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Sample records for archaeological obsidians analysis

  1. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Cossío, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sánchez, S.; Calligaro, T. F.; Tenorio, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, M.; Rios, M. De Los

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purísima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, México, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraíso Querétaro, Ucareo Michoacán and mainly from Zacualtipán/Metzquititlán Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  2. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2007-02-01

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800 100 b.c.) using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Mössbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Mössbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  3. Magnetic studies of archaeological obsidian: Variability of eruptive conditions within obsidian flows is key to high-resolution artifact sourcing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Frahm, E.; Muth, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have endeavored to use petrophysical traits of obsidian, particularly its magnetic properties, as an alternative to conventional geochemical sourcing, one of the greatest successes in archaeological science. Magnetic approaches, however, have not seen widespread application due to their mixed success. In a time when geochemical analyses can be conducted non-destructively, in the field, and in a minute or two, magnetic measurements of obsidian must offer novel archaeological insights to be worthwhile, not merely act as a less successful version of geochemistry. To this end, we report the findings of a large-scale study of obsidian magnetism, which includes 912 geological obsidian specimens and 97 artifacts measured for six simple magnetic parameters. Based on these results, we propose, rather than using magnetic properties to source artifacts to a particular obsidian flow (inter-flow sourcing), these properties are best used to differentiate quarrying sites within an individual flow (intra-flow sourcing). The magnetic properties within an individual flow are highly variable, due to the fact that a single flow experiences a wide array of cooling rates, absolute temperatures, viscosities, deformation, and oxidation. These conditions affect the concentrations, compositions, size distributions, shapes, and spatial arrangements of magnetic grains within an obsidian specimen and, thus, its intrinsic magnetic properties. This variability decreases dramatically at spatial scales of individual outcrops, and decreases even further at scales of hand samples. Thus, magnetic data appear to shift the scale of obsidian sourcing from flows to quarries and, in turn, enable new insights into raw-material procurement strategies, group mobility, lithic technology, and the organization of space and production. From a geologic perspective, the magnetic variability of obsidian can be broadly interpreted within the context of the igneous processes that were active during

  4. Obsidian sources characterized by neutron-activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Gordus, A A; Wright, G A; Griffin, J B

    1968-07-26

    Concentrations of elements such as manganese, scandium, lanthanum, rubidium, samarium, barium, and zirconium in obsidian samples from different flows show ranges of 1000 percent or more, whereas the variation in element content in obsidian samples from a single flow appears to be less than 40 percent. Neutron-activation analysis of these elements, as well as of sodium and iron, provides a means of identifying the geologic source of an archeological artifact of obsidian.

  5. Analysis of obsidian from moho cay, belize: new evidence on classic maya trade routes.

    PubMed

    Healy, P F; McKillop, H I; Walsh, B

    1984-07-27

    Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from Moho Cay, Belize, reveals that the obsidian derives primarily from the El Chayal outcrop in highland Guatemala and not from the Ixtepeque source. This is contrary to the widely accepted obsidian trade route model for Classic Maya civilization and suggests that Classic Maya obsidian trade was a more complex economic phenomenon than has been recognized.

  6. Analysis of obsidian sources in the southern Sierra Madre occidental

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, J.A.; Hayashida, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    From 1991 to 1993, field surveys and geologic sampling were conducted in the region of the southern Sierra Madre Occidental in the states of Durango, Zacatecas, and Jalisco, Mexico, to investigate three previously unreported sources of obsidian or volcanic glass. The source areas are Huitzila-La Lobera, Llano Grande, and Nochistlan. Obsidian`s importance as a raw material in premodern societies for the production of tools and articles of adornment is well documented, particularly for Mesoamerica. Investigation of northern mesoamerican obsidian offers new data on these little known sources located to the north of the more thoroughly studied sources of the Mexican Neovolcanic chain. Neutron activation analysis was used to characterize the materials.

  7. Advanced signal processing analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data for the discrimination of obsidian sources.

    PubMed

    Remus, Jeremiah J; Harmon, Russell S; Hark, Richard R; Haverstock, Gregory; Baron, Dirk; Potter, Ian K; Bristol, Samantha K; East, Lucille J

    2012-03-01

    Obsidian is a natural glass of volcanic origin and a primary resource used by indigenous peoples across North America for making tools. Geochemical studies of obsidian enhance understanding of artifact production and procurement and remain a priority activity within the archaeological community. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique being examined as a means for identifying obsidian from different sources on the basis of its 'geochemical fingerprint'. This study tested whether two major California obsidian centers could be distinguished from other obsidian localities and the extent to which subsources could be recognized within each of these centers. LIBS data sets were collected in two different spectral bands (350±130 nm and 690±115 nm) using a Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser operated at ~23 mJ, a Czerny-Turner spectrograph with 0.2-0.3 nm spectral resolution and a high performance imaging charge couple device (ICCD) detector. Classification of the samples was performed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), a common chemometric technique for performing statistical regression on high-dimensional data. Discrimination of samples from the Coso Volcanic Field, Bodie Hills, and other major obsidian areas in north-central California was possible with an accuracy of greater than 90% using either spectral band.

  8. Analysis of obsidian artifacts in Southern Meso-America using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, F.W.

    1996-12-31

    The analysis of obsidian artifacts using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been an important tool for archaeologists for {approximately}25 yr. However, as methods and instrumentation have improved, more reliable information regarding exchange and routes of exchange has been obtained. In southern Meso-America, obsidian analyses have demonstrated changes in the obsidian geologic sources used by prehistoric peoples through time. These changes in sources of obsidian have been used to describe possible changes of prehistoric trade routes. The methods and results of analysis are described in this paper.

  9. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  10. Provenance studies of obsidians from Neolithic contexts in Southern Italy by IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarta, Gianluca; Maruccio, Lucio; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2011-12-01

    Obsidian samples recovered in archaeological contexts in Southern Italy were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission) for the quantitative determination of both major and trace elements composition. The archaeological contexts were absolutely dated to the 5th millennium BC by mean of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dating analyses carried out on associated organic materials such as charcoal and human bones. The comparison of the compositional results obtained for the analysed samples with published data available for the known obsidian sources in the Mediterranean allowed to identify the sources of the raw material, giving an important contribution to the reconstruction of the ancient trade and exchange routes in Southern Italy prehistory.

  11. Textural analysis of obsidian lava flow in Shirataki, Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Toramaru, A.; Wada, K.

    2013-12-01

    Formation process of obsidian is poorly understood and it is thought that gas loss (outgassing) plays an important role. Glass formation needs the high-effective undercooling resulted from a high ascent and decompression rates, which process increases magma viscosity. The vesiculation, crystallization, and outgassing processes of such a highly viscous magma is also unclear. In this study, we conducted textural and chemical analyses for Tokachi-Ishizawa (TI) obsidian lava one of Shirataki rhyolite lava, Hokkaido, northern part of Japan, in order to elucidate the magma ascent process. At TI lava, the interior structure of the lava can be observed, right from the outer obsidian layer to the inner rhyolite layer. That is, TI lava is an appropriate subject for textural analysis focused on the interior of obsidian lavas In Shirataki rhyolite lava area there are monogenetic volcanoes composed of 10 obsidian lava flow units, which were erupted at 2.2Ma. The TI lava is about 50 m in height and stratigraphic sequence from the bottom is a brecciated perlite layer, obsidian layer (7m), banded obsidian layer, and rhyolite layer. In this study, we define the obsidian and rhyolite based on the difference in appearance of specimen and rock texture, especially crystallinity. Rhyolite has perlitic cracks on glass, and contains the crystalline materials (i.e. spherulite and lithophysae). Banded obsidian layer, which is located between the obsidian and rhyolite layer, is composed of obsidian and rhyolite. In this study, we focused on the texture of flow bands and plagioclase microlites in glassy part of obsidian and rhyolite layers. The flow bands can be identified based on the color of glass (dark and clear), and have a contrast in abundance of oxide and transparent tiny crystals, which are plagioclase nanolites (<15μm) and micro-spherulites (<20μm). We newly defined micro-spherulite, which shows radial growth of crystals like a spherulite. The plagioclase nanolites were identified

  12. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research.

  13. Discrimination of surface wear on obsidian tools using LSCM and RelA: pilot study results (area-scale analysis of obsidian tool surfaces).

    PubMed

    Stemp, W James; Chung, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tests the reliability of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to quantitatively measure wear on experimental obsidian tools. To our knowledge, this is the first use of confocal microscopy to study wear on stone flakes made from an amorphous silicate like obsidian. Three-dimensional surface roughness or texture area scans on three obsidian flakes used on different contact materials (hide, shell, wood) were documented using the LSCM to determine whether the worn surfaces could be discriminated using area-scale analysis, specifically relative area (RelA). When coupled with the F-test, this scale-sensitive fractal analysis could not only discriminate the used from unused surfaces on individual tools, but was also capable of discriminating the wear histories of tools used on different contact materials. Results indicate that such discriminations occur at different scales. Confidence levels for the discriminations at different scales were established using the F-test (mean square ratios or MSRs). In instances where discrimination of surface roughness or texture was not possible above the established confidence level based on MSRs, photomicrographs and RelA assisted in hypothesizing why this was so.

  14. Obsidian Hydration: A New Paleothermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Riciputi, Lee R; Cole, David R; Fayek, Mostafa; Elam, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The natural hydration of obsidian was first proposed as a dating technique for young geological and archaeological specimens by Friedman and Smith (1960), who noted that the thickness of the hydrated layer on obsidian artifacts increases with time. This approach is, however, sensitive to temperature and humidity under earth-surface conditions. This has made obsidian hydration dating more difficult, but potentially provides a unique tool for paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this paper we present the first successful application of this approach, based on combining laboratory-based experimental calibrations with archaeological samples from the Chalco site in the Basin of Mexico, dated using stratigraphically correlated 14C results and measuring hydration depths by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resultant data suggest, first, that this approach is viable, even given the existing uncertainties, and that a cooling trend occurred in the Basin of Mexico over the past 1450 yr, a result corroborated by other paleoclimatic data.

  15. Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and…

  16. Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from a classic Maya residential group at Nohmul, Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, N.; Neivens, M.D.; Harbottle, G.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-nine obsidian artifacts from a classic period residential group at Nohmul, northern Belize, have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The majority of the samples originated from Ixtepeque, and the remainder from El Chayal. Increasing prominence of the Ixtepeque source from the late Classic into the Terminal Classic (i.e., before and after ca. A.D. 800) suggests greater use of a coastal distribution route known to have originated in the formative and to have remained in use through the colonial period.

  17. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Poupeau, Gérard; Boussofara, Ridha; Dubernet, Stéphan; Moretto, Philippe; Compin, Matthieu; Mulazzani, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  18. Characterization by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Peruvian Obsidians for Provenance Studies: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, A.; Montoya, J.; Delgado, M.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rossi, A. M.; Poupeau, G.

    2003-06-01

    The identification of geological sources of obsidians collected in archaeological sites provides important information about circulation routes and sociocultural relationships during prehistoric periods. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by MS and EPR on geological obsidians from Ayacucho and Arequipa, in Peru and on archaeological obsidian artifacts from Cerrillos, an early Paracas site of the upper Ica valley, south of Lima (Peru).

  19. Chemical analysis of obsidian by a SIMS/EDX combined system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudriavtsev, Yuriy; Gallardo, Salvador; Avendaño, Miguel; Ramírez, Georgina; Asomoza, René; Manzanilla, Linda; Beramendi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A recently built combined EDX-SIMS system was used for a quantitative standardless analysis of obsidians. By using the novel scheme of analysis described in the paper, concentrations of 47 elements were measured. The range of concentrations analyzed varied by up to 8 orders of magnitude, from 1015 atoms/cm3 to 1023 atoms/cm3, which cannot be attained by any other analytical method based on electron or X-ray irradiations. The experimentally measured concentrations were compared with the data of XRF analysis: the data proved to differ in less than a factor of two for the majority of elements. The technique we suggest can be used to analyze almost any solid material.

  20. Use of INAA in archaeology in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, A.P.; Vassilaki-Grimani, M.; Kilikoglou, V.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a very sensitive and accurate multi-element analytical method that is widely applied to the investigation of archaeological problems. Elemental composition of an archaeological material, besides form and decoration style, may give supplementary information of the origin of the material. This paper is a review of provenance studies, based on minor and trace element research, of ancient books, ceramics, obsidian, flint, limestone, marble, and lead by INAA performed at the authors' radioanalytical laboratory.

  1. Provenance analysis of obsidian artifacts from the northern ridge of Lake Atitlan in the Guatemalan southern highlands

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.D.; Woodward, M.R.; Bruchez, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The use of chemical composition of archaeological obsidian artifacts to study ancient cultures has become widespread over the last two decades. The focus of this paper is the correlation of artifacts collected from surface surveys of a region just to the north of Lake Atitlan in the southern Guatemalan highlands to known source outcroppings. The obsidian experiments are one facet of a larger project that seeks to develop evidence of ritual behavior among the inhabitants of the original Cakchiquel kingdom on the lake shores. These rituals are said to have provided the order of their social organization. Specific goals of the study include the development of a chronological sequence from Preclassic Maya (2000 B.C. to A.D. 200) to the Spanish colonial period. Supporting goals involve developing a preliminary view of site organization based on the distribution of features and cultural items, definition of particular activities from functional assessment of the site organization, and determination of occupational information. The results of these studies are expected to be a starting point for understanding the process of sociocultural evolution in the area.

  2. Advanced Signal Processing Analysis of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Data for the Discrimination of Obsidian Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-09

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Obsidian is a natural glass of volcanic origin and a primary resource used by indigenous peoples across North America for...laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data for the discrimination of obsidian sources Report Title ABSTRACT Obsidian is a natural glass of volcanic ...performing statistical regression on high-dimensional data. Discrimination of samples from the Coso Volcanic Field, Bodie Hills, and other major obsidian

  3. Obsidian sourcing and hydration studies at MURR

    SciTech Connect

    Ambroz, J.; Glascock, M.D.; Skinner, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    In regions where obsidian was abundant, large quantities of the volcanic glass were used by prehistoric peoples to manufacture sharp-edged stone tools. By employing a variety of analytical techniques, these tools are examined by present-day archaeologists to study ancient culture and trade patterns. The geochemical properties of obsidian make it ideal for archaeologists who are interested in the sourcing and dating of obsidian artifacts. Geologic obsidian specimens from more than a dozen sources in northern California, Idaho, and Oregon were characterized by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). These data are being used to create an extensive geochemical data-base for obsidian sources located in the Northwest. Although X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data already exist for many of these sources, INAA provides a larger suite of elements that give superior resolution between individual sources and enables discovery of chemically distinct subgroups within complex source systems.

  4. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G.

    2014-10-16

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this paper, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55–85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Finally, independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (<65 °C) temperatures while highly active cellulolytic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor were dominant at high (>65 °C) temperatures.

  5. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (<65 °C) temperatures while highly active cellulolytic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor were dominant at high (>65 °C) temperatures.

  6. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    DOE PAGES

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Podar, Mircea; ...

    2014-10-16

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this paper, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversitymore » in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55–85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Finally, independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (<65 °C) temperatures while highly active cellulolytic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor were dominant at high (>65 °C) temperatures.« less

  7. The paredon, Mexico, obsidian source and early formative exchange.

    PubMed

    Charlton, T H; Grove, D C; Hopke, P K

    1978-09-01

    In 1975, archeological surface surveys of trade routes located again a pre-Hispanic obsidian source in central Mexico first reported in 1902. Initial trace element studies of the Paredón source through an analysis by neutron activation have been compared with similar studies of the obsidian found at Chalcatzingo 150 kilometers from the source. These comparisons indicate that obsidian from Paredón, rather than Otumba, was of primary importance during the Early Formative in central Mexico.

  8. Archaeological applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: an example from the Coso Volcanic Field, California, using advanced statistical signal processing analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Remus, Jeremiah J.; Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Harmon, Russell S.; Draucker, Anne; Baron, Dirk; Yohe, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Over the past quarter century, multielement chemical analysis has become a common means for attributing the provenance of archaeological materials. The Coso Volcanic Field (CVF) in California, USA, contains at least 38 high-silica rhyolite domes, many of which contain obsidian glass that has been quarried for tools by the indigenous population for more than 12,000 years. Artifacts made from CVF obsidian are found throughout the southwestern United States and geochemical sourcing of CVF obsidian has been an important tool in understanding prehistoric Native American trading patterns. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a simple atomic emission spectroscopic technique that has the potential for real-time man-portable chemical analysis in the field. Because LIBS is simultaneously sensitive to all elements, a single laser shot can be used to record the broadband emission spectra, which provides a ''chemical fingerprint'' of a material. Single-shot broadband LIBS spectra were collected using a commercial benchtop LIBS system for 27 obsidian samples from major sites across the CVF and four additional sites in California and western Nevada outside of CVF. Classification of the samples was performed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), a common chemometric technique suitable for performing regression on high-dimensional data. Provenance identification for the obsidian samples was evaluated for three separate labeling frameworks. The first framework consisted of a binary classification problem to distinguish CVF samples from non-CVF samples. The second approach focused on the CVF samples with labels that corresponded to the eight separate Coso sites encompassed by the 27 samples. In the third analysis, non-CVF samples were excluded, and the remaining 27 CVF samples were labeled based on groupings defined from previous major and trace element chemical studies, which reduces the number of possible classes from eight to four. Different aspects

  9. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-06-06

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution.

  10. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution. PMID:25948614

  11. Archaeological contributions of skeletal lead analysis.

    PubMed

    Wittmers, Lorentz; Aufderheide, Arthur; Rapp, George Rip; Alich, Agnes

    2002-08-01

    We developed a chemical method to quantitate lead in small skeletal specimens and used it to establish lead distribution and quantitation in modern skeletons for all age groups to standardize sampling sites. Application of the method to excavated ancient skeletal collections enabled prediction of socioeconomic status among Colonial Americans, as well as identification of lead poisoning in ancient Rome as related to lead production and in an 18th century Caribbean epidemic as related to distillation of rum. Depending upon the conditions of burial, bones may be contaminated by surrounding material. This can be a limiting factor for interpretation of lead levels, but multielement analysis and procedural modifications can permit continuing application of bone lead analysis to appropriately selected archaeological skeletal collections.

  12. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  13. Appendix C: The sources of Copan Valley obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.; Neff, H.; Bishop, R.L.

    1995-05-01

    One hundred thirty-nine obsidian samples from the Copan Valley were subjected to neutron activation analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Obsidian sources from Mesoamerica have been characterized by a number of different laboratories using several techniques. Over 1,800 samples from Mesoamerica have been analyzed by neutron activation at BNL. These data are now housed both at BNL and in the Smithsonian Archaeometric Research Collections and Records (SARCAR) data base. Previous statistical analysis of the Mesoamerican obsidian artifacts and source samples has produced reference groups representing many of the sources, including Ixtepeque, San Martin Jilotepeque, and El Chayal, the three sources closest to the Copan Valley and therefore most likely to be represented in the analyzed sample. As anticipated, the overwhelming majority of obsidian recovered in the Copan Valley comes from the closest source, Ixtepeque. Of the seven El Chayal specimens, four pertain to CV-43 and three pertain to CV-20. These data provide no evidence of a difference between the two localities in external obsidian exchange relations. Thus, the authors find no grounds for questioning the assumption that the minor quantities of El Chayal obsidian that reached the Copan Valley were distributed through the same channels responsible for distribution of the more common Ixtepeque obsidian.

  14. Tikal obsidian: sources and typology

    SciTech Connect

    Moholy-Nagy, H.; Asaro, F.; Stross, F.H.

    1984-01-01

    The obsidian industry of Classic period Tikal, Guatemala, is discussed with regard to geological source determinations and behavioral typology. The potential of these two approaches for cultural reconstruction is greatly extended when they can supplement each other. Recent source determinations of obsidian artifacts from Tikal indicate (1) a behavioral link between locally-produced prismatic blades of Highland Guatemalan stone and ceremonial incised obsidians and eccentrics, and (2) a Central Mexican origin for a seemingly large portion of Tikal's obsidian projectile points and knives. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  16. Detection of 'archaeological features' among reflectance spectra of natural soils and archaeological soils using principal component analysis (PCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lampel, Johannes; Jordan, David; Fiedler, Sabine; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological terminology 'soil-mark' refers to buried archaeological features being visible on the ground surface. Soil-marks have been identified by archaeologists based on their personal experience and knowledge. This study suggests a quantitative spectral analysis method to detect such archaeological features. This study identifies 'archaeological spectra' (reflectance spectra from surfaces containing archaeological materials) among various soil spectra using PCA (principal component analysis). Based on the results of the PCA, a difference (D) between the original spectrum and modified spectrum, which represents the principal component (PC) values of natural soils, can be determined. If the difference D between the two spectra is small, then the spectrum is similar to the spectral features of natural soils. If not, it identifies that the spectrum is more likely to be non-natural soil, probably an archaeological material. The method is applied on soil spectra from a prehistoric settlement site in Calabria, Italy. For the spectral range between 400 to 700nm, the difference value D for archaeological material ranges from 0.11 to 0.73 (the value varies depending on the number of PCs used). For natural soil, D ranges only from 0.04 to 0.09. The results shows D value is significantly larger for archaeological spectra, which indicates that the method can be applied to identify archaeological material among an unknown group of soil spectra, if a set of samples of natural soils exists. The study will present results of applying this method to various wavelength ranges and spectra from different sites. The major aim is to find optimised settings of the PCA method which can be applied in a universal way for identifying archaeological spectra.

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of archaeological ceramics: scale and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Ronald L; Blackman, M James

    2002-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has become a standard technique for the study of the production and distributional patterns of archaeological pottery. Questions once framed within the context of long distance exchange are now focused on issues of subregional and even intrasite levels. The increasing specificity at which these questions are poised requires a high level of analytical precision as we seek to observe statistically and archaeologically significant differences among groups of pottery produced from geographically closely spaced resources or the compositional differences that arise from production behaviors of the producers of the pottery.

  18. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  19. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

    1973-01-01

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  20. Using a Simulated Site to Teach Data Analysis in Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a hands-on laboratory to use with simulated archaeology sites for teaching data collection and interpretation to college students. Students play the role of professional archaeologist in analyzing artifacts and ecofacts and in writing a "site report" based on their excavation and analysis. (KH)

  1. The earliest long-distance obsidian transport: Evidence from the ∼200 ka Middle Stone Age Sibilo School Road Site, Baringo, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Blegen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n < 10) that document hominin behavior from this time period. In particular, geochemically informed evidence of long-distance obsidian transport, important for investigating expansion of intergroup interactions in hominin evolution, is rare from the Middle Pleistocene record of Africa. The SSRS offers a unique contribution to this small but growing dataset. Tephrostratigraphic analysis of tuffs encasing the SSRS provides a minimum age of ∼200 ka for the site. Levallois points and methods of core preparation demonstrate characteristic Middle Stone Age lithic technologies present at the SSRS. A significant portion (43%) of the lithic assemblage is obsidian. The SSRS obsidian comes from three different sources located at distances of 25 km, 140 km and 166 km from the site. The majority of obsidian derives from the farthest source, 166 km to the south of the site. The SSRS thus provides important new evidence that long-distance raw material transport, and the expansion of hominin intergroup interactions that this entails, was a significant feature of hominin behavior ∼200 ka, the time of the first appearance of H. sapiens, and ∼150,000 years before similar behaviors were previously documented in the region.

  2. Texture Attribute Analysis of GPR Data for Archaeological Prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of texture attribute analysis of 2-D and 3-D GPR datasets obtained in different archaeological environments. Textural attributes are successfully used in seismic stratigraphic studies for hydrocarbon exploration to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface structures. We use a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to compute second-order statistical measures of textural characteristics, such as contrast, energy, entropy, and homogeneity. Textural attributes provide specific information about the data, and can highlight characteristics as uniformity or complexity, which complement the interpretation of amplitude data and integrate the features extracted from conventional attributes. The results from three archaeological case studies demonstrate that the proposed texture analysis can enhance understanding of GPR data by providing clearer images of distribution, volume, and shape of potential archaeological targets and related stratigraphic units, particularly in combination with the conventional GPR attributes. Such strategy improves the interpretability of GPR data, and can be very helpful for archaeological excavation planning and, more generally, for buried cultural heritage assessment.

  3. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Mark D; Carpenter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D.) to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1) collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2) informal trade and exchange, and (3) formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay), undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head), and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington). We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare.

  4. Gis-Based Surface Analysis of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.; Moser, M.

    2011-09-01

    The international research project HiMAT (History of Mining Activities in the Tyrol and adjacent areas) is dedicated to the study of mining history in the Eastern Alps by various scientific disciplines. The aim of this program is the analysis of the mining activities' impacts on environment and human societies. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of specific regions (e.g. Mitterberg) to offer possibilities to investigate the former mining expansions. Within this multidisciplinary project, the archaeological sites and finds are analyzed by the Surveying and Geoinformation Unit at the University of Innsbruck. This paper shows data fusion of different surveying and post-processing methods to achieve a photo-realistic digital 3D model of one of these most important finds, the Bronze Age sluice box from the Mitterberg. The applied workflow consists of four steps: 1. Point cloud processing, 2. Meshing of the point clouds and editing of the models, 3. Image orientation, bundle and image adjustment, 4. Model texturing. In addition, a short range laser scanning survey was organized before the conservation process of this wooden find. More accurate research opportunities were offered after this detailed documentation of the sluice box, for example the reconstruction of the broken parts and the surface analysis of this archaeological object were implemented using these high-resolution datasets. In conclusion, various unperceived patterns of the wooden boards were visualized by the GIS-based tool marks investigation.

  5. The role of shear heating in obsidian formation within volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    While most volcanic rocks contain a significant amount of crystals (15-35 vol%), obsidian is unusual because it contains < 2 vol% phenocrysts. The few phenocrysts in obsidian are evidence for some crystallization, but the relative paucity reflects conditions in which crystallization is inhibited. The causes of these conditions in obsidian magmas are poorly understood. One way to inhibit crystallization and resorb crystals is to increase temperature. Shear heating is a potentially important source of heat in high-silica rhyolites due to their high viscosity, yet it is seldom accounted for in the thermal budgets of ascending magmas. This study combines mineralogical analysis of obsidian with numerical models of ascending, high-silica magma in order to examine an alternate hypothesis for obsidian formation in which shear heating inhibits crystallization and resorbs crystals. Using the finite-element solver COMSOL Multiphysics, this study models a planar dike 5 m wide and 1 km long. Temperatures increase up to 300 K above initial magma temperatures at conduit edges, which enable velocities and fluxes above Poiseuille solutions. These temperature increases are 150-200 K higher than those found by existing numerical models that account for shear heating in volcanic conduits. Based on velocities in the outer edge of the conduit, residence times of crystals in hotter magma range from 6 minutes to 58 days in a 1 km conduit; longer conduits increase residence time. Furthermore, complex conduit geometry can cause separation of laminar flow lines which would distribute hotter magma to other parts of the conduit. Longer residence times and higher temperatures favor crystal resorption. Modal analyses of obsidian in this study reflect a regional lack of quartz and sanidine phenocrysts in eastern California obsidian. This regional lack is unpredicted by the dominant hypotheses of obsidian formation and unexpected based on the mineralogy of other high-silica rhyolites. Phenocryst

  6. Some geochemical characteristics of the Pachuca Obsidian Region: a strategy for interpreting artifact groups

    SciTech Connect

    Neivens, M.; Harbottle, G.; Kimberlin, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian research has revealed geochemical anomalies. Neutron activation analysis was used to analyze the samples. Correlations were made between element pairs (Sc and Fe, Ba and Co). Tests were made for homogeneity. 5 figures. (DLC)

  7. The source provenance of an obsidian Eden point from Sierra County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Sean Gregory; Berryman, Judy; Shackley, M. Steven

    2016-01-02

    Eden projectile points associated with the Cody complex are underrepresented in the late Paleoindian record of the American Southwest. EDXRF analysis of an obsidian Eden point from a site in Sierra County, New Mexico demonstrates this artifact is from the Cerro del Medio (Valles Rhyolite) source in the Jemez Mountains. Lastly, we contextualize our results by examining variability in obsidian procurement practices beyond the Cody heartland in southcentral New Mexico.

  8. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  9. Advances in GPR data acquisition and analysis for archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenke; Tian, Gang; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele; Wang, Yimin; Li, Xuejing; Shi, Zhanjie; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to identify a thin burnt soil layer, buried more than 2 m below the topographic surface at the Liangzhu Site, in Southeastern China. The site was chosen for its relatively challenging conditions of GPR techniques due to electrical conductivity and to the presence of peach tree roots that produced scattering. We completed the data acquisition by using 100 and 200 MHz antennas in TE and TM broadside and cross-polarized configurations. In the data processing and interpretation phase, we used GPR attribute analysis, including instantaneous phase and geometrical attributes. Validation analysis ground-truthing performed after the geophysical surveys, validated the GPR imaging, confirmed the electrical conductivity and relative dielectric permittivity (RDP) measurements performed at different depths, and allowed a reliable quantitative correlation between GPR results and subsurface physical properties. The research demonstrates that multiple antenna configurations in GPR data acquisition combined with attribute analysis can enhance the ability to characterize prehistoric archaeological remains even in complex subsurface conditions.

  10. Crystallographic texture analysis of archaeological metals: interpretation of manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artioli, G.

    2007-12-01

    Neutron probes and high energy X-rays are sources of primary importance for the non-invasive characterization of materials related to cultural heritage. Their employment in the characterization of archaeological metal objects, combined with the recent instrumental and computational developments in the field of crystallographic texture analysis (CTA) from diffraction data proves to be a powerful tool for the interpretation of ancient metal working techniques. Diffraction based CTA, when performed using penetrating probes and adequate detector coverage of reciprocal space, for example using large detector arrays and/or ToF mode, allows simultaneous identification and quantification of crystalline phases, besides the microstructural and textural characterization of the object, and it can be effectively used as a totally non-invasive tool for metallographic analysis. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the object may also be obtained by the simultaneous detection of prompt gamma rays induced by neutron activation, or by the fluorescence signal from high energy X-rays, in order to obtain a large amount of complementary information in a single experiment. The specific application of neutron CTA to the characterization of the manufacturing processes of prehistoric copper axes is discussed in detail.

  11. The basics of least cost analysis for archaeological applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin Alan

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that Least Cost Analysis (LCA) is a geospatially focused quantitative approach that can help archaeologists better understand how people may have moved across a landscape. At its core is the assumption that humans make decisions about movement as fully rational actors with complete knowledge of the landscape, attempting to minimize the cost of that movement as they travel from one location to another. LCA is most often used to construct a small number of hypothetical routes between locations of interest and, when used effectively, can even lead to the creation of entire transportation networks. Desktop GIS software packages, both commercial and open source, make running LCA relatively straightforward, but that does not necessarily mean that the output is informative or accurate. The following tutorial is designed to expose the reader to the foundational steps required to complete an LCA workflow, along with the scientific rationale behind each step and how to avoid potential pitfalls that one might run into along the way. Finally, relevant literature is cited throughout the tutorial in order to provide context for the technical methods that underpin available tools, to suggest various ways that LCA can be used to solve archaeological problems, and to show the art of the possible.

  12. The basics of least cost analysis for archaeological applications

    DOE PAGES

    White, Devin Alan

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that Least Cost Analysis (LCA) is a geospatially focused quantitative approach that can help archaeologists better understand how people may have moved across a landscape. At its core is the assumption that humans make decisions about movement as fully rational actors with complete knowledge of the landscape, attempting to minimize the cost of that movement as they travel from one location to another. LCA is most often used to construct a small number of hypothetical routes between locations of interest and, when used effectively, can even lead to the creation of entire transportation networks. Desktop GIS softwaremore » packages, both commercial and open source, make running LCA relatively straightforward, but that does not necessarily mean that the output is informative or accurate. The following tutorial is designed to expose the reader to the foundational steps required to complete an LCA workflow, along with the scientific rationale behind each step and how to avoid potential pitfalls that one might run into along the way. Finally, relevant literature is cited throughout the tutorial in order to provide context for the technical methods that underpin available tools, to suggest various ways that LCA can be used to solve archaeological problems, and to show the art of the possible.« less

  13. Low-Temperature Isotopic Exchange in Obsidian: Implications for Diffusive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Cole, David R; Riciputi, Lee R

    2009-01-01

    While a great deal is known about the interaction between water and rhyolitic glasses and melts at temperatures above the glass transition, the nature of this interaction at lower temperatures is much more poorly understood. This paper presents the results of a series of isotopic exchange experiments aimed at further elucidating this process and determining the extent to which a point-by-point analysis of the D/H or 18O/18O isotopic composition across the hydrated rim on a geological or archaeological obsidian sample can be used as a paleoclimatic monitor. Experiments were performed by first hydrating the glass for five days in water of one isotopic composition, followed by five days in water of a second composition. Because waters of near end-member compositions were used (nearly pure 1H2 16O, 1H2 18O, and D2 16O), the relative migration of each species could be ascertained easily by depth-profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Results suggest that, during hydration, both the isotopic composition of the waters of hydration, as well as that of intrinsic water remaining from the initial formation of the glass vary dramatically, and a point-by-point analysis leading to paleoclimatic reconstruction is not feasible.

  14. Low-temperature isotopic exchange in obsidian: Implications for diffusive mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Cole, David R; Riciputi, Lee R

    2009-01-01

    While a great deal is known about the interaction between water and rhyolitic glasses and melts at temperatures above the glass transition, the nature of this interaction at lower temperatures is much more poorly understood. This paper presents the results of a series of isotopic exchange experiments aimed at further elucidating this process and determining the extent to which a point-by-point analysis of the D/H or 18O/18O isotopic composition across the hydrated rim on a geological or archaeological obsidian sample can be used as a paleoclimatic monitor. Experiments were performed by first hydrating the glass for 5 days in water of one isotopic composition, followed by 5 days in water of a second composition. Because waters of near end-member compositions were used (nearly pure 1H2 16O, 1H2 18O, and D2 16O), the relative migration of each species could be ascertained easily by depth-profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Results suggest that, during hydration, both the isotopic composition of the waters of hydration, as well as that of intrinsic water remaining from the initial formation of the glass vary dramatically, and a point-by-point analysis leading to paleoclimatic reconstruction is not feasible.

  15. Breakthrough in precision (0.3 percent) of neutron activation analyses applied to provenience studies of obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Asaro, Frank; Stross, Fred H.; Burger, Richard L.

    2002-10-01

    A gamma ray spectrometer at LBNL (the Luis W. Alvarez Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer), that was specifically designed for high sensitivity measurements of iridium abundances, has been significantly modified in order to provide precisions of measurement in neutron activation analysis of obsidian significantly better than previously obtained (about 1%). Repeated measurements on a single sample of obsidian from a deposit near Chivay, Arequipa, Peru, showed a precision (average coefficient of variation) of 0.19% for the 6 best-measured elements, the value anticipated from the known random errors of measurement. In measurement of samples made from 7 different obsidian nodules from two locations near Chivay, a group of 5 had a spread of 0.30% for the 6 elements measured with counting statistics of better than 0.3% (and 1.8% for the remaining 6 elements). The data suggest there are source inhomogeneity and/or sample preparation contamination errors totaling 0.24 {+-} .05% for the 6 best measured elements. A sixth obsidian sample could be distinguished from the main group because it differed by +0.8% for most elements, and the last sample could be easily distinguished because several elements differed by more than 1%. The precision of measurements now being developed may provide a significantly more precise determination of the provenience of obsidian artifacts than has been heretofore possible. Also the techniques of measurement developed for obsidian will provide even better precisions with pottery, as many elements are more abundant in pottery than in obsidian.

  16. Analysis of Heterogeneity in CO2, H2O and OH in Centimeter-Sized Obsidian Pyroclasts from Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, G. D.; Watkins, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic tephra deposits typically contain inclusions or fragments of quenched melt that preserve pre-eruptive volatile concentrations within the volcanic conduit. The concentrations of CO2, H2O and OH in obsidian pyroclasts provide information on magma storage depths while gradients in these volatile species provide information on rates and mechanisms of gas loss (or gain) in magma during ascent. We are measuring CO2, H2O and OH profiles and area maps in six randomly selected pyroclastic obsidian clasts from Mono Craters, California using conventional Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Previous studies of these pyroclasts have focused on spot analyses of volatile concentrations within clast interiors, but our study targets clast rims, bubbles, flow bands, and texturally homogeneous regions of the clasts. The objective is to use the magnitude and spatial distribution of heterogeneities to assess the role of vapor fluxing and to determine timescales of magmatic processes such as bubble growth/resorption and mixing of magma from variable depths. The first clast that we have analyzed is relatively homogeneous in dissolved H2O and OH but exhibits millimeter-scale heterogeneities in dissolved CO2. The concentration of dissolved CO2 varies by a factor of two, ranging from 15 to 30 ppm with a patchy distribution throughout the clast. The patches of high CO2 concentration do not correspond to visible textures within the clast. Total water (H2Ot) varies from 1.5 to 1.7 wt% with higher water concentrations corresponding to darker regions of glass. The distribution of CO2 requires a mechanism for introducing millimeter-scale heterogeneity within minutes to hours prior to the eruption. Our interpretation is that obsidian pyroclasts are assembled during chaotic vertical mixing and thus sample a range of depths within the feeder system. This interpretation is consistent with previous inferences that resorption of bubbles within pyroclasts is caused by repeated

  17. Are All Obsidians Super-Heated? Insights from Observations of Crystallization Kinetics in Experiments on Glass Mountain Obsidians (Long Valley, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, L.; Andrews, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) are crystal-poor (<8%) and highly-evolved (high SiO2, low MgO, Sr, Ba) and, therefore, their formation required extremely efficient crystal-liquid separation. Petrologic and experimental investigation of the mineral phases in Glass Mountain lavas may reveal differentiation processes that generated the obsidians, if the mineral assemblage is phenocrystic. Results of high-resolution SEM mapping and electron microprobe analysis of a Glass Mountain sample reveal that the obsidian is saturated in nine phases (sanidine + quartz + plagioclase + ilmenite + titanomagnetite + zircon + apatite + allanite + biotite). Sanidine (Or78-Or35) and quartz occur in the largest abundances, and plagioclase (obsidians, requires that the mechanism that produced these obsidians have an associated kinetic effect that strongly hinders nucleation. Decompression and cooling experiments, conducted in this study and from the literature, demonstrate that the simplest way to hinder nucleation is to initiate degassing or cooling from super-liquidus conditions. Therefore, the Glass Mountain obsidians were super-heated prior to crystallization, achieved either by fluid under-saturated decompression from a crystalline mush or H2O-saturated partial melting.

  18. Magnetic Properties of Obsidians from the Southwestern U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, R. S.; Gilder, S.; Renne, P. R.; Shackley, S.

    2010-12-01

    Geochemical signatures of Southwestern U.S. obsidians have been intensively studied, in part to use as a provenance method for archaeological obsidians (Shackley, 2005). We have examined magnetic properties of unoriented samples from 10 geologic obsidian sources in Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico. Five samples from each source were used, and each sample was cut into two specimens. Magnetic susceptibilities of all 100 specimens were measured on a susceptometer at F&M; alternating field demagnetizations of all 100 specimens were done on a cryogenic magnetometer at the BGC; and hysteresis curves, back-field IRMs, and thermomagnetic curves were done for nine specimens on a VFTB at LMU. The overall mean and interquartile range for susceptibilities of all 100 specimens are 56 and 9-85 x10-8 m3/kg. The overall mean and interquartile range for the NRM of all 100 specimens are 3.4 and 0.40-8.5 x10-4 A m2/kg. Variability within source groups is considerably smaller, so that a scatter plot of NRM against susceptibility (Figure 1) shows that several of the sites can be discriminated based on these two properties. AF demagnetization shows that in the large majority of cases a characteristic magnetic direction is isolated by 150 mT peak field. The overall mean and interquartile range for the median destructive fields for all 100 specimens are 96 and 52-117 mT. For the nine specimens used to measure hysteresis curves, seven of these plot in the middle of the pseudosingle domain field on a Day plot, while the other two plot on the boundary between the pseudosingle and the multidomain fields. All of these samples have a Curie temperature component just below 580°C. Eight of these nine samples have a low-temperature Curie temperature component lower than 200°C. We plan to further examine this component using low temperatures, and to consider statistical discrimination of these different sources using multivariate statistics applied to these various properties.

  19. A comparison of obsidian and surgical steel scalpel wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Disa, J J; Vossoughi, J; Goldberg, N H

    1993-10-01

    There are several anecdotal clinical articles claiming wound healing and scar superiority using obsidian (volcanic glass) scalpels. In order to determine if skin incisions made with obsidian were superior to those made with standard surgical steel, wound tensile strength, scar width, and histology were assessed in 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received two parallel 8-cm dorsal skin incisions, one with an obsidian scalpel and the other with a surgical steel scalpel (no. 15 blade). Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Tensile strength of the two wound types was not different at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Scar width, however, was significantly less in the obsidian wounds at 7, 10, and 14 days (p < 0.005). At 21 days, scar width was not different in the two groups. At 42 days, all wounds were barely detectable, thus precluding scar width analysis. A blinded histologic review suggested that obsidian wounds contained fewer inflammatory cells and less granulation tissue at 7 days.

  20. Unravelling textural heterogeneity in obsidian: Shear-induced outgassing in the Rocche Rosse flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, J. K.; Mader, H. M.; Caricchi, L.; Tuffen, H.; Mueller, S.; Pistone, M.; Baumgartner, L.

    2016-01-01

    Obsidian flow emplacement is a complex and understudied aspect of silicic volcanism. Of particular importance is the question of how highly viscous magma can lose sufficient gas in order to erupt effusively as a lava flow. Using an array of methods we study the extreme textural heterogeneity of the Rocche Rosse obsidian flow in Lipari, a 2 km long, 100 m thick, ~ 800 year old lava flow, with respect to outgassing and emplacement mechanisms. 2D and 3D vesicle analyses and density measurements are used to classify the lava into four textural types: 'glassy' obsidian (< 15% vesicles), 'pumiceous' lava (> 40% vesicles), high aspect ratio, 'shear banded' lava (20-40% vesicles) and low aspect ratio, 'frothy' obsidian with 30-60% vesicles. Textural heterogeneity is observed on all scales (m to μm) and occurs as the result of strongly localised strain. Magnetic fabric, described by oblate and prolate susceptibility ellipsoids, records high and variable degrees of shearing throughout the flow. Total water contents are derived using both thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy to quantify primary (magmatic) and secondary (meteoric) water. Glass water contents are between 0.08-0.25 wt.%. Water analysis also reveals an increase in water content from glassy obsidian bands towards 'frothy' bands of 0.06-0.08 wt.%, reflecting preferential vesiculation of higher water bands and an extreme sensitivity of obsidian degassing to water content. We present an outgassing model that reconciles textural, volatile and magnetic data to indicate that obsidian is generated from multiple shear-induced outgassing cycles, whereby vesicular magma outgasses and densifies through bubble collapse and fracture healing to form obsidian, which then re-vesiculates to produce 'dry' vesicular magma. Repetition of this cycle throughout magma ascent results in the low water contents of the Rocche Rosse lavas and the final stage in the degassing cycle determines final lava porosity. Heterogeneities in

  1. Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, Ray; Smith, Robert L.; Thomas, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhydrated obsidians are quenched magmatic liquids that record in their chemical compositions details of the tectonic environment of formation and of the differentiation mechanisms that affected their subsequent evolution. This study attempts to analyze, in terms of geologic processes, the compositional variations in the subalkalic silicic obsidians (Si02≥70 percent by weight, molecular (Na2O+K20)>Al2O3). New major- and trace-element determinations of 241 samples and a compilation of 130 published major-element analyses are reported and interpreted. Obsidians from five different tectonic settings are recognized: (1) primitive island arcs, (2) mature island arcs, (3) continental margins, (4) continental interiors, and (5) oceanic extensional zones. Tectonomagmatic discrimination between these groups is successfully made on Nb-Ta, Nb-FeOt and Th-Hf-Ta plots, and compositional ranges and averages for each group are presented. The chemical differences between groups are related to the type of crust in which magmas were generated. With increasingly sialic (continental type) crust, the obsidians show overall enrichment in F, Be, Li, Mo, Nb, Rb, Sn, Ta, U, W, Zn, and the rare-earth elements, and depletion in Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, Sc, Sr, and Zr. They become more potassic, have higher Fe/Mg and F/Cl ratios, and lower Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta, and Th/U ratios. Higher values of total rare-earth elements are accompanied by light rare-earth-element enrichment and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. An attempt is made to link obsidian chemistry to genetic mechanlism. Two broad groups of rocks are distinguished: one generated where crystal-liquid processes dominated (CLPD types), which are the products of crustal anatexis, possibly under conditions of low halogen fugacity, ± crystal fractionation ± magma mixing; and a second group represented by rocks formed in the upper parts of large magma chambers by interplays of crystal fractionation, volatile transfer, magma mixing, and possibly various

  2. Chemical fingerprinting and source tracing of obsidian: the central Mediterranean trade in black gold.

    PubMed

    Tykot, Robert H

    2002-08-01

    Chemical fingerprinting using major or trace element composition is used to characterize the Mediterranean island sources of obsidian and can even differentiate as many as nine flows in the Monte Arci region of Sardinia. Analysis of significant numbers of obsidian artifacts from Neolithic sites in the central Mediterranean reveals specific patterns of source exploitation and suggests particular trade mechanisms and routes. The use of techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, the electron microprobe, neutron activation analysis, and laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry are emphasized in order to produce quantitative results while minimizing damage to valuable artifacts.

