuchi-Nakamura, 1990 VI Skorichenko-George, 1990 VIII P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, 1990 IX P/Peters-Hartley, 1990 X P/Wild 4, 1990 XIV P/Honda Mrkos-Pajdušáková, 1990 XVII Tsuchiya-Kiuchi, 1990 XXI P/Encke, 1990 XXVI Arai, 1991 XI P/Levy, 1991 XV P/Hartley 2, 1991 XVI P/Wirtanen, 1991 XVII P/Arend-Rigaux, 1991 XXI P/Faye, 1991 XXIII P/Shoemaker 1, 1991 XXIV Shoemaker-Levy, 1991l Helin-Lawrence, 1991ο P/Chernykh, 1991r Helin-Alu, 1991a1 Shoemaker-Levy, 1991g1 Zanotta-Brewington, 1991h1 Mueller, 1912d Tanaka-Machholz, 1992f P/Shoemaker-Levy 8, 1992k Machholz, 1992l P/Giclas, 1992p P/Brewington, 1992q Helin-Lawrence, 1992s P/Ciffréo, 1992t P/Swift-Tuttle, 1992u P/Väisälä, 1992x P/Schaumasse, 1992y Shoemaker, 1992a1 Ohshita, 1993a Mueller, P/Smirnova-Chernykh.

  4. Tabulation of comet observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    Concerning comets: 1957 III Arend-Roland, 1957 V Mrkos, 1958 III Burnham, 1959 III Bester-Hoffmeister, 1959 VI Alcock, 1959 VIII P/Giacobini-Zinner, 1960 I P/Wild 1, 1960 II Burnham, 1960 III P/Schaumasse, 1960 VIII P/Finlay, 1961 V Wilson-Hubbard, 1961 VIII Seki, 1962 III Seki-Lines, 1962 VIII Humason, 1963 I Ikeya, 1963 III Alcock, 1963 V Pereyra, 1964 VI Tomita-Gerber-Honda, 1964 VIII Ikeya, 1964 IX Everhart, 1979 X Bradfield, 1980 X P/Stephan-Oterma, 1980 XII Meier, 1980 XIII P/Tuttle, 1981 II Panther, 1982 I Bowell, 1982 IV P/Grigg-Skjellerup, 1982 VII P/d'Arrest, 1986 III P/Halley, 1987 IV Shoemaker, 1987 XII P/Hartley 3, 1987 XIX P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 2, 1987 XXIX Bradfield, 1987 XXX Levy, 1987 XXXII McNaught, 1987 XXXIII P/Borrelly, 1987 XXXVI P/Parker-Hartley, 1987 XXXVII P/Helin- Roman-Alu 1, 1988 III Shoemaker-Holt, 1988 V Liller, 1988 VIII P/Ge-Wang, 1988 XI P/Shoemaker-Holt 2, 1988 XIV P/Tempel 2, 1988 XV Machholz, 1988 XX Yanaka, 1988 XXI Shoemaker, 1988 XXIV Yanaka, 1989 III Shoemaker, 1989 V Shoemaker-Holt-Rodriquez, 1989 VIII P/Pons-Winnecke, 1989 X P/Brorsen-Metcalf, 1989 XI P/Gunn, 1989 XIII P/Lovas 1, 1989 XVIII McKenzie-Russell, 1989 XIX Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, 1989 XX P/Clark, 1989 XXI Helin-Ronan-Alu, 1989 XXII Aarseth-Brewington, 1989h P/Van Biesbroeck, 1989t P/Wild 2, 1989u P/Kearns-Kwee, 1989c1 Austin, 1989e1 Skorichenko-George, 1990a P/Wild 4, 1990b Černis-Kiuchi-Nakamura, 1990c Levy, 1990e P/Wolf-Harrington, 1990f P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdušáková, 1990g McNaught-Hughes, 1990i Tsuchiya-Kiuchi, 1990n P/Taylor, 1990ο P/Shoemaker-Levy 1, 1991a P/Metcalf-Brewington, 1991b Arai, 1991c P/Swift-Gehrels, 1991d Shoemaker-Levy, 1991e P/Shoemaker-Levy 3, 1991h P/Takamizawa, 1991j P/Hartley 1, 1991k P/Mrkos, 1991l Helin-Lawrence, 1991n P/Faye, 1991q P/Levy, 1991t P/Hartley 2, P/Encke, P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1.

  5. Paleointensity on volcanic glass of varying hydration states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferk, A.; Denton, J. S.; Leonhardt, R.; Tuffen, H.; Koch, S.; Hess, K.-U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2012-10-01

    We have characterised the magnetic properties of variably hydrated volcanic glasses that were collected from rhyolitic deposits at Bláhnúkur, Torfajökull, Iceland. The glasses span the range from fresh obsidians to highly fractured perlites that contain >2 wt% water. Lava hydration plays a key role in the formation of perlite and, hence, these rocks are ideal to study hydration effects on remanence carriers and reliability of the paleomagnetic record. The total volatile content of the different samples was determined as a proxy for the degree of perlitisation/hydration. It was found that coercivity of remanence, saturation magnetisation and saturation of remanence decrease with increasing hydration, i.e. that magnetic remanence carriers get lost and that magnetic stability is reduced. Additionally, thermal demagnetisation of a three component isothermal remanence revealed that mainly the high coercive material is destroyed within the more strongly hydrated samples while lower coercive material seems to be less affected. Grain sizes of all but one samples are in the pseudo-single domain range (the one exception shows multi-domain characteristics). It was impossible to unambiguously identify the remanence carriers, but titanomagnetites are most likely responsible for the lower coercivity component while hemoilmenites possibly represent the higher one. A modified Thellier method was used to determine paleointensity values. As most of the samples are hydrated it is not astonishing that the overall paleointensity data is not of very high quality. However, it is important to note that there are hydrated samples with well-defined Arai-diagrams. Although seemingly of high quality, these paleointensity values are incorrect as there is a trend towards lower paleointensity values observed with increasing perlitisation. We attempted to test for magnetic anisotropy and cooling rate dependency, but this was hampered by alteration during the experiments. However, we argue that

  6. PHITS-2.76, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u. The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles. From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV. From version 2.76, electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated. Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be considered in the JQMD model.

