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Sample records for archaeological surveying

  1. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys and Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyse, R. F. G.

    2016-10-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  2. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  3. Emergency Survey of Remote and Endangered Archaeological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassi, F.; Rossi, C.; Mandelli, A.

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes the survey activities of the late Roman archaeological site of Umm al-Dabadib (Egypt). The interesting casestudy can be taken as an example in case of emergency surveys, as this method allows the complete 3D acquisition of a vast and complex area in a very short time and with the aid of simple instruments.

  4. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  5. Near Field Cosmology with the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnachie, A. W.; PAndAS Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    I describe the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), and discuss several recent science highlights, including studies of its dwarf satellite systems, its stellar halo, and correlations with the HI content. I also discuss the need for a large scale, wide field, multi-object spectroscopic survey, such as the type made possible with the proposed Next Generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (NG-CFHT).

  6. The GALAH Survey and Galactic Archaeology in the Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.

    2016-10-01

    The field of Galactic Archaeology aims to understand the origins and evolution of the stellar populations in the Milky Way, as a way to understand galaxy formation and evolution in general. The GALAH (Galactic Archaeology with HERMES) Survey is an ambitious Australian-led project to explore the Galactic history of star formation, chemical evolution, minor mergers and stellar migration. GALAH is using the HERMES spectrograph, a novel, highly multiplexed, four-channel high-resolution optical spectrograph, to collect high-quality R˜28,000 spectra for one million stars in the Milky Way. From these data we will determine stellar parameters, radial velocities and abundances for up to 29 elements per star, and carry out a thorough chemical tagging study of the nearby Galaxy. There are clear complementarities between GALAH and other ongoing and planned Galactic Archaeology surveys, and also with ancillary stellar data collected by major cosmological surveys. Combined, these data sets will provide a revolutionary view of the structure and history of the Milky Way.

  7. Archaeological Survey of 56 Preselected Parcels on the AridLands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Sharpe.

    1999-04-22

    An archaeological survey of 56 preselected parcels on the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve was undertaken in support of compensatory mitigation for the construction of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) cells 3 and 4 on the Hanford Site. This report presents the findings of the archaeological survey.

  8. Feature enhancement from electrical resistivity data in an archaeological survey: the Sapelos hillfort experiment (Boticas, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mafalda; Bernardes, Paulo; Fontes, Luís.; Martins, Manuela; Madeira, Joaquim

    2015-06-01

    The PoPaTERVA project is developing applied research regarding the comprehension of the multi-layered cultural background of the Terva Valley Archaeological Park, in Boticas, Portugal. One of the main aspects focused on the project is the appliance of remote sensing techniques to enhance non visible archaeological features. An earth resistance tomography (ERT) survey was carried out at the Sapelos hillfort, by the specialized SINERGEO geophysicist's team, using a Wenner-Schlumberger array. The resulting data was analyzed by the authors in order to extract and verify valid archaeological features regarding the settlement's structures. There are several adequate systems that can be used to visualize the surveyed data (x, y, z, Ω). However, the authors preferred the open source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) from Kitware Inc., since it supports several visualization and modelling techniques that are useful for interpretation purposes in archaeological contexts: for instance, it is possible to represent the archaeological site as a virtual scale model, which can be freely manipulated. For the Sapelos hillfort, two distinct visualizations were developed to represent the acquired electrical resistivity data. The first one is used to create a comprehensive volume from the surveyed data, which is imported as structured 3D points and mapped into a 3D volume. However, this representation does not provide the necessary insight for analysis purposes, so a second visualization is needed to cluster the relevant data for archaeological research. This visualization is based on contouring algorithms that generate isosurfaces from scalar resistivity values (Ω), therefore enhancing the features with potential archaeological interest.

  9. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  10. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  11. Wrapping Together Galactic Archaeology and Interstellar Medium Studies in Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, J.

    2016-10-01

    The cold interstellar medium (ISM) in our galaxy is usually observed at wavelengths other than optical. But optical spectroscopic surveys of stars give unprecedented information that is valuable also for ISM studies because they cover millions of lines-of-sight penetrating regions in and out of the Galactic plane that most all-sky surveys. Big advantages are distances to observed stars from which we infer distances to clumps of the ISM. The ISM is detected as scarce absorptions of several atoms and simple molecules and also as diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), weak but numerous absorption features at visible and near IR wavelengths. With the enormous amount of information the surveys provide we can start doing galactic archaeology from the ISM point of view. Even though the principles are very different for star and gas dynamics, the starting points are the same. Here we present some results that are the first steps toward the galactic archaeology of the ISM.

  12. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  13. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  14. Use of GPR Surveys in Historical Archaeology Studies at Gainesville, Mississippi (22HA600)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Ben; Giardino, Marco; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used to study the underground remains of historic structures on the grounds of Stennis Space Center (SSC) in this viewgraph presentation. The main goal of the project described is to research, develop, and validate Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods for aiding cultural resource assessments within SSC. The project georeferences historic imagery and maps to assist archaeological RS, field surveys, and excavations.

  15. Initial Archaeological Survey of the ex-USS Independence (CVL-22)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, James P.; Elliott, Kelley; Cantelas, Frank; Schwemmer, Robert V.

    2016-04-01

    The Boeing Company, collaborating with NOAA to address innovative ways to make ocean observations, provided their autonomous underwater vehicle, Echo Ranger, to conduct the first deep-water archaeological survey of the scuttled aircraft carrier USS Independence in the waters of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in March 2015. While a preliminary effort, and not comprehensive, the survey confirmed that a sonar feature (previously not proven to be an archaeological feature) charted at the location was Independence, and provided details on the condition of the wreck. At the same time, new information from declassified government reports provided more detail on Independence's use as a naval test craft for radiological decontamination as well as its use as a repository for radioactive materials at the time of its scuttling in 1951. The wreck is historically significant, but also of archaeological significance as an artifact of the early years of the atomic age and of the Cold War. This article summarizes Independence's contexts, its nuclear history, and the results of the survey of the wreck site.

  16. GPR Surveys for Archaeological Investigation in a Bronze Age site from NW Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, L.; Sampaio, H. A.; Bettencourt, A. M. S.; Alves, M. I. C.

    2012-04-01

    This work describes the use of Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys in the identification and mapping of subtle cultural remains, from Pego Late Bronze Age settlement, located near the city of Braga, in NW Portugal. Bronze Age settlements from NW Portugal are characterized by the presence archaeological structures such as storage pits, postholes and trenches. These subtle structures have a very low dielectric contrast, making them quite difficult to detect in GPR surveys. In the case of Pego Site, previous investigations using conventional archaeological techniques, during a rescue excavation, partially revealed a residential area, a necropolis, and a stockade foundation trench that encircle the whole settlement. Different GPR prospection approaches were performed using GSSI Sir 3000 System, with 400 MHz antennae, with the objective of identify and define the borders between the different areas of human occupation inside the settlement. For the GPR survey, a grid-based approach with closely spaced parallels transects was defined, covering different areas inside the site. A first survey was conducted with a pseudo-3D methodology, with 50 cm profile separation, followed by a second survey with a dense data acquisition methodology, with 10 cm profile separation. Processed two-dimensional GPR profiles and constructed amplituded-slice maps were produced and analysed. Wave velocities were determined by reflected wave methods and by Hyperbola-Fitting method. The background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, integrated with the preliminary interpretation of GPR data (profiles and amplitude slice-maps) suggest the presence of flat graves, in the west part of the site, and storage pits, post holes and some small trenches, in the centre and north area of the settlement. This interpretation indicates that the settlement is individualized in two different areas, a necropolis and a residential area, such as the first archaeological study

  17. Non-Destructive Survey of Archaeological Sites Using Airborne Laser Scanning and Geophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poloprutský, Z.; Cejpová, M.; Němcová, J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the non-destructive documentation of the "Radkov" (Svitavy district, Czech Republic) archaeological site. ALS, GPR and land survey mapping will be used for the analysis. The fortified hilltop settlement "Radkov" is an immovable historical monument with preserved relics of anthropogenic origin in relief. Terrain reconnaissance can identify several accentuated objects on site. ALS enables identification of poorly recognizable archaeological objects and their contexture in the field. Geophysical survey enables defunct objects identification. These objects are hidden below the current ground surface and their layout is crucial. Land survey mapping provides technical support for ALS and GPR survey. It enables data georeferencing in geodetic reference systems. GIS can then be used for data analysis. M. Cejpová and J. Němcová have studied this site over a long period of time. In 2012 Radkov was surveyed using ALS in the project "The Research of Ancient Road in Southwest Moravia and East Bohemia". Since 2015 the authors have been examining this site. This paper summarises the existing results of the work of these authors. The digital elevation model in the form of a grid (GDEM) with a resolution 1 m of 2012 was the basis for this work. In 2015 the survey net, terrain reconnaissance and GPR survey of two archaeological objects were done at the site. GDEM was compared with these datasets. All datasets were processed individually and its results were compared in ArcGIS. This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the CTU in Prague, grant No. SGS16/063/OHK1/1T/11.

  18. ROV advanced magnetic survey for revealing archaeological targets and estimating medium magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic survey is one of most applied geophysical method for searching and localization of any objects with contrast magnetic properties (for instance, in Israel detailed magneric survey has been succesfully applied at more than 60 archaeological sites (Eppelbaum, 2010, 2011; Eppelbaum et al., 2011, 2010)). However, land magnetic survey at comparatively large archaeological sites (with observation grids 0.5 x 0.5 or 1 x 1 m) may occupy 5-10 days. At the same time the new Remote Operation Vehicle (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles - can fly at levels of few (and even one) meters over the earth's surface (flowing the relief forms or straight). Such ROV with precise magnetic field measurements (with a frequency of 20-25 observations per second) may be performed during 10-30 minutes, moreover at different levels over the earth's surface. Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost. Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide new unique geophysical-archaeological information (Eppelbaum, 2005; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). The developed interpretation methodology for magnetic anomalies advanced analysis (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum et al., 2001; Eppelbaum et al., 2011) may be successfully applied for ROV magnetic survey for delineation of archaeological objects and estimation averaged magnetization of geological medium. This methodology includes: (1) non-conventional procedure for elimination of secondary effect of magnetic temporary variations, (2) calculation of rugged relief influence by the use of a correlation method, (3) estimation of medium magnetization, (4) application of various informational and wavelet algorithms for revealing low anomalous effects against the strong noise background, (5) advanced procedures for magnetic anomalies quantitative analysis (they are applicable in conditions of rugged relief, inclined magnetization, and an unknown level of the total

  19. Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1990-03-01

    Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Use of GPR Surveys in Historical Archaeology Studies at Gainesville Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Ben; Giardino, Marco; Spruce, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used in recent surveys to acquire subsurface geophysical data for historic sites at Gainesville, Mississippi, a town abandoned in 1962 with the building of the John C. Stennis Space Center. Prior to GPR data collection, a 20- by 20-meter grid was established using UTM map projection and GPS for locating cell corners. Lines of GPR data were then collected every 25 centimeters. The images were then processed, and coregistered to georeferenced aerial and satellite imagery. This procedure is enabling analysts to assess the GPR imagery more effectively in a geospatial context. Field validation of anomalies created by known subsurface features from both recent and historic sources is allowing soil attributes, such as variations in Relative Dielectric Permittivity, to be tested more accurately. Additional work is assessing how GPR data can be effectively combined with other forms of remote sensing to direct archaeological surveys and excavations.

  1. First Results of AMP surveys for large areas (>100ha) with decimeter resolutions in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabas, Michel

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here takes place within the BREBEMI project which is a motorway project between the town of Milano and Brescia in Italy. For the first time, a set of non-invasive tools is used systematically in order to prevent the archaeological risk before the construction of a motorway. This innovative project relies both on: - the systematic use of a GIS (Geographical Information System) for integration of all data at every stage of the project (from data acquisition in the field to interpretation and field check), - the use of new continuous high productivity geophysical techniques able to survey several hectares a day with a resolution of a few decimetres (resistivity:ARP(c) and magnetics: AMP), and aerial LIDAR data (acquisition of Digital Elevation Model). - the integration of all different sources of information (geophysics, aerial photos, documentation, historical evidences but also field truething of anomalies) For the first time all these techniques are not only used at the level of the site, but also at the level of the landscape. The objectives of this project is to reduce to a maximum the uncertainty linked to the presence of archaeological remains (in particular delimitation of areas not to be excavated due to both positive and/or negative archaeological artefacts). In the presentation we will focus on geophysics. We have combined the use of continuous electrical imaging techniques (ARP(c)) and continuous magnetic imaging techniques(AMP, Geocarta, Paris). The first method enables measurement of apparent electrical resistivity for 3 depths of investigation at the same time. The AMP method enables the measurement of magnetic vertical gradient of the Earth Magnetic Field. All data are acquired with Quad bykes-towed instruments controlled in real-time with a GIS software: sampling mesh is of the order of a few centimetres in-line and 50cm across lines. No external topography is done and all profiles are computed by the GIS and a differential GPS for

  2. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.K.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    The project area for the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility on the Savannah River Site includes a six-acre tract along Fourmile Branch and 18 mi of trunk line corridors. Archaeological investigations of the six-acre parcel resulted in the discovery of one small prehistoric site designated 38AK465. This cultural resource does not have the potential to add significantly to archaeological knowledge of human occupation in the region. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) therefore recommends that 38AK465 is not eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and further recommends a determination of no effect. Archaeological survey along the trunk line corridors implicated previously recorded sites 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK415, 38AK417, 38AK419, and 38AK436. Past disturbance from construction had severely disturbed 38AK92 and no archaeological evidence of 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 was recovered during survey. Lacking further evidence for the existence of these sites, the SRARP recommends that 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 are not eligible for nomination to the NRHP and thus warrant a determination of no effect. Two of these sites, 38Ak415 and 38AK417, required further investigation to evaluate their archaeological significance. Both of the sites have the potential to yield significant data on the prehistoric period occupation of the Aiken Plateau and the SRARP recommends that they are eligible for nomination to the NRHP. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program recommends that adverse effects to sites 38AK415 and 38AK417 from proposed construction can be mitigated through avoidance.

  3. The Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey: Galaxy Formation In The Near-Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnachie, Alan W.

    2009-01-01

    The Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) is a Large Program on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Over the next three years, it will map the entire haloes of M31 and M33 out to projected radii of 150kpc and 50kpc respectively, over an area of more than 320 square degrees, probing a volume of more than 15 million cubic kiloparsecs around M31 and M33, reaching to surface brightness limits of order 32 mags/sq.arcsec. PAndAS will provide the deepest and most complete panorama of galaxy haloes available, and will be used to compare to and constrain cosmological models of galaxy formation over an order of magnitude in halo mass. In this talk I will review the project, discuss its main science goals, and present first results.

  4. Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 and Historic Assessement of the Happy Valley Worker Camp Roane County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    New South Associates

    2009-08-17

    Parcel ED-3 was the location of a portion of 'Happy Valley', a temporary worker housing area occupied from 1943 to 1947 during the construction of the K-25 Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The project was carried out under subcontract for the Department of Energy. The survey report will be used in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). New South Associates conducted a Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Roane County, Tennessee. The survey was conducted in two parts. The first survey was carried out in 2008 and covered an area measuring approximately 110 acres. The second survey took place in 2009 and focused on 72 acres west of the first survey area. The objective of the surveys was to identify any archaeological remains associated with Happy Valley and any additional sites on the property and to assess these sites for National Register eligibility. New South Associates also conducted a historic assessment to gather information on Happy Valley. This historic assessment was used in conjunction with the archaeological survey to evaluate the significance of the Happy Valley site. Archaeological remains of Happy Valley were located throughout the parcel, but no additional sites were located. The official state site number for Happy Valley is 40RE577. During the two surveys a total of 13 artifact concentrations, 14 isolated finds, and 75 structural features were located. Due to the Happy Valley's stron gassociation with the Manhattan Project, the site is recommended eligible for the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion A.

  5. Uav Surveying for a Complete Mapping and Documentation of Archaeological Findings. The Early Neolithic Site of Portonovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Conati Barbaro, C.; Pierdicca, R.; Bozzi, C. A.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The huge potential of 3D digital acquisition techniques for the documentation of archaeological sites, as well as the related findings, is almost well established. In spite of the variety of available techniques, a sole documentation pipeline cannot be defined a priori because of the diversity of archaeological settings. Stratigraphic archaeological excavations, for example, require a systematic, quick and low cost 3D single-surface documentation because the nature of stratigraphic archaeology compels providing documentary evidence of any excavation phase. Only within a destructive process each single excavation cannot be identified, documented and interpreted and this implies the necessity of a re- examination of the work on field. In this context, this paper describes the methodology, carried out during the last years, to 3D document the Early Neolithic site of Portonovo (Ancona, Italy) and, in particular, its latest step consisting in a photogrammetric aerial survey by means of UAV platform. It completes the previous research delivered in the same site by means of terrestrial laser scanning and close range techniques and sets out different options for further reflection in terms of site coverage, resolution and campaign cost. With the support of a topographic network and a unique reference system, the full documentation of the site is managed in order to detail each excavation phase; besides, the final output proves how the 3D digital methodology can be completely integrated with reasonable costs during the excavation and used to interpret the archaeological context. Further contribution of this work is the comparison between several acquisition techniques (i.e. terrestrial and aerial), which could be useful as decision support system for different archaeological scenarios. The main objectives of the comparison are: i) the evaluation of 3D mapping accuracy from different data sources, ii) the definition of a standard pipeline for different archaeological needs

  6. Paleoparasitological Surveys for Detection of Helminth Eggs in Archaeological Sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong-Ju; Shin, Dong Hoon; Song, Mi-Jin; Song, Hye-Young

    2013-01-01

    A paleoparasitological survey to detect helminth eggs was performed in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 593 soil samples were collected in 12 sites of Jeolla-do and 5 sites of Jeju-do from April to November 2011, and examined by the methods of Pike and coworkers. A total of 4 helminth eggs, 2 eggs each for Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris sp., were found in soil samples from 1 site, in Hyangyang-ri, Jangheung-eup, Jangheung-gun, Jeollanam-do. The egg-recovery layer was presumed to represent a 19th century farm, which fact suggested the use of human manures. This is the third archaeological discovery of parasite eggs in Jeolla-do. Additionally, no helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeju-do is an interesting problem to be solved in the further investigations. PMID:24039296

  7. Integrated geophysical surveys to assess the structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leucci, G.; de Giorgi, L.

    2005-01-01

    An integrated geophysical survey using both the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods was undertaken over a cave of great archaeological interest in southern Italy. The survey was performed to assess the stability of the carbonate rock roof of the cave. A geophysical survey was preferred to boreholes and geotechnical tests, in order to avoid the risk of mass movements. The interpretation of integrated data from ERT and GPR resulted in an evaluation of some of the electromagnetic (EM) characteristics (such as the EM wave velocity) and the detection of discontinuities (fractures) in the carbonate rock. It is well known that rock fractures constitute a serious problem in cave maintenance, and progressive cracking within the bed rock is considered to be one of the main causes of collapse. An analysis of the back-scattered energy was also required for the GPR data interpretation. Cracks within the bedrock were detected to a depth of about 2 m by using GPR, which allowed for the identification of the loosened zone around the cave.

  8. Strömgren survey for asteroseismology and galactic archaeology: Let the saga begin

    SciTech Connect

    Casagrande, L.; Dotter, A.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Asplund, M.; Schlesinger, K. J.; Aguirre, V. Silva; Lund, M. N.; Grundahl, F.; Nissen, P. E.; Stello, D.; Huber, D.; Serenelli, A. M.; Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Hodgkin, S.; Feltzing, S.; Flynn, C.; Schönrich, R.; Wang, W.

    2014-06-01

    Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties that would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses, and thus ages of stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures, and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. The ongoing Strömgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology has the goal of transforming the Kepler field into a new benchmark for Galactic studies, similar to the solar neighborhood. Here we present the first results from a stripe centered at a Galactic longitude of 74° and covering latitude from about 8° to 20°, which includes almost 1000 K giants with seismic information and the benchmark open cluster NGC 6819. We describe the coupling of classical and seismic parameters, the accuracy as well as the caveats of the derived effective temperatures, metallicities, distances, surface gravities, masses, and radii. Confidence in the achieved precision is corroborated by the detection of the first and secondary clumps in a population of field stars with a ratio of 2 to 1 and by the negligible scatter in the seismic distances among NGC 6819 member stars. An assessment of the reliability of stellar parameters in the Kepler Input Catalog is also performed, and the impact of our results for population studies in the Milky Way is discussed, along with the importance of an all-sky Strömgren survey.

  9. Castle of Gerace. Integrated survey at the study and conservation of architectural-archaeological heritage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaloro, Salvatore; Sapio, Gianluca; Saraceno, Domenico

    2010-05-01

    The research, funded by CNR, suggests the creation of a corpus of data aiming at the rediscovery of the castle of Gerace (RC) and its links to the territory. The aim of the research is to establish a sampling of documents, materials, techniques and ideas, representing the "matter" of the monument. The final aim of the contribution is to safeguard and increase the value of the heritage, to realize the territory's potentialities that risk to get lost or to be "unexpressed" for the physical decadence of the castle. The study, starting from a historical-archive research, has dealt with the analysys of materials and the fenomena of deterioration. as well as using the most common instruments of survey and mapping, GPS stations integrated with Laser Scanner have been used. The acquisition of orthophotos has allowed to underiline many characters of the site, making possible to identify a wider range of anthropic anomalies; the 3-d modelling with laser scanner survey has permitted a global investigation of the area. The final elaboration of data will allow to examine several information layers especially those related to archaeological evidences, anthropic anomalies, landslide front and the risk of rock stability.

  10. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Erkelens, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  11. Interstellar Medium, Young Stars, and Astrometric Binaries in Galactic Archaeology Spectroscopic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwitter, T.; Kos, J.; Žerjal, M.; Traven, G.

    2016-10-01

    Current ongoing stellar spectroscopic surveys (RAVE, GALAH, Gaia-ESO, LAMOST, APOGEE, Gaia) are mostly devoted to studying Galactic archaeology and the structure of the Galaxy. But they allow also for important auxiliary science: (i) the Galactic interstellar medium can be studied in four dimensions (position in space plus radial velocity) through weak but numerous diffuse interstellar bands and atomic absorptions seen in spectra of background stars, (ii) emission spectra which are quite frequent even in field stars can serve as a good indicator of their youth, pointing e.g. to stars recently ejected from young stellar environments, (iii) an astrometric solution of the photocenter of a binary to be obtained by Gaia can yield accurate masses when joined by spectroscopic information obtained serendipitously during a survey. These points are illustrated by first results from the first three surveys mentioned above. These hint at the near future: spectroscopic studies of the dynamics of the interstellar medium can identify and quantify Galactic fountains which may sustain star formation in the disk by entraining fresh gas from the halo; RAVE already provided a list of ˜ 14,000 field stars with chromospheric emission in Ca II lines, to be supplemented by many more observations by Gaia in the same band, and by GALAH and Gaia-ESO observations of Balmer lines; several millions of astrometric binaries with periods up to a few years which are being observed by Gaia can yield accurate masses when supplemented with measurements from only a few high-quality ground based spectra.

  12. Strömgren Survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology: Let the SAGA Begin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, L.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Stello, D.; Huber, D.; Serenelli, A. M.; Cassisi, S.; Dotter, A.; Milone, A. P.; Hodgkin, S.; Marino, A. F.; Lund, M. N.; Pietrinferni, A.; Asplund, M.; Feltzing, S.; Flynn, C.; Grundahl, F.; Nissen, P. E.; Schönrich, R.; Schlesinger, K. J.; Wang, W.

