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Sample records for araucaria con podocarpus

  1. Evolutionary Diversification of New Caledonian Araucaria

    PubMed Central

    Kranitz, Mai Lan; Biffin, Edward; Clark, Alexandra; Hollingsworth, Michelle L.; Ruhsam, Markus; Gardner, Martin F.; Thomas, Philip; Mill, Robert R.; Ennos, Richard A.; Gaudeul, Myriam; Lowe, Andrew J.; Hollingsworth, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot. Hypotheses for its biotic richness suggest either that the island is a ‘museum’ for an old Gondwana biota or alternatively it has developed following relatively recent long distance dispersal and in situ radiation. The conifer genus Araucaria (Araucariaceae) comprises 19 species globally with 13 endemic to this island. With a typically Gondwanan distribution, Araucaria is particularly well suited to testing alternative biogeographic hypotheses concerning the origins of New Caledonian biota. We derived phylogenetic estimates using 11 plastid and rDNA ITS2 sequence data for a complete sampling of Araucaria (including multiple accessions of each of the 13 New Caledonian Araucaria species). In addition, we developed a dataset comprising 4 plastid regions for a wider taxon sample to facilitate fossil based molecular dating. Following statistical analyses to identify a credible and internally consistent set of fossil constraints, divergence times estimated using a Bayesian relaxed clock approach were contrasted with geological scenarios to explore the biogeographic history of Araucaria. The phylogenetic data resolve relationships within Araucariaceae and among the main lineages in Araucaria, but provide limited resolution within the monophyletic New Caledonian species group. Divergence time estimates suggest a Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic radiation of extant Araucaria and a Neogene radiation of the New Caledonian lineage. A molecular timescale for the evolution of Araucariaceae supports a relatively recent radiation, and suggests that earlier (pre-Cenozoic) fossil types assigned to Araucaria may have affinities elsewhere in Araucariaceae. While additional data will be required to adequately resolve relationships among the New Caledonian species, their recent origin is consistent with overwater dispersal following Eocene emersion of New Caledonia but is too old to support a single dispersal from Australia to Norfolk Island

  2. Soil properties discriminating Araucaria forests with different disturbance levels.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Simone Cristina Braga; Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stromberger, Mary E; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties can be important for monitoring soil quality under one of the most spectacular vegetation formation on Atlantic Forest Biome, the Araucaria Forest. Our aim was to identify a set of soil variables capable of discriminating between disturbed, reforested, and native Araucaria forest soils such that these variables could be used to monitor forest recovery and maintenance. Soil samples were collected at dry and rainy season under the three forest types in two state parks at São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to verify their potential to differentiate the forest types, and discriminant analysis was performed to identify the variables that most contribute to the differentiation. Most of physical and chemical variables were sensitive to forest disturbance level, but few biological variables were significantly different when comparing native, reforested, and disturbed forests. Despite more than 20 years following reforestation, the reforested soils were chemically and biologically distinct from native and disturbed forest soils, mainly because of the greater acidity and Al3+ content of reforested soil. Disturbed soils, in contrast, were coarser in texture and contained greater concentrations of extractable P. Although biological properties are generally highly sensitive to disturbance and amelioration efforts, the most important soil variables to discriminate forest types in both seasons included Al3+, Mg2+, P, and sand, and only one microbial attribute: the NO2- oxidizers. Therefore, these five variables were the best candidates, of the variables we employed, for monitoring Araucaria forest disturbance and recovery.

  3. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Podocarpus and Comparison with Other Gymnosperm Species

    PubMed Central

    MURRAY, BRIAN G.; FRIESEN, NIKOLAI; HESLOP‐HARRISON, J. S. (PAT)

    2002-01-01

    DNA sequences have been mapped to the chromosomes of Podocarpus species from New Zealand and Australia by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Unlike other conifers, these species show only one pair of major sites of 45S rDNA genes, and two additional minor sites were seen in the Australian P. lawrencei. Unusually, 45S sequences collocalize to the same chromosomal region as the 5S rDNA. The telomere probe (TTTAGGG)n hybridizes to the ends of all chromosomes as well as to a large number of small sites distributed along the length of all chromosomes. Two other simple sequence repeats, (AAC)5 and (GATA)4, show a diffuse pattern of hybridization sites distributed along chromosomes. Southern blots using a variety of probes obtained from the reverse transcriptase of retroelements (gypsy, copia and LINE) from P. totara, P. nivalis and Dacrycarpus dacrydioides show that these retroelements are abundant and widespread in Podocarpaceae and also in others conifers. Some retroelements such as copia pPonty3 and gypsy pPot1li are more abundant in the genome of Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba than in the species from which they were amplified. PMID:12096809

  4. Somatic Embryogenesis in Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze (Araucariaceae).

    PubMed

    Guerra, Miguel P; Steiner, Neusa; Farias-Soares, Francine L; Vieira, Leila do N; Fraga, Hugo P F; Rogge-Renner, Gladys D; Maldonado, Sara B

    2016-01-01

    This chapter deals with the features of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Araucaria angustifolia, an endangered and native conifer from south Brazil. In this species SE includes the induction and proliferation of embryogenic cultures composed of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs), which precede somatic embryos development. A. angustifolia SE model encompasses induction, proliferation, pre-maturation, and maturation steps. Double-staining with acetocarmine and Evan's blue is useful to evaluate the embryonic somatic structures. In this chapter we describe A. angustifolia SE protocols and analyzes morphological features in the different SE developmental stages.

  5. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-06-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

  6. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Podocarpus lambertii: Genome Structure, Evolutionary Aspects, Gene Content and SSR Detection

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Faoro, Helisson; Rogalski, Marcelo; Fraga, Hugo Pacheco de Freitas; Cardoso, Rodrigo Luis Alves; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Podocarpus lambertii (Podocarpaceae) is a native conifer from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Biome, which is considered one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled the rapid acquisition of whole chloroplast (cp) genome sequences at low cost. Several studies have proven the potential of cp genomes as tools to understand enigmatic and basal phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels, as well as further probe the structural and functional evolution of plants. In this work, we present the complete cp genome sequence of P. lambertii. Methodology/Principal Findings The P. lambertii cp genome is 133,734 bp in length, and similar to other sequenced cupressophytes, it lacks one of the large inverted repeat regions (IR). It contains 118 unique genes and one duplicated tRNA (trnN-GUU), which occurs as an inverted repeat sequence. The rps16 gene was not found, which was previously reported for the plastid genome of another Podocarpaceae (Nageia nagi) and Araucariaceae (Agathis dammara). Structurally, P. lambertii shows 4 inversions of a large DNA fragment ∼20,000 bp compared to the Podocarpus totara cp genome. These unexpected characteristics may be attributed to geographical distance and different adaptive needs. The P. lambertii cp genome presents a total of 28 tandem repeats and 156 SSRs, with homo- and dipolymers being the most common and tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexapolymers occurring with less frequency. Conclusion The complete cp genome sequence of P. lambertii revealed significant structural changes, even in species from the same genus. These results reinforce the apparently loss of rps16 gene in Podocarpaceae cp genome. In addition, several SSRs in the P. lambertii cp genome are likely intraspecific polymorphism sites, which may allow highly sensitive phylogeographic and population structure studies, as well as phylogenetic studies of species of this genus. PMID

  7. Purification and biological effects of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seed lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de; Aragao, Karoline Saboia; Gomes, Raphaela Cardoso; Freitas Pires, Alana de; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Oliveira Toyama, Daniela de; Nunes de Alencar, Nylane Maria; Criddle, David Neil; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio . E-mail: assreuy@uece.br; Cavada, Benildo Sousa . E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the purification and characterization of a new N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific lectin from Araucaria angustifolia (AaL) seeds (Araucariaceae) and its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. AaL was purified using a combination of affinity chromatography on a chitin column and ion exchange chromatography on Sephacel-DEAE. The pure protein has 8.0 kDa (SDS-PAGE) and specifically agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes, effect that was independent of the presence of divalent cations and was inhibited after incubation with glucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. AaL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, shown by scanning electron microscopy. AaL, intravenously injected into rats, showed anti-inflammatory effect, via carbohydrate site interaction, in the models of paw edema and peritonitis. This lectin can be used as a tool for studying bacterial infections and inflammatory processes.

  8. Two cationic peroxidases from cell walls of Araucaria araucana seeds.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, A; Cardemil, L

    1995-05-01

    We have previously reported the purification and partial characterization of two cationic peroxidases from the cell walls of seeds and seedlings of the South American conifer, Araucaria araucana. In this work, we have studied the amino acid composition and NH2-terminal sequences of both enzymes. We also compare the data obtained from these analyses with those reported for other plant peroxidases. The two peroxidases are similar in their amino acid compositions. Both are particularly rich in glycine, which comprises more than 30% of the amino acid residues. The content of serine is also high, ca 17%. The two enzymes are different in their content of arginine, alanine, valine, phenylalanine and threonine. Both peroxidases have identical NH2-terminal sequences, indicating that the two proteins are genetically related and probably are isoforms of the same kind of peroxidase. The amino acid composition and NH2-terminal sequence analyses showed marked differences from the cationic peroxidases from turnip and horseradish. PMID:7786490

  9. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang.

    PubMed

    Jasmi, Aiman Hanis; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2011-11-02

    A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites.

  10. Effects of the pollution by petroleum on the tracheids along the stem of Podocarpus lambertii Klotzsch ex Endl., Podocarpaceae.

    PubMed

    Maranho, L T; Dziedzic, M; Muñiz, G I B; Kuniyoshi, Y S; Galvão, F

    2009-05-01

    Podocarpus lambertii Klotzsch ex Endl. (Podocarpaceae) is native and a member of the Pinophyta (Gymnosperm) of southern Brazil, locally known as 'pinheiro-bravo'. The present work aims to investigate the effects of petroleum on the tracheids dimensions. Wood samples from twenty individuals were studied along the stem, ten being exposed to pollution and ten used as a control set. The wood samples were collected from incisions at three levels: at the ground level, and one and two metres above the ground level. From these samples, sub-samples were selected at the border of the growth layers in the vascular cambium-medulla direction. The methodology followed that traditionally recommended for plant anatomy studies, with analyses done by light microscopy (OLYMPUS - BX41) assisted by the software Image Pro-plus for measurements. Comparison of the individuals exposed to petroleum with the control set, showed that the length, diameter and cell wall width of the tracheids of the former were smaller, a trend which was statistically significant according to the Student's t-test. These traits were observed mainly on the tracheids of the last growth layer, corresponding to the year in which the individuals were exposed to petroleum. PMID:19675926

  11. Low genetic diversity and high differentiation among relict populations of the neotropical gymnosperm Podocarpus sellowii (Klotz.) in the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Liliane G; Esposito, Tiago; de Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Félix, Leonardo; Amorim, Lidiane L B; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Podocarpus sellowii (Podocarpaceae) is one of only a few gymnosperms native to Brazil and the sole species of the genus found in the northeastern region of that country. It has a very restricted distribution in this region, with only three known populations in highland forests (called Brejos de Altitude), which apparently have been isolated from each other since the Pleistocene. Due to this long-term isolation and the fact that these populations have few adult individuals and suffer great anthropogenic pressure, low genetic variability is expected, compromising their long-term viability. The present work assessed the genetic variability and structure of northeastern populations of P. sellowii to investigate the role of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic relationships between them and to propose strategies for their conservation by analyzing the SSR and ISSR markers of adult and juvenile individuals. Low genetic diversity was found with both markers, associated with a high differentiation of the Brejo de Baturité population in relation to the others-suggesting their isolation at different points in time, probably during the Pleistocene. Actions directed towards increasing the genetic diversity of these populations will be needed, such as planting seedlings with high genetic variability-but the high degrees of differentiation observed between the populations must be taken into account.

  12. Late Quaternary vegetation, fire and climate history reconstructed from two cores at Cerro Toledo, Podocarpus National Park, southeastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunschön, Corinna; Behling, Hermann

    2009-11-01

    The last ca. 20,000 yr of palaeoenvironmental conditions in Podocarpus National Park in the southeastern Ecuadorian Andes have been reconstructed from two pollen records from Cerro Toledo (04°22'28.6"S, 79°06'41.5"W) at 3150 m and 3110 m elevation. Páramo vegetation with high proportions of Plantago rigida characterised the last glacial maximum (LGM), reflecting cold and wet conditions. The upper forest line was at markedly lower elevations than present. After ca. 16,200 cal yr BP, páramo vegetation decreased slightly while mountain rainforest developed, suggesting rising temperatures. The trend of increasing temperatures and mountain rainforest expansion continued until ca. 8500 cal yr BP, while highest temperatures probably occurred from 9300 to 8500 cal yr BP. From ca. 8500 cal yr BP, páramo vegetation re-expanded with dominance of Poaceae, suggesting a change to cooler conditions. During the late Holocene after ca. 1800 cal yr BP, a decrease in páramo indicates a change to warmer conditions. Anthropogenic impact near the study site is indicated for times after 2300 cal yr BP. The regional environmental history indicates that through time the eastern Andean Cordillera in South Ecuador was influenced by eastern Amazonian climates rather than western Pacific climates.

  13. Cryopreservation of embryogenic cell lines of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. Mature embryos of this conifer are large (about 3 cm in length), contain more than 1 g H2O/ g dry mass, and are killed by drying. These morphological and physiological traits make i...

  14. Redescription of an early-derivative mite, Pentasetacus araucariae (Eriophyoidea, Phytoptidae), and new hypotheses on the eriophyoid reproductive anatomy.

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Philipp E; Beaulieu, Frédéric; Beliavskaia, Alexandra Y; Rautian, Maria S; Sukhareva, Sogdiana I

    2014-06-01

    A unique set of plesiomorphic characters, and its association with an ancient gymnosperm, Araucaria araucana, have made Pentasetacus araucariae a putative relict of a lineage of gymnosperm-associated mites, itself possibly basal to all extant eriophyoids. However, the suboptimal description of this species is impeding morphological comparisons with other species, which are fundamental to eriophyoid systematics. Herein, we designate a female lectotype from syntype specimens and use additional non-type material to redescribe P. araucariae based on external and internal anatomy using different microscopic and 3D reconstruction techniques. Contrarily to statements in the literature, P. araucariae has undivided empodia in all instars, short spermathecal tubes, and large, globose spermathecae in females, as well as rudimentary genital fovea in immatures. In addition, males of P. araucariae were shown to have genitalic attributes similar to a species of Trisetacus studied in parallel, including two reservoir-like structures, which may represent parts of the genital chamber and of the ductus ejaculatorius, respectively, as well as paired testes and ducti deferentes. This is contrary to previous, limited knowledge on eriophyoids indicating that they possess a single testis. Although their short spermathecal tubes weaken the cladistic relationship between P. araucariae (Pentasetacinae) and conifer-associated Nalepellinae (e.g. Trisetacus) having long tubes, the structural similarities in male genitalia may reinforce it. PMID:24522338

  15. Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Nitrate and Sulfate in Fog and River water in Podocarpus National Forest, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. A.; Fabian, P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    The eastern slopes of the Andean rainforests of Ecuador possess some of the highest plant biodiversity found on the planet; however, these ecosystems are in jeopardy because region is experiences one of the highest deforestation rates in South America. This rainforest characterized by high acidity and low nutrient soils and experiences natural process which are both destabilizing and stabilizing to biodiversity rendering this a unique, though sensitive environment. There is increased concern that anthropogenic activities are affecting rainforests and could lead to higher extinction rates, changes in the biodiversity and far reaching effects on the global troposphere. Measurements of nitrate and sulfate in rain and fog water have shown periods of elevated concentrations in the Podocarpus National Park near Loja, Ecuador. These high episodes contribute to annual deposition rates that are comparable to polluted central Europe. Significant anthropogenic sources near this region are lacking and it is believed that the majority of the nitrate and sulfate pollution can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon basin. Concentration measurements do not elucidate the source of high nitrate and sulfate pollution; however, by measuring all three stable isotopes of oxygen in nitrate and sulfate from fog and river water provides a new way to examine the impacts of biomass burning on the region. By using stable isotope techniques atmospheric nitrate and sulfate can be resolved from terrestrial sources. This provides an unique way to trace the contributions from the biomass burning and farming sources. Current research at the field station monitors sulfate and nitrate concentrations in rain and fog water by standard methods to investigate water and nutrient pathways along with data from satellite and ground based remote sensing, in-situ observations and numerical models.

  16. Growth inhibition of an Araucaria angustifolia (Coniferopsida) fungal seed pathogen, Neofusicoccum parvum, by soil streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Araucariaceae are important forest trees of the southern hemisphere. Life expectancy of their seedlings can largely be reduced by fungal infections. In this study we have isolated and characterized such a fungus and investigated the potential of Streptomyces Actinobacteria from the respective rhizosphere to act as antagonists. Results The pathogenic fungus from Araucaria angustifolia seeds was identified by morphological markers (pore-associated Woronin-bodies) as belonging to the Pezizomycotina. Molecular data identified the fungus as Neofusicoccum parvum (Botryosphaeriaceae). Co-cultures on agar of this fungus with certain streptomycete isolates from the rhizosphere, and from the surface of Araucaria roots significantly reduced the growth of the fungus. HPLC analysis of the agar yielded streptomycete-specific exudate compounds which were partly identified. There were differences in compounds between single (bacteria, fungus) and dual cultures (bacteria + fungus). Conclusion Streptomycetes from the rhizosphere of Araucariaceae produce exudates which can suppress the development of pathogenic fungi in their seeds. PMID:23866024

  17. The first structure of a mycobacteriophage, the Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii phage Araucaria.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mohamed; Bebeacua, Cecilia; Drancourt, Michel; Cambillau, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The unique characteristics of the waxy mycobacterial cell wall raise questions about specific structural features of their bacteriophages. No structure of any mycobacteriophage is available, although ∼3,500 have been described to date. To fill this gap, we embarked in a genomic and structural study of a bacteriophage from Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, a member of the Mycobacterium abscessus group. This opportunistic pathogen is responsible for respiratory tract infections in patients with lung disorders, particularly cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus subsp. bolletii was isolated from respiratory tract specimens, and bacteriophages were observed in the cultures. We report here the genome annotation and characterization of the M. abscessus subsp. bolletii prophage Araucaria, as well as the first single-particle electron microscopy reconstruction of the whole virion. Araucaria belongs to Siphoviridae and possesses a 64-kb genome containing 89 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 27 could be annotated with certainty. Although its capsid and connector share close similarity with those of several phages from Gram-negative (Gram(-)) or Gram(+) bacteria, its most distinctive characteristic is the helical tail decorated by radial spikes, possibly host adhesion devices, according to which the phage name was chosen. Its host adsorption device, at the tail tip, assembles features observed in phages binding to protein receptors, such as phage SPP1. All together, these results suggest that Araucaria may infect its mycobacterial host using a mechanism involving adhesion to cell wall saccharides and protein, a feature that remains to be further explored. PMID:23678183

  18. Does complete plastid genome sequencing improve species discrimination and phylogenetic resolution in Araucaria?

    PubMed

    Ruhsam, Markus; Rai, Hardeep S; Mathews, Sarah; Ross, T Gregory; Graham, Sean W; Raubeson, Linda A; Mei, Wenbin; Thomas, Philip I; Gardner, Martin F; Ennos, Richard A; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining accurate phylogenies and effective species discrimination using a small standardized set of plastid genes is challenging in evolutionarily young lineages. Complete plastid genome sequencing offers an increasingly easy-to-access source of characters that helps address this. The usefulness of this approach, however, depends on the extent to which plastid haplotypes track morphological species boundaries. We have tested the power of complete plastid genomes to discriminate among multiple accessions of 11 of 13 New Caledonian Araucaria species, an evolutionarily young lineage where the standard DNA barcoding approach has so far failed and phylogenetic relationships have remained elusive. Additionally, 11 nuclear gene regions were Sanger sequenced for all accessions to ascertain the success of species discrimination using a moderate number of nuclear genes. Overall, fewer than half of the New Caledonian Araucaria species with multiple accessions were monophyletic in the plastid or nuclear trees. However, the plastid data retrieved a phylogeny with a higher resolution compared to any previously published tree of this clade and supported the monophyly of about twice as many species and nodes compared to the nuclear data set. Modest gains in discrimination thus are possible, but using complete plastid genomes or a small number of nuclear genes in DNA barcoding may not substantially raise species discriminatory power in many evolutionarily young lineages. The big challenge therefore remains to develop techniques that allow routine access to large numbers of nuclear markers scaleable to thousands of individuals from phylogenetically disparate sample sets. PMID:25611173

  19. Does complete plastid genome sequencing improve species discrimination and phylogenetic resolution in Araucaria?

    PubMed

    Ruhsam, Markus; Rai, Hardeep S; Mathews, Sarah; Ross, T Gregory; Graham, Sean W; Raubeson, Linda A; Mei, Wenbin; Thomas, Philip I; Gardner, Martin F; Ennos, Richard A; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining accurate phylogenies and effective species discrimination using a small standardized set of plastid genes is challenging in evolutionarily young lineages. Complete plastid genome sequencing offers an increasingly easy-to-access source of characters that helps address this. The usefulness of this approach, however, depends on the extent to which plastid haplotypes track morphological species boundaries. We have tested the power of complete plastid genomes to discriminate among multiple accessions of 11 of 13 New Caledonian Araucaria species, an evolutionarily young lineage where the standard DNA barcoding approach has so far failed and phylogenetic relationships have remained elusive. Additionally, 11 nuclear gene regions were Sanger sequenced for all accessions to ascertain the success of species discrimination using a moderate number of nuclear genes. Overall, fewer than half of the New Caledonian Araucaria species with multiple accessions were monophyletic in the plastid or nuclear trees. However, the plastid data retrieved a phylogeny with a higher resolution compared to any previously published tree of this clade and supported the monophyly of about twice as many species and nodes compared to the nuclear data set. Modest gains in discrimination thus are possible, but using complete plastid genomes or a small number of nuclear genes in DNA barcoding may not substantially raise species discriminatory power in many evolutionarily young lineages. The big challenge therefore remains to develop techniques that allow routine access to large numbers of nuclear markers scaleable to thousands of individuals from phylogenetically disparate sample sets.

  20. Control of resin production in Araucaria angustifolia, an ancient South American conifer.

    PubMed

    Perotti, J C; da Silva Rodrigues-Corrêa, K C; Fett-Neto, A G

    2015-07-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is an ancient slow-growing conifer that characterises parts of the Southern Atlantic Forest biome, currently listed as a critically endangered species. The species also produces bark resin, although the factors controlling its resinosis are largely unknown. To better understand this defence-related process, we examined the resin exudation response of A. angustifolia upon treatment with well-known chemical stimulators used in fast-growing conifers producing both bark and wood resin, such as Pinus elliottii. The initial hypothesis was that A. angustifolia would display significant differences in the regulation of resinosis. The effect of Ethrel(®) (ET - ethylene precursor), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), sulphuric acid (SuA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP - nitric oxide donor) on resin yield and composition in young plants of A. angustifolia was examined. In at least one of the concentrations tested, and frequently in more than one, an aqueous glycerol solution applied on fresh wound sites of the stem with one or more of the adjuvants examined promoted an increase in resin yield, as well as monoterpene concentration (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene). Higher yields and longer exudation periods were observed with JA and ET, another feature shared with Pinus resinosis. The results suggest that resinosis control is similar in Araucaria and Pinus. In addition, A. angustifolia resin may be a relevant source of valuable terpene chemicals, whose production may be increased by using stimulating pastes containing the identified adjuvants.

  1. Using Multi-Isotope Tracer Methods to Understand the Sources of Nitrate in Aerosols, Fog and River Water in Podocarpus National Forest, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. A.; Dominguez, G.; Fabian, P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    The eastern slopes of the Andean rainforests of Ecuador possess some of the highest plant biodiversity found on the planet; however, these ecosystems are in jeopardy because region is experiences one of the highest deforestation rates in South America. This rainforest characterized by high acidity and low nutrient soils and experiences natural process which are both destabilizing and stabilizing to biodiversity rendering this a unique, though sensitive environment. There is increased concern that anthropogenic activities especially biomass burning are affecting the rainforests and could lead to higher extinction rates, changes in the biodiversity and far reaching effects on the global troposphere. Measurements of nitrate and sulfate in rain and fog water have shown periods of elevated concentrations in the Podocarpus National Park near Loja, Ecuador. These high episodes contribute to annual deposition rates that are comparable to polluted regions of North America and Europe. Significant anthropogenic sources such as large scale industry or a major city, near this forest are lacking. It is believed that the majority of the nitrate and sulfate pollution is due to the large amount of biomass burning during the dry season in the Amazon Basin. In recent years it has been shown that large amount of dust is transported across the Atlantic from Africa which reaches South America. Concentration measurements do not elucidate the source of high nitrate and sulfate pollution; however, by measuring all three stable isotopes of oxygen in nitrate and sulfate from fog and river water provides a new way to examine the impacts of biomass burning on the region. By using stable isotope techniques atmospheric nitrate and sulfate can be resolved from terrestrial sources. This provides a unique way to trace the contributions from the biomass burning and farming sources. Current research at the field station, Estación Científica San Francisco in the Podocarpus National Forest monitors

  2. Seed-borne Botryosphaeria spp. from native Prunus and Podocarpus trees in Ethiopia, with a description of the anamorph Diplodia rosulata sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Gure, Abdella; Slippers, Bernard; Stenlid, Jan

    2005-09-01

    Botryosphaeria spp. from seeds of the native afromontane forest tree species, Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana, in Ethiopia have been identified. This is achieved by combining anamorph morphological characters and ITS sequence data. From a relatively small sample, four Botryosphaeria spp. were encountered. Two of the species from P. falcatus and the one from P. africana have not been previously described. The two species from P. falcatus were represented by only one isolate each and are not named here. The morphology of their Diplodia and Dothiorella anamorphs is, however, characterised. The anamorph of the other Botryosphaeria sp. from P. africana is described here as Diplodia rosulata sp. nov. Furthermore, B. parva is identified from P. falcatus based on ITS phylogeny. This species is also an important pathogen of various commercially important tree species in Ethiopia and elsewhere. This study highlights the ability of Botryosphaeria spp. to infect seeds and the possibility that they might be distributed in this way. The study also contributes to recent attempts to stabilize the taxonomy of Botryosphaeria anamorphs, especially regarding Diplodia, which is currently in taxonomic disarray.

  3. Chemical composition and glycemic index of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; De Menezes Wenzel, Elizabete; Genovese, Maria Inés; Colli, Célia; De Souza Gonçalves, Alessandra; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2004-06-01

    The seeds of Parana pine (Araucaria brasiliensis syn. Araucaria angustifolia), named pinhão, are consumed after cooking and posterior dehulling, or they are used to prepare a flour employed in regional dishes. Native people that live in the South of Brazil usually consume baked pinhão. As a result of cooking, the white seeds become brown on the surface due to the migration of some tinted compounds present in the seed coat. In this work, the proximate composition, minerals, flavonoids, and glycemic index (GI) of cooked and raw pinhão seeds were compared. No differences in moisture, lipids, soluble fiber, and total starch after boiling were found. However, the soluble sugars and P, Cu, and Mg contents decreased, probably as a consequence of leaching in the cooking water. Also, the boiling process modified the profile of the phenolic compounds in the seeds. No flavonols were detected in raw pinhão seeds. The internal seed coat had a quercetin content five times higher than that of the external seed coat; also, quercetin migrated into the seed during cooking. The internal seed coat had a high content of total phenolics, and seeds cooked in normal conditions (with the seed coat) showed a total phenolics content five times higher than that of seeds cooked without the seed coat. Cooking was then extremely favorable to pinhão seeds bioactive compounds content. The carbohydrate availability was evaluated in a short-term assay in humans by the GI. The GI of pinhão seeds cooked with the coat (67%) was similar to that of the seeds cooked without a coat (62%) and lower than bread, showing that cooking does not interfere with starch availability. The low glycemic response can be partly due to its high content of resistant starch (9% of the total starch). PMID:15161207

  4. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Milena Fermina; Souza, Alexandre F

    2014-03-01

    A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH > or = 9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2 Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests: mean AGB was lower in Broadleaf Forests (AGB(BF)=118.9 Mg/ha) when compared to Mixed Forests (AGB(MF)=250.3 Mg/ha). There was a high spatial and local variability in our dataset, even within forest types. This condition is normal in tropical forests and is usually attributed to the presence of large trees. The explanatory multiple regressions were influenced mainly by elevation and explained 50.7% of the variation in AGB. Stem density, diversity and organic matter also influenced biomass variation. The results from our study showed a positive relationship between aboveground biomass and elevation. Therefore, higher values of AGB are located at higher elevations and subjected to cooler temperatures and wetter climate. There seems to be an important contribution of the coniferous species Araucaria angustifolia in Mixed Forest plots, as it presented

  5. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Milena Fermina; Souza, Alexandre F

    2014-03-01

    A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH > or = 9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2 Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests: mean AGB was lower in Broadleaf Forests (AGB(BF)=118.9 Mg/ha) when compared to Mixed Forests (AGB(MF)=250.3 Mg/ha). There was a high spatial and local variability in our dataset, even within forest types. This condition is normal in tropical forests and is usually attributed to the presence of large trees. The explanatory multiple regressions were influenced mainly by elevation and explained 50.7% of the variation in AGB. Stem density, diversity and organic matter also influenced biomass variation. The results from our study showed a positive relationship between aboveground biomass and elevation. Therefore, higher values of AGB are located at higher elevations and subjected to cooler temperatures and wetter climate. There seems to be an important contribution of the coniferous species Araucaria angustifolia in Mixed Forest plots, as it presented

  6. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze cell lines with contrasting embryogenic potential.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Elbl, Paula; Navarro, Bruno Viana; de Oliveira, Leandro Francisco; Salvato, Fernanda; Balbuena, Tiago Santana; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal

    2016-01-01

    GeLC–MS/MS based label free proteomic profiling was used in the large scale identification and quantification of proteins from Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) embryogenic cell (EC) lines that showed different propensities to form somatic embryos. Using a predicted protein sequence database that was derived from A. angustifolia RNA-Seq data, 2398 non-redundant proteins were identified. The log2 of the spectral count values of 858 proteins of these proteins showed a normal distribution, and were used for statistical analysis. Statistical tests indicated that 106 proteins were significantly differentially abundant between the two EC lines, and that 35 were more abundant in the responsive genotype (EC line SE1) and 71 were more abundant in the blocked genotype (EC line SE6). An increase in the abundance of proteins related to cell defense, anti-oxidative stress responses, and storage reserve deposition was observed in SE1. Moreover, in SE6 we observed an increased abundance of two proteins associated with seed development during the embryogenic cell proliferation stage, which we suggest is associated with genotypes showing a low responsiveness to embryo formation. Differences in protein abundance between the EC lines are discussed in terms of carbohydrate metabolism, cell division, defense response, gene expression, and response to reactive oxygen species.

  7. Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum associated with the fermentation of Araucaria araucana seeds in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Eugenia; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Lopes, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Mudai is a traditional fermented beverage, made from the seeds of the Araucaria araucana tree by Mapuche communities. The main goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the yeast microbiota responsible of Mudai fermentation as well as from A. araucana seeds and bark from different locations in Northern Patagonia. Only Hanseniaspora uvarum and a commercial bakery strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from Mudai and all Saccharomyces isolates recovered from A. araucana seed and bark samples belonged to the cryotolerant species Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. These two species were already reported in Nothofagus trees from Patagonia; however, this is the first time that they were isolated from A. araucana, which extends their ecological distribution. The presence of these species in A. araucana seeds and bark samples, led us to postulate a potential role for them as the original yeasts responsible for the elaboration of Mudai before the introduction of commercial S. cerevisiae cultures. The molecular and genetic characterization of the S. uvarum and S. eubayanus isolates and their comparison with European S. uvarum strains and S. eubayanus hybrids (S. bayanus and S. pastorianus), allowed their ecology and evolution us to be examined.

  8. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Márcia O.; Branco, Cátia S.; Sene, Juliane; DallAgnol, Rafaela; Agostini, Fabiana; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay) damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds. PMID:26784661

  9. Micropropagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière from orthotropic stem explants.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of the present work were in vitro propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière (Norfolk Island pine) with focus on the evaluation of the mean number of shoots per explant (MNS/E) and mean length of shoots per explants (MLS/E) produced by different parts of the orthotropic stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to plant growth regulators. Norfolk Island pine axillary meristems responded very well to the 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2iP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) levels. Explants taken from stem upper segments in the media containing 2iP had a higher MNS/E (3.47) and MLS/E (6.27 mm) in comparison to those taken from stem lower segments, which were 0.71 and 0.51 mm, respectively. Using 0.045 μM TDZ in the MS medium not only resulted in 4.60 MNS/E with 7.08 mm MLS/E but proliferated shoots showed a good performance as well. Investigating the best position of stem explant on mother plant as well as the best concentrations of growth regulators were performed which were useful for efficient micropropagation of this plant. Thirty three percent of explants were rooted in the MS medium containing 3 % sucrose, supplemented with 7.5 μM of both NAA and IBA for 2 weeks before transferring to a half strength MS medium without any growth regulator. Plantlets obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse with less than 20 % mortality. This procedure considered the first successful report for regeneration and acclimatization of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlet through main stem explants.

  10. Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fire dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Behling, Hermann; Pillar, Valério DePatta

    2007-02-28

    Palaeoecological background information is needed for management and conservation of the highly diverse mosaic of Araucaria forest and Campos (grassland) in southern Brazil. Questions on the origin of Araucaria forest and grasslands; its development, dynamic and stability; its response to environmental change such as climate; and the role of human impact are essential. Further questions on its natural stage of vegetation or its alteration by pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic activity are also important. To answer these questions, palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental data based on pollen, charcoal and multivariate data analysis of radiocarbon dated sedimentary archives from southern Brazil are used to provide an insight into past vegetation changes, which allows us to improve our understanding of the modern vegetation and to develop conservation and management strategies for the strongly affected ecosystems in southern Brazil.

  11. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation. PMID:23861038

  12. The periodic wetting of leaves enhances water relations and growth of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Cassana, F F; Dillenburg, L R

    2013-01-01

    The importance of foliar absorption of water and atmospheric solutes in conifers was recognised in the 1970s, and the importance of fog as a water source in forest environments has been recently demonstrated. Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) is an emergent tree species that grows in montane forests of southern Brazil, where rainfall and fog are frequent events, leading to frequent wetting of the leaves. Despite anatomical evidence in favour of leaf water absorption, there is no information on the existence and physiological significance of a such process. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the use of atmospheric water by leaves takes place and is physiologically relevant for the species, by comparing growth, water relations and nutritional status between plants grown under two conditions of soil water (well-watered and water-stressed plants) and three types of leaf spraying (none, water and nutrient solution spray). Leaf spraying had a greater effect in improving plant water relations when plants were under water stress. Plant growth was more responsive to water available to the leaves than to the roots, and was equally increased by both types of leaf spraying, with no interaction with soil water status. Spraying leaves with nutrient solution increased shoot ramification and raised the concentrations of N, P, K, Zn, Cu and Fe in the roots. Our results provide strong indications that water and nutrients are indeed absorbed by leaves of A. angustifolia, and that this process might be as important as water uptake by its roots.

  13. The Araucaria Project: The Distance to the Carina Dwarf Galaxy from Infrared Photometry of RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Suchomska, Ksenia; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Pilecki, Bogumił; Graczyk, Dariusz; Wielgórski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    We obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the J- and K-band for a sample of 33 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Carina dSph galaxy. Applying different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the NIR period–luminosity–metallicity relation for RRL stars, we find consistent results and obtain a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.118 ± 0.017 (statistical) ± 0.11 (systematic) mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the context of the Araucaria Project from NIR photometry of red clump stars (20.165 ± 0.015) and the tip of red giant branch (20.09 ± 0.03 ± 0.12 mag in the J band, 20.14 ± 0.04 ± 0.14 mag in the K band), as well as with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The NIR RRL method proved to be a reliable tool for accurate distance determination at the 5% level or better, particularly for galaxies and globular clusters that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids. Based on data collected with the VLT/HAWK-I instrument at ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile, as a part of a program 082.D-0123(B).

  14. The periodic wetting of leaves enhances water relations and growth of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Cassana, F F; Dillenburg, L R

    2013-01-01

    The importance of foliar absorption of water and atmospheric solutes in conifers was recognised in the 1970s, and the importance of fog as a water source in forest environments has been recently demonstrated. Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) is an emergent tree species that grows in montane forests of southern Brazil, where rainfall and fog are frequent events, leading to frequent wetting of the leaves. Despite anatomical evidence in favour of leaf water absorption, there is no information on the existence and physiological significance of a such process. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the use of atmospheric water by leaves takes place and is physiologically relevant for the species, by comparing growth, water relations and nutritional status between plants grown under two conditions of soil water (well-watered and water-stressed plants) and three types of leaf spraying (none, water and nutrient solution spray). Leaf spraying had a greater effect in improving plant water relations when plants were under water stress. Plant growth was more responsive to water available to the leaves than to the roots, and was equally increased by both types of leaf spraying, with no interaction with soil water status. Spraying leaves with nutrient solution increased shoot ramification and raised the concentrations of N, P, K, Zn, Cu and Fe in the roots. Our results provide strong indications that water and nutrients are indeed absorbed by leaves of A. angustifolia, and that this process might be as important as water uptake by its roots. PMID:22672733

  15. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: THE DISTANCE TO THE CARINA DWARF GALAXY FROM INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Suchomska, Ksenia; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Pilecki, Bogumił; Wielgórski, Piotr; Gieren, Wolfgang; Graczyk, Dariusz E-mail: ksenia@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: pilecki@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: mgorski@astrouw.edu.pl

    2015-09-15

    We obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the J- and K-band for a sample of 33 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Carina dSph galaxy. Applying different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the NIR period–luminosity–metallicity relation for RRL stars, we find consistent results and obtain a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.118 ± 0.017 (statistical) ± 0.11 (systematic) mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the context of the Araucaria Project from NIR photometry of red clump stars (20.165 ± 0.015) and the tip of red giant branch (20.09 ± 0.03 ± 0.12 mag in the J band, 20.14 ± 0.04 ± 0.14 mag in the K band), as well as with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The NIR RRL method proved to be a reliable tool for accurate distance determination at the 5% level or better, particularly for galaxies and globular clusters that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids.