  3. Magnetic properties of a new obsidian source, west Antelope Creek, Grant County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, R. S.; Samuels, R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Shackley, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    This work is part of a Keck Geology Consortium project on characterizing obsidian sources in New Mexico using magnetic and geochemical properties. We collected over 3,000 samples, many of which were georeferenced, from 10 obsidian sources at three locales - Mule creek, Mt. Taylor, and Valles Caldera. One of the Mule Creek sources, herein called the west Antelope Creek (wAC) source, was previously unknown. The 143 samples collected at this source covered about 1 km2, but were not individually georeferenced. We plan to characterize the magnetic and chemical properties of this source to see if it is distinguishable from other nearby sources and useful for provenancing archaeological obsidians. Initial measurements on 34 specimens from 20 samples show NRM values range from 1-80 Am2/kg, and low-field susceptibilities range from 1.2-96 x 10-8 mass specific SI units. When there were two specimens from the same sample, results were in good agreement. The measurements define a rather broad field in NRM-susceptibility space compared to other Southwestern sources examined to date, and a considerably larger field than from the nearby Antelope Creek (AC) source. The previously measured NRM and susceptibility values from AC are all in the high end on both dimensions of the wAC field, so that these fields overlap but in many cases could be distinguished.

  4. Obsidian Hydration Dating in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.; Lakatos, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of obsidian hydration dating for the instructor by presenting: (1) principles of the method; (2) procedures; (3) applications; and (4) limitations. The theory of the method and one or more laboratory exercises can be easily introduced into the undergraduate geology curriculum. (JN)

  5. Obsidian trade routes in the mayan area.

    PubMed

    Hammond, N

    1972-12-08

    Obsidian from two sources in highland Guatemala has been found at 23 sites of the Classic Mayan civilization, mainly in the nonvolcanic lowlands to the north. The distribution, together with trade routes suggested by topography and documentary sources, suggests efficient waterborne transport and competition between sources for the lowland market.

  6. Obsidian dating and East african archeology.

    PubMed

    Michels, J W; Tsong, I S; Nelson, C M

    1983-01-28

    New experimental procedures have made it possible to establish specific hydration rates for the numerous compositional types of obsidian to be found at archeological sites in Kenya. Two rates are applied to artifacts from the Prospect Farm site, revealing a history of occupation extending back 120,000 years.

  7. Archaeological investigations on the Buckboard Mesa Road Project

    SciTech Connect

    Amick, D.S.; Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-10-01

    In 1986, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted an archaeological reconnaissance of a new alignment for the Buckboard Mesa Road on the Nevada Test Site for the Department of Energy (DOE). During this reconnaissance, several archaeological sites of National Register quality were discovered and recorded including a large quarry, site 26Ny4892, and a smaller lithic scatter, site 26Ny4894. Analysis of the debitage at 26Ny4892 indicates that this area was used primarily as a quarry for relatively small cobbles of obsidian found in the alluvium. Lithic reduction techniques used here are designed for efficiently reducing small pieces of toolstone and are oriented towards producing flake blanks from small cores and bifacially reducing exhausted cores. Projectile point cross references indicate that the area has seen at least casual use for about 10,000 years and more sustained use for the last 3,000 years. Initial obsidian hydration measurements indicate sustained use of the quarry for about the last 3,000 years although the loci of activities appear to change over time. Based on this study, the DRI recommends that quarrying activities in the area of 26Ny4892 are sufficiently sampled and that additional investigations into that aspect of prehistoric activity in the area are not necessary. This does not apply to other aspects of prehistoric use. DRI recommends that preconstruction surveys continue to identify nonquarrying, prehistoric utilization of the area. With the increased traffic on the Buckboard Mesa Road, there is a greater potential for vandalism to sites of National Register-quality located near the road. The DRI recommends that during the orientation briefing the workers at the Test Site be educated about the importance of cultural resources and the need for their protection. 202 refs., 41 figs., 52 tabs.

  8. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  9. Multitemporal analysis of Pleiades data for study of archaeological crop marks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Sabia, Canio

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we focused our attention on the capability of Pleiades-HR (High-Resolution Optical Imaging Constellation of CNES) satellite data for archaeological applications, ranging from detection to documentation and monitoring from a local analysis (single site) to a landscape view. Pleiades, launched in 2009, offers advanced technologies in Earth observation capabilities, compared to the previous available high-resolution optical imaging. It provides an optical high-resolution panchromatic (0.5 m) and multispectral (2.0 m) imagery with high quality product available at a global coverage and with a daily observation accessibility to any point on Earth. It is expected that the Pleiades-HR should provide high capability in detecting underground archaeological structures through the reconnaissance of the so-called "archaeological marks". These marks are generally grouped and named as "soil" and "crop marks" (Lasaponara and Masini 2007; Masini & Lasaponara 2007). In particular, crop marks are changes in crop texture linked to as differences in height or colour of crops which are under stress due to lack of water or deficiencies in other nutrients caused by the presence of masonry structures or ditches in the subsoil. For these reasons, they are generally visible only from an aerial view especially during the spring season. In this paper, Pleiades-HR were used not only to investigate crop culture during the "favorable vegetative period" (to enhance the presence of subsurface remains) but also the "spectral response" of spontaneous herbaceous plant during less favorable period as for example summer and winter. To assess the capability of Pleiades-HR in capturing "crop signal" linked to archaeological remains we investigated a test area in the Capitanata in Southern Italty, characterised by a long human frequentation from Neolithic to Middle ages The main interesting result was the capability of multispectral satellite Pleiades-HR data to highlight the presence of

  10. Are Obsidians some kind of quenched vitroceramics ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Menguy, N.

    2009-05-01

    X-ray Absorption spectroscopy (XANES) and Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OAS) have been used to determine the local environment around iron in calco-alkaline rhyolitic glasses (obsidians) of various localities. The OAS measurements were performed at ambient and low temperatures (up to 10K). XANES measurement show that obsidians present variable Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio depending on formation conditions and provenance. OAS measurements show that isolated Fe2+ is located in a regular octahedral site , a local environment never seen in other types of iron bearing glasses, whereas isolated Fe3+ is found in tetrahedral coordination, in the glassy matrix. Specific large bands in the spectra are related to Fe2+ - Fe3+ and Fe2+ - Ti4+ intervalence charge transfers showing a increasing intensity with the decrease of temperature, from ambient to 10K. The specific coordination of Fe2+ together with the two charge-transfers may be related to the existence of iron oxide clusters (5nm), in the glass. These clusters, showing a local re-arrangement around iron in the glass, may be precursors of small crystalline iron oxide phases (titano-magnetite and magnetite) either amorphous or crystalline, evidenced using TEM (10nm). The existence of these clusters and their nature seem to be related to the conditions of formation of the investigated obsidians.

  11. Satellite time series analysis to study the ephemeral nature of archaeological marks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological structures buried beneath the ground often leave traces at the surface. These traces can be in the form of differences in soil moisture and composition, or vegetation growth caused for example by increased soil water retention over a buried ditch, or by insufficient soil depth over a buried wall for vegetation to place deep roots. Buried structures also often leave subtle topographic traces at the surface. Analyses is carried out on the ephemeral characteristics of buried archaeological crop and soil marks over a number of sites around the city of Rome using satellite data from both optical and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensors, including Kompsat-2, ALOS PRISM and COSMO SkyMed. The sensitivity of topographic satellite data, obtained by optical photogrammetry and interferometric SAR, is also analysed over the same sites, as well as other sites in Egypt. The analysis includes a study of the interferometric coherence of successive pairs of a time series of SAR data over sites containing buried structuresto better understand the nature of the vegetated or bare soil surface. To understand the ephemeral nature of archaeological crop and soil marks, the spectral reflectance characteristics of areas where such marks sometimes appear are extracted from a time series of optical multispectral and panchromatic imagery, and their backscatter characteristics extracted from a time series of SAR backscatter amplitude data. The results of this analysis is then compared with the results of the coherence analysis to see if any link can be established between the appearance of archaeological structures and the nature of ground cover. Results show that archaeological marks in the study areas are more present in SAR backscatter data over vegetated surfaces, rather than bare soil surfaces, but sometimes appear also in bare soil conditions. In the study areas, crop marks appear more distinctly in optical data after long periods without rainfall. The topographic

  12. Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

  13. Obsidian provenance determination by using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Bracchitta, D.; Palio, O.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.

    2012-04-01

    About 1300 obsidian artefacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily were analyzed by using the BSC-XRF (Beam Stability Controlled - X-ray Fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, using low energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory at the LNS-INF and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of the Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb trace element concentrations where deduced through the use of a method that makes use of a multi parameter linear regression, previously The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In the present work the two instrumental devices are presented. The data are from: Milena (Cl), Ustica (Pa), Rocchicella (Ct), Poggio dell'Acquila (Ct), San Marco (Ct), Villaggio del Petraro* (Sr) and Licodia Eubea* (Ct). Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analysed samples. Analyses carried out on vitreous artefact found in Rocchicella, showed for the first time that the Palagonite was used as row material. *Preliminary data. Topic of conference: Application of XRS in archaeometry Kind of presentation: oral

  14. Portable X-ray powder diffractometer for the analysis of art and archaeological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Izumi; Abe, Yoshinari

    2012-02-01

    Phase identification based on nondestructive analytical techniques using portable equipment is ideal for the analysis of art and archaeological objects. Portable(p)-XRF and p-Raman are very widely used for this purpose, yet p-XRD is relatively rare despite its importance for the analysis of crystalline materials. This paper overviews 6 types of p-XRD systems developed for analysis of art and archaeological materials. The characteristics of each system are compared. One of the p-XRD systems developed by the authors was brought to many museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt and Syria to characterize the cultural heritage artifacts, e.g., amulet made of Egyptian blue, blue painted pottery, and Islamic pottery from Egypt, jade from China, variscite from Syria, a Japanese classic painting drawn by Korin Ogata, and oil paintings drawn by Taro Okamoto. Practical application data are shown to demonstrate the potential ability of the method for analysis of various art and archaeological materials.

  15. A new Application of Ar-40/Ar-39 Dating: A Provenance Study of Middle Stone Age Obsidian Tools from Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomade, S.; Vogel, N.; Renne, P. R.; Negash, A.

    2004-12-01

    The identification and geographic origin of potential sources for obsidian tools manufactured by MSA (Middle Stone Age) hominid groups is important to reconstruct source utilization and trade routes. Obsidian sourcing is done by geochemical investigation of obsidian artifacts and potential source materials and the identification of possible matches between them [e.g., 1]. Due to uncertainties arising, e.g., from intrasource inhomogeneities [2] additional methods are desirable. As a part of a pilot study, we dated by Ar-40/Ar-39 stepwise heating numerous debitage pieces of obsidian artifacts from an MSA excavation site and several potential source rock samples from a nearby obsidian outcrop in the Gademotta-Kulkuletti area near Ziway lake, Ethiopia. The ages were used, along with chemical data, to trace possible source rocks used to manufacture the artifacts. Most of the debitage samples show ages around 1.29 Ma and exhibit flat, well behaved spectra. Less well behaved spectra are obtained for two debitage samples with ages of about 1.26 Ma, and two with ages of about 0.62 Ma. We point out that despite this significant spread in the ages found, all debitage samples as well as the potential source rocks show homogeneous major and trace elemental compositions generally indicating a positive match in archeological sourcing. The ages of two potential source rocks are about 1.26 and 0.87 Ma. Thus, while there is a match with the two debitage pieces dated at 1.26 Ma, the exact outcrop of the major source for the 1.29 Ma old artifacts has not been identified yet. A second set of samples with further possible source materials for the Kulkuletti artifacts as well as another potential debitage-source material pair from a second excavation site in the Ziway lake area, Porc Epic, are currently being dated and will be presented at the conference. Already this first set of data shows not only the general applicability of Ar-40/Ar-39 dating to archeological obsidian sourcing, but

  16. Archaeological Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1983-01-01

    Research projects and methodology in archeochemistry are discussed. Topics include radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, amino acid dating, obsidian hydration dating, bone studies, metals/metallurgy, pottery, stone/glass, and future directions. Includes reports on funding, insights into nuclear waste/environmental problems provided by…

  17. Obsidian hydration profile measurements using a nuclear reaction technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.R.; Leich, D.A.; Tombrello, T.A.; Ericson, J.E.; Friedman, I.

    1974-01-01

    AMBIENT water diffuses into the exposed surfaces of obsidian, forming a hydration layer which increases in thickness with time to a maximum depth of 20-40 ??m (ref. 1), this layer being the basic foundation of obsidian dating2,3. ?? 1974 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Archaeology Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A summer camp for gifted youth (13-16 years old) featured two field archaeology sessions in which students participated in excavation and field trips to nearby archaeological sites along with traditional camp activities. (CL)

  19. Application of Earth Sciencés Technology in Mapping the of Brazilian Coast: Localization, Analysis & Monitoring of the Archaeological Sites with Remote Sensing & LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo

    Application of Earth Sciencés Technology in Mapping the of Brazilian Coast: Localization, Analysis & Monitoring of the Archaeological Sites with Remote Sensing & LiDAR Carlos Eduardo Thompson Alves de Souza cethompsoniii@hotmail.com Archaeologist Member of the European Association of Archaeologists B.A.Archaeology MA.Remote Sensing Abstract The Archaeological Research in Urban Environment with the Air Light Detection and Ranging is problematic for the Overlay Layers mixed with contexts concerning the Interpretation of Archaeological Data. However, in the Underwater Archaeology the results are excellent. This paper considers the application of Remote Sensing and Air Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) as separate things as well as Land Archaeology and the Underwater Archaeology. European Archaeologists know very little about Brazil and the article presents an Overview of Research in Brazil with Remote Sensing in Archaeology and Light Detection and Ranging in Land Archaeology and Underwater Archaeology, because Brazil has Continental Dimensions. Braziliańs Methodology for Location, Analysis and Monitoring of Archaeological Sites is necessarily more Complex and Innovative and therefore can serve as a New Paradigm for other archaeologists involved in the Advanced Management Heritage.

  20. A Radarsat-2 Polarimetric Multi-Incidence Angle Analysis over Archaeological Sites The Ancient UNESCO City of Samarra (Iraq)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Nicole; Patuno, Jolanda; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-08-01

    Remote sensing is a well know application in the archaeological field, and important results by optical sensors are continuously obtained by archaeologists. Remote sensing satellite usefulness, in fact, is linked to the non-invasive approach, in particular for those areas where surveys in situ are not allowed for political unstable situation, where a monitoring from remote is requested and for those zones where an analysis of the environment is needed as a preliminary estimation of works.As known, archaeology has an invasive approached of investigation because of the removal of big quantity of terrain in order to bring to the surface ancient ruins.This research, thanks to the use of RADARSAT-2 SAR sensor, is aimed to verify the usefulness of SAR polarimetry over the UNESCO archaeological city of Samarra (Iraq) by means of four polarimetric images acquired with multi incidence angles in order to find the most suitable configuration for archaeological purposes.

  1. A possible bedrock source for obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W.; Miller, T.P.

    1970-01-01

    Recently discovered deposits of obsidian in the Koyukuk valley may be the long-sought-for source of obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern Alaska. Obsidian from these deposits compares favorably in physical characteristics and sodium-manganese ratio with the archeological obsidian, and there is evidence that the deposits have been "mined" in the past.

  2. A possible bedrock source for obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern alaska.

    PubMed

    Patton, W W; Miller, T P

    1970-08-21

    Recently discovered deposits of obsidian in the Koyukuk valley may be the long-sought-for source of obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern Alaska. Obsidian from these deposits compares favorably in physical characteristics and sodium-manganese ratio with the archeological obsidian, and there is evidence that the deposits have been "mined" in the past.

  3. Hysteresis, thermomagnetic, and low-temperature magnetic properties of Southwestern U.S. obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, R. S.; Jackson, M. J.; Shackley, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical signatures of Southwestern U.S. obsidians have been intensively studied, in part to use as a provenance method for archaeological obsidians (Shackley, 2005). We reported (Sternberg et al. 2010) examined magnetic properties of 50 unoriented samples from 10 geologic obsidian sources in Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico; here we provide additional results measured at the Institute for Rock magnetism. Room-temperature hysteresis curves were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer on 58 specimens from all 50 samples. The Quantum Designs Magnetic Properties Measurement System was used to measure low temperature cycling of the natural remanence and/or of a room-temperature saturation isothermal remanence for 10 specimens, and frequency dependence of susceptibility for 7 specimens. A Princeton VSM was used to measure hysteresis curves and thermomagnetic curves for 19 specimens from 17 samples. Eleven of the thermomagnetic curves show Curie temperatures close to that for magnetite, and most of them are almost perfectly reversible. Many of the specimens also show a less well-defined Curie point around 150-200°C; for a few specimens the thermomagnetic behavior is dominated by paramagnetic iron and no ferromagnetic phases can be identified. The low-temperature remanence and susceptibility measurements show the magnetite Verwey transition in almost all specimens, and a significant superparamagnetic presence in only a few cases. Hysteresis parameters plot mainly in the lower half of the PSD domain on a Day plot, and saturation magnetization values indicate magnetite concentrations of about 0.2% to 0.5% for most specimens. The coercivity of remanence decreased considerably for one specimen after surface cleaning, although for 5 other comparisons there was no change.

  4. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-01-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  5. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-12-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  6. Multifrequency polarimetric ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 analysis over the archaeological area of Djebel Barkal (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Jolanda; Dore, Nicole; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    UNESCO reports over the area. A multitemporal analysis has been also performed thanks to the notable difference in time acquisition between ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 data. The great potential of the two polarimetric instruments with different frequency for the detection of archaeological remains has been demonstrated thanks to the sand penetration capability of both C-band and L-band sensors. The possibility of monitoring and observing ancient sites by means of remotely acquired SAR data could be an added value to the archaeological research, especially for those areas in which instable political situations do not allow ground truth and surveys in situ.

  7. The Archaeology of Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Smet, T. S.; Holcomb, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Context and chronology are of critical importance in archaeological research. Unfortunately, however, many previously excavated sites lack adequate detail in these aspects. As such, archaeologists are increasingly returning to previously investigated sites in order to reassess the integrity of prior excavations and answer new research questions. Near-surface geophysics can be used to locate and map the extent of prior excavations at these sites. Here, we present two case studies of the use of geophysics to find previously excavated archaeological trenches. At Copper's Ferry (10IH73), in western Idaho, magnetic gradiometry was used to locate a trench excavated by Idaho State University in 1961. This trench yielded cultural materials associated with the Western Stemmed Tradition that potentially date to the Pleistocene. At Goat Springs Pueblo (LA285), New Mexico, electromagnetic induction was used to find UCLA's 1960 excavation trench within a central kiva. Ground-truthing at both sites proved the efficacy of these methods, and allowed for a reexamination of the context and chronology at both sites.

  8. Contribution of Microchemical Surface Analysis of Archaeological Artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousser, H.; Madani, A.; Amri, R.; Mousser, A.; Darchen, A.

    2009-11-01

    Museum CIRTA of the town of Constantine has a collection of more than 35000 coins and statuettes going back to Numide, Roman, Republican, Vandal and Byzantine times and is struck in the name of the cities, of the kingdoms and the empires. Surface analysis of these coins gives information about the chemical composition and leads to recommendations for restoration and preservations. This work is a contribution of microchemical surface study of coin with the effigy of the Numide King Massinissa (Constantine between 3rd and 2nd century before Jesus Christ). The photographic and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM + EDS) and diffraction of X-ray (DRX) was used. The optic microscopy (OMP) and SEM pictures of coins showed heterogeneous surface. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry identified three basic metals copper (46.06%), antimony (17.74%) and lead (12.06%), (Weight Percentage). The DRX identifies stages (copper and lead) and their crystalline oxides Bindheimite (Pb2Sb2O7) and Bystromite (MgSb2O6) on the coin's surface.

  9. Study of archaeological coins of different dynasties using libs coupled with multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Shikha; Kumar, Rohit; Rai, G. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopic technique having unique capability of an in-situ monitoring tool for detection and quantification of elements present in different artifacts. Archaeological coins collected form G.R. Sharma Memorial Museum; University of Allahabad, India has been analyzed using LIBS technique. These coins were obtained from excavation of Kausambi, Uttar Pradesh, India. LIBS system assembled in the laboratory (laser Nd:YAG 532 nm, 4 ns pulse width FWHM with Ocean Optics LIBS 2000+ spectrometer) is employed for spectral acquisition. The spectral lines of Ag, Cu, Ca, Sn, Si, Fe and Mg are identified in the LIBS spectra of different coins. LIBS along with Multivariate Analysis play an effective role for classification and contribution of spectral lines in different coins. The discrimination between five coins with Archaeological interest has been carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show the potential relevancy of the methodology used in the elemental identification and classification of artifacts with high accuracy and robustness.

  10. Laser spectroscopies for elemental and molecular analysis in art and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevin, Austin; Spoto, Giuseppe; Anglos, Demetrios

    2012-02-01

    Spectroscopic methods using laser sources have significantly improved our capacity to unravel the chemical composition of works of art and archaeological remains. Lasers enhance the performance of spectroscopic techniques which require intense light sources and specific analytical protocols assuring a microanalytical approach for analysis has been established. This review focuses on laser spectroscopic methods used in the field of cultural heritage diagnostics. Emphasis in this work is given to the analytical capabilities of laser-based techniques for elemental and/or molecular analysis and in-situ use, spatial resolution and microanalysis. Analytical methods are classified according to the elemental (LIBS, LA-ICP-MS) and molecular (LIF/LIDAR, time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) information they yield. For non-destructive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF/LIDAR) and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, imaging applications are described. The advantages provided by combined complementary techniques including but not limited to LIBS-LIF-Raman and LIBS-XRF are presented, as are recent improvements in terms of chemical imaging. Advances and applications of THz spectroscopy, non-linear spectroscopy and imaging are outlined. Finally, laser spectroscopies are described for investigations of different materials and works of art which include Bronze Age ceramics, Minoan archaeological remains, Ancient Roman buildings, Renaissance wall paintings and sculptures, and manuscripts containing iron gall inks and colorants.

  11. Obsidian hydration profiles measured by sputter-induced optical emission.

    PubMed

    Tsong, I S; Houser, C A; Yusef, N A; Messier, R F; White, W B; Michels, J W

    1978-07-28

    The variation of concentrations of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum as a function of depth in the hydration layer of obsidian artifacts has been determined by sputter-induced optical emission. The surface hydration is accompanied by dealkalization, and there is a buildup of alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in the outermost layers. These results have clarified the phenomena underlying the obsidian hydration dating technique.

  12. Aerial multispectral surveys - from the analysis of architectural monuments to the identification of archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mario, Bottoni; Fabretti, Giuseppe; Fabretti, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Combined non destructive and extensive multispectral analysis (thermography, photographic infrared and air photogrammetry) can be used, as aerial surveys, to verify and integrate hypotheses based upon investigations conducted on the spot and in the archives, about the location of archaeological sites in a certain area. These techniques using specified sensors (photographic emulsions, semi conductors) enable one to record and visualize different optical phenomena, related to the wavelength of the radiations and to the thermal exchange between structures lying underground and the soil. The information obtained has an extensive characteristic that can be transferred on maps. The results are in practice continuous in the spatial dimension in a non destructive way, leaving the site perfectly undisturbed. Relating to this first survey, it may be possible to locate the most significant areas and to proceed with more punctual multispectral surveys and local excavations. The next step is to compare these results and to extend them to wider areas, establishing the significance of irregularities found with the aerial surveys and creating conclusive thematic maps. These maps will give useful indications to define the archaeological excavation or the course of highways, water mains and other structures on the terrain. This work presents the application of the method to the archaeological site of Fondo Marco Terenzio Varrone Cassino (Frosinone) under the control of the Archaeological Soprintendency of Lazio. The survey made it possible to determine the course of the water main of the town of Cassino through the archaeological area in a few months and with great reliability. Actually use of aerial thermovision demonstrated itself very useful since nineties in the analysis of the microclimatic behaviour of architectonic structures of significant dimensions, such as the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. In this situation a mathematical model had been developed aimed to

  13. The Effect of Changes in Relative Humidity on the Hydration Rate of Pachuca Obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Riciputi, Lee R; Cole, David R; Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S; Elam, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The effect of relative humidity on the hydration rate of obsidian and other glasses has been debated since the early work of (I. Friedman, R. Smith, Am. Antiquity 25 (1960) 476). While more recent work has been in general agreement that a relative humidity dependence does exist, hydration profiles as a function of relative humidity have not been obtained. In this paper we present the results of a study in which samples of Pachuca obsidian were hydrated for approximately 5 days at 150 C at relative humidities ranging from 21% to 100%, and the resultant profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results suggest that the hydration rate is, indeed, a function of relative humidity, but for the relative humidity levels commonly observed in most soils the effects on hydration dating are expected to be relatively small. In addition, analysis of the surface values as sorption isotherms and comparisons with nitrogen sorption isotherms suggests that water is relatively strongly bound to the obsidian surface. By assuming a situation in which the 'surface' refers to active centers within the glass we have shown that an adsorption model provides a useful approach to modeling the diffusive process.

  14. Use of Geologic Mapping of the Medicine Lake Volcano in NE California to Constrain Interpretation of Cultural Uses of Rhyolite Obsidian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente, J. A.; Johnson, L.; Cassidy, J.; Stevens, M.

    2012-12-01

    vicinity. Glacial ice was present over the top of the volcano in latest Pleistocene time, but there is no evidence of ice in Holocene time, indicating that water capable of transporting the obsidian likely resulted from intense thunderstorm activity, or rapid melting of a thick snow pack upstream. High-resolution LiDAR will become available in the near future, allowing geologists and archaeologists an opportunity to identify additional deposits of water-transported obsidian, and possibly provide access to material for C-14 dating of the deposits. Establishing absolute dates for the flakes via C-14 analysis would assist in the interpretation of their origin.

  15. Is Obsidian Hydration Dating Affected by Relative Humidity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Trembour, F.W.; Smith, G.I.; Smith, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments carried out under temperatures and relative humidities that approximate ambient conditions show that the rate of hydration of obsidian is a function of the relative humidity, as well as of previously established variables of temperature and obsidian chemical composition. Measurements of the relative humidity of soil at 25 sites and at depths of between 0.01 and 2 m below ground show that in most soil environments, at depths below about 0.25 m, the relative humidity is constant at 100%. We have found that the thickness of the hydrated layer developed on obsidian outcrops exposed to the sun and to relative humidities of 30-90% is similar to that formed on other portions of the outcrop that were shielded from the sun and exposed to a relative humidity of approximately 100%. Surface samples of obsidian exposed to solar heating should hydrate more rapidly than samples buried in the ground. However, the effect of the lower mean relative humidity experiences by surface samples tends to compensate for the elevated temperature, which may explain why obsidian hydration ages of surface samples usually approximate those derived from buried samples.

  16. The Use of Neutron Analysis Techniques for Detecting The Concentration And Distribution of Chloride Ions in Archaeological Iron.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, D; Rimmer, M; Kasztovszky, Z; Kis, Z; Maróti, B; Szentmiklósi, L

    2014-10-01

    Chloride (Cl) ions diffuse into iron objects during burial and drive corrosion after excavation. Located under corrosion layers, Cl is inaccessible to many analytical techniques. Neutron analysis offers non-destructive avenues for determining Cl content and distribution in objects. A pilot study used prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI) to analyse the bulk concentration and longitudinal distribution of Cl in archaeological iron objects. This correlated with the object corrosion rate measured by oxygen consumption, and compared well with Cl measurement using a specific ion meter. High-Cl areas were linked with visible damage to the corrosion layers and attack of the iron core. Neutron techniques have significant advantages in the analysis of archaeological metals, including penetration depth and low detection limits.

  17. The Use of Neutron Analysis Techniques for Detecting The Concentration And Distribution of Chloride Ions in Archaeological Iron

    PubMed Central

    Watkinson, D; Rimmer, M; Kasztovszky, Z; Kis, Z; Maróti, B; Szentmiklósi, L

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl) ions diffuse into iron objects during burial and drive corrosion after excavation. Located under corrosion layers, Cl is inaccessible to many analytical techniques. Neutron analysis offers non-destructive avenues for determining Cl content and distribution in objects. A pilot study used prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI) to analyse the bulk concentration and longitudinal distribution of Cl in archaeological iron objects. This correlated with the object corrosion rate measured by oxygen consumption, and compared well with Cl measurement using a specific ion meter. High-Cl areas were linked with visible damage to the corrosion layers and attack of the iron core. Neutron techniques have significant advantages in the analysis of archaeological metals, including penetration depth and low detection limits. PMID:26028670

  18. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  19. OBSIDIAN CLIFF OVERLOOKS THE EAST SIDE OF THE GRAND LOOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBSIDIAN CLIFF OVERLOOKS THE EAST SIDE OF THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. THE OBSIDIAN, A BLACK VOLCANIC GLASS, FORMED WHEN A LAVA FLOW CONTACTED GLACIAL ICE. IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROAD BY THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, WORKERS CREATED THE LEDGE FOR THE ROAD BY BUILDING LARGE BONFIRES AGAINST THE CLIFF, THEN DASHING THE HEATED ROCK WITH COLD WATER, CAUSING IT TO SHATTER. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  20. Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas.

    PubMed

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; De Smet, Peter A G M; Beck, Olof; Possnert, Göran; Bruhn, Jan G

    2005-10-03

    Two archaeological specimens of peyote buttons, i.e. dried tops of the cactus Lophophora williamsii (Lem.) Coulter, from the collection of the Witte Museum in San Antonio, was subjected to radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis. The samples were presumably found in Shumla Cave No. 5 on the Rio Grande, Texas. Radiocarbon dating shows that the calibrated 14C age of the weighted mean of the two individual dated samples corresponds to the calendric time interval 3780-3660 BC (one sigma significance). Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of alkaloids. Analysis with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) led to the identification of mescaline in both samples. No other peyote alkaloids could be identified. The two peyote samples appear to be the oldest plant drug ever to yield a major bioactive compound upon chemical analysis. The identification of mescaline strengthens the evidence that native North Americans recognized the psychotropic properties of peyote as long as 5700 years ago.

  1. Critical Policy Sociology: Historiography, Archaeology and Genealogy as Methods of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2001-01-01

    Examines the essential characteristics of three approaches to conducting critical policy sociology of higher education: Historiography, archaeology, and genealogy. Draws on Australian higher education policy research to illustrate the use of these three methods. (Contains 65 references.) (PKP)

  2. An analysis of the potential for Glen Canyon Dam releases to inundate archaeological sites in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sondossi, Hoda A.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    The development of a one-dimensional flow-routing model for the Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona in 2008 provided a potentially useful tool for assessing the degree to which varying discharges from Glen Canyon Dam may inundate terrestrial environments and potentially affect resources located within the zone of inundation. Using outputs from the model, a geographic information system analysis was completed to evaluate the degree to which flows from Glen Canyon Dam might inundate archaeological sites located along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. The analysis indicates that between 4 and 19 sites could be partially inundated by flows released from Glen Canyon Dam under current (2014) operating guidelines, and as many as 82 archaeological sites may have been inundated to varying degrees by uncontrolled high flows released in June 1983. Additionally, the analysis indicates that more of the sites currently (2014) proposed for active management by the National Park Service are located at low elevations and, therefore, tend to be more susceptible to potential inundation effects than sites not currently (2014) targeted for management actions, although the potential for inundation occurs in both groups of sites. Because of several potential sources of error and uncertainty associated with the model and with limitations of the archaeological data used in this analysis, the results are not unequivocal. These caveats, along with the fact that dam-related impacts can involve more than surface-inundation effects, suggest that the results of this analysis should be used with caution to infer potential effects of Glen Canyon Dam on archaeological sites in the Grand Canyon.

  3. Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Slag Material Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca B; Eekelers, Kim; Degryse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has seen a dramatic increase in use for archaeological projects. The attraction of the technique is its portable and nondestructive nature. In many cases, the archaeological artefacts in question cannot be destructively sampled, or the piece itself cannot be sent to an analytical laboratory. One of the current research interests associated with the Sagalassos project is the study of the Roman iron industry. Previously exported iron slag and ore from the site and the surrounding area was subjected to laboratory chemical analyses. These indicated that different ores were being utilized in the production of iron in different periods. In order to further the project the slag material still in the site depot needed to be analyzed. However, recent legislative changes mean that materials can only be analyzed on-site. Since samples could not be taken and destructive chemical analysis was no longer feasible, a portable, nondestructive technique was required. Handheld XRF can easily provide qualitative data, but these data are only comparable to other handheld XRF qualitative data, from the same device. Quantitative data gathering is possible, but can be more problematic, particularly when the material in question is heterogeneous in nature. A calibration file was created using the manufacturer's software and "in-house" standards made from the pre-quantified samples of iron slag available in the laboratory. In order to make the calibration as robust as possible, the composition of the standards was analyzed statistically to determine which of these created bias and leverage for specific elements. These standards were then omitted from the calibration for that element. The calibration was tested in the laboratory using samples of iron slag previously analyzed with wet chemistry, and the results indicated that most sample analyses showed <30% error. Results with a >30% error were found in samples which contained very low or very

  4. Schoolyard Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Rives Fowlkes

    1987-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a sixth grade history class in learning about archaeology by planning and executing a small local dig. Offers advice on class preparation, excavation procedures, follow-up work, and the display of artifacts. Includes eight photographs of classroom and field work activities. (AEM)

  5. Household Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Richard R.; Rathje, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a theoretical model for archaeologists which relates household functions to variations in household size and organization. Household functions are defined as resource production and distribution, transmission of property, and family reproduction. The applicability of this model to a project on Mayan archaeology is discussed. (AM)

  6. Multitemporal floristic analysis on a humid area in Rome's archaeological site as indicator for environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Simona; Salerno, Giovanni; Caneva, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    A multitemporal analysis on a humid area in Rome's archaeological site is presented; the floristic data are used as bioindicators for main environmental changes over the last 50 years. By comparing the structural, biogeographical and ecological features of today's florula with the ones of a 1955 survey, and by assessing the new, the rare and the locally disappeared species, it was possible to define and analyse the main floristic changes and their ecological meaning for this site. Our results show that the floristic richness of the area did not differ significantly from 1955. However, the species composition has changed considerably: over 40% of the species have disappeared. More than half of these were rare and typical of humid environments. Approximately the same number of species has appeared but these are mainly ruderal and widespread entities, with the overall result being a progressive and general vulgarization of the local flora. Finally, we analyse the main reasons, linked for the most part to human activities, which led to the reported floristic changes.

  7. In-depth micro-spectrochemical analysis of archaeological Egyptian pottery shards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedr, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Old Egyptian pottery samples have been in-depth microchemically analyzed using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Samples from two different ancient Islamic eras, Mamluk (1250-1517 AD), Fatimid (969-1169 AD) in addition to samples from the Roman period (30 BC-395 AD) were investigated. LIBS provided the analytical data necessary to study in micrometric steps the depth profiling of various elements in each sample. Common elements such as silicon, calcium, and aluminum relevant to the originally manufactured and processed clay, showed up in all the investigated samples. EDX and XRD techniques that have been used in the present work provided important chemical insight about the structure of the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrated the possibility of using LIBS technique in performing in situ spectrochemical analysis of archaeological pottery. This leads to fast in-depth spatial characterization of the samples in the micron range with nearly invisible surface destructive effects. There is no doubt that this can help in restoration and conservation of such precious objects.

  8. An alternative analytical method based on ultrasound micro bath hydrolysis and GC-MS analysis for the characterization of organic biomarkers in archaeological ceramics.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Zubiaguirre, Laura; Olivares, Maitane; Castro, Kepa; Iñañez, Javier G; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of organic biomarkers in ancient and valuable archaeological remains provides a worthwhile source of information regarding their management. This work was focused on the development of an analytical procedure to characterize organic residues that have remained in archaeological ceramic samples. A novel analytical approach based on an alkaline hydrolysis by means of an ultrasound micro bath followed by liquid extraction was proposed to isolate saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, degradation products such as dihydroxy acids or dienoic fatty acids, isoprenoid fatty acids, and many other biomarkers from archaeological remains. This main goal has been achieved after the optimization of the main parameters affecting the hydrolysis step, the extraction procedure, and the derivatization step prior to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. In this work, archaeological ceramic remains suspected to have been used by Basque Whalers to store whale oil in the period from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century were studied. Nevertheless, the proposed method is useful to determine the organic remains preserved in many other archaeological ceramic remains. Moreover, this methodology can be used to determine organic remains in any porous ceramic, archaeological or not. The preliminary results of the analysis of ceramic vessels led to the determination of some interesting unsaturated compounds such as 11-eicosenoic acid, an important biomarker of marine commodities, and several saturated fatty acids, which could be indicative of having used the vessels to store whale oil. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  9. Preservation and analysis of footprint evidence within the archaeological record: examples from Valsequillo and Cuatrocienegas, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Huddart, D.; Gonzalez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Human footprints provide a direct record of human occupation and can be used to make a range of biometric inferences about the individuals which left them. In this paper we describe the application of three-dimensional optical laser scanning in the preservation and analysis both human and animal footprints. Optical laser scanning provides a digital elevation model of a print or surface with a vertical accuracy typically less than + 0.01 mm. Not only does this provide a procedure for recording fragile footprint evidence but allows digital measurements to be made. It is also possible to use the techniques developed for rapid proto-typing to recreate the print as solid models for visualisation. The role of optical laser scanning in the preservation of footprint evidence is explored with specific reference to the controversial footprints of the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico which may provide some of the earliest evidence of human colonization of the Americas. More importantly, digital footprint scans provide a basis for the numerical analysis of footprints allowing the tools of geometric morphometrics to be applied. These tools have been widely developed in the fields of biology and physical anthropology and used to explore the anatomical significance of shape. One key question that can be addressed using this approach is to develop a statistical approach to the objective recognition of a human footprint thereby helping to verify their interpretation and archaeological significance. Using footprint data from sites across the World a statistical model for the recognition of human footprints is presented and used to evaluate the controversial footprint site of Valsequillo, (Puebla State) preserved in volcanic ash and those in the Cuatrocienegas Basin, (Coahuila State) preserved in travertine.

  10. The explosive origin of obsidian lava (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Tuffen, H.; Schipper, C.

    2013-12-01

    A long-standing challenge in volcanology has been to explain why explosive eruptions of rhyolite magma transition into outpourings of lava. Many studies suggest that lava is the product of non-explosive processes that allow magmatic vapour to escape in an open-system manner without wholesale fragmentation. Recent eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle volcanoes have shown that effusive rhyolites are anything but 'non-explosive' and may erupt simultaneously with vigourous pyroclastic fountains for months from a common vent. This behaviour implies that pyroclastic processes play a critical if not dominant role in degassing magma sufficiently such that it erupts effusively. Here we use H-isotope and bulk H2O measurements paired with textural evidence from the 2008 Chaitén and 2011 Cordón Caulle eruptions to demonstrate that effusion requires explosion(s)--lavas are the direct product of brittle deformation that fosters batched degassing into transient pyroclastic channels that repetitively and explosively vent from effusing lava. Evidence for cyclical brecciation and collapse of porous and permeable magmatic foams is abundant in the textures and structures of tuffisites--ash and lapilli-filled pyroclastic channels--found in volcanic bombs at both Chaitén and Cordón Caulle. We have used FTIR and a TCEA-MAT 253 system to precisely measure total water and D/H in erupted glass. Bulk H2O measurements on tuffisite and adjacent bomb obsidian indicate significantly lower H2O (~0.2-1.0 wt.%) in the tuffisite veins. These depletions imply effective local degassing and rapid advective transport of exsolved vapour through the veins. The H-isotopic signatures of tuffisites are also different from the hosting material insofar as being enriched in deuterium (up to -20‰). Such deuterium enrichments are inconsistent with isotope fractionation during both closed- and open-system degassing, but can be explained if an abundant and more primitive volatile phase from less degassed

  11. The solidification of obsidian glass during drilling of the IDDP-1 drill hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.; von Aulock, Felix; Lavalee', Yan

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the thermal fate of magmatic rocks during scientific high temperature drilling represents a contribution to their interpretation in terms of magmatic state and their mechanical response to the drilling process. Chips of black crystal-poor unfoamed calc-alkaline rhyolitic obsidian have been obtained from a depth of 2100m in the IDDP-1 borehole. Five samples (20-40 mg) have been subjected to scanning calorimetry in order to evaluate the glass transition temperature, viscosity and cooling history of these obsidians that are believed to have been quenched by the drilling process. In addition to scanning runs on the raw glasses, their controlled cooling/heating cycle behavior has been determined at 5, 10 and 25K/min. The glass transition temperatures of the raw samples lie in the range of 500-525°C. The glass transition temperature shifts with controlled cooling/heating rates yields an activation energy of 335 kJ/mol. The absolute value of the glass transition temperature has been compared with the Hess and Dingwell (1996) viscosity model for calc-alkaline rhyolite. The comparison allows the inference that the obsidian contains water contents consistent with those reported by Elders et al. (2011) Furthermore, the activation energies obtained from the Tg peak shift with cooling/heating rate are entirely consistent with those water contents. The cooling rate estimated for the raw samples are higher than 25K/min. A relatively high cooling rate for a "natural" obsidian. These glasses have been interpreted to have been quenched from temperatures of 940-760°C (based on water content). From the present glass transition analysis it would appear that the first 200-400K of cooling of these magmas occurred above the glass transition in a plastic state, followed by ca. 500K of solid-state (glassy) cooling. These results demonstrate that it is possible to use glassy materials derived from the drilling-induced quenching of magma to evaluate the physical state and

  12. Correlation of archaeological ceramics and clays using an external-beam PIXE analysis of the major elemental constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S. R.; Fischbeck, H. J.; Chesnut, K.