    2014-06-01

    Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties that would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses, and thus ages of stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures, and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. The ongoing Strömgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology has the goal of transforming the Kepler field into a new benchmark for Galactic studies, similar to the solar neighborhood. Here we present the first results from a stripe centered at a Galactic longitude of 74° and covering latitude from about 8° to 20°, which includes almost 1000 K giants with seismic information and the benchmark open cluster NGC 6819. We describe the coupling of classical and seismic parameters, the accuracy as well as the caveats of the derived effective temperatures, metallicities, distances, surface gravities, masses, and radii. Confidence in the achieved precision is corroborated by the detection of the first and secondary clumps in a population of field stars with a ratio of 2 to 1 and by the negligible scatter in the seismic distances among NGC 6819 member stars. An assessment of the reliability of stellar parameters in the Kepler Input Catalog is also performed, and the impact of our results for population studies in the Milky Way is discussed, along with the importance of an all-sky Strömgren survey. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  13. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    SciTech Connect

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    . Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  14. Archaeological field survey automation: concurrent multisensor site mapping and automated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefowicz, Mateusz; Sokolov, Oleksandr; Meszyński, Sebastian; Siemińska, Dominika; Kołosowski, Przemysław

    2016-04-01

    ABM SE develops mobile robots (rovers) used for analog research of Mars exploration missions. The rovers are all-terrain exploration platforms, carrying third-party payloads: scientific instrumentation. "Wisdom" ground penetrating radar for Exomars mission has been tested onboard, as well as electrical resistivity module and other devices. Robot has operated in various environments, such as Central European countryside, Dachstein ice caves or Sahara, Morocco (controlled remotely via satellite from Toruń, Poland. Currently ABM SE works on local and global positioning system for a Mars rover basing on image and IMU data. This is performed under a project from ESA. In the next Mars rover missions a Mars GIS model will be build, including an acquired GPR profile, DEM and regular image data, integrated into a concurrent 3D terrain model. It is proposed to use similar approach in surveys of archaeological sites, especially those, where solid architecture remains can be expected at shallow depths or being partially exposed. It is possible to deploy a rover that will concurrently map a selected site with GPR, 2D and 3D cameras to create a site model. The rover image processing algorithms are capable of automatic tracing of distinctive features (such as exposed structure remains on a desert ground, differences in color of the ground, etc.) and to mark regularities on a created map. It is also possible to correlate the 3D map with an aerial photo taken under any angle to achieve interpretation synergy. Currently the algorithms are an interpretation aid and their results must be confirmed by a human. The advantages of a rover over traditional approaches, such as a manual cart or a drone include: a) long hours of continuous work or work in unfavorable environment, such as high desert, frozen water pools or large areas, b) concurrent multisensory data acquisition, c) working from the ground level enables capturing of sites obstructed from the air (trees), d) it is possible to

  15. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Maio, Rosa; Meola, Carosena; Fedi, Maurizio; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2010-05-01

    voids and/or degraded zones, water content mapping, location of reinforcing bars and metal elements in concrete structures. The attention of this work is focused on the integration of both techniques for inspection of architectonic structures. First, an integration of techniques is performed in laboratory by considering an ad hoc specimen with insertion of anomalies. Then, the techniques are used for the inspection in situ of some important Italian archaeological sites, such as Pompei (Naples) and Nora (Cagliari). In the first site, the exploration is devoted to the analysis of wall decoration of the architectonical complex of Villa Imperiale with the aim to support the hypothesis that attributes the Villa to Imperial property as well as to evaluate the state of conservation of frescoes and underneath structure. As main findings, the applied techniques allows for detection of hidden previous decorative layers and for discrimination of different types of paint used as well as for identification of areas damaged by ingression in-depth of moisture and/or by disaggregation of the constituent materials. In the archaeological area of Nora, instead, the prospecting is devised to the evaluation of the state of degradation of two significant buildings of the ancient site: the temple and the theatre. Due to the very high horizontal and vertical resolution of the performed surveys, detailed physical anomaly maps of the investigated structures are obtained. Large portions of the masonry walls appear interested by decomposition of the mortar binding the stone blocks, which sometimes propagates along the whole stone wall. The information coming from a joint interpretation of IRT and GPR data allows detailed 3D images of the two investigated buildings, which are useful for future restoration planning.

  16. Geophysical surveys and archaeological insights at Fort Pierre Chouteau, a frontier trading post on the Middle Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Margaret Maurine

    Fort Pierre Chouteau in present day South Dakota was the most important fur trading post of the American Fur Company in the 1830s, serving as a regional hub for the fur trade. The Fort was sold to the U.S. Military in 1855 for use as a base in the Sioux Wars but was abandoned in 1856. Geophysical surveys and previous excavations indicate evidence of both occupations. Geophysics is an important tool for determining the extent of archaeological sites, yet the relationships between geophysical anomalies and excavation features may not be readily evident. Initial geophysical surveys (Kvamme 2007) were completed to determine the extent of the fur trading Fort, and additional surveys in August 2012 used magnetometry and electrical resistance to determine if evidence of military structures exists outside of the Fort. This study examines connections between excavation features and geophysical anomalies in order to better interpret anomalies inside the Fort palisade. The palisade builder's trench, adobe pavement, post holes, and unknown structures are characterized through the analysis of the excavations and anomalies. The location of one of the military structures outside of the palisade is also identified. As many sites have histories of excavations prior to any geophysical surveys, combining the two sets of information is important in order to more fully understand site layout and the archaeological causes of geophysical anomalies.

  17. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Conference Center and Educational Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, K.; Crass, D.C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-02-01

    Documented in this report are the methods and results of an intensive archaeological survey for the proposed University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Conference Center and Educational Facility on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). Archaeological investigations conducted by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) on the 70-acre project area and associated rights-of-way consisted of subsurface testing at two previously recorded sites and the discovery of one previously unrecorded site. The results show that 2 sites contain archaeological remains that may yield significant information about human occupations in the Aiken Plateau and are therefore considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Adverse impacts to these sites can be mitigated through avoidance.

  18. Development of Tools and Techniques to Survey, Assess, Stabilise, Monitor and Preserve Underwater Archaeological Sites: SASMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    SASMAP's purpose is to develop new technologies and best practices in order to locate, assess and manage Europe's underwater cultural heritage in a more effective way than is possible today. SASMAP has taken an holistic- and process- based approach to investigating underwater environments and the archaeological sites contained therein. End user of the results of SASMAP are severalfold; i) to benefiet the SMEs involved in the project and development of their products for the offshore industry (not just for archaeological purposes) ii) a better understanding of the marine environment and its effect on archaeological materials iii) the collation of the results from the project into guidelines that can be used by cultural resource managers to better administer and optimise developer lead underwater archaeological project within Europe in accordance with European legislation (Treaty of Valetta (1992). Summarily the project has utilised a down scaling approach to localise archaeological sites at a large scale regional level. This has involved using innovative satellite imagery to obtain seamless topography maps over coastal areas and the seabed (accurate to a depth of 6m) as well as the development of a 3D sub bottom profiler to look within the seabed. Results obtained from the downscaling approach at the study areas in the project (Greece and Denmark) have enabled geological models to be developed inorder to work towards predictive modelling of where submerged prehistoric sites may be encountered. Once sites have been located an upscaling approach has been taken to assessing an individual site and the materials on and within it in order to better understand the state of preservation and dynamic conditions of a site and how it can best be preserved through in situ preservation or excavation. This has involved the development of equipment to monitor the seabed environment (open water and in sediments), equipment for sampling sediments and assessing the state of

  19. An Application for Cultural Heritage in Erasmus Placement. Surveys and 3d Cataloging Archaeological Finds in MÉRIDA (spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; Ortiz Coder, P.; D'Auria, S.; De Feo, E.

    2011-09-01

    Man has always had the need to live with his past, with its places and its artefacts. The reconstructions, the economical changes, the urbanization and its speculations have devastated whole cities, changed the faces of their historical centers, changed the relationship between the new and the old. Also the millenarian 'rest' of the archaeological findings, and therefore the respect towards those ancient civilizations, has been troubled. Our continent is rich in masterpieces that the modern man are not able to protect and pass on to the future, it is commonplace to observe that the modern `civilization' has cemented and suffocated the ancient city of Pompeii, or even worse, failed to protected it. Walking in the archaeological area of Paestum it can be noticed how just sixty years ago, no one had the slightest concern of fencing the amphitheatre and the Roman forum, or entire houses and shops, to lay a carpet of tar or simple to build constructions completely inferior compared to those majestic Greek temples. The engineers and the architects should be held responsible for this as based on their scientific and humanistic sensibility; they should bring together the man with his surroundings in the complete respects of the historical heritage. The interest in ancient began to change nearly three decades ago since it was realized that the "Cultural Heritage" is a major tourist attraction and, if properly managed and used, it can be an economical cornerstone. Today, thanks to survey and the 3D graphics, which provide powerful new tools, we are witnessing a new and real need for the conservation, cataloguing and enhancement as a way to revive our archaeological sites. As part of a major laboratory project, artefacts from the Roman period (I and II century b.C.), found in the Spanish city of Mérida, declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 1993, were acquired with a 3D laser scanner VIVID 910, and then catalogued. Based on these brief comments we wanted to direct the work

  20. The Archaeology of Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Smet, T. S.; Holcomb, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Context and chronology are of critical importance in archaeological research. Unfortunately, however, many previously excavated sites lack adequate detail in these aspects. As such, archaeologists are increasingly returning to previously investigated sites in order to reassess the integrity of prior excavations and answer new research questions. Near-surface geophysics can be used to locate and map the extent of prior excavations at these sites. Here, we present two case studies of the use of geophysics to find previously excavated archaeological trenches. At Copper's Ferry (10IH73), in western Idaho, magnetic gradiometry was used to locate a trench excavated by Idaho State University in 1961. This trench yielded cultural materials associated with the Western Stemmed Tradition that potentially date to the Pleistocene. At Goat Springs Pueblo (LA285), New Mexico, electromagnetic induction was used to find UCLA's 1960 excavation trench within a central kiva. Ground-truthing at both sites proved the efficacy of these methods, and allowed for a reexamination of the context and chronology at both sites.

  1. A Fusion of GPR- and LiDAR-Data for Surveying and Visualisation of Archaeological Structures - a case example of an archaeological site in Strettweg, District of Murtal, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, Nicole; Russ, Stefan; Sass, Oliver; Tiefengraber, Georg; Tiefengraber, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Strettweg is a small community located in Upper Styria in the valley of the Mur. It is seen as one of the most outstanding prehistoric archaeological sites in Austria. In 1851 the "Strettweger Opferwagen" (~ 600 BC) was discovered and is considered one of the most important Hallstatt find of Austria. More than 160 years later Airborne LiDAR and modern geophysical methods like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and/or Magnetics have made it possible to find additional burial mounds and map the largest prehistoric settlement in the southeastern Alps (Falkenberg). These modern techniques have provided an auxiliary tool for the archaeological team's project "Hallstattzeitlicher Fürstensitz Falkenberg/Strettweg". GPR allows for a fast and non-invasive surveying of structures and anomalies of the sub surface, by using electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The active remote sensing technique LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging, also known as Laser Scanning), measures the runtime of discrete light pulses in order to map objects and structures on the surface of the earth. In the course of this archaeological project GPR (Mala ProEx - 500 MHz antenna) and terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl LMS Z620) were applied by the University of Graz, Department of Geography and Regional Science, ALADYN work group (Univ.-Prof. Dr. Oliver Sass) to collect data of a testing site with 2500 m². The existence of archaeological structures was crucial for choosing this area. The area is surrounded by fine sediments, which originated by fluviatile transportation, making the remnants of these archaeological structures easier to detect. A standard GPR-processing-workflow does not allow for a 3-dimensional visualisation of the results and complicates the detection of archaeological structures. Unlike, LiDAR which does allow for a 3-dimensional visualisation. A fusion of both techniques, by using Python scripts and the software packages REFLEXW - Sandmeier Scientific Software and LASTools

  2. All-In Laser Scanning Methods for Surveying, Representing and Sharing Information on Archaeology. Via Flaminia and the Furlo Tunnel Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clini, P.; Nespeca, R.; Bernetti, A.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the results of the laser scanner survey of an archaeological complex, aimed at knowledge, documentation and diagnostic operations to make premises secure. Archaeology has always been the most complex subject where the discipline of surveying is continually being put to the test and experimented with. The development in laser scanner technologies has led to an extremely important turning point in this field. Complex geometrical shapes or irregular surfaces, such as those in archaeology, are defined through surfaces that can be directly extrapolated from the point cloud with extremely high precision, allowing even the finest details to be mapped. The precision of this surveying technique together with the wide range of data that can be acquired and represented provide several opportunities for communication and investigation. This experimental work has concentrated on the Furlo tunnel complex, located along one of the most important infrastructural arteries from Roman antiquity, the Via Flaminia. The need in this case was to be able to acquire the entire rocky complex, extending the scan area as far as possible so as to assess the whole system in its entirety. The results of our metric and morphological survey provide an excellent basis for record the situation as it is today, so as to establish the initial temporal step to be used in future monitoring programmes. The accuracy of the survey allows static assessments and effective planning for future safety-oriented projects.

  3. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 2, A preliminary sample survey, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea geothermal subzones, Puna District, Hawaii island

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.T.K.; Burtchard, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a preliminary sample inventory and offers an initial evaluation of settlement and land-use patterns for the Geothermal Resources Subzones (GRS) area, located in Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The report is the second of a two part project dealing with archaeology of the Puna GRS area -- or more generally, the Kilauea East Rift Zone. In the first phase of the project, a long-term land-use model and inventory research design was developed for the GRS area and Puna District generally. That report is available under separate cover as Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Part I: Land-Use Model and Research Design. The present report gives results of a limited cultural resource survey built on research design recommendations. It offers a preliminary evaluation of modeled land-use expectations and offers recommendations for continuing research into Puna`s rich cultural heritage. The present survey was conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and subcontracted to International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological work is to contribute toward the preparation of an environmental impact statement by identifying cultural materials which could be impacted through completion of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  4. a Uav-Based Low-Cost Stereo Camera System for Archaeological Surveys - Experiences from Doliche (turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubeck, K.; Prinz, T.

    2013-08-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for surveying archaeological sites is becoming more and more common due to their advantages in rapidity of data acquisition, cost-efficiency and flexibility. One possible usage is the documentation and visualization of historic geo-structures and -objects using UAV-attached digital small frame cameras. These monoscopic cameras offer the possibility to obtain close-range aerial photographs, but - under the condition that an accurate nadir-waypoint flight is not possible due to choppy or windy weather conditions - at the same time implicate the problem that two single aerial images not always meet the required overlap to use them for 3D photogrammetric purposes. In this paper, we present an attempt to replace the monoscopic camera with a calibrated low-cost stereo camera that takes two pictures from a slightly different angle at the same time. Our results show that such a geometrically predefined stereo image pair can be used for photogrammetric purposes e.g. the creation of digital terrain models (DTMs) and orthophotos or the 3D extraction of single geo-objects. Because of the limited geometric photobase of the applied stereo camera and the resulting base-height ratio the accuracy of the DTM however directly depends on the UAV flight altitude.

  5. Effects of antenna orientation on 3-D ground penetrating radar surveys: an archaeological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lualdi, Maurizio; Lombardi, Federico

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates the impact that the GPR antenna orientation, or survey direction, has on migrated image resulting from 3-D georadar acquisitions carried out on heterogeneous and anisotropic subsurface. This feature is related to the directional dependency of wave propagation effects, such as dispersion, absorption, depolarization, and scattering phenomena. We provide a proof of this with two field examples, demonstrating that a 3-D survey performed along a single direction could bring weak results in terms of target detection and reconstruction. To overcome this risk, we show the improvements that the combination of GPR 3-D data acquired along different directions on the same area can obtain: an enhancement of target detection probability and the practical advantage for the end-user of looking through a single image. Further on, we develop a stacking scheme that employs a threshold associated with amplitude comparison to adaptively handle the combination of georadar data volumes.

  6. Fiscal year 1992 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    During FY 1992, the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted a field survey of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit (600 Area) and tested three sites near the 100 Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. These efforts were conducted in compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and are part of a cultural resources review of 100 Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization studies.The results of the FY 1992 survey and test excavation efforts are discussed in this report. 518 ha in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and conducted test excavations at three prehistoric sites near the 100-F and 100-K reactors to determine their eligibility for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

  7. Electromagnetic Induction Survey at an Archaeological Site in Chapingo (Central Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, J. L.; Arango, C.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Vergara, F.; Novo, X.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to locate buried remains of ancient civil constructions belonging to the Teotihuacan culture in Chapingo, Central Mexico. Several housing structures of this culture have been found during the excavation of a pipe trench within the University of Chapingo campus in the town of Chapingo. These units were found at 6 m deep covered by recent lacustrine sediments. In order to further explore the extension of this settlement that could guide further excavations and shed more light into these settlements, we have initiated a multi technique geophysical exploration. Here we present the initial results from this survey. An electromagnetic induction survey (EMI) was carried out to characterize the subsurface in an area of about 16,000 m2. We used a GF Instruments CMD-4 conductivity meter to map the horizontal distribution of the subsurface electrical conductivity. This instrument was operated in a continuous mode and linked to a single frequency GPS receiver attached to the probe to georeference the survey. The distance between the probe coils was 3.77 m and the investigation depth range was 4-6 m. The resulting electrical conductivity map shows two low conductivity zones with a NW-SE orientation. The inphase map also presented these characteristics. Since the electrical conductivity is associated with the material compaction, low conductivity values are expected for highly consolidated material; thus our results suggest that these low conductivity features could be related to areas that were the soil was compacted to serve as foundation of these ancient structures. The EMI survey present good initial results and will be expanded along with other techniques such as electrical tomography and ground penetrating radar in the near future in order to better map the extend of Teotihuacan culture in the region.

  8. Archaeology of the Local Bubble: A Serendipitous Spectroscopic Survey of the EUV Diffuse Background II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. Christopher

    We propose to use serendipitous background data from the ~200 year 2 EUVE Spectrometer GO observations in order to survey the cosmic EUV background in the 70-760A band. We will perform rigorous global analysis to quantify and minmize the effects of observational and instrumental systematics, which could easily be misinterpreted as emission lines. We will make this information available to the EGO. We will use plasma modelling to derive temperatures, emission measures, and column densities. Comparison of emission and independent absorption measurements (particularly from GO primary analysis of the primary targets) will yield powerful constraints on the emission/absorption geometry and gas pressure. This synoptic approach will provide a strong test of models for the origin of the local hot bubble.

  9. Integrated geophysical and LIDAR surveys at the archaeological site of Ancient Epomanduodurum, Mandeure-Mathay (Doubs, Eastern France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivet, M.; Bossuet, G.; Laplaige, C.

    2009-04-01

    For several years, some integrated geophysical studies were carried out at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. It's a site of a major scientific interest for understanding the territorial structure of earliest agglomerations in the Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered as the second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins are extended moreover 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the river. The first "well-organized" research done on the site goes back as far as the end of the 18th Century. However, it is only round the beginning of the 19th century that major constructions such as the theatre (1820) and the sanctuary (1880) were uncovered. The status and the influence of Latenian sanctuary, located in the centre part of a great monumental complex of Early Augustan period, played probably an important role in the emergence of this foreground agglomeration. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and no invasive geophysical methods have been performed on large scale both on the terrace and in the floodplain. Automatic Resistivity Profiling (ARP) and magnetic mapping were taken in grids covering respective areas of 60 and 40 hectares. Ground penetrating radar was occasionally used to confirm the detection of specific anthropogenic anomalies

  10. Integrated Light Chemical Abundance Analyses of 7 M31 Outer Halo Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakari, Charli; Venn, Kim; Mackey, Dougal; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dotter, Aaron L.; Wallerstein, George

    2015-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances of globular clusters provide insight into the formation and evolution of galaxies and their globular cluster systems. This talk presents detailed chemical abundances for seven M31 outer halo globular clusters (with projected radii greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high resolution integrated light spectra. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). The integrated abundances show that 4 of these clusters are metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1.5) while the other 3 are more metal-rich. The most metal-poor globular clusters are α-enhanced, though 3 of the 4 are possibly less α-enhanced than MW stars (at the 1σ level). Other chemical abundance ratios ([Ba/Eu], [Eu/Ca], and [Ni/Fe]) are consistent with origins in low mass dwarf galaxies (similar to Fornax). The most metal-rich cluster ([Fe/H] ~ -1) stands out as being chemically distinct from Milky Way field stars of the same metallicity---its chemical abundance ratios agree best with the stars and clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr) than with the Milky Way field stars. The other metal-rich clusters, H10 and H23, look similar to the LMC and Milky Way field stars in all abundance ratios. These results indicate that M31's outer halo is being at least partially built up by the accretion of dwarf satellites, in agreement with previous observations.

  11. Integrated light chemical tagging analyses of seven M31 outer halo globular clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakari, Charli M.; Venn, Kim A.; Mackey, Dougal; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dotter, Aaron; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Huxor, Avon

    2015-04-01

    Detailed chemical abundances are presented for seven M31 outer halo globular clusters (with projected distances from M31 greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high-resolution integrated light spectra taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) - this paper presents the first determinations of integrated Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, and Eu abundances for these clusters. Four of the target clusters (PA06, PA53, PA54, and PA56) are metal poor ([Fe/H] < -1.5), α-enhanced (though they are possibly less α-enhanced than Milky Way stars at the 1σ level), and show signs of star-to-star Na and Mg variations. The other three globular clusters (H10, H23, and PA17) are more metal rich, with metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = -1.4 to -0.9. While H23 is chemically similar to Milky Way field stars, Milky Way globular clusters, and other M31 clusters, H10 and PA17, have moderately low [Ca/Fe], compared to Milky Way field stars and clusters. Additionally, PA17's high [Mg/Ca] and [Ba/Eu] ratios are distinct from Milky Way stars, and are in better agreement with the stars and clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. None of the clusters studied here can be conclusively linked to any of the identified streams from PAndAS; however, based on their locations, kinematics, metallicities, and detailed abundances, the most metal-rich PAndAS clusters H23 and PA17 may be associated with the progenitor of the Giant Stellar Stream, H10 may be associated with the SW cloud, and PA53 and PA56 may be associated with the eastern cloud.

  12. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  13. Archaeological demography.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Archaeological demography investigates the structure and dynamics of past human populations using evidence from traces of human activities and remnants of material culture in the archaeological record. Research in this field is interdisciplinary, incorporating findings from anthropology, paleogenetics, and human ecology but with a remit that extends beyond the primarily biological focus of paleodemography. Important questions addressed by archaeological demography include the establishment of methods for inferring past population structure, the timing of the emergence of modern human demographic systems, the relative importance of attritional and catastrophic patterns of mortality, and the search for adaptive explanations for demographic transitions, colonization events, and population extinctions. Archaeological evidence, including the extent of settlements and site catchment areas as well as measures of the exploitation, consumption, and discard of materials and artifacts, have traditionally been used as proxies for estimating past population size and density. In recent years this evidence has been supplemented by increasingly large data sets compiled from radiocarbon dating programs. These data sets have been used to investigate demographic waves of advance during continental-scale periods of colonization and cultural change and to detect episodes of population decline, extinction, and hiatuses in settlement history. By considering studies of human genetic diversity that indicate temporary but drastic reductions in effective population size, I hypothesize that catastrophic mortality may have had an important role in long-term population processes and may have limited long-term rates of growth, particularly in prehistoric populations.

  14. Transformations of the Past: Teachers' Knowledge of North American Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that archaeology education should be included within the social studies curriculum and addresses various reasons why archaeology has been ignored within the classroom. Presents the findings from a survey that investigated preservice and experienced teachers' knowledge of archaeology. Concludes that there is a need for teacher preparation on…

  15. Integrated methodologies for the 3d survey and the structural monitoring of industrial archaeology: the case of the Casalecchio di Reno Dyke, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Girelli, Valentina A.; Vittuari, Luca; Zanutta, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The concept of "Industrial Archaeology" was introduced in the 1950s in England in order to consider the branch of Archaeology that, in integration with engineering, architecture and economics, studies the industrial past, with the purpose of document, protect and exploite the industrial-cultural heritage. The systematic study of this kind of structures and artefacts need a wide range approach, that starts from the investigation about the object historic fonts until its complete qualitative and quantitative description, also considering the characteristics of the surrounding territory. This task often needs the integration of different survey techniques for data capturing and processing, in order to perform the 3D modeling and to analize the structural deformations of manufactured articles. The paper presents the surveying and monitoring activities on the important structure of the Casalecchio di Reno dyke, near Bologna. The first historic notes on the dyke are very old; they are dated back to the I millenium A. D. and report the news of a wooden barrage of the Reno canal. The construction of the actual structure is in the period 1360-1367 and suffered during the centuries numerous interventions and restores. The surveying activities on the dyke were realized in 2005-2006 and 2009 and involved different techniques (classical topography, high precision geometric levelling, range-based method by terrestrial laser scanning, digital photogrammetry, thermal imagery) integrated together in a unique local reference system, in order to study the stability and the movements of the structure in a established period of time and to realize a 3D model. Together with detail surveys on the single parts of the structure, an analysis at a larger territorial scale was performed by aerial photogrammetry, either using current imagery and historical data. The topographic measurements with traditional differential techniques have achieved a very high level precision and the realized

  16. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The last Remote Operation Vehicles (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles with different geophysical sensors - can fly at levels of a few meters (and even tens of centimeters) over the earth's surface, to move on the earth's surface and in the inaccessible underground areas and to explore in underwater investigations (e.g., Mindel and Bingham, 2001; Rowlands and Sarris, 2006; Wilson et al., 2006; Rigaud, 2007; Eppelbaum, 2008; Patterson and Brescia, 2008; Sarris, 2008; Wang et al., 2009; Wu and Tian, 2010; Stall, 2011; Tezkan et al., 2011; Winn et al., 2012; El-Nahhas, 2013; Hadjimitsis et al., 2013; Hajiyev and Vural, 2013; Hugenholtz et al., 2013; Petzke et al., 2013; Pourier et al., 2013; Casana et al., 2014; Silverberg and Bieber, 2014). Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost and can observe surface practically inaccessible archaeological sites (swampy areas, dense vegetation, rugged relief, over the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts (Eppelbaum, 2010), etc.). Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide a new unique geological-geophysical information (Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). Let's consider ROV airborne magnetic measurements as example. The modern magnetometric equipment enables to carry out magnetic measurements with a frequency of 50 times per second (and more) that taking into account the low ROV flight speed provides a necessary density of observations. For instance, frequency of observation of 50 times per second by ROV velocity of 40 km/hour gives density of observation about 0.2 m. It is obvious that the calculated step between observation points is more than sufficient one. Such observations will allow not only reduce the influence of some small artificial sources of noise, but also to obtain some additional data necessary for quantitative analysis (some interpretation methodologies need to have observations at two levels; upward

  17. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The last Remote Operation Vehicles (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles with different geophysical sensors - can fly at levels of a few meters (and even tens of centimeters) over the earth's surface, to move on the earth's surface and in the inaccessible underground areas and to explore in underwater investigations (e.g., Mindel and Bingham, 2001; Rowlands and Sarris, 2006; Wilson et al., 2006; Rigaud, 2007; Eppelbaum, 2008; Patterson and Brescia, 2008; Sarris, 2008; Wang et al., 2009; Wu and Tian, 2010; Stall, 2011; Tezkan et al., 2011; Winn et al., 2012; El-Nahhas, 2013; Hadjimitsis et al., 2013; Hajiyev and Vural, 2013; Hugenholtz et al., 2013; Petzke et al., 2013; Pourier et al., 2013; Casana et al., 2014; Silverberg and Bieber, 2014). Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost and can observe surface practically inaccessible archaeological sites (swampy areas, dense vegetation, rugged relief, over the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts (Eppelbaum, 2010), etc.). Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide a new unique geological-geophysical information (Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). Let's consider ROV airborne magnetic measurements as example. The modern magnetometric equipment enables to carry out magnetic measurements with a frequency of 50 times per second (and more) that taking into account the low ROV flight speed provides a necessary density of observations. For instance, frequency of observation of 50 times per second by ROV velocity of 40 km/hour gives density of observation about 0.2 m. It is obvious that the calculated step between observation points is more than sufficient one. Such observations will allow not only reduce the influence of some small artificial sources of noise, but also to obtain some additional data necessary for quantitative analysis (some interpretation methodologies need to have observations at two levels; upward

  18. An integrated approach to teaching Aegean archaeology and archaeological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcairn, Erica Glenn

    Outlined here is a course that would serve as an introduction to archaeological science, specifically within the context of Aegean Prehistory. The main objective of this course is to expose students early in their archaeological careers to a variety of methods and questions, and to depart from the culture-historical perspective that typifies introductory survey courses. The class structure is equal parts lecture and discussion, moving between learning how the methods work and evaluating case studies. All graded assignments build on one another, guiding the students through designing their own research project. The ultimate goals of the assignments are to build key writing and professional skills, develop a basic understanding of research design, and to instill confidence that the student can contribute to the production of knowledge, whatever field he or she decides to pursue.