  16. Mitochondria and redox homoeostasis as chemotherapeutic targets of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze in human larynx HEp-2 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Branco, Cátia dos Santos; de Lima, Émilin Dreher; Rodrigues, Tiago Selau; Scheffel, Thamiris Becker; Scola, Gustavo; Laurino, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2015-04-25

    Natural products are among one of the most promising fields in finding new molecular targets in cancer therapy. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting the head and neck regions, and is associated with high morbidity rate if left untreated. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of Araucaria angustifolia on laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells. The results showed that A. angustifolia extract (AAE) induced a significant cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells compared to the non-tumor human epithelial (HEK-293) cells, indicating a selective activity of AAE for the cancer cells. A. angustifolia extract was able to increase oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and the production of nitric oxide, along with the depletion of enzymatic antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the tumor cell line. Moreover, AAE was able to induce DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. A significant increase in the Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), Bax, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage expression were also found. These effects could be related to the ability of AAE to increase the production of reactive oxygen species through inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity and ATP production by the tumor cells. The phytochemical analysis of A. angustifolia, performed using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) in MS and MS/MS mode, showed the presence of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, and phenolic compounds, which may be associated with the chemotherapeutic effect observed in this study.

  17. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E.; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic–Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  18. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    PubMed

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  19. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    PubMed

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  20. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-10-01

    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to <1400 m a.s.l.) that are locally recognized as remnants of planed surfaces (S8-S1). These surfaces are maintained by basic (S3-S8) and acidic (S1 and S2) volcanic flows from the Neocretaceous period of the Paraná Basin. The largest extent of this plateau is located in a humid subtropical climate zone. Colluvial, colluvial-alluvial, alluvial sediments and paleosols (Ab diagnostic horizons) occur predominantly in S2. The paleosols are located in low-hierarchical-order fossil valleys (first- to fourth-order in Strahler's stream classification) and valley heads, which are referred to as paleovalleys in this paper. We employed these paleosols as stratigraphic level markers of the pedogenesis of the regional Upper Quaternary and propose their importance as records of the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau in areas above 1200 m a.s.l. These paleosols were dated by 14C and show ages between 23.8 ± 0.05 kyr BP (28.06-29.08 kyr cal. BP) and 41.16 ± 0.48 kyr BP (44.13-45.58 kyr cal. BP). The calibrated ages are related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), in which the last period of global warming occurred (approximately 60-25 kyr cal. BP). We integrated the morphological, pedogeochemical, clay fraction mineralogy, micromorphological and δC-13 analyses of five paleosols from S2 to verify the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau and its correspondence with the paleoclimatic phenomena that were identified on a global scale during MIS 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. We obtained the following conclusions: a) the properties of paleosols reflect pedological processes that are adjusted to the paleoenvironmental conditions at the end of MIS 3 and the transition to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); b) aplasmogenic partial acidolysis was the predominant

  1. Evidence of solar activity and El Niño signals in tree rings of Araucaria araucana and A. angustifolia in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perone, A.; Lombardi, F.; Marchetti, M.; Tognetti, R.; Lasserre, B.

    2016-10-01

    Tree rings reveal climatic variations through years, but also the effect of solar activity in influencing the climate on a large scale. In order to investigate the role of solar cycles on climatic variability and to analyse their influences on tree growth, we focused on tree-ring chronologies of Araucaria angustifolia and Araucaria araucana in four study areas: Irati and Curitiba in Brazil, Caviahue in Chile, and Tolhuaca in Argentina. We obtained an average tree-ring chronology of 218, 117, 439, and 849 years for these areas, respectively. Particularly, the older chronologies also included the period of the Maunder and Dalton minima. To identify periodicities and trends observable in tree growth, the time series were analysed using spectral, wavelet and cross-wavelet techniques. Analysis based on the Multitaper method of annual growth rates identified 2 cycles with periodicities of 11 (Schwebe cycle) and 5.5 years (second harmonic of Schwebe cycle). In the Chilean and Argentinian sites, significant agreement between the time series of tree rings and the 11-year solar cycle was found during the periods of maximum solar activity. Results also showed oscillation with periods of 2-7 years, probably induced by local environmental variations, and possibly also related to the El-Niño events. Moreover, the Morlet complex wavelet analysis was applied to study the most relevant variability factors affecting tree-ring time series. Finally, we applied the cross-wavelet spectral analysis to evaluate the time lags between tree-ring and sunspot-number time series, as well as for the interaction between tree rings, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and temperature and precipitation. Trees sampled in Chile and Argentina showed more evident responses of fluctuations in tree-ring time series to the variations of short and long periodicities in comparison with the Brazilian ones. These results provided new evidence on the solar activity-climate pattern-tree ring connections over

  2. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT. A DISTANCE DETERMINATION TO THE LOCAL GROUP SPIRAL M33 FROM NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF CEPHEID VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz E-mail: pietrzyn@hubble.cfm.udec.cl; and others

    2013-08-10

    Motivated by an amazing range of reported distances to the nearby Local Group spiral galaxy M33, we have obtained deep near-infrared photometry for 26 long-period Cepheids in this galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope. From the data, we constructed period-luminosity relations in the J and K bands which together with previous optical VI photometry for the Cepheids by Macri et al. were used to determine the true distance modulus of M33, and the mean reddening affecting the Cepheid sample with the multiwavelength fit method developed in the Araucaria Project. We find a true distance modulus of 24.62 for M33, with a total uncertainty of {+-}0.07 mag which is dominated by the uncertainty on the photometric zero points in our photometry. The reddening is determined as E(B - V) = 0.19 {+-} 0.02, in agreement with the value used by the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project of Freedman et al. but in some discrepancy with other recent determinations based on blue supergiant spectroscopy and an O-type eclipsing binary which yielded lower reddening values. Our derived M33 distance modulus is extremely insensitive to the adopted reddening law. We show that the possible effects of metallicity and crowding on our present distance determination are both at the 1%-2% level and therefore minor contributors to the total uncertainty of our distance result for M33.

  3. Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase and Triacylglycerol Intestinal Absorption by a Pinhão Coat (Araucaria angustifolia) Extract Rich in Condensed Tannin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Roselene Ferreira; Gonçalves, Geferson Almeida; Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize the possible inhibition of pancreatic lipase by a tannin-rich extract obtained from the pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seed) coat, based on the previous observation that this preparation inhibits α-amylases. Kinetic measurements of pancreatic lipase revealed that the pinhão coat tannin is an effective inhibitor. Inhibition was of the parabolic non-competitive type. The inhibition constants, Ki1 and Ki2, were equal to 332.7 ± 146.1 μg/mL and 321.2 ± 93.0 μg/mL, respectively, corresponding roughly to the inhibitor concentration producing 50% inhibition ([I]50). Consistently, the pinhão coat extract was also effective at diminishing the plasma triglyceride levels in mice after an olive oil load; 50% diminution of the area under the plasma concentration versus the time curve occurred at a dose of 250 mg/kg. This observation is most probably the consequence of an indirect inhibition of triglyceride absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. For the pinhão coat tannin, this is the second report of a biological activity, the first one being a similar inhibition of the absorption of glucose derived from starch as a consequence of an inhibitory action on α-amylases. Taken together, these effects represent a potential anti-obesity action, as suggested for other polyphenol or tannin-rich preparations. PMID:26184295

  4. A new species of swamp rat of the genus Scapteromys waterhouse, 1837 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) endemic to Araucaria angustifolia forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quintela, Fernando Marques; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Althoff, Sérgio Luiz; Sbalqueiro, Ives Jose; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa; De Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena

    2014-01-01

    A new species of swamp rat of the genus Scapteromys from the Meridional Plateau of Southern Brazil is described. Morphological, molecular, and karyological analysis support the recognition of the new species, distinct from S. aquaticus and S. tumidus. Scapteromys sp. nov. is significantly smaller than the congeneric taxa considering most of the external and craniometric measurements and the pelage is conspicuously grayer and darker. It can be distinguished from S. tumidus by the laterally extended thenar pad of the manus and the parallel edges of the hamular process of the pterygoid, and from S. aquaticus by a grayer and darker pelage and smaller values of most external and craniometric measurements. Karyological analysis indicated a difference in chromosome numbers across the distributional range: 2n=34 and 2n=36. A total of 11 haplotypes were found along the range of the new species within the biogeographic province of Araucaria angustifolia Forest. Strongly supported substructure was found within the new taxon, resulting in two reciprocally monophyletic clades.

  5. Open and disturbed habitats support higher diversity of Syrphidae (Diptera)? A case study during three yr of sampling in a fragment of Araucaria forest in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Jana Magaly Tesserolli de; Marinoni, Renato Contin; Marinoni, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of hoverflies in five different habitats of the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil, from September 1999 to August 2002 was studied. These five areas had been exposed to various types of anthropogenic disturbance at different times, which resulted in different stages of plant succession. In total, 2,841 specimens of 151 species of Syrphidae were collected using malaise traps. The highest species richness and abundance were found at the edge of the forest (Forest Edge), whereas the lowest was found in the most conserved areas. Evenness values increased along the succession gradient. The accumulation curve of new occurrences of syrphid species nearly approached an asymptote starting on the third month of the third year. Estimates of syrphid species richness using different methods indicated that between 155 and 288 species are found in the study area, according the Michaelis-Menten and the Chao2 estimators, respectively. The richness and abundance of representatives of the subfamily Syrphinae were higher in more open areas, where herbaceous plants predominate. Nineteen hoverfly species can be considered as environmental indicators, as they were collected exclusively or mainly in one of the defined habitat types. The degree of opening of the vegetation seems to be the factor determining the distribution of Syrphidae species, a conclusion based on the finding that grassy clearings in Araucaria Forests had more species. Hence, we conclude that, to become established, Syrphidae communities need conserved mosaic landscapes. PMID:25528752

  6. Female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenetic parthenogenesis in embryonal cells of Araucaria angustifolia: interpolation of progenesis and asexual heterospory in an artificial sporangium.

    PubMed

    Durzan, Don J

    2012-09-01

    Cell fate, development timing and occurrence of reproductive versus apomictic development in gymnosperms are shown to be influenced by culture conditions in vitro. In this study, female parthenogenetic apomixis (fPA), androsporogenetic parthenogenesis (mAP) and progenesis were demonstrated using embryonal initials of Araucaria angustifolia in scaled-up cell suspensions passing through a single-cell bottleneck in darkness and in an artificial sporangium (AS). Expression was based on defined nutrition, hormones and feedforward-adaptive feedback process controls at 23-25 °C and in darkness. In fPA, the nucleus of an embryonal initial undergoes endomitosis and amitosis, forming a diploid egg-equivalent and an apoptotic ventral canal nucleus in a transdifferentiated archegonial tube. Discharge of egg-equivalent cells as parthenospores and their dispersal into the aqueous culture medium were followed by free-nuclear conifer-type proembryogenesis. This replaced the plesiomorphic and central features of proembryogenesis in Araucariaceae. Protoplasmic fusions of embryonal initials were used to reconstruct heterokaryotic expressions of fPA in multiwell plates. In mAP, restitutional meiosis (automixis) was responsible for androsporogenesis and the discharge of monads, dyads, tetrads and polyads. In a display of progenesis, reproductive development was brought to an earlier ontogenetic stage and expressed by embryonal initials. Colchicine increased polyploidy, but androspore formation became aberrant and fragmented. Aberrant automixis led to the formation of chromosomal bouquets, which contributed to genomic silencing in embryonal initials, cytomixis and the formation of pycnotic micronucleated cells. Dispersal of female and male parthenospores displayed heteromorphic asexual heterospory in an aqueous environment. PMID:22669467

  7. Female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenetic parthenogenesis in embryonal cells of Araucaria angustifolia: interpolation of progenesis and asexual heterospory in an artificial sporangium.

    PubMed

    Durzan, Don J

    2012-09-01

    Cell fate, development timing and occurrence of reproductive versus apomictic development in gymnosperms are shown to be influenced by culture conditions in vitro. In this study, female parthenogenetic apomixis (fPA), androsporogenetic parthenogenesis (mAP) and progenesis were demonstrated using embryonal initials of Araucaria angustifolia in scaled-up cell suspensions passing through a single-cell bottleneck in darkness and in an artificial sporangium (AS). Expression was based on defined nutrition, hormones and feedforward-adaptive feedback process controls at 23-25 °C and in darkness. In fPA, the nucleus of an embryonal initial undergoes endomitosis and amitosis, forming a diploid egg-equivalent and an apoptotic ventral canal nucleus in a transdifferentiated archegonial tube. Discharge of egg-equivalent cells as parthenospores and their dispersal into the aqueous culture medium were followed by free-nuclear conifer-type proembryogenesis. This replaced the plesiomorphic and central features of proembryogenesis in Araucariaceae. Protoplasmic fusions of embryonal initials were used to reconstruct heterokaryotic expressions of fPA in multiwell plates. In mAP, restitutional meiosis (automixis) was responsible for androsporogenesis and the discharge of monads, dyads, tetrads and polyads. In a display of progenesis, reproductive development was brought to an earlier ontogenetic stage and expressed by embryonal initials. Colchicine increased polyploidy, but androspore formation became aberrant and fragmented. Aberrant automixis led to the formation of chromosomal bouquets, which contributed to genomic silencing in embryonal initials, cytomixis and the formation of pycnotic micronucleated cells. Dispersal of female and male parthenospores displayed heteromorphic asexual heterospory in an aqueous environment.

  8. Statistical design of experiments as a tool for optimizing the batch conditions to Cr(VI) biosorption on Araucaria angustifolia wastes.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Jorge L; Ev, Ricardo R; Milcharek, Caroline D; Martins, Lucas C; Pavan, Flavio A; dos Santos, Araci A; Dias, Silvio L P; Dupont, Jairton; Zapata Noreña, Caciano P; Lima, Eder C

    2006-05-20

    In order to reduce the total number of experiments for achieving the best conditions for Cr(VI) uptake using Araucaria angustifolia (named pinhão) wastes as a biosorbent, three statistical design of experiments were carried out. A full 2(4) factorial design with two blocks and two central points (20 experiments) was experimented (pH, initial metallic ion concentration-C(o), biosorbent concentration-X and time of contact-t), showing that all the factors were significant; besides, several interactions among the factors were also significant. These results led to the performance of a Box-Behnken surface analysis design with three factors (X, C(o) and t) and three central points and just one block (15 experiments). The performance of these two statistical designs of experiments led to the best conditions for Cr(VI) biosorption on the pinhão wastes using a batch system, where: pH 2.0; C(o) = 1200 mg l(-1) Cr(VI); X = 1.5 g l(-1) of biosorbent; t = 8 h. The maximum Cr(VI) uptake in these conditions was 125 mg g(-1). After evaluating the best Cr(VI) biosorption conditions on pinhão wastes, a new Box-Behnken surface analysis design was employed in order to verify the effects of three concomitant ions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-)) on the biosorption of Cr(VI) as a dichromate on the biosorbent (15 experiments). These results showed that the tested anions did not show any significant effect on the Cr(VI) uptake by pinhão wastes. In order to evaluate the pinhão wastes as a biosorbent in dynamic system, a glass column was fulfilled with pinhão wastes (4.00 g) as biosorbent, and it was fed with 25.0 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) at pH 2.0 and 2.5 ml min(-1). The breakpoint was attained when concentrations of effluent of the column attained the value of 0.05 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) using 5550 ml of the metallic ion solution. In these conditions, the biosorbent was able to remove completely Cr(VI) from aqueous solution with a ratio of Cr(VI) effluent volume/biosorbent volume of 252.3.

  9. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  10. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  11. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.

  12. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  13. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  14. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  15. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods. PMID:20232594

  16. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  17. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  18. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  19. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  20. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  1. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  2. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  3. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  4. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  5. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  6. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  7. Combinación de radioterapia con quimioterapia mejora la supervivencia con raro cáncer cerebral

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de dos estudios clínicos de seguimiento a largo plazo confirman que ciertos pacientes viven substancialmente más si se les trata con una combinación de quimioterapia y radioterapia en comparación con radioterapia solamente.

  8. View forward of interior of conning tower and steering station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward of interior of conning tower and steering station; helmsman or observer viewed action through narrow opening at top of photo. (p57) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives. PMID:27514827

  10. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  11. "CON-CON" assignment strategy for highly flexible intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Piai, Alessandro; Hošek, Tomáš; Gonnelli, Leonardo; Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Brutscher, Bernhard; Bermel, Wolfgang; Pierattelli, Roberta; Felli, Isabella C

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of highly flexible proteins whose characterization by NMR spectroscopy is complicated by severe spectral overlaps. The development of experiments designed to facilitate the sequence-specific assignment procedure is thus very important to improve the tools for the characterization of IDPs and thus to be able to focus on IDPs of increasing size and complexity. Here, we present and describe the implementation of a set of novel ¹H-detected 5D experiments, (HACA)CON(CACO)NCO(CA)HA, BT-(H)NCO(CAN)CONNH and BT-HN(COCAN)CONNH, optimized for the study of highly flexible IDPs that exploit the best resolved correlations, those involving the carbonyl and nitrogen nuclei of neighboring amino acids, to achieve sequence-specific resonance assignment. Together with the analogous recently proposed pulse schemes based on ¹³C detection, they form a complete set of experiments for sequence-specific assignment of highly flexible IDPs. Depending on the particular sample conditions (concentration, lifetime, pH, temperature, etc.), these experiments present certain advantages and disadvantages that will be discussed. Needless to say, that the availability of a variety of complementary experiments will be important for accurate determination of resonance frequencies in complex IDPs.

  12. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  13. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  14. Paramagnetic-to-Ferromagnetic Transition in Con Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Pickett, Warren

    2004-03-01

    Motivated by reports of synthesis of zincblende (ZB) structure CrAs in thin film form, strong interest has developed in understanding transition metal pnictides and their tendencies toward magnetic order.Literature on the experimental analysis of the structure of CoN is varied, with reports of both magnetically ordered NaCl structure CoN and non-magnetic ZB CoN. We present results of first principles analysis of electronic structure, magnetism and Murnaghan equation of state for both structures. The non-magnetic ZB structure, stable at ambient pressure transforms to a collapsed ferromagnetic NaCl phase at 10GPa (ΔV = -15%). These results will be compared to data and similarities/differences with other transition metal nitrides will be discussed.

  15. ProbCons: Probabilistic consistency-based multiple sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Do, Chuong B; Mahabhashyam, Mahathi S P; Brudno, Michael; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2005-02-01

    To study gene evolution across a wide range of organisms, biologists need accurate tools for multiple sequence alignment of protein families. Obtaining accurate alignments, however, is a difficult computational problem because of not only the high computational cost but also the lack of proper objective functions for measuring alignment quality. In this paper, we introduce probabilistic consistency, a novel scoring function for multiple sequence comparisons. We present ProbCons, a practical tool for progressive protein multiple sequence alignment based on probabilistic consistency, and evaluate its performance on several standard alignment benchmark data sets. On the BAliBASE, SABmark, and PREFAB benchmark alignment databases, ProbCons achieves statistically significant improvement over other leading methods while maintaining practical speed. ProbCons is publicly available as a Web resource.

  16. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  18. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, C.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  19. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  3. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  4. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived data sets provides insights into microbial community dynamics. PMID:26344404

  5. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics.

  6. A complex photoreceptor system mediates the regulation by light of the conidiation genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, María; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Luque, Eva M; Corrochano, Luis M

    2010-04-01

    Genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa are activated during conidiation or after illumination of vegetative mycelia. Light activation requires the white-collar complex (WCC), a transcription factor complex composed of the photoreceptor WC-1 and its partner WC-2. We have characterized the photoactivation of con-10 and con-6, and we have identified 300bp required for photoactivation in the con-10 promoter. A complex stimulus-response relationship for con-10 and con-6 photoactivation suggested the activity of a complex photoreceptor system. The WCC is the key element for con-10 activation by light, but we suggest that other photoreceptors, the cryptochrome CRY-1, the rhodopsin NOP-1, and the phytochrome PHY-2, modify the activity of the WCC for con-10 photoactivation, presumably through a repressor. In addition we show that the regulatory protein VE-1 is required for full photocarotenogenesis. We propose that these proteins may modulate the WCC in a gene-specific way.

  7. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  8. Topical Oxygen for Chronic Wounds: A PRO/CON Debate

    PubMed Central

    Mutluoglu, Mesut; Cakkalkurt, Aslican; Uzun, Gunalp; Aktas, Samil

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxygen in wound healing is universally accepted and does not require any further evidence; however the controversy as to whether oxygen delivery systems have the potential to improve wound healing remains to be concluded. Topical oxygen treatment (TOT) involves the delivery of 100% oxygen for a mean of 90 min, once a day at an atmospheric pressure slightly above 1 atm abs. The use of TOT gained increasing interest recently. The current manuscript will summarize the pros and cons of TOT in the view of the available literature. PMID:26199891

  9. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  10. Pros and Cons of the Acceleration Scheme (NF-IDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir

    2008-07-01

    The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and beam shaping can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a nonâ scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. Pros and cons of various stages are discussed here in detail. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. Close proximity of strong solenoids and superc

  11. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  12. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty. PMID:26021098

  13. RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Warwick, J.; Fung, M.; Chemel, B.; Blackwell, M.

    1996-12-31

    Carnegie Mellon U. and ORNL`s Robotics and Process Systems Division are developing a state-of-the-art robot operator control station (RoboCon) with standardized hardware and software control interfaces to be adaptable to a variety of remote and robotic equipment currently funded by DOE`s Office of Science & Technology Robotics Technology Development Program. The human operation and telerobotic and supervisory control of sophisticated and remote and robotic systems is a complex, tiring, and non-intuitive activity. Since decontamination & decommissioning, selective equipment removal, mixed waste operations, and in-tank cleanup are going to be a major future activity in DOE environmental restoration and waste management cleanup agenda, it seems necessary to utilize an operator control station and interface which maximizes operator comfort and productivity.

  14. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  15. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  16. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  17. Con A conjugated to Europium(III) cryptate as a new histological tool for prostate cancer investigation using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, M J B M; Silva, L P B G; Medeiros, J K G; Figueiredo, R C B Q; Alves-Júnior, S; Beltrão, E I C

    2014-07-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate recognition proteins that can be used as probes to reveal the glycosylation state of cells. They frequently have been used for diagnostic and prognostic cancer studies. For fluorescence based analysis, lectins commonly are conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (Con A-FITC); however, this molecule loses its fluorescence quickly. We conjugated Europium cryptate to Con A (Con A-cryp-Eu) for use as a histochemical luminescent probe to recognize glucose/mannose residues in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma tissues, and used confocal microscopy instead of commercial Con A-FITC. Tissues were treated with Evans blue to suppress intrinsic tissue fluorescence before incubation with Con A-cryp-Eu or Con A-FITC. Con A-cryp-Eu exhibited hemagglutinating activity. Con A-cryp-Eu showed the same binding pattern as Con A-FITC in prostate stroma and gland cells. Staining was strong in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma tissues. Con A-cryp-Eu probe stained glucose/mannose residues in prostatic carcinoma more intensely than Con A-FITC. Furthermore, staining with Con A-cryp-Eu showed greater fluorescence intensity than Con A-FITC and the emission of Con A-cryp-Eu was more stable than the Con A-FITC for seven days under the same storage conditions. Maintenance of the luminescent properties and the binding pattern of Con A-cryp-Eu favor its use as an auxiliary histochemistry probe for prostatic tissue studies. PMID:24160413

  18. Con A conjugated to Europium(III) cryptate as a new histological tool for prostate cancer investigation using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, M J B M; Silva, L P B G; Medeiros, J K G; Figueiredo, R C B Q; Alves-Júnior, S; Beltrão, E I C

    2014-07-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate recognition proteins that can be used as probes to reveal the glycosylation state of cells. They frequently have been used for diagnostic and prognostic cancer studies. For fluorescence based analysis, lectins commonly are conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (Con A-FITC); however, this molecule loses its fluorescence quickly. We conjugated Europium cryptate to Con A (Con A-cryp-Eu) for use as a histochemical luminescent probe to recognize glucose/mannose residues in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma tissues, and used confocal microscopy instead of commercial Con A-FITC. Tissues were treated with Evans blue to suppress intrinsic tissue fluorescence before incubation with Con A-cryp-Eu or Con A-FITC. Con A-cryp-Eu exhibited hemagglutinating activity. Con A-cryp-Eu showed the same binding pattern as Con A-FITC in prostate stroma and gland cells. Staining was strong in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma tissues. Con A-cryp-Eu probe stained glucose/mannose residues in prostatic carcinoma more intensely than Con A-FITC. Furthermore, staining with Con A-cryp-Eu showed greater fluorescence intensity than Con A-FITC and the emission of Con A-cryp-Eu was more stable than the Con A-FITC for seven days under the same storage conditions. Maintenance of the luminescent properties and the binding pattern of Con A-cryp-Eu favor its use as an auxiliary histochemistry probe for prostatic tissue studies.

  19. Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno- página de publicaciones

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para conservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres diagnosticadas con CDIS o con cáncer de seno a decidir cuál cirugía es la más conveniente para ellas.

  20. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  1. Pruebas de BRCA en pacientes jóvenes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Pruebas de mutaciones genéticas fuertemente asociadas con un mayor riesgo de cáncer de seno han aumentado dramáticamente entre mujeres menores de 40 años diagnosticadas con la enfermedad, según un nuevo estudio.

  2. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  3. Con-A conjugated mucoadhesive microspheres for the colonic delivery of diloxanide furoate.

    PubMed

    Anande, Nalini M; Jain, Sunil K; Jain, Narendra K

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the research work was to develop cyst-targeted novel concanavalin-A (Con-A) conjugated mucoadhesive microspheres of diloxanide furoate (DF) for the effective treatment of amoebiasis. Eudragit microspheres of DF were prepared using emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Formulations were characterized for particle size and size distribution, % drug entrapment, surface morphology and in vitro drug release in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Eudragit microspheres of DF were conjugated with Con-A. IR spectroscopy and DSC were used to confirm successful conjugation of Con-A to Eudragit microspheres while Con-A conjugated microspheres were further characterized using the parameters of zeta potential, mucoadhesiveness to colonic mucosa and Con-A conjugation efficiency with microspheres. IR studies confirmed the attachment of Con-A with Eudragit microspheres. All the microsphere formulations showed good % drug entrapment (78+/-5%). Zeta potential of Eudragit microspheres and Con-A conjugated Eudragit microspheres were found to be 3.12+/-0.7mV and 16.12+/-0.5mV, respectively. Attachment of lectin to the Eudragit microspheres significantly increases the mucoadhesiveness and also controls the release of DF in simulated GI fluids. Gamma scintigraphy study suggested that Eudragit S100 coated gelatin capsule retarded the release of Con-A conjugated microspheres at low pH and released microspheres slowly at pH 7.4 in the colon.

  4. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Definitions § 227.27 Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). (a) The limiting permissible...

  5. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  6. Differential effect of low molecular weight alcohols on the Con A stimulation of mouse spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Raile, A; Hammann, K P; Scheiner, O; Schulz, T; Erdei, A; Dierich, M P

    1982-06-01

    Incorporation of [3h]thymidine ([3H]TdR) into concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated murine splenocytes was found to be enhanced by addition of certain concentrations of ethanol, 2-propanol and acetone. The alcohol/acetone-induced enhancement of the Con A response was found to be accompanied by an increase of the percentage of living cells as assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Concentrations of ethanol and 2-propanol which caused maximum [3H]TdR uptake in Con A cultures were also found to lead to higher percentages of aggregated cells than in comparison to Con A cultures without alcohol. The data suggest that alcohols in certain concentrations are capable to achieve optimum Con A stimulation.

  7. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 facilitates con a-induced IFN-γ-- mediated immune hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Wei-Ching; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chen, Shun-Hua; Yang, Kao-Chi; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2011-10-01

    Immune hepatic injury induced by Con A results primarily from IFN-γ-mediated inflammation, followed by hepatic cell death. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3, which acts proapoptotically and is proinflammatory, is also important for facilitating IFN-γ signaling. We hypothesized a pathogenic role for GSK-3 in Con A hepatic injury. Con A stimulation caused GSK-3 activation in the livers of C57BL/6 mice. Inhibiting GSK-3 reduced Con A hepatic injury, including hepatic necrosis and apoptosis, inflammation, infiltration of T cells and granulocytes, and deregulated expression of adhesion molecule CD54. Con A induced hepatic injury in an IFN-γ receptor 1-dependent manner. Con A/IFN-γ induced activation and expression of STAT1 in a GSK-3-dependent manner. GSK-3 facilitated IFN-γ-induced inducible NO synthase, but had limited effects on CD95 upregulation and CD95-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro. Notably, inhibiting GSK-3 decreased Con A-induced IFN-γ production in both wild-type and IFN-γ receptor 1-deficient C57BL/6 mice. In Con A-activated NKT cells, GSK-3 was also activated and was required for nuclear translocation of T-box transcription factor Tbx21, a transcription factor of IFN-γ, but it was not required for CD95 ligand expression or activation-induced cell death. These results demonstrate the dual and indispensable role of GSK-3 in Con A hepatic injury by facilitating IFN-γ-induced hepatopathy.

  8. Abundancias químicas de estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso obtenidas con espectros EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de estrellas de HgMn usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO en un rango de longitud de onda comprendido entre los 400 y 890 nm. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Las abundancias se calculan usando WIDTH9 y SYNTHE. Los resultados se comparan análisis realizados por los autores usando espectros obtenidos con el espectrógrado REOSC del CASLEO, el espectrógrafo echelle del Telescopio Anglo-Australiano y el espectrógrafo Coudé del Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  10. ConSurf 2010: calculating evolutionary conservation in sequence and structure of proteins and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Erez, Elana; Martz, Eric; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2010-07-01

    It is informative to detect highly conserved positions in proteins and nucleic acid sequence/structure since they are often indicative of structural and/or functional importance. ConSurf (http://consurf.tau.ac.il) and ConSeq (http://conseq.tau.ac.il) are two well-established web servers for calculating the evolutionary conservation of amino acid positions in proteins using an empirical Bayesian inference, starting from protein structure and sequence, respectively. Here, we present the new version of the ConSurf web server that combines the two independent servers, providing an easier and more intuitive step-by-step interface, while offering the user more flexibility during the process. In addition, the new version of ConSurf calculates the evolutionary rates for nucleic acid sequences. The new version is freely available at: http://consurf.tau.ac.il/.

  11. ConSite: web-based prediction of regulatory elements using cross-species comparison.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, Albin; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Lenhard, Boris

    2004-07-01

    ConSite is a user-friendly, web-based tool for finding cis-regulatory elements in genomic sequences. Predictions are based on the integration of binding site prediction generated with high-quality transcription factor models and cross-species comparison filtering (phylogenetic footprinting). By incorporating evolutionary constraints, selectivity is increased by an order of magnitude as compared to single-sequence analysis. ConSite offers several unique features, including an interactive expert system for retrieving orthologous regulatory sequences. Programming modules and biological databases that form the foundation of the ConSite service are freely available to the research community. ConSite is available at http:/www.phylofoot.org/consite.

  12. Critical role of interleukin-17/interleukin-17 receptor axis in mediating Con A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shu; Wang, Luman; Liu, Nan; Wang, Ying; Chu, Yiwei

    2012-04-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis is thought to be a T-cell-mediated disease with active destruction of liver cells. Interleukin (IL)-17 is a cytokine produced principally by CD4(+) T cells. However, whether IL-17/IL-17 receptor (IL-17/IL-17R)-mediated responses are involved in T-cell-mediated Con A-induced liver injury remains unclear. In this study, we found that IL-17 expression was highly elevated in liver tissues during Con A-induced hepatitis. The increased levels of IL-17 were paralleled with the severity of liver injury reflected by Alanine aminotransaminase and histological assay as well as the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6. Blockage of IL-17 significantly ameliorated Con A-induced hepatitis, while overexpression of IL-17 systemically resulted in massive hepatocyte necrosis in mice. Furthermore, overexpression of an IL-17R immunoglobulin G1 fusion protein significantly attenuated liver inflammation after acute Con A treatment. High expression of IL-17R on Kupffer cells was also observed along with the production of cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6. Inhibition of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride completely prevented Con A-induced liver injury and cytokine release. Finally, IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T and natural killer T cells were greatly increased in Con A-injected mice compared with that in controls. Overall, our results indicate that IL-17R signaling is critically involved in the pathogenesis in Con A-induced hepatitis, and blockade of IL-17/IL-17R signaling pathway may represent a novel therapeutic intervention in human autoimmune-related hepatitis.

  13. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  14. Recognition of glycoprotein peroxidase via Con A-carrying self-assembly layer on gold.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songqin; Wang, Kewei; Du, Dan; Sun, Yueming; He, Lin

    2007-07-01

    We have successfully fabricated a self-assembled layer of concanavalin A (Con A) on a gold surface for recognition of glycoproteins. The type IV Con A is covalently bound to 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) on gold with a 2-(5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximido)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (TNTU) linkage. The binding interaction between glycoproteins and self-assembled Con A is studied using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model glycoprotein. Voltammetric, electrochemical impedance studies, and photometric activity measurements show the presence of both specific and nonspecific bindings of HRP to the Con A interface. The specific binding is attributed to the Con A-sugar interaction where Con A selectively recognizes the glycosylation sites of HRP. The catalytic current of the HRP-loaded electrode, because of catalytic oxidation of thionine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is found to be proportional to the HRP concentrations in the incubation solution. A linear correlation coefficient of 0.993 was obtained over a wide HRP concentration range of 12.5 microg/mL to 1 mg/mL. The approach described in this study provides a simple yet selective means to immobilize glycoproteins on a solid support. The specific binding achieved is desirable in biosensor fabrication, glycoprotein separation, recognition, and purification as well as in drug-releasing systems.

  15. Con-specific neighbours may enhance compensation capacity in an invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Dai, H; Ding, J

    2010-05-01

    Facilitation, both by inter- and intra-specific neighbours, is known to be an important process in structuring plant communities. However, only a small number of experiments have been reported on facilitation in plant invasions, especially between invasive con-specific individuals. Here, we focus on how con-specific neighbours of the invasive alien plant alligator weed affect the tolerance of alligator weed to herbivory by the introduced biological control agent, Agasicles hygrophila. We conducted greenhouse and garden experiments in which invasive plant density and herbivory intensity (artificial clipping and real herbivory) were manipulated. In the greenhouse experiment, artificial clipping significantly reduced plant biomass when plants were grown individually, but when con-specific neighbours were present in the same pot, biomass was not significantly different from control plants. Similarly, when compared to control plants, plants that were subjected to herbivory by A. hygrophila produced more biomass when grown with two con-specific neighbours than when grown alone. Real herbivory also resulted in an increased number of vegetative buds, and again when two con-specific neighbours were present this effect was increased (a 55.3% increase in buds when there was no neighbour, but a 111.6% increase in buds when two con-specific neighbours were present). In the garden experiment, in which plants were grown at high density (6 plants per pot), alligator weed fully recovered from defoliation caused by insects at levels from 20-30% to 100%. Our results indicate that the con-specific association may increase the compensatory ability to cope with intense damage in this invasive plant.

  16. Virulence, Speciation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Ocular Coagualase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Ravindran; Mythili, Arumugam; Singh, Yendremban Randhir Babu; Sreekumar, Haridas; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Panneerselvam, Kanesan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are common inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes. With the emergence of these organisms as prominent pathogens in patients with ocular infections, investigation has intensified in an effort to identify important virulence factors and to inform new approaches to treatment and prevention. Aim: To isolate CoNS from ocular specimens; to study the possible virulence factors; speciation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) which were isolated from ocular complications; antibiotic susceptibility testing of ocular CoNS. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected from the target patients who attended the Microbiology Laboratory of a tertiary care eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state, India. The isolates were subjected to tube and slide coagulase tests for the identification of CoNS. All the isolates were subjected to screening for lipase and protease activities. Screening for other virulence factors viz., slime production on Congo red agar medium and haemagglutination assay with use of 96-well microtitre plates. These isolates were identified upto species level by performing biochemical tests such as phosphatase test, arginine test, maltose and trehalose fermentation tests and novobiocin sensitivity test. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility studies, based on the revised standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI). Results: During the one year of study, among the total 260 individuals who were screened, 100 isolates of CoNS were obtained. Lipolytic activity was seen in all the isolates, whereas 38 isolates showed a positive result for protease. A total of 63 isolates showed slime production. Of 100 isolates, 30 isolates were analyzed for haemagglutination, where 4 isolates showed the capacity to agglutinate the erythrocytes. The results of the biochemical analysis revealed that of the 100 isolates of CoNS, 43% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. The other

  17. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  18. Structural basis of ConM binding with resveratrol, an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bruno A M; Teixeira, Claudener S; Silva-Filho, José C; Nóbrega, Raphael B; Alencar, Daniel B; Nascimento, Kyria S; Freire, Valder N; Gottfried, Carmem J S; Nagano, Celso S; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Cavada, Benildo S; Delatorre, Plínio

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol can also inhibit the activation of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines at the early gene expression stage. It is well known that lectins are sugar-binding proteins that act as both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the binding of a polyphenol compound with a lectin of Canavalia maritima (ConM) based on their ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory processes. To accomplish this, ConM was purified and crystallized, and resveratrol was soaked at 5mM for 2h of incubation. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group C2, the final refinement resulted in an Rfactor of 16.0% and an Rfree of 25.5%. Resveratrol binds in the rigid β-sheet through H-bonds and hydrophobic interaction with amino acids that compose the fifth and sixth β-strands of the rigid β-sheet of ConM. The ConM and resveratrol inhibited DPPH oxidation, showing synergic activity with the most effective ratio of 2:3 and carbohydrate binding site is not directly related to antioxidant activity. It is the interaction between ConM and resveratrol that indicates the synergism of these two molecules in acting as free radicals scavengers and in reducing the inflammatory process through the inhibition of many pro-inflammatory events. PMID:25192853

  19. Endothelial cells are damaged by autophagic induction before hepatocytes in Con A-induced acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chen; Chang, Chih-Peng; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2010-08-01

    We have reported both T-cell-dependent and -independent hepatitis in immunocompetent and immunodeficiency mice, respectively, after intravenous injection of Con A in mice. The mode of hepatocyte cell death is different: autophagy for T-cell-independent hepatitis in contrast to apoptosis for T-cell-dependent one. In this study, we further demonstrate that liver blood vessels are the first target in both modes. The infused Con A bond to the hepatic vascular endothelial cells and cause its damage with autophagy. Before the elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase at 6 h post-injection, the plasma leakage and hemorrhage occur at 1-3 h without inflammation. Con A induces autophagy of endothelial cells and hemorrhage that is enhanced by IFN-gamma. Using the endothelial cell line HMEC-1, a dose- and time-dependent cell death with autophagic LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3) conversion was induced by Con A and was enhanced by IFN-gamma. In conclusion, Con A induced autophagy on hepatic endothelial cells; the damage of liver blood vessel occurs before the induction of T-cell-dependent hepatitis via apoptosis or T-cell-independent hepatitis via autophagy.