    1985-05-01

    Time-consuming trace-element analysis is often used to determine the origin of archaeological artifacts. In an effort to locate the source of clay used to manufacture archaeological ceramics from eastern Oklahoma, we find that a determination of major elemental constituents using external-beam PIXE analysis is a useful technique for determining the probability of common origin. Using a 7 nA, 1.5 MeV external proton beam, it takes less than one minute to determine the concentration of the major elements to an accuracy of better than 5%. This rapid analysis makes it possible to quickly select pottery sherds of similar composition and eliminate clay samples which are not strongly correlated with the sherds. Trace-element analysis of these strongly correlated samples can then in principle be used to make an absolute identification. Major elemental analysis is thus useful for survey work where many samples must be examined. The effects of sample inhomogeneity and the firing process, as well as the probability of false correlations, are discussed.

  13. Paleointensity study on obsidians of Pleistocene Age from Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Sandra; Ferk, Annika; Kirscher, Uwe; Leonhardt, Roman; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic glass is often considered an ideal recording material for paleointensities. Experiments to determine the ancient field intensity are time consuming and mostly have low success rates. Studies have shown that the usage of glassy samples can increase success rates very much as the remanence carriers are in or close to the single domain range. However, it was found that hydration and/or devitrification may falsify the results and maybe hard to identify. Here we investigate up to ~6 myr old subaerial obsidians of rhyolitic composition from Armenia to examine time dependencies in such processes and to obtain high quality field records. We present data from 60 subaerial obsidian samples from nine volcanic structures of Armenia. Almost all samples show a linear directional component which trends towards the origin of projection in both thermal and alternating field demagnetization experiments. The 1.75 and ~6myr old glasses are inversely magnetized while all other samples show normal polarity. Titanomagnetites with varying titanium content and Curie temperatures at 190 to 270°C and 530° to 570°C, respectively, were revealed to be the remanence carriers. Almost all thermomagnetic curves are reversible underlining the thermal stability of the material. Thellier-type experiments with alteration and tail checks were used to determine paleointensities. Virtual axial dipole moments of 4.6*1022 Am2 (0.5Ma), 8.6*1022 Am2 (0.65Ma), 9.4*1022 Am2 (1.5Ma), 6.9*1022 Am2 and 7.3*1022 Am2 (~6 Ma) were found which agrees well with published reference data (Channell et al., 2009). The thermal stability, low alteration and good accordance with other data support the suitability of glassy materials for geomagnetic field studies and also shows the potential of subaerial obsidian to identify the source areas of prehistoric obsidian artefacts.

  14. The function of prehistoric lithic tools: a combined study of use-wear analysis and FTIR microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Lemorini, Cristina

    2012-02-01

    The application of combined use-wear analysis and FTIR micro spectroscopy for the investigation of the flint and obsidian tools from the archaeological sites of Masseria Candelaro (Foggia, Italy) and Sant'Anna di Oria (Brindisi, Italy) aiming to clarify their functional use is described. The tools excavated in the former site showed in a very high percentage spectroscopically detectable residues on their working edges. The identification of micro deposits is based on comparison with a great number of replicas studied in the same experimental conditions. FTIR data confirmed in almost all cases the use-wear analysis suggestions and added details about the material processed and about the working procedures.

  15. Effect of the wavelength on laser induced breakdown spectrometric analysis of archaeological bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasem, M. A.; Gonzalez, J. J.; Russo, R. E.; Harith, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    The analytical exploitation of the laser induced plasma suffers from its transient behavior due to some nonlinear effects. These phenomena are matrix-dependent and limit the use of LIBS to mostly semi-quantitative precision. The plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible during LIBS measurements. Studying archaeological bone samples using LIBS technique could be more difficult since these samples are less tough in their texture than many other solid samples. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly resulting in poor reproducibility and statistics. Furthermore archaeological bones are subjected to diagenesis effects due to burial environment and postmortem effects. In the present work comparative analytical study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for archaeological bone samples belonging to four ancient Egyptian dynasties representing the middle kingdom (1980-1630 BC), 2nd intermediate period (1630-1539/23 BC), Roman-Greek period (30 BC-A.D. 395) and the late period (664-332 BC). Measurements have been performed under identical experimental conditions except the laser wavelength to examine its effects. Elemental fluctuations within the same dynasty were studied for reliable information about each dynasty. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS gives a more realistic picture for bone elemental composition within the same dynasty, and bone ash could be more suitable as a reference material for bone calibration in the case of UV-LIBS.

  16. Neandertal demise: an archaeological analysis of the modern human superiority complex.

    PubMed

    Villa, Paola; Roebroeks, Wil

    2014-01-01

    Neandertals are the best-studied of all extinct hominins, with a rich fossil record sampling hundreds of individuals, roughly dating from between 350,000 and 40,000 years ago. Their distinct fossil remains have been retrieved from Portugal in the west to the Altai area in central Asia in the east and from below the waters of the North Sea in the north to a series of caves in Israel in the south. Having thrived in Eurasia for more than 300,000 years, Neandertals vanished from the record around 40,000 years ago, when modern humans entered Europe. Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neandertals. This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations, as the Neandertal archaeological record is not different enough to explain the demise in terms of inferiority in archaeologically visible domains. Instead, current genetic data suggest that complex processes of interbreeding and assimilation may have been responsible for the disappearance of the specific Neandertal morphology from the fossil record.

  17. Direct dating of archaeological pottery by compound-specific 14C analysis of preserved lipids.

    PubMed

    Stott, Andrew W; Berstan, Robert; Evershed, Richard P; Bronk-Ramsey, Christopher; Hedges, Robert E M; Humm, Martin J

    2003-10-01

    A methodology is described demonstrating the utility of the compound-specific 14C technique as a direct means of dating archaeological pottery. The method uses automated preparative capillary gas chromatography employing wide-bore capillary columns to isolate individual compounds from lipid extracts of archaeological potsherds in high purity (>95%) and amounts (>200 microg) sufficient for radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). A protocol was developed and tested on n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids possessing a broad range of 14C ages. Analytical blanks and controls allowed background 14C measurements to be assessed and potential sources of errors to be detected, i.e., contamination with modern or dead 14C, isotopic fraction effects, etc. A "Russian doll" method was developed to transfer isolated target compounds onto tin powder/capsules prior to combustion and AMS analyses. The major advantage of the compound-specific technique is that 14C dates obtained for individual compounds can be directly linked to the commodities processed in the vessels during their use, e.g., animal fats. The compound-specific 14C dating protocol was validated on a suite of ancient pottery whose predicted ages spanned a 5000-year date range. Initial results indicate that meaningful correlations can be obtained between the predicted date of pottery and that of the preserved lipids. These findings constitute an important step forward to the direct dating of archaeological pottery.

  18. Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological Analysis of the Modern Human Superiority Complex

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Paola; Roebroeks, Wil

    2014-01-01

    Neandertals are the best-studied of all extinct hominins, with a rich fossil record sampling hundreds of individuals, roughly dating from between 350,000 and 40,000 years ago. Their distinct fossil remains have been retrieved from Portugal in the west to the Altai area in central Asia in the east and from below the waters of the North Sea in the north to a series of caves in Israel in the south. Having thrived in Eurasia for more than 300,000 years, Neandertals vanished from the record around 40,000 years ago, when modern humans entered Europe. Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neandertals. This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations, as the Neandertal archaeological record is not different enough to explain the demise in terms of inferiority in archaeologically visible domains. Instead, current genetic data suggest that complex processes of interbreeding and assimilation may have been responsible for the disappearance of the specific Neandertal morphology from the fossil record. PMID:24789039

  19. Potential landslide activity affecting the archaeological site of Orongo (Easter Island-Chile): preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, C.; Delmonaco, G.; Spizzichino, D.; Pandolfi, O.; Crisostomo, R.; Nohe, S.

    2009-04-01

    Easter Island forms part of the Easter Line, a continuous latitudinal chain of volcanic seamounts and islands in the Pacific Sea. The island's roughly triangular shape is determined by the merging of lava flows produced by its three main volcanoes (Rano Kau, Terevaka, Poike) which form its main mass. The Rano Kau volcano, sited in the SW vertex of the island, is made up of numerous basaltic lava flows and has been reduced in size by faulting and marine erosion. Its crater (1.4 km wide) is a small caldera that collapsed after a late, large explosive phase, as attested by the presence of breccia deposits around the eastern rim of the crater. The archaeological stone village of Orongo is located above the inner wall of the crater at an altitude of ca. 300m a.s.l. Prominent historical remains are the numerous petroglyphs that represent the ancient ceremonial of the birdman cult (tangata manu). Rano Kau is mainly composed of sequences of basaltic and intermediate lavas and pyroclastics. Most of the of the original caldera area, especially in the southern flank, has been disrupted by marine erosion. This has caused a dramatic change of the original morphology, resulting in a sub-vertical cliff and steep slopes, especially in the middle-low portions. In the upper part of the slopes weathered soils and regolith are outcropping. Topographical and geomorphological analysis of the area conducted by a direct field surveys in January and July 2008 have provided clear evidences of slope instability along the southern external flank of the caldera. Different landslide areas have been detected. The most active area is located at east of the village in correspondence of the crest zone of Rano Kau where a debris slide/fall has recently occurred. The analysis of photos taken in Nov. 2007 in the same area evidences that the landslide crown area was originated at an elevation of ca. 200m a.s.l. along a probable contact between basaltic layers on the top and weathered lava. Other minor

  20. Provenancing Archaeological Wool Textiles from Medieval Northern Europe by Light Stable Isotope Analysis (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H)

    PubMed Central

    von Holstein, Isabella C. C.; Walton Rogers, Penelope; Craig, Oliver E.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Newton, Jason; Collins, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the origin of archaeological wool textiles preserved by anoxic waterlogging from seven medieval archaeological deposits in north-western Europe (c. 700–1600 AD), using geospatial patterning in carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N) and non-exchangeable hydrogen (δ2H) composition of modern and ancient sheep proteins. δ13C, δ15N and δ2H values from archaeological wool keratin (n = 83) and bone collagen (n = 59) from four sites were interpreted with reference to the composition of modern sheep wool from the same regions. The isotopic composition of wool and bone collagen samples clustered strongly by settlement; inter-regional relationships were largely parallel in modern and ancient samples, though landscape change was also significant. Degradation in archaeological wool samples, examined by elemental and amino acid composition, was greater in samples from Iceland (Reykholt) than in samples from north-east England (York, Newcastle) or northern Germany (Hessens). A nominal assignment approach was used to classify textiles into local/non-local at each site, based on maximal estimates of isotopic variability in modern sheep wool. Light element stable isotope analysis provided new insights into the origins of wool textiles, and demonstrates that isotopic provenancing of keratin preserved in anoxic waterlogged contexts is feasible. We also demonstrate the utility of δ2H analysis to understand the location of origin of archaeological protein samples. PMID:27764106

  1. Provenancing Archaeological Wool Textiles from Medieval Northern Europe by Light Stable Isotope Analysis (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H).

    PubMed

    von Holstein, Isabella C C; Walton Rogers, Penelope; Craig, Oliver E; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Newton, Jason; Collins, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the origin of archaeological wool textiles preserved by anoxic waterlogging from seven medieval archaeological deposits in north-western Europe (c. 700-1600 AD), using geospatial patterning in carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N) and non-exchangeable hydrogen (δ2H) composition of modern and ancient sheep proteins. δ13C, δ15N and δ2H values from archaeological wool keratin (n = 83) and bone collagen (n = 59) from four sites were interpreted with reference to the composition of modern sheep wool from the same regions. The isotopic composition of wool and bone collagen samples clustered strongly by settlement; inter-regional relationships were largely parallel in modern and ancient samples, though landscape change was also significant. Degradation in archaeological wool samples, examined by elemental and amino acid composition, was greater in samples from Iceland (Reykholt) than in samples from north-east England (York, Newcastle) or northern Germany (Hessens). A nominal assignment approach was used to classify textiles into local/non-local at each site, based on maximal estimates of isotopic variability in modern sheep wool. Light element stable isotope analysis provided new insights into the origins of wool textiles, and demonstrates that isotopic provenancing of keratin preserved in anoxic waterlogged contexts is feasible. We also demonstrate the utility of δ2H analysis to understand the location of origin of archaeological protein samples.

  2. The role of superheating in the formation of Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) inferred through crystallization of sanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Laura E.; Andrews, Benjamin J.

    2016-10-01

    The Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) are crystal poor (<8 vol%) and highly evolved (high SiO2, low Sr), and therefore, their formation required extremely efficient separation of melts from a crystal-rich source. A petrologic and experimental investigation of the mineral phases in Glass Mountain lavas identifies conditions under which phenocrysts grew and the driving mechanism for crystallization, which places constraints on the possible processes that generated the obsidians. The obsidian in this study (GM-11) is saturated in nine phases (sanidine + quartz + plagioclase + titanomagnetite + ilmenite + zircon + apatite + allanite + biotite), and results of high-resolution SEM compositional mapping and electron microprobe analysis reveal that individual sanidine crystals are normally zoned and span a range of compositions (Or40-78). Sanidines have a "granophyric" texture, characterized by intergrowths of quartz and sanidine. Mineral phases in the natural sample are compared to H2O-saturated phase equilibrium experiments conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, over a range of conditions (700-850 °C; 75-225 MPa), and all are found to be plausible phenocrysts. Comparison of sanidine compositions from the natural sample with those grown in phase equilibrium experiments demonstrates that sanidine in the natural sample occurs in a reduced abundance. Further comparison with phase equilibrium experiments suggests that sanidine compositions track progressive loss of dissolved melt water (±cooling), suggesting that crystallization in the natural obsidian was driven predominantly by degassing resulting from decompression. It is paradoxical that an effusively (slowly) erupted lava should contain multiple phenocryst phases, including sanidine crystals that span a range of compositions with granophyric textures, and yet remain so crystal poor. To resolve this paradox, it is necessary that the solidification mechanism (degassing or cooling) that produced the sanidine

  3. Raman spectroscopic analysis of archaeological specimens from the wreck of HMS Swift, 1770

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Elkin, Dolores; Maier, Marta S.

    2016-12-01

    Specimens from underwater archaeological excavations have rarely been analysed by Raman spectroscopy probably due to the problems associated with the presence of water and the use of alternative techniques. The discovery of the remains of the Royal Navy warship HMS Swift off the coast of Patagonia, South America, which was wrecked in 1770 while undertaking a survey from its base in the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, has afforded the opportunity for a first-pass Raman spectroscopic study of the contents of several glass jars from a wooden chest, some of which had suffered deterioration of their contents owing to leakage through their stoppers. From the Raman spectroscopic data, it was possible to identify organic compounds such as anthraquinone and copal resin, which were empirically used as materia medica in the eighteenth century to treat shipboard diseases; it seems very likely, therefore, that the wooden chest belonged to the barber-surgeon on the ship. Spectra were obtained from the wet and desiccated samples, but several samples from containers that had leaked were found to contain only minerals, such as aragonite and sediment. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  4. Raman spectroscopic analysis of archaeological specimens from the wreck of HMS Swift, 1770.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Elkin, Dolores; Maier, Marta S

    2016-12-13

    Specimens from underwater archaeological excavations have rarely been analysed by Raman spectroscopy probably due to the problems associated with the presence of water and the use of alternative techniques. The discovery of the remains of the Royal Navy warship HMS Swift off the coast of Patagonia, South America, which was wrecked in 1770 while undertaking a survey from its base in the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, has afforded the opportunity for a first-pass Raman spectroscopic study of the contents of several glass jars from a wooden chest, some of which had suffered deterioration of their contents owing to leakage through their stoppers. From the Raman spectroscopic data, it was possible to identify organic compounds such as anthraquinone and copal resin, which were empirically used as materia medica in the eighteenth century to treat shipboard diseases; it seems very likely, therefore, that the wooden chest belonged to the barber-surgeon on the ship. Spectra were obtained from the wet and desiccated samples, but several samples from containers that had leaked were found to contain only minerals, such as aragonite and sediment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'.

  5. Electric Properties of Obsidian: Evidence for Positive Hole Charge Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordvik, R.; Freund, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    The blackness of obsidian is due to the presence of oxygen anions in the valence state 1-, creating broad energy levels at the upper edge of the valence band, which absorb visible light over a wide spectral range. These energy states are associated with defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice, well-known from "smoky quartz", where Al substituting for Si captures a defect electron in the oxygen anion sublattice for charge compensation [1]. Such defect electrons, also known as positive holes, are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity in igneous rocks when uniaxial stresses are applied, causing the break-up of pre-existing peroxy defects, Si-OO-Si [2]. Peroxy defects in obsidian cannot be so easily activated by mechanical stress because the glassy matrix will break before sufficiently high stress levels can be reached. If peroxy defects do exist, however, they can be studied by activating them thermally [3]. We describe experiments with rectangular slabs of obsidian with Au electrodes at both ends. Upon heating one end, we observe (i) a thermopotential and (ii) a thermocurrent developing at distinct temperatures around 250°C and 450°C, marking the 2-step break-up of peroxy bonds. [1] Schnadt, R., and Schneider, J.: The electronic structure of the trapped-hole center in smoky quartz, Zeitschrift Physik B Condensed Matter 11, 19-42, 1970. [2] Freund, F. T., Takeuchi, A., and Lau, B. W.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31, 389-396, 2006. [3] Freund, F., and Masuda, M. M.: Highly mobile oxygen hole-type charge carriers in fused silica, Journal Material Research, 8, 1619-1622, 1991.

  6. Microscopic and macroscopic assessment of the emplacement of obsidian lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K. S.; Williams, M.; Gardner, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Rhyolitic obsidian lavas are common in silicic volcanic systems, but quantitative data related to the emplacement of such lavas is rare. To assess the emplacement dynamics of rhyolitic obsidian lavas we measured the 3D orientation of microlites in samples collected systematically across five of the Central Plateau Member lavas of Yellowstone. Eruption volumes and maximum flow distances of targeted lava flows range from 0.01-70 km3 and 0.13-22 km, respectively. The dataset allows us to examine how deformation during emplacement varies with eruption size. Oriented thin sections were prepared from samples thought to be in place (i.e., not rotated by autobrecciation or erosion). In each sample, we petrographically measured the trend and plunge of >130 acicular Fe-Ti oxide microlites. The 3D microlite orientation can be used in two ways to understand the kinematics of emplacement. First, microlite orientations can be used to infer the dominant directions of fluid stretching because microlite long axes align in the direction of local extension. Second, the degree of alignment of a microlite population (i.e., standard deviation of trend and plunge), irrespective of preferred orientation, is dependent on the strain microlites experience during emplacement. We found that microlites are strongly aligned in all samples from all flows. Microlites are aligned roughly parallel to the direction of flow in samples collected near the flow front. Conversely, microlites are generally aligned orthogonal to the flow direction in samples collected from interior portions of the flows. In individual flows, the degree of alignment shows no correlation with distance travelled, instead it has slight random variations. Large- and small-volume flows display indistinguishable degrees of microlite alignment. Microlites provide a indicator of flow direction near flow fronts where strain is imparted by simple shear. In the interior portions of flows, strain is induced by pure shear via flattening

  7. The use of FT-IR as a screening technique for organic residue analysis of archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Shillito, Lisa M; Almond, Matthew J; Wicks, Karen; Marshall, Lisa-Jane R; Matthews, Wendy

    2009-02-01

    A range of archaeological samples have been examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. These include suspected coprolite samples from the Neolithic site of Catalhöyük in Turkey, pottery samples from the Roman site of Silchester, UK and the Bronze Age site of Gatas, Spain and unidentified black residues on pottery sherds from the Roman sites of Springhead and Cambourne, UK. For coprolite samples the aim of FT-IR analysis is identification. Identification of coprolites in the field is based on their distinct orange colour; however, such visual identifications can often be misleading due to their similarity with deposits such as ochre and clay. For pottery the aim is to screen those samples that might contain high levels of organic residues which would be suitable for GC-MS analysis. The experiments have shown coprolites to have distinctive spectra, containing strong peaks from calcite, phosphate and quartz; the presence of phosphorus may be confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. Pottery containing organic residues of plant and animal origin has also been shown to generally display strong phosphate peaks. FT-IR has distinguished between organic resin and non-organic compositions for the black residues, with differences also being seen between organic samples that have the same physical appearance. Further analysis by GC-MS has confirmed the identification of the coprolites through the presence of coprostanol and bile acids, and shows that the majority of organic pottery residues are either fatty acids or mono- or di-acylglycerols from foodstuffs, or triterpenoid resin compounds exposed to high temperatures. One suspected resin sample was shown to contain no organic residues, and it is seen that resin samples with similar physical appearances have different chemical compositions. FT-IR is proposed as a quick and cheap method of screening archaeological samples before subjecting them to the more expensive and time-consuming method of GC-MS. This will eliminate inorganic samples such

  8. The use of FT-IR as a screening technique for organic residue analysis of archaeological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillito, Lisa M.; Almond, Matthew J.; Wicks, Karen; Marshall, Lisa-Jane R.; Matthews, Wendy

    2009-02-01

    A range of archaeological samples have been examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. These include suspected coprolite samples from the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük in Turkey, pottery samples from the Roman site of Silchester, UK and the Bronze Age site of Gatas, Spain and unidentified black residues on pottery sherds from the Roman sites of Springhead and Cambourne, UK. For coprolite samples the aim of FT-IR analysis is identification. Identification of coprolites in the field is based on their distinct orange colour; however, such visual identifications can often be misleading due to their similarity with deposits such as ochre and clay. For pottery the aim is to screen those samples that might contain high levels of organic residues which would be suitable for GC-MS analysis. The experiments have shown coprolites to have distinctive spectra, containing strong peaks from calcite, phosphate and quartz; the presence of phosphorus may be confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. Pottery containing organic residues of plant and animal origin has also been shown to generally display strong phosphate peaks. FT-IR has distinguished between organic resin and non-organic compositions for the black residues, with differences also being seen between organic samples that have the same physical appearance. Further analysis by GC-MS has confirmed the identification of the coprolites through the presence of coprostanol and bile acids, and shows that the majority of organic pottery residues are either fatty acids or mono- or di-acylglycerols from foodstuffs, or triterpenoid resin compounds exposed to high temperatures. One suspected resin sample was shown to contain no organic residues, and it is seen that resin samples with similar physical appearances have different chemical compositions. FT-IR is proposed as a quick and cheap method of screening archaeological samples before subjecting them to the more expensive and time-consuming method of GC-MS. This will eliminate inorganic samples such

  9. Did a drought crisis lead to cultural changes in Eolian Islands during the Bronze Age? New data from archaeological excavations and carbon isotopes analysis of archaeobotanical remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Martinelli, Maria Clara; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural potential is commonly regarded as a key factor for the development of pre-modern complex societies in Mediterranean regions. For this reason, the assessment of paleo-rainfall regimes is considered fundamental to understand the influence of short-term climate fluctuations on ancient human communities, especially in those areas characterised by critical environmental conditions such as Eolian archipelagos. Usually, plant remains in archaeological contexts are used to assess agricultural practices and any strategies adopted by ancient populations to face climate changes. Within this work we intend to extend the traditional archaeobotanical approach by using carbon isotope analysis of ancient plant remains in order to infer paleorainfall trends. For this purpose fourty samples of plant remains recovered from Bronze Age archaeological contexts recently excavated in Filicudi and Salina islands, Eolian archipelagos, were selected to be submitted to AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dating, archaeobotanaical and carbon stable isotopes analyses. This approach allowed the reconstruction in the analyzed samples of the variation of the carbon isotope composition, expressed through the δ13C term, in a diachronic scale as obtained by the combined radiocarbon dating analyses performed on the same archaeological material. The obtained results show clear chronological pattern of variation of the δ13C term in the plant tissues which find correspondence with other climatic proxy records and from which paleoclimatic information have been inferred. From the archaeological point of view, the obtained results allow the evaluation of the influence of climate on the dynamics of population of Eolian island by reconsidering archaeological indicators coming from the recent excavations carried out in the sites of Filicudi and Salina.

  10. Introductory Archaeology: The Inexpensive Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a number of student-focused laboratory exercises that are inexpensive, yet show the scientific character of archaeology. Describes the environmental laboratory exercise which includes the following analysis topics: (1) pollen; (2) earth core; (3) microfaunal; and (4) microwear. Describes the ceramic laboratory which involves…

  11. Archaeological field survey automation: concurrent multisensor site mapping and automated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefowicz, Mateusz; Sokolov, Oleksandr; Meszyński, Sebastian; Siemińska, Dominika; Kołosowski, Przemysław

    2016-04-01

    ABM SE develops mobile robots (rovers) used for analog research of Mars exploration missions. The rovers are all-terrain exploration platforms, carrying third-party payloads: scientific instrumentation. "Wisdom" ground penetrating radar for Exomars mission has been tested onboard, as well as electrical resistivity module and other devices. Robot has operated in various environments, such as Central European countryside, Dachstein ice caves or Sahara, Morocco (controlled remotely via satellite from Toruń, Poland. Currently ABM SE works on local and global positioning system for a Mars rover basing on image and IMU data. This is performed under a project from ESA. In the next Mars rover missions a Mars GIS model will be build, including an acquired GPR profile, DEM and regular image data, integrated into a concurrent 3D terrain model. It is proposed to use similar approach in surveys of archaeological sites, especially those, where solid architecture remains can be expected at shallow depths or being partially exposed. It is possible to deploy a rover that will concurrently map a selected site with GPR, 2D and 3D cameras to create a site model. The rover image processing algorithms are capable of automatic tracing of distinctive features (such as exposed structure remains on a desert ground, differences in color of the ground, etc.) and to mark regularities on a created map. It is also possible to correlate the 3D map with an aerial photo taken under any angle to achieve interpretation synergy. Currently the algorithms are an interpretation aid and their results must be confirmed by a human. The advantages of a rover over traditional approaches, such as a manual cart or a drone include: a) long hours of continuous work or work in unfavorable environment, such as high desert, frozen water pools or large areas, b) concurrent multisensory data acquisition, c) working from the ground level enables capturing of sites obstructed from the air (trees), d) it is possible to

  12. Assessing Raman spectroscopy as a prescreening tool for the selection of archaeological bone for stable isotopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Halcrow, Siân E; Rooney, Jeremy; Beavan, Nancy; Gordon, Keith C; Tayles, Nancy; Gray, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope analyses for paleodiet investigations require good preservation of bone protein, the collagen, to obtain reliable stable isotope values. Burial environments cause diagenetic alterations to collagen, especially in the leaching of the organic bone content. The survival of bone protein may be assessed by the weight % collagen, % carbon and % nitrogen yields, but these values are achieved only after destructive chemical processing. A non-destructive method of determining whether bone is suitably preserved would be desirable, as it would be less costly than chemical processing, and would also preserve skeletal collections. Raman analysis is one such potential non-destructive screening method. In previous applications, Raman spectroscopy has been used to test both the alteration of the mineral portion of bone, as well as to indicate the relative amount of organic material within the bone structure. However, there has been no research to test the relationship between the Raman spectroscopic results and the survival of bone protein. We use a set of 41 bone samples from the prehistoric archaeological site of Ban Non Wat, Northeast Thailand, to assess if Raman spectroscopy analysis of the organic-phosphate ratio has a significant correlation with the weight % collagen, and carbon and nitrogen yields obtained by isotopic analysis. The correlation coefficients are highly statistically significant in all cases (r = 0.716 for collagen, r = 0.630 for carbon and r = 0.706 for nitrogen, p≤0.001 for all) with approximately or close to half of the variation in each explained by variation in the organic-phosphate ratio (51.2% for collagen, 39.6% for carbon, and 49.8% for nitrogen). Although the Raman screening method cannot directly quantify the extent of collagen survival, it could be of use in the selection of bone most likely to have viable protein required for reliable results from stable isotope analysis.

  13. The Arcs of Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Bonnie S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a class trip to the Crow Canyon Archaeology Center in Cortez, Colorado. Students analyzed artifacts mathematically and participated in digs. Discusses organizing the lesson and assessment. (MKR)

  14. Social Archaeological Approaches in Port and Harbour Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Adam

    2013-12-01

    This introductory article to the special issue of the Journal of Maritime Archaeology offers a comparative perspective on the theme of archaeological theory and social archaeological approaches to ports and harbours. As a specialist in Roman archaeology I was keen to explore the way in which specialists in other areas of archaeology approached the archaeology of ports and harbours and whether different approaches and perspectives may be able to add nuances to the way in which material is interpreted. The volume brings together a collection of exciting new studies which explore social themes in port and harbour studies with the intention to encourage debate and the use of new interpretative perspectives. This article examines a number of interpretative themes including those relating to architectural analyse, human behaviour, action and experience and artefact analysis. These themes help us to move towards a more theoretically informed ports and harbour archaeology which focuses on meaning as well as description. The emphasis on theory within archaeology allows us to be more ambitious in our interpretative frameworks including in Roman archaeology which has not tended to embrace the theoretical aspects of the archaeological discipline with as much enthusiasm as some other areas of archaeology.

  15. The present state of nuclear archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, H.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear archaeology might be construed as subsuming any archaeological measurement that depends on nuclear phenomena. Thus defined, nuclear archaeology would include, for example, radiocarbon dating and potassium-argon dating as well as neutron activation analysis (NAA). In these applications, neutron activation analysis is used to characterize human skeletal and artifactual remains in order to answer questions that presumably are of concern to archaeologists. The characterization of human bone by NAA is intended to contribute to reconstructing the diets of ancient people. Unfortunately, a number of studies show that many trace elements of potential use in dietary reconstruction are dramatically altered by conditions in the burial environment. One step toward ruling out diagenetic sources of chemical variation is to analyze soil from the burial environment.The usefulness of NAA applied to archaeological specimens is briefly discussed.

  16. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  17. State Archaeological Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, William B., Ed.

    The focus of this conference was on programs and experiences in public archaeological education in the Plains states and immediate neighbors. The contents lists the following papers: (1) "Introduction to the Symposium" (William B. Butler); (2) "Archaeological Educational Programs in Colorado" (Kevin D. Black); (3) "Statewide Archaeological…

  18. Digging into Archaeology Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Suggestions are offered for a classroom project of planning and conducting an archaeological dig on or near school property. Principles of archaeological practice such as making drawings of the site and using a grid frame to record locations are explained. Also suggested is a simulation activity in which students pick imbedded "findings" out of…

  19. Interactions between soil consumption and archaeological heritage: spatial analysis for hydrogeological risk evaluation and urban sprawl in the Tavoliere di Puglia (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danese, Maria; Gioia, Dario; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The soil consumption is a complex phenomenon because it is due to different causes and it also produces many consequences on landscape and related human activities. In low-relief areas of the Mediterranean regions such as the foredeep of the southern Italian chain, alluvional processes and flooding can play an important role on the amount of available soil, especially if one consider the recent climate changes and the recurrence of extreme events. Moreover the uncontrolled growth of the cities is a cause of soil consumption too. Consequently occurrence of flood events in low-relief areas, erosion processes and urban sprawl have a strong impact on agricultural activities and real estate market, but also in research activities about archaeological heritage, with the risk to loose signs of the past. To consider this phenomenon from a spatial point of view is essential to determine protection policies, but it is nowadays still a problem. In this contribution, we performed a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological features of the drainage network of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain in order to investigate erosional and depositional processes. GIS-supported statistical analysis of the drainage network features allow us to compile a map of the hydrogeological hazard [1]. The map has been used as a basic tool useful to consider areal distribution in soil consumption coming from alluvional processes, erosional phenomena and the urban sprawl of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain (Southern Italy). Moreover, we investigated the relationships between sectors of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain featured by higher hydrogeological risk and archaeological sensibility areas, such as places with existing or with not yet discovered archaeological sites or areas characterized by crop marks [2]. [1] Danese M., Gioia D., Biscione M., Masini N. 2014. Spatial Methods for Archaeological Flood Risk: The Case Study of the Neolithic Sites in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Computational

  20. Magma fracturing and degassing associated with obsidian formation: The explosive–effusive transition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrera, Agustin; Weinberg, Roberto; Wright, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role of melt fracturing in degassing rhyolitic volcanic systems. The Monte Pilato-Rocche Rosse eruptions in Italy evolved from explosive to effusive in style, and H2O content in quenched glasses changed over time from relatively H2O-rich (~ 0.90 wt.%) to H2O-poor dense obsidian (~ 0.10–0.20 wt.%). In addition, healed fractures have been recorded in all different eruptive materials, from the glass of early-erupted tube pumice and rinds of breadcrusted obsidian pyroclasts, to the glass of late-erupted dense obsidian pyroclasts, and throughout the final effusive Rocche Rosse lava flow. These rocks show multiple fault sets, some with crenulated fault planes indicating resumption of viscous flow after faulting, complex obsidian breccias with evidence for post-brecciation folding and stretching, and centimetre- to metre-thick tuffisite preserved in pyroclasts and lava, representing collapsed foam due to fracturing of vesicle walls. These microstructural observations indicate that multiple fracturing and healing events occurred during both explosive and effusive eruptions. H2O content in glass decreases by as much as 0.14 wt.% towards healed fractures/faults and decreases in stretched obsidian breccias towards regions of intense brecciation. A drop in pressure and/or increase in temperature along fractures caused diffusive H2O migration through melt towards fracture surfaces. Repetitive and pervasive fracturing and healing thereby create conditions for diffusive H2O loss into fractures and subsequent escape through permeable paths. This type of progressive magma degassing provides a potential mechanism to explain the formation of dense obsidian and the evolution from explosive to effusive eruption style.

  1. Magma fracturing and degassing associated with obsidian formation: The explosive-effusive transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Agustín; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Wright, Heather M. N.

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the role of melt fracturing in degassing rhyolitic volcanic systems. The Monte Pilato-Rocche Rosse eruptions in Italy evolved from explosive to effusive in style, and H2O content in quenched glasses changed over time from relatively H2O-rich (~ 0.90 wt.%) to H2O-poor dense obsidian (~ 0.10-0.20 wt.%). In addition, healed fractures have been recorded in all different eruptive materials, from the glass of early-erupted tube pumice and rinds of breadcrusted obsidian pyroclasts, to the glass of late-erupted dense obsidian pyroclasts, and throughout the final effusive Rocche Rosse lava flow. These rocks show multiple fault sets, some with crenulated fault planes indicating resumption of viscous flow after faulting, complex obsidian breccias with evidence for post-brecciation folding and stretching, and centimetre- to metre-thick tuffisite preserved in pyroclasts and lava, representing collapsed foam due to fracturing of vesicle walls. These microstructural observations indicate that multiple fracturing and healing events occurred during both explosive and effusive eruptions. H2O content in glass decreases by as much as 0.14 wt.% towards healed fractures/faults and decreases in stretched obsidian breccias towards regions of intense brecciation. A drop in pressure and/or increase in temperature along fractures caused diffusive H2O migration through melt towards fracture surfaces. Repetitive and pervasive fracturing and healing thereby create conditions for diffusive H2O loss into fractures and subsequent escape through permeable paths. This type of progressive magma degassing provides a potential mechanism to explain the formation of dense obsidian and the evolution from explosive to effusive eruption style.

  2. Moessbauer analysis of Lewisville, Texas, archaeological site lignite and hearth samples. Environmental geology notes

    SciTech Connect

    Shiley, R.H.; Hughes, R.E.; Cahill, R.A.; Konopka, K.L.; Hinckley, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Lewisville site, located in Denton County on the Trinity River north of Dallas, Texas, was thought to provide evidence of the earliest human activity in the western hemisphere. Radiocarbon dates of 37,000 to 38,000 B.P. determined for the site in the late 1950s conflicted with the presence of a Clovis point, which would fix the age of the site between 11,000 and 11,500 B.P. It was hypothesized (Johnson, 1982) that Clovis people were burning lignite from nearby outcrops: lignite in hearth residues would give older than actual ages by radiocarbon dating. X-ray diffraction and instrumental neutron-activation analysis proved inconclusive; however, Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated that hematite, a pyrite combustion product, was present in the ash. From this evidence the authors conclude that there is some support for the hypothesis.

  3. Prospective of the application of ultrasounds in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Safont, G.; Vergara, L.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a prospective analysis of non destructive testing (NDT) based on ultrasounds in the field of archaeology applications. Classical applications of ultrasounds techniques are reviewed, including ocean exploration to detect wrecks, imaging of archaeological sites, and cleaning archaeological objects. The potential of prospective applications is discussed from the perspective of signal processing, with emphasis on the area of linear time variant models. Thus, the use of ultrasound NDT is proposed for new ceramic cataloguing and restoration methods.

  4. AMS 14C analysis of teeth from archaeological sites showing anomalous esr dating results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Rainer; Abeyratne, Mohan; Head, John; Tuniz, Claudio; Hedges, Robert E. M.

    We have carried out AMS radiocarbon analysis on two groups of samples: the first one gave reasonable ESR age estimates and the second one yielded serious age underestinations. All samples were supposedly older than 35 ka, the oldest being around 160 ka. Two pretreatment techniques were used for radiocarbon dating: acid evolution and thermal release. Heating to 600, 750 and 900°C combined with total de-gassing at these temperatures was chosen to obtain age estimates on the organic fraction, secondary carbonates and original carbonate present in the hydroxyapatite mineral phase, respectively. All radiocarbon results present serious age underestimations. The secondary carbonate fraction gives almost modern results indicating an extremely rapid exchange of this component. Owing to this very rapid carbonate exchange it is not likely that the ESR signals used for dating are associated with the secondary carbonates. One tooth from Tabun with independent age estimates of >150 ka was further investigated by the Oxford AMS laboratory, yielding an age estimate of 1930±100 BP on the residual collagen from dentine and 18,000±160 BP on the carbonate component of the enamel bioapatite. We did not, however, find an explanation of why some samples give serious ESR underestimatioils whilst many others provide reasonable results.

  5. Analysis of shallow continuous electromagnetic measurements on archaeological sites in southern Austria and comparison with other geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niesner, Erich

    2010-05-01

    Aim of this investigation was outlining the potential of continuous electromagnetic measurements by the comparison of the electromagnetic results with other different geophysical methods at known archaeological sites in Carinthia (Southern Austria). In general a very high resolution is necessary to outline the foundations of roman buildings covered by a sedimentary layer of at least half a meter thickness. The electromagnetic prospecting method had been applied within an archaeologically important region, the archaeological remnants of the first roman provincial capital at the Magdalensberg and at the site of the later location of the capital, at Virunum. With the establishment and consolidation of the Roman Empire the Romans needed more settlement space for the fast growing town and also the demands for defence were less - therefore the Romans transferred the provincial capital down to the "Zollfeld" valley northeast of Klagenfurt. Additional to the electromagnetic investigations, geoelectric, magnetic and susceptibility mapping, spontaneous potential surveys, multielectrode tomography (Niesner, Scholger, Leonhardt 2009) and ground penetrating radar (Morawetz 2006) have been employed jointly during the last years. Also visual and infrared aerial pictures had been available from those areas. The work had been done within a collaborative project between the Geophysical Institute of the University of Leoben and the Landesmuseum Kärnten. The fieldwork and part of the interpretation had been done by students of the University of Leoben within summer field camps. Within these surveys various portions of the archaeological sites had been mapped, providing valuable information of this ancient settlement. One of the most important achievements of the past years of close integration work by the archaeological and the geophysical team was the detailed outlining of an early Christian church, dated by the archaeologists to the early time of the Christians (Dolenz, Niesner

  6. Archaeology in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKendrick, Paul

    1979-01-01

    Describes several archaeological sites and Roman art works in which to study ancient Roman history, including Lavinium, Paestum, Cosa, Praeneste, the Augustine temples, Sperlonga, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and the cemetery under St. Peter's. (CK)

  7. Diagnostic analysis of stone materials from underwater excavations: the case study of the Roman archaeological site of Baia (Naples, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloise, P.; Ricca, M.; La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Belfiore, C. M.; Padeletti, G.; Crisci, G. M.

    2014-03-01

    This work belongs to the framework of the national research project "COMAS" (Planned COnservation, " in situ", of underwater archaeological artifacts), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), concerning the submarine archaeological area of Baia (Naples, Italy). The site includes remains of the ancient cities of Baiae and Portus Iulius, which, since the 4th century AD, started to be submerged because of the bradyseism phenomenon. The work aims to the characterization of four different types of stone materials collected from the site, specifically marbles, limestones, ignimbrites, and bricks, in order to investigate their state of conservation. In particular, specimens were sampled from some masonry structures and pavement slabs ( opus sectile) in a specific area of the submerged site, called " Villa a Protiro". In order to characterize archaeological samples from a mineralogical-petrographic point of view, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, while to assess their conservation state, the surface colonization by biodeteriogen agents and their interaction with the substrate were studied through observations under a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Marble and limestone samples revealed an intense bioerosion phenomena, attributable to epilithic and endolithic forms, particularly boring sponges. On the contrary, ignimbrites suffer a lower degree of biological colonization related to the activity of other species, such as serpulids and bryozoans. In bricks, biocolonisation is correlated to the type of temper used in the artifact, the quartz pastes having a greater susceptibility to biological attack than the volcanic ones.

  8. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  9. Radiative heat transfer in molten and glassy obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, C.W.; Shankland, T.J.

    1984-08-10

    We have measured optical transmittance spectra in rhyolitic obsidian samples in the wavelength range lambda = 380-5500 nm and at temperatures T from 19/sup 0/-1145/sup 0/C, above and below the softening point. From the transmittance, we calculated the absorption coefficient ..cap alpha..(lambda,T) and the radiative thermal conductivity K/sub R/(T). K/sub R/ ranges from 3 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/s/sup -1/K/sup -1/ (1.2Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 700/sup 0/C to 12 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/s/sup -1/K/sup -1/(5Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 1145/sup 0/C. The 700/sup 0/C value is comparable with lattice thermal conductivity K/sub L/ of about 4 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/K/sup -1/(1.7 Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/). Removing scattering effects due to bubbles from the transmittance spectra by lowering the absorption baseline increased K/sub R/ to 20 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ K/sup -1/(8.4Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 1145/sup 0/C. Because scattering bubbles is likely to be small in confined magmas, these numbers are probably minimum values for K/sub R/ and indicate that in active plutons radiative heat transport could be greater than lattice conductivity by more than a factor of 2 at 1000/sup 0/C. Thus melting markedly strengthens K/sub R/, and radiative heat transport is probably the dominant component of the total conductivity K = K/sub L/+K/sub R/ in silicic magmas. These relatively large values of K can be applied to models of the thermal evolution of magma bodies and to cooling of intrusives.

  10. Palaeodiet reconstruction in a woman with probable celiac disease: a stable isotope analysis of bone remains from the archaeological site of Cosa (Italy).

    PubMed

    Scorrano, Gabriele; Brilli, Mauro; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Giustini, Francesca; Pacciani, Elsa; Chilleri, Filberto; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Rickards, Olga

    2014-07-01

    Stable isotope analysis in the reconstruction of human palaeodiets can yield clues to early human subsistence strategies, origins and history of farming and pastoralist societies, and intra- and intergroup social differentiation. In the last 10 years, the method has been extended to the pathological investigation. Stable isotope analysis to better understand a diet-related disease: celiac disease in ancient human bones was carried out. To do this, we analyzed the nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of human (n = 37) and faunal (n = 8) bone remains from the archaeological site of Cosa at Ansedonia, on the Tyrrhenian coast near Orbetello (Tuscany), including the skeletal remains of a young woman (late 1st century-early 2nd century Common Era [CE]) with morphological and genetic features suggestive of celiac disease. We compared the young woman's isotopic data with those of other individuals recovered at the same site but from two later time periods (6th century CE; 11-12th century CE) and with literature data from other Italian archaeological sites dating to the same period. Her collagen δ(13) C and δ(15) N values differed from those of the samples at the same site, and from most but not all of the contemporary sites. Although the woman's diet appears distinct, chronic malnutrition resulting from severe malabsorption of essential nutrients due to celiac disease may have affected the isotopic composition of her bone collagen.

  11. Obsidian hydration rate for the klamath basin of california and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L

    1969-09-26

    A hydration rate for obsidian of 3.5(4) microns squared per 1000 radio-carbon years has been established at the Nightfire Island archeological site in northern California and provides a means to date other prehistoric Klamath Basin sites. The new rate follows the form of the hydration equation formulated by Friedman and helps to refute claims made for other hydration equations.