  19. State Archaeological Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, William B., Ed.

    The focus of this conference was on programs and experiences in public archaeological education in the Plains states and immediate neighbors. The contents lists the following papers: (1) "Introduction to the Symposium" (William B. Butler); (2) "Archaeological Educational Programs in Colorado" (Kevin D. Black); (3) "Statewide Archaeological…

  20. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  1. Archaeological survey and monitoring of initial excavations within the basalt waste isolation project reference repository location and associated drill borehole site locations

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.M.

    1984-06-19

    This letter report concerns cultural resources studies undertaken in November 1982 for the exploratory shaft starter hole and surface facilities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). These studies were carried out under the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, the amended National Historic Preservation Act, and the Archaeological Resources Act. This report concludes that neither cultural nor palentological resources are being affected by the BWIP during the present phase of construction work and test drilling. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Acari in archaeology.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  3. Archaeology and cognitive evolution.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    Archaeology can provide two bodies of information relevant to the understanding of the evolution of human cognition--the timing of developments, and the evolutionary context of these developments. The challenge is methodological. Archaeology must document attributes that have direct implications for underlying cognitive mechanisms. One example of such a cognitive archaeology is found in spatial cognition. The archaeological record documents an evolutionary sequence that begins with ape-equivalent spatial abilities 2.5 million years ago and ends with the appearance of modern abilities in the still remote past of 400,000 years ago. The timing of these developments reveals two major episodes in the evolution in spatial ability, one, 1.5 million years ago and the other, one million years later. The two episodes of development in spatial cognition had very different evolutionary contexts. The first was associated with the shift to an open country adaptive niche that occurred early in the time range of Homo erectus. The second was associated with no clear adaptive shift, though it does appear to have coincided with the invasion of more hostile environments and the appearance of systematic hunting of large mammals. Neither, however, occurred in a context of modern hunting and gathering.

  4. Art and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Jul; Schumacher, Leni

    Organized in eight chapters, this interdisciplinary resource packet highlights the relationship between art and archaeology. Chapter 1 presents the vocabulary and several introductory activities that prepare students to participate in the subsequent chapters. These chapters focus on (2) "Lascaux Cave Paintings"; (3) "Life Along the Nile" (ancient…

  5. Assessing the Potential of Archaeological Prospection Techniques in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    Since 1999 research has been undertaken to assess the potential of archaeological prospection techniques in Iceland, where a particular set of geomorphological and archaeological challenges are present. In addition to the intense thermoremanent effects of the igneous geology, other limiting factors include numerous tephra deposits, periglacial phenomena (including frost hummocks and stone polygons), and regions of active soil erosion or sand deposition. The nature of the archaeological remains themselves provides further difficulties. Up until the beginning of the 20th century most structures were largely built of turf, and once collapsed and buried only provide slight features for detection. This investigation has required the development of a methodology for assessing the use of archaeological prospection methods in a new environment. Some fifty high-resolution magnetometer and earth resistance surveys have been systematically conducted throughout Iceland to encompass the range of archaeological features and a variety of geological and geomorphological situations. The results of these surveys have been integrated with other sources of archaeological evidence to allow a proper assessment of their success for not only locating buried remains but also for their characterization and interpretation. Despite the limiting factors, the results demonstrate the potential of these techniques for archaeological prospection in many parts of the country, especially when undertaken as part of an integrated approach. New and previously known structures have been detected with both techniques, including those constructed of turf and stone or entirely from turf, and dating from the earliest Viking remains to recently abandoned farm sites. This work also highlights the benefits of undertaking a thorough evaluation of geophysical methods in new environments before they are routinely applied. Fieldwork methodologies may be refined and novel approaches to data processing and

  6. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  7. Archaeology and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    MEETING REPORT The interaction between archaeology and astronomy has a long, tangled and not entirely creditable history, marred by misunderstandings on both sides. But statistics and cultural awareness are bringing a better picture of how and why lasting monuments such as Stonehenge were built. Sue Bowler reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Prehistoric Society, held at Jodrell Bank on 17 July 2009.

  8. Uas for Archaeology - New Perspectives on Aerial Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallavollita, P.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Melis, M. G.; Milanese, M.; Zappino, L.

    2013-08-01

    In this work some Unmanned Aerial Systems applications are discussed and applied to archaeological sites survey and 3D model reconstructions. Interesting results are shown for three important and different aged sites on north Sardinia (Italy). An easy and simplified procedure has proposed permitting the adoption of multi-rotor aircrafts for daily archaeological survey during excavation and documentation, involving state of art in UAS design, flight control systems, high definition sensor cameras and innovative photogrammetric software tools. Very high quality 3D models results are shown and discussed and how they have been simplified the archaeologist work and decisions.

  9. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  10. Advancing archaeological geophysics: Interpreting the archaeological landscape, ground-penetrating radar data processing, and multi-sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernenwein, Eileen G.

    The human past has been the subject of scientific inquiry for centuries, and has long been approached by the study of material remains from traditional archaeological excavations. In recent decades the advancing fields of geophysics and geographic information systems have greatly improved the archaeological toolkit, and research to improve these methods is ongoing. This dissertation focuses on important aspects of geophysical survey as an approach to landscape-scale archaeology, each presented as stand-alone scientific papers that utilize a 1.2 hectare four-dimensional (ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, magnetic susceptibility, and conductivity) dataset collected at Pueblo Escondido, a large prehistoric village of the Mogollon culture in southern New Mexico. Chapter 2 presents a case study showing the benefits of multidimensional geophysical surveys over large areas at archaeological sites. When paired with traditional archaeological excavations, it is possible to interpret the archaeological landscape on a much broader scale than is possible using excavations alone. At Pueblo Escondido, this approach led to a revised understanding of the architectural remains with broad regional significance. Chapter 3 describes new problems related to GPR surveys over large areas or extended periods of time, including issues related to correcting trace misalignments, edge discontinuities, and striping. Data processing solutions are offered. Chapter 4 presents an exploration of image classification methods for integrating multiple geophysical datasets. Unsupervised classification utilizing K-means cluster analysis and supervised classification using Mahalanobis Distance are described. The latter yielded a predictive model of archaeological features and identified some features that were not easily identified in the original datasets.

  11. Method for Identifying Probable Archaeological Sites from Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Comer, Douglas C.; Priebe, Carey E.; Sussman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological sites are being compromised or destroyed at a catastrophic rate in most regions of the world. The best solution to this problem is for archaeologists to find and study these sites before they are compromised or destroyed. One way to facilitate the necessary rapid, wide area surveys needed to find these archaeological sites is through the generation of maps of probable archaeological sites from remotely sensed data. We describe an approach for identifying probable locations of archaeological sites over a wide area based on detecting subtle anomalies in vegetative cover through a statistically based analysis of remotely sensed data from multiple sources. We further developed this approach under a recent NASA ROSES Space Archaeology Program project. Under this project we refined and elaborated this statistical analysis to compensate for potential slight miss-registrations between the remote sensing data sources and the archaeological site location data. We also explored data quantization approaches (required by the statistical analysis approach), and we identified a superior data quantization approached based on a unique image segmentation approach. In our presentation we will summarize our refined approach and demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach with test data from Santa Catalina Island off the southern California coast. Finally, we discuss our future plans for further improving our approach.

  12. Compass & Vernier Type Models in Indo Archaeology: Engineering Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Deepak

    2015-09-01

    Two extant, dated, verifiable archaeological members are adduced to have radial type compass features, having scope for fractionation of angles (θ operators) in a constant manner with lookout facilities. The Archaeological Survey of India celebrates their apex achievements in the domain of engineering/survey devices of erstwhile societies. Possible correlation has been drawn between the representatives of the elusive Gola yantra and the Vikhyana yantra (circular instrument & looking device) as referred in Indian history and culture. Dadhi nauti (curd level) has been explained for the first time. Now, all of these are accessible to everyone. This work is the first time report, which relates to historical archaeology of lower date c. 600 AD.

  13. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  14. Enhancing rescue-archaeology using geomorphological approaches: Archaeological sites in Paredes (Asturias, NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; González-Álvarez, I.; Requejo-Pagés, O.; Domínguez-Cuesta, M. J.

    2011-09-01

    Palaeolithic remnants, a Necropolis (Roman villa), and another minor archaeological site were discovered in Paredes (Spain). These sites were the focus of multidisciplinary research during the construction of a large shopping centre in Asturias (NW Spain). The aims of this study are (1) to contribute to archaeological prospection in the sites and (2) to develop evolutionary models of the sites based on geomorphological inferences. Detailed archaeological prospection (103 trenches), geomorphologic mapping, stratigraphic studies (36 logs) and ground penetration radar (GPR) surveys on five profiles indicate that the location of the settlement source of the Necropolis is outside the construction perimeter, farther to the southeast. The Pre-Holocene evolution of the fluvial landscape is marked by the development of two terraces (T1 and T2) that host the Early Palaeolithic remains in the area (ca 128-71 ka). The Holocene evolution of the landscape was marked by the emplacement of the Nora River flood plain, covered by alluvial fans after ca. 9 ka BP (cal BC 8252-7787). Subsequently, Neolithic pebble pits dated ca. 5.3 ka BP (cal BC 4261-3963 and 4372-4051) were constructed on T2, at the area reoccupied as a Necropolis during the Late Roman period, 1590 ± 45 years BP (cal AD 382-576). Coeval human activity during the Late Roman period at 1670 ± 60 years BP (cal AD 320-430) is also recorded by channel infill sediments in a minor site at the margin of an alluvial fan located to the southeast. This work shows that a rescue-archaeological study can be significantly enhanced by the implementation of multidisciplinary scientific studies, in which the holistic view of geomorphologic settings provide key insights into the geometry and evolution of archaeological sites.

  15. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana," providing a brief…

  16. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.; Rhode, D.

    1991-12-31

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants.

  17. Galactic Archaeology with the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Cohen, Judith; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present an overview of our Galactic Archaeology (GA) survey program with the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) for Subaru. Following successful design reviews, the instrument is now under construction with first light anticipated in 2018. Main characteristics of PFS and the science goals in our PFS/GA program are described.

  18. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  19. Archaeology as anthropology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönnby, Johan

    2007-12-01

    The interaction between humans and the maritime coastal landscape must be one of the central theoretical questions for maritime archaeology. How should an academic discipline, which is defined by its studies in a certain physical milieu, avoid the trap of environmental determinism and still be able to argue for the special influence of the maritime factor? And how should this long-term relation to the sea be interpreted and described? In this article, based mainly on material from the central Swedish Baltic Sea coast, three examples of long-term structures regarding the relationship between people and the sea are discussed. The structures, here called “maritime durees”, which almost all coastal habitants in the analyzed area seem to have had in common are linked to: exploitation of marine resources, communication over water and the mental presence of the sea. In conclusion the actual meaning of these long-term structures for everyday life and for cultural and social change are discussed in comparison to more short term structures: the changing historical circumstances and possibilities for people to choose different strategies.

  20. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  1. A critical review of hydrological data collection for assessing preservation risk for urban waterlogged archaeology: A case study from the City of York, UK.

    PubMed

    Holden, Joseph; Howard, Andy J; West, L Jared; Maxfield, Eleanor; Panter, Ian; Oxley, John

    2009-08-01

    Environmental change caused by urban development, possibly augmented by climate change, may result in accelerated decay of in situ archaeological resources. Damage may be related to changes in hydrological processes. Such archaeological resources have to be considered in environmental planning. In this paper we highlight the need for improved hydrological data from urban archaeological sites using the case study of the City of York, UK, arguably one of the most well studied and well preserved urban archaeological environments globally. We suggest that the quality of hydrological data collected during routine surveys and experimental work must be improved and standardised in order for us to produce reliable archaeological risk models for urban sites.

  2. Uncovering Clues to Success: A Survey of Professional Archaeologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    2000-01-01

    An e-mail survey of an archaeology listserv was responded to by 208 individuals of whom 113 were professional archaeologists. The survey asked about early interest in archaeology and basic demographics. Four factors that commonly contributed to archaeological interest emerged: (1) events (such as site visits or discoveries); (2) books and…

  3. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  4. The application of environmental magnetism to archaeological prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linford, Neil Terrington

    Magnetic survey is the most widely used shallow geophysical technique for the location of archaeological activity in the United Kingdom but is often discounted from use within alluviated landscapes. Results presented in this thesis from fluxgate gradiometer surveys conducted over an alluviated flood plain near the village of Yarnton, Oxfordshire, UK, demonstrate a wide variation of magnetic response between adjacent sites. This suggests a more complicated relationship between the rock magnetic properties of underlying archaeological sediments and the resultant magnetic anomalies recorded during surface magnetometer surveys. This study aims to investigate this relationship further and determine the influence of post-depositional mineral dissolution in water logged soils; a factor that together with increased alluvial overburden, has often been cited as an explanation for disappointing magnetic results over similar sites. A wide ranging study has been conducted including geophysical surveys, environmental magnetic analysis of archaeological sediments recovered during excavation and experimental work to investigate the influence of burning. Initial, rapid determination of isothermal magnetic parameters, such as susceptibility, has been complemented, for selected samples, by more detailed hysteresis measurements and thermomagnetic variation over a temperature range from 20 to 973K. Interpretation of the resulting data has been assisted through the development of semi-quantitative numerical models to describe the complex magnetic mixtures present. The results, including over 20ha (20,0000m2) of geophysical survey and the analysis of more than 500 samples, demonstrate the important role of fire for magnetic enhancement and also provides evidence, under suitable conditions, for more esoteric biogenic mechanisms. The main conclusions reached suggest archaeological features magnetised before the onset of flood plain conditions may still be detected through geophysical

  5. Archaeology as a social science.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.

  6. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  7. Introductory Archaeology: The Inexpensive Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a number of student-focused laboratory exercises that are inexpensive, yet show the scientific character of archaeology. Describes the environmental laboratory exercise which includes the following analysis topics: (1) pollen; (2) earth core; (3) microfaunal; and (4) microwear. Describes the ceramic laboratory which involves…

  8. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  9. Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and…

  10. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, B. A.; Gibson, B. K.; Flynn, C. M. L.

    2016-10-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realized stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach ˜0.1 dex and the parameterized MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  11. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    et al., 1999; Reeder et al., 2004; Reinhardt et al., 2006; Reich et al., 2003; Ron et al., 2003; Segal et al., 2003; Sternberg and Lass, 2007; Sternberg et al., 1999; Verri et al., 2004; Weiner et al., 1993; Weinstein-Evron et al., 1991, 2003; Weiss et al., 2007; Witten et al., 1994), and (3) future [2010 -]. The past stage with several archaeoseismic reviews and very limited application of geophysical methods was replaced by the present stage with the violent employment of numerous geophysical techniques (first of all, high-precise magnetic survey and GPR). It is supposed that the future stage will be characterized by extensive development of multidiscipline physical-archaeological databases (Eppelbaum et al., 2009b), utilization of supercomputers for 4D monitoring and ancient sites reconstruction (Foster et al., 2001; Pelfer et al., 2004) as well as wide application of geophysical surveys using remote operated vehicles at low altitudes (Eppelbaum, 2008a). REFERENCES Batey, R.A., 1987. Subsurface Interface Radar at Sepphoris, Israel 1985. Journal of Field Archaeology, 14 (1), 1-8. Bauman, P., Parker, D., Coren, A., Freund, R., and Reeder, P., 2005. Archaeological Reconnaissance at Tel Yavne, Israel: 2-D Electrical Imaging and Low Altitude Aerial Photography. CSEG Recorder, No. 6, 28-33. Ben-Dor, E., Portugali, J., Kochavi, M., Shimoni, M., and Vinitzky, L., 1999. Airborne thermal video radiometry and excavation planning at Tel Leviah, Golan Heights, Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology, 26 (2), 117-127. Ben-Menahem, A., 1979. Earthquake catalogue for the Middle East (92 B.C. - 1980 A.D.). Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, 21 (84), 245-310. Ben-Yosef, E., Tauxe, L., Ronb, H., Agnon, A., Avner, U., Najjar, M., and Levy, T.E., 2008. A new approach for geomagnetic archaeointensity research: insights on ancient metallurgy in the Southern Levant. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25, 2863-2879. Berkovitch, A.L., Eppelbaum, L.V., and Basson, U., 2000

  12. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  13. Large-scale, high-definition Ground Penetrating Radar prospection in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, I.; Kucera, M.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Nau, E.; Neubauer, W.; Zitz, T.

    2012-04-01

    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (LBI ArchPro) in collaboration with its eight European partner organisations is the advancement of state-of-the-art archaeological sciences. The application and specific further development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications, as well as of novel integrated interpretation approaches dedicated to non-invasive spatial archaeology combining near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science is crucial for modern archaeology. Within the institute's research programme different areas for distinct case studies in Austria, Germany, Norway, Sweden and the UK have been selected as basis for the development and testing of new concepts for efficient and universally applicable tools for spatial, non-invasive archaeology. In terms of geophysical prospection the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes for the exploration and protection of Europe's buried cultural heritage requires new measurement devices, which are fast, accurate and precise. Therefore the further development of motorized, multichannel survey systems and advanced navigation solutions is required. The use of motorized measurement devices for archaeological prospection implicates several technological and methodological challenges. Latest multichannel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) arrays mounted in front off, or towed behind motorized survey vehicles permit large-scale GPR prospection surveys with unprecedented spatial resolution. In particular the motorized 16 channel 400 MHz MALÅ Imaging Radar Array (MIRA) used by the LBI ArchPro in combination with latest automatic data positioning and navigation solutions permits the reliable high

  14. Archaeology as a social science

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael E.; Feinman, Gary M.; Drennan, Robert D.; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration. PMID:22547811

  15. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar and Gradiometry in Identifying Domestic Activity Areas Within the Kolomoki Mounds Archaeological Site, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serman, N.

    2005-05-01

    The Kolomoki Mounds archaeological site (9ER1) in southwest Georgia appears to be one of the most important Woodland Period (ca. 1000 B.C. - A.D. 900) centers in southeastern United States. The site originally had at least eight mounds, exquisite ceramics and, seemingly, a year-round occupation. Due to an early archaeological misinterpretation, Kolomoki was, until recently, all but ignored in archaeological research. Consequently, the site and its occupation are not well understood. Today, the site is included in the National Register of Historic Places, and is not available for standard archaeological investigation, that is, extensive excavation. Therefore, non-destructive geophysical exploration provides an ideal means for investigating protected sites, such as Kolomoki, to obtain archaeologically relevant information. I will present the results of the first two geophysical surveys I conducted within the Kolomoki Mounds archaeological site in 2001. These surveys are part of my ongoing geophysical research with the purpose of better understanding intra-site settlement patterns at the Kolomoki Mounds archaeological site. The results of the ground-penetrating radar and gradiometry surveys indicate different activity areas at the site. There is a pronounced difference in appearance and density of anomalies between at least two areas, with one of these areas being a part of the habitation area.

  16. What's next in remote sensing archaeology? Use of field spectroscopy to design a new space sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    The traditional archaeological surveys have been shifted through time from single to multi-disciplinary studies of material remains based on the advantages of new technologies. Remote Sensing (RS) techniques in the last years have been proven to be an essential tool for the detection of un-excavated sites as well an important tool for the better understanding of the landscape of a site. Although the use of such technologies is widely accepted by the archaeological community, the practical use of these RS is not equally adopted. This phenomenon has been dramatically increased though the last years, and therefore "two-speed archaeology" is more evidence than before: Archaeologists in technologically developed countries may fully exploit RS technologies while in following countries this is still limited due to the lack of funding or equipment (e.g. special RS airplanes). Despite the fact that the above phenomenon is also frequently observed in other scientific fields, when this comes to archaeology then the problem is of paramount importance for the science itself: how can we better understand human past and old civilizations -which goes beyond the geographical limits of modern countries- when the data quality is fragmental though out the world? Extensive field spectroscopy measurements contacted in simulated archaeological environments have identified spectral regions suitable for the detection of buried archaeological research. Such characteristics can be implemented into a specially designed satellite sensor in order to support archaeological research. The potential use of such sensor will be a break though for the science of archaeology. The sensor can fully exploit the advantages of space technology and therefore can be used to support archaeological surveys in pan-European level as well outside Europe. The sensor will be able to provide a better inside look to lost landscapes and archaeological remains and therefore providing to archaeologists new windows to

  17. Archaeological resource management plan of the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Archaeological Resource management Plan addresses the future cultural resource management needs of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The archaeological information contained herein is based on prehistoric and historic archaeological syntheses prepared by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) for the SRS. The syntheses also address future research directions that will facilitate better management of the cultural resources. This document is a prelude to a Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement (PMOA) which, in conjunction with this Archaeological Resource Management Plan, will assure SRS continued compliance with all applicable federal laws and regulations in concert with any DOE plans, policies and directives. 225 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Archaeology Informs Our Understanding of Ancient Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mull, Kenneth V.

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes the importance and utility of archaeology for understanding ancient texts and revealing how they illuminate biblical meaning and history. Presents guidelines showing classroom teachers how to incorporate archaeological knowledge into their lessons. Describes current Middle Eastern excavation sites, using Jerusalem as a case study.…

  19. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  20. Geospatial revolution and remote sensing LiDAR in Mesoamerican archaeology

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Arlen F.; Fisher, Christopher T.; Leisz, Stephen J.; Weishampel, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The application of light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a laser-based remote-sensing technology that is capable of penetrating overlying vegetation and forest canopies, is generating a fundamental shift in Mesoamerican archaeology and has the potential to transform research in forested areas world-wide. Much as radiocarbon dating that half a century ago moved archaeology forward by grounding archaeological remains in time, LiDAR is proving to be a catalyst for an improved spatial understanding of the past. With LiDAR, ancient societies can be contextualized within a fully defined landscape. Interpretations about the scale and organization of densely forested sites no longer are constrained by sample size, as they were when mapping required laborious on-ground survey. The ability to articulate ancient landscapes fully permits a better understanding of the complexity of ancient Mesoamerican urbanism and also aids in modern conservation efforts. The importance of this geospatial innovation is demonstrated with newly acquired LiDAR data from the archaeological sites of Caracol, Cayo, Belize and Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico. These data illustrate the potential of technology to act as a catalytic enabler of rapid transformational change in archaeological research and interpretation and also underscore the value of on-the-ground archaeological investigation in validating and contextualizing results. PMID:22802623

  1. Geospatial revolution and remote sensing LiDAR in Mesoamerican archaeology.

    PubMed

    Chase, Arlen F; Chase, Diane Z; Fisher, Christopher T; Leisz, Stephen J; Weishampel, John F

    2012-08-01

    The application of light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a laser-based remote-sensing technology that is capable of penetrating overlying vegetation and forest canopies, is generating a fundamental shift in Mesoamerican archaeology and has the potential to transform research in forested areas world-wide. Much as radiocarbon dating that half a century ago moved archaeology forward by grounding archaeological remains in time, LiDAR is proving to be a catalyst for an improved spatial understanding of the past. With LiDAR, ancient societies can be contextualized within a fully defined landscape. Interpretations about the scale and organization of densely forested sites no longer are constrained by sample size, as they were when mapping required laborious on-ground survey. The ability to articulate ancient landscapes fully permits a better understanding of the complexity of ancient Mesoamerican urbanism and also aids in modern conservation efforts. The importance of this geospatial innovation is demonstrated with newly acquired LiDAR data from the archaeological sites of Caracol, Cayo, Belize and Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico. These data illustrate the potential of technology to act as a catalytic enabler of rapid transformational change in archaeological research and interpretation and also underscore the value of on-the-ground archaeological investigation in validating and contextualizing results.