  20. Influence of protic ionic liquids on the structure and stability of succinylated Con A.

    PubMed

    Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of ionic liquids (ILs) from various ions having different kosmotropicity including dihydrogen phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)), hydrogen sulfate (HSO(4)(-)) and acetate (CH(3)COO(-)) as anions and chaotropic cation such as trialkylammonium cation. To characterize the biomolecular interactions of ILs with protein, we have explored the stability of succinylated Con A (S Con A) in the presence of these aqueous ILs, which are varied combinations of kosmotropic anion with chaotropic cation such as triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(CH(3)CH(2))(3)NH][H(2)PO(4)] (TEAP), trimethylammonium acetate [(CH(3))(3)NH][CH(3)COO] (TMAA), trimethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(CH(3))(3)NH][H(2)PO(4)] (TMAP) and trimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate [(CH(3))(3)NH][HSO(4)] (TMAS). Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence experiments have been used to characterize the stability of S Con A by ILs. Our data distinctly demonstrate that the long alkyl chain IL TEAP is a strong stabilizer for S Con A. Further, our experimental results reveal that TEAP is an effective refolding enhancer for S Con A from a thermally denatured protein structure.

  1. ConPlex: a server for the evolutionary conservation analysis of protein complex structures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Sup; Han, Seong Kyu; Kim, Jinho; Yang, Jae-Seong; Jeon, Jouhyun; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Sanguk

    2010-07-01

    Evolutionary conservation analyses are important for the identification of protein-protein interactions. For protein complex structures, sequence conservation has been applied to determine protein oligomerization states, to characterize native interfaces from non-specific crystal contacts, and to discriminate near-native structures from docking artifacts. However, a user-friendly web-based service for evolutionary conservation analysis of protein complexes has not been available. Therefore, we developed ConPlex (http://sbi.postech.ac.kr/ConPlex/) a web application that enables evolutionary conservation analyses of protein interactions within protein quaternary structures. Users provide protein complex structures; ConPlex automatically identifies protein interfaces and carries out evolutionary conservation analyses for the interface regions. Moreover, ConPlex allows the results of the residue-specific conservation analysis to be displayed on the protein complex structure and provides several options to customize the display output to fit each user's needs. We believe that ConPlex offers a convenient platform to analyze protein complex structures based on evolutionary conservation of protein-protein interface residues.

  2. The effects of CON repeal on Medicaid nursing home and long-term care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Morrisey, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    Certificate-of-need (CON) and construction moratorium laws are used widely by states as a potential mechanism for constraining Medicaid nursing home expenditures. However, there is only limited empirical work examining whether these policies are effective at lowering Medicaid spending. Using aggregate state-level data from 1981 through 1998, this study found that states that repealed their CON and moratorium laws had no significant growth in either nursing home or long-term care Medicaid expenditures. In the context of declining occupancy rates within the nursing home market, this study provides strong evidence that states have little to fear in terms of increased expenditures with the repeal of CON and moratorium laws.

  3. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  4. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  5. Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets con velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.

    1998-11-01

    Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico con velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets con variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.

  6. NCPP treatment alleviates ConA-induced hepatitis via reducing CD4+T activation and NO production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenghu; Gao, Shangxian; Qu, Zhonghua; Wang, Qun; Zhu, Faliang; Guo, Chun; Hou, Li; Wu, Ping; Shi, Yanping; Zhang, Lining

    2012-12-01

    Corynebacterium parvum (CP), a kind of immunomodulator, has been well documented in many diseases. Non-cell C. parvum product (NCPP) is a newly-found nano-preparation. To investigate the effect of NCPP on Con A-induced murine severe hepatitis, we pretreated mice with NCPP intraperitoneally. After 12 h, ConA (25 μg/g body wt) was injected intravenously to provoke severe hepatitis and the degree of liver injury was evaluated by serum transaminase analysis and heptatic tissue pathology. Results have shown that levels of serum transaminase and degree of liver injury in ConA/NCPP groups had significantly declined than those in ConA/PBS groups. Notably, results of flow cytometry have demonstrated that activation of CD4+T cells in ConA/NCPP groups has been down-regulated, compared with ConA/PBS groups. Further, levels of serum and KC-related nitric oxide (NO) was displayed significantly lower in ConA/NCPP groups than those in ConA/PBS groups. The results indicate that NCPP may alleviate ConA-induced hepatitis by reducing CD4+T activation and NO production. PMID:22537148

  7. Jóvenes con cáncer y supervivientes participan en estudio de oncofertilidad

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los esfuerzos que se realizan para conectar con pacientes jóvenes y lograr su participación en estudios clínicos para evaluar y remediar la esterilidad causada por el cáncer y su tratamiento.

  8. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy. PMID:26351131

  9. Algunas mujeres con cáncer de seno pueden abstenerse de quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de resultados del estudio TAILORx indica que mujeres con cáncer de seno receptor de hormonas en estadio inicial tienen un riesgo bajo de recurrencia según una prueba de expresión de 21 genes.

  10. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  11. Asociación de XMRV con enfermedades humanas se debe a contaminación

    Cancer.gov

    Nuevas investigaciones muestran que una asociación, mencionada en numerosos estudios, entre el retrovirus conocido como XMRV y el cáncer de próstata así como el síndrome de fatiga crónica, se debe a contaminación de laboratorio con un virus que se originó en ratones.

  12. A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons…

  13. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  14. Faculty Study of Pros and Cons of Clusters and Divisions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Phil; And Others

    As part of a reorganization study underway at Oakton Community College, this report presents the pros and cons of retaining the college's interdisciplinary learning clusters or moving to discipline-based divisions. Following introductory material, the report explains the methodology by which two representatives from each campus cluster, one…

  15. The Con Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of Con Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…

  16. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  17. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  18. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  19. The crystal structures of the calcium-bound con-G and con-T[K7gamma] dimeric peptides demonstrate a metal-dependent helix-forming motif.

    PubMed

    Cnudde, Sara E; Prorok, Mary; Dai, Qiuyun; Castellino, Francis J; Geiger, James H

    2007-02-14

    Short peptides that have the ability to form stable alpha-helices in solution are rare, and a number of strategies have been used to produce them, including the use of metal chelation to stabilize folding of the backbone. However, no example exists of a structurally well-defined helix stabilized exclusively through metal ion chelation. Conantokins (con)-G and -T are short peptides that are potent antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels. While con-G exhibits no helicity alone, it undergoes a structural transition to a helical conformation in the presence of a variety of multivalent cations, especially Mg2+ and Ca2+. This complexation also results in antiparallel dimerization of two peptide helices in the presence of Ca2+, but not Mg2+. A con-T variant, con-T[K7gamma], displays very similar behavior. We have solved the crystal structures of both Ca2+/con-G and Ca2+/con-T [K7gamma] at atomic resolution. These structures clearly show the nature of the metal-dependent dimerization and helix formation and surprisingly also show that the con-G dimer interface is completely different from the con-T[K7gamma] interface, even though the metal chelation is similar in the two peptides. This represents a new paradigm in helix stabilization completely independent of the hydrophobic effect, which we define as the "metallo-zipper."

  20. Papás que tienen a un niño con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información práctica para los padres, cuando un hijo tiene cáncer. Sugerencias para ayudar a los niños y a los padres a salir adelante y mantenerse fuertes; junto con respuestas a preguntas que padres e hijos hacen con frecuencia.

  1. 76 FR 54533 - Pipeline Safety: Issuance of Draft Decision on GexCon US, Inc. Petition for Approval of Flame...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http://www.regulations...Con US, Inc. Petition for Approval of Flame Acceleration Simulator AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... a Draft Decision on GexCon US, Inc.'s petition for approval of Flame Acceleration Simulator...

  2. The Araucaria Project: High-precision orbital parallax and masses of the eclipsing binary TZ Fornacis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallenne, A.; Pietrzyński, G.; Graczyk, D.; Konorski, P.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gieren, W.; Anderson, R. I.; Villanova, S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Independent distance estimates are particularly useful to check the precision of other distance indicators, while accurate and precise masses are necessary to constrain evolution models. Aims: The goal is to measure the masses and distance of the detached eclipsing-binary TZ For with a precision level lower than 1% using a fully geometrical and empirical method. Methods: We obtained the first interferometric observations of TZ For with the VLTI/PIONIER combiner, which we combined with new and precise radial velocity measurements to derive its three-dimensional orbit, masses, and distance. Results: The system is well resolved by PIONIER at each observing epoch, which allowed a combined fit with eleven astrometric positions. Our derived values are in a good agreement with previous work, but with an improved precision. We measured the mass of both components to be M1 = 2.057 ± 0.001 M⊙ and M2 = 1.958 ± 0.001 M⊙. The comparison with stellar evolution models gives an age of the system of 1.20 ± 0.10 Gyr. We also derived the distance to the system with a precision level of 1.1%: d = 185.9 ± 1.9 pc. Such precise and accurate geometrical distances to eclipsing binaries provide a unique opportunity to test the absolute calibration of the surface brightness-colour relation for late-type stars, and will also provide the best opportunity to check on the future Gaia measurements for possible systematic errors. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal observatory under program IDs 094.D-0320.The calibrated interferometric data as OIFITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A35

  3. The Araucaria Project: Near-Infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables in the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Soszyński, Igor; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Storm, Jesper; Minniti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained deep images in the near-infrared J and K filters of four fields in the Sculptor group spiral galaxy NGC 55 with the ESO VLT and ISAAC camera. For 40 long-period Cepheid variables in these fields, which were recently discovered by Pietrzyński et al., we have determined mean J and K magnitudes from observations at two epochs, and derived distance moduli from the observed period-luminosity (PL) relations in these bands. Using these values together with the previously measured distance moduli in the optical V and I bands, we have determined a total mean reddening of the NGC 55 Cepheids of E(B - V) = 0.127 +/- 0.019 mag, which is mostly produced inside NGC 55 itself. For the true distance modulus of the galaxy, our multiwavelength analysis yields a value of 26.434 +/- 0.037 mag (random error), corresponding to a distance of 1.94 +/- 0.03 Mpc. This value is tied to an adopted true Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance modulus of 18.50 mag. The systematic uncertainty of our derived Cepheid distance to NGC 55 (apart from the uncertainty on the adopted LMC distance) is ±4%, with the main contribution likely to come from the effect of blending of some of the Cepheids with unresolved companion stars. The distance of NGC 55 derived from our multiwavelength Cepheid analysis agrees within the errors with the distance of NGC 300, strengthening the case for a physical association of these two Sculptor group galaxies. Based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT for Large Program 171.D-0004.

  4. The Araucaria project. Precise physical parameters of the eclipsing binary IO Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pietrzyński, G.; Pilecki, B.; Konorski, P.; Gieren, W.; Storm, J.; Gallenne, A.; Anderson, R. I.; Suchomska, K.; West, R. G.; Pollacco, D.; Faedi, F.; Pojmański, G.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: Our aim is to precisely measure the physical parameters of the eclipsing binary IO Aqr and derive a distance to this system by applying a surface brightness - colour relation. Our motivation is to combine these parameters with future precise distance determinations from the Gaia space mission to derive precise surface brightness - colour relations for stars. Methods: We extensively used photometry from the Super-WASP and ASAS projects and precise radial velocities obtained from HARPS and CORALIE high-resolution spectra. We analysed light curves with the code JKTEBOP and radial velocity curves with the Wilson-Devinney program. Results: We found that IO Aqr is a hierarchical triple system consisting of a double-lined short-period (P = 2.37 d) spectroscopic binary and a low-luminosity and low-mass companion star orbiting the binary with a period of ≳25 000 d (≳70 yr) on a very eccentric orbit. We derive high-precision (better than 1%) physical parameters of the inner binary, which is composed of two slightly evolved main-sequence stars (F5 V-IV + F6 V-IV) with masses of M1 = 1.569 ± 0.004 and M2 = 1.655 ± 0.004 M⊙ and radii R1 = 2.19 ± 0.02 and R2 = 2.49 ± 0.02 R⊙. The companion is most probably a late K-type dwarf with mass ≈0.6 M⊙. The distance to the system resulting from applying a () surface brightness - colour relation is 255 ± 6 (stat.) ± 6 (sys.) pc, which agrees well with the Hipparcos value of 270+91-55 pc, but is more precise by a factor of eight.

  5. Nesting Biology of Podium angustifrons Kohl (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) in an Araucaria Forest Fragment.

    PubMed

    Buschini, M L T; Buss, C E

    2014-05-01

    Podium angustifrons Kohl 1902 is a species of solitary wasp which nests in pre-existing cavities, with neotropical distribution in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and French Guyana. The aim of this study was to investigate the nesting biology of P. angustifrons, discussing aspects of their life history. To capture its nests, wooden trap-nests were installed in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, Guarapuava (PR), Brazil, from January 2003 to April 2009. A total of 29 nests were collected, all during the warmer months. These showed no vestibular and intercalary cells, and their closures were made up of chewed plants and mud mixed with organic materials and resin-coated surfaces, sometimes showing a layer of lichens. The cells were provisioned with various wild species of cockroaches (Chorisoneura sp, Riata sp and Helgaia sp) in the nymph stage and/or adults. The sex ratio was 4.6 females per male, significantly higher that the expected 1:1. Most pre-pupae entered diapause in winter with development time ranging from 187 to 283 days for females and 180 to 283 days for males. Deaths occurred in 41.66% of cells provisioned, 33.33% were attributed to faulty development and 8.33% to Chrysididae. PMID:25166337

  6. Comparative study on properties of edible films based on pinhao (Araucaria angustifolia) starch and flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to develop and compare the properties of edible films based on pinhao starch and pinhao flour. Seven formulations were developed by casting methodology: 5% pinhao starch with 0, 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol, and 5% pinhao flour with 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol. The films were evalua...

  7. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine)

    PubMed Central

    Schlögl, Paulo Sérgio; dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz., ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semi-quantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds. PMID:22481892

  8. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  9. Confirmatory analysis of opinions regarding the pros and cons of mammography.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, W; Andersen, M R; Stoddard, A M; Urban, N; Rimer, B K; Lane, D S; Fox, S A; Costanza, M E

    1997-09-01

    This investigation extends prior research to apply decision-making constructs from the transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavior change to mammography screening. Study subjects were 8,914 women ages 50-80, recruited from 40 primarily rural communities in Washington State. Structural equation modeling showed that favorable and unfavorable opinions about mammography (i.e., pros and cons) fit the observed data. Analysis of variance supported the associations between readiness to obtain screening (i.e., stage of adoption) and opinions about mammography (i.e., decisional balance) previously found in research using smaller samples from another geographic region. This report extends these earlier studies by using structural equation modeling, opinion scales based both on principal component analyses and on a priori definitions, a developmental sample and a confirmatory sample, and by sampling from a different geographic region. It is recommended that future research examine whether opinions regarding the cons of mammography are more individually specific than the pros. PMID:9302540

  10. BeadCons: detection of nucleic acid sequences by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-11-01

    Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid structures with a terminal fluorophore and a distal, terminal quencher. These molecules are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices. This unit describes protocols related to molecular beacon-conjugated beads (BeadCons), whose specific hybridization with complementary target sequences can be resolved by cytometry. Assay sensitivity is achieved through the concentration of fluorescence signal on discrete particles. By using molecular beacons with different fluorophores and microspheres of different sizes, it is possible to construct a fluid array system with each bead corresponding to a specific target nucleic acid. Methods are presented for the design, construction, and use of BeadCons for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acids in solution. The use of bead-based detection methods will likely lead to the design of new multiplex molecular diagnostic tools.

  11. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  12. Cómo hacer las gestiones con su plan de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Hay formas de saber si su plan de salud cubre los costos de atención médica de rutina durante un estudio clínico. Esta información puede servirle para saber con quién comunicarse para solicitar ayuda, preguntas que puede hacer y la información que debe recoger y guardar si decide participar en un estudio clínico.

  13. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  14. Online measurement of motivational processes: introducing the Continuous Delay Aversion Test (ConDAT).

    PubMed

    Müller, Ueli C; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Brandeis, Daniel; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2006-02-15

    The Continuous Delay Aversion Test (ConDAT), a new computer task for online monitoring and continuously measuring delay aversion (DA), is introduced. DA is a motivational style related to a shortened delay gradient which is proposed as a major endophenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is characterised by avoiding or escaping from delay-rich situations despite the prospects of a reward. In each ConDAT trial the rapidly diminishing reward/delay ratio, which tends asymptotically towards zero, is visually presented on the computer screen. The test subject is permanently confronted with the question whether to quit or to continue the trial in the face of the deteriorating reward/time ratio. An elaborated control of stimuli and responses, including the sending of trigger codes to external recording devices, makes the task useful for neurophysiological or brain imaging experiments. Compared to existing tasks, the ConDAT is more flexible and sensitive due to its asymptotic open-ended trials and the interval-scaled output measure. Pilot data give evidence for satisfactory reliability and external validity of the task. PMID:16376991

  15. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.

  16. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  17. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  18. Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.

  19. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-01-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree. PMID:27166375

  20. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  1. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial. PMID:25724751

  2. ConSurf 2005: the projection of evolutionary conservation scores of residues on protein structures.

    PubMed

    Landau, Meytal; Mayrose, Itay; Rosenberg, Yossi; Glaser, Fabian; Martz, Eric; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2005-07-01

    Key amino acid positions that are important for maintaining the 3D structure of a protein and/or its function(s), e.g. catalytic activity, binding to ligand, DNA or other proteins, are often under strong evolutionary constraints. Thus, the biological importance of a residue often correlates with its level of evolutionary conservation within the protein family. ConSurf (http://consurf.tau.ac.il/) is a web-based tool that automatically calculates evolutionary conservation scores and maps them on protein structures via a user-friendly interface. Structurally and functionally important regions in the protein typically appear as patches of evolutionarily conserved residues that are spatially close to each other. We present here version 3.0 of ConSurf. This new version includes an empirical Bayesian method for scoring conservation, which is more accurate than the maximum-likelihood method that was used in the earlier release. Various additional steps in the calculation can now be controlled by a number of advanced options, thus further improving the accuracy of the calculation. Moreover, ConSurf version 3.0 also includes a measure of confidence for the inferred amino acid conservation scores.

  3. The ConSurf-DB: pre-calculated evolutionary conservation profiles of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Ofir; Erez, Elana; Nimrod, Guy; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2009-01-01

    ConSurf-DB is a repository for evolutionary conservation analysis of the proteins of known structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Sequence homologues of each of the PDB entries were collected and aligned using standard methods. The evolutionary conservation of each amino acid position in the alignment was calculated using the Rate4Site algorithm, implemented in the ConSurf web server. The algorithm takes into account the phylogenetic relations between the aligned proteins and the stochastic nature of the evolutionary process explicitly. Rate4Site assigns a conservation level for each position in the multiple sequence alignment using an empirical Bayesian inference. Visual inspection of the conservation patterns on the 3D structure often enables the identification of key residues that comprise the functionally important regions of the protein. The repository is updated with the latest PDB entries on a monthly basis and will be rebuilt annually. ConSurf-DB is available online at http://consurfdb.tau.ac.il/

  4. Con-T[M8Q] potently attenuates the expression and development of morphine tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baolan; Zhou, Zhijie; Liu, Zhuguo; Li, Bailin; Ou, Jie; Dai, Qiuyun

    2015-06-15

    As a variant of peptide conantokin-T (con-T), con-T[M8Q] is derived from the venom of Conus tulipa. Our previous study has demonstrated that con-T[M8Q] selectively targets N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) NR2B subunit. In the present study, we determined the effects of con-T[M8Q] on the expression and development of morphine tolerance using hot plate test and acetic acid writhing test. Our results demonstrated that con-T[M8Q] could efficiently attenuate the expression and development of morphine analgesic tolerance in mice at low doses (5-20nmol/kg), and it exhibited more potent effects compared with ifenprodil, a typical small-molecule antagonist of NMDAR. In addition, low doses of con-T[M8Q] (5-20nmol/kg) did not cause drug resistance and apparent analgesic activity compared with morphine. Taken together, con-T[M8Q] could be a promising new candidate in attenuating morphine tolerance. PMID:25896730

  5. Con-T[M8Q] potently attenuates the expression and development of morphine tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baolan; Zhou, Zhijie; Liu, Zhuguo; Li, Bailin; Ou, Jie; Dai, Qiuyun

    2015-06-15

    As a variant of peptide conantokin-T (con-T), con-T[M8Q] is derived from the venom of Conus tulipa. Our previous study has demonstrated that con-T[M8Q] selectively targets N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) NR2B subunit. In the present study, we determined the effects of con-T[M8Q] on the expression and development of morphine tolerance using hot plate test and acetic acid writhing test. Our results demonstrated that con-T[M8Q] could efficiently attenuate the expression and development of morphine analgesic tolerance in mice at low doses (5-20nmol/kg), and it exhibited more potent effects compared with ifenprodil, a typical small-molecule antagonist of NMDAR. In addition, low doses of con-T[M8Q] (5-20nmol/kg) did not cause drug resistance and apparent analgesic activity compared with morphine. Taken together, con-T[M8Q] could be a promising new candidate in attenuating morphine tolerance.

  6. Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.

    2009-04-01

    Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

  7. Estudio muestra reducción de mortalidad en hombres con cáncer de próstata de grado intermedio

    Cancer.gov

    Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patroci

  8. ConMap: Investigating new computer-based approaches to assessing conceptual knowledge structure in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Ian D.

    2000-06-01

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap (``Conceptual Mapping'') project, described in this dissertation, proposed and investigated some novel methods for assessing the conceptual knowledge structure of physics students. A set of brief computer-administered tasks for eliciting students' conceptual associations was designed. The basic approach of the tasks was to elicit spontaneous term associations from subjects by presenting them with a prompt term, or problem, or topic area, and having them type a set of response terms. Each response was recorded along with the time spent thinking of and typing it. Several studies were conducted in which data was collected on introductory physics students' performance on the tasks. A detailed statistical description of the data was compiled. Phenomenological characterization of the data (description and statistical summary of observed patterns) provided insight into the way students respond to the tasks, and discovered some notable features to guide modeling efforts. Possible correlations were investigated, some among different aspects of the ConMap data, others between aspects of the data and students' in-course exam scores. Several correlations were found which suggest that the ConMap tasks can successfully reveal information about students' knowledge structuring and level of expertise. Similarity was observed between data from one of the tasks and results from a traditional concept map task. Two rudimentary quantitative models for the temporal aspects of student performance on one of the tasks were constructed, one based on random probability distributions and the other on a detailed deterministic representation of conceptual knowledge structure. Both models were

  9. Nitrogen-detected CAN and CON experiments as alternative experiments for main chain NMR resonance assignments

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koh; Heffron, Gregory; Sun, Zhen-Yu J.; Frueh, Dominique P.

    2010-01-01

    Heteronuclear direct-detection experiments, which utilize the slower relaxation properties of low γ nuclei, such as 13C have recently been proposed for sequence-specific assignment and structural analyses of large, unstructured, and/or paramagnetic proteins. Here we present two novel 15N direct-detection experiments. The CAN experiment sequentially connects amide 15N resonances using 13Cα chemical shift matching, and the CON experiment connects the preceding 13C′ nuclei. When starting from the same carbon polarization, the intensities of nitrogen signals detected in the CAN or CON experiments would be expected four times lower than those of carbon resonances observed in the corresponding 13C-detecting experiment, NCA-DIPAP or NCO-IPAP (Bermel et al. 2006b; Takeuchi et al. 2008). However, the disadvantage due to the lower γ is counteracted by the slower 15N transverse relaxation during detection, the possibility for more efficient decoupling in both dimensions, and relaxation optimized properties of the pulse sequences. As a result, the median S/N in the 15N observe CAN experiment is 16% higher than in the 13C observe NCA-DIPAP experiment. In addition, significantly higher sensitivity was observed for those residues that are hard to detect in the NCA-DIPAP experiment, such as Gly, Ser and residues with high-field Cα resonances. Both CAN and CON experiments are able to detect Pro resonances that would not be observed in conventional proton-detected experiments. In addition, those experiments are free from problems of incomplete deuterium-to-proton back exchange in amide positions of perdeuterated proteins expressed in D2O. Thus, these features and the superior resolution of 15N-detected experiments provide an attractive alternative for main chain assignments. The experiments are demonstrated with the small model protein GB1 at conditions simulating a 150 kDa protein, and the 52 kDa glutathione S-transferase dimer, GST. PMID:20556482

  10. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  11. Nitrogen-detected CAN and CON experiments as alternative experiments for main chain NMR resonance assignments.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koh; Heffron, Gregory; Sun, Zhen-Yu J; Frueh, Dominique P; Wagner, Gerhard

    2010-08-01

    Heteronuclear direct-detection experiments, which utilize the slower relaxation properties of low gamma nuclei, such as (13)C have recently been proposed for sequence-specific assignment and structural analyses of large, unstructured, and/or paramagnetic proteins. Here we present two novel (15)N direct-detection experiments. The CAN experiment sequentially connects amide (15)N resonances using (13)C(alpha) chemical shift matching, and the CON experiment connects the preceding (13)C' nuclei. When starting from the same carbon polarization, the intensities of nitrogen signals detected in the CAN or CON experiments would be expected four times lower than those of carbon resonances observed in the corresponding (13)C-detecting experiment, NCA-DIPAP or NCO-IPAP (Bermel et al. 2006b; Takeuchi et al. 2008). However, the disadvantage due to the lower gamma is counteracted by the slower (15)N transverse relaxation during detection, the possibility for more efficient decoupling in both dimensions, and relaxation optimized properties of the pulse sequences. As a result, the median S/N in the (15)N observe CAN experiment is 16% higher than in the (13)C observe NCA-DIPAP experiment. In addition, significantly higher sensitivity was observed for those residues that are hard to detect in the NCA-DIPAP experiment, such as Gly, Ser and residues with high-field C(alpha) resonances. Both CAN and CON experiments are able to detect Pro resonances that would not be observed in conventional proton-detected experiments. In addition, those experiments are free from problems of incomplete deuterium-to-proton back exchange in amide positions of perdeuterated proteins expressed in D(2)O. Thus, these features and the superior resolution of (15)N-detected experiments provide an attractive alternative for main chain assignments. The experiments are demonstrated with the small model protein GB1 at conditions simulating a 150 kDa protein, and the 52 kDa glutathione S-transferase dimer, GST.

  12. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The vertebrate head skeleton is derived largely from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the Hedgehog (Hh)-signaling pathway plays a critical role in craniofacial development, partly due to the pathway's role in CNCC development. Disruption of the Hh-signaling pathway in humans can lead to the spectral disorder of Holoprosencephaly (HPE), which is often characterized by a variety of craniofacial defects including midline facial clefting and cyclopia [1,2]. Previous work has uncovered a role for Hh-signaling in zebrafish dorsal neurocranium patterning and chondrogenesis, however Hh-signaling mutants have not been described with respect to the ventral pharyngeal arch (PA) skeleton. Lipid-modified Hh-ligands require the transmembrane-spanning receptor Dispatched 1 (Disp1) for proper secretion from Hh-synthesizing cells to the extracellular field where they act on target cells. Here we study chameleon mutants, lacking a functional disp1(con/disp1). Results con/disp1 mutants display reduced and dysmorphic mandibular and hyoid arch cartilages and lack all ceratobranchial cartilage elements. CNCC specification and migration into the PA primorida occurs normally in con/disp1 mutants, however disp1 is necessary for post-migratory CNCC patterning and differentiation. We show that disp1 is required for post-migratory CNCC to become properly patterned within the first arch, while the gene is dispensable for CNCC condensation and patterning in more posterior arches. Upon residing in well-formed pharyngeal epithelium, neural crest condensations in the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers. Histology reveals that posterior arch residing-CNCC differentiate into fibrous-connective tissue, rather than becoming chondrocytes. Treatments with Cyclopamine, to inhibit Hh

  13. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  14. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  15. Hable con Ella (Talk to Her) through the lens of gender.

    PubMed

    Yanof, Judith A

    2008-04-01

    In the 2002 film Hable con Ella (Talk to Her), Spanish writer-director Pedro Almodóvar plays with the ambiguity of gender, transcending conventional assumptions about "masculinity" and "femininity." Each of the four main characters holds complex, varied, and, in some cases, gender-bending gender identifications. The theme of gender plasticity is a prominent motif in this film. However, underlying the narrative, there is also a perverse subtext that relies on rigidly binary gender stereotypes to define relationships between men and women. Both these views of gender which operate dialectically, create a complex tapestry through which Almodóvar explores his characters' problems in attaining intimacy.

  16. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  17. Avoided costs associated with cogeneration: a case study of Con Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.; Martorella, J.

    1980-08-01

    The potential impact of cogeneration in office and apartment buildings in New York City on the Consolidated Edison Company (Con Ed) has been investigated using a method of utility cost and fuel use analysis developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This method computes a utility's long run marginal costs and long run marginal fuel consumption associated with load modifications due to the introduction of on-site energy producing technologies. The principal findings of this study show that Con Ed's long run average cost is more likely to go down than up due to cogeneration in office and apartment building; the utility's avoided costs (i.e., its long run marginal savings) associated with the gross power output of the cogeneration systems are 10.5 cents/KWh for the office building and 6.4 cents/KWh for the apartment buildings; the utility's marginal savings include a component for avoided capacity costs; and there are net savings in the use of oil due to cogeneration (assuming the building used oil for its boilers before it switched and diesel fuel in its cogenerators afterwards).

  18. Co-N Decorated Hierarchically Porous Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Acid.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaogang; Choi, Ja-Yeon; Zamani, Pouyan; Jiang, Gaopeng; Hoque, Md Ariful; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen-functionalized graphene materials have been demonstrated as promising electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), owning to their respectable activity and excellent stability in alkaline electrolyte. However, they exhibit unacceptable catalytic activity in acid medium. Here, a hierarchically porous Co-N functionalized graphene aerogel is prepared as an efficient catalyst for the ORR in acid electrolyte. In the preparation process, polyaniline (PANI) is introduced as a pore-forming agent to aid in the self-assembly of graphene species into a porous aerogel networks, and a nitrogen precursor to induce in situ nitrogen doping. Therefore, a Co-N decorated graphene aerogel framework with a large surface area (485 m(2) g(-1)) and an abundance of meso/macropores is effectively formed after heat treatment. Such highly desired structures can not only expose sufficient active sites for the ORR but also guarantee the fast mass transfer in the catalytic process, which provides significant catalytic activity with positive onset and half wave potentials, low hydrogen peroxide yield, high resistance to methanol crossover, and remarkable stability that is comparable to commercial Pt/C in acid medium. PMID:26937737

  19. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  20. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  1. Retinoic acid alleviates Con A-induced hepatitis and differentially regulates effector production in NKT cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoo-A; Song, You Chan; Kim, Ga-Young; Choi, Gyeyoung; Lee, Yoon-Sook; Lee, Jung-Mi; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2012-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a diverse regulator of immune responses. Although RA promotes natural killer T (NKT) cell activation in vitro by increasing CD1d expression on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), the direct effects of RA on NKT-cell responses in vivo are not known. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of RA on the severity of Con A-induced hepatitis and molecular changes of NKT cells. First, we demonstrated that Con A-induced liver damage was ameliorated by RA. In correlation with cytokine levels in serum, RA regulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-4 but not TNF-α by NKT cells without influencing the NKT-cell activation status. However, RA did not alleviate α-GalCer-induced liver injury, even though it reduced IFN-γ and IL-4 but not TNF-α levels in serum. This regulation was also detected when liver mononuclear cells (MNCs) or NKT hybridoma cells were treated with RA in vitro. The regulatory effect of RA on NKT cells was mediated by RAR-α, and RA reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK. These results suggest that RA differentially modulates the production of effector cytokines by NKT cells in hepatitis, and the suppressive effect of RA on hepatitis varies with the pathogenic mechanism of liver injury.

  2. PDP-CON: prediction of domain/linker residues in protein sequences using a consensus approach.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Basu, Subhadip; Zubek, Julian; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of domain/linker residues in protein sequences is a crucial task in the functional classification of proteins, homology-based protein structure prediction, and high-throughput structural genomics. In this work, a novel consensus-based machine-learning technique was applied for residue-level prediction of the domain/linker annotations in protein sequences using ordered/disordered regions along protein chains and a set of physicochemical properties. Six different classifiers-decision tree, Gaussian naïve Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, random forest, and multilayer perceptron-were exhaustively explored for the residue-level prediction of domain/linker regions. The protein sequences from the curated CATH database were used for training and cross-validation experiments. Test results obtained by applying the developed PDP-CON tool to the mutually exclusive, independent proteins of the CASP-8, CASP-9, and CASP-10 databases are reported. An n-star quality consensus approach was used to combine the results yielded by different classifiers. The average PDP-CON accuracy and F-measure values for the CASP targets were found to be 0.86 and 0.91, respectively. The dataset, source code, and all supplementary materials for this work are available at https://cmaterju.org/cmaterbioinfo/ for noncommercial use.

  3. Aggregation analysis of Con A binding proteins of human seminal plasma: a dynamic light scattering study.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2013-02-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) binding fraction of human seminal plasma is vital as it shows decapacitating activity and contains proteins which have critical roles in fertility related processes. Con A binding proteins were isolated by lectin affinity chromatography. These proteins form high molecular weight aggregates at near physiological pH (7.0) as inferred by gel filtration. Aggregation analysis was performed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS analysis was also performed at different pH values and in presence of various additives including NaCl, EDTA, cholesterol and sugars, such as d-glucose, d-fructose and d-mannose to identify their effect on aggregation size. The results indicate that degree of aggregation was highly reduced in presence of d-fructose, EDTA and at lower and higher pH values as depicted by lowering of hydrodynamic radii. This aggregation behaviour might be decisive for fertility related events with a suggestive role towards inhibition of premature capacitation.

  4. Co-N Decorated Hierarchically Porous Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Acid.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaogang; Choi, Ja-Yeon; Zamani, Pouyan; Jiang, Gaopeng; Hoque, Md Ariful; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen-functionalized graphene materials have been demonstrated as promising electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), owning to their respectable activity and excellent stability in alkaline electrolyte. However, they exhibit unacceptable catalytic activity in acid medium. Here, a hierarchically porous Co-N functionalized graphene aerogel is prepared as an efficient catalyst for the ORR in acid electrolyte. In the preparation process, polyaniline (PANI) is introduced as a pore-forming agent to aid in the self-assembly of graphene species into a porous aerogel networks, and a nitrogen precursor to induce in situ nitrogen doping. Therefore, a Co-N decorated graphene aerogel framework with a large surface area (485 m(2) g(-1)) and an abundance of meso/macropores is effectively formed after heat treatment. Such highly desired structures can not only expose sufficient active sites for the ORR but also guarantee the fast mass transfer in the catalytic process, which provides significant catalytic activity with positive onset and half wave potentials, low hydrogen peroxide yield, high resistance to methanol crossover, and remarkable stability that is comparable to commercial Pt/C in acid medium.

  5. Effect of endogenous catecholamines on apoptosis of Con A-activated lymphocytes of rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Lan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2007-12-01

    Our previous studies show that lymphocytes express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and synthesize catecholamines (CAs) including dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and that the lymphocytes-derived endogenous CAs affect function of lymphocytes via autocrine/paracrine pathways. Over recent years, induction of apoptosis has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying the endogenous CAs-mediated lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation and activation. However, direct effect of the lymphocytes-synthesized CAs on lymphocyte apoptosis is less known. In the present study, TH inhibitor alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MT) and monoamine oxydase inhibitor pargyline were employed to block the synthesis and degradation of CAs in lymphocytes activated by concanavalin A (Con A). Apoptotic cells and apoptosis-related genes and proteins, Bax, Bcl-2, Fas, Fas-Ligand (FasL) and caspase-3, were examined in the lymphocytes treated with alpha-MT or pargyline by means of Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, real-time PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. The treatment with alpha-MT of 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M (not 10(-7) M) notably reduced intracellular and supernatant DA, E and NE of the Con A-activated lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and correspondingly, the treatment induced a remarkable decrease of apoptotic lymphocytes but not necrotic cells. The expression of Bax, Fas, FasL and caspase-3 mRNAs and proteins was significantly inhibited in the Con A-activated lymphocytes after the cells were treated with alpha-MT of 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M; but the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein was dramatically increased by the alpha-MT treatment. Contrarily, the treatment with pargyline of 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M (not 10(-7) M) evidently increased the intracellular and supernatant DA, E and NE contents of the Con A-activated lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and meanwhile, it caused a striking increase of apoptotic lymphocytes but not necrotic cells. The expression

  6. Overcoming the aggregation problem: a new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Brian M; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K; Birch, David J S; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L

    2015-01-15

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS-MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA's full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand's equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS-MT and 1 µM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA's primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA.

  7. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators. PMID:27020875

  8. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. Methods We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Results Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Conclusions Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the ‘Distorted Mirror Hypothesis’. PMID:24548463

  9. Highly sensitive gold nanoparticles biosensor chips modified with a self-assembled bilayer for detection of Con A.

    PubMed

    Guo, Caixin; Boullanger, Paul; Jiang, Long; Liu, Tao

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, an improved method for detection of Concanavalin A (Con A) with label-free optical biosensors is reported. 1-Dodecanethiol (DDT) was self-assembled onto gold nanoparticles which were deposited on glass slides, and then glycolipid molecules were inserted into dodecanethiol by physical interactions only. The recognition between Con A and carbohydrate was observed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The absorption spectrum shifted when Con A was bound to the sugar residues of glycolipids immobilized onto nanogold slides, while almost no spectrum change was observed when another nonspecific protein molecule met the nanogold slides. The self-assembled bilayer on nanogold substrates had very high sensitivity for Con A, the minimum detection concentration of Con A can be down to 0.1 nM. In addition to the ultra sensitivity for investigating carbohydrate-lectin interaction, the self-assembled bilayer structure, is expected to replace many receptors which require time-consuming organic syntheses for the fixation to the transducer. The simplicity and sensitivity of this biosensor architecture once again show the prospect of nanogold application in biosensor.