  12. Formation of obsidian pyroclasts by sintering of ash particles in the volcanic conduit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James E.; Llewellin, Edward W.; Watkins, James M.; Befus, Kenneth S.

    2017-02-01

    The ranges in intensity and style of volcanic eruptions, from highly explosive Plinian eruptions to quiescent lava extrusions, depend on the style and efficiency of gas loss from ascending magma. Obsidian pyroclasts - small, glassy pieces of quenched magma found in some volcanic tephra beds - may preserve valuable information about magma degassing in their vesicle textures and volatile contents. Accurate interpretation of their textures and volatiles, however, requires understanding the mechanism of formation of the pyroclasts. Obsidian pyroclasts from the ca. 1325-1350 C.E. North Mono eruption of Mono Craters (CA, USA) were analyzed and found to have H2O and CO2 contents indicating that they were formed at pressures in the approximate range of 3-40 MPa. Many also contain domains with differing vesicle textures, separated by boundaries containing xenocrystic material, indicating that they are composed of smaller fragments that have sutured together. More than half of the pyroclasts analyzed contained small (∼10 μm), highly distorted vesicles, with multi-cuspate morphology, interpreted as the remnants of interstitial gas trapped amongst sintered fragments of melt/glass. Rounded vesicles are also common and are interpreted to result from surface tension-driven relaxation of the distorted vesicles. Calculated timescales of sintering and relaxation are consistent with timescales for pyroclast formation indicated by H2O re-equilibration within the heterogeneous pyroclasts. This sintering model for the origin of obsidian pyroclasts is further supported by the observation that spherical vesicles are found mainly in H2O-rich pyroclasts, and distorted vesicles mainly in H2O-poor pyroclasts. We conclude that obsidian pyroclasts generated during the North Mono eruption were formed by cycles of fragmentation, sintering/suturing, and relaxation, over a very wide range of depths within the conduit; we find no evidence to support pumice (foam) collapse as the formation

  13. Radiative thermal conductivity in obsidian and estimates of heat transfer in magma bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.; Shankland, T.J.; Nitsan, U.

    1981-05-10

    The optical transmission spectra of four ryholitic obsidian samples were measured in order to determine the importance of radiative heat transfer in granite magmas. The spectra, obtained in the temperature range 20-800/sup 0/C, show that the radiative spectral window in these samples is limited by a charge transfer band in the UV (400 nm) and Si-O stretching overtone in the IR (4500 nm). Within this window the main obstacles to radiative transfer, in order of decreasing importance, are background scattering, a water band centered at 2800 nm, and an Fe/sup 2 +/ crystal field band at 1100 nm. Unlike crystalline silicates the absorption bands in obsidian do not broaden significantly as temperature increases. As a result, the temperature dependence of the calculated radiative thermal conductivity K/sub R/ is dominated by the T/sup ..beta../ term. Actual values of K/sub R/ increase from 9 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 1/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/ between 300/sup 0/ and 800/sup 0/C, the high-temperature value being comparable to the lattice thermal conductivity in obsidian and a lower limit for K/sub R/ in granitic melts. As the scattering coefficient in melts is probably significantly lower than in obsidian, the radiative conductivity in active plutons is likely to be much higher. As an example, if scattering and the water band are removed from the observed spectra of the obsidian samples, calculated values of K/sub R/ could increase by a factor of 5, to about 5 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/ at 1000/sup 0/C.

  14. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    PubMed

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered.

  15. Acari in archaeology.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  16. A Multi-Frequency Polarimetric SAR Sensors Analysis over the UNESCO Archaeological Site of Djebel Barkal (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Jolanda; Dore, Nicole; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-08-01

    Differences in vegetation growth and in soil moisture content generate ground anomalies which can be linked to subsurface anthropic structures. Such evidences have been studied by means of aerial photographs and of historical II World War acquisitions first, and of very high spatial resolution of optical satellites later. This work aims to exploit the technique of SAR Polarimetry for the detection of surface and subsurface archaeological structures, comparing ALOS P ALSAR L-band (central frequency 1.27 GHz), with RADARSAT-2 C-band sensor (central frequency 5.405 GHz). The great potential of the two polarimetric sensors with different frequency for the detection of archaeological remains has been demonstrated thanks to the sand penetration capability of both C-band and L- band sensors. The choice to analyze radar sensors is based on their 24-hour observations, independent from Sun illumination and meteorological conditions and on the electromagnetic properties of the target they could provide, information not derivable from optical images.

  17. Trinidad Reservoir Salvage Archaeology, 1963-1965,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    composition of 76 of the above 76 specimens is argillite; one nonutilized flake is of obsidian , another nonutilized flake is of quartzite. Argillite...utilization as tools. Petrographically, 55 are argillite, one is obsidian and one is a coarae-grained quartzite. Seventeen (all argillite) are large...24 Argillite Crude; Pit I; Concave ba 1.2+ 1.1 0.3 D/14AAA/0-6 Quartizite 1.6+ 1.4 0.3 Surface Obsidian 1.5+ 1.2 0.4 Surface Argillite 2.0+ 1.5 0.3

  18. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  19. They Dig Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Lou Ellen

    1985-01-01

    Sixth graders participated in a long-term project involving archaeological processes. Activities included finding background information, site preparation, excavation, record keeping, cleaning artifacts, and classifying items. This pilot project was very successful in Arizona and will be expanded to include more grade levels and groups. (DH)

  20. Archaeology at Cochise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Richard D.

    1970-01-01

    A summer course in archaeology at Cochise College (Arizona) gives students practical experience in the field. There are many excellent sites for excavation and study near the campus, and the initial attempt to conduct a 4-week field project was considered very successful. (BB)

  1. Archaeology and cognitive evolution.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    Archaeology can provide two bodies of information relevant to the understanding of the evolution of human cognition--the timing of developments, and the evolutionary context of these developments. The challenge is methodological. Archaeology must document attributes that have direct implications for underlying cognitive mechanisms. One example of such a cognitive archaeology is found in spatial cognition. The archaeological record documents an evolutionary sequence that begins with ape-equivalent spatial abilities 2.5 million years ago and ends with the appearance of modern abilities in the still remote past of 400,000 years ago. The timing of these developments reveals two major episodes in the evolution in spatial ability, one, 1.5 million years ago and the other, one million years later. The two episodes of development in spatial cognition had very different evolutionary contexts. The first was associated with the shift to an open country adaptive niche that occurred early in the time range of Homo erectus. The second was associated with no clear adaptive shift, though it does appear to have coincided with the invasion of more hostile environments and the appearance of systematic hunting of large mammals. Neither, however, occurred in a context of modern hunting and gathering.

  2. Art and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Jul; Schumacher, Leni

    Organized in eight chapters, this interdisciplinary resource packet highlights the relationship between art and archaeology. Chapter 1 presents the vocabulary and several introductory activities that prepare students to participate in the subsequent chapters. These chapters focus on (2) "Lascaux Cave Paintings"; (3) "Life Along the…

  3. Representation, archaeology and genealogy: Three "spatial metaphors" for inquiring into nursing phenomena with Foucauldian discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Michael E; Springer, Rusla Anne

    2017-02-14

    Foucault used the "Quadrilateral of Language" metaphor to describe how language functioned in what the French called the Classic Age, roughly 1650 to 1800, the period from Descartes to Kant. His purpose was to show how the functions of language changed radically with the arrival of the Modern Age (~1800). Foucault developed his archaeological methods to investigate the impact of this change, but later revised his methods to introduce genealogical strategies to conduct "histories of the present". Our purpose in this paper is to clarify Foucault's thinking about ruptures in the functions of language and to show their implications for analyzing nursing discourse. Our account provides an overview of radical changes in both the functions of language and in Foucault's analytical methods. Drawing on Foucault's "Quadrilateral of Language", his anthropological quadrilateral, and our spatialized conception of his genealogical methods, we critique advanced nursing practice (APN) discourse and invite others to inquire into nursing phenomena with spatialized thinking.

  4. Stable isotope analysis of archaeological oak charcoal from eastern Anatolia as a marker of mid-Holocene climate change.

    PubMed

    Masi, A; Sadori, L; Baneschi, I; Siani, A M; Zanchetta, G

    2013-01-01

    Comparison between modern trees and archaeological charred wood is an under-explored method to study climate change, which may help to infer past environmental changes. The stable carbon content of deciduous oak charcoals was analysed for five periods covering more than a 1000 years (3350-2000 BC) at the site of Arslantepe, Turkey, together with modern deciduous oak specimens from five rare arboreal patches still present in the area (17-64 km from the site). In studies of past climate change it is difficult to distinguish human-induced changes from independent variations, such as the impact of past populations on the landscape and their relationship with climate changes in the mid-Holocene. Archaeology can evaluate climate signals preserved in fossil plants in light of past human life. This paper will contribute to understanding environmental changes that can be attributed to climate variation and those linked to human activities. We compared (13) C/(12) C of modern and fossil oaks in order to correlate the (13) C-content to environmental features of Arslantepe, both today and between 3350 and 2000 BC. At present, this area is semi-arid. The results show important similarities to palaeoenvironmental records for the rest of the Near East. The climate trend can be divided in three main phases: instability phase from ca. 3200 to 2900 BC; a phase of relative stability (until 2350 BC); and a final increase in aridity. The comparison of Δ(13) C values between fossil and modern plants shows that present climate is more arid than that between the end of the fourth and the whole third millennium BC.

  5. Timescales of spherulite crystallization in obsidian inferred from water concentration profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Jonathan M.; Beck, Pierre; Tuffen, Hugh; Nichols, Alexander R.L.; Dingwell, Donald B.; Martin, Michael C

    2008-06-25

    We determined the kinetics of spherulite growth in obsidians from Krafla volcano, Iceland. We measured water concentration profiles around spherulites in obsidian by synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The distribution of OH? groups surrounding spherulites decreases exponentially away from the spherulite-glass border, reflecting expulsion of water during crystallization of an anhydrous paragenesis (plagioclase + SiO2 + clinopyroxene + magnetite). This pattern is controlled by a balance between the growth rate of the spherulites and the diffusivity of hydrous solute in the rhyolitic melt. We modeled advective and diffusive transport of the water away from the growing spherulites by numerically solving the diffusion equation with a moving boundary. Numerical models fit the natural data best when a small amount of post-growth diffusion is incorporated in the model. Comparisons between models and data constrain the average spherulite growth rates for different temperatures and highlight size-dependent growth among a small population of spherulites.

  6. Provenance studies of Central European Neolithic obsidians using external beam milli-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2014-01-01

    External beam milli-PIXE technique was used for the determination of the elemental concentration ratios in some Prehistoric obsidian tools found in Transylvania, in the Iron Gates region near Danube, as well as on a few relevant geological obsidian samples from Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari, Armenia. As provenance "fingerprints" the Ti to Mn and Rb to Zr ratios were used. The results confirm that the Transylvanian Neolithic samples have a Slovak Tokaj Mountains provenance. For Iron Gates samples, there are at least two different geological sources: for Late Neolithic tools, the origin is also the Slovak Tokaj Mountains but for Late Mesolithic-Early Neolithic samples, the sources are clearly different, possibly of the Hungarian Tokaj Mountains or the Balkan-Aegean origin.

  7. Fingerprints in the Great Basin: The Nellis Air Force Base Regional Obsidian Sourcing Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the Obsidian Butte, Goldfield Hills- analyzing enough samples to establish or refine Stonewall Flat, Sand Springs Valley, and source standards for...field investigations were used to establish or The purpose of this chapter is to provide refine source standards for 15 geochemical va- researchers...USGS geologists Tuff, allowing them to refine interpretations of from the Comendite of Split Ridge (Figure 3.5; prehistoric toolstone procurement

  8. Precise characterization of Guatemalan obsidian sources, and source determination of artifacts from Quirigua

    SciTech Connect

    Stross, F.H.; Sheets, P.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.

    1983-01-01

    For the determination of provenience of obsidian artifacts, precise and accurate measurements of composition patterns of the geologic sources are necessary for definitive and cost-effective assignments. Inter-comparison of data from different laboratories is often difficult. Suggestions for maximizing the usefulness of data already in the literature are made, contributions to a useful data bank of source composition patterns are recorded, and provenience determinations of 30 artifacts excavated in Quirigua, Guatemala are presented to exemplify the technique.

  9. Melt fracturing and healing: A mechanism for degassing and origin of silicic obsidian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrera, A.; Weinberg, R.F.; Wright, H.M.N.; Zlotnik, S.; Cas, Ray A.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present water content transects across a healed fault in pyroclastic obsidian from Lami pumice cone, Lipari, Italy, using synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that rhyolite melt degassed through the fault surface. Transects define a trough of low water content coincident with the fault trace, surrounded on either side by high-water-content plateaus. Plateaus indicate that obsidian on either side of the fault equilibrated at different pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions before being juxtaposed. The curves into the troughs indicate disequilibrium and water loss through diffusion. If we assume constant T, melt equilibrated at pressures differing by 0.74 MPa before juxtaposition, and the fault acted as a low-P permeable path for H2O that diffused from the glass within time scales of 10 and 30 min. Assuming constant P instead, melt on either side could have equilibrated at temperatures differing by as much as 100 ??C, before being brought together. Water content on the fault trace is particularly sensitive to post-healing diffusion. Its preserved value indicates either higher temperature or lower pressure than the surroundings, indicative of shear heating and dynamic decompression. Our results reveal that water contents of obsidian on either side of the faults equilibrated under different P-T conditions and were out of equilibrium with each other when they were juxtaposed due to faulting immediately before the system was quenched. Degassing due to faulting could be linked to cyclical seismic activity and general degassing during silicic volcanic activity, and could be an efficient mechanism of producing low-water-content obsidian. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  10. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  11. Buried archaeological structures detection using MIVIS hyperspectral airborne data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merola, P.; Allegrini, A.; Guglietta, D.; Sampieri, S.

    2006-08-01

    The identification of buried archaeological structures, using remote sensing technologies (aerophotos or satellite and airborne images) is based on the analysis of surface spectral features changes that overlying underground terrain units, located on the basis of texture variations, humidity and vegetation cover. The study of these anomalies on MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) hyperspectral data is the main goal of a research project that the CNR-IIA has carried on over different archaeological test sites. The major archaeological information were gathered by data analysis in the VIS and NIR spectral region and by use of the apparent thermal inertia image and their different vegetation index.

  12. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

  13. Archaeology and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    MEETING REPORT The interaction between archaeology and astronomy has a long, tangled and not entirely creditable history, marred by misunderstandings on both sides. But statistics and cultural awareness are bringing a better picture of how and why lasting monuments such as Stonehenge were built. Sue Bowler reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Prehistoric Society, held at Jodrell Bank on 17 July 2009.

  14. A provenance study of iron archaeological artefacts by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry multi-elemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Mariet, Clarisse; Dillmann, Philippe; Joron, Jean Louis; Fluzin, Philippe

    2008-11-01

    Raw materials and wastes (i.e. ore, slag and laitier) from ironmaking archaeological sites have been analyzed in order to understand the behavior of the trace elements in the ancient ironmaking processes and to find the significant-most elements to characterize an iron making region. The ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) appears to be an excellent technique for this type of studies. The comparison between the ICP-MS results obtained with the Standard Addition method and the INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses) results proved that Sc, Co, (Ni), Rb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Hf, Th, U contents in the ores, slag and laitiers, and Co and Ni contents in the cast iron can be successfully determined by ICP-MS after wet acid digestion (low detection limits, good sensitivity and precision). By using significant trace element pairs (Yb/Ce, Ce/Th, La/Sc, U/Th, Nb/Y) present in the ores, laitiers and slag, it is possible to discriminate different French ironmaking regions as the Pays de Bray, Lorraine and Pays d'Ouche. These results open the way to further studies on the provenance of iron objects. The comparison between the ICP-MS results obtained with the Standard Calibration Curves method and the INAA results shows that matrices rich in iron, affect the ICP-MS analyses by suppressing the analytes signal. Further studies are necessary to improve understanding matrix effects.

  15. Analysis of Red Pigments from the Neolithic sites of Çatalhöyük in Turkey and Sheikh-e Abad in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Emma; Almond, Matthew J.; Matthews, Wendy; Cinque, Gianfelice; Frogley, Mark D.

    2014-10-01

    Samples containing red pigment have been collected from two different archaeological sites dating to the Neolithic (Çatalhöyük in Turkey and Sheikh-e Abad in Iran) and have been analysed by a range of techniques. Sub-samples were examined by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, whilst thin sections were studied using optical polarising microscopy, synchrotron based IR microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Thin layers of red paint in a wall painting from Çatalhöyük were found to contain ochre (hematite and clay) as well as an unexpected component, grains of red and colourless obsidian, which have not been identified in any previous studies of the wall paintings at Çatalhöyük. These small grains of obsidian may have improved the reflective properties of the paint and made the artwork more vivid in the darkness of the buildings. Analysis of a roughly shaped ball of red sediment found on a possible working surface at Sheikh-e Abad revealed that the cause of the red colouring was the mineral hematite, which was probably from a source of terra rossa sediment in the local area. The results of this work suggest it is unlikely that this had been altered by the Neolithic people through mixing with other minerals.

  16. Analysis of Red Pigments from the Neolithic sites of Çatalhöyük in Turkey and Sheikh-e Abad in Iran.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emma; Almond, Matthew J; Matthews, Wendy; Cinque, Gianfelice; Frogley, Mark D

    2014-10-15

    Samples containing red pigment have been collected from two different archaeological sites dating to the Neolithic (Çatalhöyük in Turkey and Sheikh-e Abad in Iran) and have been analysed by a range of techniques. Sub-samples were examined by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, whilst thin sections were studied using optical polarising microscopy, synchrotron based IR microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Thin layers of red paint in a wall painting from Çatalhöyük were found to contain ochre (hematite and clay) as well as an unexpected component, grains of red and colourless obsidian, which have not been identified in any previous studies of the wall paintings at Çatalhöyük. These small grains of obsidian may have improved the reflective properties of the paint and made the artwork more vivid in the darkness of the buildings. Analysis of a roughly shaped ball of red sediment found on a possible working surface at Sheikh-e Abad revealed that the cause of the red colouring was the mineral hematite, which was probably from a source of terra rossa sediment in the local area. The results of this work suggest it is unlikely that this had been altered by the Neolithic people through mixing with other minerals.

  17. Petrology and emplacement dynamics of the intrusive and extrusive rhyolites of Obsidian Dome Inyo Craters volcanic chain, eastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Schuraytz, B.C.; Eichelberger, J.C.; Stockman, H.W.; Westrich, H.R.; Younker, L.W.; Horkowitz, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Drilling at Obsidian Dome has provided continuous core samples of the distal and proximal portions of Obsidian Dome, its conduit, and an associated feeder dike. Both the dome and conduit are chemically and mineralogically zoned and consist of a finely porphyritic, high-Ba, low-silica rhyolite occurring in the basal portion of the dome and margins of the conduit and a finely porphyritic, low-Ba, higher silica rhyolite in the upper portion of the dome and center of the conduit. The high-Ba rhyolite contains two distinct phenocrysts assemblages with two distinct compositions, and represents mingled magmas. The low-Ba rhyolite in the dome and conduit contains significantly fewer disequilibrium phenocrysts and is only slightly mingled. The dike, sampled at 600 m depth, as well as a related tephra fall from Obsidian Dome vent, are entirely low-Ba rhyolite that contain no evidence of magma mingling. End members of the mingled magma, calculated using two different methods, are a 63 percent silica end member, and a silicic end member identical in composition to the dike and tephra fall from Obsidian Dome vent. This silicic end member was the first magma emplaced in the dike, and comprised much or all of the first magma vented to the surface during formation of the Obsidian Dome vent when eruption rates were high. Magma mingling of mafic and rhyolite magmas occurred during formation of the conduit. 59 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Obsidian in the Casas Grandes world: Procurement, exchange, and interaction in Chihuahua, Mexico, CE 1200-1450

    DOE PAGES

    Dolan, Sean Gregory; Whalen, Michael E.; Minnis, Paul E.; ...

    2017-01-09

    The Casas Grandes area in Chihuahua, Mexico and the site of Paquime was the center of one the largest regional systems in the U.S. Southwest and Mexican Northwest (SW/NW) during the Medio period (CE 1200-1450). People participated in local and distant exchange networks with groups in the SW/NW, Mesoamerica, and West Mexico. Our knowledge of which obsidian sources people used in Casas Grandes is limited, despite how obsidian could have derived from many different places. We examine how the use of specific obsidian sources may relate to broader political and economic relationships within the Casas Grandes regional system and itsmore » association with the Mimbres and Animas regions of the SW/NW. We sourced 116 artifacts using EDXRF spectrometry from four sites that neighbor Paquime. Results demonstrate people used obsidian from Chihuahua, Sonora, and New Mexico. Furthermore, there were varying levels of social interaction and regional integration because there is diversity in source use at the site level, and Casas Grandes were more connected to the Animas region than Mimbres regarding obsidian resource procurement.« less

  19. Study of Syrian archaeological pottery by the combined application of thermoluminescence (TL) dating, X-ray fluorescence analysis and statistical multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakraji, E. H.

    2011-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence method and the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dating have been utilized for the study of archaeological pottery fragment samples, fairly representative of the Romanian period between 1st century B.C. and 4th century A.D., from Judaidet Yabous site, which is located north-west of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were chosen randomly among the 46 samples for dating using thermoluminescence technique and the results were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. The samples were irradiated for 1000 s live time twice, first using a Mo X-ray Tube and second using a 109Cd radioactive source. Fifteen elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Pb) were determined. The elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods. The purpose of the study was to characterize by means of element contents of the pottery paste from the Judaidet Yabous archaeological site and to provide new data to the Syrian databases for future studies. From an archaeological point of view the results indicated that most of the potteries were locally produced.

  20. "If We Just Knew Who Should Do It", or the Social Organization of the Archiving of Archaeology in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvila, Isto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper analyses the work practices and perspectives of professionals working with archaeological archives and the social organization of archaeological archiving and information management in Sweden. Method: The paper is based on an interview study of Swedish actors in the field of archaeological archiving (N = 16). Analysis: The…

  1. Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Gibson, Robert A; Green, Stefan J; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T J; Shields, John P; Damsté, Jaap S S; Elkins, James G

    2013-03-01

    A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated OPF15(T) was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The phylogeny of 16S rRNA and functional genes (dsrAB) placed the organism within the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. The organism displayed hyperthermophilic temperature requirements for growth with a range of 70-90 °C and an optimum of 83 °C. Optimal pH was around 6.5-7.0 and the organism required the presence of H2 or formate as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. Electron acceptors supporting growth included sulfate, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur. Lactate, acetate, pyruvate, benzoate, oleic acid, and ethanol did not serve as electron donors. Membrane lipid analysis revealed diacyl glycerols and acyl/ether glycerols which ranged from C14:0 to C20:0. Alkyl chains present in acyl/ether and diether glycerol lipids ranged from C16:0 to C18:0. Straight, iso- and anteiso-configurations were found for all lipid types. The presence of OPF15(T) was also shown to increase cellulose consumption during co-cultivation with Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, a fermentative, cellulolytic extreme thermophile isolated from the same environment. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic, and structural analyses, Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov. is proposed as a new species with OPF15(T) representing the type strain.

  2. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Mosher, Jennifer J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Carroll, Sue; Allman, Steve; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2010-02-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47(T), was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY. The isolate was a nonmotile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 microm long by 0.2 microm wide and grew at temperatures between 55 and 85 degrees C, with the optimum at 78 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 6.0 to 8.0, with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rate at 0.75 h(-1). The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass, and Populus. OB47(T) was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbitol, carboxymethylcellulose, and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth, and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2, although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5-liter batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol%, and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene placed OB47(T) within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47 is the type strain (ATCC BAA-2073).

  3. Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Gibson, Robert A.; Green, Stefan J.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Shields, John P.; Damsté, Jaap S. S.; Elkins, James G.

    2013-01-24

    A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated OPF15T was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The phylogeny of 16S rRNA and functional genes (dsrAB) placed the organism within the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. The organism displayed hyperthermophilic temperature requirements for growth with a range of 70 90 C and an optimum of 83 C. Optimal pH was around 6.5 7.0 and the organism required the presence of H2 or formate as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. Electron acceptors supporting growth included sulfate, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur. Lactate, acetate, pyruvate, benzoate, oleic acid, and ethanol did not serve as electron donors. Membrane lipid analysis revealed diacyl glycerols and acyl/ether glycerols which ranged from C14:0 to C20:0. Alkyl chains present in acyl/ether and diether glycerol lipids ranged from C16:0 to C18:0. Straight, iso- and anteiso-configurations were found for all lipid types. The presence of OPF15T was also shown to increase cellulose consumption during co-cultivation with Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, a fermentative, cellulolytic extreme thermophile isolated from the same environment. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic, and structural analyses, Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov. is proposed as a new species with OPF15T representing the type strain.

  4. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Elkins, James G; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Keller, Martin; Carroll, Sue L; Allman, Steve L; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA. The isolate was a non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 m long by 0.2 m wide and grew at temperatures between 55-85oC with the optimum at 78oC. The pH range for growth was 6.0-8.0 with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rates at 0.75 hr-1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbital, carboxymethylcellulose and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2 although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5 l batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol% and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47T is the type stain (ATCC = ____, JCM = ____).

  5. Method for Identifying Probable Archaeological Sites from Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Comer, Douglas C.; Priebe, Carey E.; Sussman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological sites are being compromised or destroyed at a catastrophic rate in most regions of the world. The best solution to this problem is for archaeologists to find and study these sites before they are compromised or destroyed. One way to facilitate the necessary rapid, wide area surveys needed to find these archaeological sites is through the generation of maps of probable archaeological sites from remotely sensed data. We describe an approach for identifying probable locations of archaeological sites over a wide area based on detecting subtle anomalies in vegetative cover through a statistically based analysis of remotely sensed data from multiple sources. We further developed this approach under a recent NASA ROSES Space Archaeology Program project. Under this project we refined and elaborated this statistical analysis to compensate for potential slight miss-registrations between the remote sensing data sources and the archaeological site location data. We also explored data quantization approaches (required by the statistical analysis approach), and we identified a superior data quantization approached based on a unique image segmentation approach. In our presentation we will summarize our refined approach and demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach with test data from Santa Catalina Island off the southern California coast. Finally, we discuss our future plans for further improving our approach.

  6. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana,"…

  7. High-resolution sclerochronological analysis of the bivalve mollusk Saxidomus gigantea from Alaska and British Columbia: techniques for revealing environmental archives and archaeological seasonality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallman, Nadine; Burchell, Meghan; Schone, Bernd R.; Irvine, Gail V.; Maxwell, David

    2009-01-01

    The butter clam, Saxidomus gigantea, is one of the most commonly recovered bivalves from archaeological shell middens on the Pacific Coast of North America. This study presents the results of the sclerochronology of modern specimens of S. gigantea, collected monthly from Pender Island (British Columbia), and additional modern specimens from the Dundas Islands (BC) and Mink and Little Takli Islands (Alaska). The methods presented can be used as a template to interpret local environmental conditions and increase the precision of seasonality estimates in shellfish using sclerochronology and oxygen isotope analysis. This method can also identify, with a high degree of accuracy, the date of shell collection to the nearest fortnightly cycle, the time of day the shell was collected and the approximate tidal elevation (i.e., approx. water depth and distance from the shoreline) from which the shell was collected. Life-history traits of S. gigantea were analyzed to understand the timing of growth line formation, the duration of the growing season, the growth rate, and the reliability of annual increments. We also examine the influence of the tidal regime and freshwater mixing in estuarine locations and how these variables can affect both incremental structures and oxygen isotope values. The results of the sclerochronological analysis show that there is a latitudinal trend in shell growth that needs to be considered when using shells for seasonality studies. Oxygen isotope analysis reveals clear annual cycles with the most positive values corresponding to the annual winter growth lines, and the most negative values corresponding to high temperatures during the summer. Intra-annual increment widths demonstrate clear seasonal oscillations with broadest increments in summer and very narrow increments or no growth during the winter months. This study provides new insights into the biology, geochemistry and seasonal growth of S. gigantea, which are crucial for paleoclimate

  8. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  9. Using airborne LiDAR in geoarchaeological contexts: Assessment of an automatic tool for the detection and the morphometric analysis of grazing archaeological structures (French Massif Central).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Florez, Marta; Vautier, Franck; Dousteyssier, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) of archaeological regions of interest is nowadays a widely used and established method for accurate topographic and microtopographic survey. The penetration of the vegetation cover by the laser beam allows the reconstruction of reliable digital terrain models (DTM) of forested areas where traditional prospection methods are inefficient, time-consuming and non-exhaustive. The ALS technology provides the opportunity to discover new archaeological features hidden by vegetation and provides a comprehensive survey of cultural heritage sites within their environmental context. However, the post-processing of LiDAR points clouds produces a huge quantity of data in which relevant archaeological features are not easily detectable with common visualizing and analysing tools. Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need for automation of structures detection and morphometric extraction techniques, especially for the "archaeological desert" in densely forested areas. This presentation deals with the development of automatic detection procedures applied to archaeological structures located in the French Massif Central, in the western forested part of the Puy-de-Dôme volcano between 950 and 1100 m a.s.l.. These unknown archaeological sites were discovered by the March 2011 ALS mission and display a high density of subcircular depressions with a corridor access. The spatial organization of these depressions vary from isolated to aggregated or aligned features. Functionally, they appear to be former grazing constructions built from the medieval to the modern period. Similar grazing structures are known in other locations of the French Massif Central (Sancy, Artense, Cézallier) where the ground is vegetation-free. In order to develop a reliable process of automatic detection and mapping of these archaeological structures, a learning zone has been delineated within the ALS surveyed area. The grazing features were mapped and typical morphometric attributes

  10. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  11. Michael Faraday's Contributions to Archaeological Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Moshenska, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of ancient artefacts is a long but largely neglected thread within the histories of archaeology and chemistry. This paper examines Michael Faraday's contributions to this nascent field, drawing on his published correspondence and the works of his antiquarian collaborators, and focusing in particular on his analyses of Romano-British and ancient Egyptian artefacts. Faraday examined the materials used in ancient Egyptian mummification, and provided the first proof of the use of lead glazes on Roman ceramics. Beginning with an assessment of Faraday's personal interests and early work on antiquities with Humphry Davy, this paper critically examines the historiography of archaeological chemistry and attempts to place Faraday's work within its institutional, intellectual, and economic contexts.

  12. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  13. Rates of water exsolution and magma ascent inferred from microstructures and chemical analyses of the Tokachi-Ishizawa obsidian lava, Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Kyohei; Wada, Keiji; Sato, Eiichi

    2015-02-01

    Very few quantitative textural data exist for viscous obsidian lava eruptions, and it is still unclear from the mechanical behavior of ascending magmas if outgassing is controlled dominantly by brittle or ductile deformation. In order to obtain insights into how degassing and ascent proceed in such highly viscous magmas, we conducted textural and chemical analyses of the Tokachi-Ishizawa (TI) obsidian lava, in the Shirataki rhyolite volcanic area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, and estimated the water exsolution rate and ascent rate. The storage conditions of the TI lava are estimated from the Rhyolite-MELTS program as T = 840-860 °C and P = 50 MPa using the mineral assemblages and the chemical compositions of plagioclase phenocrysts and glass. To estimate the magma ascent rate, we measured the length, width, and number of oxide microlites using three-dimensional techniques. Textural analysis indicates that the microlite number densities (Nv [number/m3]) of oxide microlites in TI lava samples are 2.1 × 1013 to 1.4 × 1014, which correspond to water exsolution rates of 3.5 × 10- 9 to 1.7 × 10- 8 wt.%/s and ascent rates of 1.7 × 10- 6 to 1.1 × 10- 5 m/s. Together with an estimate of viscosity, the inferred ascent velocities allow us to examine the mechanical behavior of the magma in the conduit. We conclude that the development of permeability leading to outgassing is controlled by ductile deformation rather than brittle fracturing.

  14. The Foote House (10-AA-96), An Historic Archaeological Complex in the Boise River Canyon, Idaho.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    There were again few associated artifacts, most of them being cut nails or glass fragments, but there was a " scatter of small chert, obsidian , and...location was identified by the obsidian debitage, mollusc shells, basalt chopper, and rich mollic soil eroding from the gulch bank just above the... obsidian 67 q68 and chert debitage and tools, fragmentary and whole projectile points (including one 8 cm long obliquely flaked stemmed obsidian

  15. 75 FR 68377 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... known individuals were identified. The 555 associated funerary objects are 8 obsidian tools, 183 obsidian flakes, 30 chert flakes, 4 basalt flakes, 1 basalt tool, 317 non-human bone fragments, 1 abalone... funerary objects are 20 obsidian tools, 1 chert tool, 3 groundstones, 2 steatite beads, 1 abalone...

  16. The Use of Neutron Technology in Archaeological and Cultural HeritageResearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creagh, Dudley

    Nations define themselves by their history and their customs. Their history is determined by both archaeological and archival evidence. The continuing development of a national culture is essential for the formation of a national identity. Both archaeological sites and cultural heritage artifacts are important to many nations because of income earned through tourism. This chapter discusses the use of neutron technology, one of a number of possible technologies, in the study of archaeological and cultural heritage artifacts. In particular descriptions of Neutron Activation Analysis, Neutron Diffraction, and Neutron Imaging Techniques will be given, and selected applications of these techniques to archaeology and cultural heritage artifacts will be given.

  17. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  18. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  19. Spherulites Record Crystallization, Degassing, and Oxidation-reduction Mechanisms in Obsidian Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Beck, P.; Cottrell, E.; Tuffen, H.

    2007-12-01

    Insight into the formation conditions of obsidian lavas may be gained from studying crystals that grow in their interiors during eruption and cooling. We analyzed spherulites in an emergent obsidian dike from Hrafntinnuhryggur, near Krafla volcano, Iceland, in order to quantify their crystallization rates, the relations between spherulites and lithophysae, and how the growth of spherulites may affect the oxidation state of the magma. We measured water concentration profiles around spherulites in rhyolitic obsidian with synchotron Fourier Infrared spectroscopy. The concentration of OH- groups in the glass is elevated by up to 50% above the background level near the spherulite-glass border, and decreases radially away from the spherulite. This pattern reflects expulsion and diffusion of water away from the spherulites as they crystallized an anhydrous assemblage of albite+magnetite+quartz. We modeled the advective and diffusive transport of the water away from the growing spherulites by numerically solving the diffusion equation with a moving boundary. Numerical models fit the natural data best when a small amount (~10%) of post-growth diffusion is incorporated in the model. Comparisons between models and natural data constrain the spherulite growth rate to between approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mm/day for model eruption temperatures of 800 and 850°C. The expulsion of water during spherulite growth may affect the oxidation state of the melt, specifically by causing local reduction of melt adjacent to the spherulite. Optical evidence of this reduction includes clear glass zones enclosing the spherulites; outside of these halos the glass is uniformly brown. Near-infrared spectra and Micro- XANES measurements of the Fe3+/Fe-total ratio in these different color zones confirms that there is an enrichment of ferrous iron in the colorless glass adjacent to the spherulite. We suggest that reduction is driven by the release of water during growth of anhydrous minerals however the

  20. High-Resolution Synchrotron-Source FTIR measurements of hydration rinds on volcanic glasses as applied to archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. E.; Watkins, J. M.; Renne, P. R.; Manga, M.; Shackley, M.; Martin, M. C.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution synchrotron-source Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) data on hydration rinds of obsidian clasts from sedimentary hosts are presented. Since SR-FTIR spectroscopy is a nondestructive technique, we use overlapping steps to obtain high spatial resolutions (1-3 microns). Variations in H2O and OH concentrations are represented by profiles of absorbance peaks at wavenumbers of ~1630 cm-1 and ~3570 cm-1, respectively. The spatial pattern of these inferred uptake profiles suggest a diffusion mechanism over the outermost 20-40 microns of the clast edge. In addition, intensity ratios of the two peaks vary systematically across hydrations rinds but are relatively constant in the interior of each sample. These measurements are relevant for archaeological applications in several ways. First, the lengthscales over which water concentrations vary do not coincide with visible hydration rind thicknesses. This is consistent with results from SIMS analyses by Anovitz et al. (1999) and suggests that diffusion of atmospheric water vapor into obsidian is not solely responsible for the growth of visible hydration rinds (c.f. Friedman et al 1997, and Stevenson et al. 1998). Second, when combined with independently obtained age data from archaeological sites, the data collected here should allow us to extend the temperature-dependent diffusivity of water in rhyolitic glasses to ambient surface conditions. Third, future work will seek to correlate these findings with cation mobility, particularly of K, which has proven to compromise the K-Ar system for dating in the case of glass shards with high surface area-to-volume ratios. Moreover, water speciation data via FTIR as well as D/H isotopic analyses via SIMS techniques should allow us to distinguish between meteoric water and water from a magmatic or hydrothermal source.

  1. Assessing automated image analysis of sand grain shape to identify sedimentary facies, Gran Dolina archaeological site (Burgos, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campaña, I.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Pérez-González, A.; Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Carbonell, E.

    2016-12-01

    Gran Dolina is a cave (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) infilled by a 25 m thick sedimentary record, divided into 12 lithostratigraphic units that have been separated into 19 sedimentary facies containing Early and Middle Pleistocene hominin remains. In this paper, an automated image analysis method has been used to study the shape of the sedimentary particles. Since particle shape is interpreted as the result of sedimentary transport and sediment source, this study can provide valuable data about the sedimentological mechanism of sequence formation. The shape of the sand fraction in 73 samples from Gran Dolina site and Sierra de Atapuerca was analyzed using the Malvern Morphologi G3, an advanced particle characterization tool. In this first complete test, we used this method to the published sequence of Gran Dolina, defined previously through field work observations and geochemical and textural analysis. The results indicate that this image analysis method allows differentiation of the sedimentary facies, providing objective tools to identify weathered layers and measure the textural maturity of the sediments. Channel facies have the highest values of circularity and convexity, showing the highest textural maturity of particles. On the other hand, terra rossa and debris flow samples show similar values, with the lowest particle maturity.

  2. Archaeology as anthropology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönnby, Johan

    2007-12-01

    The interaction between humans and the maritime coastal landscape must be one of the central theoretical questions for maritime archaeology. How should an academic discipline, which is defined by its studies in a certain physical milieu, avoid the trap of environmental determinism and still be able to argue for the special influence of the maritime factor? And how should this long-term relation to the sea be interpreted and described? In this article, based mainly on material from the central Swedish Baltic Sea coast, three examples of long-term structures regarding the relationship between people and the sea are discussed. The structures, here called “maritime durees”, which almost all coastal habitants in the analyzed area seem to have had in common are linked to: exploitation of marine resources, communication over water and the mental presence of the sea. In conclusion the actual meaning of these long-term structures for everyday life and for cultural and social change are discussed in comparison to more short term structures: the changing historical circumstances and possibilities for people to choose different strategies.

  3. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  4. Diffusion-controlled spherulite growth in obsidian inferred from H2O concentration profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jim; Watkins, Jim; Manga, Michael; Huber, Christian; Martin, Michael C.

    2007-11-02

    Spherulites are spherical clusters of radiating crystals that occur naturally in rhyolitic obsidian. The growth of spherulites requires diffusion and uptake of crystal forming components from the host rhyolite melt or glass, and rejection of non-crystal forming components from the crystallizing region. Water concentration profiles measured by synchrotron-source Fourier transform spectroscopy reveal that water is expelled into the surrounding matrix during spherulite growth, and that it diffuses outward ahead of the advancing crystalline front. We compare these profiles to models of water diffusion in rhyolite to estimate timescales for spherulite growth. Using a diffusion-controlled growth law, we find that spherulites can grow on the order of days to months at temperatures above the glass transition. The diffusion-controlled growth law also accounts for spherulite size distribution, spherulite growth below the glass transition, and why spherulitic glasses are not completely devitrified.

  5. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  6. Archaeology as a social science.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.

  7. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  8. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  9. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  10. Discovery Learning in Landscape Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Colm; Wheeler, Hazel

    1979-01-01

    A method of discovery learning in which students learn the technique of observing and formulating questions is applied to landscape archaeology. This method demands that the relationship between tutor and student be adjusted so that the tutor becomes a fellow researcher rather than a conveyor of information. (Author/CSS)

  11. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  12. Archaeological Evidence for Abrupt Cimate Change: Results from Satellite Imagery Analysis and Subsequent Ground-Truthing in the El-Manzalah Region, Northeast Egyptian Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcak, S. H.

    2003-12-01

    through time since it is particularly sensitive to river changes, coastal expansion, and changes within the floral and faunal resource base available to settlements through time. In order to locate ancient settlements in the northeast delta, this study introduced a variety of innovative techniques involving satellite image analysis through Corona, Spot, Landsat and ASTER images, in conjunction with existing archaeological survey data and maps. All known sites were plotted against the satellite imagery data, in order to ascertain whether the newly designed site identification methods worked. The technique had a 95 percent success rate in locating over 100 previously known sites. This technique was next applied to locate new sites and sites believed to be destroyed. In order to verify the accuracy of this new site locational technique, this writer conducted ground-truthing during the summer of 2003, assessing and photographing over 60 new and little known sites in the East Delta. The surface pottery from each site was examined and photographed, and revealed settlements dating to the Old Kingdom, Late Period and Roman Periods. Each known and newly-discovered settlement will be plotted on maps of the eastern Delta, in order to show site disbursement during the time periods represented, especially in relation to geziras, rivers, canals, marshes and the ancient coastline. The paper demonstrates the affects that abrupt climatic changes had on ancient settlement patterns, and reveals how satellite imagery interpretation is applicable to similar studies in other regions.

  13. Different types of traumatic lesions on mediaeval skeletons from archaeological sites in Varese (North Italy): diagnosis on ante mortal fractures using macroscopic, radiological and CT analysis.

    PubMed

    Licata, Marta; Ronga, Mario; Cherubino, Paolo; Armocida, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    This is the medical history of three skeletons from archaeological sites in the province of Varese that are interesting because they show signs of traumatic injury to the skull and postcranial skeleton. Fractures of two of the skeletons were analysed by CT scan and radiological investigations to understand the extent of the damage and to hypothesise the cause. The study of lesions on ancient human remains is important to understand the degree of interpersonal violence within ancient communities and to reconstruct the dynamics of a violent episode.

  14. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    methods. The use and implementation of different non-intrusive methodologies of analysis to detect the presence of buried evidences in the subsoil (that involves also topographical survey, aerial photographs acquisition and analysis, field walking survey), together with the careful survey of the unburied structures, brings to the following results (still in progress): the detection of the main areas containing buried archaeological remains, in order to help the local authorities establish a strategy for acquisition of the fields and plan archaeological excavations; a convincing reconstruction of the historical phases of the area occupied by the basilica; the education of young students and researchers (in 2009 the site began a field school of the Specialization School in Archaeology at Bologna University); the improvement of strategies of international cooperation and networking and the development of shared protocols for archaeological documentation and communication.

  15. An integrated approach to teaching Aegean archaeology and archaeological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcairn, Erica Glenn

    Outlined here is a course that would serve as an introduction to archaeological science, specifically within the context of Aegean Prehistory. The main objective of this course is to expose students early in their archaeological careers to a variety of methods and questions, and to depart from the culture-historical perspective that typifies introductory survey courses. The class structure is equal parts lecture and discussion, moving between learning how the methods work and evaluating case studies. All graded assignments build on one another, guiding the students through designing their own research project. The ultimate goals of the assignments are to build key writing and professional skills, develop a basic understanding of research design, and to instill confidence that the student can contribute to the production of knowledge, whatever field he or she decides to pursue.