  2. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  3. The application of geophysical methods to archaeological prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linford, Neil

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this review is to combine the almost universal fascination we share for our past with the comparatively recent, in archaeological terms, application of geophysical prospection methods. For their success, each of these methods relies upon a physical contrast to exist between the buried archaeological feature and the properties of the surrounding subsoil. Understanding the archaeological origin of such physical contrasts, in terms of density, thermal conductivity, electrical resistance, magnetic or dielectric properties, remains fundamental to an appreciation of the discipline. This review provides a broad introduction to the subject area acknowledging the historical development of the discipline and discusses each of the major techniques in turn: earth resistance, magnetic and electromagnetic methods (including ground penetrating radar), together with an appreciation of more esoteric approaches, such as the use of micro-gravity survey to detect buried chambers and voids. The physical principles and field instrumentation involved for the acquisition of data with each method are considered and fully illustrated with case histories of results from the English Heritage archives.

  4. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  5. Images of the invisible-prospection methods for the documentation of threatened archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    To understand the development of prehistoric cultural and economic activities, archaeologists try to obtain as much relevant information as possible. For this purpose, large numbers of similar sites must be identified, usually by non-destructive prospection methods such as aerial photography and geophysical prospection. Aerial archaeology is most effective in locating sites and the use of digital photogrammetry provides maps with high accuracy. For geophysical prospection mainly geomagnetic and geoelectrical methods or the ground-penetrating radar method are used. Near-surface measurements of the respective contrasts within physical properties of the archaeological structures and the surrounding material allows detailed mapping of the inner structures of the sites investigated. Applying specially developed wheeled instrumentation, high-resolution magnetic surveys can be carried out in a standard raster of 0.125×0.5 m covering up to 5 ha per day. Measurements of ground resistivity or radar surveys in a raster of 0.5 or 0.5×0.05 m, respectively, are used to gain information on archaeological structures and on the main stratigraphic sequence of sites covering up to 0.5 ha per day. Data on intensities of the Earth's magnetic field, apparent resistivities of the ground or amplitudinal information of radar reflections are processed using a digital image processing technique to visualize the otherwise invisible archaeological structures or monuments buried in the ground. Archaeological interpretation, in the sense of detecting, mapping and describing the archaeological structures, is done using GIS technology by combining all relevant prospection data. As most of the Middle European archaeological heritage is under a massive threat of destruction, dramatically accelerated by intensive agriculture or industrial transformation of the landscape, the prospection techniques presented here represent an approach towards an efficient documentation of the disappearing remains of

  6. Archaeological Site Monitoring: Uav Photogrammetry can BE AN Answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaudo, F.; Chiabrando, F.; Lingua, A.; Spanò, A.

    2012-07-01

    During archaeological excavations it is important to monitor the new excavated areas and findings day by day in order to be able to plan future excavation activities. At present, this daily activity is usually performed by using total stations, which survey the changes of the archaeological site: the surveyors are asked to produce day by day draft plans and sections which allow archaeologists to plan their future activities. The survey is realized during the excavations or just at the end of every working day and drawings have to be produced as soon as possible in order to allow the comprehension of the work done and to plan the activities for the following day. By using this technique, all the measurements, even those not necessary for the day after, have to be acquired in order to avoid a `loss of memory'. A possible alternative to this traditional approach is aerial photogrammetry, if the images can be acquired quickly and at a taken distance able to guarantee the necessary accuracy of a few centimeters. Today the use of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can be considered a proven technology able to acquire images at distances ranging from 4 m up to 20 m: and therefore as a possible monitoring system to provide the necessary information to the archaeologists day by day. The control network, usually present at each archaeological site, can give the stable control points useful for orienting a photogrammetric block acquired by using an UAV equipped with a calibrated digital camera and a navigation control system able to drive the aircraft following a pre-planned flight scheme. Modern digital photogrammetric software can solve for the block orientation and generate a DSM automatically, allowing rapid orthophoto generation and the possibility of producing sections and plans. The present paper describes a low cost UAV system realized by the research group of the Politecnico di Torino and tested on a Roman villa archaeological site located in Aquileia (Italy), a well

  7. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  8. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  9. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  10. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  11. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  12. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  13. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  14. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  15. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  16. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  17. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  18. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  19. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  20. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  1. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  2. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  3. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  4. Use of ground-penetrating radar techniques in archaeological investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, James A.; Miller, W. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques are increasingly being used to aid reconnaissance and pre-excavation surveys at many archaeological sites. As a 'remote sensing' tool, GPR provides a high resolution graphic profile of the subsurface. Radar profiles are used to detect, identify, and locate buried artifacts. Ground-penetrating radar provides a rapid, cost effective, and nondestructive method for identification and location analyses. The GPR can be used to facilitate excavation strategies, provide greater areal coverage per unit time and cost, minimize the number of unsuccessful exploratory excavations, and reduce unnecessary or unproductive expenditures of time and effort.

  5. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  6. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin A

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  7. Advancing the Documentation of Buried Archaeological Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, W.; Doneus, M.; Trinks, I.

    2012-07-01

    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology, in collaboration with its nine European partner organisations, is the advancement of the state-of-the-art. This goal will be achieved by focusing on the development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications. Main focus will be placed on novel integrated interpretation approaches combining cutting-edge near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science.

  8. Gis-Based Surface Analysis of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.; Moser, M.

    2011-09-01

    The international research project HiMAT (History of Mining Activities in the Tyrol and adjacent areas) is dedicated to the study of mining history in the Eastern Alps by various scientific disciplines. The aim of this program is the analysis of the mining activities' impacts on environment and human societies. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of specific regions (e.g. Mitterberg) to offer possibilities to investigate the former mining expansions. Within this multidisciplinary project, the archaeological sites and finds are analyzed by the Surveying and Geoinformation Unit at the University of Innsbruck. This paper shows data fusion of different surveying and post-processing methods to achieve a photo-realistic digital 3D model of one of these most important finds, the Bronze Age sluice box from the Mitterberg. The applied workflow consists of four steps: 1. Point cloud processing, 2. Meshing of the point clouds and editing of the models, 3. Image orientation, bundle and image adjustment, 4. Model texturing. In addition, a short range laser scanning survey was organized before the conservation process of this wooden find. More accurate research opportunities were offered after this detailed documentation of the sluice box, for example the reconstruction of the broken parts and the surface analysis of this archaeological object were implemented using these high-resolution datasets. In conclusion, various unperceived patterns of the wooden boards were visualized by the GIS-based tool marks investigation.

  9. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  10. The present state of nuclear archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, H.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear archaeology might be construed as subsuming any archaeological measurement that depends on nuclear phenomena. Thus defined, nuclear archaeology would include, for example, radiocarbon dating and potassium-argon dating as well as neutron activation analysis (NAA). In these applications, neutron activation analysis is used to characterize human skeletal and artifactual remains in order to answer questions that presumably are of concern to archaeologists. The characterization of human bone by NAA is intended to contribute to reconstructing the diets of ancient people. Unfortunately, a number of studies show that many trace elements of potential use in dietary reconstruction are dramatically altered by conditions in the burial environment. One step toward ruling out diagenetic sources of chemical variation is to analyze soil from the burial environment.The usefulness of NAA applied to archaeological specimens is briefly discussed.

  11. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  12. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  13. Tsunamis in the New Zealand archaeological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadgen, B. G.; Goff, J. R.

    2007-08-01

    Historical and geological records both indicate tsunami inundation of New Zealand in the 700 years since the first human settlement. In addition, Maori oral traditions refer to unusual waves that might have been tsunami waves, although the accounts are open to other interpretations. Tsunami evidence has rarely been proposed from archaeological sites, primarily because of a limited understanding of the requisite evidence and environmental context. We list a criteria suggesting possible tsunami inundation of archaeological sites based upon geoarchaeological data, and use them in a case study from the Archaic Maori occupation site at Wairau Bar. The list is possibly incomplete, but indicates that archaeological investigations can gain from assessments of changing environmental conditions through time at any individual site. Our intention is not to prove tsunami inundation; rather, it is to point to archaeological sites as possible sources of information. We highlight the potential of the Wairau Bar site for further investigation.

  14. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  15. The detectability of archaeological structures beneath the soil using the ground penetrating radar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, C.; Barone, P. M.; Pajewski, L.; Pettinelli, E.; Rossi, G.

    2012-04-01

    The traditional excavation tools applied to Archaeology (i.e. trowels, shovels, bulldozers, etc.) produce, generally, a fast and invasive reconstruction of the ancient past. The geophysical instruments, instead, seem to go in the opposite direction giving, rapidly and non-destructively, geo-archaeological information. Moreover, the economic aspect should not be underestimated: where the former invest a lot of money in order to carry out an excavation or restoration, the latter spend much less to manage a geophysical survey, locating precisely the targets. Survey information gathered using non-invasive methods contributes to the creation of site strategies, conservation, preservation and, if necessary, accurate location of excavation and restoration units, without destructive testing methods, also in well-known archaeological sites [1]-[3]. In particular, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has, recently, become the most important physical technique in archaeological investigations, allowing the detection of targets with both very high vertical and horizontal resolution, and has been successfully applied both to archaeological and diagnostic purposes in historical and monumental sites [4]. GPR configuration, antenna frequency and survey modality can be different, depending on the scope of the measurements, the nature of the site or the type of targets. Two-dimensional (2D) time/depth slices and radargrams should be generated and integrated with information obtained from other buried or similar artifacts to provide age, structure and context of the surveyed sites. In the present work, we present three case-histories on well-known Roman archaeological sites in Rome, in which GPR technique has been successfully used. To obtain 2D maps of the explored area, a bistatic GPR (250MHz and 500MHz antennas) was applied, acquiring data along several parallel profiles. The GPR results reveal the presence of similar circular anomalies in all the investigated archaeological sites. In

  16. Use of INAA in archaeology in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, A.P.; Vassilaki-Grimani, M.; Kilikoglou, V.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a very sensitive and accurate multi-element analytical method that is widely applied to the investigation of archaeological problems. Elemental composition of an archaeological material, besides form and decoration style, may give supplementary information of the origin of the material. This paper is a review of provenance studies, based on minor and trace element research, of ancient books, ceramics, obsidian, flint, limestone, marble, and lead by INAA performed at the authors' radioanalytical laboratory.

  17. Action cameras and low-cost aerial vehicles in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.

    2015-05-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of the potential of a close range aerial photogrammetry system, which is accessible both in economic terms and in terms of simplicity of use. In particular the Go Pro Hero3 Black Edition and the Parrot Ar. Drone 2.0 were studied. There are essentially two limitations to the system and they were found for both the instruments used. Indeed, the frames captured by the Go Pro are subject to great distortion and consequently pose numerous calibration problems. On the other hand, the limitation of the system lies in the difficulty of maintaining a flight configuration suitable for photogrammetric purposes in unfavourable environmental conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse how far the limitations highlighted can influence the precision of the survey and consequent quality of the results obtained. To this end, the integrated GoPro and Parrot system was used during a survey campaign on the Altilia archaeological site, in Molise. The data obtained was compared with that gathered by more traditional methods, such as the laser scanner. The system was employed in the field of archaeology because here the question of cost often has a considerable importance and the metric aspect is frequently subordinate to the qualitative and interpretative aspects. Herein one of the products of these systems; the orthophoto will be analysed, which is particularly useful in archaeology, especially in situations such as this dig in which there aren't many structures in elevation present. The system proposed has proven to be an accessible solution for producing an aerial documentation, which adds the excellent quality of the result to metric data for which the precision is known.

  18. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    et al., 1999; Reeder et al., 2004; Reinhardt et al., 2006; Reich et al., 2003; Ron et al., 2003; Segal et al., 2003; Sternberg and Lass, 2007; Sternberg et al., 1999; Verri et al., 2004; Weiner et al., 1993; Weinstein-Evron et al., 1991, 2003; Weiss et al., 2007; Witten et al., 1994), and (3) future [2010 -]. The past stage with several archaeoseismic reviews and very limited application of geophysical methods was replaced by the present stage with the violent employment of numerous geophysical techniques (first of all, high-precise magnetic survey and GPR). It is supposed that the future stage will be characterized by extensive development of multidiscipline physical-archaeological databases (Eppelbaum et al., 2009b), utilization of supercomputers for 4D monitoring and ancient sites reconstruction (Foster et al., 2001; Pelfer et al., 2004) as well as wide application of geophysical surveys using remote operated vehicles at low altitudes (Eppelbaum, 2008a). REFERENCES Batey, R.A., 1987. Subsurface Interface Radar at Sepphoris, Israel 1985. Journal of Field Archaeology, 14 (1), 1-8. Bauman, P., Parker, D., Coren, A., Freund, R., and Reeder, P., 2005. Archaeological Reconnaissance at Tel Yavne, Israel: 2-D Electrical Imaging and Low Altitude Aerial Photography. CSEG Recorder, No. 6, 28-33. Ben-Dor, E., Portugali, J., Kochavi, M., Shimoni, M., and Vinitzky, L., 1999. Airborne thermal video radiometry and excavation planning at Tel Leviah, Golan Heights, Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology, 26 (2), 117-127. Ben-Menahem, A., 1979. Earthquake catalogue for the Middle East (92 B.C. - 1980 A.D.). Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, 21 (84), 245-310. Ben-Yosef, E., Tauxe, L., Ronb, H., Agnon, A., Avner, U., Najjar, M., and Levy, T.E., 2008. A new approach for geomagnetic archaeointensity research: insights on ancient metallurgy in the Southern Levant. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25, 2863-2879. Berkovitch, A.L., Eppelbaum, L.V., and Basson, U., 2000

  19. NASA, Remote Sensing and Archaeology: An Example from Southeast Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center, located in Mississippi, USA, undertook an archaeological survey of the southeastern Louisiana marshes beginning in 2003. Progress on this activity was severely hampered by the 2005 hurricane season when both Katrina and Rita devastated the study area. In 2008, the NASA team reinitiated the analysis of the project data and that work continues today. The project was conducted initially in partnership with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers New Orleans District and Tulane University. NASA and its partners utilized a wide variety of satellite and airborne remote sensing instruments combined with field verification surveys to identify prehistoric archeological sites in the Southeastern Louisiana delta, both known and still undiscovered. The main approach was to carefully map known sites and use the spectral characteristics of these sites to locate high probability targets elsewhere in the region. The archaeological activities were conducted in support of Coast 2050 whose stated goals is to sustain and restore a coastal ecosystem that supports and protects the environment, economy and culture of southern Louisiana. As the Coast 2050 report states: [T]he rate of coastal land loss in Louisiana has reached catastrophic proportions. Within the last 50 years, land loss rates have exceeded 40 square miles per year, and in the 1990's the rate has been estimated to be between 25 and 35 square miles each year. This loss represents 80% of the coastal wetland loss in the entire continental United States.

  20. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  1. A Geophysical and Archaeological Analysis of Early Formative Physical Environments at Los Naranjos, Honduras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchakirides, T. F.; Brown, L. D.; Henderson, J. S.; Joyce, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    During the summer of 2003, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and magnetometry data were acquired at the archaeological site of Los Naranjos, Honduras, one of the earliest archaeological sites in Mesoamerica with monumental architecture and sculpture and one of the easternmost sites in which Olmec artifacts have been recovered. The site was occupied continuously from the Early Formative to the Early Postclassic Periods, with large-scale monumental earthen platform construction occurring during much of its occupation. Geophysical surveys were undertaken in the open plaza areas in the Principal Group, where some of the largest platforms were constructed early in the history of the site. GPR data were collected with 50, 100, 200, and 250 MHz antennae in both 2-dimensional grids and linear profiles, with penetration in excess of 5 meters in some locations. Magnetometry data collection provided a much greater areal coverage of the site, but both methods covered both apparent archaeological and geological features. In some cases, correlation between the geophysical methods is strong, especially when integrated with archaeological information. Interpretation of the geophysical data, combined with analysis of cultural material from archaeological excavations, are helping to understand how the construction and significant expansion of large earthen platform mounds altered the Early Formative physical environment in dramatic ways, both reflecting and intensifying social differentiation and concentration of political power and generating both intended and unintended consequences.

  2. Use of Small-Scale Artificial Archaeological Sites in the Teaching of Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Warren N.

    By using small-scale artificially created archaeologic sites, a teacher can provide students with a time-efficient approach in which to master some basic archaeological techniques. In an artificially created setting, the students can become familiar with conditions they might meet in the field. In a short period of time, students may be exposed to…

  3. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  4. Galactic Archaeology with the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Cohen, Judith; Wyse, Rosemary

    2015-08-01

    We present our Galactic Archaeology survey plan with the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) for Subaru. PFS is a massively-multiplexed, fiber-fed optical and near-infrared 3-arm spectrograph (N_fiber = 2,400, 380 < lambda < 1260 nm, 1.3 degree diameter hexagonal field, low- and medium-resolution modes of R = 2,000-3,000 and 5,000, respectively), offering us unique opportunities in survey astronomy. Following successful design reviews, the instrument is now under construction with first light anticipated in 2018. In the Galactic Archaeology program, for which we expect to have about 100 nights over 5 years, radial velocities and chemical abundances of stars in the Milky Way and M31 will be used to infer the past assembly histories of these galaxies and the structure of their dark matter halos. Data will be secured for numerous stars in the Galactic thick-disk, halo and tidal streams as faint as V = 22 mag, including stars with V < 20 mag to complement the goals of the Gaia mission. A medium-resolution mode with R = 5,000 to be implemented in the red arm will allow the measurement of multiple alpha-element abundances and more precise velocities for Galactic stars, elucidating the detailed chemo-dynamical structure and evolution of each of the main stellar components of the Milky Way Galaxy and of its dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The M31 campaign will target red giant branch stars with 21.5 < V < 22.5 mag, obtaining radial velocities and metallicities over an unprecedented large area of its stellar halo. In synergy with these planned PFS survey, the coordinated imaging surveys with Hyper Suprime Cam are going on over wide areas of the Galactic satellites and the M31 halo, based on the combination of broad-band and narrow-band filters to separate candidate giants from foreground dwarfs as spectroscopic targets.

  5. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    PubMed

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered. PMID:10539944

  6. Exogenous processes study in the coastal zone of the large reservoirs in the archaeological monuments placement (Volga-Kama region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynullin, Iskander; Usmanov, Bulat

    2014-05-01

    The problem of conservation of archaeological heritage is highly relevant for the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), because in its territory identified, studied and registered around 4,300 archaeological sites. Most of archaeological sites from the Mesolithic to the late Middle Ages, now situated in the coastal zone of reservoirs where archaeological objects destroying because of intensive abrasion processes. The Volga and Kama rivers region attracted people for millennia. This territory of the Russian Plain is abounding in archaeological sites of various ages. During the Upper Paleolithic study region was quite convenient for living activity of the first inhabitants because of its situation out of the glacier limits. The sites on the banks are deposited within deluvial sediments of the Late Valday glaciation which have been accumulated on the slope of the Volga and Kama valleys, placing the third terrace and the segmentations of the second terrace over the flood-plain and now completely or fragmentary destroyed by reservoir waters. The analysis of remote sensing (1958-2013) and field survey (2011-2013) data performed. Georeferencing and alignment of the historical maps with remote sensing data makes possible to reveal mistakes in old site plans and re-create the shape of the destroyed archaeological objects, as well to get the exact size of the monument and its correct orientation. Results showed also that the studying sites caused a great rate of destruction of coastline. Cultural heritage sites monitoring, with information about the chronology, cultural layer value, settlement specifics, etc., taking into account the methods used in landscape ecology and field archaeological survey, allows to evaluate damage and the intensity of archaeological sites destruction through the dangerous exogenous processes estimation. Exogenous processes data and archaeological GIS integration will form unified system of archaeological rescue works, will provide analysis of large amount

  7. Point Cloud Metrics for Separating Standing Archaeological Remains and Low Vegetation in ALS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, R.; Nuninger, L.

    2013-07-01

    The integration of Airborne Laser Scanning survey into archaeological research and cultural heritage management has substantially added to our knowledge of archaeological remains in forested areas, and is changing our understanding of how these landscapes functioned in the past. While many types of archaeological remains manifest as micro-topography, several important classes of features commonly appear as standing remains. The identification of these remains is important for archaeological prospection surveys based on ALS data, and typically represent structures from the Roman, Medieval and early Modern periods. Standing structures in mixed scenes with vegetation are not well addressed by standard classification approaches developed to identify bare earth (terrain), individual trees or plot characteristics, or buildings (roofed structures). In this paper we propose an approach to the identification of these structures in the point cloud based on multi-scale measures of local density, roughness, and normal orientation. We demonstrate this approach using discrete-return ALS data collected in the Franche-Comte region of France at a nominal point density of 8 pts/m2, a resolution which, in coming years, will become increasingly available to archaeologists through government supported mapping schemes.

  8. “Neutron metallography” of archaeological bronzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siano, S.; Bartoli, L.; Kockelmann, W.; Zoppi, M.; Miccio, M.

    2004-07-01

    Following a first demonstration on the potentials of time-of-flight neutron diffraction in the microstructural characterisation of archaeological bronzes, we present here the results of a further systematic study on the topic. The experiments were performed on standardised specimens and original archaeological bronze findings at the powder diffractometer ROTAX. The possibility to achieve various metallographic data concerning alloy composition, homogeneity, dendritic structure, metal and mineral phases, as well as the effects of hardening, annealing, and re-crystallisation processes was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, we also report a texture analysis on a Roman coin, which provided a clear striking fingerprint thus demonstrating a powerful authentication method.

  9. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  10. Magnetic mapping and interpretation of an archaeological site in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    khatib alkontar, Rozan AL; Munschy, Marc; Castel, Corinne; Quenet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the subsurface methods of exploration that have been developed to meet the new requirements of archaeological research, geophysical methods offer a very wide range of applications in the study of buried deposits. In their latest developments, the prospecting method based on the measurement of the magnetic field is particularly effective at very different types of sites, ranging from prehistoric times to the most recent. The measured magnetic field observed at a place and at a time, results from the vector sum of the main regional field, the effect of subsurface structures, local disturbances such as power lines, buildings, fences, and the diurnal variation (solar influence). The principle of the magnetic method is, from magnetic measurements on a flat plane above the prospected surface, to study the three-dimensional variations of magnetization producing the magnetic anomalies. The use of magnetic surveys for archaeological prospecting is a well-established and versatile technique, and wide ranges of data processing routines are often applied to further enhance acquired data or derive source parameters. The main purpose of this work was to acquire new magnetic data on the field and to propose quantitative interpretations of magnetic maps obtained on three archaeological sites of Bronze Age in Syria (Badiyah ANR program). More precisely, some results are presented concerning one of the three sites, the Tell Al-Rawda-site which corresponds to a circular city of Early Bronze Age with a radius of about 200 m. Several profiles are used to characterize magnetizations. A large portion of archaeological geophysical data are concerned primarily with identifying the location and spatial extent of buried remains, although the data collected are likely to contain further information relating to the depth and geometry of anomalous features. A simple magnetic model corresponding to rectangular structures uniformly magnetized associated to walls cannot explain the magnetic

  11. Old high resolution satellite images for landscape archaeology: case studies from Turkey and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    The paper concerns the contribution for Landscape Archaeology from satellite images of 1960s and 1970s, very useful when old aerial photographs are scarce. Particularly, the study concerns the panchromatic photos taken by USA reconnaissance satellites from 1963 to 1972, declassified for civil use in 1995 and 2002, that in the last years are very used in the archaeological research; in fact, a lot of these images have an high geometric resolution, about between 2.74 and 1.83 m (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and some have a ground resolution about between 1.20 and 0.60 m (Gambit KH-7). These satellite images allow to examine very in detail ancient urban areas and territories that later are changed or partially destroyed; so, it is possible to detect and examine ancient structures, palaeo-environmental elements and archaeological traces of buried features now not visible. The paper presents some exemplificative cases study in Turkey and Iraq, in which the analysis of these images has made a fundamental contribution to the archaeological researches: particularly, for the reconstruction of the urban layout of the ancient city of Hierapolis of Phrygia and for the surveys in its territory, and for the study of the ancient topography of some archaeological sites of Iraq. In this second case, the research is gained in the context of the Iraq Virtual Museum Project; the comparison with recent high resolution satellite images (Ikonos-2, QuickBird-2, WorldView-1) also provide a fundamental tool for monitoring archaeological areas and for an evaluation of the situation after the first and the second Gulf War.

  12. Through the looking glass: Applications of ground-penetrating radar in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamos, Antonia

    The focus of this dissertation is to present the results of four years' worth of geophysical surveying at four major archaeological sites in Greece and the benefits to the archaeological community. The ground penetrating radar offers an inexpensive, non-destructive solution to the problem of deciding how much of a site is worth excavating and which areas would yield the most promising results. An introduction to the ground penetrating radar, or GPR, the equipment necessary to conduct a geophysical survey in the field, and the methods of data collection and subsequent data processing are all addressed. The benefits to the archeological community are many, and future excavations will incorporate such an important tool for a greater understanding of the site. The history of GPR work in the archaeological field has grown at an astounding rate from its beginnings as a simple tool for petroleum and mining services in the beginning of the twentieth century. By mid-century, the GPR was first applied to archaeological sites rather than its common use by utility companies in locating pipes, cables, tunnels, and shafts. Although the preliminary surveys were little more than a search to locate buried walls, the success of these initial surveys paved the ground for future surveys at other archaeological sites, many testing the radar's efficacy with a myriad of soil conditions and properties. The four sites in which geophysical surveys with a ground penetrating radar were conducted are Azorias on the island of Crete, Kolonna on the island of Aegina, Mochlos Island and Coastal Mochlos on the island of Crete, and Mycenae in the Peloponnese on mainland Greece. These case studies are first presented in terms of their geographical location, their mythology and etymology, where applicable, along with a brief history of excavation and occupation of the site. Additional survey methods were used at Mycenae, including aerial photography and ERDAS Imagine, a silo locating program now

  13. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  14. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  15. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  16. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  17. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  18. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  19. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  20. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall...