  10. Multi-wall carbon nanotube-polyaniline biosensor based on lectin-carbohydrate affinity for ultrasensitive detection of Con A.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fangxin; Chen, Shihong; Wang, Chengyan; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun; Wang, Cun

    2012-04-15

    In this paper, a novel method for detecting concanavalin A (Con A) was developed based on lectin-carbohydrate biospecific interactions. Multi-wall carbon nanotube-polyaniline (MWNT-PANI) nanocomposites, synthesized by in situ polymerization, were chosen to immobilize d-glucose through the Schiff-base reaction. The immobilized D-glucose showed high binding sensitivity and excellent selectivity to its target lectin, Con A. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied to characterize the assembly process of the modified electrode. Due to the high affinity of Con A for D-glucose and high stability of the propounded sensing platform, the fabricated biosensor achieved ultrasensitive detection of Con A with good sensitivity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. The changes of response current were proportional to the Con A concentrations from 3.3 pM to 9.3 nM, with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. Therefore, the combination of MWNT-PANI nanocomposites and the special binding force between lectin and carbohydrate provides an efficient and promising platform for the fabrication of bioelectrochemical devices.

  11. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD. PMID:27362821

  12. Methane activation by cobalt cluster cations, Con+ (n=2-16): Reaction mechanisms and thermochemistry of cluster-CHx (x=0-3) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citir, Murat; Liu, Fuyi; Armentrout, P. B.

    2009-02-01

    The kinetic energy dependences of the reactions of Con+ (n =2-16) with CD4 are studied in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer over the energy range of 0-10 eV. The main products are hydride formation, ConD+, dehydrogenation to form ConCD2+, and double dehydrogenation yielding ConC+. These primary products decompose to form secondary and higher order products, ConCD+, Con-1D+, Con-1C+, Con-1CD+, and Con-1CD2+ at higher energies. Adduct formation of ConCD4+ is also observed for the largest cluster cations, n ≥10. In general, the efficiencies of the single and double dehydrogenation processes increase with cluster size, although the hexamer cation shows a reduced reactivity compared to its neighbors. All reactions exhibit thresholds, and cross sections for the various primary and secondary reactions are analyzed to yield reaction thresholds from which bond energies for cobalt cluster cations to D, C, CD, CD2, and CD3 are determined. The relative magnitudes of these bond energies are consistent with simple bond order considerations. Bond energies for larger clusters rapidly reach relatively constant values, which are used to estimate the chemisorption energies of the C, CD, CD2, and CD3 molecular fragments to cobalt surfaces.

  13. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  14. Vibrational relaxation of CO(n = 1) in collisions with He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinke, R.; Diercksen, G. H. F.

    1985-11-01

    A ful ab inition study of vibrational relaxation of CO(n = 1) in collisions with the normal and lightweight isotopes of helium is presented. The vibrational coordinate dependence of the interaction potential is calculated directly. Dynamical calculations are performed within the infinite-order-sudden (IOS) and centrifugal-sudden (CS) approximations. The IOS cross sections agree very well with the corresponding CS results for both He isotopes, but the IOS/CS ratio shows a different energy behavior for each isotope. It is explicitly demonstrated that the often used procedure to extract the vibrational coordinate dependence of the interaction potential from a dumbbell fit of the rigid-rotor surface is wrong for He-CO.

  15. Cogenerator to quit Con Ed by selling kWh to neighbor

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, N.

    1986-02-10

    Selling 125 kilowatts of electricity around the clock to a nearby supermarket will make cogeneration feasible for the Flagship Restaurant in White Plains, NY, allowing it to drop off Consolidated Edison's grid and pay for a necessary backup generator, according to John Prayias, the restaurant's owner. The ambitious $536,000 project, which will be financed conventionally with a commercial bank loan, will eliminate the Flagship's $70,000 electricity costs and the $7240 spent of heating and domestic hot water, Prayias said. By selling the power to the supermarket at 9 cents per kilowatt hour - 3 cents less than Con Ed's rate of 12 cents per kWh - the restaurant will collect $120,000 a year in revenues - just about enough to cover the cost of diesel fuel for the 350-kW system and pay for monitoring and maintenance.

  16. Nest destruction elicits indiscriminate con- versus heterospecific brood parasitism in a captive bird.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Feeney, William E; Hauber, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Following nest destruction, the laying of physiologically committed eggs (eggs that are ovulated, yolked, and making their way through the oviduct) in the nests of other birds is considered a viable pathway for the evolution of obligate interspecific brood parasitism. While intraspecific brood parasitism in response to nest predation has been experimentally demonstrated, this pathway has yet to be evaluated in an interspecific context. We studied patterns of egg laying following experimental nest destruction in captive zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, a frequent intraspecific brood parasite. We found that zebra finches laid physiologically committed eggs indiscriminately between nests containing conspecific eggs and nests containing heterospecific eggs (of Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata vars. domestica), despite the con- and heterospecific eggs differing in both size and coloration. This is the first experimental evidence that nest destruction may provide a pathway for the evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds.

  17. Protective Effects of Dracocephalum heterophyllum in ConA-Induced Acute Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qilan; Lu, Xiaohua; Shi, Qiangqiang; Zou, Junhui

    2016-01-01

    Dracocephalum heterophyllum (DH) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in treating hepatitis. However, the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of DH in hepatitis are unknown. In this study, we found that pretreatment with DH extract significantly ameliorated liver injury and suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in Concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced hepatitis (CIH). DH recruited more CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the liver and suppressed infiltration of macrophages (Kupffer cells) in the liver. The present work explores DH as an effective hepatoprotective medicine to inhibit inflammation and liver injury caused by hepatitis. PMID:27524863

  18. Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?

    PubMed

    Liao, Song-Yan; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-12-24

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and cons of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed.

  19. A new look at the infrared spectrum of the weakly bound CO-N2 complex.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Michaelian, K H; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N; McKellar, A R W

    2013-12-19

    A broad-band (2135-2165 cm(-1)) infrared spectrum of the CO-N2 van der Waals complex is obtained, using a tunable quantum cascade laser to probe a pulsed supersonic expansion from a slit jet source. Analysis of the spectrum results in the characterization of four new 'stacks' of rotational levels for CO-orthoN2 (all in the v(CO) = 1 upper state) and five new stacks for CO-paraN2 (three in the upper state and two in the vCO = 0 lower state). This considerably expands our knowledge of a rather fundamental weakly bound complex and should lead to improved determinations of the intermolecular forces governing interactions between the carbon monoxide and nitrogen molecules.

  20. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  1. Comparison of three distinct ELLA protocols for determination of apparent affinity constants between Con A and glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Mislovičová, D; Katrlík, J; Paulovičová, E; Gemeiner, P; Tkac, J

    2012-06-01

    A procedure for determination of apparent affinity constants K(D)(app) between Concanavalin A (Con A) and naturally d-mannose containing glycoproteins using enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) is reported. Three distinct ELLA protocols are compared to each other with 3 different fitting models used (Liliom, Hill with and without a cooperativity factor). The glycoproteins were physisorbed on a highly charged polystyrene solid surface of immunoassay plates and the amount of lectin bound to the glycoproteins was determined by photometry. The interactions of Con A with five mannose-containing glycoproteins, invertase (INV), glucoamylase (GA), glucose oxidase (GOx), ovalbumin (OVA), and transferrin (TRF) were quantified with apparent affinity constant being in the range 2×10(-7) to 9×10(-6)M. The strength of interaction between Con A and glycoproteins is discussed on the basis of glycan structure/exposure on the protein backbone for each glycoprotein.

  2. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  3. Metal ion determinants of conantokin dimerization as revealed in the X-ray crystallographic structure of the Cd(2+)/Mg (2+)-con-T[K7gamma] complex.

    PubMed

    Cnudde, Sara E; Prorok, Mary; Castellino, Francis J; Geiger, James H

    2010-06-01

    Predatory sea snails from the Conus family produce a variety of venomous small helical peptides called conantokins that are rich in gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues. As potent and selective antagonists of the N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor, these peptides are potential therapeutic agents for a variety of neurological conditions. The two most studied members of this family of peptides are con-G and con-T. Con-G has Gla residues at sequence positions 3, 4, 7, 10, and 14, and requires divalent cation binding to adopt a helical conformation. Although both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) can fulfill this role, Ca(2+) induces dimerization of con-G, whereas the Mg(2+)-complexed peptide remains monomeric. A variant of con-T, con-T[K7gamma] (gamma is Gla), contains Gla residues at the same five positions as in con-G and behaves very similarly with respect to metal ion binding and dimerization; each peptide binds two Ca(2+) ions and two Mg(2+) ions per helix. To understand the difference in metal ion selectivity, affinity, and the dependence on Ca(2+) for dimer formation, we report here the structure of the monomeric Cd(2+)/Mg(2+)-con-T[K7gamma] complex, and, by comparison with the previously published con-T[K7gamma]/Ca(2+) dimer structure, we suggest explanations for both metal ion binding site specificity and metal-ion-dependent dimerization.

  4. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  5. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  6. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  7. 78 FR 70396 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Renewal of Exemption for Con-Way Freight, TK...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ..., 2010 (73 FR 82132) or you may visit http://edocket/ access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . FOR FURTHER... asked for public comment (75 FR 33666). Section 393.60(e)(1) of the FMCSRs prohibits the obstruction of.... Con-way, Takata, and Iteris provided diagrams and photos showing the dimensions of their...

  8. Comparative immunoprophylactic efficacy of Haemonchus contortus recombinant enolase (rHcENO) and Con A purified native glycoproteins in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kalyanasundaram, Aravindan; Jawahar, Shabnam; Ilangopathy, Manikkavasagan; Palavesam, Azahahianambi; Raman, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    Haemonchus contortus is the most economically important blood feeding nematode parasite of sheep and goats all over the world. Enolase in helminth parasites is a multi-functional enzyme which involves in glycolysis and host tissue invasion. In this study, the recombinant H. contortus enolase (rHcENO) was evaluated for its immunoprophylactic efficacy in sheep along with Con A purified native glycoproteins in a vaccine challenge trial. Group I and Group II experimental sheep were immunized thrice with rHcENO and Con A purified native glycoproteins along with Montanide ISA 61 VG adjuvant. The animals were challenged with 5000 L3 stage active H. contortus larvae after 21 days of third immunization. A significant increase in the IgG titre was observed in rHcENO and Con A purified native glycoproteins immunized animals as compared to the control animals. Immunoprotective efficacy of Con A purified native glycoproteins was comparatively higher than rHcENO antigen.

  9. Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.

    1996-10-01

    The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology.

  10. Un programa innovador busca ayudar a las personas que cuidan a pacientes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un programa educativo del City of Hope Cancer Center que ofrece a los profesionales de salud la información y las herramientas necesarias para ayudar a los familiares a saber cómo cuidarse a si mismos y a sus seres queridos con cáncer.

  11. iPathCons and iPathDB: an improved insect pathway construction tool and the database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zan; Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Jie, Wencai; Lei, Wenjie; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on earth. Some insects, such as the silkworm and honeybee, are beneficial to humans, whereas others are notorious pests of crops. At present, the genomes of 38 insects have been sequenced and made publically available. In addition, the transcriptomes of dozens of insects have been sequenced. As gene data rapidly accumulate, constructing the pathway of molecular interactions becomes increasingly important for entomological research. Here, we developed an improved tool, iPathCons, for knowledge-based construction of pathways from the transcriptomes or the official gene sets of genomes. Considering the high evolution diversity in insects, iPathCons uses a voting system for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology assignment. Both stand-alone software and a web server of iPathCons are provided. Using iPathCons, we constructed the pathways of molecular interactions of 52 insects, including 37 genome-sequenced and 15 transcriptome-sequenced ones. These pathways are available in the iPathDB, which provides searches, web server, data downloads, etc. This database will be highly useful for the insect research community. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ipath/

  12. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  13. Pro/con ethics debate: is nonheart-beating organ donation ethically acceptable?

    PubMed

    Whetstine, Leslie; Bowman, Kerry; Hawryluck, Laura

    2002-06-01

    This pro/con debate explores the ethical issues surrounding nonheart-beating organ donation (NHBD), a source of considerable controversy. It is estimated that NHBD can increase the number of organs available for transplant by 25% at a time of great need. However, should NHBD be ethically acceptable? In support of NHBD, it may be acceptable practice if there is a separation of the rationale to withdraw life support/to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the decision to recover organs, if no conflicts of interest exist, if a waiting time precluding spontaneous return of circulation is included, and if NHBD conforms to a standardized protocol. Against NHBD, there are questions regarding the ambiguity and cultural perspectives of death, regarding whether a separation of rationale between withdrawal and donation is sufficient to preclude conflicts of interest, and regarding whether variable protocols arise that subordinate the patient to the goal of donation. Such concerns suggest NHBD may damage the trust in patient-physician relationships and may adversely affect organ donation rates.

  14. Weighing the cons and pros: women's reasons for discontinuing hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Reece, Susan McClennan

    2002-01-01

    As a greater proportion of U.S. women move into midlife, there has been increased interest in meeting their preventive health needs. Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may not be an option for all postmenopausal women, it has been documented as prolonging life expectancy and protecting against osteoporosis. Despite its advantages for many women, often those who initiate HRT discontinue its use within a short time. The purpose of this qualitative study is to gain insights into women's reasons for discontinuing HRT. We collected data by semistructured interview from three diverse samples: 10 women who had been on HRT for two years or less, 11 health care providers of women, and 34 women who had gone off HRT. Reasons for discontinuing fell into seven broad categories: general Gestalt, somatic complaints, mind (knowledge, emotion), not being heard, hassles, indecisive medical community, and cons outweighed pros. Results indicate that women who discontinue HRT do so for a variety of reasons, many of which are connected to the health care system and its providers. Outcomes also suggest that sharing in decision making along with increased education, support, and individualized care are necessary to better address the preventive health care needs of postmenopausal women. PMID:11822557

  15. [Emission spectrum of liquid CO-N2 mixture at shock compression].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Yi, Peng-Fei; Chen, Xian-Meng; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Zheng, Xue-Ping; Xue, Xue-Dong

    2009-04-01

    Driving a copper projectile to impact a cryo-target made of aluminous alloy at the speed of 2.21 km x s(-1) with a two stage light gas gun, a proper one dimensional shockwave with a speed of 18.76 km x s(-1) was generated and directly acted on a uniform liquid in target, which was condensed by proportional gaseous carbon monoxide and nitrogen. At the measurement of Hugoniots, the full linear spectrum entirely dissociated with the plasma under the shock pressure of 33.5 GPa was caught by the use of intensified charge coupled device and accurate spectrographic technology. From the analysis of the spectrum, the authors know that the transient spectrograph with six channels can be used to measure and record the course of shock compression-irradiancy reliably, and the emitted spectral lines of shock compressed products indicated that the thermal dissociation and phase transition had occurred in homogeneous liquid of CO-N2. Furthermore, comparing the spectral intensity of lower central wavelength with that of higher, the fact of stronger intensity of 488 nm also validates that changes from "optic thin" to "optic thick" exist indeed in dense hydrocarbon liquid acted on by shock pressure.

  16. Pro/Con debate: Is occupational asthma induced by isocyanates an immunoglobulin E-mediated disease?

    PubMed

    Wisnewski, A V; Jones, M

    2010-08-01

    Isocyanates, low-molecular weight chemicals essential to polyurethane production, are one of the most common causes of occupational asthma, yet the mechanisms by which exposure leads to disease remain unclear. While isocyanate asthma closely mirrors other Type I Immune Hypersensitivity (Allergic) disorders, one important characteristic of hypersensitivity ('allergen'-specific IgE) is reportedly absent in a large portion of affected individuals. This variation from common environmental asthma (which typically is induced by high-molecular weight allergens) is important for two reasons. (1) Allergen-specific IgE is an important mediator of many of the symptoms of bronchial hyper-reactivity in 'allergic asthma'. Lack of allergen-specific IgE in isocyanate hypersensitive individuals suggests differences in pathogenic mechanisms, with potentially unique targets for prevention and therapy. (2) Allergen-specific IgE forms the basis of the most commonly used diagnostic tests for hypersensitivity (skin prick and RAST). Without allergen-specific IgE, isocyanates may go unrecognized as the cause of asthma. In hypersensitive individuals, chronic exposure can lead to bronchial hyperreactivity that persists years after exposure ceases. Thus, the question of whether or not isocyanate asthma is an IgE-mediated disease, has important implications for disease screening/surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The present Pro/Con Debate, addresses contemporary, controversial issues regarding IgE in isocyanate asthma.

  17. Apoptotic cells actively inhibit the expression of CD69 on Con A activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Zhang, L; Zeng, Y; Ge, Q; Zhao, M; Gao, W

    2000-03-01

    Although apoptosis is commonly viewed as a silent cell death without damage to adjacent tissues, the effect of apoptosis on immunity has been unclear. We have investigated the influence of apoptotic cells on T-cell activation. The K562 or HL-60 human leukemia cell lines that had been induced apoptosis by FTY720 or cycloheximide (CHX) were added into the culture of mouse spleen cells stimulated with Con A. Six to 20 h later, the expression of CD69, an early T-cell activation antigen, was detected using flowcytometry. Living cells and necrotic cells served as control groups. Apoptotic K562 or HL-60 cells induced by either FTY720 or CHX unanimously inhibited CD69 expression on the CD3+ mouse T cells while living and necrotic cells did not. The inhibition was proportional to the number of apoptotic cells and was different in the T-cell subsets, showing a rapid and transient inhibition on the CD3+CD8+ T-cell activation but with a slow and continuous inhibition on CD3+CD8- T-cell activation. In conclusion, the apoptotic cells actively inhibit a T-cell activation that is independent of the cell lines or the apoptotic inducers, indicating that the apoptotic cells dominantly regulate T-cell immunity. PMID:10736091

  18. Thromboprophylaxis in carriers of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) without previous thrombosis: "Pros" and "Cons".

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Chighizola, Cecilia; Finazzi, Guido; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Valesini, Guido

    2012-06-01

    The presence of anti-phospholipid (aPL) is necessary but not sufficient to induce a thrombotic event. The "second hit" hypothesis suggested that an additional trigger may be needed to develop a vascular event in aPL carriers. In this article, pro and con of primary thromboprophylaxis in aPL carriers is deeply discussed, concluding that univocal data are not available, due to conflicting results of available clinical trials. However, in clinical practice the primary thromboprophylaxis is not indicated in all unselected asymptomatic aPL carriers, and the best strategy begin with the assessment of the peculiar risk profile of the subject. Thus, it is mandatory to eliminate modifiable prothrombotic risk factors (i.e. smoking, oral contraceptive), to treat the irreversible risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes) and to introduce an aggressive prophylaxis with subcutaneous LMWH in high-risk situations (i.e. surgical procedures with prolonged immobilization). A different evaluation should be addressed to aPL carriers with a concomitant autoimmune disease that are considered as an additional pro-thrombotic risk factor. Similarly, concomitant positivity for more than one anti-phospholipid test confer a stronger risk of developing the thrombotic manifestations. Specific trials with larger cohorts of patients are needed to better clarify this issue.

  19. Pro-Con Debate: Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis as a Cause of Chronic Cough in Children.

    PubMed

    Bidiwala, Aneela; Krilov, Leonard R; Pirzada, Melodi; Patel, Sameer J

    2015-08-01

    Pro: Children with chronic cough present a diagnostic challenge. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a chronic, persistent bacterial infection of conducting airways defined by the presence of cough for longer than 4 weeks that resolves with antimicrobial therapy and without an alternative diagnosis. The diagnosis is made by the findings of increased bronchial secretions and edema of the lower airways on flexible bronchoscopy and positive cultures on bronchoalveolar lavage. It is speculated that an initial respiratory insult such as viral infection disrupts normal surface morphology and ciliary function, which leads to chronic self-perpetuating inflammation with the formation of bacterial biofilms, leading to PBB. PBB is often misdiagnosed as asthma, leading to inappropriate and excessive use of steroids. The importance of timely diagnosis should be emphasized due to the potential that PBB may be a precursor to chronic suppurative lung disease or bronchiectasis if left untreated; however, every patient should be adequately assessed to exclude other causes of chronic cough. Con: Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of PBB are nonspecific and may not distinguish it from other known causes of chronic cough, including viral infections. Benefits from antibiotic therapy (particularly prolonged therapy) have not been demonstrated. Respiratory conditions are the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions during ambulatory visits in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are inappropriate and/or unnecessary. The proposed diagnostic criteria and recommendations for the treatment of PBB will lead to unnecessary overuse of antibiotics.

  20. [Caesarean sections under regional anesthesia: pros and cons of supplementary oxygen].

    PubMed

    Aust, H; Zemlin, M; Woernle, F; Wulf, H; Rüsch, D

    2013-03-01

    The routine administration of supplemental oxygen to women undergoing elective caesarean section under regional anesthesia in order to optimize oxygen supply to the fetus is common anesthetic practice in many German hospitals. However, this practice has been controversially discussed in the non-German literature for many years. This review presents and discusses the pros and cons of routinely providing supplemental oxygen to a parturient during caesarean section on the basis of the literature published over the last 30 years. Proponents of routine oxygen administration point to potential and unforeseeable risks of caesarean sections and consider the prophylactic administration of oxygen based on physiological considerations to be advantageous in terms of patient safety. Interestingly, data regarding the effects of an increased maternal FIO2 on improvement of fetal oxygenation are inconsistent, therefore, no unambiguous recommendation concerning which FIO2 to choose can be given. Opponents of routine oxygen supplementation allude above all to an increase in free radical activity in both mother and fetus; however, data in this respect are not consistent either. As supplemental oxygen to patients undergoing elective caesarean section without any risk factors under regional anesthesia is associated with potential risks while no advantage has so far been demonstrated, routine administration of oxygen has to be challenged and is no longer considered to be indicated by many. On the contrary, in cases of emergency with a concomitant risk of hypoxia for mother and fetus, administration of oxygen is indispensable in the light of present data. PMID:23392217

  1. Pros and cons of condom use among gay and bisexual men as explored via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey utilizing Internet technology related to gay and bisexual men's condom use behavior as an expression of safer sexual practices. A total of 241 self-identified gay and bisexual men responded to the questionnaire in a 3-month period of time. Confidentiality was assured by utilizing an electronic system whereby the respondents e-mail address was eliminated. The study was conceptually guided by the use of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TMC) and the pros and cons of condom of use were explored. Fifty-six percent of the participants reported that one advantage (pro) of using condoms with casual partners was that it would make them safer from disease. About half of the respondents (n = 119, 49%) reported a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases. There were 14 variables found to be significantly associated with using a condom with primary and casual partners among gay and bisexual men. Essentially, findings from this study corresponded to results obtained by more traditional data collection methods. Therefore, the authors conclude that electronic data collection may well be an alternative means for collecting sensitive data such as those collected in this study. PMID:12925313

  2. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  3. Añadir quimioterapia después de la radioterapia mejora la supervivencia de adultos con un tipo de tu

    Cancer.gov

    Adultos con gliomas de grado bajo, una forma de tumor cerebral, que recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia después de la radioterapia vivieron más tiempo que pacientes que recibieron solo radioterapia, según los resultados de seguimiento a largo plazo d

  4. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean.

  5. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-08-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease.

  6. Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias con núcleo tipo Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto con un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.

  7. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Keir X.X.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M.D.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985

  8. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  9. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  10. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  11. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  12. Quantum analytical modeling and simulation of CNT on insulator (COI) and CNT on nothing (CON) FET: a comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudipta; Bandyopadhyay, Dipan; Dutta, Pranab Kishore; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive performance analysis by quantum analytical modeling of CNT on insulator (COI) and CNT on nothing (CON) FET having channel length 20 nm has been proposed and investigated on the basis of 2D Poisson's Equation and solution of 1-D Schrodinger's Equation and validated using ATLAS 2D simulator. As classical approximations fail to describe carrier quantization, charge inversion and potential profile of a device at sub-100 nm regime, here for the first time an analytical model in quantum mechanical aspect for COI/CON devices has been derived. Effects of high-k dielectrics in place of conventional SiO2 over the device characteristics have been thoroughly discussed. Moreover, all noticeable benefits of our device to the so called SOI/SON architecture have also been vividly justified.

  13. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Le, Son Hong; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-07-20

    We describe a new kukri snake, Oligodon condaoensis sp. nov., from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam based on the morphological characters of four specimens. It differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: medium size in adults (total length up to 552 mm); 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; deeply forked hemipenes without spines and papillae, extending to subcaudal 13 or 14; 11-13 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; cloacal plate undivided; head scalation complete; nasal divided; presubocular absent; 168-176 ventrals; 33-37 subcaudals; overall dorsal coloration dark gray, faint body stripes present or absent; and ventral coloration cream to dark gray without rectangular blotches. We also provide a list of 43 species of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles recorded from Con Dao Islands.

  14. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Le, Son Hong; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new kukri snake, Oligodon condaoensis sp. nov., from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam based on the morphological characters of four specimens. It differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: medium size in adults (total length up to 552 mm); 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; deeply forked hemipenes without spines and papillae, extending to subcaudal 13 or 14; 11-13 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; cloacal plate undivided; head scalation complete; nasal divided; presubocular absent; 168-176 ventrals; 33-37 subcaudals; overall dorsal coloration dark gray, faint body stripes present or absent; and ventral coloration cream to dark gray without rectangular blotches. We also provide a list of 43 species of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles recorded from Con Dao Islands. PMID:27470803

  15. Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.

    Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

  16. UniCon3D: de novo protein structure prediction using united-residue conformational search via stepwise, probabilistic sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Recent experimental studies have suggested that proteins fold via stepwise assembly of structural units named ‘foldons’ through the process of sequential stabilization. Alongside, latest developments on computational side based on probabilistic modeling have shown promising direction to perform de novo protein conformational sampling from continuous space. However, existing computational approaches for de novo protein structure prediction often randomly sample protein conformational space as opposed to experimentally suggested stepwise sampling. Results: Here, we develop a novel generative, probabilistic model that simultaneously captures local structural preferences of backbone and side chain conformational space of polypeptide chains in a united-residue representation and performs experimentally motivated conditional conformational sampling via stepwise synthesis and assembly of foldon units that minimizes a composite physics and knowledge-based energy function for de novo protein structure prediction. The proposed method, UniCon3D, has been found to (i) sample lower energy conformations with higher accuracy than traditional random sampling in a small benchmark of 6 proteins; (ii) perform comparably with the top five automated methods on 30 difficult target domains from the 11th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment and on 15 difficult target domains from the 10th CASP experiment; and (iii) outperform two state-of-the-art approaches and a baseline counterpart of UniCon3D that performs traditional random sampling for protein modeling aided by predicted residue-residue contacts on 45 targets from the 10th edition of CASP. Availability and Implementation: Source code, executable versions, manuals and example data of UniCon3D for Linux and OSX are freely available to non-commercial users at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/UniCon3D/. Contact: chengji@missouri.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are

  17. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  18. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  19. ConTra v2: a tool to identify transcription factor binding sites across species, update 2011.

    PubMed

    Broos, Stefan; Hulpiau, Paco; Galle, Jeroen; Hooghe, Bart; Van Roy, Frans; De Bleser, Pieter

    2011-07-01

    Transcription factors are important gene regulators with distinctive roles in development, cell signaling and cell cycling, and they have been associated with many diseases. The ConTra v2 web server allows easy visualization and exploration of predicted transcription factor binding sites in any genomic region surrounding coding or non-coding genes. In this new version, users can choose from nine reference organisms ranging from human to yeast. ConTra v2 can analyze promoter regions, 5'-UTRs, 3'-UTRs and introns or any other genomic region of interest. Hundreds of position weight matrices are available to choose from, but the user can also upload any other matrices for detecting specific binding sites. A typical analysis is run in four simple steps of choosing the gene, the transcript, the region of interest and then selecting one or more transcription factor binding sites. The ConTra v2 web server is freely available at http://bioit.dmbr.ugent.be/contrav2/index.php.

  20. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  1. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuominen, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.

  2. A novel biclustering algorithm of binary microarray data: BiBinCons and BiBinAlter.

    PubMed

    Saber, Haifa Ben; Elloumi, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    The biclustering of microarray data has been the subject of a large research. No one of the existing biclustering algorithms is perfect. The construction of biologically significant groups of biclusters for large microarray data is still a problem that requires a continuous work. Biological validation of biclusters of microarray data is one of the most important open issues. So far, there are no general guidelines in the literature on how to validate biologically extracted biclusters. In this paper, we develop two biclustering algorithms of binary microarray data, adopting the Iterative Row and Column Clustering Combination (IRCCC) approach, called BiBinCons and BiBinAlter. However, the BiBinAlter algorithm is an improvement of BiBinCons. On the other hand, BiBinAlter differs from BiBinCons by the use of the EvalStab and IndHomog evaluation functions in addition to the CroBin one (Bioinformatics 20:1993-2003, 2004). BiBinAlter can extracts biclusters of good quality with better p-values.

  3. [Food Addiction: definizione, misurazione e prevalenza in soggetti sani e in pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare].

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Vumbaca, Viviana; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Il costrutto della "Food Addiction" (FA) è stato introdotto negli ultimi anni per meglio comprendere i pattern alimentari disfunzionali osservati nei pazienti obesi e in sovrappeso e nei pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Nonostante i numerosi parallelismi tra la dipendenza da sostanze e la FA, non c'è ancora accordo nel considerare la FA come un indipendente DCA né un concetto utile. L'obiettivo della presente rassegna è stato quello di riassumere i dati disponibili al fine di aumentare le conoscenze su: 1) definizione, misurazione e caratteristiche generali della FA; 2) prevalenza della FA in campioni clinici e non clinici. I dati disponibili suggeriscono che la FA sia un costrutto transnosografico presente in tutti i DCA, con una prevalenza più elevata nella bulimia nervosa. Nonostante il dibattito sull'autonomia della FA come DCA rimanga aperto, gli studi riportati suggeriscono che la comorbilità tra FA e DCA sia associata con peggiori outcome clinici, giustificando di conseguenza l'assessment e il trattamento della FA. PMID:27183510

  4. Pros and cons of prostate cancer screening: associations with screening knowledge and attitudes among urban African American men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stacy N; Diefenbach, Michael A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Chen, Tianle; Hall, Simon J; Thompson, Hayley S

    2010-03-01

    Discussion of the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening tests, rather than routine screening, is recommended to support informed screening decisions, particularly among African American men. This study explored physician explanation of pros and cons of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam (DRE) and its association with knowledge and screening attitudes. Two hundred-one African American men were asked if a physician had ever provided a comprehensive explanation of pros and cons of the PSA test and DRE. All men completed a 10-item prostate cancer knowledge scale and a subset completed a 26-item attitudes measure. Only 13% of the sample reported receiving a comprehensive explanation. Also, prostate cancer knowledge in the sample was low (mean = 43% correct). Multivariate analyses revealed that total prostate cancer knowledge was associated with men receiving a comprehensive explanation (p = .05), as well as past prostate cancer screening (p = .02) and younger age (p = .009). Although comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening was related to total prostate cancer knowledge, it was unrelated to a subset of items that may be central to fully informed screening decisions. Furthermore, comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening (p = .02), along with DRE recommendation (p = .009) and older age (p = .02), were related to fewer negative screening attitudes. Findings suggest that continued focus on patient education and physician communication is warranted. PMID:20355346

  5. [Food Addiction: definizione, misurazione e prevalenza in soggetti sani e in pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare].

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Vumbaca, Viviana; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Il costrutto della "Food Addiction" (FA) è stato introdotto negli ultimi anni per meglio comprendere i pattern alimentari disfunzionali osservati nei pazienti obesi e in sovrappeso e nei pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Nonostante i numerosi parallelismi tra la dipendenza da sostanze e la FA, non c'è ancora accordo nel considerare la FA come un indipendente DCA né un concetto utile. L'obiettivo della presente rassegna è stato quello di riassumere i dati disponibili al fine di aumentare le conoscenze su: 1) definizione, misurazione e caratteristiche generali della FA; 2) prevalenza della FA in campioni clinici e non clinici. I dati disponibili suggeriscono che la FA sia un costrutto transnosografico presente in tutti i DCA, con una prevalenza più elevata nella bulimia nervosa. Nonostante il dibattito sull'autonomia della FA come DCA rimanga aperto, gli studi riportati suggeriscono che la comorbilità tra FA e DCA sia associata con peggiori outcome clinici, giustificando di conseguenza l'assessment e il trattamento della FA.

  6. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  7. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of con A-activated T lymphocytes induced by asiatic acid for preventing murine fulminant hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenjie; Liu, Wen; Hong, Shaocheng; Liu, Hailiang; Qian, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Selectively facilitating apoptosis of activated T cells is essential for the clearance of pathogenic injurious cells and subsequent efficient resolution of inflammation. However, few chemicals have been reported to trigger apoptosis of activated T cells for the treatment of hepatitis without affecting quiescent T cells. In the present study, we found that asiatic acid, a natural triterpenoid, selectively triggered apoptosis of concanavalin A (Con A)-activated T cells in a mitochondria-dependent manner indicated by the disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, caspases activation, and cleavage of PARP. In addition, asiatic acid also induced the cleavage of caspase 8 and Bid and augmented Fas expression in Con A-activated T cells. However, following activation of T cells from MRL(lpr/lpr) mice with mutation of Fas demonstrated a similar susceptibility to asiatic acid-induced apoptosis compared with normal T cells, suggesting that Fas-mediated death-receptor apoptotic pathway does not mainly contribute to asiatic acid-induced cell death. Furthermore, asiatic acid significantly alleviated Con A-induced T cell-dependent fulminant hepatitis in mice, as assessed by reduced serum transaminases, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pathologic parameters. Consistent with the in vitro results, asiatic acid also induced apoptosis of activated CD4(+) T cells in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the ability of asiatic acid to induce apoptosis of activated T cells and its potential use in the treatment of T-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  8. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  9. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J J; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing.

  10. The Con-A-peroxidase method for tissue localization of glucosyl and mannosyl groups applied to mouse hepatocytes and chicken erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Alberto S; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2006-01-01

    A variation of the Concanavalin A (Con-A)-peroxidase labelling method originally described by Kiernan [Localization of alpha-D-glucosyl and alpha-D-mannosyl groups of mucosubstances with Concanavalin A and horseradish peroxidase. Histochemistry 1975;44:39-45] was applied to unsectioned cell preparations, with an emphasis on the nuclear localization of glycoproteins. Mouse liver imprints and chicken blood smears fixed in acetic acid-ethanol solution were studied. Modifications of the method included using increased Con-A concentration, and a range of pH values for the Con-A solutions. The strongest Con-A labelling of both erythrocytes and hepatocytes was obtained after incubation with Con-A at pH 6.5 and with Con-A concentrations at least two-fold greater than those used for tissue sections. These conditions may alter the Con-A conformation, enabling the lectin molecule to enter the cell nucleus and bind to nuclear glycoproteins, thus allowing their localization and quantification.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from clinical specimens in Northern of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al Tayyar, Ibrahim Ali; AL-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Hussein, Emad; Khudairat, Salih; Sarosiekf, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are one of the most common bacteria found on human skin and on mucous membranes as a component of normal flora. The presence of CoNS in clinical specimens is frequently associated with an infectious aetiology or contamination. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate CoNS species distribution and susceptibility patterns in specimens obtained from clinics and hospitals in the Northern area of Jordan. Methods: Standard identification methods showed the presence of CoNS in 223 specimens at different local hospitals. Susceptibility testing was performed using 18 antibiotics in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results: Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were found to be the most common species isolated from all specimens representing 122 (54.7%) and 52 (23.4%) of all CoNS species, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of CoNS species revealed their sensitivity to vancomycin, linozolid, rifampin and nitrofurantin, while showing a highly resistant pattern to ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and erythromycin. Some variation of the susceptibility pattern of CoNS species were identified in specimens isolated from the ICU and paediatric hospital wards as well as from clinical specimens of urine, blood and catheter tips. Conclusion: The most common CoNS isolates were found to be S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus with variable percentages according to the specimen source. Moreover, a high susceptibility CoNS to vancomycin, rifampin, and linezolid showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin. PMID:26885328

  12. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el

  13. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  14. Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

    El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

  15. The Araucaria Project: The Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 55 from a Newly Discovered Abundant Cepheid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Soszyński, Igor; Udalski, Andrzej; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Mennickent, Ronald; Walker, Alistair; Garcia, Alejandro; Szewczyk, Olaf; Szymański, MichaŁ; Kubiak, Marcin; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz

    2006-12-01

    We have detected, for the first time, Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55. From wide-field images obtained in the optical V and I bands during 77 nights in 2002-2003, we have found 143 Cepheids with periods ranging from 5.6 to 175.9 days; 133 of these objects have periods longer than 10 days, making NGC 55 to date the galaxy with the largest known number of long-period Cepheids in the Sculptor Group. We construct period-luminosity relations from our data and obtain distance moduli corrected for the small foreground reddening to NGC 55 of 26.79+/-0.04 mag (internal error) in V, 26.66+/-0.03 mag in I, and 26.40+/-0.05 mag in the reddening-independent V-I Wesenheit index. The trend of increasing distance moduli with shorter wavelength hints at the existence of significant reddening intrinsic to NGC 55, which affects the measured Cepheid magnitudes. From our data we determine the intrinsic mean reddening of the Cepheids in NGC 55 as E(B-V)=0.102 mag, which brings the distance determinations from the different bands into excellent agreement. Our best distance estimate for NGC 55 from the present optical Cepheid photometry is 26.40+/-0.05 (internal error) +/-0.09 mag (systematic error). This value is tied to an assumed LMC distance of 18.50 mag. Our quoted systematic error of the present NGC 55 Cepheid distance does not take into account the current uncertainty in the distance of the fiducial LMC galaxy itself. Within the small respective uncertainties, the Sculptor Group galaxies NGC 55 and NGC 300 are at the same distance of 1.9 Mpc, strengthening the case for a physical association of these galaxies. Based on observations obtained with the 1.3 m Warsaw telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  16. Study on the stability of β-carotene microencapsulated with pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seeds) starch.

    PubMed

    Spada, Jordana Corralo; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Native and hydrolyzed pinhão starches were used as coating materials for β-carotene microencapsulation by freeze-drying. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the stability of β-carotene encapsulated under three different conditions: in the presence of ultraviolet light at 25±2 °C, in the dark at 25±2 °C and in the dark at 10.0±0.2 °C. The color of the samples was also analyzed. Microcapsules prepared with native starch showed the lowest stability during storage. In contrast, microcapsules encapsulated with 12 dextrose equivalent (DE) hydrolyzed starch exhibited the highest stability. First-order kinetic and Weibull models were applied to describe the degradation of β-carotene over time. The R(2) values of the Weibull model were greater than those of the first-order kinetic model. Moreover, multivariate analyses (principal component and cluster analyses) were also conducted. PMID:24750928

  17. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Soraya S; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Morais, Michelle S S; Prado, Nidiane D R; Barros, Marcos L; Koishi, Andrea C; Mazarrotto, Giovanny A C A; Gonçalves, Giselle M; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Fernandes, Carla F C; Stabeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N) to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅) of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus infections.