  16. Large Scale Archaeological Satellite Classification and Data Mining Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canham, Kelly

    Archaeological applications routinely use many different forms of remote sensing imagery, the exception being hyperspectral imagery (HSI). HSI tends to be utilized in a similar fashion as multispectral imagery (MSI) or processed to the point that it can be utilized similarly to MSI, thus reducing the benefits of HSI. However, for large scale archaeological surveys, HSI data can be used to differentiate materials more accurately than MSI because of HSI's larger number of spectral bands. HSI also has the ability to identify multiple materials found within a single pixel (sub-pixel material mixing), which is traditionally not possible with MSI. The Zapotec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, lived in an environment that isolates the individual settlements by rugged mountain ranges and dramatically different ecosystems. The rugged mountains of Oaxaca make large scale ground based archaeological surveys expensive in terms of both time and money. The diverse ecosystems of Oaxaca make multispectral satellite imagery inadequate for local material identification. For these reasons hyperspectral imagery was collected over Oaxaca, Mexico. Using HSI, investigations were conducted into how the Zapotec statehood was impacted by the environment, and conversely, how the environment impacted the statehood. Emphasis in this research is placed on identifying the number of pure materials present in the imagery, what these materials are, and identifying archaeological regions of interest using image processing techniques. The HSI processing techniques applied include a new spatially adaptive spectral unmixing approach (LoGlo) to identify pure materials across broad regions of Oaxaca, vegetation indices analysis, and spectral change detection algorithms. Verification of identified archaeological sites is completed using Geospatial Information System (GIS) tools, ground truth data, and high-resolution satellite MSI. GIS tools are also used to analyze spatial trends in lost archaeological sites due

  17. Portable Raman, DRIFTS, and XRF Analysis to Diagnose the Conservation State of Two Wall Painting Panels from Pompeii Deposited in the Naples National Archaeological Museum (Italy).

    PubMed

    Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Maguregui, Maite; Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a methodology that combines spectroscopic speciation, performed through portable Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF) working in situ, and thermodynamic speciation to diagnose the environmental impacts, induced by past and current events, on two wall painting panels (Nos. 9103 and 9255) extracted more than 150 years ago from the walls of a Pompeian house (Marcus Lucretius House, Regio IX, Insula 3, House 5/24) and deposited in the Naples National Archaeological Museum (MANN). The results show a severe chemical attack of the acid gases that can be explained only by the action of H2S during and just after the eruption of the Vesuvius volcano, that expelled a high concentration of sulfur gases. This fact can be considered as the most important process impacting the wall painting panels deposited in the museum, while the rain-wash processes and the colonization of microorganisms have not been observed in contrast to the impacts shown by the wall paintings left outside in the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the systematic presence of lead traces and strontium in both wall paintings suggests their presence as impurities of the calcite mortars (intonacco) or calcite binder of these particular fresco Pompeian murals.

  18. Preliminary Tl And Osl Investigation Of A Naturally And Artificially Irradiated Obsidian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polymeris, G. S.; Gogou, D.; Afouxenidis, D.; Rapti, S.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Kitis, G.

    Obsidian is a volcaniclastic mineral extremely hard to break, which was used in prehistoric Greece (and elsewhere in the World), in order to provide tools, weapons, knives and arrowheads. The present work aims to characterize this extremely precious tool stone by using both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques and investigate its potential use for luminescence dating purposes. Basic TL and OSL properties, such as TL and OSL thermal and optical stability, repeatability, TL and LM-OSL glow curve shape and mainly the linearity of the TL and OSL signals as a function of beta dose were investigated. Artificially irradiated samples indicate all promising luminescence features, such as the 110 oC TL peak and dose response sub-linearity for intermediate doses, quick and effective bleaching all over the entire TL glow curve, along with quite linear CW-OSL dose response for doses larger than 5 Gy. The lack of predose sensitisation indicates the suitability of the material for single aliquot measurements. Furthermore, several features provide indications that the signal does not relate to quartz, but in fact to other silicates. Unfortunately, both lack of bleaching ability for NTL signal, along with a peculiar shape of NOSL, provide major difficulties in dating applications.

  19. Magnetic petrofabric of igneous rocks: Lessons from pyroclastic density current deposits and obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañón-Tapia, E.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of igneous rocks can provide clues concerning their mechanism of formation and in particular are very helpful as flow direction indicators. Unlike other igneous rocks, however, pyroclastic density current deposits (PDCDs) present a challenge in the interpretation of AMS measurements due to the complexity of their mechanism of emplacement. In this paper we review the most common assumptions made in the interpretation of the AMS of PDCD, taking advantage of key lessons obtained from obsidians. Despite the complexities on the mechanism of formation of PDCDs, it is shown that a key element for the fruitful interpretation of AMS is to give proper attention to the various components likely to be involved in controlling their general petrofabric. The anisotropies of ferromagnetic crystals (whether as free phases or embedded within clasts or shards), and those of paramagnetic minerals (mainly ferrosilicates) need to be taken into consideration when interpreting the AMS measurements of PDCDs. Variations of the deposition regime both as a function of position and of time also need to be considered on the interpretations. Nevertheless, if a suitable sampling strategy is adopted, the potential of the AMS method as a petrofabric indicator is maximized.

  20. Obsidians and tektites: Natural analogues for water diffusion in nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Stevenson, C.M.

    1991-11-01

    Projected scenarios for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository include significant periods of time when high relative humidity atmospheres will be present, thus the reaction processes of interest will include those known to occur under these conditions. The ideal natural analog for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository would consist of natural borosilicate glasses exposed to expected repository conditions for thousands of years; however, the prospects for identifying such an analog are remote, but an important caveat for using natural analog studies is to relate the reaction processes in the analog to those in the system of interest, rather than a strict comparison of the glass compositions. In lieu of this, identifying natural glasses that have reacted via reaction processes expected in the repository is the most attractive option. The goal of this study is to quantify molecular water diffusion in the natural analogs obsidian and tektites. Results from this study can be used in assessing the importance of factors affecting molecular water diffusion in nuclear waste glasses, relative to other identified reaction processes. In this way, a better understanding of the long-term reaction mechanism can be developed and incorporated into performance assessment models. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  1. 25 CFR 262.8 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 262.8 Section 262.8... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 262.8 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or... unless a claim is stated. (b) No permit for the excavation or removal of archaeological resources...

  2. 25 CFR 262.8 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 262.8 Section 262.8... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 262.8 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or... unless a claim is stated. (b) No permit for the excavation or removal of archaeological resources...

  3. 25 CFR 262.8 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 262.8 Section 262.8... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 262.8 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or... unless a claim is stated. (b) No permit for the excavation or removal of archaeological resources...

  4. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Marco; Sibilia, Emanuela

    2001-06-01

    Crystalline inclusions contained in ceramics act as thermoluminescent dosimeters, the irradiation source being the natural radiation environment. Because of this, various ceramic materials (pottery, bricks, cooked clays, bronze clay-cores) have been dated by thermoluminescence (TL). A short review of the main possibilities of TL dating is given, with some examples that enlighten the advantages and limits of this method in the field of archaeological dating, compared to TL dating of buildings. The assessment of the chronology of Valdivia culture (Ecuador), based on a three-year project of TL dating, is presented and discussed. The overall uncertainty at around 4-5% can be considered the best limit presently available. The uncertainty distribution found among 700 archaeological TL datings and for about 500 building TL datings is also presented.

  5. Archaeology as a social science

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael E.; Feinman, Gary M.; Drennan, Robert D.; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration. PMID:22547811

  6. A chronological framework for a long and persistent archaeological record: Melka Kunture, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Leah E; Renne, Paul R; Kieffer, Guy; Piperno, Marcello; Gallotti, Rosalia; Raynal, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    New (40)Ar/(39)Ar geochronological data for several volcanic ash horizons from Melka Kunture, Ethiopia, allow for significantly more precise age constraints to be placed upon the lithostratigraphy, archaeology and paleontology from this long record. Ashes from the Melka Kunture Formation at Gombore yielded the most reliable age constraints, from 1.393 ± 0.162 Ma(2) (millions of years ago) near the base of the section to 0.709 ± 0.013 Ma near the top. Dating the Garba section proved more problematic, but the base of the section, which contains numerous Oldowan obsidian artifacts, may be >1.719 ± 0.199 Ma, while the top is securely dated to 0.869 ± 0.020 Ma. The large ignimbrite from the Kella Formation at Kella and Melka Garba is dated to 1.262 ± 0.034 Ma and pre-dates Acheulean artifacts in the area. The Gombore II site, which has yielded two Homo skull fragments, 'twisted bifaces,' and a preserved butchery site, is now constrained between 0.875 ± 0.010 Ma and 0.709 ± 0.013 Ma. Additional ashes from these and other sites further constrain the timing of deposition throughout the section. Integration with previously published magnetostratigraphy has allowed for the first time a relatively complete, reliable timeline for the deposition of sediments, environmental changes, archaeology, and paleontology at Melka Kunture.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, David; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus speciesY412MC10 was one of a number of organisms initially isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA. The isolate Y412MC10 was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species and not Geobacillus; the 16S rRNA analysis indicated the organism was a strain of Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome of Paenibacillus lautus strain Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. The Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC{_}013406). Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other Paenibacilli. Over 25% of the proteins predicted by the Y412MC10 genome share no identity with the closest sequenced Paenibacillus species; most of these are predicted hypothetical proteins and their specific function in the environment is unknown.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Mead, David A; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Bruce, David C; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia N; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-07-30

    Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David A.; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Bruce, David C.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff S.; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J.; Chang, Yun-juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10. PMID:23408395

  10. Archaeological Test Excavations. Phase II Testing at the Hagerman National Fish Hatchery, Hagerman Valley, Idaho,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    uncovered in the area by the EWU archaeologists. This consisted of a cluster of obsidian flakes found in the southeast corner of excavation unit X-21 * (ON...lS/21-22W). A few fragments of battered basalt were also found along with the obsidian flakes suggesting a possible activity area. This con...sandy soils, dark brown; to light friable dark brown soil a few obsidian flakes, old buried soils, (buried soil); 14 flakes, 1 piece bits of fractured

  11. Out of the archaeologist's desk drawer: communicating archaeological data online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; David, M.

    2015-08-01

    During archaeological field work a huge amount of data is collected, processed and elaborated for further studies and scientific publications. However, access and communication of linked data; associated tools for interrogation, analysis and sharing are often limited at the first stage of the archaeological research, mainly due to issues related to IPR. Information is often released months if not years after the fieldwork. Nowadays great deal of archaeological data is `born digital' in the field or lab. This means databases, pictures and 3D models of finds and excavation contexts could be available for public communication and sharing. Researchers usually restrict access to their data to a small group of people. It follows that data sharing is not so widespread among archaeologists, and dissemination of research is still mostly based on traditional pre-digital means like scientific papers, journal articles and books. This project has implemented a web approach for sharing and communication purposes, exploiting mainly open source technologies which allow a high level of interactivity. The case study presented is the newly Mithraeum excavated in Ostia Antica archaeological site in the framework of the Ostia Marina Project.

  12. Two issues in archaeological phylogenetics: taxon construction and outgroup selection.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Saab, Youssef; Saab, Elias; Darwent, John; Glover, Daniel S

    2002-03-21

    Cladistics is widely used in biology and paleobiology to construct phylogenetic hypotheses, but rarely has it been applied outside those disciplines. There is, however, no reason to suppose that cladistics is not applicable to anything that evolves by cladogenesis and produces a nested hierarchy of taxa. This includes cultural phenomena such as languages and tools recovered from archaeological contexts. Two methodological issues assume primacy in attempts to extend cladistics to archaeological materials: the construction of analytical taxa and the selection of appropriate outgroups. In biology the species is the primary taxonomic unit used, irrespective of the debates that have arisen in phylogenetic theory over the nature of species. Also in biology the phylogenetic history of a group of taxa usually is well enough known that an appropriate taxon can be selected as an outgroup. No analytical unit parallel to the species exists in archaeology, and thus taxa have to be constructed specifically for phylogenetic analysis. One method of constructing taxa is paradigmatic classification, which defines classes (taxa) on the basis of co-occurring, unweighted character states. Once classes have been created, a form of occurrence seriation-an archaeological method based on the theory of cultural transmission and heritability-offers an objective basis for selecting an outgroup.

  13. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    . Application of multifocusing seismic processing to the GPR data analysis. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Arlington, USA, 597-606. Borradaile, G. J., 2003. Viscous magnetization, archaeology and Bayesian statistics of small samples from Israel and England. Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (10), 1528, doi:10.1029/2003GL016977. Boyce, J.I., Reinhardt, E.G., Raban, A., and Pozza, M.R., 2004. The utility of marine magnetic surveying for mapping buried hydraulic concrete harbour structures: Marine Magnetic Survey of a Submerged Roman Harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 33, 1, 122-136. Bruins, H.J., van der Plicht, J., and Mazar, A., 2003. 14C dates from Tel-Rehov: Iron-age chronology, Pharaohs and Hebrew kings. Science, 300, 315-318. Daniels, J., Blumberg, D.J., Vulfson, L.D., Kotlyar, A.L., Freiliker, V., Ronen, G., and Ben-Asher, J., 2003. Microwave remote sensing of physically buried objects in the Negev Desert: implications for environmental research. Remote Sensing of Environment, 86, 243-256, 2003. Dolphin, L.T., 1981. Geophysical methods for archaeological surveys in Israel. Stanford Research International, Menlo Park, Calif., USA, 7 pp. Ellenblum, R., Marco, M., Agnon, A., Rockwell, T., and Boas, A., 1998. Crusader castle torn apart by earthquake at dawn, 20 May 1202. Geology, 26, No. 4, 303-306. Eppelbaum, L.V., 1999. Quantitative interpretation of resistivity anomalies using advanced methods developed in magnetic prospecting. Trans. of the XXIV General Assembly of the Europ. Geoph. Soc., Strasburg 1 (1), p.166. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2000a. Detailed geophysical investigations at archaeological sites. In: (Ed. A. Nissenbaum), Relation between archaeology and other scientific disciplines, Collection of Papers, Weitzman Inst., Rehovot, Israel, No.8, 39-54 (in Hebrew). Eppelbaum, L.V., 2000b. Applicability of geophysical methods for

  14. Non-Newtonian Rheology of Calc-Alkaline Obsidian at High Stresses and Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwell, D. B.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cordonnier, B.; Mueller, S.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of the Non-Newtonian regime at high stress and strain rates has been reported for a variety of silicate melts subject to different tests but never for natural samples bearing their original contents of magmatic water and microlite content. Here, we used a unique high-load (<500 MPa), high-temperature (<1300°C) deformation apparatus for studying in situ the Non-Newtonian flow behaviour of magmas. A series of experiments were performed on calc-alkaline obsidian lavas from Lipari (Italy), Iceland, and Cougar Creek Dome, Yellowstone (USA), and compared to depolymerized melt (NIST 710). The samples were heated to relevant magmatic effusive temperatures that yielded similar relaxation timescales and were deformed under constant stress in the range of 100 to 200 MPa. The onset of the Non-Newtonian flow regime, registered by a decreasing viscosity with time (at fixed strain rate), occurred at 120 MPa for the depolymerized melt. The Non-Newtonian flow behavior was observed up to pressures as high as approx. 180 MPa, where the samples fragmented readily (hot cracking). In contrast, all three calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt remained in a Newtonian regime up to approx. 160 MPa. The window of Non-Newtonian behavior was, however, very narrow and most samples fragmented instantaneously in the attempt of pursuing the deformation. If this is not an experimental artefact, we conclude that modeling of the flow behaviour of a ascending crystal- and bubble-free calc-alkaline rhyolitic dome magma can be performed using a simple Newtonian fluid approximation. Thus the Non-Arrhenian model of Hess and Dingwell (1996) for the compositional and temperature dependence of viscosity could be applied.

  15. Compositional gradients surrounding spherulites in obsidian and their relationship to spherulite growth and lava cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James E.; Befus, Kenneth S.; Watkins, James; Hesse, Marc; Miller, Nathan

    2012-10-01

    Spherical masses of crystal fibers (spherulites) crystalize from rhyolitic melt/glass mainly in response to significant undercooling while lava cools. Spherulite growth should induce compositional gradients in the surrounding glass from expulsion of incompatible constituents and diffusion of those constituents away from the spherulite. Finite-difference numerical modeling of one-dimensional diffusion, in which diffusivities are allowed to vary with temperature, is used to investigate how compositional gradients reflect spherulite growth and lava cooling. Overall, three forms of gradients are identified. Elements that diffuse quickly are expelled from the spherulite but then migrate away too quickly to become enriched at the boundary of the spherulite. Elements that diffuse slowly are trapped within the growing spherulite. Between those endmembers are elements that are not trapped, yet diffuse slow enough that they become enriched at the contact. Their slow diffusion away then elevates their concentrations in the surrounding glass. How enriched those elements are at the spherulite-matrix interface and how far their enrichments extend outwards into the glass reflect how spherulites grow and thermal conditions during growth. Concentrations of H2O, Rb, F, Li, Cl, Na, K, Sr, Cs, Ba, and Be were measured in and around spherulites in obsidian from a 4.7 ± 1 km3 rhyolite lava dome erupted from Tequila volcano, Mexico. Measurable concentration gradients are found for H2O, Rb, and F. Attributes of those gradients and the behaviors of the other elements are in accord with their experimentally constrained diffusivities. Spherulites appear to have grown following radial, rather than volumetric, growth. The observed gradients (and lack of others) are more consistent with growth mainly below the glass transition, which would necessitate the dome cooling at ca. 10-5 to 10-7 °C s-1. Such slow cooling is consistent with the relatively large volume of the dome.

  16. Experimental dehydration of natural obsidian and estimation of DH2O at low water contents.

    PubMed

    Jambon, A; Zhang, Y; Stolper, E M

    1992-01-01

    Water diffusion experiments were carried out by dehydrating rhyolitic obsidian from Valles Caldera (New Mexico, USA) at 510-980 degrees C. The starting glass wafers contained approximately 0.114 wt% total water, lower than any glasses previously investigated for water diffusion. Weight loss due to dehydration was measured as a function of experiment duration, which permits determination of mean bulk water diffusivity, mean Dw. These diffusivities are in the range of 2.6 to 18 X 10(-14) m2/s and can be fit with the following Arrhenius equation: ln mean Dw (m2/s) = -(25.10 +/- 1.29) - (46,480 +/- 11,400) (J/mol) / RT, except for two replicate runs at 510 degrees C which give mean Dw values much lower than that defined by the above equation. When interpreted according to a model of water speciation in which molecular H2O is the diffusing species with concentration-independent diffusivity while OH units do not contribute to the transport but react to provide H2O, the data (except for the 510 degrees C data) are in agreement with extrapolation from previous results and hence extend the previous data base and provide a test of the applicability of the model to very low water contents. Mean bulk water diffusivities are about two orders of magnitude less than molecular H2O diffusivities because the fraction of molecular H2O out of total water is very small at 0.114 wt% total water and less. The 510 degrees C experimental results can be interpreted as due to slow kinetics of OH to H2O interconversion at low temperatures.

  17. Experimental dehydration of natural obsidian and estimation of DH2O at low water contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jambon, A.; Zhang, Y.; Stolper, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Water diffusion experiments were carried out by dehydrating rhyolitic obsidian from Valles Caldera (New Mexico, USA) at 510-980 degrees C. The starting glass wafers contained approximately 0.114 wt% total water, lower than any glasses previously investigated for water diffusion. Weight loss due to dehydration was measured as a function of experiment duration, which permits determination of mean bulk water diffusivity, mean Dw. These diffusivities are in the range of 2.6 to 18 X 10(-14) m2/s and can be fit with the following Arrhenius equation: ln mean Dw (m2/s) = -(25.10 +/- 1.29) - (46,480 +/- 11,400) (J/mol) / RT, except for two replicate runs at 510 degrees C which give mean Dw values much lower than that defined by the above equation. When interpreted according to a model of water speciation in which molecular H2O is the diffusing species with concentration-independent diffusivity while OH units do not contribute to the transport but react to provide H2O, the data (except for the 510 degrees C data) are in agreement with extrapolation from previous results and hence extend the previous data base and provide a test of the applicability of the model to very low water contents. Mean bulk water diffusivities are about two orders of magnitude less than molecular H2O diffusivities because the fraction of molecular H2O out of total water is very small at 0.114 wt% total water and less. The 510 degrees C experimental results can be interpreted as due to slow kinetics of OH to H2O interconversion at low temperatures.

  18. Vesiculation processes in a water-rich calc-alkaline obsidian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, R. J.; Bagdassarov, N. S.; Romano, C.

    1997-02-01

    The effect of temperature and viscosity on the kinetics of bubble growth was measured for a natural water-rich rhyolite melt. The change in volume of a natural crystal-poor calc-alkaline rhyolitic obsidian with an initial water content of ≈ 1.8 wt% H 2O was determined in the temperature interval 520-624°C. Shear viscosity was measured on the natural sample using the micropenetration method in the temperature interval 450-590°C and water contents before and after viscometry were monitored by FTIR. The time-dependence of the volume increase as a result of vesiculation approximates the Avrami equation: ΔV(t) α 1- exp[-( t/τ) n] . At temperatures close to the glass transition temperature (T g), growing bubbles ruptured the surrounding melt. During diffusion of water from the hydrous melt with ≈ 1.8 wt% H 2O into a bubble, the ΔT g of the melt at the bubble wall increases by ≈ 315°C. In addition, the viscosity of the melt at the bubble wall increases by 5-6 orders of magnitude. The increasing elastic component of shear stress on the bubble wall as a result of bubble growth at ˜ T g may exceed the bubble wall yield strength, resulting in cracking. No time lag in the onset of bubble growth occurred for this water-rich rhyolite. In those parts of volcanic edifices where water contents are of several weight percent (e.g., within the upper parts of volcanic conduits), the probability of melt fracturing due to the degassing of water at ˜ T g increases.

  19. Archaeological resource management plan of the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Archaeological Resource management Plan addresses the future cultural resource management needs of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The archaeological information contained herein is based on prehistoric and historic archaeological syntheses prepared by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) for the SRS. The syntheses also address future research directions that will facilitate better management of the cultural resources. This document is a prelude to a Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement (PMOA) which, in conjunction with this Archaeological Resource Management Plan, will assure SRS continued compliance with all applicable federal laws and regulations in concert with any DOE plans, policies and directives. 225 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Archaeological remote sensing application pre-post war situation of Babylon archaeological site—Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo; Invernizzi, Antonio; Parapetti, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The first basic step in obtaining a correct geographical knowledge and initiative for archaeological cartography analysis is an adequately geo-localized representation of natural and semi-natural resources and human activities, present and past. In this context, the correct and contextual evaluation of the resources through the use of integrated techniques of aerial photos, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) supply the synoptic instrument to the real knowledge of the land geography and for the operational management of any research and project. We will describe, at a synthetic level, the maturity of the land systematic study of Babylon archaeological site using different change detection analysis. Topographic maps of 1920 and 1980 were used, 18 aerial photos (1986) were mosaicked and georeferenced, vector information was digitized and inserted in a GIS system, DTM was build. Object oriented image analysis activity is being carried on and initial results are available through a WebGIS. The use of remote sensing (Quickbird and Ikonos) data allows us to capture the integral mutations due to human interventions. Earth observation data and GIS system were an optimal starting point for generating and updating the cartography. This results will be indispensable for the Iraqi authority and scientific community who care about the future of the territory.

  1. Automatic archaeological feature extraction from satellite VHR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Archaeological applications need a methodological approach on a variable scale able to satisfy the intra-site (excavation) and the inter-site (survey, environmental research). The increased availability of high resolution and micro-scale data has substantially favoured archaeological applications and the consequent use of GIS platforms for reconstruction of archaeological landscapes based on remotely sensed data. Feature extraction of multispectral remotely sensing image is an important task before any further processing. High resolution remote sensing data, especially panchromatic, is an important input for the analysis of various types of image characteristics; it plays an important role in the visual systems for recognition and interpretation of given data. The methods proposed rely on an object-oriented approach based on a theory for the analysis of spatial structures called mathematical morphology. The term "morphology" stems from the fact that it aims at analysing object shapes and forms. It is mathematical in the sense that the analysis is based on the set theory, integral geometry, and lattice algebra. Mathematical morphology has proven to be a powerful image analysis technique; two-dimensional grey tone images are seen as three-dimensional sets by associating each image pixel with an elevation proportional to its intensity level. An object of known shape and size, called the structuring element, is then used to investigate the morphology of the input set. This is achieved by positioning the origin of the structuring element to every possible position of the space and testing, for each position, whether the structuring element either is included or has a nonempty intersection with the studied set. The shape and size of the structuring element must be selected according to the morphology of the searched image structures. Other two feature extraction techniques were used, eCognition and ENVI module SW, in order to compare the results. These techniques were

  2. Photogrammetric Archaeological Survey with UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouget, A.; Lucet, G.

    2014-05-01

    This document describes a way to obtain various photogrammetric products from aerial photograph using a drone. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology to obtain information for the study of the architecture of pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico combining the manoeuvrability and low cost of a drone with the accuracy of the results of the open source photogrammetric MicMac software. It presents the UAV and the camera used, explains how to manipulate it to carry out stereoscopic photographs, the flight and camera parameters chosen, the treatments performed to obtain orthophotos and 3D models with a centimetric resolution, and finally outlines the quality of the results.

  3. Space -based monitoring of archaeological looting using multitemporal satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.

    2012-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risk factors which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world, in particular in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is little effective and time consuming and the aerial surveillance is non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In such contexts satellite remote sensing offers a suitable chance to monitor this phenomenon.. Looting phenomenon is much more dramatic during wars or armed conflicts, as occurred in Iraq during the two Gulf Wars, where "total area looted was many times greater than all the archaeological investigations ever conducted in southern Iraq" (Stone E. 2008). Media reports described the massive looting in broad daylight and destruction of the Iraqi museums and other cultural institutions. Between 2003 and 2004, several buried ancient cities have been completely eaten away by crater-like holes (http://www.savingantiquities.org/feature_page.php?featureID=7), and many other archaeological sites would be pillaged without the valuable activity of the Italian Carabinieri, responsible for guarding archaeological sites in the region of Nassyriah. To contrast and limit this phenomenon a systematic monitoring is required. Up to now, the protection of archaeological heritage from illegal diggings is generally based on a direct or aerial surveillance, which are time consuming, expensive and not suitable for extensive areas. VHR satellite images offer a suitable chance thanks to their global coverage and frequent re-visitation times. In this paper, automatic data processing approaches, based on filtering, geospatial analysis and wavelet, have been applied to enhance spatial and spectral anomaly linked to illegal excavations to make their semiautomatic identification easier. Study areas from Middle east and Southern America have been processed and discussed.

  4. Archaeology Informs Our Understanding of Ancient Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mull, Kenneth V.

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes the importance and utility of archaeology for understanding ancient texts and revealing how they illuminate biblical meaning and history. Presents guidelines showing classroom teachers how to incorporate archaeological knowledge into their lessons. Describes current Middle Eastern excavation sites, using Jerusalem as a case study.…

  5. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  6. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-12-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  7. An Analysis of the Influence of Flight Parameters in the Generation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Orthomosaicks to Survey Archaeological Areas

    PubMed Central

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco-Javier; Notario García, María Dolores; Meroño de Larriva, Jose Emilio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the configuration and technical specifications of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a red–green–blue (RGB) sensor for the acquisition of images needed for the production of orthomosaics to be used in archaeological applications. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 m above ground level; two forward and side overlap settings (80%–50% and 70%–40%); and the use, or lack thereof, of ground control points. These settings were chosen to analyze their influence on the spatial quality of orthomosaicked images processed by Inpho UASMaster (Trimble, CA, USA). Changes in illumination over the study area, its impact on flight duration, and how it relates to these settings is also considered. The combined effect of these parameters on spatial quality is presented as well, defining a ratio between ground sample distance of UAV images and expected root mean square of a UAV orthomosaick. The results indicate that a balance between all the proposed parameters is useful for optimizing mission planning and image processing, altitude above ground level (AGL) being main parameter because of its influence on root mean square error (RMSE). PMID:27809293

  8. An Analysis of the Influence of Flight Parameters in the Generation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Orthomosaicks to Survey Archaeological Areas.

    PubMed

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco-Javier; Notario García, María Dolores; Meroño de Larriva, Jose Emilio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    This article describes the configuration and technical specifications of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a red-green-blue (RGB) sensor for the acquisition of images needed for the production of orthomosaics to be used in archaeological applications. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 m above ground level; two forward and side overlap settings (80%-50% and 70%-40%); and the use, or lack thereof, of ground control points. These settings were chosen to analyze their influence on the spatial quality of orthomosaicked images processed by Inpho UASMaster (Trimble, CA, USA). Changes in illumination over the study area, its impact on flight duration, and how it relates to these settings is also considered. The combined effect of these parameters on spatial quality is presented as well, defining a ratio between ground sample distance of UAV images and expected root mean square of a UAV orthomosaick. The results indicate that a balance between all the proposed parameters is useful for optimizing mission planning and image processing, altitude above ground level (AGL) being main parameter because of its influence on root mean square error (RMSE).

  9. Biological and Archaeological Analysis of Deepwater Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico: Studying the Artificial Reef Effect of Six World War II Shipwrecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, R. A.; Irion, J. B.; Schroeder, W. W.; Warren, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    In the summer of 2004 researchers from across the United States and Canada partnered together to investigate biological and archaeological questions relating to six World War II era shipwrecks discovered in the Gulf of Mexico. The science team included microbiologists, marine vertebrate and invertebrate zoologists, a molecular biologist, an oceanographer, marine archaeologists, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) technicians, and a professional marine survey crew. The United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration sponsored this multidisciplinary project under the auspices of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The organizational involvement included six universities, two non-profit organizations, three commercial companies, and three U. S. federal agencies. The depth of the shipwrecks ranged from 87 to 1,964 meters. All six shipwrecks were war casualties, found during the past two decades on oil and gas surveys. These wrecks serve as artificial reefs sunk on well- documented dates, thereby offering biologists a unique opportunity to study the "artificial reef effect" of man- made structures in deep water. Taken together, these sites are an underwater battlefield, and a vital historical resource documenting a little-studied area in a crucial period of world history. They preserve information vital to scholarly and popular understanding of the war's impact in the Gulf of Mexico, on the American home front, and the global conflict. This paper will discuss the field methodology and touch on many of the scientific and technical aspects, and findings of the project.

  10. Petro-mineralogy and geochemistry as tools of provenance analysis on archaeological pottery: Study of Inka Period ceramics from Paria, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, V.; Gyarmati, J.; Tóth, M.; Taubald, H.; Balla, M.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Szakmány, Gy.

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarized the results of comprehensive petro-mineralogical and geochemical (archeometrical) investigation of Inka Period ceramics excavated from Inka (A.D. 1438-1535) and Late Intermediate Period (A.D. 1000/1200-1438) sites of the Paria Basin (Dept. Oruro, Bolivia). Applying geological analytical techniques we observed a complex and important archaeological subject of the region and the era, the cultural-economic influence of the conquering Inkas in the provincial region of Paria appearing in the ceramic material. According to our results, continuity and changes of raw material utilization and pottery manufacturing techniques from the Late Intermediate to the Inka Period are characterized by analytical methods. The geological field survey provided efficient basis for the identification of utilized raw material sources. On the one hand, ceramic supply of both eras proved to be based almost entirely on local and near raw material sources. So, imperial handicraft applied local materials but with sophisticated imperial techniques in Paria. On the other hand, Inka Imperial and local-style vessels also show clear differences in their material which suggests that sources and techniques functioned already in the Late Intermediate Period subsisted even after the Inka conquest of the Paria Basin. Based on our geological investigations, pottery supply system of the Paria region proved to be rather complex during the Inka Period.

  11. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  12. The effect of glass composition on the experimental hydration of obsidian between 110 and 230{degree}C

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.; Stevenson, C.M.; Bradley, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    Chemically characterized high-silica natural glasses were reacted in water vapor atmospheres at 100% relative humidity at temperatures between 110 and 230{degrees}C for up to 400 days. Birefringent hydration layers formed on the glass surfaces and increased in thickness as a function of the square root of time for all glasses, under all experimental conditions, a dependence consistent with a molecular water diffusion reaction mechanism. AEM, SIMS, FTIR and optical microscopy analyses of the birefringent hydration layers further support a molecular water diffusion reaction mechanism. The rate of hydration and its temperature dependence can be quantitatively related to the logarithm of the intrinsic water content of the unreacted glass. This quantification of the process permits estimates of water diffusion coefficients in rhyolitic glasses as a function of temperature and is statistically more precise than previously proposed indices for predicting water diffusion in obsidian. These results may allow obsidian hydration dating to gain more widespread acceptance as an absolute dating technique.

  13. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  14. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  15. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  16. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  17. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  18. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  19. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  20. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  1. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  2. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  3. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  4. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  5. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  6. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  7. Development Paths in Archaeological Surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbagh, A.

    2005-05-01

    Geophysical surveys of archaeological sites began in 1938, when an electrical survey was performed at the historical site of Williamsburg (Virginia, USA). Its full development, however, has been achieved by several European teams, which have continuously worked on it since the fifties. Geophysical survey is one step of archaeological site reconnaissance, which comprises many other non-invasive techniques such as document studies, field walking, air photo interpretation...Nevertheless solely geophysical techniques allow a direct exploration of the underground itself over a significant depth of investigation. Several physical properties can be measured to detect and map archaeological features and/or remains but electrical resistivity and magnetisation has been commonly used for fifty years and dielectric permittivity more recently. The major path of the technical evolution was to increase both the speed of the survey and the size of the area by using short measurement duration (less than 0.1 s) and to incorporate mechanical systems that allow the continuous pulling of the sensors on the field. Magnetic measurements are thus achieved either by fluxgate or optically pumped sensors, while electrical measurements are achieved by mobile multi-pole systems simultaneously over two or three different depths. In such surveys the mesh grid is 1 x 1 m or 0.5 x 0.5 m. Another aim is to limit the size of the surveyed area but to increase the geometrical resolution by using ground penetrating radars (GPR) with a very fine mesh (0.2 x 0.2 m) and by processing the data by `time slices' which allow to follow precisely the extension in depth of the different features. In addition for magnetic features, the simultaneous inversion of magnetic field and susceptibility (and soon viscosity) measurements using linear filtering allows the differentiation among the types of magnetization and allows for an improved determination of the depths of magnetic property contrasts. By considering the

  8. A Polish perspective on optical satellite data and methods for archaeological sites prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruciński, Dominik; RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz; Niedzielko, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The presented overview is a result of the first phase of ESA-funded ArchEO (Archaeological application of Earth Observation techniques) project which aims to identify conditions favourable for analysis of archaeological sites and landscapes with use of satellite-based techniques. The project focuses on the region of Central Europe that has highly anthropogenically transformed landscapes with a large percentage of agricultural lands, what under certain ground conditions (favourable crop type, moisture, soil depth, bedrock, agricultural treatments, local biological processes etc.) foster the development of marks allowing identification of archaeological remains. The most important factor determining the choice of satellite data sources and techniques of processing is the characteristics of archaeological sites typical for the analysed region. Relatively small size of archaeological features and significant dispersion of past human activity residues require the use on satellite data on the highest possible spatial resolution. Often the resolution of multispectral bands needs to be increased with pansharpening techniques to provide valuable information - it determines the choice of further processing techniques. Nevertheless, the ability for acquisition of data in NIR spectral range is still the most important added value offered by optical satellite remote sensing, it enables to analyse vegetation characteristics and thus to better identify cropmarks. The archival data from various satellite sensors, obtained under different vegetative, soil, seasonal and anthropogenic conditions enable comparative studies on conditions for distinguishing marks appearance. The conducted analysis of archaeological community requirements clearly indicates that their needs go further than archaeological features detection - delineation of an archaeological site protective border and threats monitoring is equally important.

  9. From pumice to obsidian: eruptive behaviors that produce tephra-flow dyads. I- The AD1100 Big Glass Mountain eruption at Medicine Lake Volcano (California).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachetti, T.; Shea, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Ramsey, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Associations of tephra and lava flow/domes produced by eruptions involving evolved magmas are a common occurrence in various types of volcanic settings (e.g. Pu'u Wa'awa'a ~114ka, Hawaii; South Mono ~AD625, California; Newberry Big Obsidian flow ~AD700, Oregon; Big Glass Mountain ~AD1100, California; Inyo ~AD1350, California, Chaitén AD2008-2009, Chile; Cordón Caulle AD2011-2012, Chile), ejecting up to a few cubic km of material (tephra+flow/dome). Most, if not all, of these eruptions have in common the paradoxical coexistence of (1) eruptive styles which are inferred to be sustained in nature (subplinian and plinian), with (2) a pulsatory behavior displayed by the resulting fall deposits, and (3) the coeval ejection of vesicular tephra and pyroclastic obsidian. Through two case studies, we explore this apparent set of paradoxes, and their significance in understanding transitions from explosive to effusive behavior. In this first case study (also cf. Leonhardi et al., same session), we present a new detailed stratigraphy of the AD1100 Big Glass Mountain eruption (Medicine Lake Volcano), along with a series of density measurements of tephra collected from several key units identified in the proximal fall deposits. The geochemical character of pumice and obsidian clasts from both the tephra and the obsidian flow is used to trace the origins of the different lithologies involved. We find that tens of waxing and waning cycles occurred during this eruption with at least two protracted phases, and that perhaps the term (sub)plinian may not be completely adequate to describe this particular eruption style. We also review models for the formation of juvenile pyroclastic obsidian in the context of rhyolitic eruptions.

  10. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin A

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  11. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  12. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  13. Tsunamis in the New Zealand archaeological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadgen, B. G.; Goff, J. R.

    2007-08-01

    Historical and geological records both indicate tsunami inundation of New Zealand in the 700 years since the first human settlement. In addition, Maori oral traditions refer to unusual waves that might have been tsunami waves, although the accounts are open to other interpretations. Tsunami evidence has rarely been proposed from archaeological sites, primarily because of a limited understanding of the requisite evidence and environmental context. We list a criteria suggesting possible tsunami inundation of archaeological sites based upon geoarchaeological data, and use them in a case study from the Archaic Maori occupation site at Wairau Bar. The list is possibly incomplete, but indicates that archaeological investigations can gain from assessments of changing environmental conditions through time at any individual site. Our intention is not to prove tsunami inundation; rather, it is to point to archaeological sites as possible sources of information. We highlight the potential of the Wairau Bar site for further investigation.

  14. Basalt Pb isotope analysis and the prehistoric settlement of Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Weisler, M I; Woodhead, J D

    1995-03-14

    The prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Ocean has intrigued scholars and stimulated anthropological debate for the past two centuries. Colonized over a few millennia during the mid to late Holocene, the islands of the Pacific--displaying a wide diversity of geological and biotic variability--provided the stage for endless "natural experiments" in human adaptation. Crucial to understanding the evolution and transformation of island societies is documenting the relative degree of interisland contacts after island colonization. In the western Pacific, ideal materials for archaeologically documenting interisland contact--obsidian, pottery, and shell ornaments--are absent or of limited geographic distribution in Polynesia. Consequently, archaeologists have relied increasingly on fine-grained basalt artifacts as a means for documenting colonization routes and subsequent interisland contacts. Routinely used x-ray fluorescence characterization of oceanic island basalt has some problems for discriminating source rocks and artifacts in provenance studies. The variation in trace and major element abundances is largely controlled by near-surface magma-chamber processes and is broadly similar between most oceanic islands. We demonstrate that Pb isotope analysis accurately discriminates rock source and is an excellent technique for charting the scale, frequency, and temporal span of imported fine-grained basalt artifacts found throughout Polynesia. The technique adds another tool for addressing evolutionary models of interaction, isolation, and cultural divergence in the eastern Pacific.

  15. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    The development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, favored the application of this technology also in archaeology [1]. Different approaches based on both single and multitemporal data analysis, exploiting the backscattering and the penetration of radar data, have been used for a number of archaeological sites and landscapes [2-5]. Nevertheless, the capability of this technology in archaeological applications has so far not been fully assessed. It lacks a contribution aimed at evaluating the potential of SAR technology for the same study area by using different bands, spatial resolutions and data processing solutions. In the framework of the Chinese-Italian bilateral project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", we addressed some pioneering investigations to assess multi-mode (multi-band, temporal, resolution) satellite SAR data (including X-band TerraSAR, C-band Envisat and L-band ALOS PALSAR) in archaeological prospection of the Silk road [6]. The Silk Road, a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting China to Europe, is the witness of civilization and friendship between the East and West dated back to 2000 years ago, that left us various relics (e.g. lost cities) to be uncovered and investigated.. In particular, the assessment has been performed in the Xinjiang and Gansu section pf the Silk Road focusing on : i) the subsurface penetration capability of SAR data in the arid and semi-arid region ii) and sensitivity of SAR imaging geometry for the detection of relics As regards the point i) , apart from the soil moisture, the penetration is seriously restricted by the soil porosity. For instance, negligible penetration signs were detected in Yumen Frontier Pass either using X- or L-band SAR data due to the occurrence of Yardang landscape. As regards the point ii), the flight path of SAR images in parallel with the

  16. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  17. Use of Small-Scale Artificial Archaeological Sites in the Teaching of Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Warren N.

    By using small-scale artificially created archaeologic sites, a teacher can provide students with a time-efficient approach in which to master some basic archaeological techniques. In an artificially created setting, the students can become familiar with conditions they might meet in the field. In a short period of time, students may be exposed to…

  18. Large-scale, high-definition Ground Penetrating Radar prospection in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, I.; Kucera, M.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Nau, E.; Neubauer, W.; Zitz, T.

    2012-04-01

    -definition survey of two to three hectares per day with eight centimetres GPR trace spacing, both inline and cross-line. Exact real time positioning of the motorized multichannel arrays with centimetre accuracy is of paramount importance for data quality and subsequent imaging, analysis and interpretation. Whereas traditional surveys are conducted along straight lines fixed on the ground, motorized survey systems require the use of more efficient data positioning and navigation solutions. A promising approach can be realized using real-time kinematic positioning technology based on GPS systems and robotic total-stations with centimetre accuracy. Due to the huge amount and complexity of the data unique software solutions for efficient, appropriate processing and data visualization have been developed permitting the generation of geo-referenced depth-slice images covering up to 70 hectares each. While our focus is on archaeological sites, the presented novel GPR technology and methodology are likewise applicable to Civil Engineering Applications.

  19. Keith Muckelroy: Methods, Ideas and Maritime Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpster, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    Between his graduation from the Department of Archaeology at Cambridge University in 1974 and his death in 1980, Keith Muckelroy’s work and ideology were crucial in promoting an alternative research methodology in maritime archaeology. Instead of a particularist or historiographic approach, methods prominent both then and now, Muckelroy’s methodology was grounded in the foundations of the prehistoric archaeology he learned under Grahame Clark and David Clarke at Cambridge, and the basic tenets of New Archaeology maturing in the United States during the 1970s. This paper, which elucidates Muckelroy’s methods and research, is neither a complete biography nor an exhaustive study of his ideas. Although unpublished letters, papers and notes were studied in archives at Cambridge University and the National Maritime Museum, there is still much more to be learned from many of his former colleagues and their memories—only a handful of those individuals were consulted during the creation of this work. Nevertheless, this paper was written in the hope that by understanding Muckelroy’s ideas, and placing them in the larger framework of the discipline of archaeology, maritime archaeologists who are attempting to pursue a variety of approaches may find inspirations, models and, perhaps, questions that still need to be answered.

  20. Trichuris sp. from 1,040 +/- 50-year-old Cervidae coprolites from the archaeological site Furna do Estrago, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sianto, Luciana; Duarte, Antônio Nascimento; Chame, Marcia; Magalhães, Juliana; Souza, Mônica Vieira de; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-03-01

    We present results of the paleoparasitological analysis of Cervidae coprolites that were recovered from the archaeological site Furna do Estrago, Pernambuco, Brazil. Trichuris sp. eggs were recovered from the coprolite samples dated 1,040 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of Trichuris sp. in semiarid Cervidae, unexpectedly recorded in archaeological material.