  1. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  2. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  3. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  4. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  5. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  6. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall...

  7. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  8. Archaeology for Dance: An Approach to Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez y. Royo, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes that existing methodologies for dance studies can be extended through consideration of recently developing methodologies from social archaeology. It is first argued that an archaeological perspective on dance is enriching for archaeology, whose recent interest in dance as a focus of investigation can be seen as an attempt to…

  9. Maturing Gracefully? Curriculum Standards for History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the similarities and differences between the disciplines of history and archaeology. Examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching history and archaeology to determine the areas of difference and commonality. Addresses the issues of historical and archaeological thinking describing each in detail. (CMK)

  10. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  11. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.17 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the...

  12. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.17 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the...

  13. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  14. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  15. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  16. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  17. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  18. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  19. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  20. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  1. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  2. Archaeology and Anthropological Teaching Resources Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography and background paper has been prepared to cover topics most frequently encountered in the field of archaeology and anthropology education: career information, excavation, fieldword opportunities, artifact identification, and preservation. The information included should provide avenues along which topics may be pursued further…

  3. Expanding Informal Education in Maritime Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchell, Julie

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the work of the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology (HWTMA) in developing informal education approaches and initiatives. It introduces the aims and ethos of the HWTMA which focuses on embedding education and learning into all aspects of its work, before exploring ways in which its fieldwork and research programme are utilised to help deliver a range of educational opportunities to a diverse range of groups and individuals. There is a review of the possibilities for skill development through practical involvement which is illustrated with case study examples, followed by discussion of broader approaches, including publications, talks and exhibits. This review underpins discussion of a recent project ‘Maritime Archaeology Access and Learning Workshops’ which aimed to ‘educate the educators’, and has demonstrated the potential for this approach to make a significant contribution to increasing the profile of maritime archaeology within informal learning frameworks. The paper concludes by reviewing the experience of these regionally-based initiatives in relation to the expansion of maritime archaeology within the UK and suggests ways that lessons learned could be drawn upon in the development of emerging national approaches.

  4. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  5. Archaeology and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Stresses the importance of an introduction to archaeology before studying history. Describes two learning activities, the grid section method of excavation and stratification, in order to introduce students to the techniques, skills, and procedures employed by archaeologists in excavating sites and interpreting evidence. (Author/JK)

  6. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  7. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  8. The Development of Cognitive Skills through Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Lois M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Explains methods for structuring student participation in an archaeological expedition to develop the students' self-worth and to increase appreciation for history as it relates to the students' lives. Skills acquired may include: (1) earth science; (2) mathematics; (3) map reading skills; (4) communication skills; (5) writing skills; (6)…

  9. Mythology, Archaeology, Architecture. Learning Works Enrichment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, Diane; Wiemann, Mary

    The activities in this book have been selected especially for gifted students in grades 4 through 8. They are designed to challenge and help students develop and apply higher-level thinking skills. The activities have been grouped by subject matter into mythology, archaeology, and architecture. The mythology section includes Chinese, Eskimo,…

  10. Archaeological evidence of validity of fish populations on unexploited reefs as proxy targets for modern populations.

    PubMed

    Longenecker, Ken; Chan, Yvonne L; Toonen, Robert J; Carlon, David B; Hunt, Terry L; Friedlander, Alan M; Demartini, Edward E

    2014-10-01

    Reef-fish management and conservation is hindered by a lack of information on fish populations prior to large-scale contemporary human impacts. As a result, relatively pristine sites are often used as conservation baselines for populations near sites affected by humans. This space-for-time approach can only be validated by sampling assemblages through time. We used archaeological remains to evaluate whether the remote, uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) might provide a reasonable proxy for a lightly exploited baseline in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). We used molecular and morphological techniques to describe the taxonomic and size composition of the scarine parrotfish catches present in 2 archaeological assemblages from the MHI, compared metrics of these catches with modern estimates of reproductive parameters to evaluate whether catches represented by the archaeological material were consistent with sustainable fishing, and evaluated overlap between size structures represented by the archaeological material and modern survey data from the MHI and the NWHI to assess whether a space-for-time substitution is reasonable. The parrotfish catches represented by archaeological remains were consistent with sustainable fishing because they were dominated by large, mature individuals whose average size remained stable from prehistoric (AD approximately 1400-1700) through historic (AD 1700-1960) periods. The ancient catches were unlike populations in the MHI today. Overlap between the size structure of ancient MHI catches and modern survey data from the NWHI or the MHI was an order of magnitude greater for the NWHI comparison, a result that supports the validity of using the NWHI parrotfish data as a proxy for the MHI before accelerated, heavy human impacts in modern times.

  11. Geophysical prospecting in archaeology: investigations in Santa Venera, south suburb of Poseidonia-Paestum, Campania, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Bavusi, M.; Lapenna, V.; Del Lungo, S.; Sabelli, R.; Gizzi, F. T.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is the result of a joint work between geophysicists and archaeologists in which the authors have used geophysical techniques to investigate the Greek and Roman settlement of Paestum, southern Italy for preventive archaeological research (commonly termed 'rescue archaeology') on an area of the ancient settlement affected by new building work and infrastructure. Starting from a background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, an integrated geophysical approach based on magnetic, GPR and geoelectrical surveys was carried out on the Santa Venera area, a site selected to build a car parking. High-density and high-resolution cross-correlated geophysical surveys were carried out in different parts of the area to better resolve the structures. Systematic excavations confirmed the clues suggested by geophysical prospecting about the presence of archaeological remains such as walls, canals and tombs. By the use of non-destructive geophysical techniques a two-fold aim was reached: to properly plan the building of the infrastructure and preserve the ancient artefacts according to the advanced European guidelines on the protection of archaeological heritage.

  12. Social Archaeological Approaches in Port and Harbour Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Adam

    2013-12-01

    This introductory article to the special issue of the Journal of Maritime Archaeology offers a comparative perspective on the theme of archaeological theory and social archaeological approaches to ports and harbours. As a specialist in Roman archaeology I was keen to explore the way in which specialists in other areas of archaeology approached the archaeology of ports and harbours and whether different approaches and perspectives may be able to add nuances to the way in which material is interpreted. The volume brings together a collection of exciting new studies which explore social themes in port and harbour studies with the intention to encourage debate and the use of new interpretative perspectives. This article examines a number of interpretative themes including those relating to architectural analyse, human behaviour, action and experience and artefact analysis. These themes help us to move towards a more theoretically informed ports and harbour archaeology which focuses on meaning as well as description. The emphasis on theory within archaeology allows us to be more ambitious in our interpretative frameworks including in Roman archaeology which has not tended to embrace the theoretical aspects of the archaeological discipline with as much enthusiasm as some other areas of archaeology.

  13. Archaeological data recovery at drill pad U19au, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Construction activities accompanying underground nuclear tests result in the disturbance of the surface terrain at the Nevada Test Site. In compliance with Federal legislation (National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (PL 89-665) and National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (PL 91-190)), the US Department of Energy (DOE), Field Office, Nevada, has long required that cultural resources studies must precede all land-disturbing activities on the Nevada Test Site. In accordance with 36 CFR Part 800, these studies consist of archaeological surveys conducted prior to the land-disturbing activities. The intent of these surveys is to identify and evaluate all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the proposed construction activity. This report presents the final analysis of the data recovered from archaeological investigations conducted at the U19au drill site and access road. This report includes descriptions of the archaeological sites as recorded during the original survey, the research design used to guide the investigations, the method and techniques used to collect and analyze the data, and the results and interpretations of the analysis. 200 refs., 112 figs., 53 tabs.

  14. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The management of archaeological areas refers to the conservation of the ruins/buildings and the eventual prospection of new areas having an archaeological potential. In this framework, airborne remote sensing is a well-developed geophysical tool for supporting the archaeological surveys of wide areas. The spectral regions applied in archaeological remote sensing spans from the VNIR to the TIR. In particular, the archaeological thermal imaging considers that materials absorb, emit, transmit, and reflect the thermal infrared radiation at different rate according to their composition, density and moisture content. Despite its potential, thermal imaging in archaeological applications are scarce. Among them, noteworthy are the ones related to the use of Landsat and ASTER [1] and airborne remote sensing [2, 3, 4 and 5]. In view of these potential in Cultural Heritage applications, the present study aims at analysing the usefulness of the high spatial resolution thermal imaging on the Pompeii archaeological park. To this purpose TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (32 channels from 8 to 11.5 nm with a spectral resolution of 100nm and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel) was acquired on December the 7th, 2015. Airborne survey has been acquired to get useful information on the building materials (both ancient and of consolidation) characteristics and, whenever possible, to retrieve quick indicators on their conservation status. Thermal images will be, moreover, processed to have an insight of the critical environmental issues impacting the structures (e.g. moisture). The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the airborne deployments, the pre-processing of the multispectral thermal imagery and the retrieving of accurate land surface temperatures (LST). LST map will be analysed to describe the thermal pattern of the city of Pompeii and detect any thermal anomalies. As far as the ongoing TASI-600 sensors pre-processing, it will include: (a) radiometric

  15. Budget Uav Systems for the Prospection of - and Medium-Scale Archaeological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, W.; Hanus, K.

    2016-06-01

    One of the popular uses of UAVs in photogrammetry is providing an archaeological documentation. A wide offer of low-cost (consumer) grade UAVs, as well as the popularity of user-friendly photogrammetric software allowing obtaining satisfying results, contribute to facilitating the process of preparing documentation for small archaeological sites. However, using solutions of this kind is much more problematic for larger areas. The limited possibilities of autonomous flight makes it significantly harder to obtain data for areas too large to be covered during a single mission. Moreover, sometimes the platforms used are not equipped with telemetry systems, which makes navigating and guaranteeing a similar quality of data during separate flights difficult. The simplest solution is using a better UAV, however the cost of devices of such type often exceeds the financial capabilities of archaeological expeditions. The aim of this article is to present methodology allowing obtaining data for medium scale areas using only a basic UAV. The proposed methodology assumes using a simple multirotor, not equipped with any flight planning system or telemetry. Navigating of the platform is based solely on live-view images sent from the camera attached to the UAV. The presented survey was carried out using a simple GoPro camera which, from the perspective of photogrammetric use, was not the optimal configuration due to the fish eye geometry of the camera. Another limitation is the actual operational range of UAVs which in the case of cheaper systems, rarely exceeds 1 kilometre and is in fact often much smaller. Therefore the surveyed area must be divided into sub-blocks which correspond to the range of the drone. It is inconvenient since the blocks must overlap, so that they will later be merged during their processing. This increases the length of required flights as well as the computing power necessary to process a greater number of images. These issues make prospection highly

  16. Michael Faraday's Contributions to Archaeological Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Moshenska, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of ancient artefacts is a long but largely neglected thread within the histories of archaeology and chemistry. This paper examines Michael Faraday's contributions to this nascent field, drawing on his published correspondence and the works of his antiquarian collaborators, and focusing in particular on his analyses of Romano-British and ancient Egyptian artefacts. Faraday examined the materials used in ancient Egyptian mummification, and provided the first proof of the use of lead glazes on Roman ceramics. Beginning with an assessment of Faraday's personal interests and early work on antiquities with Humphry Davy, this paper critically examines the historiography of archaeological chemistry and attempts to place Faraday's work within its institutional, intellectual, and economic contexts. PMID:26307911

  17. Overhill Cherokee archaeology at Chota-Tanasee

    SciTech Connect

    Schroedl, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The initial objective of the Tellico Archaeological Project was the study of Overhill Cherokee culture, emphasizing the excavation of Chota-Tanasee. In keeping with contemporary archaeological research, the project goals eventually incorporated a regional perspective of human cultural adaptation for the past 12,000 yrs. Nevertheless, Overhill Cherokee studies remained a prominent project focus, and what began at Chota-Tanasee was expanded to include Citico, Toqua, Tomotley, and Mialoquo. Other sites produced additional Cherokee materials and important excavations were made at contemporary Euro-American settlements including Fort Loudoun and the Tellico Blockhouse. There now exists comprehensive data for the eighteenth century Overhill Cherokee. The Chota-Tanasee studies presented in previous chapters and the comparative synthesis presented here as a result have helped fulfill the goals of Overhill Cherokee studies in the lower Little Tennessee River valley.

  18. Michael Faraday's Contributions to Archaeological Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Moshenska, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of ancient artefacts is a long but largely neglected thread within the histories of archaeology and chemistry. This paper examines Michael Faraday's contributions to this nascent field, drawing on his published correspondence and the works of his antiquarian collaborators, and focusing in particular on his analyses of Romano-British and ancient Egyptian artefacts. Faraday examined the materials used in ancient Egyptian mummification, and provided the first proof of the use of lead glazes on Roman ceramics. Beginning with an assessment of Faraday's personal interests and early work on antiquities with Humphry Davy, this paper critically examines the historiography of archaeological chemistry and attempts to place Faraday's work within its institutional, intellectual, and economic contexts.

  19. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  20. Applications of MACRO Photogrammetry in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajski, D.; Solter, A.; Gašparovic, M.

    2016-06-01

    Many valuable archaeological artefacts have the size of a few centimetres or less. The production of relevant documentation of such artefacts is mainly limited to subjective interpretation and manual drawing techniques using a magnifier. Most of the laser scanners available for the archaeological purposes cannot reach sufficient space resolution to gather all relevant features of the artefact, such as the shape, the relief, the texture and any damage present. Digital photogrammetric techniques make measuring with high accuracy possible and such techniques can be used to produce the relevant archaeometric documentation with a high level of detail. The approaches for shooting a good macro photograph (in the photogrammetric sense) will be explored and discussed as well as the design of a calibration test-field and the self-calibration methods suitable for macro photogrammetry. Finally, the method will be tested by producing a photorealistic 3D-model of an ancient figurine.

  1. High resolution 3D ERT to help GPR data interpretation for researching archaeological items in a geologically complex subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, S.; Leucci, G.; Mazzone, F.

    2008-09-01

    Muro Leccese (Lecce) contains one the most important Messapian archaeological sites in southern Italy. The archaeological interest of the site arises from the discovery of the remains of Messapian walls, tombs, roads, etc. (4th-2nd centuries BC) in the neighbourhood. The archaeological remains were found at about 0.3 m depth. At present the site belongs to the municipality, which intends to build a new sewer network through it. The risk of destroying potentially interesting ancient archaeological structures during the works prompted an archaeological survey of the area. The relatively large dimensions of the area (almost 10,000 m 2), together with time and cost constraints, made it necessary to use geophysical investigations as a faster means to ascertain the presence of archaeological items. Since the most important targets were expected to be located at a soil depth of about 0.3 m, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out in an area located near the archaeological excavations. Unfortunately the geological complexity did not allow an easy interpretation of the GPR data. Therefore a 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) scan was conducted in order to resolve these interpretation problems. A three-way comparison of the results of the dense ERT measurements parallel to the x axis, the results of the measurements parallel to the y axis and the combined results was performed. Subsequently the synthetic model approach was used to provide a better characterization of the resistivity anomalies visible on the ERT field data. The 3D inversion results clearly illustrate the capability to resolve in view of quality 3D structures of archaeological interest. According to the presented data the inversion models along one direction ( x or y) seems to be adequate in reconstructing the subsurface structures. Naturally field data produce good quality reconstructions of the archaeological features only if the x-line and y-line measurements are considered together

  2. Small drones for geo-archaeology in the steppe: locating and documenting the archaeological heritage of the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oczipka, M.; Bemmann, J.; Piezonka, H.; Munkabayar, J.; Ahrens, B.; Achtelik, M.; Lehmann, F.

    2009-09-01

    The international project "Geo-Archaeology in the Steppe - Reconstruction of Cultural Landscapes in the Orkhon valley, Central Mongolia" was set up in July 2008. It is headed by the Department of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology of Bonn University. The project aims at the study of prehistoric and historic settlement patterns, human impact on the environment and the relation between towns and their hinterland in the Orkhon valley, Central Mongolia. The multidisciplinary project is mainly sponsored for three years by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and bridges archaeology, natural sciences and engineering (sponsorship code 01UA0801C). Archaeologists of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences and of the Bonn University, geographers of Free University Berlin, geophysics of the Institute for Photonic Technology Jena and the RWTH Aachen University, and geographers and engineers of the German Aerospace Centre Berlin collaborate in the development of new technologies and their application in archaeology1. On the basis of Russian aerial photographs from the 1970s, an initial evaluation regarding potential archaeological sites was made. Due to the poor geometric and radiometric resolution of these photographs, identification of archaeological sites in many cases remained preliminary, and detailed information on layout and size could not be gained. The aim of the flight campaign in September 2008 was therefore the confirmation of these sites as well as their high resolution survey. A 10 megapixel range finder camera was used for the recording of high resolution aerial photography. This image data is suited for accurate determination and mapping of selected monuments. The airborne camera was adapted and mounted on an electrically operated eight propeller small drone. Apart from high resolution geo-referenced overview pictures, impressive panoramic images and very high resolution overlapping image data was recorded for photogrammetric stereoscopic

  3. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  4. Finding archaeological cropmarks: a hyperspectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqdus, Syed A.; Hanson, William S.; Drummond, Jane

    2007-10-01

    Aerial photography has made the single most important contribution to our improved appreciation of the density, diversity and distribution of archaeological sites in Britain since WWII. This is particularly the case for areas of intensive lowland agriculture where ploughed-out sites are known only from marks in the crops growing above them. However, reconnaissance for such cropmarks is not equally effective throughout the lowlands because of the particular conditions of drier weather, well-drained soils and arable agriculture required before they become visible. In Scotland, for example, there is considerable bias in the discovery and, consequently, known distribution of archaeological sites in favour of the drier eastern side of the country, with its higher percentage of arable agriculture, as opposed to the west with its wetter climate and greater proportion of grazing land. Given that the appearance of cropmarks is linked to moisture stress in growing plants, they are potentially detectable at bandwidths outside the visible and before they become apparent therein. Using a range of imagery (CASI 2, ATM and digital vertical photographic data) from two case study sites in Lowland Scotland to facilitate comparisons, one in the east and one in the west, this paper considers the extent to which hyperspectral imagery can enhance the identification of otherwise invisible archaeological sites.

  5. Feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard M; Couturier, Kathy J; Felix, Rodney K; Avery, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    Feral swine are well known as environmentally destructive invasive animals in many areas around the world, where they degrade native habitats, harm rare plant and animal species, damage agricultural interests, and spread disease. We provide the first quantification of their potential as agents of disturbance at archaeological sites. Our study was conducted in south-central Florida at Avon Park Air Force Range, a base comprising over 40,000 ha and containing many archaeological sites. To determine the identifiable prevalence of feral swine disturbance, we examined 36 sites registered with the Florida State Historic Preservation Office and also eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Moreover, we evaluated the extent of swine disturbance at a prehistoric site of extraordinary significance to Florida's prehistory, "Dead Cow." Fifteen of the 36 NRHP-eligible sites (42 %) had some level of swine disturbance, including 14 of 30 (47 %) sites known to have artifacts within 20 cm of the surface (well within swine rooting depths). At the Dead Cow site, we documented disturbance at 74 % of shovel test points. Sites with shallow artifact depositions appeared highly vulnerable to disturbance by feral swine, threatening destruction of artifact stratigraphy and provenience. Our observations likely are a minimal representation of accumulated damage. These irreplaceable sites tell the area's land use story across the millennia. That they are under threat from feral swine should serve broad notice of potential threats that feral swine may pose to archaeological sites globally, making effective swine management imperative for site protection.

  6. Archaeological investigations on the Buckboard Mesa Road Project

    SciTech Connect

    Amick, D.S.; Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-10-01

    In 1986, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted an archaeological reconnaissance of a new alignment for the Buckboard Mesa Road on the Nevada Test Site for the Department of Energy (DOE). During this reconnaissance, several archaeological sites of National Register quality were discovered and recorded including a large quarry, site 26Ny4892, and a smaller lithic scatter, site 26Ny4894. Analysis of the debitage at 26Ny4892 indicates that this area was used primarily as a quarry for relatively small cobbles of obsidian found in the alluvium. Lithic reduction techniques used here are designed for efficiently reducing small pieces of toolstone and are oriented towards producing flake blanks from small cores and bifacially reducing exhausted cores. Projectile point cross references indicate that the area has seen at least casual use for about 10,000 years and more sustained use for the last 3,000 years. Initial obsidian hydration measurements indicate sustained use of the quarry for about the last 3,000 years although the loci of activities appear to change over time. Based on this study, the DRI recommends that quarrying activities in the area of 26Ny4892 are sufficiently sampled and that additional investigations into that aspect of prehistoric activity in the area are not necessary. This does not apply to other aspects of prehistoric use. DRI recommends that preconstruction surveys continue to identify nonquarrying, prehistoric utilization of the area. With the increased traffic on the Buckboard Mesa Road, there is a greater potential for vandalism to sites of National Register-quality located near the road. The DRI recommends that during the orientation briefing the workers at the Test Site be educated about the importance of cultural resources and the need for their protection. 202 refs., 41 figs., 52 tabs.

  7. Point cloud vs drawing on archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, E.

    2015-08-01

    Archaeology is a discipline closely related to the representation of objects that are at the center of its concerns. At different times of the archaeological method, representation approach takes different forms. It takes place on the archaeological excavation, during the exploration, or in a second time in the warehouse, object after object. It occurs also in different drawing scales. The use of topographical positioning techniques has found its place for decades in the stratigraphic process. Plans and sections are thus readjusted to each other, on the excavation site. These techniques are available to the archaeologist since a long time. The most of the time, a qualified member of the team performs himself these simple topographical operations. The two issues raised in this article are: three-dimensional acquisition techniques can they, first find their place in the same way on the excavation site, and is it conceivable that it could serve to support the representation? The drawing during the excavations is a very time-consuming phase; has it still its place on site? Currently, the drawing is part of the archaeological stratigraphy method. It helps documenting the different layers, which are gradually destroyed during the exploration. Without systematic documentation, any scientific reasoning cannot be done retrospectively and the conclusions would not be any evidence. Is it possible to imagine another way to document these phases without loss compared to the drawing? Laser scanning and photogrammetry are approved as acquisition techniques. What can they bring more to what is already done for archaeologists? Archaeological practice can be seen as divided into two parts: preventive archeology and classical archeology. The first has largely adopted the techniques that provide point clouds to save valuable time on site. Everything that is not destroyed by the archaeological approach will be destroyed by the building construction that triggered the excavations. The

  8. Isotope archaeology: reading the past in metals, minerals, and bone.

    PubMed

    Stos-Gale, Z A

    1992-01-01

    The latest edition of the Oxford Dictionary (1989) defines archaeology as '... the scientific study of the remains and monuments of the prehistoric period'. It is not surprising, therefore, that modern archaeology draws as much as possible on scientific methods of investigation developed in other fields. In the last ten years the powerful method of quantitative isotope analysis has brought a new dimension to the examination of archaeological finds. PMID:1381675

  9. Isotope archaeology: reading the past in metals, minerals, and bone.

    PubMed

    Stos-Gale, Z A

    1992-01-01

    The latest edition of the Oxford Dictionary (1989) defines archaeology as '... the scientific study of the remains and monuments of the prehistoric period'. It is not surprising, therefore, that modern archaeology draws as much as possible on scientific methods of investigation developed in other fields. In the last ten years the powerful method of quantitative isotope analysis has brought a new dimension to the examination of archaeological finds.

  10. a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Coastal Protection of Two Archaeological Sites in Lybia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, I.; Ombrelli, M.; Telaroli, P.; Calesso, W.; Badin, C.; Senigaglia, M.; Urrutia, C.; Sterponi, L.

    2015-04-01

    The present study is part of the preliminary investigation to design a coastal protection for the archaeological sites of Sabratha and Leptis Magna and the hydraulic re-arrangement of the final stretch of the Wadi Lebda which runs across the archaeological area of Leptis Magna. This study is a part of the project "Safeguarding the Sabratha and Leptis Magna archaeological sites. Preventing flooding of Leptis Magna from the Wadi Lebda", started in 2009 and commissioned by MARCO POLO STORICA LTD - Scotland. The planning of interventions has required an accurate morphological reconstruction of the interested areas. In this regard, given the wide investigation area, the aerial and land survey operations logistic difficulties and tight timeframe, the use of multi-beam technology and satellite images was particularly useful. The Digital Terrain Model has been coupled with detailed bathymetric surveys of the coastal area, undertaken mostly by multi-beam techniques, and by investigations of the ground characteristics, which were integrated in the information system prepared as design support.

  11. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  12. Multitemporal satellite data analyses for archaeological mark detection: preliminary results in Italy and Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The current availability of very high resolution satellite data provides an excellent tool to detect and monitor archaeological marks, namely spectral and spatial anomalies linked to the presence of buried archaeological remains from a landscape view down to local scale (single site) investigations. Since the end of the nineteenth century, aerial photography has been the remote sensing tool most widely used in archaeology for surveying both surface and sub-surface archaeological remains. Aerial photography was a real "revolution" in archaeology being an excellent tool for investigations addressed at detecting underground archaeological structures through the reconnaissance of the so-called "archaeological marks" generally grouped and named as "soil","crop marks" "snow marks", and also recently "weed marks" (Lasaponara and Masini). Such marks are generally visible only from an aerial view (see detail in Lasaponara and Masini 2009, Ciminale et al. 2009, Masini and Lasaponara 2006 Lasaponara et al 2011) . In particular, soil marks are changes in soil colour or texture due to the presence of surface and shallow remains. Crop marks are changes in crop texture linked to as differences in height or colour of crops which are under stress due to lack of water or deficiencies in other nutrients caused by the presence of masonry structures in the subsoil. Crop marks can also be formed above damp and nutritious soil of buried pits and ditches. Such marks are generally visible only from an aerial view, especially during the spring season. In the context of the Project "Remote sensing technologies applied to the management of natural and cultural heritage in sites located in Italy and Argentina: from risk monitoring to mitigatin startegies P@an_sat", funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affair, we tested the capability of multitemporal data, from active and passive satellite sensors, in the detection of "archaeological marks". The areas of interested were selected from

  13. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an...: Dr. Richard Hodges, Director, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology &...