  18. Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Analysis of Brazilian Pine (Araucaria angustifolia Bertol. Kuntze) Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Elbl, Paula; Navarro, Bruno V; de Oliveira, Leandro F; Almeida, Juliana; Mosini, Amanda C; Dos Santos, André L W; Rossi, Magdalena; Floh, Eny I S

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of gene expression is a fundamental experimental approach in many fields of plant biology, but it requires the use of internal controls representing constitutively expressed genes for reliable transcript quantification. In this study, we identified fifteen putative reference genes from an A. angustifolia transcriptome database. Variation in transcript levels was first evaluated in silico by comparing read counts and then by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), resulting in the identification of six candidate genes. The consistency of transcript abundance was also calculated applying geNorm and NormFinder software packages followed by a validation approach using four target genes. The results presented here indicate that a diverse set of samples should ideally be used in order to identify constitutively expressed genes, and that the use of any two reference genes in combination, of the six tested genes, is sufficient for effective expression normalization. Finally, in agreement with the in silico prediction, a comprehensive analysis of the qRT-PCR data combined with validation analysis revealed that AaEIF4B-L and AaPP2A are the most suitable reference genes for comparative studies of A. angustifolia gene expression.

  19. The Araucaria Project: the First-overtone Classical Cepheid in the Eclipsing System OGLE-LMC-CEP-2532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilecki, Bogumił; Graczyk, Dariusz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Thompson, Ian B.; Smolec, Radosław; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszyński, Igor; Konorski, Piotr; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre; Minniti, Dante; Catelan, Márcio

    2015-06-01

    We present here the first spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the double-lined eclipsing binary containing the classical, first-overtone (FO) Cepheid OGLE-LMC-CEP-2532 (MACHO 81.8997.87). The system has an orbital period of 800 days and the Cepheid is pulsating with a period of 2.035 days. Using spectroscopic data from three high-class telescopes and photometry from three surveys spanning 7500 days, we are able to derive the dynamical masses for both stars with an accuracy better than 3%. This makes the Cepheid in this system one of a few classical Cepheids with an accurate dynamical mass determination ({{M}1}=3.90+/- 0.10 {{M}⊙ }). The companion is probably slightly less massive (3.82+/- 0.10 {{M}⊙ }), but may have the same mass within errors ({{M}2}/{{M}1}=0.981+/- 0.015). The system has an age of about 185 million years and the Cepheid is in a more advanced evolutionary stage. For the first time precise parameters are derived for both stars in this system. Due to the lack of the secondary eclipse for many years, not much was known about the Cepheid’s companion. In our analysis, we used extra information from the pulsations and the orbital solution from the radial velocity curve. The best model predicts a grazing secondary eclipse shallower than 1 mmag, hence undetectable in the data, about 370 days after the primary eclipse. The dynamical mass obtained here is the most accurate known for a FO Cepheid and will contribute to the solution of the Cepheid mass discrepancy problem. The research is based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT and 3.6 m telescopes for Programmes 092.D-0295(A), 091.D-0393(A), 089.D-0330(A), 088.D-0447(A), 086.D-0103(A), and 085.D-0398(A), and with the Magellan Clay and Warsaw telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory.

  20. Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Analysis of Brazilian Pine (Araucaria angustifolia Bertol. Kuntze) Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Juliana; Mosini, Amanda C.; dos Santos, André L. W.; Rossi, Magdalena; Floh, Eny I. S.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of gene expression is a fundamental experimental approach in many fields of plant biology, but it requires the use of internal controls representing constitutively expressed genes for reliable transcript quantification. In this study, we identified fifteen putative reference genes from an A. angustifolia transcriptome database. Variation in transcript levels was first evaluated in silico by comparing read counts and then by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), resulting in the identification of six candidate genes. The consistency of transcript abundance was also calculated applying geNorm and NormFinder software packages followed by a validation approach using four target genes. The results presented here indicate that a diverse set of samples should ideally be used in order to identify constitutively expressed genes, and that the use of any two reference genes in combination, of the six tested genes, is sufficient for effective expression normalization. Finally, in agreement with the in silico prediction, a comprehensive analysis of the qRT-PCR data combined with validation analysis revealed that AaEIF4B-L and AaPP2A are the most suitable reference genes for comparative studies of A. angustifolia gene expression. PMID:26313945

  1. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: THE DISTANCE TO THE SCULPTOR GALAXY NGC 247 FROM NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF CEPHEID VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Szewczyk, Olaf; Soszynski, Igor; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Storm, Jesper; Minniti, Dante; GarcIa-Varela, Alejandro E-mail: szewczyk@astro-udec.cl E-mail: soszynsk@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: jstorm@aip.de

    2009-08-01

    We have obtained deep near-infrared images in J and K filters of four fields in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 247 with the ESO VLT and Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera. For a sample of 10 Cepheids in these fields, previously discovered by GarcIa-Varela et al. from optical wide-field images, we have determined mean J and K magnitudes and have constructed the period-luminosity (PL) relations in these bands. Using the near-infrared PL relations together with those in the optical V and I bands, we have determined a true distance modulus for NGC 247 of 27.64 mag, with a random uncertainty of {+-}2% and a systematic uncertainty of {approx}4% which is dominated by the effect of unresolved stars on the Cepheid photometry. The mean reddening affecting the NGC 247 Cepheids of E(B - V) = 0.18 {+-} 0.02 mag is mostly produced in the host galaxy itself and is significantly higher than what was found in the previous optical Cepheid studies in NGC 247 of our own group, and Madore et al., leading to a 7% decrease in the previous optical Cepheid distance. As in other studies of our project, the distance modulus of NGC 247 we report is tied to an assumed Large Magellanic Cloud distance modulus of 18.50. Comparison with other distance measurements to NGC 247 shows that the present IR-based Cepheid distance is the most accurate among these determinations. With a distance of 3.4 Mpc, NGC 247 is about 1.5 Mpc more distant than NGC 55 and NGC 300, two other Sculptor Group spirals analyzed before with the same technique by our group.

  2. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  3. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  4. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  5. Assessment of Response to Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder: A Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) Report

    PubMed Central

    Manchia, Mirko; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Banzato, Claudio EM.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bellivier, Frank; Bengesser, Susanne; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise; Calkin, Cynthia V.; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Scott; Czerski, Piotr M.; Dantas, Clarissa; Zompo, Maria Del; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Etain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A.; Fullerton, Jan; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie; Goes, Fernando S.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Hoban, Rebecca; Hou, Liping; Jamain, Stéphane; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kelsoe, John R.; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Lavebratt, Catharina; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G.; López Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Maj, Mario; Malafosse, Alain; Martinsson, Lina; Masui, Takuya; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mondimore, Frank; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nallet, Audrey; Neuner, Maria; Novák, Tomás; O’Donovan, Claire; Ösby, Urban; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B.; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Schalling, Martin; Schofield, Peter R.; Schubert, Oliver K.; Schweizer, Barbara; Seemüller, Florian; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Severino, Giovanni; Seymour, Lisa R.; Slaney, Claire; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Steele, Jo; Stopkova, Pavla; Tighe, Sarah K.; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Wray, Naomi R.; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P.; Zilles, David; Bauer, Michael; Rietschel, Marcella; McMahon, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the “Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder” scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (κ)] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment response scores available for 1,308 patients using mixture modeling. Results Substantial and moderate agreement was shown across sites in the first and second sets of vignettes (κ = 0.66 and κ = 0.54, respectively), without significant improvement from training. However, definition of response using the A score as a quantitative trait and selecting cases with B criteria of 4 or less showed an improvement between the two stages (ICC1 = 0.71 and ICC2 = 0.75, respectively). Mixture modeling of score distribution indicated three subpopulations (full responders, partial responders, non responders). Conclusions We identified two definitions of lithium response, one dichotomous and the other continuous, with moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement and reliability. Accurate phenotypic measurement of lithium response is crucial for the ongoing ConLiGen pharmacogenomic study. PMID:23840348

  6. A signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for detecting Con A using phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride as signal probe.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xin; Tan, Xingrong; Liu, Xiaofang; Lu, Qiyi; Chen, Shihong; Wei, Shaping

    2015-08-15

    A novel signal-on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detecting concanavalin A (Con A) was fabricated with phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride (DexP-g-C3N4) as signal probe. In this construction strategy, the nanocomposites of three-dimensional graphene and gold nanoparticles (3D-GR-AuNPs) were used as matrix for high loading of glucose oxidase (GOx), which served as recognition element for bounding Con A. Con A further interacted with DexP-g-C3N4 through a specific carbohydrate-Con A interaction to achieve a sandwiched scheme. With the increase of Con A incubated onto the electrode, the ECL signal resulted from DexP-g-C3N4 would enhance, thus achieving a signal-on ECL biosensor for Con A detection. Due to the integration of the virtues of 3D-GR-AuNPs and the excellent ECL performance of DexP-g-C3N4, the prepared biosensor exhibits a wide linear response range from 0.05 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 17 pg/mL (S/N=3).

  7. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  8. EPA site demonstration of the international waste technologies/Geo-Con in-situ stabilization/solidification process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.

    1990-11-01

    The paper presents an EPA evaluation of the first field demonstration of an in situ stabilization/solidification process for contaminated soil under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Demonstration of the process was a joint effort of two vendors: International Waste Technologies' (IWT) of Wichita, Kansas, who provided the treatment process, specifically the proprietary additive called HWT-20, and Geo-Con, Inc., of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who provided both engineering and hardware for the in situ soil treatment. The field demonstration took place in April, 1988 at a site contaminated mainly with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). EPA tested the soil before and after treatment and the EPA evaluation of the process is based on results from the testing. A year later, in April 1989, EPA tested again the treated soil and results of that testing were compared to those of the demonstration. Results of the EPA evaluation of the IWT process, the Geo-Con performance, and treatment costs are discussed separately.

  9. A Recovery-Oriented Care Approach: Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Newly Built Mental Health Facility.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Catherine Clark; Bieling, Peter; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Langstaff, Karen

    2016-02-01

    The current study adopted a recovery-oriented care approach by emphasizing patients' perspectives and experiences regarding changes to a newly built mental health facility. The inpatient entrance, or "portal," intended to balance the aims of recovery-oriented care with minimizing risk. A mixed-methods study of the portal's pros and cons was conducted, according to four themes: (a) autonomy versus inconvenience; (b) safety and security versus stigma; (c) unit door versus portal operating costs; and (d) privacy versus community integration. Focus groups engaging with patients (N = 39) indicated that the design effectively supported recovery-oriented care. Patients did not find the portal to be stigmatizing or triggering and valued the safety and privacy it created, and visitors also generally had a positive experience. Survey responses (N = 101) from portal users were also positive about the new design. The study findings suggest that the pros outweighed the cons of the new design. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 39-48.]. PMID:27648873

  10. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  11. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  12. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  13. Fluoroalcohols induced unfolding of Succinylated Con A: native like beta-structure in partially folded intermediate and alpha-helix in molten globule like state.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Sadaf; Ahmad, Basir; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2006-10-15

    Concanavalin A (Con A) exists in dimeric state at pH 5. In concentration range 20-60% (v/v) 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 2-40% (v/v) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), Con A at pH 5.0 shows visible aggregation. However, when succinyl Con A was used, no aggregation was observed in the entire concentration range of fluoroalcohols (0-90% v/v TFE and HFIP) and resulted in stable alpha-helix formation. Temperature-induced concentration-dependent aggregation in Con A was also found to be prevented/reduced in succinylated form. Possible role of electrostatic repulsion among residues in the prevention of hydrophobically driven aggregation has been discussed. Results indicate that succinylation of a protein resulted in greater stability (in both beta-sheet and alpha-helical forms) against alcohol-induced and temperature-induced concentration-dependent aggregation and this observation may play significant role in amyloid-forming proteins. Effect of TFE and HFIP on the conformation of a dimeric protein, Succinylated Con A, has been investigated by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence emission spectroscopy, binding of hydrophobic dye ANS (8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid). Far UV-CD, a probe for secondary structure shows loss of native secondary structure in the presence of low concentration of both the alcohols, TFE (10% v/v) and HFIP (4% v/v). Upon addition of higher concentration of these alcohols, Succinylated Con A exhibited transformation from beta-sheet to alpha-helical structure. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence studies, ANS binding and near UV-CD experiments indicate the protein is more expanded, have more exposed hydrophobic surfaces and highly disrupted tertiary structure at 60% (v/v) TFE and 30% (v/v) HFIP concentrations. Taken together, these results it might be concluded that TFE and HFIP induce two intermediate states at their low and high concentrations in Succinyl Con A.

  14. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  15. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  16. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  17. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people’s attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments’ polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  18. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  19. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.; Merz, Kenneth M. Jr; Westerhoff, Lance M.

    2014-05-01

    Semiempirical quantum-chemical X-ray macromolecular refinement using the program DivCon integrated with PHENIX is described. Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.

  20. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture.

  1. Blockade of IL-33 ameliorates Con A-induced hepatic injury by reducing NKT cell activation and IFN-γ production in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Duan, Lihua; Xiong, Ali; Zhang, Hongwei; Zheng, Fang; Tan, Zheng; Gong, Feili; Fang, Min

    2012-12-01

    IL-33, a recently described member of the IL-1 family, has been identified as a cytokine endowed with pro-Th2 type functions. To date, there are only limited data on its role in physiological and pathological hepatic immune responses. In this study, we examined the role of IL-33 in immune-mediated liver injury by exploring the model of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis. We observed that the level of IL-33 expression in the liver was dramatically increased at 12 h after Con A injection. Meanwhile, ST2L, the receptor of IL-33, was significantly up-regulated in lymphocytes including T and natural killer T (NKT) cells, especially in NKT cells. Moreover, administration of recombinant IL-33 exacerbated Con A-induced hepatitis, while pretreatment of IL-33-blocking antibody or psST2-Fc plasmids showed a protective effect probably by inhibiting the activation of late stage of T cells and NKT cells and also decreasing the production of the cytokine IFN-γ. Furthermore, depletion of NKT cells abolished the protective effect of IL-33-blocking antibody, and IL-33 failed to exacerbate Con A-induced hepatitis in IFN-γ(-/-) mice. These data suggested the critical roles of NKT cells and IFN-γ in the involvement of IL-33 in Con A-induced hepatitis. Blockade of IL-33 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy through IL-33/ST2L signal to prevent immune-mediated liver injury.

  2. Effect of concanavalin A (Con-A) on the hormone production of the unicellular Tetrahymena and the immune cells of the rat. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Csaba, György; Pállinger, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Tetrahymena populations were treated with 10(-15) g ml(-1) or 10(-6) g ml(-1) concanavalin-A (Con-A) in tryptone-yeast medium for 1 h. Rat peritoneal immune cells (mast cells, lymphocytes, monocyte-granulocyte group) were also treated with 10(-6) g ml(-1) Con-A, for 1 h. The cells' hormone (ACTH, histamine, serotonin, endorphin, triiodothyronine (T(3))) content was measured by using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The extremely low dose of Con-A universally and significantly elevated the hormone contents, while the result of higher dose was uncertain. In the immune cells, Con-A significantly decreased the ACTH level in each cell type and histamine level in mast cells. The results demonstrate the very high sensitivity of Tetrahymena receptors for a non-hormone (lectin) molecule, which can bind to the insulin receptors and mimics the effect of insulin. The results also show that Tetrahymena receptors are more sensitive to lower concentrations of molecules than to higher ones. The universal hormone-production stimulating effect of Con-A-which is observed in Tetrahymena-is specified in rat.

  3. Proteomic profiling of N-linked glycoproteins identifies ConA-binding procathepsin D as a novel serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi-Jun; Ward, Douglas G; Pang, Chun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Wei, Wenbin; Ma, Jin; Zhang, Juan; Lou, Qiang; Shimwell, Neil J; Martin, Ashley; Wong, Nathalie; Chao, Wei-Xia; Wang, Ming; Ma, Yuan-Fang; Johnson, Philip J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of, and potential therapeutic targets for, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multilectin affinity chromatography was used to enrich N-linked glycoproteins from nontumorous liver and HCC tissues followed by 2DE and protein identification by MS. Twenty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified. Western blotting validated consistently lower concentrations of human liver carboxylesterase 1 and haptoglobin, and higher concentration of procathepsin D (pCD) in HCC tissues. Knockdown of cathepsin D (CD) expression mediated by siRNA significantly inhibited the in vitro invasion of two HCC cell lines, SNU449 and SNU473, which normally secrete high-levels of CD. Prefractionation using individual lectins demonstrated an elevation in ConA-binding glycoforms of proCD and CD in HCC tissues. In the serum of HCC patients, "ConA-binding proCD" (ConA-pCD) is significantly increased in concentration and this increase is comprised of several distinct upregulated acidic isoforms (pI 4.5-5.5). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of serum ConA-pCD for HCC diagnosis were 85% and 80%, respectively. This is the first report that serum ConA-pCD is increased significantly in HCC and is potentially useful as a serological biomarker for diagnosis of HCC.

  4. Uptake of antioxidants by natural nutrition and supplementation: pros and cons from the dermatological point of view.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Schanzer, S; Richter, H; Meinke, M C; Sterry, W; Zastrow, L; Doucet, O; Vergou, T; Darvin, M E

    2011-01-01

    The pros and cons of the systemic and topical application of antioxidant substances are a subject of intense discussion among experts, with resulting confusion for consumers and producers. The objective of the present article is to clarify the various uncertainties relating to the use of antioxidant substances in dermatology. Whereas inappropriate application of antioxidant substances (concerning their concentration and composition) might induce harmful effects, the consumer will definitively benefit from physiological concentrations and compositions of antioxidants. The most suitable method is the consumption of natural antioxidants in the form of fruit and vegetables, for example. In addition, the skin, which also accumulates antioxidant substances, may profit from a sufficient antioxidative level, as damage induced by sun radiation in addition to skin aging is reduced.

  5. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  6. Probabilidad de colisión de cometas periódicos con partículas interplanetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Hutton, R.

    Se presentan resultados sobre la probabilidad de colisión de cometas de corto período con la población de partículas interplanetarias presentes en la región del cinturón de asteroides. Se encuentra que este proceso colisional afecta la evolución física de los cometas de manera no despreciable y puede ser el responsable de variaciones de brillo de tipo ``outburst". Se presentan resultados para algunos cometas en particular y se obtiene un límite inferior para el tamaño de los núcleos en función de la distribución de radios del cinturón de asteroides.

  7. Effect of the carboxylate salt on the C--ON bond homolysis of SG1-based alkoxyamines.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Marque, Sylvain R A; Siri, Didier; Tordo, Paul; Trappo, Gregory

    2008-02-01

    Alkoxyamines and persistent nitroxides are important regulators of the nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMP). Since the polymerization time decreases with increasing values of the homolysis rate constant (kd) for the C--ON bond between the polymer chain and the nitroxide moiety, the factors influencing kd are of considerable interest. Environmentally friendly polymerization methods, such as NMP in emulsion medium, have now been developed. The success of the polymerization depends not only on the strength of the C--ON bond but also on the solubility of the initiator/controller alkoxyamines, which control the nucleation. Various salts of SG1-based alkoxyamines (S+-OOCCMeH-SG1) labelled 1 a-f, where S+=Li+ (a), Na+ (b), K+ (c), nBu3HN+ (d), NH4+ (e), and nBu4N+ (f) are prepared, all of which are soluble in most organic solvents (e.g. pentane, dichlomethane, benzene, ethanol, etc.) as well as in water. Their kd values, which are measured in tert-butylbenzene, reveal unexpected behaviors depending on the diastereoisomers. For the RR/SS diatereoisomers (i.e. slowly homolyzing isomers), kd was not found to be sensitive to any of the salts, whereas for the RS/SR diastereoisomers (i.e. quickly homolyzing isomers), kd is observed to decrease to a greater or lesser extent depending on the type of salt. The conformations of the diastereoisomers of several salts are determined by means of DFT calculations, and the orbital interactions are studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. PMID:18200479

  8. Neuropeptide S reduces fear and avoidance of con-specifics induced by social fear conditioning and social defeat, respectively.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Menon, Rohit; Neumann, Inga D

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has anxiolytic effects and facilitates extinction of cued fear in rodents. Here, we investigated whether NPS reverses social fear and social avoidance induced by social fear conditioning (SFC) and acute social defeat (SD), respectively, in male CD1 mice. Our results revealed that intracerebroventricular NPS (icv; 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) reversed fear of unknown con-specifics induced by SFC and dose-dependently reduced avoidance of known aggressive con-specifics induced by SD. While 50 nmol of NPS completely reversed social avoidance and reinstated social preference, 10 nmol of NPS reduced social avoidance, but did not completely reinstate social preference in socially-defeated mice. Further, a lower dose (1 nmol/2 μl) of NPS facilitated the within-session extinction of cued fear, while a higher dose (10 nmol/2 μl) reduced the expression of cued fear. We could also confirm the anxiolytic effects of NPS (1, 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM), which were not accompanied by alterations in locomotor activity either on the EPM or in the home cage. Finally, we could show that icv infusion of the NPS receptor 1 antagonist D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)-NPS (10 nmol/2 μl) did not alter SFC-induced social fear, general anxiety and locomotor activity. Taken together, our study extends the potent anxiolytic profile of NPS to a social context by demonstrating the reduction of social fear and social avoidance, thus providing the framework for studies investigating the involvement of the NPS system in the regulation of different types of social behaviour.

  9. Preliminary laboratory study of plutonium-238 dissolution from Mound soil by means of the ACT*DE*CON sup SM process

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Heinrich, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Edgar, D.E. )

    1992-04-01

    The treatment of contaminated soil presents a significant technical problem. Soil-washing and chemical-extraction methods have proven to be effective for specific applications, but a process with more comprehensive treatment properties that is both cost-effective and environmentally propitious is needed. Bradtec, Inc., has developed a process, the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process, that has been tested on soil contaminated with plutonium. The process effectively extracted Pu-238 after three washes, reducing the contamination levels from approximately 20 Bq/g to 1.6--1.9 Bq/g and yielding a decontamination factor ranging from 11 to 13. By using four or more ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} washes or a continuous-flow process with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solvents on a pilot-scale test, a target decontamination level of 0.93 Bq/g might be achievable.

  10. Preliminary laboratory study of plutonium-238 dissolution from Mound soil by means of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Heinrich, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Edgar, D.E.

    1992-04-01

    The treatment of contaminated soil presents a significant technical problem. Soil-washing and chemical-extraction methods have proven to be effective for specific applications, but a process with more comprehensive treatment properties that is both cost-effective and environmentally propitious is needed. Bradtec, Inc., has developed a process, the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process, that has been tested on soil contaminated with plutonium. The process effectively extracted Pu-238 after three washes, reducing the contamination levels from approximately 20 Bq/g to 1.6--1.9 Bq/g and yielding a decontamination factor ranging from 11 to 13. By using four or more ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} washes or a continuous-flow process with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solvents on a pilot-scale test, a target decontamination level of 0.93 Bq/g might be achievable.

  11. The anti-inflammatory effect of the SOCC blocker SK&F 96365 on mouse lymphocytes after stimulation by Con A or PMA/ionomycin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yanxia; Zhang, Yaxing; Lu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Xiuyan; Zeng, Xiangfeng; Lai, Xinqiang; Zeng, Yaoying

    2011-09-01

    SK&F 96365, 51-(beta-[3-(p-methoxyphenyl)-propyloxy]-p-methoxyphenethyl)-1H-imidazole hydrochloride, has emerged as a useful pharmacological tool in the study of store-operated Ca²⁺ entry (SOCE). But the precise molecular mechanism and effect of SK&F 96365 on mouse lymphocytes are still not well determined. This study investigated the pharmacological profile of SK&F 96365 on mouse lymphocytes stimulated by mitogen concanavalin A (Con A) or by a combination of a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and a calcium ionophore, ionomycin in vitro. Our results showed that SK&F 96365 pre-treatment diminished the cytosolic calcium rise on lymphocytes induced by ionomycin, PMA/ionomycin, and thapsigargin (TG), respectively. CFDA-SE staining results showed that SK&F 96365 (5-20 μM) inhibited both Con A- and PMA/ionomycin-induced lymphocytes proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Upon the same stimulation, SK&F 96365 inhibited the expression of CD69 and CD25 on CD3⁺ T lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analyzing results showed that SK&F 96365 caused a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest on both Con A- and PMA/ionomycin-activated lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, SK&F 96365 induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and promoted mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in both Con A- and PMA/ionomycin-activated lymphocytes. Furthermore, SK&F 96365 significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) on both Con A- and PMA/ionomycin-activated lymphocytes. SK&F 96365 did not induce a statistically significant increase in levels of proinflammatory IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but of IL-12p70 upon the stimulation of Con A, whereas these three cytokines were markedly inhibited by it upon the stimulation of PMA/ionomycin. This finding

  12. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  13. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  14. Studies on prevalence of biofilm associated genes and primary observation on sasX gene in clinical isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Soumya, Kandammuriyil Radhakrishnan; Mathew, Shiji; Sugathan, Sheela; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, Edayileveettil Krishnankutty

    2016-04-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are nosocomial pathogens that cause indwelling medical device associated infections due to its biofilm forming potential and multiple antibiotic resistance. The current study focused on species identification, antibiotic resistance profile and molecular basis of biofilm formation and attachment of CoNS isolated from clinical samples. Along with this, molecular screening for mecA and newly identified surface colonization protein encoded by sasX gene was also conducted. S. epidermidis (n = 19, 47%) was identified as the most prevalent CoNS species and very interestingly two biofilm forming, mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates were found to carry all the biofilm associated genes screened in this study, which indicates its potential to form the strong biofilm. Another novel observation of the study is the detection of sasX gene in one biofilm positive S. epidermidis isolate. The study also identified one doxycycline resistant mecA positive, multidrug resistant S. haemolyticus isolate. In conclusion, the study signifies the existence of multiple biofilm related genes, multidrug resistance and the presence of sasX gene among clinical isolates of CoNS.

  15. Synthesis of water-soluble Ag₂Se QDs as a novel resonance Rayleigh scattering sensor for highly sensitive and selective ConA detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuguang; Zhang, Lichun; Tang, Yurong; Lv, Yi

    2014-09-01

    Ag2Se quantum dots (QDs) have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential applications in biosensing and bioimaging. A strategy is presented that involves coupling of selenium powder reduction with the binding of silver ions, and thioglycollic acid (TGA) and glycine as stabilizers to obtain ultrasmall Ag2Se QDs at 85 °C in aqueous solution. This strategy avoids high temperatures, high pressures and organic solvents so that water-soluble 3 nm Ag2Se QDs can be directly obtained. The conjugation of ConA to TGA stabilized Ag2Se QDs by hydrogen bonds leads to the adsorption of ConA to Ag2Se QDs and forms the aggregation and leads to the generation of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) as a readout signal for the sensing events. The reaction mechanism of Ag2Se QD RRS enhancement is studied in this work. The resulting RRS sensor enables the detection of ConA with limit of detection reaching 0.08 μg mL(-1) concentration in a wide linear range from 0.27 μg mL(-1) to 35 μg mL(-1). The recovery of spiked ConA in human serum samples ranges from 94% to 106%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eleven replicate detections is 3.6%. Our results correlate many important experimental observations and will fuel the further growth of this field.

  16. Media-Based Interactive Visual Image-Controlled (Vis-I-Con) Instruction Delivery System for Instruction of Deaf and Hearing-Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Raymond

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a programmable media-based microprocessor-controlled interactive instruction delivery system using super 8 film and addressable audiotape messages, the Vis-I-Con system. (Author/PHR)

  17. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package.

    PubMed

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Plumley, Joshua A; Martin, Roger I; Merz, Kenneth M; Westerhoff, Lance M

    2014-05-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein-ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.

  18. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  19. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): A potential NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S.

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6 × 2 × 3 mm3) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  20. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil

    PubMed Central

    d’Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant. PMID:24031279

  1. Galectin-9 Ameliorates Con A-Induced Hepatitis by Inducing CD4+CD25low/int Effector T-Cell Apoptosis and Increasing Regulatory T Cell Number

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengying; Zhong, Min; Suo, Qifeng

    2012-01-01

    Background T cell-mediated liver damage is a key event in the pathogenesis of many chronic human liver diseases, such as liver transplant rejection, primary biliary cirrhosis, and sclerosing cholangitis. We and other groups have previously reported that galectin-9, one of the β-galactoside binding animal lectins, might be potentially useful in the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases. To evaluate the direct effect of galectin-9 on hepatitis induced by concanavalin A (Con A) administration in mice and to clarify the mechanisms involved, we administered galectin-9 into mice, and evaluated its therapeutic effect on Con A-induced hepatitis. Methodology/Principal Findings Galectin-9 was administrated i.v. to Balb/c mice 30 min before Con A injection. Compared with no treatment, galectin-9 pretreatment significantly reduced serum ALT and AST levels and improved liver histopathology, suggesting an ameliorated hepatitis. This therapeutic effect was not only attributable to a blunted Th1 immune response, but also to an increased number in regulatory T cells, as reflected in a significantly increased apoptosis of CD4+CD25low/int effector T cells and in reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels. Conclusion/Significance Our findings constitute the first preclinical data indicating that interfering with TIM-3/galectin-9 signaling in vivo could ameliorate Con A-induced hepatitis. This strategy may represent a new therapeutic approach in treating human diseases involving T cell activation. PMID:23118999

  2. Aumento de la supervivencia en hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico que reciben quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Los hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico sensible a las hormonas que recibieron el fármaco quimioterapéutico docetaxel al inicio de la terapia hormonal convencional vivieron más tiempo que los pacientes que recibieron solo terapia hormonal, de acuer

  3. Toward Lower Overpotential through Improved Electron Transport Property: Hierarchically Porous CoN Nanorods Prepared by Nitridation for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu-Mao; Zhu, Qian-Cheng; Harris, Michelle; Chen, Tong-Heng; Ma, Chao; Wei, Xiao; Xu, Hua-Sheng; Zhou, Yong-Xian; Cao, Yu-Cai; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2016-09-14

    To lower the overpotential of a lithium-oxygen battery, electron transport at the solid-to-solid interface between the discharge product Li2O2 and the cathode catalyst is of great significance. Here we propose a strategy to enhance electron transport property of the cathode catalyst by the replace of oxygen atoms in the generally used metal oxide-based catalysts with nitrogen atoms to improve electron density at Fermi energy after nitridation. Hierarchically porous CoN nanorods were obtained by thermal treatment of Co3O4 nanorods under ammonia atmosphere at 350 °C. Compared with that of the pristine Co3O4 precursor before nitridation, the overpotential of the obtained CoN cathode was significantly decreased. Moreover, specific capacity and cycling stability of the CoN nanorods were enhanced. It is assumed that the discharged products with different morphologies for Co3O4 and CoN cathodes might be closely associated with the variation in the electronic density induced by occupancy of nitrogen atoms into interstitial sites of metal lattice after nitridation. The nitridation strategy for improved electron density proposed in this work is proved to be a simple but efficient way to improve the electrochemical performance of metal oxide based cathodes for lithium-oxygen batteries. PMID:27504675

  4. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package

    PubMed Central

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.; Merz, Kenneth M.; Westerhoff, Lance M.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography. PMID:24816093

  5. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  6. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y los síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y el tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  7. Toward Lower Overpotential through Improved Electron Transport Property: Hierarchically Porous CoN Nanorods Prepared by Nitridation for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu-Mao; Zhu, Qian-Cheng; Harris, Michelle; Chen, Tong-Heng; Ma, Chao; Wei, Xiao; Xu, Hua-Sheng; Zhou, Yong-Xian; Cao, Yu-Cai; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2016-09-14

    To lower the overpotential of a lithium-oxygen battery, electron transport at the solid-to-solid interface between the discharge product Li2O2 and the cathode catalyst is of great significance. Here we propose a strategy to enhance electron transport property of the cathode catalyst by the replace of oxygen atoms in the generally used metal oxide-based catalysts with nitrogen atoms to improve electron density at Fermi energy after nitridation. Hierarchically porous CoN nanorods were obtained by thermal treatment of Co3O4 nanorods under ammonia atmosphere at 350 °C. Compared with that of the pristine Co3O4 precursor before nitridation, the overpotential of the obtained CoN cathode was significantly decreased. Moreover, specific capacity and cycling stability of the CoN nanorods were enhanced. It is assumed that the discharged products with different morphologies for Co3O4 and CoN cathodes might be closely associated with the variation in the electronic density induced by occupancy of nitrogen atoms into interstitial sites of metal lattice after nitridation. The nitridation strategy for improved electron density proposed in this work is proved to be a simple but efficient way to improve the electrochemical performance of metal oxide based cathodes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  8. MicroRNA let-7a ameliorates con A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting IL-6-dependent Th17 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangmin; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Mengying; Suo, Qifeng; Lv, Kun

    2013-04-01

    In this study we explored the effects of microRNA let-7a on Con A-induced hepatitis and its possible mechanisms involved. We demonstrated that IL-6 and IL-17 expression were significantly upregulated in the liver following Con A treatment and IL-6 level was correlated with the IL-17 expression. To explore whether let-7a may have therapeutic effect on Con A-induced hepatitis, mice was infected with a lentiviral vector containing the let-7a sequence 7 days before Con A treatment. Significantly reduced Th17 cells and remarkably increased regulatory T cells frequency in the liver tissue were found as compared to control mice. It was accompanied by a significant decreased level of inflammatory cytokines as TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ in the serum, and an decreased level of Th17 lineage-specific genes such as Il17a, Il17f, Il21 and Il23r. let-7a was further found to inhibit Th17 differentiation by downregulating IL-6 secretion. It may represent as a novel therapeutic strategy in treating immune-mediated inflammatory hepatitis.

  9. Studies on prevalence of biofilm associated genes and primary observation on sasX gene in clinical isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Soumya, Kandammuriyil Radhakrishnan; Mathew, Shiji; Sugathan, Sheela; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, Edayileveettil Krishnankutty

    2016-04-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are nosocomial pathogens that cause indwelling medical device associated infections due to its biofilm forming potential and multiple antibiotic resistance. The current study focused on species identification, antibiotic resistance profile and molecular basis of biofilm formation and attachment of CoNS isolated from clinical samples. Along with this, molecular screening for mecA and newly identified surface colonization protein encoded by sasX gene was also conducted. S. epidermidis (n = 19, 47%) was identified as the most prevalent CoNS species and very interestingly two biofilm forming, mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates were found to carry all the biofilm associated genes screened in this study, which indicates its potential to form the strong biofilm. Another novel observation of the study is the detection of sasX gene in one biofilm positive S. epidermidis isolate. The study also identified one doxycycline resistant mecA positive, multidrug resistant S. haemolyticus isolate. In conclusion, the study signifies the existence of multiple biofilm related genes, multidrug resistance and the presence of sasX gene among clinical isolates of CoNS. PMID:26847412

  10. Fragilidad y su asociación con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y dependencia funcional en mexicanos de 60 años o más

    PubMed Central

    de León González, Enrique Díaz; Pérez, Héctor Eloy Tamez; Hermosillo, Hugo Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Javier Armando Cedillo; Torres, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo Determinar la asociación entre fragilidad y mortalidad, dependencia funcional, caídas y hospitalizaciones en el Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM). Sujetos y métodos Estudio prospectivo poblacional en México en el que se seleccionaron sujetos de 60 años o más, que fueron evaluados en las variables de fragilidad durante la primera vuelta del estudio en el año 2001 y que incluyó: dificultad para levantarse de una silla después de haber estado sentado(a) durante largo tiempo, pérdida de peso de 5 kilogramos o más en los últimos dos años y falta de energía. Los sujetos fueron catalogados como robustos, prefrágiles y frágiles cuando tenían cero, una o dos de las características anteriores, respectivamente. La mortalidad, hospitalizaciones, caídas y dependencia funcional fueron evaluadas en la segunda vuelta del estudio en el año 2003. Se calculó el riesgo relativo para cada una de las complicaciones, así como análisis multivariado con regresión de Cox para el caso de mortalidad y regresión logística para el resto. Resultados Los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad se asociaron independientemente con mortalidad, con índices de riesgo ajustados de 1,61 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%] 1,01-2,55) y 1,94 (IC 95% 1,20-3,13), respectivamente. Sólo el estado de fragilidad se asoció independientemente con hospitalización y dependencia funcional, con una razón de momios ajustada de 1,53 (IC 95% 1,13-2,07) y 3,07 (IC 95% 1,76-5,34), respectivamente. No hubo asociación entre los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad con caídas. Conclusión El estado de fragilidad se asocia independientemente con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y disfuncionalidad en actividades básicas de la vida diaria en los siguientes dos años en población mexicana. PMID:21612803

  11. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  12. Use of a GnRH vaccine, GonaCon, for prevention and treatment of adrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Wagner, Robert A; Finkler, Mark

    2013-09-23

    Adrenocortical disease (ACD) is a common problem in surgically sterilized, middle-aged to old ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). The adrenal tissues of these ferrets develop hyperplasia, adenomas, or adenocarcinomas, which produce steroid hormones including estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione. Major clinical signs attributable to overproduction of these hormones are alopecia (hair loss) in both sexes and a swollen vulva in females. Pruritus, muscle atrophy, hind limb weakness, and sexual activity or aggression are also observed in both sexes. Males can develop prostatic cysts, prostatitis, and urethral obstruction. ACD is thought to be linked to continuous and increased LH secretion, due to lack of gonadal hormone feedback in neutered ferrets. This continuous elevated LH acts on adrenal cortex LH receptors, resulting in adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal tumor. This study investigated whether the immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon, a GnRH vaccine developed to reduce the fertility of wildlife species and the spread of disease, could prevent or delay onset of ACD and treat alopecia in ferrets with existing ACD. Results showed that GonaCon provided relief from ACD by causing production of antibodies to GnRH, probably suppressing production and/or release of LH. Treatment caused many ACD symptoms to disappear, allowing the ferrets to return to a normal life. The study also found that the probability of developing ACD was significantly reduced in ferrets treated with GonaCon when young (1-3 years old) compared to untreated control animals. GonaCon caused injection site reaction in some animals when administered as an intramuscular injection but caused few side effects when administered subcutaneously. Both intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccination resulted in similar levels of GnRH antibody titers. Subcutaneous vaccination with GonaCon is thus recommended to prevent the onset of ACD and as a possible treatment for ACD-signs in domestic ferrets. PMID

  13. Vγ4 γδ T cell-derived IL-17A negatively regulates NKT cell function in Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Hao, Jianlei; Ni, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Liang, Ruifang; Cao, Guangchao; Zhao, Yapu; Wang, Puyue; Zhao, Liqing; Tian, Zhigang; Flavell, Richard; Hong, Zhangyong; Han, Jihong; Yao, Zhi; Wu, Zhenzhou; Yin, Zhinan

    2011-11-15

    Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis is a well-known animal model for acute liver failure. However, the role of γδ T cells in this model is undefined. In this report, using TCR δ(-/-) mice, we demonstrated a protective role of γδ T cells in Con A-induced hepatitis model. TCR δ(-/-) mice showed significantly decreased levels of IL-17A and IL-17F in the Con A-treated liver tissue, and reconstitution of TCR δ(-/-) mice with wild-type (Wt), but not IL-17A(-/-), γδ T cells significantly reduced hepatitis, strongly suggesting a critical role of IL-17A in mediating the protective effect of γδ T cells. Interestingly, only Vγ4, but not Vγ1, γδ T cells exerted such a protective effect. Furthermore, depletion of NKT cells in TCR δ(-/-) mice completely abolished hepatitis, and NKT cells from Con A-challenged liver tissues of TCR δ(-/-) mice expressed significantly higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ than those from Wt mice, indicating that γδ T cells protected hepatitis through targeting NKT cells. Finally, abnormal capacity of IFN-γ production by NKT cells of TCR δ(-/-) mice could only be downregulated by transferring Wt, but not IL-17(-/-), Vγ4 γδ T cells, confirming an essential role of Vγ4-derived IL-17A in regulating the function of NKT cells. In summary, our report thus demonstrated a novel function of Vγ4 γδ T cells in mediating a protective effect against Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis through negatively regulating function of NKT cells in an IL-17A-dependent manner, and transferring Vγ4 γδ T cells may provide a novel therapeutic approach for this devastating liver disease.