  1. A multi-analytical study of degradation of lignin in archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Maria P; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Modugno, Francesca; Orlandi, Marco; Tolppa, Eeva-Liisa; Zoia, Luca

    2009-11-15

    Historical or archaeological wooden objects are generally better conserved in wet environments than in other contexts. Nevertheless, anaerobic erosion bacteria can slowly degrade waterlogged wood, causing a loss of cellulose and hemicellulose and leading to the formation of water-filled cavities. During this process, lignin can also be altered. The result is a porous and fragile structure, poor in polysaccharides and mainly composed of residual lignin, which can easily collapse during drying and needs specific consolidation treatments. For this reason, the chemical characterization of archaeological lignin is of primary importance in the diagnosis and conservation of waterlogged wood artifacts. Current knowledge of the lignin degradation processes in historical and archaeological wood is extremely inadequate. In this study lignin extracted from archaeological waterlogged wood was examined using both Py-GC/MS, NMR spectroscopy and GPC analysis. The samples were collected from the Site of the Ancient Ships of San Rossore (Pisa, Italy), where since 1998 31 shipwrecks, dating from 2nd century BC to 5th century AD, have been discovered. The results, integrated by GPC analysis, highlight the depolymerization of lignin with cleavage of ether bonds, leading to an higher amount of free phenol units in the lignin from archaeological waterlogged wood, compared to sound lignin from reference wood of the same species.

  2. Feature enhancement from electrical resistivity data in an archaeological survey: the Sapelos hillfort experiment (Boticas, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mafalda; Bernardes, Paulo; Fontes, Luís.; Martins, Manuela; Madeira, Joaquim

    2015-06-01

    The PoPaTERVA project is developing applied research regarding the comprehension of the multi-layered cultural background of the Terva Valley Archaeological Park, in Boticas, Portugal. One of the main aspects focused on the project is the appliance of remote sensing techniques to enhance non visible archaeological features. An earth resistance tomography (ERT) survey was carried out at the Sapelos hillfort, by the specialized SINERGEO geophysicist's team, using a Wenner-Schlumberger array. The resulting data was analyzed by the authors in order to extract and verify valid archaeological features regarding the settlement's structures. There are several adequate systems that can be used to visualize the surveyed data (x, y, z, Ω). However, the authors preferred the open source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) from Kitware Inc., since it supports several visualization and modelling techniques that are useful for interpretation purposes in archaeological contexts: for instance, it is possible to represent the archaeological site as a virtual scale model, which can be freely manipulated. For the Sapelos hillfort, two distinct visualizations were developed to represent the acquired electrical resistivity data. The first one is used to create a comprehensive volume from the surveyed data, which is imported as structured 3D points and mapped into a 3D volume. However, this representation does not provide the necessary insight for analysis purposes, so a second visualization is needed to cluster the relevant data for archaeological research. This visualization is based on contouring algorithms that generate isosurfaces from scalar resistivity values (Ω), therefore enhancing the features with potential archaeological interest.

  3. Detecting buried archaeological soils with TGA in an agricultural terrace setting in Northern Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, K.; Guttmann-Bond, E.; Kluiving, S.; van Leusen, M.

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural terraces are geomorphologic features created by humans. These structures protect farming land by reducing soil erosion, they collect water in their hydrological infrastructure, and preserve crops and vegetation. Their construction could however negatively affect underlying soils and archaeology present in those soils. However, if a terrace is constructed on a hill slope without destroying the underlying soil, the agricultural terrace could create a stable environment in regard to erosion, and preserve the underlying soil and potential archaeological remains in it. In order to detect soils within agricultural terraces in Northern-Calabria, Italy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was performed on exposures of four agricultural terraces, two agricultural fields in a non-terraced setting and five natural geomorphological features. Results are the detection of a buried soil horizon which contains archaeological remains dating from the Hellenistic period 60 cm below the surface of an agricultural terrace, and a buried soil horizon which contains archaeological remains dating from the Hellenistic period at the interface of an agricultural field and a river valley. Both soil horizons were indentified by an increase in organic components, and a decrease in calcium carbonates relative to their surrounding context. Conclusions are that the construction of agricultural terraces and fields does not necessarily lead to the destruction of underlying soils. This could open new doors for archaeological field investigations in agricultural areas in southern Italy. This study was conducted as part of the Raganello Archaeological Project of the Groningen Institute of Archaeology, Rijks Universiteit Groningen, in collaboration with the Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology at the VU University Amsterdam.

  4. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  5. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  6. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 μg O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate.

  7. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  8. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  9. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall...

  10. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  11. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  12. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  13. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  14. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  15. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  16. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  17. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.17 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the...

  18. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  19. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  20. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  1. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  2. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  3. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  4. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  5. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  6. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  7. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  8. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall...

  9. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  10. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  11. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  12. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.17 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the...

  13. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  14. Water-saturated phase-equilibrium experiments on rhyolite and dacite obsidians: the effect of variable melt water concentration on the composition of phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, L.; Lange, R. A.; Andrews, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Results of water-saturated phase equilibrium experiments on three obsidians ranging in composition from dacite to rhyolite (67-74 wt% SiO2) are presented and demonstrate the effect of changing melt water concentrations on the composition of plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts. Experiments were conducted in a cold-seal Ni-rich pressure vessel (Waspaloy) with Ni filler rod, so that experiments were buffered at ΔNNO +1 (± 0.5) (Gershwind & Rutherford, 1992) and pressurized with H2O (where Ptotal= PH2O). Temperatures ranged from 750-900°C and pressures ranged from 100-300 MPa. Prior to the experiments, detailed petrologic studies were first conducted on the three obsidian samples, which are from Cascade and Mexican arcs. Overall phenocryst abundances in all three samples are low (<2.3%), with little to no microlite crystallization. Despite low phenocryst abundances, the obsidians are saturated in five to seven mineral phases: plagioclase + orthopyroxene + ilmenite + magnetite + apatite ± clinopyroxene ± biotite. Eruptive temperatures (±1σ), on the basis of Fe-Ti two oxide thermometry (Ghiorso & Evans, 2008), range from 760 ± 18°C to 943 ± 20°C; corresponding ΔNNO values (±1σ) range from -0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.7 ± 0.1. Plagioclase compositions span a wide range in each sample (e.g., 9-40 and 30-54 mol% An), despite low phenocryst abundances. Orthopyroxene compositions also span a wide range (≤ 15 mol% En), which correspond to Fe-MgKD(opx-liq) values that range from 0.18-0.46. Given the low crystallinity, absence of evidence for mixing of magmas, and no apparent change in oxygen fugacity recorded by iron oxides, the progressive loss of water from a melt, through degassing during rapid magma ascent, is a plausible hypothesis to explain the observed variation in phenocryst compositions. This hypothesis is evaluated with the run products from the water-saturated phase equilibrium experiments on the three obsidian samples. The experimental results indicate

  15. Snapshots of lignin oxidation and depolymerization in archaeological wood: an EGA-MS study.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Diego; Łucejko, Jeannette Jacqueline; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-01

    Evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) was used for the first time to study archaeological wood, in order to investigate its chemical degradation. The archaeological wood was from an oak pile from a stilt house found in the Neolithic 'La Marmotta' village (Lake Bracciano, Rome, Italy). The sampling was performed from the external to the internal part of the pile, following the annual growth rings in groups of five. In addition, sound oak wood and isolated wood components (holocellulose and cellulose) were also analyzed, and the results were used to highlight differences because of degradation. Our study demonstrated that EGA-MS provides information on the thermo-chemistry of archaeological wood along with in-depth compositional data thanks to the use of MS. Our investigations not only highlighted wood degradation in terms of differences between carbohydrates and lignin content, but also showed that lignin oxidation and depolymerization took place in the archaeological wood. Mass spectral data revealed differences among the archaeological samples from the internal to the external part of the pile. An increase in the formation of wood pyrolysis products bearing a carbonyl group at the benzylic position and a decrease in the amount of lignin dimers were observed. These were related to oxidation and depolymerization reactions, respectively.

  16. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  17. Estimation of firing temperature of some archaeological pottery shreds excavated recently in Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Velraj, G; Janaki, K; Musthafa, A Mohamed; Palanivel, R

    2009-05-01

    An attempt has been made in the present work to estimate the firing temperature of the archaeological pottery shreds excavated from the three archaeological sites namely Maligaimedu, Thiruverkadu and Palur in the state of Tamilnadu in INDIA. The lower limit of firing temperature of the Archaeological pottery shreds were estimated by refiring the samples to different temperatures and recording the corresponding FT-IR spectrum. The firing methods and conditions of firing were inferred from the characteristic absorption positions and the bands observed due to the presence of magnetite and hematite in the samples. In addition, the Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis were carried out to study the internal morphology, vitrification factor and the upper limit of the firing temperature of the potteries fired at the time of manufacture.

  18. Vernon Lee in the Vatican: the uneasy alliance of aestheticism and archaeology.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    From the 1800s onward, aesthetic critics attempted to free the study of ancient Greek art from the frameworks of institutional education and professionalized criticism. In this process, aestheticism entered an uneasy alliance with archaeology, a discipline that was likewise challenging traditional modes of classical learning practiced in public schools and the old universities. In "The Child in the Vatican" (1881), Vernon Lee -- writing under the influence of Pater and from a position of cosmopolitan female amateurism -- examines the uses of archaeological science in the study of classical art. Her analysis of the sculptures of the Niobe Group at once relies on the archaeological method and asks readers to doubt scientific approaches to art that dim the sublime power of the art object.

  19. The brain-artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain-artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map.

  20. Epilithic and endolithic bacterial communities in limestone from a Maya archaeological site.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Christopher J; Perry, Thomas D; Bearce, Kristen A; Hernandez-Duque, Guillermo; Mitchell, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Biodeterioration of archaeological sites and historic buildings is a major concern for conservators, archaeologists, and scientists involved in preservation of the world's cultural heritage. The Maya archaeological sites in southern Mexico, some of the most important cultural artifacts in the Western Hemisphere, are constructed of limestone. High temperature and humidity have resulted in substantial microbial growth on stone surfaces at many of the sites. Despite the porous nature of limestone and the common occurrence of endolithic microorganisms in many habitats, little is known about the microbial flora living inside the stone. We found a large endolithic bacterial community in limestone from the interior of the Maya archaeological site Ek' Balam. Analysis of 16S rDNA clones demonstrated disparate communities (endolithic: >80% Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Low GC Firmicutes; epilithic: >50% Proteobacteria). The presence of differing epilithic and endolithic bacterial communities may be a significant factor for conservation of stone cultural heritage materials and quantitative prediction of carbonate weathering.

  1. [Hans Gross as an archaeologist--the significance of archaeology for 'encyclopedic' criminology].

    PubMed

    Karl, Stephan; Bachhiesl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In some cases, forensics and criminology have to cooperate with disciplines that usually are counted among the humanities, e.g. with archaeology. This article examines the significance of this cooperation for the criminological epistemology at the turn of the 19th century. These methodological considerations are illustrated by an example: When Hans Gross, who became the founder of the Austrian School of Criminology later, saw an unusually shaped hill near Feldbach, a town in southern Styria, he assumed this hill to be a burial mound and informed the responsible archaeological authorities immediately. Further investigations showed, however, that this hill was a natural formation. This is an early example for interdisciplinary cooperation, which proves that both in archaeology and in criminology a thorough inspection of the site is decisive for further scientific analysis of the topic of research.

  2. Estimation of firing temperature of some archaeological pottery shreds excavated recently in Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velraj, G.; Janaki, K.; Musthafa, A. Mohamed; Palanivel, R.

    2009-05-01

    An attempt has been made in the present work to estimate the firing temperature of the archaeological pottery shreds excavated from the three archaeological sites namely Maligaimedu, Thiruverkadu and Palur in the state of Tamilnadu in INDIA. The lower limit of firing temperature of the Archaeological pottery shreds were estimated by refiring the samples to different temperatures and recording the corresponding FT-IR spectrum. The firing methods and conditions of firing were inferred from the characteristic absorption positions and the bands observed due to the presence of magnetite and hematite in the samples. In addition, the Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis were carried out to study the internal morphology, vitrification factor and the upper limit of the firing temperature of the potteries fired at the time of manufacture.

  3. The brain–artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain–artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map. PMID:20123661

  4. Forensic or archaeological issue: is chemical analysis of dental restorations helpful in assessing time since death and identification of skeletonized human remains?

    PubMed

    Zelic, Ksenija; Djonic, Danijela; Neskovic, Olivera; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Nikolic, Slobodan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

    2013-09-01

    In 2011, small mass grave with completely skeletonized remains was discovered in Belgrade suburb. An eyewitness claimed that skeletons belonged to German soldiers killed in WWII. Anthropologists were engaged to investigate whether the skeletal remains correspond to the indicated German group or represent more recent case requiring court trial. Numerous dental restorations were noticed. Owing to the fact that different dental materials were used in dental practice at certain times, the aim of this study was to explore whether analysis of dental restorations could help in identification and estimation of time since death. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed that dental fillings corresponded to copper amalgam, conventional silver amalgam, silicophosphate cement, and zinc phosphate cement. Chemical results combined with anthropological and historical facts suggest that the individuals lived before the 1960s in country with well-developed dental service at that time. Therefore, chemical analysis of dental fillings was useful to distinguish between skeletal remains that are too old to be of forensic interest and the remains relevant to legal investigations.

  5. Mythology, Archaeology, Architecture. Learning Works Enrichment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, Diane; Wiemann, Mary

    The activities in this book have been selected especially for gifted students in grades 4 through 8. They are designed to challenge and help students develop and apply higher-level thinking skills. The activities have been grouped by subject matter into mythology, archaeology, and architecture. The mythology section includes Chinese, Eskimo,…

  6. Archaeology--You Can Dig It, Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Paul D.; Wicks, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    The document describes how high school social studies teachers can replace existing traditional classroom activities with an archaeology field experience. The objectives are to relate the social and physical sciences and to provide evidence not only of spectacular historical events, but also of the daily lives of ordinary people. Although an…

  7. Archaeology: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This archaeology resource packet provides information on frequently asked questions of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), including the topics of: (1) career information; (2) excavation; (3) fieldwork opportunities; (4) artifact identification; and (5) preservation. The packet is divided into six sections. Section 1…

  8. Archaeology and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Stresses the importance of an introduction to archaeology before studying history. Describes two learning activities, the grid section method of excavation and stratification, in order to introduce students to the techniques, skills, and procedures employed by archaeologists in excavating sites and interpreting evidence. (Author/JK)

  9. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  10. Archaeology and Anthropological Teaching Resources Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography and background paper has been prepared to cover topics most frequently encountered in the field of archaeology and anthropology education: career information, excavation, fieldword opportunities, artifact identification, and preservation. The information included should provide avenues along which topics may be pursued further…

  11. Compound-specific isotope analysis. Application to archaeology, biomedical sciences, biosynthesis, environment, extraterrestrial chemistry, food science, forensic science, humic substances, microbiology, organic geochemistry, soil science and sport.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, E

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic composition, for example, (14)C/(12)C, (13)C/(12)C, (2)H/(1)H, (15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, of the elements of matter is heterogeneous. It is ruled by physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. Isotopes can be employed to follow the fate of mineral and organic compounds during biogeochemical transformations. The determination of the isotopic composition of organic substances occurring at trace level in very complex mixtures such as sediments, soils and blood, has been made possible during the last 20 years due to the rapid development of molecular level isotopic techniques. After a brief glance at pioneering studies revealing isotopic breakthroughs at the molecular and intramolecular levels, this paper reviews selected applications of compound-specific isotope analysis in various scientific fields.

  12. Development of a novel method for unraveling the origin of natron flux used in Roman glass production based on B isotopic analysis via multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Devulder, Veerle; Degryse, Patrick; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2013-12-17

    The provenance of the flux raw material used in the manufacturing of Roman glass is an understudied topic in archaeology. Whether one or multiple sources of natron mineral salts were exploited during this period is still open for debate, largely because of the lack of a good provenance indicator. The flux is the major source of B in Roman glass. Therefore, B isotopic analysis of a sufficiently large collection and variety (origin and age) of such glass samples might give an indication of the number of flux sources used. For this purpose, a method based on acid digestion, chromatographic B isolation and B isotopic analysis using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed. B isolation was accomplished using a combination of strong cation exchange and strong anion exchange chromatography. Although the B fraction was not completely matrix-free, the remaining Sb was shown not to affect the δ(11)B result. The method was validated using obsidian and archaeological glass samples that were stripped of their B content, after which an isotopic reference material with known B isotopic composition was added. Absence of artificial B isotope fractionation was demonstrated, and the total uncertainty was shown to be <2‰. A proof-of-concept application to natron glass samples showed a narrow range of δ(11)B, whereas first results for natron salt samples do show a larger difference in δ(11)B. These results suggest the use of only one natron source or of several sources with similar δ(11)B. This indicates that B isotopic analysis is a promising tool for the provenance determination of this flux raw material.

  13. Action cameras and low-cost aerial vehicles in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.

    2015-05-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of the potential of a close range aerial photogrammetry system, which is accessible both in economic terms and in terms of simplicity of use. In particular the Go Pro Hero3 Black Edition and the Parrot Ar. Drone 2.0 were studied. There are essentially two limitations to the system and they were found for both the instruments used. Indeed, the frames captured by the Go Pro are subject to great distortion and consequently pose numerous calibration problems. On the other hand, the limitation of the system lies in the difficulty of maintaining a flight configuration suitable for photogrammetric purposes in unfavourable environmental conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse how far the limitations highlighted can influence the precision of the survey and consequent quality of the results obtained. To this end, the integrated GoPro and Parrot system was used during a survey campaign on the Altilia archaeological site, in Molise. The data obtained was compared with that gathered by more traditional methods, such as the laser scanner. The system was employed in the field of archaeology because here the question of cost often has a considerable importance and the metric aspect is frequently subordinate to the qualitative and interpretative aspects. Herein one of the products of these systems; the orthophoto will be analysed, which is particularly useful in archaeology, especially in situations such as this dig in which there aren't many structures in elevation present. The system proposed has proven to be an accessible solution for producing an aerial documentation, which adds the excellent quality of the result to metric data for which the precision is known.

  14. Exogenous processes study in the coastal zone of the large reservoirs in the archaeological monuments placement (Volga-Kama region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynullin, Iskander; Usmanov, Bulat

    2014-05-01

    The problem of conservation of archaeological heritage is highly relevant for the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), because in its territory identified, studied and registered around 4,300 archaeological sites. Most of archaeological sites from the Mesolithic to the late Middle Ages, now situated in the coastal zone of reservoirs where archaeological objects destroying because of intensive abrasion processes. The Volga and Kama rivers region attracted people for millennia. This territory of the Russian Plain is abounding in archaeological sites of various ages. During the Upper Paleolithic study region was quite convenient for living activity of the first inhabitants because of its situation out of the glacier limits. The sites on the banks are deposited within deluvial sediments of the Late Valday glaciation which have been accumulated on the slope of the Volga and Kama valleys, placing the third terrace and the segmentations of the second terrace over the flood-plain and now completely or fragmentary destroyed by reservoir waters. The analysis of remote sensing (1958-2013) and field survey (2011-2013) data performed. Georeferencing and alignment of the historical maps with remote sensing data makes possible to reveal mistakes in old site plans and re-create the shape of the destroyed archaeological objects, as well to get the exact size of the monument and its correct orientation. Results showed also that the studying sites caused a great rate of destruction of coastline. Cultural heritage sites monitoring, with information about the chronology, cultural layer value, settlement specifics, etc., taking into account the methods used in landscape ecology and field archaeological survey, allows to evaluate damage and the intensity of archaeological sites destruction through the dangerous exogenous processes estimation. Exogenous processes data and archaeological GIS integration will form unified system of archaeological rescue works, will provide analysis of large amount

  15. Intra-tooth stable isotope analysis of dentine: a step toward addressing selective mortality in the reconstruction of life history in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Paul A; Sponheimer, Matt; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Van Gerven, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Intra-tooth stable isotope analysis of dentine provides a more sensitive means to examine infant and childhood life history in the past than conventional cross-sectional analyses that rely on age-at-death. In addition, reconstructions of early diet and life history using an intra-tooth approach circumvent potential problems associated with mortality bias, which may operate strongly during infancy and childhood. We present new intra-tooth stable carbon and nitrogen isotope profiles in dentine collagen of early forming permanent teeth in a sample of adults from the Medieval Nubian site of Kulubnarti. We interpret the profiles in terms of weaning behavior and dietary history, and we compare profiles generated from first molars and canines to explore the degree to which these tooth types correspond. We then compare the profiles to the occurrence of linear enamel hypoplasia to assess the relationship between the timing of the weaning process and stress events. Finally, we compare the longitudinal profiles to cross-sectional stable isotope data obtained from rib collagen to investigate how life histories might differ between those that survived into adulthood and those that did not. Results suggest that canine and first molar profiles are in broad agreement, that hypoplastic stress events occurred during rather than before or after the weaning process in our sample, and that survivors appear to have weaned earlier than the average non-survivor. We suggest that this approach may be useful for addressing the effects of selective mortality on reconstructions of early life history and the relationship between early life history and morbidity.

  16. The Use of Archaeological and Anthropological Methods in Fatal Fire Scene Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Alternate Light Sources Including Cremated Human Bone. Identification Canada Oct/Nov/Dec, 12-13. preservation and documentation of context...Archaeological approaches. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.  Fairgrieve, S. I. (2008). Forensic  cremation : Recovery and analysis. Boca Raton: CRC Press

  17. Comprehensive Bibliography of Pakistan Archaeology: Paleolithic to Historic Times. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Denise E.

    The comprehensive bibliography is a compilation of twentieth century documents about Pakistan prehistory from Paleolithic times to the arrival of the Greeks in approximately 330 B.C., also includes some of the major archaeological studies in adjacent countries which have a bearing on the interpretation and comparative analysis of Pakistan…

  18. Digital Astronaut Photography: A Discovery Dataset for Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station (ISS) using commercial off-the-shelf cameras offers a freely-accessible source for high to very high resolution (4-20 m/pixel) visible-wavelength digital data of Earth. Since ISS Expedition 1 in 2000, over 373,000 images of the Earth-Moon system (including land surface, ocean, atmospheric, and lunar images) have been added to the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov ). Handheld astronaut photographs vary in look angle, time of acquisition, solar illumination, and spatial resolution. These attributes of digital astronaut photography result from a unique combination of ISS orbital dynamics, mission operations, camera systems, and the individual skills of the astronaut. The variable nature of astronaut photography makes the dataset uniquely useful for archaeological applications in comparison with more traditional nadir-viewing multispectral datasets acquired from unmanned orbital platforms. For example, surface features such as trenches, walls, ruins, urban patterns, and vegetation clearing and regrowth patterns may be accentuated by low sun angles and oblique viewing conditions (Fig. 1). High spatial resolution digital astronaut photographs can also be used with sophisticated land cover classification and spatial analysis approaches like Object Based Image Analysis, increasing the potential for use in archaeological characterization of landscapes and specific sites.

  19. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  20. Old high resolution satellite images for landscape archaeology: case studies from Turkey and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    The paper concerns the contribution for Landscape Archaeology from satellite images of 1960s and 1970s, very useful when old aerial photographs are scarce. Particularly, the study concerns the panchromatic photos taken by USA reconnaissance satellites from 1963 to 1972, declassified for civil use in 1995 and 2002, that in the last years are very used in the archaeological research; in fact, a lot of these images have an high geometric resolution, about between 2.74 and 1.83 m (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and some have a ground resolution about between 1.20 and 0.60 m (Gambit KH-7). These satellite images allow to examine very in detail ancient urban areas and territories that later are changed or partially destroyed; so, it is possible to detect and examine ancient structures, palaeo-environmental elements and archaeological traces of buried features now not visible. The paper presents some exemplificative cases study in Turkey and Iraq, in which the analysis of these images has made a fundamental contribution to the archaeological researches: particularly, for the reconstruction of the urban layout of the ancient city of Hierapolis of Phrygia and for the surveys in its territory, and for the study of the ancient topography of some archaeological sites of Iraq. In this second case, the research is gained in the context of the Iraq Virtual Museum Project; the comparison with recent high resolution satellite images (Ikonos-2, QuickBird-2, WorldView-1) also provide a fundamental tool for monitoring archaeological areas and for an evaluation of the situation after the first and the second Gulf War.

  1. NASA, Remote Sensing and Archaeology: An Example from Southeast Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center, located in Mississippi, USA, undertook an archaeological survey of the southeastern Louisiana marshes beginning in 2003. Progress on this activity was severely hampered by the 2005 hurricane season when both Katrina and Rita devastated the study area. In 2008, the NASA team reinitiated the analysis of the project data and that work continues today. The project was conducted initially in partnership with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers New Orleans District and Tulane University. NASA and its partners utilized a wide variety of satellite and airborne remote sensing instruments combined with field verification surveys to identify prehistoric archeological sites in the Southeastern Louisiana delta, both known and still undiscovered. The main approach was to carefully map known sites and use the spectral characteristics of these sites to locate high probability targets elsewhere in the region. The archaeological activities were conducted in support of Coast 2050 whose stated goals is to sustain and restore a coastal ecosystem that supports and protects the environment, economy and culture of southern Louisiana. As the Coast 2050 report states: [T]he rate of coastal land loss in Louisiana has reached catastrophic proportions. Within the last 50 years, land loss rates have exceeded 40 square miles per year, and in the 1990's the rate has been estimated to be between 25 and 35 square miles each year. This loss represents 80% of the coastal wetland loss in the entire continental United States.

  2. Nanotechnologies for the restoration of alum-treated archaeological wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, Fabrizio; Braovac, Susan; Kutzke, Hartmut; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The project Saving Oseberg is funded by the Norwegian State with the aim to preserve the Viking Age wooden objects from the Oseberg burial mound. They were excavated in 1904 near Tønsberg, Norway, and many have been treated in the past with alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum was widely used during the early 1900s as a treatment for archaeological wood to prevent shrinkage and impart strength. In the 1990s, conservators observed an alarming condition of the objects. Initial investigations showed that the alum treatment has initiated a slow but ongoing deterioration process, attacking the wood for over 100 years. Today, the artefacts are highly acidic and have significantly reduced mechanical strength. In the last decade, the use of non-aqueous alkaline nanoparticle dispersions has provided successful results for the protection of cellulose-based materials. Alum-treated archaeological wood samples from Oseberg, with a pH ≤ 2, have been treated with alkaline nanoparticle dispersions, and the effects of the treatment have been evaluated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) analyses. In this contribution, the preliminary results will be presented.

  3. Overhill Cherokee archaeology at Chota-Tanasee

    SciTech Connect

    Schroedl, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The initial objective of the Tellico Archaeological Project was the study of Overhill Cherokee culture, emphasizing the excavation of Chota-Tanasee. In keeping with contemporary archaeological research, the project goals eventually incorporated a regional perspective of human cultural adaptation for the past 12,000 yrs. Nevertheless, Overhill Cherokee studies remained a prominent project focus, and what began at Chota-Tanasee was expanded to include Citico, Toqua, Tomotley, and Mialoquo. Other sites produced additional Cherokee materials and important excavations were made at contemporary Euro-American settlements including Fort Loudoun and the Tellico Blockhouse. There now exists comprehensive data for the eighteenth century Overhill Cherokee. The Chota-Tanasee studies presented in previous chapters and the comparative synthesis presented here as a result have helped fulfill the goals of Overhill Cherokee studies in the lower Little Tennessee River valley.

  4. Global archaeological evidence for proboscidean overkill.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Todd; Waguespack, Nicole; Brantingham, P Jeffrey

    2005-04-26

    One million years ago, proboscideans occupied most of Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Today, wild elephants are only found in portions of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Although the causes of global Pleistocene extinctions in the order Proboscidea remain unresolved, the most common explanations involve climatic change and/or human hunting. In this report, we test the overkill and climate-change hypotheses by using global archaeological spatiotemporal patterning in proboscidean kill/scavenge sites. Spanning approximately 1.8 million years, the archaeological record of human subsistence exploitation of proboscideans is preferentially located on the edges of the human geographic range. This finding is commensurate with global overkill, suggesting that prehistoric human range expansion resulted in localized extinction events. In the present and the past, proboscideans have survived in refugia that are largely inaccessible to human populations.

  5. Applications of MACRO Photogrammetry in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajski, D.; Solter, A.; Gašparovic, M.

    2016-06-01

    Many valuable archaeological artefacts have the size of a few centimetres or less. The production of relevant documentation of such artefacts is mainly limited to subjective interpretation and manual drawing techniques using a magnifier. Most of the laser scanners available for the archaeological purposes cannot reach sufficient space resolution to gather all relevant features of the artefact, such as the shape, the relief, the texture and any damage present. Digital photogrammetric techniques make measuring with high accuracy possible and such techniques can be used to produce the relevant archaeometric documentation with a high level of detail. The approaches for shooting a good macro photograph (in the photogrammetric sense) will be explored and discussed as well as the design of a calibration test-field and the self-calibration methods suitable for macro photogrammetry. Finally, the method will be tested by producing a photorealistic 3D-model of an ancient figurine.

  6. Evaluation of new geological reference materials for uranium-series measurements: Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) and macusanite obsidian.

    PubMed

    Denton, J S; Murrell, M T; Goldstein, S J; Nunn, A J; Amato, R S; Hinrichs, K A

    2013-10-15

    Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques present numerous opportunities for the analytical community, provided accurately characterized reference materials are available. Here, we present multicollector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data obtained by isotope dilution for a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite, and a soil. Uranium concentrations for these glasses range from ∼2 to 14 μg g(-1), Th/U weight ratios range from ∼4 to 6, (234)U/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.93 to 1.02, and (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.98 to 1.12. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data are also presented for a rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru (macusanite). This glass can also be used as a rhyolitic reference material, has a very low Th/U weight ratio (around 0.077), and is approximately in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th secular equilibrium. The U-Th concentration data agree with but are significantly more precise than those previously measured. U-Th concentration and isotopic data agree within estimated errors for the two measurement techniques, providing validation of the two methods. The large (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th disequilibria for some of the glasses, along with the wide range in their chemical compositions and Th/U ratios should provide useful reference points for the U-series analytical community.

  7. The Unknown Oldowan: ~1.7-Million-Year-Old Standardized Obsidian Small Tools from Garba IV, Melka Kunture, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gallotti, Rosalia; Mussi, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    The Oldowan Industrial Complex has long been thought to have been static, with limited internal variability, embracing techno-complexes essentially focused on small-to-medium flake production. The flakes were rarely modified by retouch to produce small tools, which do not show any standardized pattern. Usually, the manufacture of small standardized tools has been interpreted as a more complex behavior emerging with the Acheulean technology. Here we report on the ~1.7 Ma Oldowan assemblages from Garba IVE-F at Melka Kunture in the Ethiopian highland. This industry is structured by technical criteria shared by the other East African Oldowan assemblages. However, there is also evidence of a specific technical process never recorded before, i.e. the systematic production of standardized small pointed tools strictly linked to the obsidian exploitation. Standardization and raw material selection in the manufacture of small tools disappear at Melka Kunture during the Lower Pleistocene Acheulean. This proves that 1) the emergence of a certain degree of standardization in tool-kits does not reflect in itself a major step in cultural evolution; and that 2) the Oldowan knappers, when driven by functional needs and supported by a highly suitable raw material, were occasionally able to develop specific technical solutions. The small tool production at ~1.7 Ma, at a time when the Acheulean was already emerging elsewhere in East Africa, adds to the growing amount of evidence of Oldowan techno-economic variability and flexibility, further challenging the view that early stone knapping was static over hundreds of thousands of years.

  8. The Unknown Oldowan: ~1.7-Million-Year-Old Standardized Obsidian Small Tools from Garba IV, Melka Kunture, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Oldowan Industrial Complex has long been thought to have been static, with limited internal variability, embracing techno-complexes essentially focused on small-to-medium flake production. The flakes were rarely modified by retouch to produce small tools, which do not show any standardized pattern. Usually, the manufacture of small standardized tools has been interpreted as a more complex behavior emerging with the Acheulean technology. Here we report on the ~1.7 Ma Oldowan assemblages from Garba IVE-F at Melka Kunture in the Ethiopian highland. This industry is structured by technical criteria shared by the other East African Oldowan assemblages. However, there is also evidence of a specific technical process never recorded before, i.e. the systematic production of standardized small pointed tools strictly linked to the obsidian exploitation. Standardization and raw material selection in the manufacture of small tools disappear at Melka Kunture during the Lower Pleistocene Acheulean. This proves that 1) the emergence of a certain degree of standardization in tool-kits does not reflect in itself a major step in cultural evolution; and that 2) the Oldowan knappers, when driven by functional needs and supported by a highly suitable raw material, were occasionally able to develop specific technical solutions. The small tool production at ~1.7 Ma, at a time when the Acheulean was already emerging elsewhere in East Africa, adds to the growing amount of evidence of Oldowan techno-economic variability and flexibility, further challenging the view that early stone knapping was static over hundreds of thousands of years. PMID:26690569

  9. Presentation of Archaeoastronomy in Introductions to Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Victor B.

    In order to gain insights into how archaeoastronomy is presented (if at all) in introductory archaeology courses at universities, a study of introductory textbooks was undertaken in 2004 and again in 2012. In both instances the results were mixed. The quality of future coverage and the reputation of archaeoastronomy may depend upon archaeoastronomers' ability to confine themselves to good exemplars in the next editions of their books.

  10. Finding archaeological cropmarks: a hyperspectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqdus, Syed A.; Hanson, William S.; Drummond, Jane

    2007-10-01

    Aerial photography has made the single most important contribution to our improved appreciation of the density, diversity and distribution of archaeological sites in Britain since WWII. This is particularly the case for areas of intensive lowland agriculture where ploughed-out sites are known only from marks in the crops growing above them. However, reconnaissance for such cropmarks is not equally effective throughout the lowlands because of the particular conditions of drier weather, well-drained soils and arable agriculture required before they become visible. In Scotland, for example, there is considerable bias in the discovery and, consequently, known distribution of archaeological sites in favour of the drier eastern side of the country, with its higher percentage of arable agriculture, as opposed to the west with its wetter climate and greater proportion of grazing land. Given that the appearance of cropmarks is linked to moisture stress in growing plants, they are potentially detectable at bandwidths outside the visible and before they become apparent therein. Using a range of imagery (CASI 2, ATM and digital vertical photographic data) from two case study sites in Lowland Scotland to facilitate comparisons, one in the east and one in the west, this paper considers the extent to which hyperspectral imagery can enhance the identification of otherwise invisible archaeological sites.

  11. Point cloud vs drawing on archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, E.

    2015-08-01

    Archaeology is a discipline closely related to the representation of objects that are at the center of its concerns. At different times of the archaeological method, representation approach takes different forms. It takes place on the archaeological excavation, during the exploration, or in a second time in the warehouse, object after object. It occurs also in different drawing scales. The use of topographical positioning techniques has found its place for decades in the stratigraphic process. Plans and sections are thus readjusted to each other, on the excavation site. These techniques are available to the archaeologist since a long time. The most of the time, a qualified member of the team performs himself these simple topographical operations. The two issues raised in this article are: three-dimensional acquisition techniques can they, first find their place in the same way on the excavation site, and is it conceivable that it could serve to support the representation? The drawing during the excavations is a very time-consuming phase; has it still its place on site? Currently, the drawing is part of the archaeological stratigraphy method. It helps documenting the different layers, which are gradually destroyed during the exploration. Without systematic documentation, any scientific reasoning cannot be done retrospectively and the conclusions would not be any evidence. Is it possible to imagine another way to document these phases without loss compared to the drawing? Laser scanning and photogrammetry are approved as acquisition techniques. What can they bring more to what is already done for archaeologists? Archaeological practice can be seen as divided into two parts: preventive archeology and classical archeology. The first has largely adopted the techniques that provide point clouds to save valuable time on site. Everything that is not destroyed by the archaeological approach will be destroyed by the building construction that triggered the excavations. The

  12. 77 FR 59660 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... Stanford University Archaeology Center. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  13. Mössbauer Spectroscopy in South American Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, U.; Häusler, W.; Wagner, F. E.; Shimada, I.

    2003-06-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of early pottery finds from the Poma Archaeological Reserve, North Coast of Peru. The material is from a Formative kiln site at Batán Grande (1000-800 BC) and a ceramics workshop at Huaca Sialupe pertaining to the Middle Sicán period (900-1100 AD). Mössbauer spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, optical thin-section microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the material. Numerous sherds of Sicán black- and redware, bricks, moulds and kiln linings were studied. Local clay from the kiln site at Batán Grande, lumps of clay, and unfired sherds from Huaca Sialupe were used as model material for firing experiments under controlled conditions. By comparing the Mössbauer spectra from laboratory and field firings with the ancient materials, methods of early pottery making can be assessed.

  14. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  15. The archaeology and genealogy of mentorship in English nursing.

    PubMed

    Fulton, John

    2015-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, the concept of mentorship has been central to nurse education since the 1980s. Mentorship has become the definitive term used to denote the supervisory relationship of the student nurse with a qualified nurse who monitors and evaluates their skill development in the clinical area. The background against which the concept was established is examined through a consideration of the concepts of archaeology of knowledge and genealogy of knowledge as conceptualised by Michel Foucault. In particular, the Foucauldian concepts of power, discourses and the gaze are used to direct and shape the analysis. The paper explores the interplay of managerial dominance and professionalism and the ways in which mentorship can be used as a means of control and surveillance.

  16. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  17. Asteroseismology for Galactic archaeology: bridging two fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, Luca; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Serenelli, Aldo M.

    Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties that would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses, and thus ages of field stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures, and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. An overview of the ongoing Strömgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) is presented, along with recent results using asteroseismology to investigate the vertical age structure of the Milky Way disc.

  18. Recognizing women in the archaeological record

    SciTech Connect

    Bumsted, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Primary sexual characteristics are usually absent in the archaeological record. The recovered secondary sex markers in bone morphology or mortuary context reflect the lifelong integrated biocultural experience of the individual man or woman. Internal patterns of variability within and between sexes can be recognized but are too frequently masked by traditional descriptive and univariate analyses. Fortunately, a more detailed picture of life experience is gained by analyzing chemical composition (isotopic and elemental) of hard tissues using an analytical anthropology approach and by examining the variation in novel ways. 7 figs.

  19. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.; Rhode, D.

    1991-12-31

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants.

  20. Georadar Archaeological Prospection at the Historical Center of the Merida City, Yucatan, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, L.; Ortiz, A.; Blancas, J.; Ligorred, J.

    2007-05-01

    This paper shows the results of the georadar archaeological prospection carried out by the Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueologica from the Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas (IIA) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) verifing the archaeological and historical information recovered by the Departamento de Patrimonio Arqueologico y Natural del Municipio (DPANM) del Ayuntamiento de Merida en el Centro Histerico de la Ciudad de Merida under a joint project. The Historical Center of Merida has been classified as a "zone of high patrimonial value" after the topographic data and the historical documents recovered showed a long-term occupation, non interrupted since pre-Columbian times, when T Ho was the great capital of the northern region of the Maya area. For the rehabilitation program of the Historical Center of Merida has been a great priority to verify the existence of archaeological remains, pre-Columbian or colonial, under the present streets, gardens and plazas that could be damaged during the public infrastructure works. In order to prevent any damage to the patrimony a large georadar study was carried out pulling 200 and 400 MHz antennas of the GSSI SIR System 2 for 16500 m of the city streets, focusing in the areas where infrastructure works were imminent. After the analysis of the radar data it was possible to build up a map with the location of the most noticeable archaeological remains under the pavement of the streets that confirmed many of the topographic and documental proposed places. As a final result, by the first time a city government has available information to take present urban decisions, while preventing the damage to the archaeological patrimony of the same city.

  1. Digging Deep: Teaching Social Studies through the Study of Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Dennie Palmer, Ed.; Balick, Dana, Ed.; Craven, Julie, Ed.

    This book outlines how to combine the skills of archaeology with the exploration of social studies in the classroom and illustrates how a network of teachers transformed their social studies courses into dynamic, multicultural inquiries using the tools and questions of archaeology. It explains how middle school social studies teachers tamed their…

  2. ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROSPECTION: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    1986-01-01

    The entire range of geophysical methods, perhaps excluding only borehole techniques, has found application in the search for archaeological sites unseen or partially known. Pressures by developers, and the public's growing sensitivity toward the preservation of historic and prehistoric cultural artifacts and sites, has led to an accelerating use of high-resolution geophysical methods in the archaeological sciences.

  3. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  4. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  5. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  6. An Illustrated Guide to Measuring Radiocarbon from Archaeological Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Alex; McCormac, Gerry; van der Plicht, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been central to the construction of archaeological chronologies for over 50 years. The archaeological, scientific and (increasingly) statistical methods for interpreting radiocarbon measurements to produce these chronologies have become ever more sophisticated. The accurate measurement of the radiocarbon content of an…

  7. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  8. Site Simulation in Teaching Archaeology: A Hands On Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    An indoor simulated archaeology site for use in a college level introductory archaeology course is described. Housed in the basement of a building on campus, the site simulates an eight-layered French rock shelter. Layers contain "remains" of a microband of Neanderthals, a Lower and Upper Aurignacian group, an Upper Perigordian group, Magdalenian…

  9. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  10. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  11. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  12. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  13. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  14. Refinement of a Method for Identifying Probable Archaeological Sites from Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Comer, Douglas C.; Priebe, Carey E.; Sussman, Daniel; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate locating archaeological sites before they are compromised or destroyed, we are developing approaches for generating maps of probable archaeological sites, through detecting subtle anomalies in vegetative cover, soil chemistry, and soil moisture by analyzing remotely sensed data from multiple sources. We previously reported some success in this effort with a statistical analysis of slope, radar, and Ikonos data (including tasseled cap and NDVI transforms) with Student's t-test. We report here on new developments in our work, performing an analysis of 8-band multispectral Worldview-2 data. The Worldview-2 analysis begins by computing medians and median absolute deviations for the pixels in various annuli around each site of interest on the 28 band difference ratios. We then use principle components analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis to train a classifier which assigns a posterior probability that a location is an archaeological site. We tested the procedure using leave-one-out cross validation with a second leave-one-out step to choose parameters on a 9,859x23,000 subset of the WorldView-2 data over the western portion of Ft. Irwin, CA, USA. We used 100 known non-sites and trained one classifier for lithic sites (n=33) and one classifier for habitation sites (n=16). We then analyzed convex combinations of scores from the Archaeological Predictive Model (APM) and our scores. We found that that the combined scores had a higher area under the ROC curve than either individual method, indicating that including WorldView-2 data in analysis improved the predictive power of the provided APM.

  15. Virtual Diving in the Underwater Archaeological Site of Cala Minnola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, F.; Lagudi, A.; Barbieri, L.; Muzzupappa, M.; Mangeruga, M.; Pupo, F.; Cozza, M.; Cozza, A.; Ritacco, G.; Peluso, R.; Tusa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the application of the technologies and methods defined in the VISAS project for the case study of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola located in the island of Levanzo, in the archipelago of the Aegadian Islands (Sicily, Italy). The VISAS project (http://visas-project.eu) aims to improve the responsible and sustainable exploitation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage by means the development of new methods and technologies including an innovative virtual tour of the submerged archaeological sites. In particular, the paper describes the 3D reconstruction of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola and focus on the development of the virtual scene for its visualization and exploitation. The virtual dive of the underwater archaeological site allows users to live a recreational and educational experience by receiving historical, archaeological and biological information about the submerged exhibits, the flora and fauna of the place.