  14. Recognizing women in the archaeological record

    SciTech Connect

    Bumsted, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Primary sexual characteristics are usually absent in the archaeological record. The recovered secondary sex markers in bone morphology or mortuary context reflect the lifelong integrated biocultural experience of the individual man or woman. Internal patterns of variability within and between sexes can be recognized but are too frequently masked by traditional descriptive and univariate analyses. Fortunately, a more detailed picture of life experience is gained by analyzing chemical composition (isotopic and elemental) of hard tissues using an analytical anthropology approach and by examining the variation in novel ways. 7 figs.

  15. Successful adaptation of three-dimensional inversion methodologies for archaeological-scale, total-field magnetic data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheyney, S.; Fishwick, S.; Hill, I. A.; Linford, N. T.

    2015-08-01

    Despite the development of advanced processing and interpretation tools for magnetic data sets in the fields of mineral and hydrocarbon industries, these methods have not achieved similar levels of adoption for archaeological or very near surface surveys. Using a synthetic data set we demonstrate that certain methodologies and assumptions used to successfully invert more regional-scale data can lead to large discrepancies between the true and recovered depths when applied to archaeological-type anomalies. We propose variations to the current approach, analysing the choice of the depth-weighting function, mesh design and parameter constraints, to develop an appropriate technique for the 3-D inversion of archaeological-scale data sets. The results show a successful recovery of a synthetic scenario, as well as a case study of a Romano-Celtic temple in the UK. For the case study, the final susceptibility model is compared with two coincident ground penetrating radar surveys, showing a high correlation with the comparative depth slices. The new approach takes interpretation of archaeological data sets beyond a simple 2-D visual interpretation based on pattern recognition.

  16. ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROSPECTION: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    1986-01-01

    The entire range of geophysical methods, perhaps excluding only borehole techniques, has found application in the search for archaeological sites unseen or partially known. Pressures by developers, and the public's growing sensitivity toward the preservation of historic and prehistoric cultural artifacts and sites, has led to an accelerating use of high-resolution geophysical methods in the archaeological sciences.

  17. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  18. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  19. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  20. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  1. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  2. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  3. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  4. An Illustrated Guide to Measuring Radiocarbon from Archaeological Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Alex; McCormac, Gerry; van der Plicht, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been central to the construction of archaeological chronologies for over 50 years. The archaeological, scientific and (increasingly) statistical methods for interpreting radiocarbon measurements to produce these chronologies have become ever more sophisticated. The accurate measurement of the radiocarbon content of an…

  5. Site Simulation in Teaching Archaeology: A Hands On Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    An indoor simulated archaeology site for use in a college level introductory archaeology course is described. Housed in the basement of a building on campus, the site simulates an eight-layered French rock shelter. Layers contain "remains" of a microband of Neanderthals, a Lower and Upper Aurignacian group, an Upper Perigordian group, Magdalenian…

  6. Using Archaeology To Explore Cultures of North America through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the reasons for introducing archaeology into the elementary classroom focusing on the cultures of North America. Offers wild maize, or corn, as one area of investigation into North American cultures providing books and Internet sites. Lists resources for archaeology education and lesson plans for exploring North American cultures though…

  7. Application of Structure from Mortion in Japanese Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, A.; Nawabi, Y. A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-08-01

    In Japan, archaeological excavations carry out over fifty thousand times per year. Nowadays, archaeological data is accumulated day by day. To record these documentation about archaeological data, it is desirable to the documentation of their shape in 3-dimensional form. Structure from Motion (SfM) is the one of the cost effective method to record the 3D documentation. This paper introduces application of SfM technology to examine the validity of an archaeological documentation in Japanese archaeology in recent year. Whenever, a complicated form finding has to be recorded at an archaeological excavation. It often requires a long time to create by a traditional manual drawing. For example, a well made of reuse roof tiles, garden stones and stone chamber. By using SfM, the time spent working at the archaeological site was greatly reduced. And many platforms to take an image at the variety of archaeological site's condition, like a small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) are tested using for wider area recording. These methods are used in disaster stricken areas in East Japan.

  8. Digging Deep: Teaching Social Studies through the Study of Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Dennie Palmer, Ed.; Balick, Dana, Ed.; Craven, Julie, Ed.

    This book outlines how to combine the skills of archaeology with the exploration of social studies in the classroom and illustrates how a network of teachers transformed their social studies courses into dynamic, multicultural inquiries using the tools and questions of archaeology. It explains how middle school social studies teachers tamed their…

  9. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  10. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  11. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  12. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  13. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  14. Materials issues in art and archaeology. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vandiver, P.B. ); Druzik, J. ); Wheeler, G.S. )

    1991-01-01

    the purpose of this meeting is to present new and current research which: shares an empirical methodology of observation and measurement; concerns interdisciplinary studies of art, archaeology, architecture, ancient technology, and conservation; and uses the knowledge, methods and tools of materials science and engineering. Druzik introduced the symposium as follows: It is not inaccurate to say that Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II is a continuing experiment. It is an experiment in the sense that conservation scientists, materials scientists who usually deal with the properties and processing of modern technology, and those who study the materials and processing of ancient cultures seldom have an opportunity to experience each other's unique problems. While the conservation of artistic and cultural properties often involves the very same objects as those studied by students of ancient technology these two specialized species seldom, if ever, attend the same meetings, publish in the same journals, or can even name a paltry subset of the other discipline's more famous characters and controversies. And, what do the Real Material Scientists think of these two odd birds. Well, that's what we really want to find out. Because it's certainly clear to myself and my co-organizers that the MRS has undreamed of potential and wealth to help solve many of the questions we pose about past cultures, their tools, their aesthetic sensibilities and their preservation for future generations were we only imaginative enough to exploit it.

  15. Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Joseph V.; Plummer, Thomas W.; Pobiner, Briana L.; Oliver, James S.; Bishop, Laura C.; Braun, David R.; Ditchfield, Peter W.; Seaman, John W.; Binetti, Katie M.; Seaman, John W.; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of lithic technology by ∼2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ∼1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to ∼2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence – spanning hundreds to thousands of years – and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

  16. Native American Archaeological Sites: An Annotated Bibliography Relating to Indian Archaeological Sites in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelbarger, Johnny J.

    Thirty-six American Indian archaeological sites located in the southeastern states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee are cited. Included are some of the very early sites, some of the larger and better known sites, and some that are being developed as state-owned archaeological parks in Tennessee. Information…

  17. Archaeological studies at Drill Hole U20az Pahute Mesa, Nye county, Nevada. [Contains bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, A.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Henton, G.H.; Lockett, C.L.; Nials, F.L.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.

    1991-07-01

    During the summer of 1987, the Quaternary Sciences Center (formerly Social Science Center) of the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada System, conducted data recovery investigations at five archaeological sites located near Drill Hole U20az on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. These sites were among 12 recorded earlier during an archaeological survey of the drill hole conducted as part of the environmental compliance activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). The five sites discussed in this report were considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and were in danger of being adversely impacted by construction activities or by effects of the proposed underground nuclear test. Avoidance of these sites was not a feasible alternative; thus DRI undertook a data recovery program to mitigate expected adverse impacts. DRI's research plan included controlled surface collections and excavation of the five sites in question, and had the concurrence of the Nevada Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology and the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation. Of the five sites investigated, the largest and most complex, 26Ny5207, consists of at least three discrete artifact concentrations. Sites 26Ny5211 and 26Ny5215, both yielded considerable assemblages. Site 26Ny5206 is very small and probably is linked to 26Ny5207. Site 26Ny5205 contained a limited artifact assemblage. All of the sites were open-air occurrences, and, with one exception contained no or limited subsurface cultural deposits. Only two radiocarbon dates were obtained, both from 26Ny5207 and both relatively recent. While the investigations reported in the volume mitigate most of the adverse impacts from DOE activities at Drill Hole U20az, significant archaeological sites may still exist in the general vicinity. Should the DOE conduct further activities in the region, additional cultural resource investigations may be required. 132 refs., 71 figs., 44 tabs.

  18. Detection of 'archaeological features' among reflectance spectra of natural soils and archaeological soils using principal component analysis (PCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lampel, Johannes; Jordan, David; Fiedler, Sabine; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological terminology 'soil-mark' refers to buried archaeological features being visible on the ground surface. Soil-marks have been identified by archaeologists based on their personal experience and knowledge. This study suggests a quantitative spectral analysis method to detect such archaeological features. This study identifies 'archaeological spectra' (reflectance spectra from surfaces containing archaeological materials) among various soil spectra using PCA (principal component analysis). Based on the results of the PCA, a difference (D) between the original spectrum and modified spectrum, which represents the principal component (PC) values of natural soils, can be determined. If the difference D between the two spectra is small, then the spectrum is similar to the spectral features of natural soils. If not, it identifies that the spectrum is more likely to be non-natural soil, probably an archaeological material. The method is applied on soil spectra from a prehistoric settlement site in Calabria, Italy. For the spectral range between 400 to 700nm, the difference value D for archaeological material ranges from 0.11 to 0.73 (the value varies depending on the number of PCs used). For natural soil, D ranges only from 0.04 to 0.09. The results shows D value is significantly larger for archaeological spectra, which indicates that the method can be applied to identify archaeological material among an unknown group of soil spectra, if a set of samples of natural soils exists. The study will present results of applying this method to various wavelength ranges and spectra from different sites. The major aim is to find optimised settings of the PCA method which can be applied in a universal way for identifying archaeological spectra.

  19. Multitemporal satellite data analyses for archaeological mark detection: preliminary results in Italy and Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The current availability of very high resolution satellite data provides an excellent tool to detect and monitor archaeological marks, namely spectral and spatial anomalies linked to the presence of buried archaeological remains from a landscape view down to local scale (single site) investigations. Since the end of the nineteenth century, aerial photography has been the remote sensing tool most widely used in archaeology for surveying both surface and sub-surface archaeological remains. Aerial photography was a real "revolution" in archaeology being an excellent tool for investigations addressed at detecting underground archaeological structures through the reconnaissance of the so-called "archaeological marks" generally grouped and named as "soil","crop marks" "snow marks", and also recently "weed marks" (Lasaponara and Masini). Such marks are generally visible only from an aerial view (see detail in Lasaponara and Masini 2009, Ciminale et al. 2009, Masini and Lasaponara 2006 Lasaponara et al 2011) . In particular, soil marks are changes in soil colour or texture due to the presence of surface and shallow remains. Crop marks are changes in crop texture linked to as differences in height or colour of crops which are under stress due to lack of water or deficiencies in other nutrients caused by the presence of masonry structures in the subsoil. Crop marks can also be formed above damp and nutritious soil of buried pits and ditches. Such marks are generally visible only from an aerial view, especially during the spring season. In the context of the Project "Remote sensing technologies applied to the management of natural and cultural heritage in sites located in Italy and Argentina: from risk monitoring to mitigatin startegies P@an_sat", funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affair, we tested the capability of multitemporal data, from active and passive satellite sensors, in the detection of "archaeological marks". The areas of interested were selected from

  20. Advances in GPR data acquisition and analysis for archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenke; Tian, Gang; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele; Wang, Yimin; Li, Xuejing; Shi, Zhanjie; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to identify a thin burnt soil layer, buried more than 2 m below the topographic surface at the Liangzhu Site, in Southeastern China. The site was chosen for its relatively challenging conditions of GPR techniques due to electrical conductivity and to the presence of peach tree roots that produced scattering. We completed the data acquisition by using 100 and 200 MHz antennas in TE and TM broadside and cross-polarized configurations. In the data processing and interpretation phase, we used GPR attribute analysis, including instantaneous phase and geometrical attributes. Validation analysis ground-truthing performed after the geophysical surveys, validated the GPR imaging, confirmed the electrical conductivity and relative dielectric permittivity (RDP) measurements performed at different depths, and allowed a reliable quantitative correlation between GPR results and subsurface physical properties. The research demonstrates that multiple antenna configurations in GPR data acquisition combined with attribute analysis can enhance the ability to characterize prehistoric archaeological remains even in complex subsurface conditions.

  1. Starry Messages - Searching for Signatures of Interstellar Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, R. A., Jr.

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artefacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the originating civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology . The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  2. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  3. Photogrammetry in maritime and underwater archaeology: two marble wrecks from Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Costa, E.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2015-06-01

    Underwater survey, compared to land archaeology, needs some specific techniques, because the application of some active 3D sensor, such as laser scanner, is obviously impossible. The necessity to produce three-dimensional survey, offering the same accuracy of classical terrestrial laserscanning or photogrammetric methods, combined with the request of low costs and rapid solutions, led the researchers to test and apply oftentimes image-based techniques. In the last two years the Ca' Foscari University and University IUAV of Venice are conducting a research on the application of integrated techniques to support underwater metric documentation, comparing them to the manual traditional one. The gained experience (and confirmed by other recently published papers) shows that the actual multiimage digital photogrammetry is a good solution for the underwater archaeology. This approach is useful both from a metric and from a recording point of view, because it achieves high quality results, such as accurate 3D models or 2D representations, offering a complete documentation of underwater sites. But photogrammetry has to be supported by a topographical survey (to acquire ground control points - GCP) to georeference all the finds in the same reference system. This paper presents the integrated survey of two roman shipwrecks, approaching differently in the GCP's acquisition just for the different morphological characteristic of the sites. The wrecks' cargos are huge marble blocks, presenting differences in quantities, layout and depths. Those characteristics determine the choice of the topographic survey. The results of the survey are two 3D polygonal textured models of the sites, which can be easily used for different analyses and reconstructive hypothesis, opening new possibilities of documentation with both specialists and the wider public. Furthermore, 3D models are the geometric base for 2D orthophoto and cross section extraction. The paper will illustrate all the phases

  4. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  5. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  6. Landscape archaeogeophysics: A study of magnetometer surveys from Etowah (9BW1), the George C. Davis site (41CE19), and the Hill Farm site (41BW169)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Chester Phil

    Archaeogeophysics, the use of eophysical mapping techniques to recover archaeological information, is being used with increasing success in North America. Archaeologists can often use geophysics as a tool for collecting data suitable for direct archaeological interpretation (Kvamme 2003). In some cases, geophysics can be used to map entire archaeological landscapes providing an image of the site that is not easily achievable through the use of traditional archaeological excavations. This dissertation uses archaeogeophysical data from three prehistoric sites to gain insights into their layout and community organization as well as explore the possibilities and potentials of using broad scale geophysical surveys in North American archaeological research.

  7. Peopling the Tibetan plateau: insights from archaeology.

    PubMed

    Aldenderfer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the genome of modern Tibetans have revealed the existence of genes thought to provide an adaptive advantage for life at high elevation. Extrapolating from this discovery, some researchers now argue that a Tibetan-Han split occurred no more than 2750 yr ago. This date is implausible, and in this paper I review the archaeological data from the Tibetan plateau as one means by which to examine the veracity of this assertion. Following a review of the general state of knowledge of Tibetan prehistory, which is unfortunately only at its beginnings, I first examine the data that speak to the initial peopling of the plateau and assess the evidence that traces of their presence can be seen in modern Tibetans today. Although the data are sparse, both archaeology and genetics suggest that the plateau was occupied in the Late Pleistocene, perhaps as early as 30,000 yr ago, and that these early peoples have left a genetic signature in modern Tibetans. I then turn to the evidence for later migrations and focus on the question of the timing of the establishment of permanent settled villages on the plateau. Three areas of the plateau-northeastern Qinghai, extreme eastern Tibet, and the Yarlung Tsangpo valley-have evidence of permanent settlements dating from ca. 6500, 5900, and 3750 yr ago, respectively. These data are not consonant with the 2750 yr ago date for the split and suggest at a minimum that the plateau has been occupied substantially longer and, further, that multiple migrations at different times and from different places have created a complex mosaic of population history.

  8. GIS modeling of archaeological site locations: A low-tech approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Futato, Eugene M.

    1991-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS)-type analysis of archaeological site locations using a dBase III plus program and a desk top computer is presented. A previously developed model of site locations in the Sequatchie Valley of northeastern Alabama is tested against known site locations in another large survey area there. The model fails to account for site locations in the test area. A model is developed for the test area and indicates the site locations are indeed different. Whether this is due to differences in site locations on a sub-regional level, or to sample error in the original model is unknown.

  9. Digital Reconstruction of AN Archaeological Site Based on the Integration of 3d Data and Historical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.; Russo, M.; Angheleddu, D.

    2013-02-01

    The methodology proposed in this paper in based on an integrated approach for creating a 3D digital reconstruction of an archaeological site, using extensively the 3D documentation of the site in its current state, followed by an iterative interaction between archaeologists and digital modelers, leading to a progressive refinement of the reconstructive hypotheses. The starting point of the method is the reality-based model, which, together with ancient drawings and documents, is used for generating the first reconstructive step. Such rough approximation of a possible architectural structure can be annotated through archaeological considerations that has to be confronted with geometrical constraints, producing a reduction of the reconstructive hypotheses to a limited set, each one to be archaeologically evaluated. This refinement loop on the reconstructive choices is iterated until the result become convincing by both points of view, integrating in the best way all the available sources. The proposed method has been verified on the ruins of five temples in the My Son site, a wide archaeological area located in central Vietnam. The integration of 3D surveyed data and historical documentation has allowed to support a digital reconstruction of not existing architectures, developing their three-dimensional digital models step by step, from rough shapes to highly sophisticate virtual prototypes.

  10. A case for archaeological reconnaissance of the Cabo Catoche-Porvenir region of the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duller, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology is a tool with which archaeologists can, with relative ease, survey a region that is otherwise inaccessible. The northeast corner of the Yucatan Peninsula is such an area: it is isolated and sparsely inhabited, with dense forest and extensive swamps. From Cabo Catoche inland to Cancun, this remote corner of the ancient Maya world is virtually unexplored. Recent satellite images disclose evidence of past human activity in this unexplored region and offer a compelling argument for an archaeological reconnaissance.

  11. 3D model tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the model are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for 3D modeling. The authors take into account the accuracy of the 3D models obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the 3D model of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.

  12. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The management of archaeological areas refers to the conservation of the ruins/buildings and the eventual prospection of new areas having an archaeological potential. In this framework, airborne remote sensing is a well-developed geophysical tool for supporting the archaeological surveys of wide areas. The spectral regions applied in archaeological remote sensing spans from the VNIR to the TIR. In particular, the archaeological thermal imaging considers that materials absorb, emit, transmit, and reflect the thermal infrared radiation at different rate according to their composition, density and moisture content. Despite its potential, thermal imaging in archaeological applications are scarce. Among them, noteworthy are the ones related to the use of Landsat and ASTER [1] and airborne remote sensing [2, 3, 4 and 5]. In view of these potential in Cultural Heritage applications, the present study aims at analysing the usefulness of the high spatial resolution thermal imaging on the Pompeii archaeological park. To this purpose TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (32 channels from 8 to 11.5 nm with a spectral resolution of 100nm and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel) was acquired on December the 7th, 2015. Airborne survey has been acquired to get useful information on the building materials (both ancient and of consolidation) characteristics and, whenever possible, to retrieve quick indicators on their conservation status. Thermal images will be, moreover, processed to have an insight of the critical environmental issues impacting the structures (e.g. moisture). The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the airborne deployments, the pre-processing of the multispectral thermal imagery and the retrieving of accurate land surface temperatures (LST). LST map will be analysed to describe the thermal pattern of the city of Pompeii and detect any thermal anomalies. As far as the ongoing TASI-600 sensors pre-processing, it will include: (a) radiometric

  13. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Non-invasive methods for archaeological research, like geophysical prospecting, aerial and satellite remote sensing, integrated with field survey activity, can make a large quantity of data essential for both operational uses and scientific purposes: from the detection of buried remains to risk assessment and monitoring (Lasaponara & Masini 2012; 2013; Lasaponara et al. 2016). Among the latest non-invasive methods there are the unmanned air vehicle (UAV) platforms, a real innovation, which proved to be capable for a variety of fields of applications, from the topographic survey to the monitoring of infrastructures. In the field of cultural heritage, for purposes ranging from the documentation to the detection of archaeological features, the use of UAVs is extremely functional, efficient and low-cost. Moreover, UAV flight requires much less time than that required by an Aircraft. A traditional aircraft must take off from an airport, sometimes far from the work area, while a drone, particularly rotary wing, can be transported in the area of interest and take off directly from there in a few minutes. The reason of the success of UAV are also the innovative vision, the very high-resolution of the obtainable products (orthophoto, digital elevations models) and the availability of easy tools of image processing based on Structure from Motion (SfM). (Neitzel & Klonowski 2011; Nex & Remondino 2013). SfM is a range imaging technique which allows to estimate three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional image sequences which may be coupled with local motion signals. Respect to conventional photogrammetry which requires a single stereo-pair, SfM needs multiple, overlapping photographs as input to feature extraction and 3-D reconstruction algorithms. In SfM the geometry of the scene, camera positions and orientation are solved simultaneously using a highly redundant, iterative bundle adjustment procedure, based on a database of features automatically extracted from a set of

  14. 23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit is located under the center first-floor window. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing the steps leading down into the eighteenth-century burial vault - Harry Buck House, North of Main Street (14800 Governor Oden Bowie Drive), Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  16. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  17. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  18. A case history of using high-resolution LiDAR data to support archaeological prediction models in a low-relief area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacskó, Vivien; Székely, Balázs; Stibrányi, Máté; Koma, Zsófia

    2016-04-01

    Hungary is situated in the crossroad of several large-scale infrastructural pathways like transnational pipelines and transcontinental motorways. At the same time the country is rich in known and potential archaeological sites. Archaeological prediction techniques aided by remote sensing are intended to help increase preparedness for archaeological surveying and rescue activities in response to planned new infrastructural developments (e.g., a new pipeline), as they try to estimate the number of potential archaeological sites, area to be surveyed, potential cost and time needed for these activities. In very low-relief areas microtopographic forms may indicate sites, high-resolution LiDAR DTMs are suitable for their detection. Main sources of archaeological prediction models are known archaeological sites, where optimal environmental conditions of settling down existed at historic ages. Hydrological characteristics, relief, geology, vegetation cover and soil are considered to be as most important natural factors. Sorting of the factors and accuracy of the sampling differentiate our models. Resolution of an inductive model depends on the spatial properties of the integrated data: a raster data set can be generated that contains probability values and the reliability of the estimation. The information content of the predictive model is highly influenced by the resolution of the used digital terrain model (DTM): its derivatives (slope, aspect, topographic features) are important inputs of the modelling. The quality of the DTM is even more important in low-relief areas as microtopographic features may indicate archaeological sites. The conventional digital elevation models (SRTM, ASTER GDEM) provide unsatisfying resolution (both in horizontal and vertical senses) as they are rather digital surface models containing the vegetation and the built-up structures. Processed multiecho LiDAR data can be used instead. Our study area is situated in the foothills of the

  19. A case history of using high-resolution LiDAR data to support archaeological prediction models in a low-relief area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacskó, Vivien; Székely, Balázs; Stibrányi, Máté; Koma, Zsófia

    2016-04-01

    Hungary is situated in the crossroad of several large-scale infrastructural pathways like transnational pipelines and transcontinental motorways. At the same time the country is rich in known and potential archaeological sites. Archaeological prediction techniques aided by remote sensing are intended to help increase preparedness for archaeological surveying and rescue activities in response to planned new infrastructural developments (e.g., a new pipeline), as they try to estimate the number of potential archaeological sites, area to be surveyed, potential cost and time needed for these activities. In very low-relief areas microtopographic forms may indicate sites, high-resolution LiDAR DTMs are suitable for their detection. Main sources of archaeological prediction models are known archaeological sites, where optimal environmental conditions of settling down existed at historic ages. Hydrological characteristics, relief, geology, vegetation cover and soil are considered to be as most important natural factors. Sorting of the factors and accuracy of the sampling differentiate our models. Resolution of an inductive model depends on the spatial properties of the integrated data: a raster data set can be generated that contains probability values and the reliability of the estimation. The information content of the predictive model is highly influenced by the resolution of the used digital terrain model (DTM): its derivatives (slope, aspect, topographic features) are important inputs of the modelling. The quality of the DTM is even more important in low-relief areas as microtopographic features may indicate archaeological sites. The conventional digital elevation models (SRTM, ASTER GDEM) provide unsatisfying resolution (both in horizontal and vertical senses) as they are rather digital surface models containing the vegetation and the built-up structures. Processed multiecho LiDAR data can be used instead. Our study area is situated in the foothills of the

  20. Multifrequency polarimetric ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 analysis over the archaeological area of Djebel Barkal (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Jolanda; Dore, Nicole; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    UNESCO reports over the area. A multitemporal analysis has been also performed thanks to the notable difference in time acquisition between ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 data. The great potential of the two polarimetric instruments with different frequency for the detection of archaeological remains has been demonstrated thanks to the sand penetration capability of both C-band and L-band sensors. The possibility of monitoring and observing ancient sites by means of remotely acquired SAR data could be an added value to the archaeological research, especially for those areas in which instable political situations do not allow ground truth and surveys in situ.