  14. Deletion of gp130 in myeloid cells modulates IL-6-release and is associated with more severe liver injury of Con A hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Lutz, H H; Sackett, S D; Kroy, D C; Gassler, N; Trautwein, C

    2012-01-01

    IL-6/gp130 dependent signaling plays an important role in modulating inflammation in acute and chronic diseases. The course of Concanavalin A- (Con A) induced hepatitis can be modulated by different immune-mediated mechanisms. IL-6/gp130-dependent signaling has been shown to be protective in hepatocytes. However, the role of this pathway in myeloid cells has not yet been studied. In our present study we used macrophage/neutrophil-specific gp130 knockout (gp130(ΔLys), KO) animals and analyzed its relevance in modulating Con A-induced hepatitis. Additionally, we performed in vitro studies with gp130(ΔLys)-macrophages. We demonstrate that gp130(ΔLys) animals are more susceptible to Con A-induced hepatitis. This is reflected by higher transaminases, higher lethality and more severe liver injury as shown by histological staining. Using flow cytometry analysis we further could show that increased liver injury of gp130(ΔLys) animals is associated with a stronger infiltration of CD11b/F4/80 double-positive cells compared to wild-type (gp130(flox/flox), WT) controls. To further characterize our observations we studied thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from gp130(ΔLys) animals. Interestingly, the LPS-dependent IL-6 release in gp130(ΔLys) macrophages is significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to WT macrophages. Additionally, IL-6 blood levels in vivo after Con A injection were significantly lower in gp130(ΔLys) animals compared to WT animals (p<0.05). In summary, our results suggest that gp130-deletion in macrophages and granulocytes leads to diminished IL-6 release from these cells, which is associated with more severe Con A-induced hepatitis.

  15. Expected and Unexpected Consequences of the Affordable Care Act: The Impact on Patients and Surgeons-Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Marek; Armstrong, John H; Clark, Clancy; Marcus, Stuart G; Sacks, Lee; Moser, A James; Reid-Lombardo, K Marie

    2016-02-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), called the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or "ObamaCare" for short, was enacted in 2010. The Public Policy and Advocacy Committee of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT) hosted a debate with an expert panel to discuss the ACA and its impact on surgical care after the first year of patient enrollment. The purpose of this debate was to focus on the impact of ACA on the public and surgeons. At the core of the ACA are insurance industry reforms and expanded coverage, with a goal of improved clinical outcomes and reduced costs of care. We have observed supportive and opposing views on ACA. Nonetheless, we will witness major shifts in health care delivery as well as restructuring of our relationship with payers, institutions, and patients. With the rapidly changing health care landscape, surgeons will become key members of health systems and will likely need to lead transition from solo-practice to integrated care systems. The full effects of the ACA remain unrealized, but its implementation has begun to change the map of the American health care system and will surely impact the practice of surgery. Herein, we provide a synopsis of the "pro" and "con" arguments for the expected and unexpected consequences of the ACA on society and surgeons. PMID:26589524

  16. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S. B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients’ blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays. PMID:26512704

  17. Balancing the pros and cons of GMOs: socio-scientific argumentation in pre-service teacher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the role of the discursive process in the act of scientific knowledge building. Specifically, it links scientific knowledge building to risk perception of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). To this end, this study designed and implemented a three-stage argumentation programme giving pre-service teachers (PSTs) the opportunity to consider, discuss and construct shared decisions about GMOs. The study involved 101 third-year PSTs from two different classes, randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The study utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the quantitative phase, researchers administered a pre- and post-intervention scale to measure both groups' risk perception of GMOs. During the qualitative phase, data were collected from the experimental group alone through individual and group reports and an open-ended questionnaire. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups' risk perception of GMOs. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences, for example, in PSTs' weighing of the pros and cons of scientific research demonstrating positive results of GMOs. In addition, PSTs' acceptance of GMOs increased. Consequently, this study suggests that developing familiarity with scientific enterprise may play an effective role in adopting a scientific perspective as well as a more balanced risk perception of GMOs.

  18. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  19. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  1. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM. PMID:26596682

  2. Virgin Caenorhabditis remanei females are attracted to a coital pheromone released by con-specific copulating males

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Mathew; García, Luis René

    2013-01-01

    The gonochoristic soil nematode Caenorhabditis remanei strictly requires copulation for species propagation. Males of this species are sexually promiscuous with females of other species; therefore, we asked in this study whether virgin C. remanei females display evidence of mate choice. We digitally recorded and measured the locomotor behaviors of one or more virgin females in the presence of a single male on a 5 mm diameter mating lawn. We observed that initially only the male modifies his locomotor trajectory to another animal on the mating lawn; the virgin females showed no locomotor bias toward the mate-searching male. However, once a male started to copulate, females in the vicinity altered their movement trajectories toward the copulating couple. Newly inseminated females are refractive to the coital signal, but partially regain their attraction to copulating males after 24 h. We found only copulating males with an intact gonad can attract females, and that the coital signal can be broadcasted at least 1.5 mm through the air. Unlike males, which are also attracted to hetero-specific females, virgin C. remanei females will only crawl toward a copulating con-specific male. We suggest that Caenorhabditis females use the coital signal as a pheromone to identify a vigorous male of their own species. PMID:24058874

  3. [Sedation concepts with volatile anaesthetics in intensive care: practical use and current experiences with the AnaConDa system].

    PubMed

    Kompardt, J; Schärff, K; Kubosch, K; Pohl, C; Bomplitz, M; Soukup, J

    2008-12-01

    The use of volatile anaesthetics in intensive care medicine has so far been limited by the lack of equipment suitable for daily routine use and the need for an anaesthetic machine. The new Anaesthetic Conserving Device (AnaConDa) enables the routine use of volatile anaesthetics for long-term sedation via intensive care ventilators. The Anaesthetic Conserving Device replaces the common heat and moisture exchanger in the ventilation circuit. The volatile anaesthetic is continuously applied in liquid status via a syringe pump to a form of mini-vaporiser where the anaesthetic agent is vaporised. The expired anaesthetic gas is stored in the carbon filter and approximately 90% of the gas is resupplied into the breathing cycle. The current experiences suggest that volatile anaesthetics present an alternative for long-term sedation in intensive care units, providing optimised pathways, from a medical as well as from an economical point of view. It must, however, be emphasized that the use of volatile anaesthetics for longer periods of time is an off-label use and should only undertaken by medical professionals at their own risk. PMID:18839123

  4. Tissue-Specific Regulation of p38α-Mediated Inflammation in Con A-Induced Acute Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Jun; Bang, Bo-Ram; Otsuka, Motoyuki; Otsu, Kinya

    2015-05-15

    Because p38α plays a critical role in inflammation, it has been an attractive target for the development of anti-inflammation therapeutics. However, p38α inhibitors showed side effects, including severe liver toxicity, that often prevailed over the benefits in clinical studies, and the mechanism of toxicity is not clear. In this study, we demonstrate that p38α regulates the inflammatory responses in acute liver inflammation in a tissue-specific manner, and liver toxicity by p38α inhibitors may be a result of the inhibition of protective activity of p38α in the liver. Genetic ablation of p38α in T and NKT cells protected mice from liver injury in Con A-induced liver inflammation, whereas liver-specific deletion of p38α aggravated liver pathology. We found that p38α deficiency in the liver increased the expression of chemokines to recruit more inflammatory cells, indicating that p38α in the liver plays a protective anti-inflammatory role during acute liver inflammation. Therefore, our results suggest that p38α regulates the inflammatory responses in a tissue-specific manner, and that the tissue-specific p38α targeting strategies can be used for the development of an effective anti-inflammation treatment with an improved side-effect profile.

  5. Expected and Unexpected Consequences of the Affordable Care Act: The Impact on Patients and Surgeons-Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Marek; Armstrong, John H; Clark, Clancy; Marcus, Stuart G; Sacks, Lee; Moser, A James; Reid-Lombardo, K Marie

    2016-02-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), called the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or "ObamaCare" for short, was enacted in 2010. The Public Policy and Advocacy Committee of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT) hosted a debate with an expert panel to discuss the ACA and its impact on surgical care after the first year of patient enrollment. The purpose of this debate was to focus on the impact of ACA on the public and surgeons. At the core of the ACA are insurance industry reforms and expanded coverage, with a goal of improved clinical outcomes and reduced costs of care. We have observed supportive and opposing views on ACA. Nonetheless, we will witness major shifts in health care delivery as well as restructuring of our relationship with payers, institutions, and patients. With the rapidly changing health care landscape, surgeons will become key members of health systems and will likely need to lead transition from solo-practice to integrated care systems. The full effects of the ACA remain unrealized, but its implementation has begun to change the map of the American health care system and will surely impact the practice of surgery. Herein, we provide a synopsis of the "pro" and "con" arguments for the expected and unexpected consequences of the ACA on society and surgeons.

  6. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    PubMed

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  7. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM.

  8. Evaluation of GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM and GOCO01S Geopotential Models in Venezuela and Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihuela, N. D.; Garcia, A. D.; Tabare, T.; Scientific Team Of Venezuelan; Caribbean Crustal Study From Satellital Data

    2010-12-01

    This paper shows two maps of the magnitude of the surface gravity vector (MSGV) of Venezuela and Caribbean region at 1:500.000 scale in the geographic window between the 0-20 north latitude and 74-58 western longitude (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2), that were generated from GOCE gravity gradients data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). The maps that are showed come from the combined global gravity field model GOCO01s [GOCO Consortium., 2010] and from the satellite-only global gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM [Pail et al., 2010], both of 224 degree. The DEMs used for the evaluation of the MSGV are: Etopo2v2 [NGDC., 2006] and Etopo1 [Amante and Eakins, 2009] respectively. The data processing was done using: Shm2func [ICGEM., 2007]; Goce User Toolbox [ESA., 2009]; Gravsoft package [Tscherning et al., 1992] and Oasis Montaj (Geosoft). This research shows a review of observed gravity in the main geological provinces of the Venezuela and Caribbean region geography, revealing gravitational features important of the geological structures that are in Venezuelan and Caribbean subsurface.

  9. Document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports based on an extension of the ConText algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brian E; Lee, Sean; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we describe an application called peFinder for document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports. peFinder is based on a generalized version of the ConText algorithm, a simple text processing algorithm for identifying features in clinical report documents. peFinder was used to answer questions about the disease state (pulmonary emboli present or absent), the certainty state of the diagnosis (uncertainty present or absent), the temporal state of an identified pulmonary embolus (acute or chronic), and the technical quality state of the exam (diagnostic or not diagnostic). Gold standard answers for each question were determined from the consensus classifications of three human annotators. peFinder results were compared to naive Bayes' classifiers using unigrams and bigrams. The sensitivities (and positive predictive values) for peFinder were 0.98(0.83), 0.86(0.96), 0.94(0.93), and 0.60(0.90) for disease state, quality state, certainty state, and temporal state respectively, compared to 0.68(0.77), 0.67(0.87), 0.62(0.82), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using unigrams, and 0.75(0.79), 0.52(0.69), 0.59(0.84), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using bigrams. PMID:21459155

  10. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.

  11. Circumcision: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Tangal, Semih; Soygur, Tarkan

    2010-01-01

    Circumcision is possibly the most frequently performed elective surgical procedure in men. It can simply be described as the excision of the preputium. There have been several studies about the association between circumcision and urinary tract infections (UTI). Many studies have demonstrated that the frequency of UTI increase in uncircumcised males, especially in the first year of life. This review discusses the embryology of the preputium, epidemiology, indications, complications and benefits of circumcision, as well as operation and anesthesiology techniques. It especially examines the association between UTI and circumcision and the importance of circumcision in congenital urinary system anomalies. In addition, this review examines the associations between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and the protective role of circumcision on penile cancer.

  12. Circumcision: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Tangal, Semih; Soygur, Tarkan

    2010-01-01

    Circumcision is possibly the most frequently performed elective surgical procedure in men. It can simply be described as the excision of the preputium. There have been several studies about the association between circumcision and urinary tract infections (UTI). Many studies have demonstrated that the frequency of UTI increase in uncircumcised males, especially in the first year of life. This review discusses the embryology of the preputium, epidemiology, indications, complications and benefits of circumcision, as well as operation and anesthesiology techniques. It especially examines the association between UTI and circumcision and the importance of circumcision in congenital urinary system anomalies. In addition, this review examines the associations between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and the protective role of circumcision on penile cancer. PMID:20535279

  13. Fotodensitometro realizzato con microscopio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, G.

    1989-02-01

    This work describes the chracteristics and use of a microphotometer suitable for the measure of photographic density of photos of stars. The optics is a normal microscope which projects the small photographic image of a star on the plate of a photodiode. This high sensitivity instrument is easy to build up.

  14. Neo-Conned University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andee

    2014-01-01

    Censorship, says Australian political theorist John Keane (1991), can "echo within us, take up residence within ourselves, spying on us, a private amanuensis who reminds us never to go too far... It makes us zip our lips, tremble and think twice" (p. 39). It can also make us sick. The author states that this is her argument here: that,…

  15. Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Roman, Sandra

    Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción con una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de

  16. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data

    PubMed Central

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4–6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data. PMID:27471441

  17. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data.

    PubMed

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4-6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data.

  18. Obtención de velocidades radiales de precisión con el espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Con el fin de ser empleados como espectros de referencia, han sido obtenidos recientemente 80 espectrogramas de estrellas candidatas a patrones de velocidad radial de todos los tipos espectrales desde B0 a M5, con una dispersión aproximada de 7 Å/mm. Se estudia la influencia de distintos factores (flexión, refracción atmosférica, etc.) en la determinación de velocidades radiales. Se analizan diferentes técnicas de reducción y medición de velocidades, su aplicación a estrellas de diferentes tipos espectrales y velocidades de rotación y se discute la precisión obtenible en cada caso.

  19. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.

  20. Li storage and impedance spectroscopy studies on Co3O4, CoO, and CoN for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Prithvi, Gundlapalli; Loh, Kian Ping; Chowdari, B V R

    2014-01-01

    The compounds, CoN, CoO, and Co3O4 were prepared in the form of nano-rod/particles and we investigated the Li-cycling properties, and their use as an anode material. The urea combustion method, nitridation, and carbothermal reduction methods were adopted to prepare Co3O4, CoN, and CoO, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and density methods were used to characterise the materials. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed and galvanostatic cycling tests were also conducted up to 60-70 cycles. The observed reversible capacity of all compounds is of the increasing order CoO, Co3O4, CoN and all compounds showed negligible capacity fading. CoO allows for Li2O and Co metal to form during the discharge cycle, allowing for a high theoretical capacity of 715 mA h g(-1). Co3O4 allows for 4 Li2O and 3Co to form, and has a theoretical capacity of 890 mAhg(-1). CoN is the best anode material of the three because the nitrogen allows for Li3N and Co to form, resulting in an even higher theoretical capacity of 1100 mAhg(-1) due to the Li3N and Co metal formation. Irrespective of morphology the charge profiles of all three compounds showed a major plateaux ~2.0 V vs. Li and potential values are almost unchanged irrespective of crystal structure. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed to understand variation resistance and capacitance values.

  1. Distribución espacial de cúmulos y asociaciones estelares con diferentes edades en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Clariá, J. J.; Dottori, H.; Santos, J. F. C.; Piatti, A. E.

    Sobre la base de observaciones realizadas en Cerro Tololo y el Casleo, se presenta un catálogo con fotometría UBV integrada de 504 cúmulos y 120 asociaciones estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes. Se determinan edades en términos de los tipos SWB y se identifican 38 cúmulos tipo VII, muchos de los cuales pueden ser cúmulos globulares clásicos. El tamaño de las distribuciones espaciales crece uniformemente con la edad (tipo SWB), en tanto que existe una diferencia en el cociente axial entre los grupos más jóvenes y más viejos que 30 millones de años, lo que implica una orientación aproximadamente de frente para los primeros y una posición inclinada ~ 45o para el segundo grupo. Las asimetrías en las distribuciones espaciales, juntamente con la falta de coincidencia de los centroides de los diferentes grupos de edad, sugiere que el disco de la Nube Mayor de Magallanes fue severamente perturbado en el pasado.

  2. Modulation of Salmonella infection by the lectins of Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Galanthus nivalis (GNA) in a rat model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Naughton, P J; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Pusztai, A

    2000-04-01

    The plant lectins, Concanavalin A (Con A) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) have been prefed to rats for 3 d pre- and 6 d postinfection with Salmonella typhimurium S986 or Salm. enteritidis 857. Con A significantly increased numbers of Salm. typhimurium S986 in the large intestine and in faeces, and severely impaired growth of the rats, more severely than is the case of infection with Salmonella typhimurium alone. Con A had much less effect on rats infected with Salm. enteritidis 857 only showing a significant increase in numbers in the colon, accompanied by intermittent increases of Salmonella in the faeces during the study. GNA significantly reduced pathogen numbers in the lower part of the small bowel and the large intestine of rats infected with Salm. typhimurium S986 and significantly improved rat growth. GNA had little effect on infection by Salm. enteritidis 857 with slight decreases in Salmonella numbers in the small intestine and large intestine and transient increases in the faeces.

  3. A review of the practice of sedation with inhalational anaesthetics in the intensive care unit with the AnaConDa® device

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Satyajeet; Koshy, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) environment is often perceived to be hostile and frightening by patients due to unfamiliar surroundings coupled with presence of numerous personnel, monitors and other equipments as well as a loss of perception of time. Mechanical ventilation and multiple painful procedures that often need to be carried out in these critically ill patients add to their overall anxiety. Sedation is therefore required not only to allay the stress and anxiety, but also to allow for mechanical ventilation and other invasive therapeutic and diagnostic procedures to be performed. The conventional intravenous sedative agents used in ICUs suffer from problems of over sedation, tachyphylaxis, drug accumulation, organ specific elimination and often lead to patient agitation on withdrawal. All this tend to prolong the ventilatory as well as ICU and hospital discharge time, which increase the risk for infection and add to the overall increase in morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. In 2005, the anaesthetic conserving device (AnaConDa®) was marketed for ICU sedation with volatile anaesthetic agents. A number of trials have shown the effectiveness of using volatile anaesthetic agents for ICU sedation with the AnaConDa device. Compared with intravenous sedatives, use of volatile anaesthetic agents have resulted in shorter wake up and extubation time, lesser duration of mechanical ventilation and faster discharge from hospitals. This review shall focus on the benefits, technical pre-requisites and status of sedation with volatile anaesthetic agents in ICUs with the AnaConDa® device. PMID:23325934

  4. Feasibility of aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product (salsa con queso) using a continuous flow microwave system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P

    2007-04-01

    Aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product using a continuous flow microwave heating system can combine the advantages of an aseptic process along with those of microwave heating. Dielectric properties of 2 different brands of 1 such product (salsa con queso) were measured under continuous flow conditions at a temperature range of 20 to 130 degrees C. At 915 MHz, the dielectric constant ranged from 58.7 at 20 degrees C to 41.3 at 130 degrees C with dielectric loss factor ranging from 41.0 at 20 degrees C to 145.5 at 130 degrees C. The loss tangent at 915 MHz ranged from 0.61 at 20 degrees C to 3.52 at 130 degrees C. The temperature profiles at the outlet during processing of salsa con queso in a 5-kW microwave unit showed a narrow temperature distribution between the center and the wall of the tube. The study showed the feasibility of aseptic processing of salsa con queso using a continuous flow microwave system.

  5. In vitro and in vivo binding of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis; Con A) lectins within tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea) larvae; mechanisms of insecticidal action.

    PubMed

    Fitches, E; Woodhouse, S D.; Edwards, J P.; Gatehouse, J A.

    2001-07-01

    When fed in semi-artificial diet the lectins from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis: GNA: mannose-specific) and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis: Con A: specific for glucose and mannose) were shown to accumulate in vivo in the guts, malpighian tubules and haemolymph of Lacanobia oleracea (tomato moth) larvae. Con A, but not GNA, also accumulated in the fat bodies of lectin-fed larvae. The presence of glycoproteins which bind to both lectins in vitro was confirmed using labelled lectins to probe blots of polypeptides extracted from larval tissues. Immunolocalisation studies revealed a similar pattern of GNA and Con A binding along the digestive tract with binding concentrated in midgut sections. Binding of lectins to microvilli appeared to lead to transport of the proteins into cells of the gut and malpighian tubules. These results suggested that both lectins are able to exert systemic effects via transport from the gut contents to the haemolymph across the gut epithelium. The delivery of GNA and Con A to the haemolymph was shown to be dependent on their functional integrity by feeding larvae diets containing denatured lectins. Con A, but not GNA, was shown to persist in gut and fat body tissue of lectin-fed larvae chased with control diet for three days. Con A also shows more extensive binding to larval tissues in vitro than GNA, and these two factors are suggested to contribute to the higher levels of toxicity shown by Con A, relative to GNA, in previous long term bioassays.

  6. The pros and cons of ecological risk assessment based on data from different levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Jason R; Salice, Christopher J; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-10-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and cons of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g., biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected). In contrast, level of biological organization is often related positively with sensitivity to important negative and positive feedbacks and context dependencies within biological systems, and ease at capturing recovery from adverse contaminant effects. Some endpoints did not show obvious trends across levels of biological organization, such as the use of vertebrate animals in chemical testing and ease at screening large numbers of species, and other factors lacked sufficient data across levels of biological organization, such as repeatability, variability, cost per study and cost per species of effects assessment, the latter of which might be a more defensible way to compare costs of ERAs than cost per study. To compensate for weaknesses of ERA at any particular level of biological organization, we also review mathematical modeling approaches commonly used to extrapolate effects across levels of organization. Finally, we provide recommendations for next generation ERA, submitting that if there is an ideal level of biological organization to conduct ERA, it will only emerge if ERA is approached simultaneously from the bottom of biological organization up as well as from the top down, all while employing

  7. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154

  8. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.

    2014-05-01

    Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

  9. Conséquences des nouvelles formes de commande sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, J. P.; Lebey, Th.; Peltier, Fr.; Oraison, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    Use of inverter drive for rotating machines speed control leads to the application of new stress on stator insulation materials. The integrity of these materials under such stresses has therefore to be studied. Thanks to specially equipped motor, the different voltage shapes have been identified. Very short rise time fronts, large overvoltages and high oscillation frequencies are obtained. These voltages are then reproduced on laboratory samples (Polyethylene Terephtalate). The main result is the existence of trapped surface charges related both to the rise front value and to the existence of polar mechanisms in the material bulk. The consequences of this surface charge existence on the reliability of a real system are then discussed. L'utilisation de nouvelles formes de commande pour les machines à courant alternatif se traduit par l'apparition d'un nouveau type de contraintes sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique. L'étude de leur comportement sous l'action de ce type de contraintes revêt un intérêt tout particulier pour la validation et la stabilité de ces systèmes dans le temps. Nous présentons, tout d'abord, ces différentes formes de tension identifiées à l'aide d'un moteur spécialement instrumenté. L'existence de fronts de tension très élevés, de surtensions importantes (jusqu'à 500V) et d'oscillations hautes fréquences (2MHz), est mise en évidence. La reproduction de ces contraintes en laboratoire sur des échantillons de polyesters (PolyÉthylène Térephthalate) permet alors de déterminer l'influence des formes de tension carrées sur les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau. Elle se traduit par l'existence d'une charge piégée en surface du diélectrique. Cette charge superficielle est associée, d'une part à l'existence de phénomènes de relaxation dans les matériaux étudiés et d'autre part à la valeur des fronts de tension appliqués. Pour finir, les conséquences possibles de l'existence de ces charges superficielles

  10. Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-based Operations (STBO): Results of Piloted Simulations and Implications for Concepts of Operation (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Bakowski, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The results offour piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic intersection. Under a variety of concept of operations (ConOps) and flight deck information conditions, pilots' ability to taxi in compliance with the required time of arrival (RTA) at the designated airport location was measured. ConOps and flight deck information conditions explored included: Availability of taxi clearance speed and elapsed time information; Intermediate RTAs at intermediate time constraint points (e.g., intersection traffic flow points); STBO taxi clearances via ATC voice speed commands or datal ink; and, Availability of flight deck display algorithms to reduce STBO RTA error. Flight Deck Implications. Pilot RTA conformance for STBO clearances, in the form of ATC taxi clearances with associated speed requirements, was found to be relatively poor, unless the pilot is required to follow a precise speed and acceleration/deceleration profile. However, following such a precise speed profile results in inordinate head-down tracking of current ground speed, leading to potentially unsafe operations. Mitigating these results, and providing good taxi RTA performance without the associated safety issues, is a flight deck avionics or electronic flight bag (EFB) solution. Such a solution enables pilots to meet the taxi route RTA without moment-by-moment tracking of ground speed. An avionics or EFB "error-nulling" algorithm allows the pilot to view the STBO information when the pilot determines it is necessary and when workload alloys, thus enabling the pilot to spread his/her attention appropriately and strategically on aircraft separation airport navigation, and the many other flight deck tasks concurrently required

  11. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  12. The beliefs about pros and cons of drinking and intention to change among hazardous and moderate alcohol users: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Helgason, Asgeir R.; Ahacic, Kozma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fundamental to supporting hazardous alcohol users are the rationales for reducing alcohol intake highlighted by the users themselves. This study analyses the relative importance of beliefs about pros and cons of drinking in relation to having an intention to reduce intake among both hazardous and moderate alcohol users. Methods: Intention to change was assessed in a representative sample of Stockholm’s population (n = 4278, response rate 56.5%). Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test measure. A decisional balance inventory was used to examine various beliefs about the pros and cons of drinking, which covered affect changes, social gains and losses, and possible adverse effects. Independent correlations were determined by logistic regression using a backward exclusion procedure (P > 0.05). Results: Higher ratings of importance were generally related to intent, whether or not the contrast was with having no intent or already having made a reduction. This was especially true for hazardous users. Only two beliefs were independently correlated with change among hazardous users: ‘Drinking could get me addicted’ and ‘Drinking makes me more relaxed/less tense’ (pseudo-R2 < 0.1). Among moderate users, there was no uniform pattern in the relationships. Conclusions: Unexpectedly, hazardous users with an intent to change rated pro arguments as more important than those with no intent to change. Of the investigated pros and cons, only a few were independently related to intention to change drinking behaviour. These arguments provide interesting topics in consultations. Little support was found for any rational decision making behind the intention to reduce alcohol intake. PMID:24567291

  13. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  14. Engaging Community With Promotores de Salud to Support Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding Among Latinas Residing in Los Angeles County: Salud con Hyland's.

    PubMed

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Espinoza, Lilia; Galvez, Gino; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    The Salud con Hyland's Project: Comienzo Saludable, Familia Sana [Health With Hyland's Project: Healthy Start, Healthy Family],was developed to provide education and support to Latina mothers regarding healthy infant feeding practices and maternal health. The promotora-delivered intervention was comprised of two charlas (educational sessions) and a supplemental, culturally and linguistically relevant infant feeding and care rolling calendar. Results indicate that the intervention increased intention to breastfeed exclusively, as well as to delay infant initiation of solids by 5 to 6 months. Qualitative feedback identified barriers to maternal and child health education as well as highlighted several benefits of the intervention.

  15. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program

    PubMed Central

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. Methods: A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Results: Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs’ over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Conclusion: Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs. PMID:25279381

  16. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis. PMID:27035150

  17. Early and repeated IgG1Fc-pCons chimera vaccinations (GX101) improve the outcome in SLE-prone mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Francesca; Fenoglio, Daniela; Cutolo, Maurizio; Balbi, Giuseppe; Parodi, Alessia; Battaglia, Florinda; Kalli, Francesca; Barone, Domenico; Indiveri, Francesco; Criscuolo, Domenico; Filaci, Gilberto

    2015-08-01

    A previous study showed that a tolerogenic gene vaccine based on a IgG1Fc-pCons chimera (here named GX101) protects NZB/NZW mice from SLE development. The present study was aimed at identifying the most effective schedule of immunization and the possible involvement of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg in the mechanism of action, in view of its eventual translation to the human studies. NZB/NZW mice were vaccinated with B lymphocytes made transgenic by spontaneous transgenesis with a gene coding for a chimeric IgG1Fc-pCons construct. Different schedules of vaccination were set in relation to the timing and number of administrations. Survival, proteinuria levels, and CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg frequency were monitored during the full experiments. GX101-treated mice showed delayed disease onset and delayed mortality than controls. GX101 effects were implemented by early as well as repeated vaccine administrations. GX101 vaccination was associated with increased frequencies of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Treg with respect to controls. This study demonstrates that early and repeated immunizations with GX101 vaccine provide a better outcome than late or single vaccine administration regarding onset/development in SLE-prone mice, acting as a possible disease-modifying approach. Vaccine effects are likely related to CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion.

  18. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders. PMID:23820156

  19. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  20. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  1. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  2. The Araucaria Project: accurate stellar parameters and distance to evolved eclipsing binary ASAS J180057-2333.8 in Sagittarius Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomska, K.; Graczyk, D.; Smolec, R.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Stȩpień, K.; Konorski, P.; Pilecki, B.; Villanova, S.; Thompson, I. B.; Górski, M.; Karczmarek, P.; Wielgórski, P.; Anderson, R. I.

    2015-07-01

    We have analyzed the double-lined eclipsing binary system ASAS J180057-2333.8 from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalogue. We measure absolute physical and orbital parameters for this system based on archival V-band and I-band ASAS photometry, as well as on high-resolution spectroscopic data obtained with ESO 3.6 m/HARPS and CORALIE spectrographs. The physical and orbital parameters of the system were derived with an accuracy of about 0.5-3 per cent. The system is a very rare configuration of two bright well-detached giants of spectral types K1 and K4 and luminosity class II. The radii of the stars are R1 = 52.12 ± 1.38 and R2 = 67.63 ± 1.40 R⊙ and their masses are M1 = 4.914 ± 0.021 and M2 = 4.875 ± 0.021 M⊙. The exquisite accuracy of 0.5 per cent obtained for the masses of the components is one of the best mass determinations for giants. We derived a precise distance to the system of 2.14 ± 0.06 kpc (stat.) ± 0.05 (syst.) which places the star in the Sagittarius-Carina arm. The Galactic rotational velocity of the star is Θs = 258 ± 26 km s-1 assuming Θ0 = 238 km s-1. A comparison with PARSEC isochrones places the system at the early phase of core helium burning with an age of slightly larger than 100 million years. The effect of overshooting on stellar evolutionary tracks was explored using the MESA star code.

  3. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1) Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae).

    PubMed

    Douétts-Peres, Jackellinne C; Cruz, Marco Antônio L; Reis, Ricardo S; Heringer, Angelo S; de Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Elbl, Paula M; Floh, Eny I S; Silveira, Vanildo; Santa-Catarina, Claudete

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM) inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants. PMID:27064899

  4. The Araucaria Project: the Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 247 from Cepheid Variables Discovered in a Wide-Field Imaging Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Varela, Alejandro; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszyński, Igor; Walker, Alistair; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Szewczyk, Olaf; Szymański, Michał; Kubiak, Marcin; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz

    2008-11-01

    We report on the discovery of a Cepheid population in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 247 for the first time. On the basis of wide-field images collected in photometric surveys in V and I bands that were conducted with three different telescopes and cameras, 23 Cepheid variables were discovered with periods ranging from 17 to 131 days. We have constructed the period-luminosity relations from these data and obtained distance moduli to NGC 247 of 28.20 ± 0.05 mag (internal error) in V, 28.04 ± 0.06 mag in I, and 27.80 ± 0.09 mag in the reddening-independent Wesenheit index. From our optical data we have determined the total mean reddening of the Cepheids in NGC 247 to be E(B - V) = 0.13 mag, which brings the true distance modulus determinations from the V and I bands into excellent agreement with the distance determination in the Wesenheit index. The best estimate for the true distance modulus of NGC 247 from our optical Cepheid photometry is 27.80 ± 0.09 (internal error) ±0.09 mag (systematic error), which is in excellent agreement with other recent distance determinations for NGC 247 from the tip of the red giant branch method and from the Tully-Fisher relation. The distance for NGC 247 places this galaxy at twice the distance of two other Sculptor Group galaxies, NGC 300 and NGC 55, yielding supporting evidence for the filament-like structure of this group of galaxies. The reported distance value is tied to an assumed Large Magellanic Cloud distance modulus of 18.50 mag. Based on observations obtained with the 1.3 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope at the European Southern Observatory for Large Programme 171.D-0004, and the 4.0 m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. This work is part of the PhD thesis of A.G.V.

  5. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT. DETERMINATION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD DISTANCE FROM LATE-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEMS. I. OGLE-051019.64-685812.3

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Szewczyk, Olaf; Kolaczkowski, Zbigniew; Thompson, Ian B.; Udalski, Andrzej; Minniti, Dante; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl E-mail: szewczyk@astro-udec.cl E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2009-05-20

    We have analyzed the double-lined eclipsing binary system OGLE-051019.64-685812.3 in the LMC which consists of two G4 giant components with very similar effective temperatures. A detailed analysis of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment I-band light curve of the system, radial velocity curves for both components derived from high-resolution spectra, and near-infrared magnitudes of the binary system measured outside the eclipses has allowed us to obtain an accurate orbit solution for this eclipsing binary and its fundamental physical parameters. Using a surface brightness (V - K)-color relation for giant stars we have calculated the distance to the system and obtained a true distance modulus of 18.50 mag, with an estimated total uncertainty of {+-}3%. More similar eclipsing binary systems in the LMC which we have discovered and for which we are currently obtaining the relevant data will allow us to better check on the systematics of the method and eventually provide a distance determination to the LMC accurate to 1%, much needed for the calibration of the distance scale.

  6. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: AN ACCURATE DISTANCE TO THE LATE-TYPE DOUBLE-LINED ECLIPSING BINARY OGLE SMC113.3 4007 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumil; Mennickent, Ronald E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl; and others

    2012-05-10

    We have analyzed the long-period, double-lined eclipsing binary system OGLE SMC113.3 4007 (SC10 137844) in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The binary lies in the northeastern part of the galaxy and consists of two evolved, well-detached, non-active G8 giants. The orbit is eccentric with e = 0.311, and the orbital period is 371.6 days. Using extensive high-resolution spectroscopic and multi-color photometric data, we have determined a true distance modulus of the system of m - M = 18.83 {+-} 0.02 (statistical) {+-} 0.05 (systematic) mag using a surface-brightness-color relation for giant stars. This method is insensitive to metallicity and reddening corrections and depends only very little on stellar atmosphere model assumptions. Additionally, we derived very accurate, at the level of 1%-2%, physical parameters of both giant stars, particularly their masses and radii, making our results important for comparison with stellar evolution models. Our analysis underlines the high potential of late-type, double-lined detached binary systems for accurate distance determinations to nearby galaxies.

  7. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1) Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Douétts-Peres, Jackellinne C.; Cruz, Marco Antônio L.; Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; de Oliveira, Eduardo A. G.; Elbl, Paula M.; Floh, Eny I. S.; Silveira, Vanildo

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM) inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants. PMID:27064899

  8. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: A STUDY OF THE CLASSICAL CEPHEID IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM OGLE LMC562.05.9009 IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Górski, Marek; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre E-mail: pilecki@astrouw.edu.pl; and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4–8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius, and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M{sub 1} = 3.70 ± 0.03 M{sub ⊙}, R{sub 1} = 28.6 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}) than its companion (M{sub 2} = 3.60 ± 0.03 M{sub ⊙}, R{sub 2} = 26.6 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 ± 150 K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond the red edge of the instability strip. Within current observational and theoretical uncertainties, both stars fit on a 205 Myr isochrone arguing for their common age. From our model, we determine a value of the projection factor of p = 1.37 ± 0.07 for the Cepheid in the OGLE-LMC562.05.9009 system. This is the second Cepheid for which we could measure its p-factor with high precision directly from the analysis of an eclipsing binary system, which represents an important contribution toward a better calibration of Baade-Wesselink methods of distance determination for Cepheids.

  9. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1) Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae).

    PubMed

    Douétts-Peres, Jackellinne C; Cruz, Marco Antônio L; Reis, Ricardo S; Heringer, Angelo S; de Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Elbl, Paula M; Floh, Eny I S; Silveira, Vanildo; Santa-Catarina, Claudete

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM) inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants.

  10. The ARAUCARIA project. OGLE-LMC-CEP-1718: An exotic eclipsing binary system composed of two classical overtone cepheids in a 413 day orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Gallenne, Alexandre E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: dgallenne@astro-udec.cl; and others

    2014-05-10

    We have obtained extensive high-quality spectroscopic observations of the OGLE-LMC-CEP-1718 eclipsing binary system in the Large Magellanic Cloud that Soszyński et al. had identified as a candidate system for containing two classical Cepheids in orbit. Our spectroscopic data clearly demonstrate binary motion of the Cepheids in a 413 day eccentric orbit, rendering this eclipsing binary system the first ever known to consist of 2 classical Cepheid variables. After disentangling the four different radial velocity variations in the system, we present the orbital solution and the individual pulsational radial velocity curves of the Cepheids. We show that both Cepheids are extremely likely to be first overtone pulsators and determine their respective dynamical masses, which turn out to be equal to within 1.5%. Since the secondary eclipse is not observed in the orbital light curve, we cannot derive the individual radii of the Cepheids, but the sum of their radii derived from the photometry is consistent with overtone pulsation for both variables. The existence of two equal-mass Cepheids in a binary system having different pulsation periods (1.96 and 2.48 days, respectively) may pose an interesting challenge to stellar evolution and pulsation theories, and a more detailed study of this system using additional data sets should yield deeper insight about the physics of stellar evolution of Cepheid variables. Future analysis of the system using additional near-infrared photometry might also lead to a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties in current Baade-Wesselink techniques of distance determinations to Cepheid variables.