  7. PHITS-2.76, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System

    2015-08-01

    the cross sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u. The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles. From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV. From version 2.76, electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated. Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be considered in the JQMD model.« less

  8. Zonal detached eddy simulation (ZDES) of a spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer over the Reynolds number range 3 150 ⩽ Reθ ⩽ 14 000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Sébastien; Renard, Nicolas; Laraufie, Romain; Sagaut, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    A Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES) of a spatially developing zero-pressure gradient smooth flat plate turbulent boundary layer is performed by means of the third mode of the Zonal Detached Eddy Simulation technique. The outer layer is resolved by a Large Eddy Simulation whereas the wall is modeled by a RANS simulation zone, with a RANS/LES interface prescribed at a fixed location. A revisited cost assessment of the Direct Numerical Simulation of high Reynolds numbers (Reθ ⩾ 10 000) wall-bounded flows emphasizes how moderate the cost of the WMLES approach is compared to methods resolving the near-wall dynamics. This makes possible the simulation over a wide Reynolds number range 3 150 ⩽ Reθ ⩽ 14 000, leaving quite enough space for very large scale motions to develop. For a better skin friction prediction, it is shown that the RANS/LES interface should be high enough in the boundary layer and at a location scaling in boundary layer thickness units (e.g., 0.1δ) rather than in wall units. Velocity spectra are compared to experimental data. The outer layer is well resolved, except near the RANS/LES interface where the very simple and robust passive boundary treatment might be improved by a more specific treatment. Besides, the inner RANS zone also contains large scale fluctuations down to the wall. It is shown that these fluctuations fit better to the experimental data for the same interface location that provides a better skin friction prediction. Numerical tests suggest that the observed very large scale motions may appear in an autonomous way, independently from the near-wall dynamics. It still has to be determined whether the observed structures have a physical or a numerical origin. In order to assess how the large scale motions contribute to skin friction, the Reynolds shear stress contribution is studied as suggested by the FIK identity [K. Fukagata, K. Iwamoto, and N. Kasagi, "Contribution of Reynolds stress distribution to the skin friction

  9. Asteroid spin-up fission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.

    2014-07-01

    degrees, i.e., near the YORP asymptotic states. The spin rates of primaries of asteroid pairs (unbound systems) are correlated with the secondary-to-primary size ratio; the primaries of pairs with small secondaries rotate at frequencies close to critical, but pairs with larger secondaries have slower primary rotations as a large part of the rotational angular momentum was carried away by the escaped secondary. Relative velocities of the components of asteroid pairs at the time of formation were low, on an order of the escape velocity from the parent body, indicating a gentle push in their formation. There has not been observed any secondary orbiting its primary below the Roche limit for strengthless bodies, consistent with their rubble-pile structure. The shapes of primaries of systems with bound secondaries are nearly spheroidal and they show an equatorial ridge in the highest-resolution radar shape models. The satellite orbits in close binary or triple systems have low inclinations to the primary's equator and the spin states of asteroid pair primaries are close to principal-axis rotation, as expected for material forming the secondary pulled away by the centrifugal force. While the observational data support the theory of formation of small asteroid systems by YORP-induced rotational fission, details of the formation process and evolutionary paths are lacking. I will also mention a few anomalies we have observed. The most striking anomaly is that there are two systems with super-critical angular momentum content, (4951) Iwamoto and (32039) 2000 JO_{23}, which require explanation.

  10. Low-Metallicity Star Formation: From the First Stars to Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Leslie K.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Raffaella

    2008-12-01

    'Shea and Michael L. Norman; 16. Damped Lyα systems as probes of chemical evolution over cosmological timescales Miroslava Dessauges-Zavadsky; 17. Connecting high-redshift galaxy populations through observations of local damped Lyman alpha dwarf galaxies Regina E. Schulte-Ladbeck; 18. Chemical enrichment and feedback in low metallicity environments: constraints on galaxy formation Francesca Matteucci; 19. Effects of reionization on dwarf galaxy formation Massimo Ricotti; 20. The importance of following the evolution of the dust in galaxies on their SEDs A. Schurer, F. Calura, L. Silva, A. Pipino, G. L. Granato, F. Matteucci and R. Maiolino; 21. About the chemical evolution of dSphs (and the peculiar globular cluster ωCen) Andrea Marcolini and Annibale D'Ercole; 22. Young star clusters in the small Magellanic cloud: impact of local and global conditions on star formation Elena Sabbi, Linda J. Smith, Lynn R. Carlson, Antonella Nota, Monca Tosi, Michele Cignoni, Jay S. Gallagher III, Marco Sirianni and Margaret Meixner; 23. Modeling the ISM properties of metal-poor galaxies and gamma-ray burst hosts Emily M. Levesque, Lisa J. Kewley, Kirsten Larson and Leonie Snijders; 24. Dwarf galaxies and the magnetisation of the IGM Uli Klein; Session III. Explosive Events in Low-Metallicity Environments: 25. Supernovae and their evolution in a low metallicity ISM Roger A. Chevalier; 26. First stars - type Ib supernovae connection Ken'ichi Nomoto, Masaomi Tanaka, Yasuomi Kamiya, Nozomu Tominaga and Keiichi Maeda; 27. Supernova nucleosynthesis in the early universe Nozomu Tominaga, Hideyuki Umeda, Keiichi Maeda, Ken'ichi Nomoto and Nobuyuki Iwamoto; 28. Powerful explosions at Z = 0? Sylvia Ekström, Georges Meynet, Raphael Hirschi and André Maeder; 29. Wind anisotropy and stellar evolution Cyril Georgy, Georges Meynet and André Maeder; 30. Low-mass and metal-poor gamma-ray burst