  16. On the use of COSMO-SkyMed time series for the identification of Archaeological traces dating from the Eastern-Han to Northern-Wei Dynasties in Luoyang city.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia; Feng, Dexian; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) Synthetic Aperture SAR (SAR) data (Lasaponara and Masini 2013, Tapete et al. 2013), such as TerraSAR-X and Cosmo Sky Med launched in 2007, opened a new era in the spaceborne SAR remote sensing, including archaeology remote sensing previous mainly based on optical data (see for example Lasaponara and Masini 2012, Ciminale et al. 2009, Masini and Lasaponara 2006). They provide powerful tools, based on active sensors from space operating in the microwave frequency range, which are useful to extract information about the contemporary landscape and make possible, in some conditions, to infer changes in the former environment and to detect archaeological remains. Nevertheless, the capability of satellite radar technology in archaeology has so far not been fully assessed. This paper (Chen et al 2015) is a pioneering effort to assess the potential of satellite SAR X-band data in the detection of archaeological marks. We focus on the results obtained from a collaborative contribution jointly carried out by archaeologists and remote sensing experts in order to test the use of COSMO-SkyMed data in different contexts and environmental conditions. The methodological approach we adopted is based on multi-temporal analysis performed to reduce noise and highlight archaeological marks. Results from multi-temporal data analysis, conducted using 40 scenes from COSMO-SkyMed X-band Stripmap data (27 February to 17 October 2013), enable us to detect unknown archaeological crop, soil, and shadow marks representing Luoyang city, dating from the Eastern-Han to Northern-Wei Dynasties. Reference Chen F., Masini N., Yang R., Milillo P., Feng D., Lasaponara R., 2015 A Space View of Radar Archaeological Marks: First Applications of COSMO-SkyMed X-Band Data. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 24-50; doi:10.3390/rs70100024. Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2013, Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar in Archaeology and Cultural Landscape: An Overview. Archaeological

  17. Native American Archaeological Sites: An Annotated Bibliography Relating to Indian Archaeological Sites in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelbarger, Johnny J.

    Thirty-six American Indian archaeological sites located in the southeastern states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee are cited. Included are some of the very early sites, some of the larger and better known sites, and some that are being developed as state-owned archaeological parks in Tennessee. Information…

  18. Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Joseph V.; Plummer, Thomas W.; Pobiner, Briana L.; Oliver, James S.; Bishop, Laura C.; Braun, David R.; Ditchfield, Peter W.; Seaman, John W.; Binetti, Katie M.; Seaman, John W.; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of lithic technology by ∼2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ∼1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to ∼2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence – spanning hundreds to thousands of years – and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

  19. Materials issues in art and archaeology. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vandiver, P.B. ); Druzik, J. ); Wheeler, G.S. )

    1991-01-01

    the purpose of this meeting is to present new and current research which: shares an empirical methodology of observation and measurement; concerns interdisciplinary studies of art, archaeology, architecture, ancient technology, and conservation; and uses the knowledge, methods and tools of materials science and engineering. Druzik introduced the symposium as follows: It is not inaccurate to say that Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II is a continuing experiment. It is an experiment in the sense that conservation scientists, materials scientists who usually deal with the properties and processing of modern technology, and those who study the materials and processing of ancient cultures seldom have an opportunity to experience each other's unique problems. While the conservation of artistic and cultural properties often involves the very same objects as those studied by students of ancient technology these two specialized species seldom, if ever, attend the same meetings, publish in the same journals, or can even name a paltry subset of the other discipline's more famous characters and controversies. And, what do the Real Material Scientists think of these two odd birds. Well, that's what we really want to find out. Because it's certainly clear to myself and my co-organizers that the MRS has undreamed of potential and wealth to help solve many of the questions we pose about past cultures, their tools, their aesthetic sensibilities and their preservation for future generations were we only imaginative enough to exploit it.

  20. Geophysical prospecting in archaeology: investigations in Santa Venera, south suburb of Poseidonia-Paestum, Campania, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Bavusi, M.; Lapenna, V.; Del Lungo, S.; Sabelli, R.; Gizzi, F. T.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is the result of a joint work between geophysicists and archaeologists in which the authors have used geophysical techniques to investigate the Greek and Roman settlement of Paestum, southern Italy for preventive archaeological research (commonly termed 'rescue archaeology') on an area of the ancient settlement affected by new building work and infrastructure. Starting from a background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, an integrated geophysical approach based on magnetic, GPR and geoelectrical surveys was carried out on the Santa Venera area, a site selected to build a car parking. High-density and high-resolution cross-correlated geophysical surveys were carried out in different parts of the area to better resolve the structures. Systematic excavations confirmed the clues suggested by geophysical prospecting about the presence of archaeological remains such as walls, canals and tombs. By the use of non-destructive geophysical techniques a two-fold aim was reached: to properly plan the building of the infrastructure and preserve the ancient artefacts according to the advanced European guidelines on the protection of archaeological heritage.

  1. Trachyte Obsidian Blocks in the Lag-Breccia of Ignimbrite Campana (Campi Flegrei, Italy). Additional Experimental Data related to the magma ascent conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, R. C.; Dolfi, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Obsidian blocks occurring frequently in the Lag-breccia of the Ignimbrite Campana super-eruption (IC) have been found to mime strictly the magma composition and the phenocrysts assemblage of the main eruptive ash- flow unit, possibly representing a quenched fraction of the magmatic system. To date, in spite of the several investigations on the erupted rocks, conclusive data on the fissural vents location, intracrustal reservoir(s) depth and dissolved volatiles in the melt, are controversial. The obsidian blocks show, typically, millimetric euhedral sanidine phenocrysts (up to 10-12 vol.%) regularly associated with salitic pyroxene, corroded bytownite, euhedral andesine, ulvo-spinel, apatite and biotite (totalling 4-6 vol.%). All these phases, but the bytownite, appear to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the melt as shown by the equilibrium experiments performed at subliquidus T and confining P(H2O) of 50, 100, and 200 MPa. At 100 and 200 MPa, in particular, the entry order of mineral phases is corresponding to the obsidian one, with near liquidus co-crystallization of pyroxene, plagioclase and ulvospinel. Crystallisation is scarce until the appearance of sanidine(40-60°C below the liquidus), which brings quickly to the complete solidification of the magmatic system. Other experiments at the same P's and T's just above liquidus were performed to determine the H2O solubility in the melt both under equilibrium conditions (respectively 2.6, 4.7, and 6.9 wt.%) and under slow decompression gradients. In these last experiments performed by decreasing the confining P from 100 to 50 MPa with gradients up to 0.02 MPa/s and delay times before quenching from 0 to 12 h, no vesiculation was observed at the SEM scale, despite the amount of dissolved H2O (3.4wt.%) resulted significantly higher than the equilibrium value at the final experimental P. The effect of slow decompression rates at shallow depths keeps the volatiles into the melt enhancing the magma ascent already

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of recently excavated archaeological potsherds from Tamilnadu, India with multi-analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Raja Annamalai, G; Ravisankar, R; Rajalakshmi, A; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajan, K

    2014-12-10

    A combined analytical study of potsherds excavated from different archaeological sites of Tamilnadu (Kavalapatti, Nattapuraki and Thamaraikulam villages), India are analyzed by spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). FTIR and XRD techniques have been attempted to characterize the mineralogical composition, firing temperature and firing conditions of the archaeological potsherds. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is the complementary study to estimate the firing temperature from characteristic thermal reactions in potsherds under controlled firing in inert gas atmosphere. Further, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped and coupled with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) to analyze internal morphology and chemical composition of the potsherds was used. From the results of the above techniques, the firing temperatures of potsherds were found to be greater than 650°C.

  3. Characterisation of archaeological waterlogged wood by pyrolytic and mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Łucejko, Jeannette J; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika; del Río, José C

    2009-11-03

    Two techniques based on analytical pyrolysis and mass spectrometry, direct exposure-MS (DE-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), were used to characterise waterlogged archaeological wood and to study degradation patterns of wood in aqueous environments. The two techniques were applied to samples from the excavation of the Site of the Ancient Ships of Pisa San Rossore in Pisa (Italy), and data were compared to those relative to native sound wood of the same species (pine, elm, beech). Both the methods result valuable in the analysis of ancient wood artefacts, avoiding the long wet-chemical procedures that are commonly used in wood analysis, and allowing us to use a minimal sample size. DE-MS achieves a global mass spectral fingerprint of lignin and polysaccharides pyrolysis compounds in few minutes, and the results have been interpreted with the support of principal component analysis (PCA) of mass spectra. Py-GC/MS permits detailed molecular analysis of pyrolysis compounds and highlights some chemical modifications of lignin in archaeological samples, as demethylation of both guaiacyl and syringyl lignin units. Both the techniques demonstrate consistent loss of polysaccharides in archaeological wood.

  4. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas. Fiscal Year 1990: The Northeastern Perimeter Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Fort Hood. Texas. Fields, Ross C. (editor) 1988 Cultural Resources Investigat•ons Along Whiteoak Bayou, Harris County, Texas. Reports of...H. Blame Ensor, and Harold Drollinger 1989 Llthic Analysis. In Alaosn Road. Adattion to the Inland Coastal Pratrie Zone, Harris Count, Southeast... Harris County, Texas, by H.B. Ensor, J.E. Dockall, and F. Winchell. Archaeological Research Laboratory, Reports of Investigations No. 12. Ensor. H

  5. Applications of ecological concepts and remote sensing technologies in archaeological site reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. Frank; Sever, Thomas L.; Lee, C. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The concept of integrating ecological perspectives on early man's settlement patterns with advanced remote sensing technologies shows promise for predictive site modeling. Early work with aerial imagery and ecosystem analysis is discussed with respect to the development of a major project in Maya archaeology supported by NASA and the National Geographic Society with technical support from the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Center. A preliminary site reconnaissance model will be developed for testing during the 1991 field season.

  6. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  7. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  8. The Obsidian Creep Project: Seismic Imaging in the Brawley Seismic Zone and Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Lohman, R. B.; McGuire, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    the south, which broke the surface during a local swarm of earthquakes in 2005 and which also slipped at the surface in association with the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Baja California. The faults imaged in our profiles will be compared to high-precision earthquake relocations for the 2005 earthquake swarm and more recent events recorded by the Cal Energy borehole seismic network, and will be used as input into a reanalysis of geodetic observations spanning the 2005 earthquake swarm. The combined Obsidian Creep data set provides the most detailed, publicly available subsurface images of fault structures in the BSZ and SSGF.

  9. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Erkelens, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  10. Constraints on magma ascent, emplacement, and eruption: geochemical and mineralogical data from drill-core samples at Obsidian dome, Inyo chain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Younker, L.W.; Schuraytz, B.C.

    1987-05-01

    Systematic chemical and mineralogical variability occurs in samples from drill holes through Obsidian dome, the conduit to the dome, and a nearby associated feeder dike. The drill-hole samples from the margins of the conduit and most of the lower part of the dome are high-Ba, low-silica rhyolites; they contain two populations of phenocrysts and represent commingled magmas, whereas samples from the dike and upper parts of the dome are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that do not reflect commingled magmas. Samples from the center of the conduit are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that are only slightly mixed. A major part of the variability within the drill-core samples of the dome and conduit reflects the juxtaposition and commingling of two distinct magmas during their passage through the conduit.

  11. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  12. Beyond the archaeological imagination. Observations about Kodjadermengumelnita - Karanovo vi architecture based on study of experiment archaeology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazăr, Cătălin; Ignat, Theodor; Stan, Sebastian; Moldoveanu, Katia; Rădulescu, Florin

    The experimental archaeology project presented here aimed at the reconstruction of a dwelling, at the 1:1 scale, belonging to the Kodjadermen-Gumelnitsa-Karanovo VI culture (5th millennium BC), based on archaeological data accumulated from research carried out mainly at the site of Sultana-Malu Roşu (South-East Romania). This reconstruction was followed by the estimation of the volume of materials used for raising the construction in conjunction with the human factor and the time needed for building it. Further, a reconstruction and verification of different techniques for the construction of surface area houses was made. The sources for this project were based on archaeological remains discovered in the field, such as, fragments of walls with impressions of building materials, charred fragments of posts, the size and arrangement of the post holes, and on the indirect information provided by miniature house models of Kodjadermen-Gumelnitsa-Karanovo VI dwellings, which are mostly reflected by ethnographic data. These data were used to verify some of our hypotheses.

  13. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, B. A.; Gibson, B. K.; Flynn, C. M. L.

    2016-10-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realized stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach ˜0.1 dex and the parameterized MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  14. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  15. Peopling the Tibetan plateau: insights from archaeology.

    PubMed

    Aldenderfer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the genome of modern Tibetans have revealed the existence of genes thought to provide an adaptive advantage for life at high elevation. Extrapolating from this discovery, some researchers now argue that a Tibetan-Han split occurred no more than 2750 yr ago. This date is implausible, and in this paper I review the archaeological data from the Tibetan plateau as one means by which to examine the veracity of this assertion. Following a review of the general state of knowledge of Tibetan prehistory, which is unfortunately only at its beginnings, I first examine the data that speak to the initial peopling of the plateau and assess the evidence that traces of their presence can be seen in modern Tibetans today. Although the data are sparse, both archaeology and genetics suggest that the plateau was occupied in the Late Pleistocene, perhaps as early as 30,000 yr ago, and that these early peoples have left a genetic signature in modern Tibetans. I then turn to the evidence for later migrations and focus on the question of the timing of the establishment of permanent settled villages on the plateau. Three areas of the plateau-northeastern Qinghai, extreme eastern Tibet, and the Yarlung Tsangpo valley-have evidence of permanent settlements dating from ca. 6500, 5900, and 3750 yr ago, respectively. These data are not consonant with the 2750 yr ago date for the split and suggest at a minimum that the plateau has been occupied substantially longer and, further, that multiple migrations at different times and from different places have created a complex mosaic of population history.

  16. Variation in strontium isotope ratios of archaeological fauna in the Midwestern United States: a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, Kristin M.; Curry, B. Brandon; Johnson, Thomas M.; Fullagar, Paul D.; Emerson, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) in bone and tooth enamel have been used increasingly to identify non-local individuals within prehistoric human populations worldwide. Archaeological research in the Midwestern United States has increasingly highlighted the role of population movement in affecting interregional cultural change. However, the comparatively low level of geologic variation in the Midwestern United States might suggest a corresponding low level of strontium variation, and calls into question the sensitivity of strontium isotopes to identify non-local individuals in this region. Using strontium isotopes of archaeological fauna, we explore the degree of variability in strontium ratios across this region. Our results demonstrate measurable variation in strontium ratios and indicate the potential of strontium analysis for addressing questions of origin and population movement in the Midwestern United States.

  17. Mixture model of pottery decorations from Lake Chad Basin archaeological sites reveals ancient segregation patterns

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John D.; Lin, Kathryn; MacEachern, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We present a new statistical approach to analysing an extremely common archaeological data type—potsherds—that infers the structure of cultural relationships across a set of excavation units (EUs). This method, applied to data from a set of complex, culturally heterogeneous sites around the Mandara mountains in the Lake Chad Basin, helps elucidate cultural succession through the Neolithic and Iron Age. We show how the approach can be integrated with radiocarbon dates to provide detailed portraits of cultural dynamics and deposition patterns within single EUs. In this context, the analysis supports ancient cultural segregation analogous to historical ethnolinguistic patterning in the region. We conclude with a discussion of the many possible model extensions using other archaeological data types. PMID:27009217

  18. Mixture model of pottery decorations from Lake Chad Basin archaeological sites reveals ancient segregation patterns.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John D; Lin, Kathryn; MacEachern, Scott

    2016-03-30

    We present a new statistical approach to analysing an extremely common archaeological data type--potsherds--that infers the structure of cultural relationships across a set of excavation units (EUs). This method, applied to data from a set of complex, culturally heterogeneous sites around the Mandara mountains in the Lake Chad Basin, helps elucidate cultural succession through the Neolithic and Iron Age. We show how the approach can be integrated with radiocarbon dates to provide detailed portraits of cultural dynamics and deposition patterns within single EUs. In this context, the analysis supports ancient cultural segregation analogous to historical ethnolinguistic patterning in the region. We conclude with a discussion of the many possible model extensions using other archaeological data types.

  19. Archaeological data recovery at drill pad U19au, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Construction activities accompanying underground nuclear tests result in the disturbance of the surface terrain at the Nevada Test Site. In compliance with Federal legislation (National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (PL 89-665) and National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (PL 91-190)), the US Department of Energy (DOE), Field Office, Nevada, has long required that cultural resources studies must precede all land-disturbing activities on the Nevada Test Site. In accordance with 36 CFR Part 800, these studies consist of archaeological surveys conducted prior to the land-disturbing activities. The intent of these surveys is to identify and evaluate all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the proposed construction activity. This report presents the final analysis of the data recovered from archaeological investigations conducted at the U19au drill site and access road. This report includes descriptions of the archaeological sites as recorded during the original survey, the research design used to guide the investigations, the method and techniques used to collect and analyze the data, and the results and interpretations of the analysis. 200 refs., 112 figs., 53 tabs.

  20. Evaluating the use of laser radiation in cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological Egyptian textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar; Harith, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    Cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological textiles is still a complicated conservation process, as most textile conservators believe that the advantages of using traditional cleaning techniques are less than their disadvantages. In this study, the uses of laser cleaning method and two modified recipes of wet cleaning methods were evaluated for cleaning of the corroded archaeological Egyptian copper embroidery threads on an archaeological Egyptian textile fabric. Some corroded copper thread samples were cleaned using modified recipes of wet cleaning method; other corroded copper thread samples were cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation of wavelength 532 nm. All tested metal thread samples before and after cleaning were investigated using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis unit. Also the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used for the elemental analysis of laser-cleaned samples to follow up the laser cleaning procedure. The results show that laser cleaning is the most effective method among all tested methods in the cleaning of corroded copper threads. It can be used safely in removing the corrosion products without any damage to both metal strips and fibrous core. The tested laser cleaning technique has solved the problems caused by other traditional cleaning techniques that are commonly used in the cleaning of metal threads on museum textiles.

  1. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  2. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    A mineralogical analysis was done on 70 volcanic ashes; 9 corresponding to proximal samples of seven volcanoes: Cotopaxi (4500 yBP), Guagua Pichincha (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD), Cuicocha (3100 yBP), Pululahua (2400 yBP), Ninahuilca (2350 yBP and 4600 yBP) and 61 to distal ashes collected at eight archaeological sites in the Coastal, Sierra and Amazon regions of Ecuador. Cultural vestiges are from Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional Development and Integration periods, with the exception of a site denominated Hacienda Malqui, which also has Inca vestiges. The sampling process was done in collaboration with various archaeologists in 2011-2013. The volcanic ashes were washed, dried and divided in order to obtain a representative fraction and their later analysis with binocular microscope. The microscope analysis allowed determination of the characteristics of each component of volcanic ash. These main elements are: pumice fragments, minerals, volcanic glass, lithics and exogenous material (non volcanic). The petrographic analysis of distal volcanic ash layers at each archaeological site was correlated by their components and characteristics with proximal volcanic ashes of source volcanoes. Some correlations permitted obtaining a relative age for the layers of distal volcanic ash in the archaeological sites. The petrographic analysis showed a correlation between the archaeological sites of Las Mercedes - Los Naranjos, Rumipamba and El Condado (located west of Quito) with the eruptive activity of Guagua Pichincha volcano (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD) and Pululahua volcano (2400 yBP). Also, a correlation with eruptive activity of Ninahuilca (2350 yBP), Cotopaxi (4500 yBP) and Quilotoa (800 yBP) volcanoes at Hda. Malqui (60 km west of Latacunga) was provided by mineralogy of the respective ashes expulsed by these volcanoes. The ash layers at Cuyuja (50 km east of Quito) are mostly superficial; they are associated with Quilotoa's 800 yBP plinian. Finally at the

  3. General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing the steps leading down into the eighteenth-century burial vault - Harry Buck House, North of Main Street (14800 Governor Oden Bowie Drive), Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  4. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  5. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  6. Organellar genomes from a ∼5,000 years old archaeological maize sample are closely related to NB genotype.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Zamorano, Bernardo; Vallebueno-Estrada, Miguel; Martínez González, Javier; García Cook, Angel; Montiel, Rafael; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Delaye, Luis

    2017-03-17

    The story of how pre-Columbian civilizations developed goes hand-in-hand with the process of plant domestication by Mesoamerican inhabitants. Here we present the almost complete sequence of a mitochondrial genome and a partial chloroplast genome from an archaeological maize sample collected at the Valley of Tehuacán, México. Accelerator mass spectrometry dated the maize sample to be 5,040 to 5,300 years before present (95% probability). Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome shows that the archaeological sample branches basal to the other Zea mays genomes, as expected. However, this analysis also indicates that fertile genotype NB is closely related to the archaeological maize sample and evolved before cytoplasmic male sterility genotypes (CMS-S, CMS-T and CMS-C), thus contradicting previous phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genomes from maize. We show that maximum-likelihood infers a tree where CMS genotypes branch at the base of the tree when including sites that have a relative fast rate of evolution thus suggesting long-branch attraction. We also show that Bayesian analysis infer a topology where NB and the archaeological maize sample are at the base of the tree even when including faster sites. We therefore suggest that previous trees suffered from long-branch attraction. We also show that the phylogenetic analysis of the ancient chloroplast is congruent with genotype NB to be more closely related to the archaeological maize sample. As shown here, the inclusion of ancient genomes on phylogenetic trees greatly improves our understanding of the domestication process of maize, one of the most important corps worldwide.

  7. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  8. Hydrological controls of in situ preservation of waterlogged archaeological deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; West, L. Jared; Howard, Andy J.; Maxfield, Eleanor; Panter, Ian; Oxley, John

    2006-09-01

    Environmental change caused by urban development, land drainage, agriculture or climate change may result in accelerated decay of in situ archaeological remains. This paper reviews research into impacts of environmental change on hydrological processes of relevance to preservation of archaeological remains in situ. It compares work at rural sites with more complex urban environments. The research demonstrates that both the quantity and quality of data on preservation status, and hydrological and chemical parameters collected during routine archaeological surveys need to be improved. The work also demonstrates the necessity for any archaeological site to be placed within its topographic and geological context. In order to understand preservation potential fully, it is necessary to move away from studying the archaeological site as an isolated unit, since factors some distance away from the site of interest can be important for determining preservation. The paper reviews what is known about the hydrological factors of importance to archaeological preservation and recommends research that needs to be conducted so that archaeological risk can be more adequately predicted and mitigated. Any activity that changes either source pathways or the dominant water input may have an impact not just because of changes to the water balance or the water table, but because of changes to water chemistry. Therefore, efforts to manage threatened waterlogged environments must consider the chemical nature of the water input into the system. Clearer methods of assessing the degree to which buried archaeological sites can withstand changing hydrological conditions are needed, in addition to research which helps us understand what triggers decay and what controls thresholds of response for different sediments and types of artefact.

  9. Archaeological Rescue Excavation and Digitalization of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varea, S.; Lemerle, J.-B.

    2013-07-01

    We present in this paper the original work and projects of AFT, a French company working in the complementary fields of topography, archaeological rescue excavation and digitalization of cultural heritage. Here are described more precisely the application of 3D scanning in archaeology, especially in rescue excavation, and the wish of the company to be ahead of its time in this field., followed by two examples, one in heritage object studies, the other in heritage building studies.

  10. Application of Laser Mass Spectrometry to Art and Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulian, Lase Lisa E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Muliadi, Sarah; Owens, Shawn; McGovern, Patrick E.; Schmidt, Catherine M.; Trentelman, Karen A.; deVries, Mattanjah S.

    2011-01-01

    REMPI laser mass spectrometry is a combination of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and time of flight mass spectrometry, This technique enables the collection of mass specific optical spectra as well as of optically selected mass spectra. Analytes are jet-cooled by entrainment in a molecular beam, and this low temperature gas phase analysis has the benefit of excellent vibronic resolution. Utilizing this method, mass spectrometric analysis of historically relevant samples can be simplified and improved; Optical selection of targets eliminates the need for chromatography while knowledge of a target's gas phase spectroscopy allows for facile differentiation of molecules that are in the aqueous phase considered spectroscopically indistinguishable. These two factors allow smaller sample sizes than commercial MS instruments, which in turn will require less damage to objects of antiquity. We have explored methods to optimize REMPI laser mass spectrometry as an analytical tool to archaeology using theobromine and caffeine as molecular markers in Mesoamerican pottery, and are expanding this approach to the field of art to examine laccaic acid in shellacs.

  11. Application of photo-detection to art and archaeology at the C2RMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Klein, M.

    2003-05-01

    The Centre for research and restoration of the museums of France (C2RMF), located in the Louvre palace in Paris routinely uses photodetector-based techniques for the study of objects of cultural heritage. Among these methods, the ion beam analysis techniques (IBA) provided by the 2-MV electrostatic accelerator "AGLAE" installed in the C2RMF have the specific qualities required for the study of these valuable objects. Indeed, PIXE and PIGE are non-destructive, non-invasive, rapid and sensitive tools for the determination of the chemical composition. Their use enables to answer three major questions in the field of Art and Archaeology: (1) identification of the material, (2) determination of the provenance, and (3) study of surface modification (ageing, alteration). Applications of radiation detectors are exemplified through case studies performed at the Centre: the identification of the pigments used on an Egyptian papyrus, the provenance of gemstones set on ancient jewels and the indirect dating of archaeological flints. New trends in the use of photo-detectors in Art and Archaeology are presented.

  12. Identification of archaeological adhesives using direct inlet electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Regert, Martine; Rolando, Christian

    2002-03-01

    Adhesives made from natural substances such as resins, tars, and waxes are found during excavations on archaeological sites dating back to prehistoric periods. Until now, their analysis was mainly performed by gas chromatography, possibly coupled to mass spectrometry, after extraction, purification, and derivatization of the samples. To minimize sampling and sample preparation of ancient organic remains, which are often preserved in tiny amounts, we have directly analyzed archaeological samples from Bronze and Iron Age periods by direct inlet electron ionization mass spectrometry. A series of contemporary natural and synthetic substances, including pine and pistacia resins, birch bark tar, beeswax, and plant oils, possibly used for adhesive fabrication during ancient times, was also investigated with the same technique as reference materials. Despite the complexity of their chemical composition, pine resin and birch bark tar were clearly identified in archaeological samples. Furthermore, mass spectrometry has been shown to be efficient for the identification of glues made of a mixture of beeswax, presenting a series of mass spectral peaks assigned to long-chain esters, and birch bark tar, whose mass spectrum presents characteristic peaks of lupane compounds. The intentional mixing of birch bark tar and beeswax during prehistory is reported here for the first time.

  13. Virtual taphonomy: A new method integrating excavation and postprocessing in an archaeological context.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmson, Helene; Dell'Unto, Nicoló

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to integrate excavation and post-processing of archaeological and osteological contexts and material to enhance the interpretation of these with specific focus on the taphonomical aspects. A method was designed, Virtual Taphonomy, based on the use and integration of image-based 3D modeling techniques into a 3D GIS platform, and tested on a case study. Merging the 3D models and a database directly in the same virtual environment allowed the authors to fully integrate excavation and post-processing in a complex spatial analysis reconnecting contexts excavated on different occasions in the field process. The case study further demonstrated that the method enabled a deeper understanding of the taphonomic agents at work and allowed the construction of a more detailed interpretation of the skeletal remains than possible with more traditional methods. The method also proved to add transparency to the entire research process from field to post-processing and interpretation. Other benefits were the timesaving aspects in documentation, not only in the excavation process but also in post-processing without creating additional costs in material, as the equipment used is available in most archaeological excavations. The authors conclude that this methodology could be employed on a variety of investigations from archaeological to forensic contexts and add significant value in many different respects (for example, detail, objectivity, complexity, time-efficiency) compared to methods currently used.

  14. Rpas and Tls Tecniques for Archaeological Survey: the Case Study of the Archaeological Site of Eraclea Minoa (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Brutto, M.; Sciortino, R.; Garraffa, A.

    2017-02-01

    Digital documentation and 3D modelling of archaeological sites are important for understanding, definition and recognition of the values of the sites and of the archaeological finds. The most part of archaeological sites are outdoor location, but a cover to preserve the ruins protects often parts of the sites. The possibility to acquire data with different techniques and merge them by using a single reference system allows creating multi-parties models in which 3D representations of the individual objects can be inserted. The paper presents the results of a recent study carried out by Geomatics Laboratory of University of Palermo for the digital documentation and 3D modelling of Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. This site is located near Agrigento, in the south of Sicily (Italy) and is one of the most famous ancient Greek colonies of Sicily. The paper presents the results of the integration of different data source to survey the Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. The application of two highly versatile recording systems, the TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) and the RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System), allowed the Eraclea Minoa site to be documented in high resolution and with high accuracy. The integration of the two techniques has demonstrated the possibility to obtain high quality and accurate 3D models in archaeological survey.

  15. Integration of airborne optical and thermal imagery for archaeological subsurface structures detection: the Arpi case study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, C.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fasulli, L.; Palombo, A.; Pascucci, S.; Santini, F.; Pignatti, S.

    2009-04-01

    archaeological area (southern Italy). We identify, for the selected sites, three main land cover overlying the buried structures: (a) photosynthetic (i.e. green low vegetation), (b) non-photosynthetic vegetation (i.e. yellow, dry low vegetation), and (c) dry bare soil. Afterwards, we analyse the spectral regions showing an inherent potential for the archaeological detection as a function of the land cover characteristics. The classified land cover units have been used in a spectral mixture analysis to assess the land cover fractional abundance surfacing the buried structures (i.e. mark-background system). The classification and unmixing results for the CASI, MIVIS and ATM remote sensing data processing showed a good accordance both in the land cover units and in the subsurface structures identification. The integrated analysis of the unmixing results for the three sensors allowed us to establish that for the land cover characterized by green and dry vegetation (occurrence higher than 75%), the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral regions better enhance the buried man-made structures. In particular, if the structures are covered by more than 75% of vegetation the two most promising wavelengths for their detection are the chlorophyll peak at 0.56 m (Visible region) and the red edge region (0.67 to 0.72 m; NIR region). This result confirms that the variation induced by the subsurface structures (e.g., stone walls, tile concentrations, pavements near the surface, road networks) to the natural vegetation growth and/or colour (i.e., for different stress factors) is primarily detectable by the chlorophyll peak and the red edge region applied for the vegetation stress detection. Whereas, if dry soils cover the structures (occurrence higher than 75%), both the VNIR and thermal infrared (TIR) regions are suitable to detect the subsurface structures. This work demonstrates that airborne reflectances and emissivities data, even though at different spatial/spectral resolutions and

  16. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  17. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Damian H.; Fletcher, Roland J.; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization. PMID:23847206

  18. Archaeological Lead Findings in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Mokina, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nikolaiko, A. S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, H. J.; Kostezh, A. B.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Voronov, S. A.

    2007-03-28

    In June-August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for low-radioactive archaeological lead at the bottom of the Black Sea, near the Crimean peninsula (Ukraine) was organised by a Korean-Ukrainian collaboration. The first samples with {approx}0.2 tons of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century B.C. This lead was used as ballast in the keel of the ship. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS analyses. The first preliminary limits on the 210Pb contamination of the samples are less than a few hundreds mBq/kg. The measurements were performed using gamma spectroscopy with HPGe-detectors and alpha spectroscopy with commercial {alpha}-detectors. Measurements of 40K, Th/U in the lead samples were undertaken in Kiev and in the underground laboratories of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). If it was found to be radio-clean this lead could be used as high efficiency shield for ultra low-level detectors, and as raw material for growing radio-pure scintillation crystals such as PbMoO4 or PbWO4 for the search for rare processes.

  19. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar.

    PubMed

    Evans, Damian H; Fletcher, Roland J; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-07-30

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization.

  20. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach

    PubMed Central

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  1. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    SciTech Connect

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site

  2. Close out report for archaeological investigations on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP), South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina conducted archaeological investigations under contract AC09-81SR10749 entitled Archaeological Investigations at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant from July 1981 through September 1987. The major emphasis was upon the completion of a 40% stratified sample of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to identify and preserve archaeological resources. The investigations were conducted to bring the Savannah River Operations Office into compliance with specific laws and regulations pertaining to the identification and preservation of archaeological and historical resources on federally owned and controlled properties. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Spatiotemporal conceptual platform for querying archaeological information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Sartzetaki, Mary; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of archaeological sites has been shown to associate with several attributes including marine, water, mineral and food resources, climate conditions, geomorphological features, etc. In this study, archeological settlement attributes are evaluated under various associations in order to provide a specialized query platform in a geographic information system (GIS). Towards this end, a spatial database is designed to include a series of archaeological findings for a secluded geographic area of Crete in Greece. The key categories of the geodatabase include the archaeological type (palace, burial site, village, etc.), temporal information of the habitation/usage period (pre Minoan, Minoan, Byzantine, etc.), and the extracted geographical attributes of the sites (distance to sea, altitude, resources, etc.). Most of the related spatial attributes are extracted with readily available GIS tools. Additionally, a series of conceptual data attributes are estimated, including: Temporal relation of an era to a future one in terms of alteration of the archaeological type, topologic relations of various types and attributes, spatial proximity relations between various types. These complex spatiotemporal relational measures reveal new attributes towards better understanding of site selection for prehistoric and/or historic cultures, yet their potential combinations can become numerous. Therefore, after the quantification of the above mentioned attributes, they are classified as of their importance for archaeological site location modeling. Under this new classification scheme, the user may select a geographic area of interest and extract only the important attributes for a specific archaeological type. These extracted attributes may then be queried against the entire spatial database and provide a location map of possible new archaeological sites. This novel type of querying is robust since the user does not have to type a standard SQL query but

  4. Review of accelerator gadgets for art and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Salomon, J.; Walter, Ph.

    2004-11-01

    For 30 years analytical methods based on ion beams have been progressively adapted to art and archaeological issues. By allowing the analysis of artefacts in a non-invasive and non-destructive way, the external beam represents the cornerstone of this evolution. In order to reach in air specifications usually obtained under vacuum, improvements in various directions have been necessary. A large panel of gadgets and experimental arrangements have been designed such as a multi-detector set-up operating in helium atmosphere to extend the range of measured elements, a nuclear microprobe at atmospheric pressure for the study of microscopic details or a reliable beam monitoring system. In addition, specific procedures have been developed to characterise multi-layered samples (easel paintings, alteration layers) by varying either the beam energy or the impinging angle. To improve the sensitivity to trace elements in high- Z materials like metals or for analysing targets too sensitive to stand direct exposure to charged particles, a specific X-ray fluorescence set-up (PIXE-XRF) based on the production of quasi-monochromatic X-rays has been developed. Eventually, the ion beam methods usually restricted for external beams to those based on photon detection (PIXE, PIGE) have been recently extended to methods based on charged particle detection (RBS, NRA and even ERDA), opening new perspectives for determination of light elements and depth profiling. This paper makes an historical review of the adaptation of IBA methods to the study of cultural heritage.

  5. 'Diverse epistemologies', truth and archaeology: in defence of realism.

    PubMed

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2011-06-01

    In a recent journal article, as well as in a recent book chapter, in which she critiques my position on 'indigenous knowledge', Lesley Green of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town argues that 'diverse epistemologies ought to be evaluated not on their capacity to express a strict realism but on their ability to advance understanding'. In order to examine the implications of Green's arguments, and of Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's work in this regard, I apply them to a well-known controversy between Native American (or First Nations) creationism and archaeology. I argue that issues in social justice should be distinguished from issues in epistemology. Moreover, in tightening in this paper the link between knowledge and truth, I attempt to defend science as a 'privileged way of seeing the world'. The analysis of truth, and of related concepts like reality and 'the way the world is', will assume a central role here. I contend that, ultimately, the only coherent and consistent position is a realist view of the pertinent issues and ideas.

  6. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  7. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Visible Temporal Change of Archaeological Features of the Peten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this archaeological research was two-fold; the location of Mayan sites and features in order to learn more of this cultural group, and the (cultural) preservation of these sites and features for the future using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. Because the rainy season, traditionally at least, lasts about six months (about June to December), the time of year the image is acquired plays an important role in spectral reflectance. Images from 1986, 1995, and 1997 were selected because it was felt they would provide the best opportunity for success in layering different bands from different years together to attempt to see features not completely visible in any one year. False-color composites were created including bands 3, 4, and 5 using a mixture of years and bands. One particular combination that yielded tremendously interesting results included band 5 from 1997, band 4 from 1995, and band 3 from 1986. A number of straight linear features (probably Mayan causeways) run through the bajos that Dr. Sever believes are features previously undiscovered. At this point, early indications are that this will be a successful method for locating "new" Mayan archaeological features in the Peten.

  8. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  9. Ultrastructural study of archaeological Vitis vinifera L. seeds using rapid-freeze fixation and substitution.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Claudio; Vignani, Rita; Ciacci, Andrea; Nardini, Alessandra; Valenti, Marco; Cantini, Federico; Ciampolini, Fabrizio; Faleri, Claudia; Cresti, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    The ultrastructure of Vitis vinifera seeds from different archaeological sites was studied. Preservation status differed between sites. Preliminary investigations of grape seeds from Poggio Bacherina (Chianciano Terme, Siena) and Miranduolo (Chiusdino, Siena) showed collapsed or charred tegument, making this material suitable for morphometric studies only. Rapid-freeze fixation and substitution of grape seeds from Shahr-I Sokhta in Iran and via De' Castellani in Florence revealed well preserved tegument suitable for chemical and cytochemical analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was used to determine chemical composition. Cytochemical analysis based on fluorescent staining with DAPI suggested the presence of cytoplasm residues.

  10. A Simple Model for the Viscosity of Rhyolites as a Function of Temperature, Pressure and Water Content: Implications for Obsidian Flow Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, A. G.; Romine, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of rhyolitic conduits and lava flows, requires precise knowledge of how viscosity (η) varies with temperature (T), pressure (P) and volatile content (X). In order to address the paucity of viscosity data for high-silica rhyolite at low water contents, which represent water saturation at near-surface conditions, we made 245 viscosity measurements on Mono Craters (California) rhyolites containing between 0.01 and 1.1 wt.% H2O, at temperatures between 796 and 1774 K using parallel plate and concentric cylinder methods at atmospheric pressure. We then developed and calibrated a new empirical model for the log of the viscosity of rhyolitic melts, where non-linear variations due to temperature and water content are nested within a linear dependence of log η on P. The model was fitted to a total of 563 data points: our 245 new data, 255 published data from rhyolites across a wide P-T-X space, and 63 data on haplogranitic and granitic melts under high P-T conditions. Statistically insignificant parameters were eliminated from the model in an effort to increase parsimony and the final model is simple enough for use in numerical models of conduit or lava flow dynamics: log η = -5.142+(13080-2982log⁡(w+0.229))/(T-(98.9-175.9 log⁡(w+0.229)))- P(0.0007-0.76/T ) where η is in Pa s, w is water content in wt.%, P is in MPa and T is in K. The root mean square deviation (rmsd) between the model predictions and the 563 data points used in calibration is 0.39 log units. Experimental constraints have led previously to spurious correlations between P, T, X and η in viscosity data sets, so that predictive models may struggle to correctly resolve the individual effects of P, T and X, and especially their cross-correlations. The increasing water solubility with depth inside a simple isothermal sheet of obsidian suggests that viscosity should decrease by ~1 order of magnitude at ~20m depth and by ~2 orders of magnitude at ~100m depth. If equilibrium water

  11. On the use of Multisensor and multitemporal data for monitoring risk degradation and looting in archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risks which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world. They cause a massive loss of artefacts but also, and above all, a loss of the cultural context, which makes the subsequent interpretation of archaeological remains very difficult. Remote sensing offers a suitable chance to quantify and analyse this phenomenon, especially in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is not much effective and time consuming or non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In this paper we focus on the use of GeoEye and Google Earth imagery to quantitatively assess looting in Ventarron (Lambayeque, Peru) that is one of most important archaeological sites in Southern America. Multitemporal satellite images acquired for the study area have been processed by using both autocorrelation statistics and unsupervised classification to highlight and extract looting patterns. The mapping of areas affected by looting offered the opportunity to investigate such areas not previously systematically documented. Reference Lasaponara R.; Giovanni Leucci; Nicola Masini; Raffaele Persico 2014 ": Investigating archaeological looting using very high resolution satellite images and georadar: the experience in Lambayeque in North Peru JASC13-61R1 Cigna Francesca, Deodato Tapete, Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini, 2013 Amplitude Change Detection with ENVISAT ASAR to Image the Cultural Landscape of the Nasca Region, Peru (pages 117-131). Archeological Prospection Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1451 Tapete Deodato, Francesca Cigna, Nicola Masini and Rosa Lasaponara 2013. Prospection and Monitoring of the Archaeological Heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR Archeological Prospection (pages 133-147) Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1449 Lasaponara Rosa 2013: Geospatial analysis from space: Advanced approaches for data processing

  12. Standardisation of elemental analytical techniques applied to provenance studies of archaeological ceramics: an inter laboratory calibration study.

    PubMed

    Hein, A; Tsolakidou, A; Iliopoulos, I; Mommsen, H; Buxeda i Garrigós, J; Montana, G; Kilikoglou, V

    2002-04-01

    Chemical analysis is a well-established procedure for the provenancing of archaeological ceramics. Various analytical techniques are routinely used and large amounts of data have been accumulated so far in data banks. However, in order to exchange results obtained by different laboratories, the respective analytical procedures need to be tested in terms of their inter-comparability. In this study, the schemes of analysis used in four laboratories that are involved in archaeological pottery studies on a routine basis were compared. The techniques investigated were neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For this comparison series of measurements on different geological standard reference materials (SRM) were carried out and the results were statistically evaluated. An attempt was also made towards the establishment of calibration factors between pairs of analytical setups in order to smooth the systematic differences among the results.

  13. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    calibration of the raw data by using the RADCORR software provided by ITRES (Canada) and the application of a new correction tool for blinking pixel correction, developed by CNR (Italy); (b) atmospheric compensation of the TIR data by applying the ISAC (In-Scene Atmospheric Compensation) algorithm [7]; (c) Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) according to the methods described by [8] to obtain a LST map. The obtained preliminary results are encouraging, even though, suitable integration approaches with the classical geophysical investigation techniques have to be improved for a rapid and cost-effective assessment of the buildings status. The importance of this study, moreover, is related to the evaluation of the impact of the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) imaging in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage that can provide: i) low cost imaging; ii) very high spatial resolution thermal imaging. References 1. Scollar, I., Tabbagh, A., Hesse, A., Herzog, A., 1990. Archaeological Prospecting andRemote Sensing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Seitz, C., Altenbach, H., 2011. Project ARCHEYE: the quadrocopter as the archaeologists eye. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 38 2. Sever, T.L., Wagner, D.W., 1991. Analysis of prehistoric roadways in Chaco Canyonusing remotely sensed data. In: Trombold, C.D. (Ed.), Ancient Road Networksand Settlement Hierarchies in the New World. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, pp. 42 3. Pascucci S., Cavalli R M., Palombo A. & Pignatti S. (2010), Suitability of CASI and ATM airborne remote sensing data for archaeological subsurface structure detection under different land cover: the Arpi case study (Italy). In Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Vol. 7 (2), pp. 183-189. 4. Bassani C., Cavalli R.M., Goffredo, R., Palombo A., Pascucci S. & Pignatti S. (2009), Specific spectral bands for different land cover contexts to improve the efficiency of remote sensing archaeological prospection: The Arpi case study. In Journal of

  14. Challenges to the Application of δ15N measurements of the organic fraction of archaeological and fossil mollusk shells to assess paleoenvironmental change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, C. F. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen isotope analysis of the organic fraction of mollusk shells is beginning to be applied to questions of past anthropogenic and natural environmental variation using samples from archaeological and fossil deposits. Fairly extensive proxy validation research has been conducted in the past decade, documenting the relationship between the δ15N of ambient particulate organic matter, mollusk soft tissues, and shell organic matrix. However, comparatively little research has addressed the potential effects of taphonomy and diagenesis on these proxy records. Assessing archaeological samples are especially complex in that humans may have transported and/or cooked shell prior to deposition. Shell δ15N data will be presented from modern and archaeological oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and clam shell (Mercenaria spp.) of various late Holocene ages and late Cretaceous Crassatellites vadosus shells. Archaeological shells show some loss of organic matter over time, yet some Cretaceous shells retain enough matrix to permit δ15N analysis. The Cretaceous samples required concentration of the remaining organic matrix by removing carbonate via acid pretreatment prior to EA-IRMS analysis, but modern and archaeological shells had sufficient organic matrix to permit analysis without acid pretreatment. The δ15N data from the archaeological shells do not display obvious alteration from the loss of organic matrix. The results of cooking experiments performed on modern oyster shells also indicate little alteration of δ15N values, unless the shell was heated to the point of disintegration. While these experiments indicate promise for the application of δ15N analysis of shell organic matter, the results are incomplete and lack ideal control over initial δ15N values in ancient samples used for comparisons. Future research, perhaps focused on compound-specific δ15N analysis and additional controlled experiments on moderns shells, may improve this assessment.