  11. The Araucaria Project: A Study of the Classical Cepheid in the Eclipsing Binary System OGLE LMC562.05.9009 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszyński, Igor; Thompson, Ian B.; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio; Smolec, Radosław; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Karczmarek, Paulina; Suchomska, Ksenia; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre; Storm, Jesper; Bono, Giuseppe; Catelan, Márcio; Szymański, Michał; Kozłowski, Szymon; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Poleski, Radosław; Skowron, Jan; Minniti, Dante; Ulaczyk, K.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Nardetto, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4-8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius, and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M1 = 3.70 ± 0.03 M⊙, R1 = 28.6 ± 0.2 R⊙) than its companion (M2 = 3.60 ± 0.03 M⊙, R2 = 26.6 ± 0.2 R⊙). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 ± 150 K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond the red edge of the instability strip. Within current observational and theoretical uncertainties, both stars fit on a 205 Myr isochrone arguing for their common age. From our model, we determine a value of the projection factor of p = 1.37 ± 0.07 for the Cepheid in the OGLE-LMC562.05.9009 system. This is the second Cepheid for which we could measure its p-factor with high precision directly from the analysis of an eclipsing binary system, which represents an important contribution toward a better calibration of Baade-Wesselink methods of distance determination for Cepheids. This research is based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT, 3.6 m and NTT telescopes for Programmes 092.D-0295(A), 091.D-0393(A), 089.D-0330(A), 088.D-0447(A), 086.D-0103(A) and 085.D-0398(A)), and with the Magellan Clay and Warsaw telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory.

  12. The soil-water balance simulations of a grassland in response to CO2, rainfall, and biodiversity manipulations at BioCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinker, R. H.; Cardenas, M.; Caldwell, T. G.; Rich, R.; Reich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2 and N) experiment has been continuously running since 1997. Operated by the University of Minnesota and located within the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve in Minnesota, USA, BioCON is a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment that investigates plant community response to three key environmental variables: nitrogen, atmospheric CO2 and biodiversity. More recently rainfall exclusion and temperature manipulation were added to the experiment which amounts to 371 plots. The site attempts to replicate predicted average temperature increases and a northern shift of plant species and any associated consequences. FACE experiments have been conducted for a number of years in different countries, but the focus has generally been on how plant communities, soil respiration and microbes respond. Minimal work has been focused on the hydrologic aspects of these experiments which are potentially valuable for investigating global warming effects on local and plot-scale ecohydrology. Thus, the objective of this work is to characterize and model unsaturated flow for different CO2 and rainfall treatments in order to see how they affect soil moisture dynamics and groundwater recharge on grasslands of central Minnesota. Our study focuses on simulating soil moisture dynamics in eighteen of the BioCON plots: six bare plots with regular rainfall regimes (zero plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels), six regular rainfall regimes (nine plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels) and six reduced rainfall regimes (nine plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels). The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, which solves the Richards equation for unsaturated zone water flow coupled to a comprehensive energy balance model, was parameterized with a combination of field and lab estimates of soil properties. Field estimates of saturated hydraulic conductivity using tension infiltrometers ranged

  13. Pros and Cons of Physical/Empirical SAR Altimetry Retracking in Seasonally Ice-Covered Waters in Preparation for Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Maulik; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is performed into the retrieval of sea surface heights in the Arctic Ocean to evaluate the determination of seasonal sea level in the Arctic Ocean from satellite altimetry. Physical retrackers assume a uniform probability density function for the wave height within the footprint which is frequently compromised in the Arctic Ocean due to the presence of seasonal sea ice and the period of initial freezing of the ocean. Preliminary investigations highlight the pros of the empirical retrackers for seasonal sea ice covered regions as it does not assume anything about physical properties and the pros of a physical retracker for either permanent near fully ice covered or open ocean. Comparison with tide gauge data is performed in this study to highlight the pros and cons of physical and empirical retracking in the Arctic Ocean.

  14. Errores sistemáticos del Catálogo Fundamental FK5, deducidos de las observaciones con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII, en el Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.; González, A.; Gómez, G.

    Se dan los resultados obtenidos de los Errores Sistemáticos del Catálogo Fundamental FK5, Δ α δ, Δ α α, Δ δ α y Δ δ δ, derivados de las observaciones estelares con el Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing instalado en el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'' de San Juan, de acuerdo al Proyecto de Colaboración entre los observatorios de San Juan, Beijing y La Plata. Se han usado los residuos seleccionados de 11000 estrellas aproximadamente, derivados de más de 400000 pasajes estelares en 1550 días, desde Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. La precisión media de los residuos es de 0,"043.

  15. The role of intracellular high-mobility group box 1 in the early activation of Kupffer cells and the development of Con A-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiao; Liu, Yanning; Shi, Yu; Zheng, Min; He, Jiliang; Chen, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a highly complex syndrome characterized by devastating activation of early activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ALF. However, the factors regulating KC early activation are virtually unexplored. The aim of present study was to determine the role of the intracellular high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in modulating the early activation of KCs during ALF. The intravenous injection of Concanavalin A (Con A) was used to establish a mouse model of ALF. The dynamic pro-inflammatory properties and MHC II expression of KCs were measured by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. HMGB1 expression in KCs was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The immunofluorescence was implemented to determine the relocation of HMGB1 in KCs, and the siRNA against HMGB1 was utilized to assess the impact of HMGB1 on KC pro-inflammatory properties. The peak of pro-inflammatory cytokines production and MHC II expression in KCs appeared at the early stage of ALF. The up-regulation of HMGB1 expression and the translocation of HMGB1 in KCs were in parallel with the early activation of KCs. The blockade of intracellular HMGB1 expression caused by siRNA significantly inhibited the production of KC-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, and led to a down-regulation of MAP kinase activation in KCs. The self-derived HMGB1 is an "early alarmin" of KC activation during Con A-induced ALF. HMGB1 might be a potential target for cell-specific strategy in ALF.

  16. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  17. Linking innovative measurement technologies (ConMon and Dataflow© systems) for high-resolution temporal and spatial dissolved oxygen criteria assessment.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C A; Perry, E; Bayard, A; Wainger, L; Boynton, W R

    2015-10-01

    One consequence of nutrient-induced eutrophication in shallow estuarine waters is the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia that has serious impacts on biota, habitats, and biogeochemical cycles of important elements. Because of the important role of dissolved oxygen (DO) on these ecosystem features, a variety of DO criteria have been established as indicators of system condition. However, DO dynamics are complex and vary on time scales ranging from diel to decadal and spatial scales from meters to multiple kilometers. Because of these complexities, determining DO criteria attainment or failure remains difficult. We propose a method for linking two common measurement technologies for shallow water DO criteria assessment using a Chesapeake Bay tributary as a test case. Dataflow© is a spatially intensive (30-60-m collection intervals) system used to map surface water conditions at the whole estuary scale, and ConMon is a high-frequency (15-min collection intervals) fixed station approach. The former technology is effective with spatial descriptions but poor regarding temporal resolution, while the latter provides excellent temporal but very limited spatial resolution. Our methodology for combining the strengths of these measurement technologies involved a sequence of steps. First, a statistical model of surface water DO dynamics, based on temporally intense ConMon data, was developed. The results of this model were used to calculate daily DO minimum concentrations. Second, this model was then inserted into Dataflow©-generated spatial maps of DO conditions and used to adjust measured DO concentrations to daily minimum concentrations. This information was used to assess DO criteria compliance at the full tributary scale. Model results indicated that it is vital to consider the short-term time scale DO criteria across both space and time concurrently. Large fluctuations in DO occurred within a 24-h time period, and DO dynamics varied across the length and width of the

  18. Estudio de NIH señala relación de la TC en la infancia con leucemia y cáncer de cerebro más tarde

    Cancer.gov

    Niños y adultos jóvenes a quienes se les hicieron exploraciones muchas veces con tomografía computarizada (TC), una herramienta de diagnóstico de uso frecuente, tienen un riesgo ligeramente mayor de padecer leucemia y tumores cerebrales en la década poste

  19. Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

    El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

  20. Development of Fluorescence Label and Con-focal Laser Scanning Microscopy Method for Non-Destructive Local Impurity Distribution Analysis in Protein Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimura, Yoshikazu; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Yoda, Shinichi; Komatsu, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of the impurity concentration in protein crystals and solutions was developed. This technique utilizes fluorescence label (FL) with con-focal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which is more effective than SDS-PAGE analysis currently used for this purpose. The advantages of CLSM are that, it is non-destructive so that the impurity incorporation and local distribution could be observed in situ, and also that only a micro-quantity of protein solution is needed. The impurity protein is labeled with fluorescence material, and mixed with the crystallization solution. The solution and the crystal are observed by CLSM, and the fluorescence intensity from the labeled impurity is then converted to the impurity concentration by using calibration curves. A case study using Hen Egg White Lysozyme as a sample is reported. Calibration curves were obtained by comparing the fluorescence intensity and the actual impurity concentration determined by the absorbance at 280 nm and SDS-PAGE. A few factors such as the numerical aperture of the objective lens or the pinhole size were fixed. The utilization of this technique leads to the understanding of the effect of impurities on protein crystal growth.

  1. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las órbitas caóticas son muy importantes en los satélites galácticos. Sin embargo, los únicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se disponía para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya función de distribución depende sólo de la energía por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus órbitas regulares y caóticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximación cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotrópicas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribución no dependen sólo de la energía) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las órbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  2. Biochar Usage: Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fertility benefits of charcoal application have been reported as early as 1847 indicating that plant nutrients are sorbed within charcoal pores. The use of biomass-derived black carbon or biochar, the solid byproduct from the pyrolysis processing of any organic feedstock, has garnered recent a...

  3. [Induced abortion: pro and con].

    PubMed

    Balić, Adem; Balić, Devleta; Habibović, A; Adzajlić, A

    2003-01-01

    Induced abortion like a method of birth control is the most unpopular method but it is a choice of great deal women especially in our environment. In connection with very loud demands for sharpened the low of pregnancy interrupting, many authors analyse methods, complications and risk groups of women, its acceptability like a method of family planning. At the end they give conclusion with some concrete suggestions and the aim to reduce the number of induced abortions. PMID:14528715

  4. Temperature optimization of high con

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabry, M.

    2016-06-01

    Active cooling is essential for solar cells operating under high optical concentration ratios. A system comprises four solar cells that are in thermal contact on top of a copper tube is proposed. Water is flowing inside the tube in order to reduce solar cells temperature for increasing their performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of such system has been performed in order to investigate the effect of water flow rate, tube internal diameter, and convective heat transfer coefficient on the temperature of the solar cells. It is found that increasing convective heat transfer coefficient has a significant effect on reducing solar cells temperatures operating at low flow rates and high optical concentration ratios. Also, a further increase of water flow rate has no effect on reducing cells temperatures.

  5. Crossing the Rubric-Con

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay engages the prospect and peril of employing rubrics in America. It discusses how institutional independence affects the enterprise, and addresses whether rubrics will be received as salvation or subservience by educational agents. It asks how rubrics can benefit stakeholders while examining their unintended consequences. It concludes by…

  6. Venus lightning: PROS and cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunten, D. M.

    1995-04-01

    The evidence concerning the presence of lightning on Venus is summarized. There are several observations of electromagnetic pulses, but the only claimed optical detection is ambiguous. Another optical search, making use of an unusual mode of the Pioneer Venus star sensor, set an upper limit on the flash rate, 1.6% of the corresponding Earth rate. Given these difficulties and the unfavorable environment for charge separation, it is concluded that the presence of lightning at anything like the Earth rate is doubtful.

  7. Entrenamiento con el traje espacial

    NASA Video Gallery

    Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...

  8. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  9. HP and UHT metamorphic associations in the Day Nui Con Voi,northwestern Vietnam: The consequence of convergence between the Indian and the Eurasian plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tran, M. D.; Nguyen, Q. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Red River shear zone (RRSZ) is the most significant geologic discontinuity in Southeast Asia. The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) massif at the southernmost part of the shear zone bears records of Cenozoic RRSZ activity. The DNCV in northwestern Vietnam predominantly consists of HP granulite facies metapelites, and lenticular enclaves of HP mafic granulites, calc-silicate granulites and UHT aluminum-rich rocks in the metapelites. HP granulites are characterized by the key associations of garnet-kyanite-ternary feldspar (in metapelites) and garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz (in mafic granulites). In the latter case, rocks are typically orthopyroxene-free. The peak assemblage of the HP metapelites includes garnet + kyanite + ternary feldspar + quartz + rutile. The peak assemblage of the HP mafic granulites is garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz. Meanwhile, the peak assemblage of the calc-silicate granulites is high-Ca garnet (Grs>50) + diopside + scapolite + quartz. On the other hand, characteristic UHT metamorphic assemblage occur as the coexistence of spinel and quartz which indicates the metamorphic temperature is higher than 900℃. The peak assemblage of the UHT rocks in DNCV is corundum + spinel + garnet + sillimanite + quartz. P-T conditions of peak metamorphism within HP granulite facies are: T = 750~850℃, P = 12.5~14kbar. The temperature of UHT metamorphism is higher than 900℃, the pressure is higher than 9~9.4 kbar. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from the HP mafic granulites and UHT rocks gave minimum ages of ca. 59 Ma and 40 Ma, respectively. HP metapelites gave ca. 60~50Ma and 30Ma. The above facts suggest the DNCV massif experienced HP granulite facies at its peak metamorphism at ˜59 Ma. Thermal disturbance on the local scale to UHT metamorphism occurred at ˜40 Ma. Then isothermal decompression to medium-pressure granulite facies occurred at ˜30Ma, which may reflect a rapid exhumation. The HP rocks are interpreted to be resulted

  10. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  11. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  12. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  13. Do not disturb the animals! or, how Con Edison saved $300,000 using a trenchless technology to renew 3,000 feet of leaking gas main at the Bronx Zoo

    SciTech Connect

    Bufe, M.

    1995-07-01

    Every leaking gas main presents a challenge. But when that leaking main follows a series of sweeping bends on its route through North America`s largest urban wildlife park, it presents a special challenge. That was the situation Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc. recently faced when numerous leaks were discovered along 3,000 feet of a 95-year-old, 12-inch cast-iron main that winds through New York City`s Bronx Zoo. Con Edison knew it needed a long-term solution to this increasingly common problem. Thanks to the cooperative efforts of the utility`s operations and research departments and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Con Edison also knew about a trenchless technology that could renew the pipe with minimal impact to the environment--while saving the utility a substantial sum of money in the process. In the Paltem system, a woven polyester hose is injected with an epoxy resin and then inverted (turned inside out) into a pipe at an access pit. The liner then bonds to the inside wall of the pipe, forming a smooth, flexible and pressure-resistant lining. The process is environmentally safe, requires very little excavation and can be installed in days, rather than the weeks or months it can take to dig up and replace existing pipe.

  14. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  15. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  16. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  17. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  18. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  19. Bridge over troubled proline: assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins using (HCA)CON(CAN)H and (HCA)N(CA)CO(N)H experiments concomitantly with HNCO and i(HCA)CO(CA)NH.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Maarit; Piirainen, Henni; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Permi, Perttu

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is by far the most versatile and information rich technique to study intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). While NMR is able to offer residue level information on structure and dynamics, assignment of chemical shift resonances in IDPs is not a straightforward process. Consequently, numerous pulse sequences and assignment protocols have been developed during past several years, targeted especially for the assignment of IDPs, including experiments that employ H(N), H(α) or (13)C detection combined with two to six indirectly detected dimensions. Here we propose two new HN-detection based pulse sequences, (HCA)CON(CAN)H and (HCA)N(CA)CO(N)H, that provide correlations with (1)H(N)(i - 1), (13)C'(i - 1) and (15)N(i), and (1)H(N)(i + 1), (13)C'(i) and (15)N(i) frequencies, respectively. Most importantly, they offer sequential links across the proline bridges and enable filling the single proline gaps during the assignment. We show that the novel experiments can efficiently complement the information available from existing HNCO and intraresidual i(HCA)CO(CA)NH pulse sequences and their concomitant usage enabled >95 % assignment of backbone resonances in cytoplasmic tail of adenosine receptor A2A in comparison to 73 % complete assignment using the HNCO/i(HCA)CO(CA)NH data alone. PMID:24346685

  20. Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins

    PubMed Central

    Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti

    2013-01-01

    Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

  1. Pros and cons of apartment complex submetering

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, G.; Jones, J.

    1982-08-09

    Mastermetering was popular when energy costs were low, but landlords can no longer raise rents fast enough to keep up with rising utility costs. Individual metering and submetering are a growing trend in Texas in order to regulate cash flow and keep rents competitive. Individual metering encourages conservation, but reduces the owner's incentives to improve building efficiency. Owners may not have the capital to cover submetering costs. A variety of heating and cooling monitors, volumetric meters, time meters, temperature monitors, and contract submetering are among the available options. The Residential Utility Billing System, which charges tenants a fixed rent plus an energy bill, retains mastermetering, but allows a square foot surcharge for energy use. Two studies show less energy is used with submetering. (DCK)

  2. Nanoparticles: Health Effects—Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Gwinn, Maureen R.; Vallyathan, Val

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications constantly being explored. The possible toxic health effects of these NPs associated with human exposure are unknown. Many fine particles generally considered “nuisance dusts” are likely to acquire unique surface properties when engineered to nanosize and may exhibit toxic biological effects. Consequently, the nuisance dust may be transported to distant sites and could induce adverse health effects. In addition the beneficial uses of NPs in drug delivery, cancer treatment, and gene therapy may cause unintentional human exposure. Because of our lack of knowledge about the health effects associated with NP exposure, we have an ethical duty to take precautionary measures regarding their use. In this review we highlight the possible toxic human health effects that can result from exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) generated by anthropogenic activities and their cardiopulmonary outcomes. The comparability of engineered NPs to UFPs suggests that the human health effects are likely to be similar. Therefore, it is prudent to elucidate their toxicologic effect to minimize occupational and environmental exposure. Highlighting the human health outcomes caused by UFPs is not intended to give a lesser importance to either the unprecedented technologic and industrial rewards of the nanotechnology or their beneficial human uses. PMID:17185269

  3. Proceedings of noise-con 91

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.A.; Prasad, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    This volume covers the following topics related to noise control: control of mine ventilation fans; physical phenomena; gas turbine exhaust system silencing; computer models for estimating electric utility environmental noise; noise from rotary coal car unloading; noise analysis.

  4. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  5. The pros and cons of code validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1988-01-01

    Computational and wind tunnel error sources are examined and quantified using specific calculations of experimental data, and a substantial comparison of theoretical and experimental results, or a code validation, is discussed. Wind tunnel error sources considered include wall interference, sting effects, Reynolds number effects, flow quality and transition, and instrumentation such as strain gage balances, electronically scanned pressure systems, hot film gages, hot wire anemometers, and laser velocimeters. Computational error sources include math model equation sets, the solution algorithm, artificial viscosity/dissipation, boundary conditions, the uniqueness of solutions, grid resolution, turbulence modeling, and Reynolds number effects. It is concluded that, although improvements in theory are being made more quickly than in experiments, wind tunnel research has the advantage of the more realistic transition process of a right turbulence model in a free-transition test.

  6. Conning Our Kids into Military Combat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2005-01-01

    There are some school leaders who believe that the military offers just one more option for students to consider. Others, however, think that military recruiters are too aggressive and that the privacy of students should be better protected. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) gives the armed services unprecedented access to potential recruits at…

  7. Eduquemos con Musica (Let's Educate with Music).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiva, Raquel Ojeda

    This elementary and preschool music textbook is designed to reflect Latin America and Caribbean Island cultures and to be useful in both school classrooms and in teacher training courses. Short, easy to learn songs, illustrated pages, and 10 musical games are combined to teach musical forms, rhythm, auditory discrimination, language usage, motor…

  8. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  9. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  10. ConTACT Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Pascrell, Bill, Jr. [D-NJ-8

    2009-03-05

    11/15/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. The Pros and Cons of Petroleum Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    A mineral agreements expert discusses the options open to tribes, from the most standard lease form to arrangements as yet untried by Indian Nations. Discussion covers 18 basic provisions for inclusion in agreements, tax considerations, and basic forms of petroleum agreements (leases, joint ventures, production sharing, and service contracts).…

  12. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Jefferson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently, the question of whether or not phytoestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unresolved. The answer is likely complex and may depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. Clarity on this issue is needed because global consumption is rapidly increasing. Phytoestrogens are present in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Soy infant formula now constitutes up to a third of the US market, and soy protein is now added to many processed foods. As weak estrogen agonists/antagonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to synthetic endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol A (BPA), the phytoestrogens provide a useful model to comprehensively investigate the biological impact of endocrine disruptors in general. This review weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phytoestrogens. PMID:20347861

  13. A field study of con games.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine

    2014-09-01

    In 1978, the evolutionary biologist Robert Trivers and Huey P. Newton, cofounder of the Black Panthers, began a collaboration exploring the evolution of self-deception. Together they published a brief paper that used their ideas about the naturalistic basis of deceit and self-deception to explain the crash of Air Florida Flight 90 in Washington, D.C. Given the continued power of the naturalistic fallacy in the modern life sciences, historical attention typically focuses on highly visible controversies with great popular traction. This essay instead mobilizes the muted legacy of Trivers and Newton's publication to underscore the inherent difficulties scientists face in finding a receptive audience for their theories, even naturalistic ones. PMID:25816482

  14. [Centralization in obstetrics: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Roemer, V M; Ramb, S

    1996-01-01

    Possible advantages and disadvantages of a general centralization of German obstetric facilities are analysed in the study. The need for centralization of risk cases, especially premature births (regionalization) is pointed out. Centralization appears appropriate, since every fifth maternity unit in Germany (19.78%) has 300 or fewer deliveries per year. This one fifth of perinatal clinics accounts for 6.3% of all deliveries (N = 49450). There are appreciable differences between the old and new federal states (Bundesländer): in the recently acceded federal states, 48.7% of all perinatal clinics have deliveries of 300 and less per year. This group of perinatal clinics accounts for 29% of all deliveries in the new federal states. We have carried out a survey of the mother's attitude to centralization: out of 416 patients in the Detmold women's hospital whose mean age was 29.0 +/- 4.2 years, 90.4% were not in favor of general centralization of obstetrics. 43% were also against a centralization of risk cases (regionalization). 75% of the women surveyed objected to centralized obstetrics because of the 'possible absence of the family', the 'possible absence of students and trainees' (44.9%), the 'unfamiliarity with staff and premises' (41.8%) and 'fear of anonymity' (44.5%). The majority of all women (84.1%) did not want to have a drive more than 20 km to an obstetrics center. Fear of 'delivery in a taxi'(78.6%), the 'fear that the husband will come too late to the delivery' (65.4%) and that the 'overall course of the delivery might not be adequate for reasons of time'. The presence of a pediatrics department in conjunction with the perinatal clinic was rated very positively (93%). It is concluded from the data and further juridical considerations that centralization of risk cases (regionalization) is indispensable in the near future and that somewhat more further into the future decentralization should be carried out by closing obstetrics departments with substantially less than 350 deliveries per year. Attention is drawn to some consequences of such a structural reform which will probably have to be initiated by the German Association of Gynecologists and Obstetricians.

  15. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  16. Standardisation of Study Protocols - Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    D'Haens, Geert

    2016-09-01

    Designing clinical trials in inflammatory bowel diseases is challenging. Composite scores that have been used for drug approval until recently such as the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and the Mayo score for ulcerative colitis have been criticized by regulatory bodies for its lack of validation, poor correlation with objective mucosal disease and absence of 'patient reported outcomes'.Most drug development programs use the 'classic 'separation' between an induction and a maintenance phase. Challenging issues are the 'ideal timing' of the primary endpoint for induction and maintenance studies, strategies to reduce placebo response rates and rules for corticosteroids withdrawal. Discussion about which patients to re-randomize after induction into the maintenance phase of the study is critical.Presently, new instruments for disease assessment in IBD are being developed and validated. Central (independent) review of endoscopic recordings at screening and at the end of the intervention will probably become standard. Finally, the most optimal trial design for every individual intervention is likely to depend on the mechanism of action of the medication under study. PMID:27604980

  17. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  18. Experimentar con un cohete de plasma

    NASA Video Gallery

    El Dr. Franklin Chang-Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA, es actualmente el presidente y CEO de Ad Astra Rocket Company, la empresa que desarrolla el nuevo cohete de plasma VASIMR. Apren...

  19. Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.

    1981-01-01

    Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)

  20. McLuhan: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Raymond, Ed.

    Twenty-one critical essays on the ideas and works of Marshall McLuhan are offered in this review. In the course of the essays, McLuhan is characterized alternately as a genius, an extrapolator, and an oracle; a defender of the choice of choicelessness; a generalizer who rearranges, misinterprets, and misreads the facts to support his theses; an…

  1. Vencemos Con Libros Y La Lengua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Daniel Flores, Comp.

    The city of Richmond, California has many residents who read and speak only Spanish, and many other Chicanos and Latin Americans who are interested in their heritage. The Service Center Branch of the public library has a collection of books, magazines, and records in Spanish and in English on the problems, history and culture of these people. This…

  2. Mandatory Arbitration: Weighing the Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settenbrino, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    When big businesses enter into mandatory arbitration agreements with consumers, the large companies typically tout the fairness while the individual is left feeling cheated. Now that mandatory arbitration clauses are finding their way into more and more contracts signed by school systems, school boards and district administrators are realizing…

  3. Bisphosphonates and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: cons.

    PubMed

    Lems, Willem F; Saag, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    During the use of glucocorticoids (GCs), both vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk are increased, due to the direct and indirect negative effects of GCs on bone, muscles, and the activity of the underlying inflammatory diseases. Inhibition of bone formation and increased apoptosis of osteocytes play a consistent and crucial role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO), while changes in bone resorption during GC-use are variable. To prevent fractures, important general measures include using the lowest possible dose of GCs, treating the underlying disease adequately, a healthy life style, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and regular exercise. Although it has been shown that bisphosphonates reduce vertebral fractures during the first 2 years of GC-treatment, there are no data on long-term use of bisphosphonates during GC-treatment. Of some concern in GIO, bisphosphonates reduce bone turnover, including bone formation, which is already downregulated by GCs. In contrast, the use of the anabolic agent teriparatide is more effective in reducing vertebral fractures than alendronate. In summary, bisphosphonates remain the first choice in the first two years of treatment in GC-treated patients with high fracture risk, but their long-term effects on bone quality and fracture risk reduction remain uncertain.

  4. Weighing the Pros and Cons of TAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieczura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Headlines offer a plethora of opinions and arguments both for and against proposed and newly implemented teacher evaluation systems all over the United States. Hardly anyone balks at the idea of evaluating teachers, but many question whether these new evaluation systems really improve teaching and learning. The author's experience with the new…

  5. The Pros and Cons of Responsive Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurteau, Marthe; Nadeau, Marc-Andre.

    The responsive model of evaluation has been seen as an alternative to formal evaluation models. This model was used for the evaluation of a Certificate in Industrial Relations program in a Quebec French university. This study focused on two main objectives: first, the local utility of the program being assessed, along with the major problems…

  6. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Patisaul, Heather B; Jefferson, Wendy

    2010-10-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently, the question of whether or not phytoestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unresolved. The answer is likely complex and may depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. Clarity on this issue is needed because global consumption is rapidly increasing. Phytoestrogens are present in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Soy infant formula now constitutes up to a third of the US market, and soy protein is now added to many processed foods. As weak estrogen agonists/antagonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to synthetic endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol A (BPA), the phytoestrogens provide a useful model to comprehensively investigate the biological impact of endocrine disruptors in general. This review weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phytoestrogens.

  7. Natural-born con artists and counterfeiters

    PubMed Central

    Depczynski, Martial; Gagliano, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Deception is ubiquitous in plant and animal kingdoms and is widely thought to provide selective advantages to the individual and evolutionary success to the species. Mimicry, a form of deception whereby an individual imitates their model to advantage by closely resembling their behavior or appearance, is particularly well documented and represented by the peripheral eyespots seen on the wings of many butterfly species. The significance of butterfly eyespots has been convincingly demonstrated to serve as an anti-predatory function either by imitation of a predator’s own dangerous enemies (intimidation hypothesis) or by deflecting predator strikes toward less-vital parts of the body (deflection hypothesis). A convincing and compelling explanation in butterflies, the functional role of eyespots as anti-predatory devices has become a widely held and firmly entrenched belief that has been freely adopted into other systems. Here we comment on a recent paper that demonstrates a vastly different role for eyespots, that of intra-specific male-male competition, and make the point that even long-held beliefs need to be tested and challenged under different contexts if we are not to be deceived ourselves. PMID:23986808

  8. The Foreign Language Teacher as "Con Artist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean S.

    A teacher's experiences in acquiring realia (mostly food-related) for her junior high school French classes are described. The collection of realistic props proved to be both a small adventure in itself and the source of a rewarding change in classroom instruction. The use of a simulated store, in which students bought and sold the imitation food,…

  9. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite. PMID:25697213

  10. [Legalization of drugs--pro and con].

    PubMed

    Marjanović-Cengić, S

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with various opinions and assertions regarding drug legalization. Societal and clinical implication regarding the effect of decrease or increase in the use of psyhoactive substances, on public health, violence and criminal activities have been pointed out. The relation between legal and illegal drugs has been considered. Special attention has been paid to arguments on legalization and decriminalization of marihuana and possible consequences on the risk group-children and adolescents. Experiences from USA and some European countries have been presented. Having in mind the specific situation in BiH, the author of article gives her own view and suggest the introduction of harm reduction strategy into BiH drug policy, without changing the legal drug status. PMID:11769432

  11. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  12. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, M; Zazpe, I; Shivappa, N; Hébert, J R; Sánchez-Tainta, A; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fitó, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Rekondo, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J; Fiol, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Martínez, J A; Ros, E; Estruch, R; Martínez-González, M A

    2015-03-28

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms. PMID:25720588

  13. Association between dietary fibre intake and fruit, vegetable or whole-grain consumption and the risk of CVD: results from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial.

    PubMed

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Toledo, Estefania; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Zazpe, Itziar; Farràs, Marta; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Diez-Espino, Javier; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Marti, Amelia; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Arós, Fernando; Moñino, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Babio, Nancy; Gonzalez, Jose I; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55-80 years) and women (60-80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox's regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (P for trend=0·020) and fruits (P for trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d. PMID:27264785

  14. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  15. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Canela, M.; Zazpe, I.; Shivappa, N.; Hébert, J. R.; Sánchez-Tainta, A.; Corella, D.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Fitó, M.; Lamuela-Raventós, R. M.; Rekondo, J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.; Fiol, M.; Santos-Lozano, J. M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Pinto, X.; Martínez, J. A.; Ros, E.; Estruch, R.; Martínez-González, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95% CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1.60% (95% CI 0.87, 2.33) and 1.04% (95% CI 0.35, 1.74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms. PMID:25720588

  16. Association between dietary fibre intake and fruit, vegetable or whole-grain consumption and the risk of CVD: results from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial.

    PubMed

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Toledo, Estefania; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Zazpe, Itziar; Farràs, Marta; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Diez-Espino, Javier; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Marti, Amelia; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Arós, Fernando; Moñino, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Babio, Nancy; Gonzalez, Jose I; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55-80 years) and women (60-80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox's regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (P for trend=0·020) and fruits (P for trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.

  17. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, M; Zazpe, I; Shivappa, N; Hébert, J R; Sánchez-Tainta, A; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fitó, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Rekondo, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J; Fiol, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Martínez, J A; Ros, E; Estruch, R; Martínez-González, M A

    2015-03-28

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms.

  18. The nature of the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone: Constraints from structural, microstructural and fabric analyses of metamorphic rocks from the Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan and Day Nui Con Voi massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Tang, Yuan; Tran, My-Dung; Cao, Shuyun; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhao, Zhidan; Chen, Wen

    2012-03-01

    The structural geology, timing of shearing, and tectonic implications of the ASRR shear zone, one of the most striking lineaments in Southeast Asia, have been the topics of extensive studies over the past few decades. The Xuelong Shan (XLS), Diancang Shan (DCS), Ailao Shan (ALS) and Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic massifs along the shear zone have preserved important information on its structural and tectonic evolution. Our field structural analysis, detailed microstructural and fabric analysis, as well as the quartz, sillimanite and garnet fabric studies of the sheared rocks from the massifs demonstrate the dominant roles of three deformation episodes during Cenozoic tectonic evolution in the shear zone. Among the contrasting structural and microstructural associations in the shear zone, D2 structures, which were formed at the brittle to ductile transition during large-scale left-lateral shearing in the second deformation episode, predominate over the structural styles of the other two deformation episodes. Discrete micro-shear zones with intensive grain size reduction compose the characteristic structural style of D2 deformation. In addition, several types of folds (early shearing folds, F21, and late-shearing folds, F22) were formed in the sheared rocks, including discrete to distributed mylonitic foliation, stretching lineation and shear fabrics (e.g., mica fish, domino structures, as well as sigma and delta fabrics). A sequence of microstructures from syn-kinematic magmatic flow, high-temperature solid-state deformation, to brittle-ductile shearing is well-preserved in the syn-kinematic leucocratic intrusions. Deformation structures from the first episode (D1) are characterized by F1 folds and distributed foliations (S1) in rocks due to pure shearing at high temperatures. They are preserved in weakly sheared (D2) rocks along the eastern margin of the ALS belt or in certain low-strain tectonic enclaves within the shear zone. Furthermore, semi

  19. Comment on the paper “Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-Chloro 4-Nitrostilbene (CONS): A potential NLO material” by P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan [Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Dhuri, Sunder N.; Nadkarni, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    We argue that (trans)-4-chloro-4‧-nitrostilbene is not a new organic nonlinear optical material as claimed by Dinakaran and Kalainathan [P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan, Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-Chloro 4-Nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material, Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130], but instead a well-known compound whose synthesis, spectral data, single crystal structure and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency are well documented in the literature. The title paper is completely erroneous.

  20. Comment on the paper "Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material" by P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan [Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130].

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Dhuri, Sunder N; Nadkarni, V S

    2014-01-01

    We argue that (trans)-4-chloro-4'-nitrostilbene is not a new organic nonlinear optical material as claimed by Dinakaran and Kalainathan [P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan, Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-Chloro 4-Nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material, Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130], but instead a well-known compound whose synthesis, spectral data, single crystal structure and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency are well documented in the literature. The title paper is completely erroneous.

  1. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  2. Phylogenetic relationships within Araucariaceae based on rbcL gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Setoguchi, H; Asakawa Osawa, T; Pintaud, J C; Jaffré, T; Veillon, J M

    1998-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were determined in the Araucariaceae, which are now found mainly in the Southern Hemisphere. This conifer family was well diversified and widely distributed in both hemispheres during the Mesozoic era. The sequence of 1322 bases of the rbcL gene of cpDNA was determined from 29 species of Araucariaceae, representing almost all the species of the family. Phylogenetic trees determined by the parsimony method indicate that Araucariaceae are well defined by rbcL sequences and also that the monophyly of Agathis or Araucaria is well supported by high bootstrap values. The topology of these trees revealed that Wollemia had derived prior to Agathis and Araucaria. The rbcL phylogeny agrees well with the present recognition of four sections within Araucaria: Araucaria, Bunya, Eutacta, and Intermedia. Morphological characteristics of the number of cotyledons, position of male cone, and cuticular micromorphologies were evaluated as being phylogenetically informative. Section Bunya was found to be derived rather than to be the oldest taxon. Infrageneric relationships of Agathis could not be well elucidated because there are few informative site changes in the rbcL gene, suggesting the more recent differentiation of the species as their fossil records indicate. The New Caledonian Araucaria and Agathis species each formed a monophyletic group with very low differentiation in rbcL sequences among them, indicating rapid adaptive radiation to new edaphic conditions, i.e., ultramafic soils, in the post-Eocene era.

  3. Cons and pros of female anesthesiologists: Academic versus nonacademic

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Tarek; El-Masry, Ragaa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: We hypothesized that “Feminization” of medicine has an impact on the choice of anesthesiology as a specialty. However anesthesiology is still not a more popular choice among women in medicine. We aimed to evaluate the implications of anesthesiology as a profession on personal and family life of women anesthesiologists; the differences between academic and nonacademic women anesthesiologists with respect to these effects and the effect of women anesthesiologists on the profession. Materials and Methods: This study surveyed a total of 46 woman anesthesiologists; both academic and nonacademic institutions in our country between January and May 2013. A convenient sampling method was used. A constructed self-reported questionnaire was developed to explore the 29 items of woman-anesthesiology-related implications (family, personal, and job), in the form of close-ended questions. Results: Negative implications of anesthesiology on personal and family life of woman were common. With the exception of financial limitation, academic group was significantly more affected. Increased surgeons conflict (98%), poor surgeon acceptance (87%), poor patient acceptance and recurrent change of work schedule (80% each) were the most common perceived negative impacts of women in the field of anesthesiology. Some positive implications were perceived as independent, positive social interaction, empowerment, soothing work environment, emotional reaction to patient complaint, and increased perfectionism (nearly 94%, 98%, 87%, 91%, 89%, and 76%, respectively). Conclusion: Serious implications exist for the personality and family life of women who chose anesthesiology as a specialty and career, and most of these implications were significantly more prevalent among women with an academic career. Furthermore, anesthesiology as a profession was significantly affected by women joining the department. PMID:25788779

  4. A (Con)text for New Discourse as Semiotic Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkova, Marie; Tipton, Teresa M.