  11. Low-metallicity Star Formation (IAU S255)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Leslie K.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Raffaella

    2009-01-01

    'Shea and Michael L. Norman; 16. Damped Lyα systems as probes of chemical evolution over cosmological timescales Miroslava Dessauges-Zavadsky; 17. Connecting high-redshift galaxy populations through observations of local damped Lyman alpha dwarf galaxies Regina E. Schulte-Ladbeck; 18. Chemical enrichment and feedback in low metallicity environments: constraints on galaxy formation Francesca Matteucci; 19. Effects of reionization on dwarf galaxy formation Massimo Ricotti; 20. The importance of following the evolution of the dust in galaxies on their SEDs A. Schurer, F. Calura, L. Silva, A. Pipino, G. L. Granato, F. Matteucci and R. Maiolino; 21. About the chemical evolution of dSphs (and the peculiar globular cluster ωCen) Andrea Marcolini and Annibale D'Ercole; 22. Young star clusters in the small Magellanic cloud: impact of local and global conditions on star formation Elena Sabbi, Linda J. Smith, Lynn R. Carlson, Antonella Nota, Monca Tosi, Michele Cignoni, Jay S. Gallagher III, Marco Sirianni and Margaret Meixner; 23. Modeling the ISM properties of metal-poor galaxies and gamma-ray burst hosts Emily M. Levesque, Lisa J. Kewley, Kirsten Larson and Leonie Snijders; 24. Dwarf galaxies and the magnetisation of the IGM Uli Klein; Session III. Explosive Events in Low-Metallicity Environments: 25. Supernovae and their evolution in a low metallicity ISM Roger A. Chevalier; 26. First stars - type Ib supernovae connection Ken'ichi Nomoto, Masaomi Tanaka, Yasuomi Kamiya, Nozomu Tominaga and Keiichi Maeda; 27. Supernova nucleosynthesis in the early universe Nozomu Tominaga, Hideyuki Umeda, Keiichi Maeda, Ken'ichi Nomoto and Nobuyuki Iwamoto; 28. Powerful explosions at Z = 0? Sylvia Ekström, Georges Meynet, Raphael Hirschi and André Maeder; 29. Wind anisotropy and stellar evolution Cyril Georgy, Georges Meynet and André Maeder; 30. Low-mass and metal-poor gamma-ray burst

  12. Submarine counterpart of 7200 BP marine caldera formation in Kikai caldera in southern-off Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, F.; Kiyokawa, S.; Oiwane, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Kameo, K.; Minowa, Y.; Kuratomi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Kikai caldera (Matsumoto, 1943) is a mostly submerged highly active caldera complex located in 40 km offshore from Kyushu Island. The caldera is considered to be the source of Akahoya tephra (K-Ah: Machida and Arai, 1978) which date was determined as 7200 cal. BP (Smith et al., 2013). The climactic ignimbrite of the eruption was Koya (K-Ky) pyroclastic density current (PDC), which extent was reached to the deep inland of Kyushu (Ono et al., 1982). K-Ky is known as a characteristic dilute PDC (Maeno and Taniguchi, 2007), though its mechanism to become dilute has been remained unknown due to the lack of the offshore geology. We conducted seismic reflection surveys in two survey cruises (KT-10-18 and KT-11-11) in 2010 and 2011 using a research vessel Tansei-maru of JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) at Kikai caldera. The sound source was a 150 cubic inches G-I gun with 10 seconds of shot interval, and a 48-channled streamer cable was used for acquisition. Totally 24 profiles were obtained with the speed of 4 knots. At the southern outskirts where Kikai Caldera is in contact with relatively deep basin, five sedimentary units consist of chaotic lower parts and stratified upper parts are identified. They are named C1-5 in descending order from the seafloor. We examined and defined those sequences through the intersection of the seismic profiles. The coverage area of the seismic profiles without shallow multiple reflections is 110 square km. C1 and C2 can be confirmed in wide area including other caldera margin and caldera infill basin. The thickness is about 100 m in most parts, however C2 dramatically increases it towards 500 m at the southwestern caldera rim. Estimated volume for the sequences are 12.1 cubic km (C1) and 14 cubic km (C2). The major feature of the C3 is the heavily truncated upper surface. Both upper and lower part of C3 is pinched out at the flanks, thus both its distribution and volume show less than a half of C1-2, as 45