  1. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  2. 18 CFR 1312.21 - Surveys and schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surveys and schedules... OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.21 Surveys and schedules. (a) The Secretaries... Authority will develop plans for surveying lands under each agency's control to determine the nature...

  3. 36 CFR 296.21 - Surveys and Schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surveys and Schedules. 296.21... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.21 Surveys and Schedules. (a) The Secretaries of the Interior... for surveying lands under each agency's control to determine the nature and extent of...

  4. 18 CFR 1312.21 - Surveys and schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Surveys and schedules... OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.21 Surveys and schedules. (a) The Secretaries... Authority will develop plans for surveying lands under each agency's control to determine the nature...

  5. 32 CFR 229.21 - Surveys and schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surveys and schedules. 229.21 Section 229.21...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.21 Surveys and schedules. (a... Tennessee Valley Authority will develop plans for surveying lands under each agency's control to...

  6. 18 CFR 1312.21 - Surveys and schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surveys and schedules... OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.21 Surveys and schedules. (a) The Secretaries... Authority will develop plans for surveying lands under each agency's control to determine the nature...

  7. 18 CFR 1312.21 - Surveys and schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surveys and schedules... OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.21 Surveys and schedules. (a) The Secretaries... Authority will develop plans for surveying lands under each agency's control to determine the nature...

  8. 36 CFR 296.21 - Surveys and Schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surveys and Schedules. 296.21... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.21 Surveys and Schedules. (a) The Secretaries of the Interior... for surveying lands under each agency's control to determine the nature and extent of...

  9. 36 CFR 296.21 - Surveys and Schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surveys and Schedules. 296.21... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.21 Surveys and Schedules. (a) The Secretaries of the Interior... for surveying lands under each agency's control to determine the nature and extent of...

  10. 32 CFR 229.21 - Surveys and schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surveys and schedules. 229.21 Section 229.21...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.21 Surveys and schedules. (a... Tennessee Valley Authority will develop plans for surveying lands under each agency's control to...

  11. 36 CFR 296.21 - Surveys and Schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surveys and Schedules. 296.21... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.21 Surveys and Schedules. (a) The Secretaries of the Interior... for surveying lands under each agency's control to determine the nature and extent of...

  12. 32 CFR 229.21 - Surveys and schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surveys and schedules. 229.21 Section 229.21...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.21 Surveys and schedules. (a... Tennessee Valley Authority will develop plans for surveying lands under each agency's control to...

  13. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  14. International Conference on Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeological Research and World Heritage Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Monitoring the Ancient Countryside: Remote Sensing and GIS at the Chora of Chersonesos (Crimea, Ukraine). Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS for Management Decision Support in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Republic of Benin). Monitoring of deforestation invasion in natural reserves of northern Madagascar based on space imagery. Cartography of Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Cartography and Land Use Change of World Heritage Areas and the Benefits of Remote Sensing and GIS for Conservation. Assessing and Monitoring Vegetation in Nabq Protected Area, South Sinai, Egypt, using combine approach of Satellite Imagery and Land Surveys. Evaluation of forage resources in semi-arid savannah environments with satellite imagery: contribution to the management of a protected area (Nakuru National Park) in Kenya. SOGHA, the Surveillance of Gorilla Habitat in World Heritage sites using Space Technologies. Application of Remote Sensing to monitor the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (France). Application of Remote Sensing & GIS for the Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Social and Environmental monitoring of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: Case Study over the Vosges du Nord and Pfalzerwald Parks using Corona and Spot Imagery. Satellite Remote Sensing as tool to Monitor Indian Reservation in the Brazilian Amazonia. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Monitoring UNESCO World Heritage Sites - A Pilot Project. Urban Green Spaces: Modern Heritage. Monitoring of the technical condition of the St. Sophia Cathedral and related monastic buildings in Kiev with Space Applications, geo-positioning systems and GIS tools. The Murghab delta palaeochannel Reconstruction on the Basis of Remote Sensing from Space. Acquisition, Registration and Application of IKONOS Space Imagery for the cultural World Heritage site at Mew, Turkmenistan. Remote Sensing and VR applications for the reconstruction of archaeological landscapes

  15. Integrated Geophysical and Archaeological investigations to study the site of Aquinum (Frosinone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Salvatore; Ceraudo, Giuseppe; Zamuner, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    To enhance the knowledge finalised to the location and conservation of the unknown buried structures below the actual studied levels, in the territory of the Ancient Aquinum (Frosinone, Italy) a scientific collaboration, inside the "Ager Aquinas Project" between the University of Salento (Department of Cultural Heritage - Laboratory of Ancient Topography and Photogrammetry) and the Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage (ITABC-C.N.R.) has been developed, during 2008-2009 and it is still in progress. The site which is the subject of this paper had been identified in the past through air photo interpretation of vertical historical coverage and field - walking surveys. Ancient Aquinum is characterised by two main aspects: the first depends by the presence of a very big defence-system with mighty walls and large ditch; the second characteristic is the presence or regular but not orthogonal road - system of the town, bordered by an unusual parallelogram shape of the blocks. With the results obtained after the elaborations of the first aerial data sets and field surveys, has been possible to map the main town - planning, drawing the main road system inside and outside the town. Although the analysis of the air photo evidence allowed the global interpretation of the site, it was not possible to reconstruct the archaeological evidences in the central portion of the town. Therefore the Project, during 2008, started with new acquisition and elaboration of aerial photos, field-walking surveys and GPR surveys with the aim to better define the urban plan of the central portion of the ancient town. The location, depth, and size of the buried buildings were effectively estimated from non-destructive remote sensing with a gradiometric and ground-penetrating radar systems. Recent archaeological excavations made (by Prof. Giuseppe Ceraudo - University of Salento, Lecce) during the summer 2009, have confirmed the structures individuated with the geophysical methods

  16. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atya, M. A.; AL Khateeb, S. O.; Ahmed, S. B.; Musa, M. F.; Gaballa, M.; Abbas, A. M.; Shaaban, F. F.; Hafez, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A) includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B) includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C) includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  17. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.J.; Brooks, R.D.; Sassaman, K.E.; Crass, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) continued through FY95 with the United States Department of Energy to fulfill a threefold mission of cultural resource management, research, and public education at the Savannah River Site. Over 2,300 acres of land on the SRS came under cultural resources review in FY95. This activity entailed 30 field surveys, resulting in the recording of 86 new sites. Twenty-two existing sites within survey tract boundaries were revisited to update site file records. Research conducted by SRARP was reported in 11 papers and monographs published during FY95. SRARP staff also presented research results in 18 papers at professional meetings. Field research included several testing programs, excavations, and remote sensing at area sites, as well as data collection abroad. Seven grants were acquired by SRARP staff to support off-site research. In the area of heritage education, the SRARP expanded its activities in FY95 with a full schedule of classroom education, public outreach, and on-site tours. Volunteer excavations at the Tinker Creek site were continued with the Augusta Archaeological Society and other avocational groups, and other off-site excavations provided a variety of opportunities for field experience. Some 80 presentations, displays and tours were provided for schools, historical societies, civic groups, and environmental and historical awareness day celebrations. Additionally, SRARP staff taught four anthropology courses at area colleges.

  18. Geophysical Applications in Mapping the Subsurface Structure of Archaeological Site at Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiai, Sarmiza M.; Saad, Rosli; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Shyeh, S. K.; Saidin, Mohd Mokhtar

    2010-07-01

    Lembah Bujang is one of Peninsular Malaysia's most important areas for archaeology as excavations in this area have revealed many traces of Malaysia's prehistory. The site is one of the oldest known place human activities the Peninsula. The aim of this study is to map and understand the subsurface structure of the survey area which is one of the archaeologically interesting areas. Geophysical methods are used because it is nondestructive and do not disturb the site. The methods are relatively quick and the results are used as a guide for subsequent excavation work. So it can greatly help in setting the digging priorities as geophysical surveying can reveal, for instance, important subsurface features like monuments, tunnels, voids, or buried walls. The geophysical methods used in this study were the magnetic gradiometer, 2-D electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) method. The integration of these three methods can be beneficial as each method has its strength and limitation. The specific area of study is in Sungai Batu and the results show that the sedimentation consists of sandy clay, alluvium and boulders with a depth of between 0 m to 15 m.

  19. Detection of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites using satellite remote sensing and digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrie, Robert K.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite remote sensing is playing an increasingly important role in the detection and documentation of archaeological sites. Surveying an area from the ground using traditional methods often presents challenges due to the time and costs involved. In contrast, the multispectral synoptic approach afforded by the satellite sensor makes it possible to cover much larger areas in greater spectral detail and more cost effectively. This is especially the case for larger scale regional surveys, which are helping to contribute to a better understanding of ancient Egyptian settlement patterns. This study presents an overview of satellite remote sensing data products, methodologies, and image processing techniques for detecting lost or undiscovered archaeological sites with reference to Egypt and the Near East. Key regions of the electromagnetic spectrum useful for site detection are discussed, including the visible near-infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and microwave (radar). The potential of using Google Earth as both a data provider and a visualization tool is also examined. Finally, a case study is presented for detecting tell sites in Egypt using Landsat ETM+, ASTER, and Google Earth imagery. The results indicated that principal components analysis (PCA) was successfully able to detect and differentiate tell sites from modern settlements in Egypt's northwestern Nile Delta region.

  20. Integration of airborne optical and thermal imagery for archaeological subsurface structures detection: the Arpi case study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, C.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fasulli, L.; Palombo, A.; Pascucci, S.; Santini, F.; Pignatti, S.

    2009-04-01

    acquisition time represent an effective and rapid tool to detect subsurface structures within different land cover contexts. As concluding results, this study reveals that the airborne multi/hyperspectral image processing can be an effective and cost-efficient tool to perform a preliminary analysis of those areas where large cultural heritage assets prioritising and localizing the sites where to apply near surface geophysics surveys. Spectral Region Spectral Resolution ( m )Spectral Range ( m) Spatial Resolution (m)IFOV (deg) ATM VIS-NIR SWIR-TIR (tot 12 ch) variable from 24 to 3100 0.42 - 1150 2 0.143 CASI VNIR (48 ch.) 0.01 0.40-0.94 2 0.115 MIVIS VNIR (28ch.) 0.02 (VIS) 0.05 (NIR) 0.43-0.83 (VIS) 1.15-1.55 (NIR) 6 - 7 0.115 SWIR (64ch.) 0.09 1.983-2.478 TIR (10ch.) 0.34-0.54 8.180-12.700 Table 1. Characteristics of airborne sensors used for the Arpi test area. 1 References 2 [1] Beck, A., Philip, G., Abdulkarim, M. and Donoghue, D., 2007. Evaluation of Corona and Ikonos high resolution satellite imagery for archaeological prospection in western Syria. Antiquity, 81: 161-175. 3 [2] Altaweel, M., 2005. The Use of ASTER Satellite Imagery in Archaeological Contexts. Archaeological Prospection, 12: 151- 166. 4 [3] Cavalli, R.M.; Colosi, F.; Palombo, A.; Pignatti, S.; Poscolieri, M. Remote hyperspectral imagery as a support to archaeological prospection. J. of Cultural Heritage 2007, 8, 272-283. 5 [4] Kucukkaya, A.G. Photogrammetry and remote sensing in archaeology. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2004, 97(1-3), 83-97. [5] Rowlands, A.; Sarris, A. Detection of exposed and subsurface archaeological remains using multi-sensor remote sensing. J. of Archaeological Science 2007, 34, 795-803.

  1. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach

    PubMed Central

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  2. Uncommon corrosion phenomena of archaeological bronze alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingo, G. M.; de Caro, T.; Riccucci, C.; Khosroff, S.

    2006-06-01

    In the framework of the EFESTUS project (funded by the European Commission, contract No. ICA3-CT-2002-10030) the corrosion products of a large number of archaeological bronze artefacts are investigated by means of the combined use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (OM) and tentative correlation of their nature with the chemical composition of the artefacts and the burial context is proposed. The results provide good insight into the corrosion layers and evidence in some bronze Roman coins and artefacts; the occurrence of uncommon corrosion phenomena that give rise to the formation of a yellowish-green complex chlorine-phosphate of lead (pyromorphite, (PbCl)Pb4(PO4)3) and of a gold-like thick layer of an iron and copper sulphide (chalcopyrite, CuFeS2). The micro-chemical and micro-structural results show that the coins were buried in a soil enriched in phosphorus for the accidental presence of a large amount of decomposing fragments of bones or in an anaerobic and humus rich soil where the chalcopyrite layer has been produced via the interaction between the iron of the soil, the copper of the coin and the sulphur produced by the decomposition of organic matter in an almost oxygen free environment. Finally, some unusual periodic corrosion phenomena occurring in high tin bronze mirrors found at Zama (Tunisia) are described.

  3. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  4. Archaeological Lead Findings in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Mokina, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nikolaiko, A. S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, H. J.; Kostezh, A. B.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Voronov, S. A.

    2007-03-28

    In June-August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for low-radioactive archaeological lead at the bottom of the Black Sea, near the Crimean peninsula (Ukraine) was organised by a Korean-Ukrainian collaboration. The first samples with {approx}0.2 tons of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century B.C. This lead was used as ballast in the keel of the ship. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS analyses. The first preliminary limits on the 210Pb contamination of the samples are less than a few hundreds mBq/kg. The measurements were performed using gamma spectroscopy with HPGe-detectors and alpha spectroscopy with commercial {alpha}-detectors. Measurements of 40K, Th/U in the lead samples were undertaken in Kiev and in the underground laboratories of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). If it was found to be radio-clean this lead could be used as high efficiency shield for ultra low-level detectors, and as raw material for growing radio-pure scintillation crystals such as PbMoO4 or PbWO4 for the search for rare processes.

  5. Descent with modification and the archaeological record

    PubMed Central

    Shennan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in our understanding of the way in which cultural transmission takes place and the factors that affect it. The theoretical foundations of those advances have been built by postulating the existence of a variety of different processes and deriving their consequences mathematically or by simulation. The operation of these processes in the real world can be studied through experiment and naturalistic observation. In contrast, archaeologists have an ‘inverse problem’. For them the object of study is the residues of different behaviours represented by the archaeological record and the problem is to infer the microscale processes that produced them, a vital task for cultural evolution since this is the only direct record of past cultural patterns. The situation is analogous to that faced by population geneticists scanning large number of genes and looking for evidence of selection as opposed to drift, but more complicated for many reasons, not least the enormous variety of different forces that affect cultural transmission. This paper reviews the progress that has been made in inferring processes from patterns and the role of demography in those processes, together with the problems that have arisen. PMID:21357229

  6. The industrial archaeology of deep time.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects. This paper explores how Evans drew on the concerns of his industrial culture to make sense of prehistoric artefacts and support his claim to access the past through his own actions. Situated industrial concerns provided the resources for his flint work: from a patent dispute with astronomer and fellow industrialist Warren de la Rue, through his role in the Victorian arms trade, to the struggle to displace skilled manual labour in his factories. Evans is remembered for pioneering the techniques and classificatory system of modern Palaeolithic archaeology and as one of the founders of the re-enactment science of experimental flint knapping. His work played a significant role in helping reconceive the antiquity of man, yet the system of proof for this grand claim was deeply situated in his industrial culture. This paper explores how the industrial resources of a Victorian papermaker made human history.

  7. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  8. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Damian H.; Fletcher, Roland J.; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization. PMID:23847206

  9. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar.

    PubMed

    Evans, Damian H; Fletcher, Roland J; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-07-30

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization. PMID:23847206

  10. Using airborne LiDAR in geoarchaeological contexts: Assessment of an automatic tool for the detection and the morphometric analysis of grazing archaeological structures (French Massif Central).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Florez, Marta; Vautier, Franck; Dousteyssier, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) of archaeological regions of interest is nowadays a widely used and established method for accurate topographic and microtopographic survey. The penetration of the vegetation cover by the laser beam allows the reconstruction of reliable digital terrain models (DTM) of forested areas where traditional prospection methods are inefficient, time-consuming and non-exhaustive. The ALS technology provides the opportunity to discover new archaeological features hidden by vegetation and provides a comprehensive survey of cultural heritage sites within their environmental context. However, the post-processing of LiDAR points clouds produces a huge quantity of data in which relevant archaeological features are not easily detectable with common visualizing and analysing tools. Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need for automation of structures detection and morphometric extraction techniques, especially for the "archaeological desert" in densely forested areas. This presentation deals with the development of automatic detection procedures applied to archaeological structures located in the French Massif Central, in the western forested part of the Puy-de-Dôme volcano between 950 and 1100 m a.s.l.. These unknown archaeological sites were discovered by the March 2011 ALS mission and display a high density of subcircular depressions with a corridor access. The spatial organization of these depressions vary from isolated to aggregated or aligned features. Functionally, they appear to be former grazing constructions built from the medieval to the modern period. Similar grazing structures are known in other locations of the French Massif Central (Sancy, Artense, Cézallier) where the ground is vegetation-free. In order to develop a reliable process of automatic detection and mapping of these archaeological structures, a learning zone has been delineated within the ALS surveyed area. The grazing features were mapped and typical morphometric attributes

  11. Airborne Laser Scanning and Image Processing Techniques for Archaeological Prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltýnová, M.; Nový, P.

    2014-06-01

    Aerial photography was, for decades, an invaluable tool for archaeological prospection, in spite of the limitation of this method to deforested areas. The airborne laser scanning (ALS) method can be nowadays used to map complex areas and suitable complement earlier findings. This article describes visualization and image processing methods that can be applied on digital terrain models (DTMs) to highlight objects hidden in the landscape. Thanks to the analysis of visualized DTM it is possible to understand the landscape evolution including the differentiation between natural processes and human interventions. Different visualization methods were applied on a case study area. A system of parallel tracks hidden in a forest and its surroundings - part of old route called "Devil's Furrow" near the town of Sázava was chosen. The whole area around well known part of Devil's Furrow has not been prospected systematically yet. The data from the airborne laser scanning acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre was used. The average density of the point cloud was approximately 1 point/m2 The goal of the project was to visualize the utmost smallest terrain discontinuities, e.g. tracks and erosion furrows, which some were not wholly preserved. Generally we were interested in objects that are clearly not visible in DTMs displayed in the form of shaded relief. Some of the typical visualization methods were tested (shaded relief, aspect and slope image). To get better results we applied image-processing methods that were successfully used on aerial photographs or hyperspectral images in the past. The usage of different visualization techniques on one site allowed us to verify the natural character of the southern part of Devil's Furrow and find formations up to now hidden in the forests.

  12. Archaeological remote sensing application pre-post war situation of Babylon archaeological site—Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo; Invernizzi, Antonio; Parapetti, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The first basic step in obtaining a correct geographical knowledge and initiative for archaeological cartography analysis is an adequately geo-localized representation of natural and semi-natural resources and human activities, present and past. In this context, the correct and contextual evaluation of the resources through the use of integrated techniques of aerial photos, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) supply the synoptic instrument to the real knowledge of the land geography and for the operational management of any research and project. We will describe, at a synthetic level, the maturity of the land systematic study of Babylon archaeological site using different change detection analysis. Topographic maps of 1920 and 1980 were used, 18 aerial photos (1986) were mosaicked and georeferenced, vector information was digitized and inserted in a GIS system, DTM was build. Object oriented image analysis activity is being carried on and initial results are available through a WebGIS. The use of remote sensing (Quickbird and Ikonos) data allows us to capture the integral mutations due to human interventions. Earth observation data and GIS system were an optimal starting point for generating and updating the cartography. This results will be indispensable for the Iraqi authority and scientific community who care about the future of the territory.

  13. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Visible Temporal Change of Archaeological Features of the Peten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this archaeological research was two-fold; the location of Mayan sites and features in order to learn more of this cultural group, and the (cultural) preservation of these sites and features for the future using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. Because the rainy season, traditionally at least, lasts about six months (about June to December), the time of year the image is acquired plays an important role in spectral reflectance. Images from 1986, 1995, and 1997 were selected because it was felt they would provide the best opportunity for success in layering different bands from different years together to attempt to see features not completely visible in any one year. False-color composites were created including bands 3, 4, and 5 using a mixture of years and bands. One particular combination that yielded tremendously interesting results included band 5 from 1997, band 4 from 1995, and band 3 from 1986. A number of straight linear features (probably Mayan causeways) run through the bajos that Dr. Sever believes are features previously undiscovered. At this point, early indications are that this will be a successful method for locating "new" Mayan archaeological features in the Peten.

  14. Spatiotemporal conceptual platform for querying archaeological information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Sartzetaki, Mary; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of archaeological sites has been shown to associate with several attributes including marine, water, mineral and food resources, climate conditions, geomorphological features, etc. In this study, archeological settlement attributes are evaluated under various associations in order to provide a specialized query platform in a geographic information system (GIS). Towards this end, a spatial database is designed to include a series of archaeological findings for a secluded geographic area of Crete in Greece. The key categories of the geodatabase include the archaeological type (palace, burial site, village, etc.), temporal information of the habitation/usage period (pre Minoan, Minoan, Byzantine, etc.), and the extracted geographical attributes of the sites (distance to sea, altitude, resources, etc.). Most of the related spatial attributes are extracted with readily available GIS tools. Additionally, a series of conceptual data attributes are estimated, including: Temporal relation of an era to a future one in terms of alteration of the archaeological type, topologic relations of various types and attributes, spatial proximity relations between various types. These complex spatiotemporal relational measures reveal new attributes towards better understanding of site selection for prehistoric and/or historic cultures, yet their potential combinations can become numerous. Therefore, after the quantification of the above mentioned attributes, they are classified as of their importance for archaeological site location modeling. Under this new classification scheme, the user may select a geographic area of interest and extract only the important attributes for a specific archaeological type. These extracted attributes may then be queried against the entire spatial database and provide a location map of possible new archaeological sites. This novel type of querying is robust since the user does not have to type a standard SQL query but

  15. Close out report for archaeological investigations on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP), South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina conducted archaeological investigations under contract AC09-81SR10749 entitled Archaeological Investigations at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant from July 1981 through September 1987. The major emphasis was upon the completion of a 40% stratified sample of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to identify and preserve archaeological resources. The investigations were conducted to bring the Savannah River Operations Office into compliance with specific laws and regulations pertaining to the identification and preservation of archaeological and historical resources on federally owned and controlled properties. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES AT THE POWELL STAGE STATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hollie K. Gilbert; Julie B. Braun; Brenda R. Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott

    2009-04-01

    Within the boundaries of the Idaho National Laboratory, an ongoing archaeological investigation of a late 19th century stage station was expanded with the use of Electro-Magnetic and Magnetic geophysical surveying. The station known as the Powell Stage Station was a primary transportation hub on the Snake River Plain, bridging the gap between railroad supply depots in Blackfoot, Idaho and booming mining camps throughout Central Idaho. Initial investigations have shown a strong magnetic signature from a buried road and previously unknown features that were not detected by visual surface surveys. Data gained from this project aids in federally directed cultural resource and land management and use requirements and has contributed additional information for archeological interpretation and cultural resource preservation.

  17. Natural science methods in field archaeology, with the case study of Crimea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekalova, T. N.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Garipov, A. S.; Pasumanskii, A. E.; Ketsko, R. S.; Chudin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The natural science methods applied in archaeological field survey are briefly reviewed. They are classified into several groups: remote sensing (analysis of space and airspace photographs, viewshed analysis, study of detailed topographic and special maps, and three-dimensional photogrammetry), geophysical survey, and analysis of cultural layer elements (by geochemical, paleosol, and other methods). The most important principle is the integration of complementary nondestructive and fast natural science methods in order to obtain the most complete and reliable results. Emphasis is placed on the consideration of geophysical methods of the study, primarily, magnetic exploration. A multidisciplinary study of the monuments of ancient Chersonesos and its "barbarian" environment is described as an example of successful application of a complex technique.

  18. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Non-invasive methods for archaeological research, like geophysical prospecting, aerial and satellite remote sensing, integrated with field survey activity, can make a large quantity of data essential for both operational uses and scientific purposes: from the detection of buried remains to risk assessment and monitoring (Lasaponara & Masini 2012; 2013; Lasaponara et al. 2016). Among the latest non-invasive methods there are the unmanned air vehicle (UAV) platforms, a real innovation, which proved to be capable for a variety of fields of applications, from the topographic survey to the monitoring of infrastructures. In the field of cultural heritage, for purposes ranging from the documentation to the detection of archaeological features, the use of UAVs is extremely functional, efficient and low-cost. Moreover, UAV flight requires much less time than that required by an Aircraft. A traditional aircraft must take off from an airport, sometimes far from the work area, while a drone, particularly rotary wing, can be transported in the area of interest and take off directly from there in a few minutes. The reason of the success of UAV are also the innovative vision, the very high-resolution of the obtainable products (orthophoto, digital elevations models) and the availability of easy tools of image processing based on Structure from Motion (SfM). (Neitzel & Klonowski 2011; Nex & Remondino 2013). SfM is a range imaging technique which allows to estimate three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional image sequences which may be coupled with local motion signals. Respect to conventional photogrammetry which requires a single stereo-pair, SfM needs multiple, overlapping photographs as input to feature extraction and 3-D reconstruction algorithms. In SfM the geometry of the scene, camera positions and orientation are solved simultaneously using a highly redundant, iterative bundle adjustment procedure, based on a database of features automatically extracted from a set of

  19. Identifying climate change threats to the arctic archaeological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Maribeth; Jensen, Anne; Friesen, Max

    2011-05-01

    Global Climate Change and the Polar Archaeological Record; Tromsø, Norway, 15-16 February 2011 ; A workshop was held at the Institute of Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Tromsø, in Norway, to catalyze growing concern among polar archaeologists about global climate change and attendant threats to the polar archaeological and paleoecological records. Arctic archaeological sites contain an irreplaceable record of the histories of the many societies that have lived in the region over past millennia. Associated paleoecological deposits provide powerful proxy evidence for paleoclimate and ecosystem structure and function and direct evidence of species diversity, distributions, and genetic variability. Archaeological records can span most of the Holocene (the past ∼12,000 years), depending upon location, and paleoecological records extend even further. Most are largely unstudied, and, although extremely vulnerable to destruction, they are poorly monitored and not well protected. Yet these records are key to understanding how the Arctic has functioned as a system, how humans were integrated into it, and how humans may have shaped it. Such records provide a wide range of data that are not obtainable from sources such as ice and ocean cores; these data are needed for understanding the past, assessing current and projecting future conditions, and adapting to ongoing change.