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary art requires that art and cultural educators reposition encounters with artefacts, images and performances into a context for new discourses. Whereas digital media and other aspects of visual popular culture predominate the frames of reference of school-age children, their context (codes) of reference, in large part, do not contain…

  5. Cancionero Infantil - con Rimitos. (Infant Songs.) (Children Stories - with Rhymes.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Stanley A.; And Others

    In learning a second language, children need periodic exposure to more than they can identify word for word. Also they need to grasp oral "chunks" or phrases of the language, rather than single words, in order to achieve a native rhythm and pronunciation in their speech. And, thirdly, they need practice through constant exposure and repetition.…

  6. Pros and cons of swimming in a noisy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olla, Piero

    2014-03-01

    The problem of optimal microscopic swimming in a noisy environment is analyzed. A simplified model in which propulsion is generated by the relative motion of three spheres connected by immaterial links has been considered. We show that an optimized noisy microswimmer requires less power for propulsion (on average) than an optimal noiseless counterpart migrating with identical mean velocity and swimming stroke amplitude. We also show that noise can be used to overcome some of the limitations of the scallop theorem and have a swimmer that is able to propel itself with control over just one degree of freedom.

  7. Pro/con ethics debate: when is dead really dead?

    PubMed

    Whetstine, Leslie; Streat, Stephen; Darwin, Mike; Crippen, David

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary intensive care unit (ICU) medicine has complicated the issue of what constitutes death in a life support environment. Not only is the distinction between sapient life and prolongation of vital signs blurred but the concept of death itself has been made more complex. The demand for organs to facilitate transplantation promotes a strong incentive to define clinical death in a manner that most effectively supplies that demand. We consider the problem of defining death in the ICU as a function of viable organ availability for transplantation.

  8. Proceedings of Noise-con 81: Applied noise control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Royster, L.H.; Hart, F.D.; Stewart, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    The conference was divided into sessions covering noise control regulations and benefits; noise source identification; barriers and enclosures; mufflers; hearing protection devices; textile and fibre industries; metal fabrication industry; transportation and aircraft noise control; punch-press noise control and miscellaneous topics; woodworking industry; tobacco and packaging industries; community noise; and applications of damping materials. One paper has been abstracted separately.

  9. Boric acid as reference substance: pros, cons and standardization.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M J B; Natal-da-Luz, T; Sousa, J P; Loureiro, S; Becker, L; Römbke, J; Soares, A M V M

    2012-04-01

    Boric acid (BA) has been successfully used as reference substance in some standard test guidelines. Due to the fact that previously selected reference substances present a significant risk to human health and/or are banned for environmental reasons, BA is being discussed for broader adoption in OECD or ISO guidelines. To provide input on BA data and contribute to the discussion on its suitability as a reference substance, in the present study BA was tested with two standard soil organisms, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida, in terms of survival, reproduction and avoidance. Additionally, published data on other organisms was analysed to derive the most sensitive soil dwelling invertebrate (hazard concentration-HC5). Results showed that BA affected the tested organisms, being two times more toxic for collembolans (LC50 = 96; EC50 = 54 mg/kg) than for enchytraeids (LC50 = 325; EC50 = 104 mg/kg). No avoidance behaviour occurred despite the fact that BA affects earthworms. Actually, it is the recommended reference substance for the earthworm avoidance test. Clearly, the suitable performance of BA in one species should not be generalized to other species. Absolute toxicity is not an important criterion for the selection of a reference substance, but it has been proposed that effects should occur within a reasonable range, i.e. <1,000 mg/kg. We could confirm, compiling previous data that for most soil invertebrates, the EC50 is expected to be below 1,000 mg/kg. From these data it could be derived that the most sensitive soil dwelling invertebrate (HC5, 50%) is likely to be affected (EC10) at 28 (8-53) mg H(3)BO(3)/Kg, equivalent to 4.6 (1.4-8.7) mg boron/kg. PMID:22113457

  10. Emerging Techniques in Minimally Invasive Surgery. Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Fisichella, P Marco; DeMeester, Steven R; Hungness, Eric; Perretta, Silvana; Soper, Nathaniel J; Rosemurgy, Alexander; Torquati, Alfonso; Sachdeva, Ajit K; Patti, Marco G

    2015-07-01

    New trends have emerged regarding the best minimally invasive access approaches to perform gastrointestinal surgery. However, these newer approaches are seen critically by those who demand a more strict assessment of outcomes and safety. An international panel of expert gathered at the 2014 American College of Surgeons Meeting with the goal of providing an evidence-based understanding of the real value of these approaches in gastrointestinal surgery. The panel has compared the efficacy and safety of most established approaches to gastrointestinal diseases to those of new treatment modalities: peroral esophageal myotomy vs. laparoscopic myotomy for achalasia, transgastric vs. transvaginal approach, and single-incision vs. multi-port access minimally invasive surgery. The panel found that (1) the outcome of these new approaches was not superior to that of established surgical procedures; (2) the new approaches are generally performed in few highly specialized centers; and (3) transgastric and transvaginal approaches might be safe and feasible in very experienced hands, but cost, training, operative time, and tools seem to limit their application for the treatment of common procedures such as cholecystectomy and appendectomy. Because the expected advantages of new approaches have yet to be proven in controlled trials, new approaches should be considered for adoption into practice only after thorough analyses of their efficacy and effectiveness and appropriate training.

  11. Strategic vision or strategic con?: Rhetoric or reality?

    PubMed

    Coulson-Thomas, C

    1992-02-01

    Major companies devote considerable effort to communicating corporate visions and missions. Yet three recent surveys suggest that much of this effort has been counter-productive. A gap has emerged between rhetoric and reality. Arenas of confrontation have arisen between directors and managers, head offices and business units, holding companies and their subsidiaries, and between specialists and generalists. A widespread desire for corporate transformation is not matched by understanding of how to bring it about. The lack of top management commitment and of communication skills are major barriers to change. More competent directors and more effective boards are needed. The article suggests key roles for the chairman and the chief executive. It examines how best to share a compelling vision, and identifies a requirement for new attitudes and approaches to communication.

  12. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Species) may be used in accordance with § 319.6. Head meat, cheek meat, or heart meat exclusive of the heart cap may be used to the extent of 25 percent of the meat ingredients, and its presence shall...

  13. Pros and cons of the ambulatory surgery center joint venture.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    If a physician group has determined that it has a realistic patient base to establish an ambulatory surgery center, it may be beneficial to consider a partner to share the costs and risks of this new joint venture. Joint ventures can be a benefit or liability in the establishment of an ambulatory surgery center. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of a hospital physician-group joint venture.

  14. Cusp singularities in f(R) gravity: pros and cons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-10-01

    We investigate cusp singularities in f(R) gravity, especially for Starobinsky and Hu-Sawicki dark energy models. We illustrate that, by using double-null numerical simulations, a cusp singularity can be triggered by gravitational collapses. This singularity can be cured by adding a quadratic term, but this causes a Ricci scalar bump that can be observed by an observer outside the event horizon. Comparing with cosmological parameters, it seems that it would be difficult to see super-Planckian effects by astrophysical experiments. On the other hand, at once there exists a cusp singularity, it can be a mechanism to realize a horizon scale curvature singularity that can be interpreted by a firewall.

  15. Con: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Rigothier, Claire; Combe, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic acidosis is often observed in advanced chronic kidney disease, with deleterious consequences on the nutritional status, bone and mineral status, inflammation and mortality. Through clearance of the daily acid load and a net gain in alkaline buffers, dialysis therapy is aimed at correcting metabolic acidosis. A normal bicarbonate serum concentration is the recommended target in dialysis patients. However, several studies have shown that a mild degree of metabolic acidosis in patients treated with dialysis is associated with better nutritional status, higher protein intake and improved survival. Conversely, a high bicarbonate serum concentration is associated with poor nutritional status and lower survival. It is likely that mild acidosis results from a dietary acid load linked to animal protein intake. In contrast, a high bicarbonate concentration in patients treated with dialysis could result mainly from an insufficient dietary acid load, i.e. low protein intake. Therefore, a high pre-dialysis serum bicarbonate concentration should prompt nephrologists to carry out nutritional investigations to detect insufficient dietary protein intake. In any case, a high bicarbonate concentration should be neither a goal of dialysis therapy nor an index of adequate dialysis, whereas mild acidosis could be considered as an indicator of appropriate protein intake. PMID:27411724

  16. Vamos a Jugar con Letras (Let's Play with Letters).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This Spanish language workbook is intended to help elementary school children learn the Spanish alphabet. Each page presents a letter of the alphabet, a number of Spanish words beginning with that letter, and pen and ink drawings illustrating some of the words. The drawings are suitable for coloring. (AMH)

  17. Expresiones de Desarrollo Profesional en Educadoras Principiantes y con Experiencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsalel-Presser, Raquel

    1986-01-01

    Attempts to identify the conditions which affect the professional development of both experienced and inexperienced teachers. After presenting the theoretical and conceptual framework of the problem, discusses professional development needs identified by preschool and primary school teachers in an exploratory study done in Montreal, Quebec…

  18. The pros and cons of long-term opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Rui; Raphael, Jon

    2014-09-01

    Evidence supporting the efficacy of long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain is scarce. However, weak evidence suggests that those who are able to continue opioids long-term experience clinically significant pain relief. Fear of opioid abuse or addiction should not impede the prescribing of opioids if the patients are carefully selected and monitored. In patients taking opioids who experience intolerable side effects or unsatisfactory pain relief, alternatives should be sought as soon as possible. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 1, Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the Web site: http://www.paineurope.com, at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication.

  19. Learners or Participants? The Pros and Cons of "Lifelong Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Whereas adult education used to be the preferred concept for those studying adult music-making, there is now an increasing trend away from this and towards lifelong learning. Uncritically adopting government lifelong learning discourses, however, blurs the line between educational ideals and political ones. Although there may be merit in the…

  20. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  1. Communication Technology: Pros and Cons of Constant Connection to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Ismael; Chiaburu, Dan S.; Zimmerman, Ryan D.; Boswell, Wendy R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between employees' attitudes related to communication technology (CT) flexibility, communication technology (CT) use, work-to-life conflict and work satisfaction. Based on data obtained from 193 employees, CT flexibility predicted more CT use. Further, CT use was associated not only with increased work satisfaction,…

  2. VapeCons: E-cigarette user conventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarette ‘vaping conventions’ provide a venue for user social networking, parties, and ‘try before you buy’ access to a wide range of e-cigarette products. This study identifies and describes vaping conventions, raising awareness of this potentially problematic practice. Methods Conventions were identified via Google searches in April and May 2014 and August 2015. Details captured included location, sponsors, admission cost, event features, and promotions. Results 41 distinct organizations have planned 90 vaping conventions in 37 different locations since 2010. Conventions promoted access to a wide range of product vendors, seminars, social interactions with other users, parties, gifts, vaping contests, and other events. E-cigarette use at conventions was encouraged. Conclusions Vaping conventions promote e-cigarette use and social norms without public health having a voice to educate attendees about negative consequences of use. Future research should focus on the effects of attending these conventions on attendees and on indoor air quality in vapor-filled convention rooms. PMID:26424201

  3. Pros and cons of current brain tumor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Wen, Patrick Y.; van den Bent, Martin J.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, very few agents have been approved for the treatment of brain tumors. Recent studies have highlighted some of the challenges in assessing activity in novel agents for the treatment of brain tumors. This paper reviews some of the key challenges related to assessment of tumor response to therapy in adult high-grade gliomas and discusses the strengths and limitations of imaging-based endpoints. Although overall survival is considered the “gold standard” endpoint in the field of oncology, progression-free survival and response rate are endpoints that hold great value in neuro-oncology. Particular focus is given to advancements made since the January 2006 Brain Tumor Endpoints Workshop, including the development of Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria, the value of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, use of objective response rates and progression-free survival in clinical trials, and the evaluation of pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and inflammatory response in radiographic images. PMID:25313235

  4. Choice-Based Credit System in India: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Mohammad; Parvez, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Education system of India is full of intricacies of different nature. Every ladder of education has its own problems and prospects. However, attempts have been taken to lessen complexities. From ages, time to time commissions have been constituted to improve and remove the anomalies of Indian education system especially, ensuring quality and…

  5. The pros and cons of polyethylene sterilization with gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Robert H; Engh, C Anderson; Fowlkes, LaTonya B; Engh, Charles A

    2004-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the implant, patient and surgical factors associated with polyethylene wear for one type of porous-coated hemispheric total hip arthroplasty cup. Radiographic wear measurements among 567 Duraloc cups (512 patients) revealed that liners sterilized by gamma-irradiation wore 0.085 mm/year less than those that were sterilized by gas-plasma, a noncross-linking chemical surface treatment. The substantially decreased wear rate associated with gamma-irradiation was attributed to sterilization-induced polyethylene cross-linking. Shelf-aging adversely affected liners that were gamma irradiated in air. On average, highly crystalline Hylamer liners showed a 0.064 mm/year increase in wear rates for each year of shelf storage after terminal sterilization with gamma-irradiation in air. Among conventional Enduron liners, the effect of shelf aging after gamma-irradiation in air was more modest, increasing wear rates by 0.014 mm/year for each year of shelf storage. Because Hylamer's wear performance degraded at about five times the rate of Enduron's, the improved wear resistance associated with gamma-irradiation in air would be lost after 1.3 years of shelf aging for Hylamer compared with 6.1 years for Enduron. For every additional year of age at the time of surgery, the wear rate decreased by 0.003 mm/year. Increased body mass index, a preoperative diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis, and a ceramic femoral head also were associated with decreased wear rates. PMID:15577466

  6. Conciencia Con Compromiso: Aspirantes as Bridges for Latin@ Bilingual Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the influence of culture on the desire of a group of six aspirantes (Spanish/English bilingual education teacher candidates) from Texas to become bilingual education teachers of Latin@ bilingual learners. Chicana/Latina feminist thought is utilized as a lens to understand the role teacher education programs can play in helping…

  7. Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G

    2008-08-01

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated.

  8. Pro/con ethics debate: When is dead really dead?

    PubMed Central

    Whetstine, Leslie; Streat, Stephen; Darwin, Mike; Crippen, David

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary intensive care unit (ICU) medicine has complicated the issue of what constitutes death in a life support environment. Not only is the distinction between sapient life and prolongation of vital signs blurred but the concept of death itself has been made more complex. The demand for organs to facilitate transplantation promotes a strong incentive to define clinical death in a manner that most effectively supplies that demand. We consider the problem of defining death in the ICU as a function of viable organ availability for transplantation PMID:16356234

  9. Clinical drawbacks of total lymphoid irradiation: the cons

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, L.W.; Ellison, G.W.; Fahey, J.L.; Tesler, A.; Gottlieb, M.S.

    1988-07-01

    Success has been reported with use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in organ transplant recipients and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In a well-conducted randomized double blind clinical trial, Cook et al have found that TLI was superior to sham irradiation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it is clear from looking at this data that not all patients responded to TLI and that with time disease activity returned. Our own experience with TLI in two MS patients was very disappointing. Despite its apparent benefit in some conditions, considerable drawbacks are associated with TLI. These include high financial cost, unpleasant treatment-related side effects, and the possibility that more serious morbidity as well as mortality may be treatment-related. Furthermore, the optimum therapeutic regimen for TLI has not yet been established. Issues related to cumulative dose, dose per fraction, frequency of fractions, field of irradiation, and interaction with other therapies still need clarification. For these reasons we do not recommend TLI as a treatment for MS.

  10. Pros and Cons of Partnering: A VCampus Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Dees

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the growth of online courses in higher education and outsourcing for online course development focuses on the work of VCampus, an application service provider that develops online instruction for corporations and academic institutions. Discusses partnering arrangements; merging goals; intellectual property rights; marketing plans;…

  11. Junto con los ninos: street children in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jones, G A

    1997-01-01

    JUCONI, a nongovernmental organization founded in 1989 to help improve the lives of street children in Mexico, estimates that there are at least 100 street children living in the city of Puebla. The central goals of JUCONI are to help street children who want to change their lives, help them to handle their psychological and behavioral problems, and help them to improve their lives and leave the street life. The organization's approach to working with street children in Puebla, a city of more than 1 million inhabitants, is described, with implications evaluated for best practice. The 1990 World Summit for Children's ten-point plan for the year 2000 includes no strategy to protect street children. Current research neglects the moral and geographic dimensions of working with street children. This neglect has led many to view street children as a welfare concern, effectively paying less attention to their geographic context.

  12. Fotogrammetria dell'Obelisco Vaticano con il Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The Vatican Obelisk has been moved to St Peter's square by Domenico Fontana in 1586. The measurement of its height using the shadow on the floor is compared with Fontana's original data and with digital photo, corrected by perspective. A pincushion deformation is found in the camera.

  13. Astrobiological Aspects of Mars and Human Presence: Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, G

    2008-01-01

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated. PMID:19048093

  14. Bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, O. P.; Verma, A. K.; Mishra, A.; Agarwal, G.; Agarwal, A.; Mishra, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the outcome of patients undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). Methods: All patients who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for CS at the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences hospital between 1991 and 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed to obtain patient characteristics and follow-up data. Results: Twenty-seven patients were studied. Mean age was 28.74 ± 12.95 years (range 9–60), male:female ratio was 1.7:1. About half that is, 48.19% were of Cushing's disease (failed trans-sphenoidal surgery [TSS]), 37.04% were of ectopic CS (ECS), and 14.81% were of CS due to bilateral adrenal pathology. Median follow-up period was 80.5 months. Before surgery, 74.1% patients had body mass index > which after surgery declined to <25 in 75% of them. Hypertension was present in 85.2% and after surgery resolved in 40%. Diabetes mellitus was present in 44.4% and after surgery resolved in 33% of them. Hirsutism and proximal muscle weakness were present in 55.6% and 70.4% patients, respectively, and after surgery improved markedly in all patients. Adrenal crisis developed in 36.3% and Nelson's syndrome in 41.7% patients during follow-up. Three patients died in perioperative period while three succumbed to the disease during follow-up. Two patients developed recurrence of endogenous cortisol production during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Bilateral adrenalectomy is a valid treatment option for palliating severe symptoms in Pituitary Cushing's with failed TSS and unlocalized ECS but the procedure is curative for CS due to bilateral adrenal disease. Overall morbidity and mortality is higher than other endocrine operations. Co-morbidities tend to be more severe and are a risk factor for mortality during the time patient survives. PMID:26693437

  15. Stories in Games for Health: More Pros or Cons?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Moderator: Tom; Lu, Participants: Amy Shirong; Buday, Richard; Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Schell, Jesse; Russoniello, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    There has been a debate about whether entertainment videogames should incorporate story or narrative. A concern has been whether story cut scenes break game immersion, and thereby minimize the fun of gameplay. Alternatively, games for health (G4H) have an agenda that goes beyond just having fun. The possible role of story in G4H has not been thoroughly addressed. We have assembled a group of experts who have worked with stories in G4H, and asked some pointed questions. PMID:26196925

  16. Pros and cons of power combined cycle in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.; Hernandez, S.

    1997-09-01

    In Venezuela combined cycle power has not been economically attractive to electric utility companies, mainly due to the very low price of natural gas. Savings in cost of natural gas due to a higher efficiency, characteristic of this type of cycle, does not compensate additional investments required to close the simple cycle (heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and steam turbine island). Low gas prices have contributed to create a situation characterized by investors` reluctance to commit capital in gas pipe lines and associated equipment. The Government is taking measures to improve economics. Recently (January 1, 1997), the Ministry of Energy and Mines raised the price of natural gas, and established a formula to tie its price to the exchange rate variation (dollar/bolivar) in an intent to stimulate investments in this sector. This is considered a good beginning after a price freeze for about three years. Another measure that has been announced is the implementation of a corporate policy of outsourcing to build new gas facilities such as pipe lines and measuring and regulation stations. Under these new circumstances, it seems that combined cycle will play an important role in the power sector. In fact, some power generation projects are considering building new plants using this technology. An economical comparative study is presented between simple and combined cycles power plant. Screening curves are showed with a gas price forecast based on the government decree recently issued, as a function of plant capacity factor.

  17. The pros and cons of code validation. [in aeronautical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1988-01-01

    Computational and wind tunnel error sources are examined and quantified using specific calculations or experimental data, and a substantial comparison of theoretical and experimental results, or a code validation, is discussed. Wind tunnel error sources considered include wall interference, sting effects, Reynolds number effects, flow quality and transition, and instrumentation such as strain gage balances, electronically scanned pressure systems, hot film gages, hot wire anemometers, and laser velocimeters. Computational error sources include math model equation sets, the solution algorithm, artificial viscosity/dissipation, boundary conditions, the uniqueness of solutions, grid resolution, turbulence modeling, and Reynolds number effects. It is concluded that although improvements in theory are being made more quickly than in experiments, wind tunnel research has the advantage of the more realistic transition process of a right turbulence model in a free-transition test.

  18. Isolated testing of highly maneuverable inlet con cepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norby, W. P.; Haeffele, B. A.; Burley, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten percent scale models of a Mach 2.2 two dimensional inlet and a Mach 2.0 axisymmetric inlet were tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel as part of a cooperative effort with the McDonnell Aircraft Company. The objective of this effort was to test methods designed to increase the maneuvering performance of fighter aircraft inlets. Maneuvering improvement concepts were tested up to 40-deg angle of attack for Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.9, and up to 25 deg for Mach numbers 1.2 and 1.4. Maneuvering improvement concepts included a rotating cowl lip, auxiliary inlets aft of the inlet throat, and a retracting centerbody for the axisymmetric inlet. Test results show that the rotating cowl design was effective in improving subsonic maneuvering performance for both inlets. Auxiliary inlets did not produce significant performance increases for either model. The retracted centerbody resulted in some performance benefits at high angles of attack. None of the maneuvering improvement concepts were effective at Mach 1.2 and 1.4.

  19. Pros and Cons of ID vs. 3D Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in 3D modeling. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic models capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.

  20. Colorectal cancer screening tests: pros and cons, and for whom?

    PubMed

    Forbes, Geoffrey M

    2008-04-01

    The past decade has seen major advances internationally in the implementation of colorectal cancer screening, influenced in differing ways by the profession, the public and by government. Relatively unique to colorectal cancer screening is the availability of so many test alternatives, which have substantial variation in methodology. While perhaps spoilt for choice, discerning the key advantages and disadvantages of each test is often difficult, depending on the perspective from which screening is viewed. Accordingly, this article provides an evaluation of screening tests as might be perceived by governments, the patient and the profession. Aligned issues such as choosing a screening test and provision of informed consent are discussed. Finally, the article identifies current problems with various screening tests that, if attended to, might change the perception of a test's value to a particular interest group. PMID:19072355

  1. Population registers: some administrative and statistical pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Redfern, P

    1989-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of introducing a central population register are discussed in the context of the United Kingdom. The discussion covers a range of issues, including "justice, fairness, freedom, privacy, efficiency, the fight against crime and fraud, and relations between the government and the community." The author describes the use of population registers in other European countries, the statistical implications of better population registers, the various population records that do exist in the United Kingdom, and the proposal to introduce identity cards in Australia. A summary of a discussion that took place following presentation of the paper at the Royal Statistical Society is included (pp. 28-41).

  2. Astronomia solare e ottica con il foro stenopeico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    The observation of the Sun with pinholes was started in Florence's Cathedral in 1475, and in Ulugh Beg observatory in Samarcand in 1424-29, well before the invention of the telescope, for measuring the solar position and the variation of the obliquity of the Earth's axis. Later, with Kepler, pinholes' telescopes were used to follow the solar spots when the telescopes made by Galileo were not available. The use of pinholes in positional solar astrometry continued successfully up to 1800 in some great Italian and French Churches. Nowadays by using pinholes it is possible to show the principles of positional astronomy and imaging to students with instruments very easy to be built at almost no cost. The concepts of focal length, best focus, angular resolution, atmospheric seeing and atmospheric transmittance can be verified with such simple devices. Such pinhole telescopes have been built by primary-school students at the Astronomical Observatory dedicated to the Pope astronomer Sylvester II, located in Bukowiec, Poland, which is at its third year of activity. The largest solar spots have been observed clearly with these instruments, demonstrating the principles discussed in this presentation. The light cast by one of this devices with 70 m of focal length and 1 cm of diameter has permitted to repeat the experiences on the diffraction of the light, made in 1648 by the Jesuits Riccioli and Grimaldi.

  3. Allineamenti di tre basiliche romane con il Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-06-01

    The astronomical azimut of a wall can be measured by timing the grazing Sun and computing the ephemerides of the Sun for that place, similarly the windows can cast sunbeams into the building allowing to time the alignments. The azimut of Saint Peter's Basilica, Saint Paul and Saint Pancratius outside the walls have been measured by timing the Sun at opportune positions.

  4. Con: current laboratory benchmarking options are not good enough.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    In an ideal world, benchmarking performance in the clinical laboratory would improve performance, quality, and overall patient satisfaction. However, there is a reason why laboratory managers continue to be on the lookout for the perfect benchmarking product--it doesn't exist. As a result, benchmarking performance in the laboratory is inherently flawed. Here is why.

  5. The Prose of Blogging (and a Few Cons, Too)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    "Blogging for the sake of blogging is fine, but what is the value added?" That's a question educational blogging advocates are now coming around to answer, and the value they're finding may seem preposterous to those who associate blogging with barely literate loudmouths and cyber predators. Can this often belligerent wasteland of poor punctuation…

  6. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  7. Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G

    2008-08-01

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated. PMID:19048093

  8. Pros and cons of stem cell transplantation for autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E D

    1997-05-01

    The data and discussion at this symposium have provided a most useful analysis of the autoimmune diseases and their potential for therapy by stem cell transplantation. These diseases are characterized by threat to life and particularly by chronic, painful and debilitating courses that warrant aggressive therapy. Selection of patients will be difficult because of the variable disease course and the necessity to choose patients who still have reversible disease. The safety of both autologous and allogeneic stem cell grafting has progressed to the point where, in many cases, the risks of the disease far outweigh those of transplantation. In my opinion the data presented at this symposium show that we should proceed cautiously with both autologous and allogeneic stem cell grafts. Purified stem cells, which have the advantage of being free of lymphocytes, should be used for the first series of autologous studies. These studies are attractive because of the low risk of transplant related complications but are less likely to be curative. Allogeneic grafts from perfectly matched donors have the advantage of providing a completely new immunological environment. For this reason, I believe that curative results are most probable after allogeneic stem cell engraftment. Emphasis should be on the identification of patients with HLA matched siblings. Initially, these studies will be carried out in patients with advanced disease, as was the case in the early days of transplantation for leukemia. In considering more aggressive treatment for autoimmune diseases it appears there are 3 possible approaches. First, and most conservative, is to store peripheral blood stem cells for possible future marrow rescue and then to give higher doses of immunosuppressive agents, especially in combination, to see whether there is an improvement over conventional doses. Second, for those who prefer a conservative approach to stem cell transplantation, is to give myeloablative and lymphoablative chemotherapy followed by purified (lymphocyte-free) hematopoietic stem cells. Third, and most likely to be curative, is myeloablative and lymphoablative therapy followed by stem cells from an HLA matched family member with subsequent short methotrexate and cyclosporine treatment to control GVHD. As we have heard, there are differences of opinion about whether the preparative regimen should include irradiation. It should be pointed out that total body irradiation is the most effective way to destroy lymphoid cells throughout the body. Careful monitoring of accumulating clinical results will pilot future investigation.

  9. Con: Frequent haemodialysis for all chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Labriola, Laura; Morelle, Johann; Jadoul, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Frequent haemodialysis (HD) regimens have been proposed with the aim to improve survival and other important patient outcomes. They indeed avoid the long interdialytic interval and have been associated with some proven benefits, i.e. an improvement in blood pressure and phosphataemia control, a reduction in left ventricular mass and lower ultrafiltration rates. However, the actual impact of frequent HD regimens on survival is, at best, inconclusive and, at worse, harmful, and remains uncertain regarding nutritional status and anaemia control. Moreover, the higher rates of vascular access complications and more rapid development of anuria with frequent HD regimens are worrying. Frequent HD also considerably increases the burden for patients and their caregivers, logistics and costs, especially with in-centre frequent schedules. In our opinion, before increasing HD frequency, a number of underused strategies summarized in our review and able to improve patient tolerance and/or HD dose should be tested first, taking into account patient's characteristics and life expectancy. Frequent HD schedules should be reserved for selected cases, only after all other available options have failed. PMID:25538159

  10. Monitoreo de blazares con el Telescopio Whipple de rayos gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichel, A.; Rovero, A. C.

    Since September 2005, the Whipple 10 m Gamma-ray Telescope has been used primarily to monitor known TeV blazars. The five blazars that have been previously detected at Whipple: Markarian 421, H1426+428, Markarian 501, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2344+514, are monitored each night that they are visible. Alerts are sent to VERITAS any time these objects are flaring to trigger ToO observations. The light curves for these blazars are produced and combined with observations in radio, optical and X-ray in the frame of Multiwavelengths Campaigns. We present here the results for the 2005-08 observations on Mrk421. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. Pros and cons of online cognitive-behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim

    2008-10-01

    Online cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression has the potential to serve as an important addition to the care of people with mild to moderate depression. Although some studies show promising results, the need for proper diagnoses and human guidance must be considered when interpreting the modest effects found in studies with little or no guidance from a therapist. PMID:18827286

  12. Making your database available through Wikipedia: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Finn, Robert D; Gardner, Paul P; Bateman, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, is the most famous wiki in use today. It contains over 3.7 million pages of content; with many pages written on scientific subject matters that include peer-reviewed citations, yet are written in an accessible manner and generally reflect the consensus opinion of the community. In this, the 19th Annual Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research, there are 11 articles that describe the use of a wiki in relation to a biological database. In this commentary, we discuss how biological databases can be integrated with Wikipedia, thereby utilising the pre-existing infrastructure, tools and above all, large community of authors (or Wikipedians). The limitations to the content that can be included in Wikipedia are highlighted, with examples drawn from articles found in this issue and other wiki-based resources, indicating why other wiki solutions are necessary. We discuss the merits of using open wikis, like Wikipedia, versus other models, with particular reference to potential vandalism. Finally, we raise the question about the future role of dedicated database biocurators in context of the thousands of crowdsourced, community annotations that are now being stored in wikis. PMID:22144683

  13. Web-based learning: pros, cons and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A

    2007-01-01

    Advantages of web-based learning (WBL) in medical education include overcoming barriers of distance and time, economies of scale, and novel instructional methods, while disadvantages include social isolation, up-front costs, and technical problems. Web-based learning is purported to facilitate individualised instruction, but this is currently more vision than reality. More importantly, many WBL instructional designs fail to incorporate principles of effective learning, and WBL is often used for the wrong reasons (e.g., for the sake of technology). Rather than trying to decide whether WBL is superior to or equivalent to other instructional media (research addressing this question will always be confounded), we should accept it as a potentially powerful instructional tool, and focus on learning when and how to use it. Educators should recognise that high fidelity, multimedia, simulations, and even WBL itself will not always be necessary to effectively facilitate learning. PMID:17348573

  14. Con: bulbomembranous anastomotic urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral injuries

    PubMed Central

    Tausch, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Current literature remains controversial regarding whether to treat patients sustaining pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUIs) with primary endoscopic realignment (PER) versus suprapubic tube (SPT) placement alone with elective bulbomembranous anastomotic urethroplasty (BMAU). Success rates for PER following PFUI are wide-ranging, depending on various authors’ definitions of what defines a successful outcome. At our institution, for SPT/BMAU patients, the mean time to definitive resolution of stenosis was dramatically shorter compared to PER cases. The vast majority of PER patients required multiple endoscopic urethral interventions and/or experienced various other adverse events which were rarely noted among the SPT/BMAU group. While PER does occasionally result in urethral patency without the need for further intervention, the risk of delay in definitive treatment and potential for adverse events has led to a preference for SPT and elective BMAU at our institution. PMID:26816814

  15. Con: bulbomembranous anastomotic urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral injuries.

    PubMed

    Tausch, Timothy J; Morey, Allen F

    2015-02-01

    Current literature remains controversial regarding whether to treat patients sustaining pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUIs) with primary endoscopic realignment (PER) versus suprapubic tube (SPT) placement alone with elective bulbomembranous anastomotic urethroplasty (BMAU). Success rates for PER following PFUI are wide-ranging, depending on various authors' definitions of what defines a successful outcome. At our institution, for SPT/BMAU patients, the mean time to definitive resolution of stenosis was dramatically shorter compared to PER cases. The vast majority of PER patients required multiple endoscopic urethral interventions and/or experienced various other adverse events which were rarely noted among the SPT/BMAU group. While PER does occasionally result in urethral patency without the need for further intervention, the risk of delay in definitive treatment and potential for adverse events has led to a preference for SPT and elective BMAU at our institution. PMID:26816814

  16. [Pros and cons of magnesium sulfate as a tocolytic].

    PubMed

    Bozhinova, S; Markova, S; Tsvetkov, Ts; Penkov, V; Ivanova, I

    2002-01-01

    Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is with a proved effectiveness in cases of praeclampsia/eclampsia, but its use as a tocolytic is discussed in the last few years. That is why we had for an object to study its effect as a tocolytic in cases of abortions and premature labours. The study is prospective and if is made in I-st obstetric clinic of High Medical School--Pleven. Treatment with Cormagnesin was carried out to pregnant women for suppressing the uterine activity. Cormagnesin 200 (1 amp-10 ml) contains 1000 mg MgSO4, and Cormagnesin 400 (1 amp-10 ml) contains 2000 mg MgSO4. The medicine was administered in dosage of 4 or 5 g for 30 min, and after that if there were any uterine contractions the infusion was carried on with additional 5 g MgSO4 for 6 to 12 h. The total dosage was from 4 to 60 g MgSO4. The authors reported on very good effect in cases with pains and increased uterine tone--18 (36.73%), as well as in cases with pains and irregular uterine contractions 5 (10.21%), while the treatment was without any effect in cases with uterine contractions on 15-20 min, increased uterine tone, bleeding and Pelvic score 1-3 points in spite of high dosages of MgSO4 and longer duration of treatment. The authors made the conclusion, that the subjective complaints should not be accepted as an indication for administration of MgSO4, and MgSO4 should be administered in cases with increased uterine tone and irregular uterine contractions. Every genital bleeding and suspicion for placental abruption should be defined more precisely, because lately diagnosed placental abruption and unjustified expectation for suppression of uterine activity by MgSO4, may lead to increase of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In spite of the controversial data about MgSO4 as a tocolytic, its administration is justified and necessary. PMID:12577499

  17. Pros and cons for C4d as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Danielle; Colvin, Robert B; Daha, Mohamed R; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Haas, Mark; Nickeleit, Volker; Salmon, Jane E; Sis, Banu; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of C4d in daily clinical practice in the late nineties aroused an ever-increasing interest in the role of antibody-mediated mechanisms in allograft rejection. As a marker of classical complement activation, C4d made it possible to visualize the direct link between anti-donor antibodies and tissue injury at sites of antibody binding in a graft. With the expanding use of C4d worldwide several limitations of C4d were identified. For instance, in ABO-incompatible transplantations C4d is present in the majority of grafts but this seems to point at 'graft accommodation' rather than antibody-mediated rejection. C4d is now increasingly recognized as a potential biomarker in other fields where antibodies can cause tissue damage, such as systemic autoimmune diseases and pregnancy. In all these fields, C4d holds promise to detect patients at risk for the consequences of antibody-mediated disease. Moreover, the emergence of new therapeutics that block complement activation makes C4d a marker with potential to identify patients who may possibly benefit from these drugs. This review provides an overview of the past, present, and future perspectives of C4d as a biomarker, focusing on its use in solid organ transplantation and discussing its possible new roles in autoimmunity and pregnancy. PMID:22297669

  18. The pros and cons of outpatient breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lou, M A; Mandal, A K; Alexander, J L

    1976-06-01

    A review of the 130 breast biopsies performed on women during the past three years at the Martin Luther King, Jr, General Hospital showed that 90 were performed on outpatients and 40 on inpatients. Of the 90 outpatient procedures, 61 were under local anesthesia and 29 under general. Only three outpatient biopsy specimens were malignant and required subsequent patient admission to the hospital for mastectomy at an interval of 9 to 14 days. In all three, the axillary nodes were uninvolved. In two, no residual tumor was found in the mastectomy specimen.

  19. Estudio de generacion de energia con celdas de combustible con membrana poly diallydimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) como polimero de intercambio protonico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino Galeano, Miguel Angel

    Fuel cells were built with poly diallydimethylammonium chloride or PDADMAC (by its initials in English) as proton exchange membrane and were compared with earlier studies of fuel cells constructed by other methods and / or materials. Also copper, aluminum and nickel were used as electrodes in the electrode membrane ensamble in search of the best performance operational cell. The results of the current were used to justify the use of PDADMAC membranes in 40% volume-volume ratio in different combinations of metals Cu-Al, Ni-Al as electrodes. For the study of conduction performance of membrane electrode ensambles (MEA), copper and aluminum were as cathode and anode for their active behavior as functional electrodes in the experimental cell, walling individually membrane types PDADMAC, PDADMAC + Buffer, PDADMAC + deionized water and PDADMAC + tap water.

  20. Conversations with Marcgrave: the Origin of Modern Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere (Spanish Title: Conversando con Marcgrave: El Origen de la Astronomía Moderna en el Hemisferio Sur) Conversando Com Marcgrave: a Origem da Moderna Astronomia no Hemisfério Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Araújo, Fábio

    2005-12-01

    The year 2004 signals the 400th anniversary of the birth of count Mauricio of Nassau, an important character in the history of Brazil. The present text is related to the period of Dutch domination in Pernambuco. The article attempts to rescue the beginnings of Astronomy study in the South hemisphere. Therefore, we idealized a dramatization of a fictitious interview with German astronomer Georg Marcgrave, who was the constructor of the first astronomical observatory in this hemisphere and the author of the first systematic astronomical observations using telescopes in this side of the world. Our "conversation" with Marcgrave is idealized in the old Recife scenario, a place where he lived in Mauricio of Nassau's period and gathers some fellow teachers who love the teaching of Astronomy. The story, this way, is reported in a possibly light and funny atmosphere. Nevertheless, the conceptual and historical framework presented is based on reliable bibliographical sources pointed out at the end of the text. The sources range from the original book of that scientist, in which a solar eclipse is reported, passing through some other classical texts, such as that of Professor Juliano Moreira, up to more recent sources such as the very influential work of professor John North. Other influential texts about the Dutch period in Brazil, such as the classical works of Charles Boxer, Bouman and Boogaart, among others, are also used in the construction of this pedagogical dramatization, which involves an interesting chapter of the history of Astronomy. El año 2004 marca los 400 años del nacimineto del conde Mauricio de Nassau, un importante personaje de la historia del Brasil. El presente texto está relacionado con el período del dominio holandés en Pernambuco. El artículo intenta rescatar los comienzos del estudio de la Astronomía en el hemisferio Sur. Para esto, ideamos una dramatización de una entrevista ficticia con el astrónomo alemán Georg Marcgrave, constructor del