  13. Tabulation of comet observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    Concerning comets: 1955 III Mrkos, 1955 IV Bakharev-Macfarlane-Krienke, 1955 V Honda, 1956 III Mrkos, 1956 IV P/Olbers, 1957 III Arend-Roland, 1957 V Mrkos, 1958 III Burnham, 1959 VIII P/Giacobini-Zinner, 1960 II Burnham, 1973 XII Kohoutek, 1974 III Bradfield, 1975 IX Kobayashi-Berger-Milon, 1975 X Suzuki-Saigusa-Mori, 1975 XI Bradfield, 1975 XII Mori-Sato-Fujikawa, 1976 IV Bradfield, 1976 VI West, 1979 VII Bradfield, 1980 X P/Stephan-Oerma, 1980 XII Meier, 1980 XIII P/Tuttle, 1981 II Panther, 1981 IV P/Borrelly, 1981 XIX P/Swift-Gehrels, 1982 I Bowell, 1982 IV P/Grigg-Skjellerup, 1982 VI Austin, 1982 VII P/d'Arrest, 1982 VIII P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 1983 V Sugano-Saigusa-Fujikawa, 1983 VII IRAS-Araki-Alcock, 1983 X P/Tempel 2, 1983 XI P/Tempel 1, 1983 XIII P/Kopff, 1983 XIV P/IRAS, 1983 XV Shoemaker, 1984 III P/Hartley-IRAS, 1984 IV P/Crommelin, 1984 XI P/Faye, 1984 XIII Austin, 1984 XIV P/Wild 2, 1984 XVI P/Shoemaker 1, 1984 XXIII Levy-Rudenko, 1985 I P/Tsuchinshan 1, 1985 XIII P/Giacobini-Zinner, 1985 XV P/Giclas, 1985 XVI P/Ciffréo, 1985 XVII Hartley-Good, 1985 XVIII P/Shoemaker 3, 1985 XIX Thiele, 1986 I P/Boethin, 1986 III P/Halley, 1986 VIII P/Machholz, 1986 XVII Levy, 1986 XVIII Terasako, 1987 II Sorrells, 1987 VII Wilson, 1987 XIX P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 2, 1987 XXI Levy, 1987 XXIII Rudenko, 1987 XXIV P/Brooks 2, 1987 XXVII P/Kohoutek, 1987 XXIX Bradfield, 1988 IV Furuyama, 1988 XIV P/Tempel 2, 1989 III Shoemaker, 1989 XV P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, 1989 XIX Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, 1990 V Austin, 1990 XVII Tsuchiya-Kiuchi, 1990 XX Levy, 1990 XXI P/Encke, 1990 XXVI Arai, 1991 I P/Metcalf-Brewington, 1991 XV P/Hartley 2, 1991 XVII P/Arend-Rigaux, 1991a1 Shoemaker-Levy, 1991g1 Zanotta-Brewington, 1992c P/Howell, 1992d Tanaka-Machholz, 1992e P/Singer Brewster, 1992f P/Shoemaker-Levy 8, 1992h Spacewatch, 1992j P/Ashbrook-Jackson, 1992t P/Swift-Tuttle, 1992u P/Väisälä 1, 1992w P/Slaughter-Burnham, 1992x P/Schaumasse, 1992y Shoemaker, 1993a Mueller, 1993d Mueller

  14. Mechanisms of formation of mantle section pyroxenites of Voykar Ophiolite, Polar Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Ivan; Batanova, Valentina; Sobolev, Alexander; Savelieva, Galina

    2010-05-01

    Ural Mountains mark a major mid Paleozoic collision event, which resulted in the closure of an ocean basin separating the Siberian and European plates. Voykar Ophiolite is located in the Northern part of Uralian Ophiolite Belt. Ophiolitic sequence rocks of Polar Urals are usually considered as giant fragments of mantle and MORB-type crust formed in back-arc settings (e.g. Savelieva et al., 1987). Mantle section of Voykar Ophiolite comprises most of the ophiolitic sequence. It is up to 8 km thick and consists mostly of spinel harzburgites with multiple dunitic bodies and pyroxenitic veins representing pathways for different melts/fluids. While it is generally accepted that dunites in mantle sections are formed by melt-rock reaction and mark melt pathways (e.g. Kelemen et al., 1995), formation of pyroxenites is a subject of debate. Often pyroxenites from mantle sections of ophiolites (Varfalvy et al., 1997), as well as pyroxenites from mantle wedge xenoliths (Arai et al., 2006, Bali et al., 2007, Gregoire et al., 2008) are interpreted as interaction products between high-SiO2 melts and mantle peridotites. Such melts are believed to be widespread in SSZ mantle: boninites, high-MgO andesites and adakites. However, some researchers (e.g. Berly et al., 2006, Halama et al., 2009) propose pyroxenite formation in metasomatic reaction with fluid from subducting plate. Moreover, some pyroxenites could be formed by the melt crystallization in hydrous conditions (Muntener et al., 2001). We present comprehensive study of mineral major and trace element compositions from the mantle section rocks of Voykar Ophiolite in order to determine mechanism of formation of pyroxenites in ophiolitic mantle sections. Compositions of clinopyroxene and olivine from pyroxenites were compared to their compositions in harzburgites and dunites. Furthermore, compositions of clinopyroxene and magmatic amphibole from mantle section pyroxenites were used to calculate equilibrium melts. Geochemical data

  15. Evidence for the formation of boninitic melt in the base of the Salahi mantle section, the northern Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Y.; Takazawa, E.