  15. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.; Carloganu, C.; Niess, V.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  16. Geologic setting of the Abdur Archaeological Site on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffler, Richard T.; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Ghebretensae, Berhane N.; Walter, Robert C.; Guillaume, Mireille M. M.; Berhe, Seife M.; McIntosh, William; Park, Lisa E.

    2010-07-01

    The Abdur Archaeological Site was defined initially by the discovery and dating (125 +/- ka by Ur/Th) of in situ stone tools within uplifted marine terrace deposits located along the southern Red Sea coast of Eritrea, near the small village of Abdur. These tools represent some of the earliest well-dated evidence for human occupation of coastal marine environments. The site is located on the Buri Peninsula along the eastern shoreline of the Gulf of Zula and covers an area of approximately 7 km by 1 km. Three main stratigraphic units are defined and discussed from oldest to youngest: The Buri Formation is defined herein as a sequence of brackish-freshwater (estuarine) and fluvial-deltaic sediments consisting of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, conglomerates and limestones with ash and pumice beds. Ar-Ar dating of pumice and tephras puts the time of deposition of this unit from about 0.91 to 0.72 Ma (Early-Middle Pleistocene). Several stone tools were discovered in the Buri Formation, indicating early human occupation of a coastal environment during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. The Abdur Volcanic Complex (AVC) is a small basaltic shield complex that forms the highlands along the eastern part of the Abdur Site and extends to the north and south of the area. Basalts from this center were dated from 2.12 to 0.17 Ma, indicating that the volcanic complex has been tectonically and magmatically active prior to, during and after deposition of the Buri Formation. The Abdur Reef Limestone (ARL) is the remnant of a shallow marine reef system deposited approximately 125 ka (last glacial highstand, isotope stage 5e) along the margins of the Abdur volcanic highlands. The ARL consists of a basal transgressive lag deposit overlain by extensive buildups of mollusks, echinoderms, bioclastic sands and corals up to 11 m thick. Numerous stone tools in the ARL fall into two tool kits, bifacial hand axes of the Acheulian industry and Middle Stone Age-type (MSA) obsidian flakes and

  17. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  18. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed...

  19. Identifying military impacts to archaeological resources based on differences in vertical stratification of soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  20. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  1. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  2. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, a novel biomass degrader isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    DOE PAGES

    Brumm, Phillip J.; Land, Miriam L.; Mead, David A.

    2015-10-05

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 was one of several thermophilic organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences confirmed the classification of the strain as a G. thermoglucosidasius species. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). The genome of G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,893,306 bp and two circular plasmids of 80,849 and 19,638 bp and an average G + C content of 43.93 %. G. thermoglucosidasiusmore » C56-YS93 possesses a xylan degradation cluster not found in the other G. thermoglucosidasius sequenced strains. This cluster appears to be related to the xylan degradation cluster found in G. stearothermophilus. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses two plasmids not found in the other two strains. Ultimately, one plasmid contains a novel gene cluster coding for proteins involved in proline degradation and metabolism, the other contains a collection of mostly hypothetical proteins.« less

  3. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, a novel biomass degrader isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Phillip J; Land, Miriam L; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 was one of several thermophilic organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences confirmed the classification of the strain as a G. thermoglucosidasius species. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). The genome of G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,893,306 bp and two circular plasmids of 80,849 and 19,638 bp and an average G + C content of 43.93 %. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses a xylan degradation cluster not found in the other G. thermoglucosidasius sequenced strains. This cluster appears to be related to the xylan degradation cluster found in G. stearothermophilus. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses two plasmids not found in the other two strains. One plasmid contains a novel gene cluster coding for proteins involved in proline degradation and metabolism, the other contains a collection of mostly hypothetical proteins.

  4. Uranium mobility during interaction of rhyolitic obsidian, perlite and felsite with alkaline carbonate solution: T = 120° C, P = 210 kg/cm2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    Well-characterized samples of rhyolitic obsidian, perlite and felsite from a single lava flow are leached of U by alkaline oxidizing solutions under open-system conditions. Pressure, temperature, flow rate and solution composition are held constant in order to evaluate the relative importance of differences in surface area and crystallinity. Under the experimental conditions U removal from crushed glassy samples proceeds by a mechanism of glass dissolution in which U and silica are dissolved in approximately equal weight fractions. The rate of U removal from crushed glassy samples increases with decreasing average grain size (surface area). Initial rapid loss of a small component (≈ 2.5%) of the total U from crushed felsite. followed by much slower U loss, reflects variable rates of attack of numerous uranium sites. The fractions of U removed during the experiment ranged from 3.2% (felsite) to 27% (perlite). An empirical method for evaluating the relative rate of U loss from contemporaneous volcanic rocks is presented which incorporates leaching results and rock permeability data.

  5. Complete genome sequences of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52, a xylan-degrading strain isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Phillip; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren J; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Chang, Yun-Juan; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 was isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). Based on 16S rRNA genes and average nucleotide identity, Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 and the related Geobacillus sp. Y412MC61 appear to be members of a new species of Geobacillus. The genome of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,628,883 bp, an average G + C content of 52 % and one circular plasmid of 45,057 bp and an average G + C content of 45 %. Y412MC52 possesses arabinan, arabinoglucuronoxylan, and aromatic acid degradation clusters for degradation of hemicellulose from biomass. Transport and utilization clusters are also present for other carbohydrates including starch, cellobiose, and α- and β-galactooligosaccharides.

  6. Complete genome sequences of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52, a xylan-degrading strain isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Brumm, Phillip; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Chang, Yun-Juan; Mead, David A.

    2015-10-19

    Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 was isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). Based on 16S rRNA genes and average nucleotide identity, Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 and the related Geobacillus sp. Y412MC61 appear to be members of a new species of Geobacillus. The genome of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,628,883 bp, an average G+C content of 52 % and one circular plasmid of 45,057 bp and an average G+C content of 45 %. Y412MC52 possesses arabinan, arabinoglucuronoxylan, and aromatic acid degradation clusters for degradation of hemicellulose from biomass. Lastly, transport and utilization clusters are also present for other carbohydrates including starch, cellobiose, and α- and β-galactooligosaccharides.

  7. Complete genome sequences of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52, a xylan-degrading strain isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    DOE PAGES

    Brumm, Phillip; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; ...

    2015-10-19

    Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 was isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). Based on 16S rRNA genes and average nucleotide identity, Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 and the related Geobacillus sp. Y412MC61 appear to be members of a new species of Geobacillus. The genome of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,628,883 bp, an average G+C content of 52 % and one circular plasmid of 45,057 bp andmore » an average G+C content of 45 %. Y412MC52 possesses arabinan, arabinoglucuronoxylan, and aromatic acid degradation clusters for degradation of hemicellulose from biomass. Lastly, transport and utilization clusters are also present for other carbohydrates including starch, cellobiose, and α- and β-galactooligosaccharides.« less

  8. Degassing of argon from microclines within the thermal aureole of the Obsidian Dome conduit, Long Valley caldera, California: Constraints on emplacement history

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F.J. ); Harrison, T.M. )

    1990-03-10

    Age spectra for microlines separated from samples obtained within the thermal aureole of the conduit to Obsidian Dome are compared with those from a reference sample collected in an area removed from the thermal effects of intrusion. The age spectra are characterized by a zero-age plateau at low fractional release and by an {approximately}80 Ma plateau at higher fractional releases. These plateaus correspond to subparallel arrays in the Arrhenius data. These arrays are attributed to two discrete diffusion domain size fractions characterized by identical activation energies but by discrete and different frequency grain size fractions. The relative losses of radiogenic {sup 40}Ar do not show a systematic pattern when compared on the basis of total radiogenic {sup 40}Ar loss. The losses first increase and then fall with distance from the contact. However, when the data composing the high-temperature array of the Arrhenius data are considered (the large diffusion domain size fraction), the pattern is consistent with that predicted by conductive heating of the aureole. This agreement requires the aureole to have been uniformly preheated to a temperature of {approximately} 250 C prior to intrusion of the rhyolite dike and surrounding breccia funnel that make up the vent structure. Further, the data require that the material forming the breccia funnel must have been heated to a temperature approaching that of the magma prior to emplacement.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, a novel biomass degrader isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Brumm, Phillip J.; Land, Miriam L.; Mead, David A.

    2015-10-05

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 was one of several thermophilic organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences confirmed the classification of the strain as a G. thermoglucosidasius species. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). The genome of G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,893,306 bp and two circular plasmids of 80,849 and 19,638 bp and an average G + C content of 43.93 %. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses a xylan degradation cluster not found in the other G. thermoglucosidasius sequenced strains. This cluster appears to be related to the xylan degradation cluster found in G. stearothermophilus. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses two plasmids not found in the other two strains. Ultimately, one plasmid contains a novel gene cluster coding for proteins involved in proline degradation and metabolism, the other contains a collection of mostly hypothetical proteins.

  10. Characterization and Palaeoecological Significance of Archaeological Charcoal Assemblages during Late and Post-Glacial Phases in Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Christine; Thiébault, Stéphanie

    1998-07-01

    Archaeological sites at Abeurador and Font-Juvénal have produced extensive charcoal-rich horizons. The results of the charcoal analysis, based on the identification of woody species from anatomical features, contribute to the elaboration of plain phases within the development of vegetation in southern France. They are presented here in a new diagram and are interpreted as four major vegetation phases from 11,000 14C yr B.P. to the recent past. In order to interpret the palaeoecological significance of the charcoal assemblages we have used multivariate analysis. The data base consists of 42 taxa and 48 archaeological levels. The division into four vegetation phases based on analytical interpretation is complemented by the more synthetic interpretation based on correspondence factor analysis (CFA). The results reveal the patterns of the vegetation history over the last 11 millennia, each being characterized by a key plant species.

  11. Compass & Vernier Type Models in Indo Archaeology: Engineering Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Deepak

    2015-09-01

    Two extant, dated, verifiable archaeological members are adduced to have radial type compass features, having scope for fractionation of angles (θ operators) in a constant manner with lookout facilities. The Archaeological Survey of India celebrates their apex achievements in the domain of engineering/survey devices of erstwhile societies. Possible correlation has been drawn between the representatives of the elusive Gola yantra and the Vikhyana yantra (circular instrument & looking device) as referred in Indian history and culture. Dadhi nauti (curd level) has been explained for the first time. Now, all of these are accessible to everyone. This work is the first time report, which relates to historical archaeology of lower date c. 600 AD.

  12. Savannah River Archaeological Research Program: Annual report, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.T.

    1988-08-30

    The past year has witnessed the continuation of the SRARP tradition of scholarly research through contract, grant and volunteer support. Archaeological opportunities have been provided to the professional, student and avocational communities through a range of projects and programs. With the implementation of a new cooperative grant, the scope of SRARP research and public service activities will continue to examine the prehistoric and historic archaeological records of the region and to present objectively these results to professional and avocational audiences. During the forthcoming year (FY 1989) the SRARP will continue to conduct and facilitate archaeological research within the Savannah River valley for the purpose of better understanding the early history and prehistory of the region.

  13. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  14. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  15. Archaeological Data Recovery and Tracked Vehicle Impact Assessment at Sites 5LA03254, 5LA03421 and 5LA05612, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Cultural materials were found in all levels of this unit and consisted of FCR, a single piece of chalcedony shatter, a non-cortical obsidian flake...along the north wall for about 50 cm. No waterscreen sample was collected but an obsidian flake was located in this unit. Test Unit 38 - ST 205 Block... obsidian flake was collected. Test Unit 42 -ST 205 Block 7. This unit is adjacent to and south of Test Unit 27. Sediments were shovel-skimmed to the

  16. Archaeo-astronomical characteristics of the Kokino archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, Gjore

    In the North-East part of Macedonia, near to the peak Tatikjev Kamen, an archaeological site with vast quantity of artifacts, dated in the Bronze Age, was discovered in 2001. For the first time in Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), comprehensive archaeo-astronomical analysis of this site, providing extraordinary important results, was performed in 2002. The site contains a lot of materials typical for a megalithic observatory, 3800 years old. Three stone markers, pointing out the places of the sunrise on the days of the summer and winter solstice, as well as the vernal and autumn equinoxes, were found there. Four stone markers, indicating the places of the full Moon rise above the horizon, are recognized too. They are used in the days when the Moon has maximum or minimum declination - two of them in the summer and two of them - in the winter. There are also two other stone markers used for measuring the length of the lunar month in winter - when it has 29 days, and in summer - when it has 30 days. These markers give clear evidences that the ancient Balkan inhabitants used the observatory not only to monitor the movement of the Moon, but also to develop the lunar calendar with 19-year cycle. The archaeo-astronomical analysis presents also an evidence for the existence of one very characteristic stone marker, used for pointing out the sunrise position in a very important ritual day. This is the day when special ceremonies related to the end of the harvest, as well as to the ritual unification of the community leader with the God Sun, were performed. (Colour versions of the illustrations are presented as Appendix on the site of the journal.)

  17. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  18. Acanthocefalan eggs in animal coprolites from archaeological sites from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L F; Araújo, A; Confalonieri, U; Chame, M

    1989-01-01

    An important point in paleoparasitology is the correct diagnosis of the origin of coprolites found in archaeological sites. The identification of human and animal coprolites, through the study of the shape, size, characteristics after rehydration, alimentary contents, and the presence of parasites, has proved to be accurate for human coprolites. For non-human ones we compared coprolites with recent faeces of animals collected near the archaeological sites, following the methodology above mentioned. In this paper anteaters coprolites (Tamandua tetradactyla; Myrmecophaga tridactyla) with eggs of Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus (Archiancanthocephala; Gigantorynchidae) were identified.

  19. Can You Dig It? An Archaeology Unit Can Make Scientific Research Inviting and Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Since archaeology is a branch of science that interests so many kids, Alice Robinson based a 10-week lesson for her sixth grade class on the subject. First, she prominently displayed archaeology books in the library, including Ancient Times by Guy Austrian and Archaeology for Kids by Richard Panchyk. After explaining the definition of archaeology…

  20. 75 FR 77897 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, that meet the definitions of sacred... Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology have determined, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(C), seven...

  1. GIS modeling of archaeological site locations: A low-tech approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Futato, Eugene M.

    1991-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS)-type analysis of archaeological site locations using a dBase III plus program and a desk top computer is presented. A previously developed model of site locations in the Sequatchie Valley of northeastern Alabama is tested against known site locations in another large survey area there. The model fails to account for site locations in the test area. A model is developed for the test area and indicates the site locations are indeed different. Whether this is due to differences in site locations on a sub-regional level, or to sample error in the original model is unknown.

  2. The K2 Galactic Archaeology Program Data Release. I. Asteroseismic Results from Campaign 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stello, Dennis; Zinn, Joel; Elsworth, Yvonne; Garcia, Rafael A.; Kallinger, Thomas; Mathur, Savita; Mosser, Benoit; Sharma, Sanjib; Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy; Huber, Daniel; Jones, Caitlin D.; Miglio, Andrea; Silva Aguirre, Victor

    2017-01-01

    NASA's K2 mission is observing tens of thousands of stars along the ecliptic, providing data suitable for large-scale asteroseismic analyses to inform galactic archaeology studies. Its first campaign covered a field near the north Galactic cap, a region never covered before by large asteroseismic-ensemble investigations, and was therefore of particular interest for exploring this part of our Galaxy. Here we report the asteroseismic analysis of all stars selected by the K2 Galactic Archaeology Program during the mission's “north Galactic cap” campaign 1. Our consolidated analysis uses six independent methods to measure the global seismic properties, in particular the large frequency separation and the frequency of maximum power. From the full target sample of 8630 stars we find about 1200 oscillating red giants, a number comparable with estimates from galactic synthesis modeling. Thus, as a valuable by-product we find roughly 7500 stars to be dwarfs, which provide a sample well suited for galactic exoplanet occurrence studies because they originate from our simple and easily reproducible selection function. In addition, to facilitate the full potential of the data set for galactic archaeology, we assess the detection completeness of our sample of oscillating red giants. We find that the sample is at least nearly complete for stars with 40 ≲ {ν }\\max /μHz ≲ 270 and {ν }\\max ,{detect}< 2.6× {10}6\\cdot {2}-{\\text{Kp}} μHz. There is a detection bias against helium core burning stars with {ν }\\max ∼ 30 μHz, affecting the number of measurements of {{Δ }}ν and possibly also {ν }\\max . Although we can detect oscillations down to {\\text{Kp}} = 15, our campaign 1 sample lacks enough faint giants to assess the detection completeness for stars fainter than {\\text{Kp}} ∼ 14.5.

  3. Non-Destructive Survey of Archaeological Sites Using Airborne Laser Scanning and Geophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poloprutský, Z.; Cejpová, M.; Němcová, J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the non-destructive documentation of the "Radkov" (Svitavy district, Czech Republic) archaeological site. ALS, GPR and land survey mapping will be used for the analysis. The fortified hilltop settlement "Radkov" is an immovable historical monument with preserved relics of anthropogenic origin in relief. Terrain reconnaissance can identify several accentuated objects on site. ALS enables identification of poorly recognizable archaeological objects and their contexture in the field. Geophysical survey enables defunct objects identification. These objects are hidden below the current ground surface and their layout is crucial. Land survey mapping provides technical support for ALS and GPR survey. It enables data georeferencing in geodetic reference systems. GIS can then be used for data analysis. M. Cejpová and J. Němcová have studied this site over a long period of time. In 2012 Radkov was surveyed using ALS in the project "The Research of Ancient Road in Southwest Moravia and East Bohemia". Since 2015 the authors have been examining this site. This paper summarises the existing results of the work of these authors. The digital elevation model in the form of a grid (GDEM) with a resolution 1 m of 2012 was the basis for this work. In 2015 the survey net, terrain reconnaissance and GPR survey of two archaeological objects were done at the site. GDEM was compared with these datasets. All datasets were processed individually and its results were compared in ArcGIS. This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the CTU in Prague, grant No. SGS16/063/OHK1/1T/11.

  4. A versatile and low-cost 3D acquisition and processing pipeline for collecting mass of archaeological findings on the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattet, E.; Devogelaere, J.; Raffin, R.; Bergerot, L.; Daniel, M.; Jockey, Ph.; De Luca, L.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, advances in the fields of photogrammetry and computer vision have produced several solutions for generating 3D reconstruction starting from simple images. Even if the potentialities of the image-based 3D reconstruction approach are nowadays very well-known in terms of reliability, accuracy and flexibility, there is still a lack of low-cost, open-source and automated solutions for collecting mass of archaeological findings, specially if one consider the real (and non theoretical) contextual aspects of a digitization campaign on the field (number of objects to acquire, available time, lighting conditions, equipment transport, budget, etc...) as well as the accuracy requirements for an in-depth shape analysis and classification purpose. In this paper we present a prototype system (integrating hardware and software) for the 3D acquisition, geometric reconstruction, documentation and archiving of large collections of archaeological findings. All the aspects of our approach are based on high-end image-based modeling techniques and designed basing on an accurate analysis of the typical field conditions of an archaeological campaign, as well as on the specific requirements of archaeological finding documentation and analysis. This paper presents all the aspects integrated into the prototype: - a hardware development of a transportable photobooth for the automated image acquisition consisting of a turntable and three DSLR controlled by a microcontroller; - an automatic image processing pipeline (based on Apero/Micmac) including mask generation, tie-point extraction, bundle adjustment, multi-view stereo correlation, point cloud generation, surface reconstruction; - a versatile (off-line/on-line) portable database for associating descriptive attributes (archaeological description) to the 3D digitizations on site; - a platform for data-gathering, archiving and sharing collections of 3D digitizations on the Web. The presentation and the assessment of this

  5. Constraining the primordial initial mass function with stellar archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S.; Glover, Simon C. O.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new near-field cosmological probe of the initial mass function (IMF) of the first stars. Specifically, we constrain the lower mass limit of the Population III (Pop III) IMF with the total number of stars in large, unbiased surveys of the Milky Way. We model the early star formation history in a Milky Way-like halo with a semi-analytic approach, based on Monte Carlo sampling of dark matter merger trees, combined with a treatment of the most important feedback mechanisms. Assuming a logarithmically flat Pop III IMF and varying its low-mass limit, we derive the number of expected survivors of these first stars, using them to estimate the probability to detect any such Pop III fossil in stellar archaeological surveys. Following our analysis, the most promising region to find possible Pop III survivors is the stellar halo of the Milky Way, which is the best target for future surveys. We find that if no genuine Pop III survivor is detected in a sample size of 4 × 106 (2 × 107) halo stars with well-controlled selection effects, then we can exclude the hypothesis that the primordial IMF extended down below 0.8 M⊙ at a confidence level of 68 per cent (99 per cent). With the sample size of the Hamburg/European Southern Observatory survey, we can tentatively exclude Pop III stars with masses below 0.65 M⊙ with a confidence level of 95 per cent, although this is subject to significant uncertainties. To fully harness the potential of our approach, future large surveys are needed that employ uniform, unbiased selection strategies for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

  6. 6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FITTING SHOP, MILLWRIGHT SHOP. DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO. AND BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. IN LOWER LEFT, SUM HYDROELECTRIC IN UPPER RIGHT. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  7. Applications of AMS {sup 14}C on Climate and Archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, P. R. S.

    2007-10-26

    We describe the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique and two distinct applications of its use with {sup 14}C to study environmental problems in Brazil, such as forest fires and climate changes in the Amazon region and archaeological studies on the early settlements in the Southeast Brazilian coast.

  8. Finding Out about Archaeology: Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archaeological Inst. of America, Boston, MA.

    This packet of materials presents selected, descriptive bibliographies for children and young adults. Instructional materials for the use of teachers and parents are also included. Focusing on the subject of archaeology, part 1 of the annotated bibliography presents instructional materials coded for appropriate grade level use. Each entry…

  9. Modelling past land use using archaeological and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzamanbein, Behnaz; Lindström, johan; Poska, Anneli; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José

    2016-04-01

    Accurate maps of past land use are necessary for studying the impact of anthropogenic land-cover changes on climate and biodiversity. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to reconstruct the land use using Gaussian Markov random fields. The model uses two observations sets: 1) archaeological data, representing human settlements, urbanization and agricultural findings; and 2) pollen-based land estimates of the three land-cover types Coniferous forest, Broadleaved forest and Unforested/Open land. The pollen based estimates are obtained from the REVEALS model, based on pollen counts from lakes and bogs. Our developed model uses the sparse pollen-based estimations to reconstruct the spatial continuous cover of three land cover types. Using the open-land component and the archaeological data, the extent of land-use is reconstructed. The model is applied on three time periods - centred around 1900 CE, 1000 and, 4000 BCE over Sweden for which both pollen-based estimates and archaeological data are available. To estimate the model parameters and land use, a block updated Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied. Using the MCMC posterior samples uncertainties in land-use predictions are computed. Due to lack of good historic land use data, model results are evaluated by cross-validation. Keywords. Spatial reconstruction, Gaussian Markov random field, Fossil pollen records, Archaeological data, Human land-use, Prediction uncertainty

  10. Teaching the Impact of Globalization through Historical Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Marilyn C.

    Historical archaeology has evolved from an early preoccupation with famous houses and forts to a study of capitalism around the world. Archaeologists study the cultures and interrelationships of the colonizers and the colonized as they negotiated their places in an ever-expanding world system. Recent studies in South Africa, Latin America, and the…

  11. Where Can We Dig to Learn about Archaeology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell-Loudan, Ellis E.

    1979-01-01

    Notes problems caused by untrained persons and excavators at archaeological sites and lists contacts for persons interested in working at sites in New York State. When excavations are merely a part of a minor unit, students lack the broader picture gained by a thorough study of the site. (KC)

  12. Mössbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, Yuanfu; Huang, Hongbo

    2003-09-01

    The Mössbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  13. The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardz, Karolyn, Ed.; Smith, Shelley J., Ed.

    This guidebook outlines the culture and structure of schools and shows how archaeologists can work with teachers, curriculum developers, museum professionals, and park rangers to develop useful programs in archaeological education both in the classroom and in informal settings. The essays strive to provide multiple examples of exemplary…

  14. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic Sites. 452.236-73 Section 452.236-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  15. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... sought; and (iii) The Governor's written commitment to adequately protect the confidentiality of...

  16. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... sought; and (iii) The Governor's written commitment to adequately protect the confidentiality of...

  17. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  18. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intentional archaeological excavations. 10.3 Section 10.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects...

  19. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Intentional archaeological excavations. 10.3 Section 10.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects...

  20. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intentional archaeological excavations. 10.3 Section 10.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects...

  1. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intentional archaeological excavations. 10.3 Section 10.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects...

  2. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intentional archaeological excavations. 10.3 Section 10.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects...

  3. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... Subchapter II of Chapter 5 of Title 5 of the U.S. Code or any other provision of law, information...

  4. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... Subchapter II of Chapter 5 of Title 5 of the U.S. Code or any other provision of law, information...

  5. Archaeology. Second Teacher Edition. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book includes a student edition by the same name and introduces students to various civilizations and their achievements. The self-directed activities emphasize higher-level thinking skills and activities keyed to "Bloom's Taxonomy." The table of contents lists: (1) "What Is Archaeology?"; (2) "What Is Culture?"; (3) "Where to Dig"; (4)…

  6. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  7. Applying Foucault's "Archaeology" to the Education of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenker, Susan S.

    2008-01-01

    Counselor educators can utilize the ideas of philosopher Michel Foucault in preparing preservice school counselors for their work with K-12 students in public schools. The Foucaultian ideas of "governmentality," "technologies of domination," "received truths," "power/knowledge," "discontinuity," and "archaeology" can contribute to students'…

  8. Book Review: Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological investigation in wetland environments has long been recognised as a specialised aspect of the discipline, where the levels of preservation of organic materials and sediments can be so high that cultural horizons and excavated artefacts can be placed into detailed palaeo-environmental, biological and landscape contexts, in contrast to the more limited information of this kind that is available from dryland archaeological sites. Inevitably, the recovery, integration and understanding of these vital additional data require an interdisciplinary approach and an investment in specialist equipment and scientific analyses if their full potential for reconstructing human occupation and site use within their landscape setting is to be fully realised. The mobilisation and integration of such a team of environmental specialists can require major financial resources, meticulous planning and close co-operation between the various disciplines involved. The most extreme example of wetland archaeology is probably integrated excavation and environmental archaeological research in subtidal locations, but modern development of major coastal infrastructure is increasingly making sites available for study from the early to mid-Holocene or even earlier that have been overwhelmed by sea-level rise and which would otherwise be beyond the reach of archaeological investigation. Such very large scale subtidal interdisciplinary research projects are major, expensive and long-term undertakings and are still rare enough to be publication highlights in the discipline of environmental archaeology. Important recent examples of subtidal work in north-west Europe include Pedersen et al. (1997) and elements of Fischer (1995) in south Scandinavia, and investigations off southern England (Allen and Gardiner, 2000; Momber et al., 2011; Sturt et al., 2014). Research on submerged palaeoenvironments and palaeolandscapes has also seen significant advances (Griffiths et al., 2015), with the

  9. Holocene landslide activity in Moldavian Plateau (NE Romania) based on archaeological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, Mihai; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Santangelo, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread phenomena that contribute to shape the landscape. Assessing the time sequence of landslide activity during the Holocene can help (i) better frame the present day landslide distribution in the wider context of climate change and (ii) better define landslide hazard to take adequate mitigation measures to preserve the elements at risk such as archaeological heritage and currently used structures and infrastructures. Rigorous image interpretation criteria applied to the interpretation of remote sensing images can be a valuable tool to derive information on landslide spatial and temporal distribution. However, it only allows to broadly estimate the relative age of landslides based on their morphologic signature. In this work, we investigate the topological relations between landslides and archaeological sites for nine selected settlements in the Moldavian Plateau, situated on ridges and hillslopes. Landslides and sites were mapped using high resolution LIDAR DEMs and extensive field validation activities. Landslides were classified as very old (relict), old, and recent, according to their morphologic appearance. We argue the possibility of (i) assigning a relative age to the three main classes of landslides as they appear on the present day topography, and (ii) assessing the landslide activity during the Holocene. Using this information, we set up a model of landslide evolution during the Holocene for the Moldavian Plateau, NE Romania. Analysis of the landslide inventories revealed decreasing landslide size over time, and newer landslides tend to occur as reactivations of older landslides, partly remobilizing their deposits, and mostly causing retreat of their escarpments. Analysis of the spatial relationships of the archaeological sites with the landslide inventories revealed that the settlers exploited the natural inaccessible decametric escarpments of very old landslides as defensive measures, whereas retrogressive reactivation of such older

  10. From pumice to obsidian: eruptive behaviors that produce tephra-flow dyads. II- The 114ka trachyte eruption at Pu'u Wa'awa'a (Hawai'i).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T.; Leonhardi, T. C.; Giachetti, T.; Larsen, J. F.; Lindoo, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Associations of tephra and lava flow/domes produced by eruptions involving evolved magmas are a common occurrence in various types of volcanic settings (e.g. Pu'u Wa'awa'a ~114ka, Hawaii; South Mono ~AD625, California; Newberry Big Obsidian flow ~AD700, Oregon; Big Glass Mountain ~AD1100, California; Inyo ~AD1350, California, Chaitén AD2008-2009, Chile; Cordón Caulle AD2011-2012, Chile), ejecting up to a few cubic km of material (tephra+flow/dome). Most, if not all, of these eruptions have in common the paradoxical coexistence of (1) eruptive styles which are inferred to be sustained in nature (subplinian and plinian), with (2) a pulsatory behavior displayed by the resulting fall deposits, and (3) the coeval ejection of vesicular tephra and pyroclastic obsidian. Through two case studies, we explore this apparent set of paradoxes, and their significance in understanding transitions from explosive to effusive behavior. In this second case study (also cf. Shea et al., same session), we present new field, textural and geochemical data pertaining to the 114ka Pu'u Wa'awa'a trachyte eruption in Hawai'i. This large volume (>5 km3) event produced both a tephra cone (~1.6 km in diameter) and a thick (>250 m) lava flow, which have been largely covered by the more recent basaltic Mauna Loa and Hualalai lava flows. The trachyte tephra contains juvenile material displaying a large textural variety (pumice, scoria, obsidian, microcrystalline trachyte and banded-clasts), which can be linked with the extent of degassing and the formation of feldspar microlites. Notably, the abundance of microlites can be used to reconstruct an ascent and devolatilization history that accounts for all the seemingly contradictory observations.

  11. Modelling Vague Knowledge for Decision Support in Planning Archaeological Prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, S.; Hornung, S.; Müller, H.

    2012-07-01

    Most archaeological predictive models lack significance because fuzziness of data and uncertainty in knowledge about human behaviour and natural processes are hardly ever considered. One possibility to cope with such uncertainties is utilization of probability based approaches like Bayes Theorem or Dempster-Shafer-Theory. We analyzed an area of 50 km2 in Rhineland Palatinate (Germany) near a Celtic oppidum by use of Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence for predicting spatial probability distribution of archaeological sites. This technique incorporates uncertainty by assigning various weights of evidence to defined variables, in that way estimating the probability for supporting a specific hypothesis (in our case the hypothesis presence or absence of a site). Selection of variables for our model relied both on assumptions about settlement patterns and on statistically tested relationships between known archaeological sites and environmental factors. The modelling process was conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by generating raster-based likelihood surfaces. The corresponding likelihood surfaces were aggregated to a final weight of evidence surface, which resulted in a likelihood value for every single cell of being a site or a non-site. Finally the result was tested against a database of known archaeological sites for evaluating the gain of the model. For the purpose of enhancing the gain of our model and sharpening our criteria we used a two-step approach to improve the modelling of former settlement strategies in our study area. Applying the developed model finally yielded a 100 percent success rate of known archaeological sites located in predicted high potential areas.

  12. Steroid Biomarkers Revisited – Improved Source Identification of Faecal Remains in Archaeological Soil Material

    PubMed Central

    Prost, Katharina; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Lehndorff, Eva; Gerlach, Renate; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    Steroids are used as faecal markers in environmental and in archaeological studies, because they provide insights into ancient agricultural practices and the former presence of animals. Up to now, steroid analyses could only identify and distinguish between herbivore, pig, and human faecal matter and their residues in soils and sediments. We hypothesized that a finer differentiation between faeces of different livestock animals could be achieved when the analyses of several steroids is combined (Δ5-sterols, 5α-stanols, 5β-stanols, epi-5β-stanols, stanones, and bile acids). We therefore reviewed the existing literature on various faecal steroids from livestock and humans and analysed faeces from old livestock breed (cattle, horse, donkey, sheep, goat, goose, and pig) and humans. Additionally, we performed steroid analyses on soil material of four different archaeological periods (sites located in the Lower Rhine Basin, Western Germany, dating to the Linearbandkeramik, Urnfield Period / Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman Age) with known or supposed faecal inputs. By means of already established and newly applied steroid ratios of the analysed faeces together with results from the literature, all considered livestock faeces, except sheep and cattle, could be distinguished on the basis of their steroid signatures. Most remarkably was the identification of horse faeces (via the ratio: epi-5β-stigmastanol: 5β-stigmastanol + epicoprostanol: coprostanol; together with the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid) and a successful differentiation between goat (with chenodeoxycholic acid) and sheep/cattle faeces (without chenodeoxycholic acid). The steroid analysis of archaeological soil material confirmed the supposed faecal inputs, even if these inputs had occurred several thousand years ago. PMID:28060808

  13. Crystal-poor, multiply saturated rhyolites (obsidians) from the Cascade and Mexican arcs: evidence of degassing-induced crystallization of phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Laura E.; Lange, Rebecca A.

    2013-09-01

    A detailed petrological study is presented for six phenocryst-poor obsidian samples (73-75 wt% SiO2) erupted as small volume, monogenetic domes in the Mexican and Cascade arcs. Despite low phenocryst (+microphenocryst) abundances (2-6 %), these rhyolites are each multiply saturated with five to eight mineral phases (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + titanomagnetite + ilmenite + apatite ± zircon ± hornblende ± clinopyroxene ± sanidine ± pyrrhotite). Plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (identified using phase-equilibrium constraints) span ≤30 mol % An and ≤15 % Mg#, respectively. Eruptive temperatures (±1 σ), on the basis of Fe-Ti two oxide thermometry, range from 779 (±25) to 940 (±18) °C. Oxygen fugacities (±1 σ) range from -0.4 to 1.4 (±0.1) log units relative to those along the Ni-NiO buffer. With temperature known, the plagioclase-liquid hygrometer was applied; maximum water concentrations calculated for the most calcic plagioclase phenocryst in each sample range from 2.6 to 6.5 wt%. This requires that the rhyolites were fluid-saturated at depths ≥2-7 km. It is proposed that the wide compositional range in plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts, despite their low abundance, can be attributed to changing melt water concentrations owing to degassing during magma ascent. Phase-equilibrium experiments from the literature show that higher dissolved water concentrations lead to more Fe-rich orthopyroxene, as well as more calcic plagioclase. Loss of dissolved water leads to a progressive increase in melt viscosity, and phenocrysts often display diffusion-limited growth textures (e.g., dendritic and vermiform), consistent with large undercoolings caused by degassing. A kinetic barrier to microlite crystallization occurred at viscosities from 4.5 to 5.0 log10 Pa s for these rhyolites, presumably because the rate at which melt viscosity changed was high owing to rapid loss of dissolved water during magma ascent.

  14. Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America. Afro-American and Asian American Culture History. Baywood Monographs in Archaeology 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Robert L., Ed.

    This monograph contains fourteen articles dealing with archaeological studies on Black and Asian ethnic groups in the United States. Papers on Afro-American culture history include: (1) "Race and Class on Antebellum Plantations," by John Solomon Otto; (2) "Looking for the 'Afro' in Colono-Indian Pottery," by Leland Ferguson; (3) a study of "Black…

  15. Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation Grant Titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Nancy Brossard

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to…

  16. Multi-analytical characterization of archaeological ceramics. A case study from the Sforza Castle (Milano, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberini, V.; Maspero, F.; Galimberti, L.; Fusi, N.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization, using several analytical techniques, of a sample of ancient pottery found during archaeological excavations in the 14th century's Sforza Castle in Milano. The use of a multi-analytical approach is well established in the study of archaeological materials (e.g. Tite et al. 1984, Ribechini et al. 2008). The chemical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The chemical composition is: SiO2 61.3(±3)%, Al2O3 22.5(±2)%, Fe2O3 7.19(±6)%, K2O 3.85(±1)%, MgO 1.6(±1)%, Na2O 1.6(±4)% (probably overestimated), TiO2 1.02(±2)%, CaO 0.93(±1)%, MnO 0.15(±1)% and P2O5 0.06(±2)%. The K2O content, important when dealing with TL dating, was determined also with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The K2O content determined with atomic absorption is 3.86(±3)%, in agreement with X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mineralogical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray powder diffraction: quartz 59.6(±1) wt%, mica 37.8(±3) wt% and feldspar (plagioclase) 2.6(±2) wt%. The sample homogeneity was assessed with X-ray computerised tomography (CT), which is a very powerful non-destructive analysis tool for 3D characterization (Sèguin, 1991). CT images show differences in materials with different X-ray absorption (mainly depending on different densities) and 3D reconstruction has many interesting archaeological applications (e.g. study of sealed jars). CT images of the studied sample showed the presence of angular fragments (probably quartz) few millimetres wide immersed in a fine grained matrix. Moreover, before and after the CT analysis, some ceramic powder was sampled to perform thermoluminescence analysis (TL, the powder used for this analysis can not be recovered). It was thus possible to evaluate the dose absorbed by the material due the X-ray irradiation. The dose absorbed after 3 hours of irradiation, the time needed for a complete scan of a 7 x 5 x 1 cm, is about 100 Gy, which

  17. Geoenvironmental studies on conservation of archaeological sites at Siwa oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hani A. M.; Kamh, Gamal E.

    2006-02-01

    Siwa oasis is located in the extreme western part of the Egyptian western desert. There are several archaeological sites in the oasis; the most distinct ones are Alexander the Great temple at Aghormi hill and the Gebel El Mota tomb excavations. They have suffered due to deterioration and cracks of different kinds and some parts are getting worse as rock falls occur. From field inspection and lab analysis, it is clear that lithology plays an important role on the extent of damage. Alexander the Great temple was built over the northern edge of Aghormi hill, which consists of two distinct beds—an upper limestone bed and a lower shale one. From field survey and laboratory analysis, the shale is considered as a high expanded bed and weak in its bearing capacity, as its clay content (mainly smectite) experienced swelling due to wetting from the ground water spring underneath. Consequently, the upper limestone bed suffered from map cracking associated with rock falls due to the differential settlement of the swelled lower shale one. The temple was threatened by slope instability and had experienced many cracks. At Gabal El Mota tomb excavations, it was noticed that a comparison of tombs of the same opening size revealed that those that excavated on shale beds had cracked much more than those that excavated on limestone. This may be attributed to the low bearing capacity of excavated shale walls. The remedial measures suggested to overcome the stability problems on these archaeological sites are grouting or construction of retaining walls.

  18. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    one label. Further information such as color, orientation and archaeological notes are added to the label to improve the documentation. The available 3D information allows for easy measurements in the data. The full 3D information of a region of interest can be segmented from the entire data. By joining this data from different georeferenced views the full 3D shape of findings is stored. All the generated documentation in CASTLE3D is exported to an XML format and serves as input for other systems and databases. Apart from presenting the functionalities of CASTLE3D we evaluate its documentation process in a sample project. For this purpose we export the data to the Adiuvabit database (http://adiuvabit.de) where more information is added for further analysis. The documentation process is compared to traditional documentation methods and it is shown how the automated system helps in accelerating the documentation process and decreases errors to a minimum.

  19. A case history of using high-resolution LiDAR data to support archaeological prediction models in a low-relief area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacskó, Vivien; Székely, Balázs; Stibrányi, Máté; Koma, Zsófia

    2016-04-01

    Transdanubian Range characterized by NNW-SSE directed valleys. One of the largest valleys is a conspicuously straight valley section of the River Sárvíz between Székesfehérvár and Szekszárd. Archaeological surveys revealed various settlement remains since the Neolithic. LiDAR data acquisition has been carried out in the framework of an EUFAR project supported by the European Union. Although the weather conditions were not optimal during the flight, sophisticated processing (carried out with of OPALS software) removed most of the artifacts. The resulting 1 m resolution digital terrain model (DTM) has been used to out. This DTM and the known archaeological site locations were integrated in a GIS system for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The processing aimed at analyzing elevation patterns of archaeological sites: local microtopographic features have been outlined and local low-relief elevation data have been extracted and analysed along the Sárvíz valley. Sites have been grouped according to the age of the artifacts identified by the quick-look archaeological walkthrough surveys. The topographic context of these elevation patterns were compared to the relative relief positions of the sites. Some ages groups have confined elevation ranges that may indicate hydrological/climate dependency of the settlement site selection, whereas some long-lived sites can also be identified, typically further away from the local erosional base. Extremely low-relief areas are supposed to have had swampy or partly inundated environmental conditions in ancient times; these areas were unsuitable for human settlement for long time periods. Such areas can be typically attributed by low predictive probabilities, whereas small mounds, patches of topographic unevenness would get higher model probabilities. The final the models can be used for focused field surveys that can improve our archaeological knowledge of the area. The data used were acquired in the framework of the EUFAR ARMSRACE

  20. Archaeological mounds as analogs of engineered covers for waste disposal sites: Literature review and progress report. [Appendix contains bibliography and data on archaeological mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J C; Gard, H A

    1991-09-01

    Closure caps for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are typically designed as layered earthen structures, the composition of which is intended to prevent the infiltration of water and the intrusion of the public into waste forms. Federal regulations require that closure caps perform these functions well enough that minimum exposure guidelines will be met for at least 500 years. Short-term experimentation cannot mimic the conditions that will affect closure caps on the scale of centuries, and therefore cannot provide data on the performance of cap designs over long periods of time. Archaeological mounds hundreds to thousands of years old which are closely analogous to closure caps in form, construction details, and intent can be studied to obtain the necessary understanding of design performance. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a review and analysis of archaeological literature on ancient human-made mounds to determine the quality and potential applicability of this information base to assessments of waste facility design performance. A bibliography of over 200 English-language references was assembled on mound structures from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A sample of these texts was read for data on variables including environmental and geographic setting, condition, design features, construction. Detailed information was obtained on all variables except those relating to physical and hydrological characteristics of the mound matrix, which few texts presented. It is concluded that an extensive amount of literature and data are available on structures closely analogous to closure caps and that this information is a valuable source of data on the long-term performance of mounded structures. Additional study is recommended, including an expanded analysis of design features reported in the literature and field studies of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of different mound designs. 23 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.