    2013-12-01

    The boninites in the Oman ophiolite occur as lavas and dikes of the Alley volcanic sequence (Ishikawa et al., 2002). Moreover, Yamazaki and Miyashita (2008) reported about boninitic dike swarms in the Fizh crustal section. The boninitic melt generation requires hydrous melting of refractory mantle peridotite under an extremely high temperature and low pressure condition. This condition is generally explained by the addition of slab-derived fluids into a hot young oceanic lithosphere, which previously experienced MORB melt extraction. In this study, we report an ultramafic complex mainly composed of dunite which is in equilibrium with chemical composition of boninites in the southwestern part of the Salahi mantle section in the northern Oman ophiolite. Based on the study by Nomoto and Takazawa (2013) the complex consists mainly of massive dunite associated with minor amounts of harzburgite, pyroxenites and wehrlite. We use spinel Cr# (=Cr/[Cr+Al] atomic ratio) as an indicator of extent of melt extraction in harzburgites. For dunites spinel Cr# varies as a function of extent of reaction and of melt composition (Dick and Bullen, 1984; Arai, 1994; Ozawa, 2008). The spinels in the dunites from the complex have Cr# greater than 0.7 indicating highly refractory signature. The range of spinel Cr# is similar to those of spinels in boninites reported worldwide (Umino, 1986; van der Laan et al., 1992; Sobolev and Danyushevsky, 1994; Ishikawa et al., 2002). The complex might be a section of dunite channel that formed by flux melting of harzburgites as a result of infiltration of a voluminous fluid from the basal thrust. We determined the abundances of rare earth elements (REE) in the peridotite clinopyroxenes (cpxs) by LA-ICP-MS to estimate the compositions of the melts in equilibrium with these clinopyroxenes. The chondrite-normalized patterns for clinopyroxenes in the dunites are characterized by enrichments in light REE (LREE) relative to those of the harzburgite

  16. Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n = 15) measuring 9.5-11.4 μm in width, 7.3-8.6 μm in suture width, 8.9-10.9 μm in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 μm in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 μm by 1.8-2.3 μm. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n

  17. Distribution and PGE mineralization in the formation of chromitite in ophiolite complexes (Ospina-Kitoi Kharanur and ultrabasic massifs of Eastern Sayan, Sousern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, Olga; Zhmodik, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    New study of PGE in restitic ultrabasic (Kharanur and Ospin-Kitoi) massifs from North and South branches (Dobretsov et al., 1985) of the ophiolite complexes in south-eastern part of the Eastern Sayan show their presence in chromitites of both branches belonging to the different geodynamic settings. Modern concepts model includes several mechanisms of podiform chromitite origin reflected in the chemistry of Cr-spinels (Arai, Yurimoto, 1994; Ballhaus, 1998; Uysal et al., 2009 et al.): 1) partial melting of upper mantle rocks, 2) mixing of primitive melts with melts enriched in SiO2, 3) melt-rock interaction. We estimated the types of interaction of mafic melts with mantle peridotites, with the formation of chromite bodies. For ore chrome spinelides from northern branch (Al2O3) melt = 8 - 14 wt%, (TiO2) melt = 0 - 0,4 wt%, (Fe/Mg) melt = 0,5 - 2,4; Southern branch (Al2O3) melt = 10 - 13 wt%, (TiO2) melt = 0,1 wt%, (Fe/Mg) melt = 0,3 - 1 (Kiseleva, 2014). There are two types of PGE distribution Os-Ir-Ru (I) and Pt-Pd (II). Type I chromitites (mid-Al#Cr-spinels) revealed only Os-Ir-Ru distributions; type II (low-Al#Cr spinelides) show both Os-Ir-Ru and (Pt-Pd) distributions (Kiseleva et al., 2012, 2014). PGE distribution in ultramafic peridotites and chromitites reflects PGE fractionation during partial melting (Barnes et al., 1985; Rehkämper et al., 1997). Processes bringing to extreme fractionation of PGE, may be associated with fluid-saturated supra subduction environment where melting degree near 20% and above is sufficient for the release of PGE from the mantle source (Dick, Bullen, 1984; Naldrett, 2010). Enrichment in PPGE together with a high content of IPGE in same chromite bodies is attributed to the second step of melting, and formation of S-enriched and saturated in PGE melts (Hamlyn, Keays, 1986; Prichard et al., 1996). For type I chromitites platinum group minerals (PGM) are presented by Os-Ir-Ru system. In type II chromitites PGM are represented by Os

  18. Geochemistry of sapphirine-apatite-calcite-bearing gabbroic dykes from the Finero Phlogopite Peridotite (Ivrea-Verbano Zone): evidence for multistage interaction with the ambient peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommaso, Giovanardi; Alberto, Zanetti; Maurizio, Mazzucchelli; Tomoaki, Morishita; Antonio, Langone

    2016-04-01

    sapphirine (Giovanardi et al., 2013). The mineral assemblage of the veins is dominated by titanian pargasite towards the host peridotite and by plagioclase at the vein centre. The veins also present phlogopite and spinel. Field and petrographic evidence, major and trace element data and the O isotopic composition of such gabbroic veins indicate that they formed at shallow mantle conditions by multistage fractional crystallisation of a migrating melt unrelated to those forming phlogopite harzburgites. Besides, local strong enrichments in LILE, LREE and 18O in vein minerals confirm that such melt was deeply modified by interaction with the host phlogopite peridotite. The genetic relationships with other intrusive events recorded by the FPP and the associated crustal sequence will be addressed with the aim of placing new constraints on the petrologic and geodynamic evolution of the IVZ. Giovanardi, T., Morishita, T., Zanetti, A., Mazzucchelli, M., Vannucci, R. (2013). Igneous sapphirine as a product of melt-peridotite interactions in the Finero Phlogopite-Peridotite Massif, Western Italian Alps. European Journal of Mineralogy 25, 17-31. Morishita, T., Hattori, K.H., Terada, K., Matsumoto, T., Yamamoto, K., Takebe, M., Ishida, Y., Tamura, A., Arai, S. (2008). Geochemistry of apatite-rich layers in the Finero phlogopite-peridotite massif (Italian Western Alps) and ion microprobe dating of apatite. Chemical Geology 251, 99-111. Zanetti, A., Mazzucchelli, M., Rivalenti, G., Vannucci, R. (1999). The Finero phlogopite-peridotite massif: an example of subduction-related metasomatism. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 134, 107-122.

  19. Flux melting of residual peridotite and formation of highly refractory peridotites and boninites in the northern Oman mantle section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takazawa, E.; Kanke, N.; Nomoto, Y.; Fujii, S.

    2013-12-01

    Highly refractory peridotites often occur in the mantle section of the northern Oman ophiolite. These peridotites are generally considered as residues after extraction of boninitic melt from residual harzburgite by flux melting (Arai et al., 2006; Tamura et al., 2006; Kanke and Takazawa, 2013; Nomoto and Takazawa, 2013). The distribution of highly refractory peridotite is variable in the Oman mantle section depending on the scale and magnitude of hydrous melting of residual peridotites. In this study, we summarize the diversity of the occurrence of highly refractory peridotites in the northern Oman ophiolite and discuss the factors that control them. In the Fizh mantle section the range of spinel Cr# (=Cr/[Cr+Al] atomic ratio) in harzburgite gradually changes from the southern part (Cr# 0.43-0.67) to the northern part (Cr# 0.22-0.78). This corresponds to the compositional variation along paleo-ridge segment. In the northern part where paleo-ridge segment end was located, fertile peridotite such as lherzolite and highly refractory harzburgite in which the Cr# of spinel exceeds 0.7 closely occur together. The highly refractory harzburgites are distributed as a belt in the direction of NW-SE (highly refractory zone, hereafter). Moreover, spinel Cr# of dunites in the Fizh block also show a large range from 0.45 to 0.8 and frequency becomes the highest by 0.65-0.7. Spinel Cr# of harzburgite in the Salahi mantle section ranges in 0.48-0.70 and Fo content of olivine ranges in 90.1-92.2 except for the ultramafic complex. It occurs in the southwest part of the Salahi block and is composed of highly refractory large-scale massive dunite (spinel Cr# 0.7-0.84) associated with minor amounts of harzburgite (spinel Cr# 0.63-0.72) and pyroxenites. During oceanic thrusting of the Oman ophiolite hydrous fluids infiltrated from the base of the ophiolite caused flux melting of harzburgite forming dunite channels. It is thought that fluid infiltration within dunite channels may have

  20. Collision and subduction structure of the Izu-Bonin arc, central Japan: Recent studies from refraction/wide-angle reflection analysis and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, R.; Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Hirata, N.

    2009-12-01

    Since the middle Miocene, the Izu-Bonin arc has been colliding from south with the Honshu arc in central Japan associated with subduction of the Philippine Sea plate. This process is responsible for forming a complex crustal structure called the Izu collision zone. Geological studies indicate the several geological blocks derived from the Izu-Bonin arc, such as the Misaka Mountains (MM), the Tanzawa Mountains (TM) and the Izu Peninsula (IP), were accreted onto the Honshu crust in the course of the collision, forming several tectonic boundaries in and around this collision zone (e.g. Amano, 1991). Recent seismic experiments succeeded in revealing the deep crustal structure in the eastern part of the Izu collision zone by reflection analysis (Sato et al., 2005) and refraction/wide-angle reflection analysis (Arai et al., 2009). Although these studies delineate the collision boundary between the Honshu crust and TM, and the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, the southern part of the profile including the Kozu-Matsuda Fault (KMF, the tectonic boundary between TM and IP) is not well constrained due to the poor ray coverage. Moreover, clear images of tectonic boundaries are not obtained for the central or western part of the collision zone. In order to construct the structure model dominated by collision and subduction for the whole part of the collision zone, we carried out the following two analyses: (1) refraction tomography of active source data including another profile line in the western part of the collision zone (Sato et al., 2006), and (2) seismic tomography combining active and passive source data. In the analysis (1), we applied first arrival seismic tomography (Zelt and Barton, 1998) to the refraction data .We inverted over 39,000 travel times to construct a P wave velocity model for the 75-km-long transect, and a fine-scale structure with strong lateral heterogeneity was recovered. We conducted checkerboard resolution test to evaluate a

  1. Mineral Chemistry, Thermometry and Geochronological Constraints on the Petrogenesis of Apollo 14 Melt Breccia 14311 Zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, M.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    evidence of a lunar crustal formation event at ca. 4250 Ma and maybe earlier (ca. 4330 Ma), and perhaps arising from the last stage of a lunar magma ocean [8]. It is noteworthy that the younger zircon age grouping coincides with the LHB epoch reported from other radiogenic systems [2,9], with ages reported for other lunar highland breccias and lunar meteorites [2-5,10,11] as well as the oldest terrestrial zircons [12-14]. [1] Hartmann et al. (2000) In Origin of the Earth and Moon, 493--512, [2] Tera et al. (1974) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 22, 1-21, [3] Grange et al. (2009) Geochim. Cosmochim., 73, 3093-3107, [4] Pidgeon et al. (2007) Geochim. Cosmochim., 71, 1370-1381, [5] Nemchim et al. (2009) Meteor. Planet. Sci., 44, 1717-1734, [6] Wielicki et al. (2012) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 321-322, 20-31, [7] Abramov et al. (2011) LPSC XLII Abstract #2674, [8] Meyer et al. (1996) Meteor. Planet. Sci., 31, 370-387, [9] Bogard & Garrison (2003) Meteor. Planet. Sci., 38,669-710, [10] Arai et al. (2010) LPSC XL, Abstract #2379, [11] Liu et al. (2012) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 319-320, 277-286, [12] Trail et al. (2007) Geochim. Cosmochim.,71, 4044-4065, [13] Abbott et al. (2012) PNAS, In press, [14] Bell & Harrison (2012) Goldschmidt XXII, Abstract #2775.

  2. Palaeointensity and palaeodirection determinations of Paleoproterozoic dykes in the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2012-04-01

    of NRM(T) and TRM(T) was used too. Reliable palaeointensity determinations were obtained on only the site N28 of the age 1.85 Ga (Olsson et al., 2010). The rocks from this site demonstrated extremely stable magnetic properties to heating, their Curie points are closed to Tc of the magnetite. The thermodemagnetization curves NRM(T) and TRM(T) are very similar and the positions of check-points on the Arai-Nagata diagrams are close to the initial pTRM values. Seven samples (12 sister cubes) showed very similar intensities of paleofield Hanc lying in the interval 15-23 μT, with the mean VDM = 2.85 Am^2. This result agrees with the widespread opinion that the field in the Paleoproterozoic was considerably less than the modern magnetic field.

  3. Chromites from the Gogoł;ów-Jordanów Serpentinite Massif (SW Poland) - evidence of the arc setting magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtulek, Piotr; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bukała, Michał

    2014-05-01

    relatively shallow back arc sub Moho environment (Gonzalez-Jimenez, 2011). The whole rock data from basaltic member of the Ślęża ophiolite unequivocally show their MORB origin (Pin et al., 1988). Thus, our data suggesting back arc origin of chromitites require further examination. References Gonzalez-Jimenez, J.M., Proenza, J.A., Gervilla, F., Melgarejo, J.C., Blanco-Moreno, J.A., Ruiz-Sanchez, R., Griffin, W.L., 2011. High-Cr and high-Al chromitites from the Sagua de Tanamo district, Mayari-Cristal ophiolitic massif (eastern Cuba): Constraints on their origin from mineralogy and geochemistry of chromian spinel and platinum-group elements. Lithos 125, 101-121. Pin, C., Majerowicz, A., Wojciechowska, I., 1988. Upper paleozoic oceanic crust in the Polish Sudetes: Nd-Sm isotope and trace elements evidence. Lithos 21, 195 - 209. Python, M., Ceuleneer, G., Arai, S., 2008. Chromian spinels in mafic-ultramafic mantle dykes: Evidence for a two-stage melt production during the evolution of the Oman ophiolite. Lithos 106, 137-154.

  4. Quantum Bio-Informatics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    The QP-DYN algorithms / L. Accardi, M. Regoli and M. Ohya -- Study of transcriptional regulatory network based on Cis module database / S. Akasaka ... [et al.] -- On Lie group-Lie algebra correspondences of unitary groups in finite von Neumann algebras / H. Ando, I. Ojima and Y. Matsuzawa -- On a general form of time operators of a Hamiltonian with purely discrete spectrum / A. Arai -- Quantum uncertainty and decision-making in game theory / M. Asano ... [et al.] -- New types of quantum entropies and additive information capacities / V. P. Belavkin -- Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems / D. Chruscinski and A. Kossakowski -- Self-collapses of quantum systems and brain activities / K.-H. Fichtner ... [et al.] -- Statistical analysis of random number generators / L. Accardi and M. Gabler -- Entangled effects of two consecutive pairs in residues and its use in alignment / T. Ham, K. Sato and M. Ohya -- The passage from digital to analogue in white noise analysis and applications / T. Hida -- Remarks on the degree of entanglement / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- A completely discrete particle model derived from a stochastic partial differential equation by point systems / K.-H. Fichtner, K. Inoue and M. Ohya -- On quantum algorithm for exptime problem / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya -- On sufficient algebraic conditions for identification of quantum states / A. Jamiolkowski -- Concurrence and its estimations by entanglement witnesses / J. Jurkowski -- Classical wave model of quantum-like processing in brain / A. Khrennikov -- Entanglement mapping vs. quantum conditional probability operator / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- Constructing multipartite entanglement witnesses / M. Michalski -- On Kadison-Schwarz property of quantum quadratic operators on M[symbol](C) / F. Mukhamedov and A. Abduganiev -- On phase transitions in quantum Markov chains on Cayley Tree / L. Accardi, F. Mukhamedov and M. Saburov -- Space(-time) emergence as symmetry breaking effect / I. Ojima

  5. [Future prospects of molecular epidemiology in tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Iwamoto, Tomotada

    2009-12-01

    )-VNTR system for developing discrimination power. By addition of 3 loci (ETR-A, VNTR-1982 and VNTR-2163 a) to JATA (12)-VNTR, we established new JATA (15)-VNTR. We found that the discrimination power of JATA (15)-VNTR was almost the same as that of RFLP analysis. 2. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reviewed by molecular epidemiology of other pathogenic bacteria: Eiji YOKOYAMA (Division of Bacteriology, Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health). Molecular epidemiology of M. tuberculosis should be progressed to two goals. First is the short-term goal that intends to elucidate the unapparent route of transmission of the organism. Second is the long-term goal that intends to ascertain the phylogeny of the organism. The combination of VNTR loci should be changed according to the goals of molecular epidemiology of the organism. 3. Progress of the research in molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Tomotada IWAMOTO (Department of Microbiology, Kobe Institute of Health). In the past decade, molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis brought significant insights into the transmission of tuberculosis, genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis, population structure and geographical distribution of M. tuberculosis, etc. In the advanced stage of the molecular epidemiological study, we expect to change the current geno-typing based molecular epidemiology to whole genome-typing based molecular epidemiology on the basis of the rapid innovation of next-generation sequencing technology. 4. Clinical application of molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: Tomoshige MATSUMOTO (Department of Clinical Research and Development, Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Diseases). The molecular epidemiology can be applied in clinical practice. We showed some examples about usefulness of the clinical application of molecular epidemiology, especially using variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis. One example we showed: using VNTR, we can

  6. Topology in Ordered Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Toyoki; Oda, Migaku; Asano, Yasuhiro; Yakubo, Kousuke

    2006-08-01

    .]. Nanofibers of hydrogen storage alloy / I. Saita ... [et al.]. Synthesis of stable icosahedral quasicrystals in Zn-Sc based alloys and their magnetic properties / S. Kashimoto and T. Ishimasa. One-armed spiral wave excited by eam pressure in accretion disks in Be/X-Ray binaries / K. Hayasaki and A. T. Okazaki -- IV. Topological defects and excitations. Topological excitations in the ground state of charge density wave systems / P. Monceau. Soliton transport in nanoscale charge-density-wave systems / K. Inagaki, T. Toshima and S. Tanda. Topological defects in triplet superconductors UPt3, Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol], etc. / K. Maki ... [et al.]. Microscopic structure of vortices in type II superconductors / K. Machida ... [et al.]. Microscopic neutron investigation of the Abrikosov state of high-temperature superconductors / J. Mesot. Energy dissipation at nano-scale topological defects of high-Tc superconductors: microwave study / A. Maeda. Pressure induced topological phase transition in the heavy Fermion compound CeAl[symbol] / H. Miyagawa ... [et al.]. Explanation for the unusual orientation of LSCO square vortex lattice in terms of nodal superconductivity / M. Oda. Local electronic states in Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]CaCu[symbol]O[symbol] / A. Hashimoto ... [et al.] -- V. Topology in quantum phenomena. Topological vortex formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of alkali-metal atoms / M. Nakahara. Quantum phase transition of [symbol]He confined in nano-porous media / K. Shirahama, K. Yamamoto and Y. Shibayama. A new mean-field theory for Bose-Einstein condensates / T. Kita. Spin current in topological cristals / Y. Asano. Antiferromagnetic defects in non-magnetic hidden order of the heavy-electron system URu[symbol]Si[symbol] / H. Amitsuka, K. Tenya and M. Yokoyama. Magnetic-field dependences of thermodynamic quantities in the vortex state of Type-II superconductors / K. Watanabe, T. Kita and M. Arai. Three-magnon-mediated nuclear spin relaxation in quantum ferrimagnets of topological

  7. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  8. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  9. EDITORIAL: On display with transparent conducting films On display with transparent conducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-03-01

    the sheet resistance of HNO3 treated carbon-nanotube films than the removal of residual N-methylpyrrolidone. Unsurprisingly graphene, the latest carbon wonder material, has also shown remarkable potential as a transparent conducting film. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis of graphene has the advantage that it allows fabrication of the sheets to be scaled up. A collaboration of researchers in the USA, Singapore and Korea demonstrated that the conductivity of CVD graphene sheets can be improved by p-doping with AuCl3 [9]. The potential of graphene in a range of applications is also being demonstrated, as researchers in Australia and China show in a report on graphene in transparent conducting electrodes for GaN LED devices [10]. The review in this issue [4] provides a comprehensive overview of graphene as an electrode, including the synthesis, chemical doping and work function engineering of the material, as well as applications in transistors, memories, molecular junctions, touch screens, LCDs, LEDs and solar cells. Back in the early 1950s Gillham and Preston saw the possibility of using their gold sputtered bismuth oxide films for windows that could be electrically heated and took out a patent on their discovery [11]. While they saw potential applications for conducting transparent films, it could be argued that even Gillham and Preston would have been surprised at the extent to which transparent conducting films have infiltrated everyday technology over the 60 years since. It is tempting to wonder what wide reaching ramifications the current fruitful activity in graphene device research may have in the decades to come. References [1] Ayrton W E and Mather T 1894 J. Int. Elec. Eng. 23 376-80 [2] Gillham E J and Preston J S 1952 Proc. Phys. Soc. B 65 649 [3] Ishiguro K, Sasaki T, Arai T and Imai I 1958 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 13 296-304 [4] Jo G, Choe M, Lee S, Park W, Kahng Y H and Lee T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 112001 [5] Guo P and Aegerter M A 1999 Thin Solid