  20. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  1. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  2. Hyperspectral MIVIS data to investigate the Lilybaeum (Marsala) Archaeological Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merola, P.; Allegrini, A.; Bajocco, S.

    2005-10-01

    In the last 20 years air photograph and remote sensing, both from airplane and satellite, allowed to gain, from the analysis of the superficial land unit characteristics, useful information for the location of buried archaeological structures. For this kind of investigation, hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) data revealed to be very useful, for example, since 1994, for the purpose CNR-LARA research project, many archaeological studies have been supported by MIVIS data on several italian archaeological sites: Selinunte, Arpi (Foggia), Villa Adriana (Tivoli) and Marsala. Marsala town, the ancient Lilybaeum, lies on the western coastline of Sicily, at about 30 km south of Trapani. Founded by the Phoenicians, it intensely lived during the Punic, Roman, Arab and Norman periods, whose dominations left many important remains. This archaeological area was investigated by means of several techniques, such as excavations, topographic studies based on airborne campaigns, etc. On this site the main archaeological information were provided by the analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral bands and by Thermal Capacity image.

  3. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.; Carloganu, C.; Niess, V.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  4. Magnetic Prospection at the Archaeological Site of Jebel Barkal, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed A. Mohamed; Goldmann, Thomas; Wolf, Pawel; Wützler, Ronny; Goldmann, Lukas; Hobbs, Richard; Kendall, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    One of most important archaeological sites in northern Sudan is Jebel Barkal, an isolated sandstone butte, which became the chief cult center of the ancient Sudanese kingdom of Kush (ca. 800 BC-400 AD). Located on the western edge of the modern town of Karima, just downstream from the Nile's fourth cataract, Jebel Barkal is the site of numerous ruined palaces, temples, and pyramids. In 2006 and 2007, we carried out a magnetic survey of about 3.5 hectares of the temple area using an Overhauser magnetometer GSM 19. Our objective was to prospect some of the unexcavated areas of the site to try to image the sub-soil remains, and our resulting map clearly shows a number of magnetic anomalies of mud-brick, fired brick and stone-block walls belonging to different ancient buildings. Our initial magnetic results successfully revealed one corner of the wall of the early Meroitic palace B 100, which had been "lost" after its excavation in 1916, since it buried by later excavation debris before it had been precisely located on any site map. Prospection in the same area also revealed other (earlier?) massive mud walls of unknown function and character. A second area we chose for examination was that in front of the Great Amun Temple (B 500). Here we found two or three small rectangular anomalies that suggested a series of small chapels built at right angles to the paved way leading into the Great Temple; the layout was identical to chapels in front of the Great Amun Temple at Meroe. Another magnetic anomaly in front of B 500 seemed to be a predictable type of stepped podium, well-known from other Kushite temples. A third area we chose to examine was that northeast of B 500. Here we found the clear outline of a multi-chambered building (B 1700) parallel to the Great Temple, which appeared to have all the characteristics of a smaller temple fronted by a pylon. Far less clear were the complex magnetic anomalies we found northeast of B 1700. These appeared to belong to a series of

  5. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  6. Savannah River Archaeological Research Program: Annual report, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.T.

    1988-08-30

    The past year has witnessed the continuation of the SRARP tradition of scholarly research through contract, grant and volunteer support. Archaeological opportunities have been provided to the professional, student and avocational communities through a range of projects and programs. With the implementation of a new cooperative grant, the scope of SRARP research and public service activities will continue to examine the prehistoric and historic archaeological records of the region and to present objectively these results to professional and avocational audiences. During the forthcoming year (FY 1989) the SRARP will continue to conduct and facilitate archaeological research within the Savannah River valley for the purpose of better understanding the early history and prehistory of the region.

  7. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  8. Identifying military impacts to archaeological resources based on differences in vertical stratification of soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  9. 77 FR 59661 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Stanford University...

  10. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čechák, T.; Hložek, M.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2007-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc.

  11. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  12. Illuminating the past: the neutron as a tool in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelmann, W.; Kirfel, A.; Siano, S.; Frost, C. D.

    2004-03-01

    Neutrons can be produced in nuclear reactions and used as very versatile probes for condensed matter research. Since their introduction in the 1950s neutron scattering techniques have evolved to be very powerful tools for investigating the properties of condensed matter. Here we present the concept of neutron diffraction and how this technique can be used to address problems in archaeology facilitated by accelerator-based neutron sources like ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire. The great beauty of neutrons for the archaeologist is that they allow non-destructive testing of intact and original archaeological artifacts and museum objects.

  13. A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Damian; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Hensley, Scott; Tapley, Ian; Milne, Anthony; Barbetti, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The great medieval settlement of Angkor in Cambodia [9th–16th centuries Common Era (CE)] has for many years been understood as a “hydraulic city,” an urban complex defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by a complex water management network. Since the 1980s that view has been disputed, but the debate has remained unresolved because of insufficient data on the landscape beyond the great temples: the broader context of the monumental remains was only partially understood and had not been adequately mapped. Since the 1990s, French, Australian, and Cambodian teams have sought to address this empirical deficit through archaeological mapping projects by using traditional methods such as ground survey in conjunction with advanced radar remote-sensing applications in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Here we present a major outcome of that research: a comprehensive archaeological map of greater Angkor, covering nearly 3,000 km2, prepared by the Greater Angkor Project (GAP). The map reveals a vast, low-density settlement landscape integrated by an elaborate water management network covering >1,000 km2, the most extensive urban complex of the preindustrial world. It is now clear that anthropogenic changes to the landscape were both extensive and substantial enough to have created grave challenges to the long-term viability of the settlement. PMID:17717084

  14. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-10-28

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.

  15. Geoenvironmental studies on conservation of archaeological sites at Siwa oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hani A. M.; Kamh, Gamal E.

    2006-02-01

    Siwa oasis is located in the extreme western part of the Egyptian western desert. There are several archaeological sites in the oasis; the most distinct ones are Alexander the Great temple at Aghormi hill and the Gebel El Mota tomb excavations. They have suffered due to deterioration and cracks of different kinds and some parts are getting worse as rock falls occur. From field inspection and lab analysis, it is clear that lithology plays an important role on the extent of damage. Alexander the Great temple was built over the northern edge of Aghormi hill, which consists of two distinct beds—an upper limestone bed and a lower shale one. From field survey and laboratory analysis, the shale is considered as a high expanded bed and weak in its bearing capacity, as its clay content (mainly smectite) experienced swelling due to wetting from the ground water spring underneath. Consequently, the upper limestone bed suffered from map cracking associated with rock falls due to the differential settlement of the swelled lower shale one. The temple was threatened by slope instability and had experienced many cracks. At Gabal El Mota tomb excavations, it was noticed that a comparison of tombs of the same opening size revealed that those that excavated on shale beds had cracked much more than those that excavated on limestone. This may be attributed to the low bearing capacity of excavated shale walls. The remedial measures suggested to overcome the stability problems on these archaeological sites are grouting or construction of retaining walls.

  16. Trabasa - Traditional Architecture Recorded by Means of Building Archaeology in Saudi Arabia: Workshop in Jeddah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, U.; Jäger-Klein, C.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Styhler-Aydın, G.

    2013-07-01

    Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA). In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.

  17. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  18. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  19. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  20. 76 FR 28072 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA. The human remains were removed from St. Mary Parish (formerly... assessment of the human remains was made by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and...

  1. 75 FR 77897 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, that meet the definitions of sacred... Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology have determined, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(C), seven...

  2. Can You Dig It? An Archaeology Unit Can Make Scientific Research Inviting and Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Since archaeology is a branch of science that interests so many kids, Alice Robinson based a 10-week lesson for her sixth grade class on the subject. First, she prominently displayed archaeology books in the library, including Ancient Times by Guy Austrian and Archaeology for Kids by Richard Panchyk. After explaining the definition of archaeology…

  3. 75 FR 28648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... remains was made by the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology professional staff in...

  4. 77 FR 59968 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center... Archaeology Center, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items... affiliated with the cultural items may contact the Stanford University Archaeology Center....

  5. 76 FR 14047 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meet the definition of unassociated... ornaments was donated to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology by Mary S. Felton and Dr....

  6. Modelling past land use using archaeological and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzamanbein, Behnaz; Lindström, johan; Poska, Anneli; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José

    2016-04-01

    Accurate maps of past land use are necessary for studying the impact of anthropogenic land-cover changes on climate and biodiversity. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to reconstruct the land use using Gaussian Markov random fields. The model uses two observations sets: 1) archaeological data, representing human settlements, urbanization and agricultural findings; and 2) pollen-based land estimates of the three land-cover types Coniferous forest, Broadleaved forest and Unforested/Open land. The pollen based estimates are obtained from the REVEALS model, based on pollen counts from lakes and bogs. Our developed model uses the sparse pollen-based estimations to reconstruct the spatial continuous cover of three land cover types. Using the open-land component and the archaeological data, the extent of land-use is reconstructed. The model is applied on three time periods - centred around 1900 CE, 1000 and, 4000 BCE over Sweden for which both pollen-based estimates and archaeological data are available. To estimate the model parameters and land use, a block updated Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied. Using the MCMC posterior samples uncertainties in land-use predictions are computed. Due to lack of good historic land use data, model results are evaluated by cross-validation. Keywords. Spatial reconstruction, Gaussian Markov random field, Fossil pollen records, Archaeological data, Human land-use, Prediction uncertainty

  7. Mössbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, Yuanfu; Huang, Hongbo

    2003-09-01

    The Mössbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  8. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic Sites. 452.236-73 Section 452.236-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  9. Out of the archaeologist's desk drawer: communicating archaeological data online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; David, M.

    2015-08-01

    During archaeological field work a huge amount of data is collected, processed and elaborated for further studies and scientific publications. However, access and communication of linked data; associated tools for interrogation, analysis and sharing are often limited at the first stage of the archaeological research, mainly due to issues related to IPR. Information is often released months if not years after the fieldwork. Nowadays great deal of archaeological data is `born digital' in the field or lab. This means databases, pictures and 3D models of finds and excavation contexts could be available for public communication and sharing. Researchers usually restrict access to their data to a small group of people. It follows that data sharing is not so widespread among archaeologists, and dissemination of research is still mostly based on traditional pre-digital means like scientific papers, journal articles and books. This project has implemented a web approach for sharing and communication purposes, exploiting mainly open source technologies which allow a high level of interactivity. The case study presented is the newly Mithraeum excavated in Ostia Antica archaeological site in the framework of the Ostia Marina Project.

  10. Texture Attribute Analysis of GPR Data for Archaeological Prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of texture attribute analysis of 2-D and 3-D GPR datasets obtained in different archaeological environments. Textural attributes are successfully used in seismic stratigraphic studies for hydrocarbon exploration to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface structures. We use a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to compute second-order statistical measures of textural characteristics, such as contrast, energy, entropy, and homogeneity. Textural attributes provide specific information about the data, and can highlight characteristics as uniformity or complexity, which complement the interpretation of amplitude data and integrate the features extracted from conventional attributes. The results from three archaeological case studies demonstrate that the proposed texture analysis can enhance understanding of GPR data by providing clearer images of distribution, volume, and shape of potential archaeological targets and related stratigraphic units, particularly in combination with the conventional GPR attributes. Such strategy improves the interpretability of GPR data, and can be very helpful for archaeological excavation planning and, more generally, for buried cultural heritage assessment.

  11. 19. A photograph of the lock during preliminary archaeological work, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. A photograph of the lock during preliminary archaeological work, looking west along the path of the lock, showing the pool, portions of the east forebay and its sills. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  12. Teaching the Impact of Globalization through Historical Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Marilyn C.

    Historical archaeology has evolved from an early preoccupation with famous houses and forts to a study of capitalism around the world. Archaeologists study the cultures and interrelationships of the colonizers and the colonized as they negotiated their places in an ever-expanding world system. Recent studies in South Africa, Latin America, and the…

  13. 6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FITTING SHOP, MILLWRIGHT SHOP. DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO. AND BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. IN LOWER LEFT, SUM HYDROELECTRIC IN UPPER RIGHT. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  14. The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardz, Karolyn, Ed.; Smith, Shelley J., Ed.

    This guidebook outlines the culture and structure of schools and shows how archaeologists can work with teachers, curriculum developers, museum professionals, and park rangers to develop useful programs in archaeological education both in the classroom and in informal settings. The essays strive to provide multiple examples of exemplary…

  15. Applying Foucault's "Archaeology" to the Education of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenker, Susan S.

    2008-01-01

    Counselor educators can utilize the ideas of philosopher Michel Foucault in preparing preservice school counselors for their work with K-12 students in public schools. The Foucaultian ideas of "governmentality," "technologies of domination," "received truths," "power/knowledge," "discontinuity," and "archaeology" can contribute to students'…

  16. Applications of AMS {sup 14}C on Climate and Archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, P. R. S.

    2007-10-26

    We describe the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique and two distinct applications of its use with {sup 14}C to study environmental problems in Brazil, such as forest fires and climate changes in the Amazon region and archaeological studies on the early settlements in the Southeast Brazilian coast.

  17. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  18. Archaeology. Second Teacher Edition. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book includes a student edition by the same name and introduces students to various civilizations and their achievements. The self-directed activities emphasize higher-level thinking skills and activities keyed to "Bloom's Taxonomy." The table of contents lists: (1) "What Is Archaeology?"; (2) "What Is Culture?"; (3) "Where to Dig"; (4)…

  19. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Hawaii State Historic Preservation Division of the Department of Land and Natural Resources acting... Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) (16 U.S.C. 470aa et seq.) and its implementing regulations... for obtaining such permits, see 25 CFR part 262 or contact the Deputy Commissioner of Indian...

  20. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Hawaii State Historic Preservation Division of the Department of Land and Natural Resources acting... Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) (16 U.S.C. 470aa et seq.) and its implementing regulations... for obtaining such permits, see 25 CFR part 262 or contact the Deputy Commissioner of Indian...

  1. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Hawaii State Historic Preservation Division of the Department of Land and Natural Resources acting... Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) (16 U.S.C. 470aa et seq.) and its implementing regulations... for obtaining such permits, see 25 CFR part 262 or contact the Deputy Commissioner of Indian...

  2. Finding Out about Archaeology: Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archaeological Inst. of America, Boston, MA.

    This packet of materials presents selected, descriptive bibliographies for children and young adults. Instructional materials for the use of teachers and parents are also included. Focusing on the subject of archaeology, part 1 of the annotated bibliography presents instructional materials coded for appropriate grade level use. Each entry…

  3. SN Ia archaeology: Searching for the relics of progenitors past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Tyrone E.; Gilfanov, Marat; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Rest, Armin

    2016-06-01

    Despite the critical role that SNe Ia play in the chemical enrichment of the Universe and their great importance in measuring cosmological distances, we still don't know for certain how they arise. In the canonical form of the ``single-degenerate'' scenario, a white dwarf grows through the nuclear burning of matter accreted at its surface from some companion star. This renders it a hot, luminous object (a supersoft X-ray source or SSS, 10^5-10^6K, 10^{38} erg/s) for up to a million years prior to explosion. Past efforts to directly detect the progenitors of very recent, nearby SNe Ia in archival soft X-ray images have produced only upper limits, and are only constraining assuming progenitors with much higher temperatures than known SSSs. In this talk, I will outline an alternative approach: given that such objects should be strong sources of ionizing radiation, one may instead search the environment surrounding nearby SN Ia remnants for interstellar matter ionized by the progenitor. Such fossil nebulae should extend out to tens of parsecs and linger for roughly the recombination timescale in the ISM, of order 10,000 — 100,000 years. Progress on this front has been hampered by the failure to detect nebulae surrounding most known SSSs using 1m class telescopes in the early 1990s. I will present new benchmark calculations for the emission-line nebulae expected to surround such objects, demonstrating that previous non-detections are entirely consistent with the low ISM densities expected in the vicinity of most SN Ia progenitors (Woods & Gilfanov, 2016). Modern large optical telescopes are now well able to reach the required limiting surface brightness needed to find such faint emission. With this in mind, I will introduce our new narrow-band survey for fossil nebulae surrounding young Magellanic SN Ia remnants and SSSs, already underway using the Magellan Baade telescope (PI: Alejandro Clocchiatti). In addition to opening a new era of SN Ia archaeology, I will show

  4. Book Review: Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological investigation in wetland environments has long been recognised as a specialised aspect of the discipline, where the levels of preservation of organic materials and sediments can be so high that cultural horizons and excavated artefacts can be placed into detailed palaeo-environmental, biological and landscape contexts, in contrast to the more limited information of this kind that is available from dryland archaeological sites. Inevitably, the recovery, integration and understanding of these vital additional data require an interdisciplinary approach and an investment in specialist equipment and scientific analyses if their full potential for reconstructing human occupation and site use within their landscape setting is to be fully realised. The mobilisation and integration of such a team of environmental specialists can require major financial resources, meticulous planning and close co-operation between the various disciplines involved. The most extreme example of wetland archaeology is probably integrated excavation and environmental archaeological research in subtidal locations, but modern development of major coastal infrastructure is increasingly making sites available for study from the early to mid-Holocene or even earlier that have been overwhelmed by sea-level rise and which would otherwise be beyond the reach of archaeological investigation. Such very large scale subtidal interdisciplinary research projects are major, expensive and long-term undertakings and are still rare enough to be publication highlights in the discipline of environmental archaeology. Important recent examples of subtidal work in north-west Europe include Pedersen et al. (1997) and elements of Fischer (1995) in south Scandinavia, and investigations off southern England (Allen and Gardiner, 2000; Momber et al., 2011; Sturt et al., 2014). Research on submerged palaeoenvironments and palaeolandscapes has also seen significant advances (Griffiths et al., 2015), with the

  5. Geomagnetic and geoelectrical prospection for buried archaeological remains on the Upper City of Amorium, a Byzantine city in midwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Balkaya, Çağlayan; Şeren, Aysel; Kaya, Mehmet Ali; Sherwin Lightfoot, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of geophysical imaging surveys, including geomagnetic and geoelectrical resistivity, possible archaeological remains and their spatial parameters (i.e., location, extension, depth and thickness) were explored to provide useful data for future excavations on the Upper City of the ancient Amorium site, which comprises a large prehistoric man-made mound. The surveys were performed very close to the main axis of the Basilica, and the derived geophysical traces indicated some subsurface structures that appear to confirm that more-substantial brick and masonry buildings lie near the present-day surface of the mound. Analyzing the local gradients by total horizontal derivatives of pseudogravity data enhanced the edges of the magnetic sources. Additionally, a profile curvature technique, which has rarely been applied to potential field data sets, dramatically improved the magnetic-source body edges and the lineaments that may be associated with buried archaeological remains. The depths of these possible anthropogenic remains were estimated by applying the Euler deconvolution technique to the geomagnetic data set. The Euler solutions on tentative indices indicated that the depths of the source bodies are not more than about 3 m. Moreover, geoelectrical resistivity depth slices produced from the results of two- and three-dimensional linearized least-squares inversion techniques revealed high-resistivity anomalies within a depth of about 3 m from the ground surface, which is in close agreement with those obtained by applying the Euler deconvolution technique to the magnetic data. Based on the existence of some archaeological remains in the vicinity of the surveyed area, these geophysical anomalies were thought to be the possible traces of the buried remains and were suggested as targets for excavations. This study also emphasized that the data-processing techniques applied in this investigation should be suitable for providing an insight into the layout of the

  6. D Integrated Methodologies for the Documentation and the Virtual Reconstruction of AN Archaeological Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.; Scocca, V.; Gottardi, C.

    2015-02-01

    Highly accurate documentation and 3D reconstructions are fundamental for analyses and further interpretations in archaeology. In the last years the integrated digital survey (ground-based survey methods and UAV photogrammetry) has confirmed its main role in the documentation and comprehension of excavation contexts, thanks to instrumental and methodological development concerning the on site data acquisition. The specific aim of the project, reported in this paper and realized by the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of the IUAV University of Venice, is to check different acquisition systems and their effectiveness test, considering each methodology individually or integrated. This research focuses on the awareness that the integration of different survey's methodologies can as a matter of fact increase the representative efficacy of the final representations; these are based on a wider and verified set of georeferenced metric data. Particularly the methods' integration allows reducing or neutralizing issues related to composite and complex objects' survey, since the most appropriate tools and techniques can be chosen considering the characteristics of each part of an archaeological site (i.e. urban structures, architectural monuments, small findings). This paper describes the experience in several sites of the municipality of Sepino (Molise, Italy), where the 3d digital acquisition of cities and structure of monuments, sometimes hard to reach, was realized using active and passive techniques (rage-based and image based methods). This acquisition was planned in order to obtain not only the basic support for interpretation analysis, but also to achieve models of the actual state of conservation of the site on which some reconstructive hypotheses can be based on. Laser scanning data were merged with Structure from Motion techniques' clouds into the same reference system, given by a topographical and GPS survey. These 3d models are not only the final results of the metric

  7. Near Surface Geophysical Exploration at The Archaeological Site of San Miguel Tocuila, Basin of Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniega, A.; Hernandez, E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Diaz-Molina, O.; Morett, L.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    The village of Tocuila is located on the western margin of Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. Volcanic activity during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene closed the basin's drainage and facilitated the development of a lacustrine environment and subsequent deposition of volcano-sedimentary sequences with abundant archaeological and paleontological record. Tocuila was one of the most prominent suburbs of the main civic ceremonial complex of the Aztecs. The rapid expansion of Mexico City's Metropolitan areas in the last three decades strongly influenced Tocuila's environment and has compromised several of its archaeological and ancient human settlements. A near surface geophysical survey including magnetometry, seismic refraction tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques was conducted to investigate pre-Hispanic structures. The magnetometric survey was performed using an Overhauser magnetometer with an omnidirectional, 0.015 nT/Hz sensor and 1Hz sampling rate over a 80x100 m area, yielding 990 measurements of total intensity magnetic field at 1.0m height above the ground surface. Thirty seismic refraction profiles were obtained with a 48-channel 24 bits Geometrics StrataVisor NZ seismograph, 14 Hz natural frequency vertical geophones with a 2m separation array and an impact source of 5 kg. The GPR survey consisted of 15 cross sections at two different resolutions with a GSSI SIR-3000 instrument, using a GSSI 200 MHz and a RadarTeam 70 MHz antennas. All surveys were georeferenced with a dual frequency GPS local station and a GPS rover attached to the surveying geophysical instruments. Seismic refraction tomography and GPR radargrams show a platform structure of approx. 80x60 m which can be subdivided in three distinctive layers with a total height of ~10m. Based on the history of ancient settlements in the area surrounding Lake Texcoco and considering the characteristics of shape and height of the surveyed structure, we interpreted that the resulting

  8. Space -based monitoring of archaeological looting using multitemporal satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.

    2012-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risk factors which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world, in particular in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is little effective and time consuming and the aerial surveillance is non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In such contexts satellite remote sensing offers a suitable chance to monitor this phenomenon.. Looting phenomenon is much more dramatic during wars or armed conflicts, as occurred in Iraq during the two Gulf Wars, where "total area looted was many times greater than all the archaeological investigations ever conducted in southern Iraq" (Stone E. 2008). Media reports described the massive looting in broad daylight and destruction of the Iraqi museums and other cultural institutions. Between 2003 and 2004, several buried ancient cities have been completely eaten away by crater-like holes (http://www.savingantiquities.org/feature_page.php?featureID=7), and many other archaeological sites would be pillaged without the valuable activity of the Italian Carabinieri, responsible for guarding archaeological sites in the region of Nassyriah. To contrast and limit this phenomenon a systematic monitoring is required. Up to now, the protection of archaeological heritage from illegal diggings is generally based on a direct or aerial surveillance, which are time consuming, expensive and not suitable for extensive areas. VHR satellite images offer a suitable chance thanks to their global coverage and frequent re-visitation times. In this paper, automatic data processing approaches, based on filtering, geospatial analysis and wavelet, have been applied to enhance spatial and spectral anomaly linked to illegal excavations to make their semiautomatic identification easier. Study areas from Middle east and Southern America have been processed and discussed.

  9. Modelling Vague Knowledge for Decision Support in Planning Archaeological Prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, S.; Hornung, S.; Müller, H.

    2012-07-01

    Most archaeological predictive models lack significance because fuzziness of data and uncertainty in knowledge about human behaviour and natural processes are hardly ever considered. One possibility to cope with such uncertainties is utilization of probability based approaches like Bayes Theorem or Dempster-Shafer-Theory. We analyzed an area of 50 km2 in Rhineland Palatinate (Germany) near a Celtic oppidum by use of Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence for predicting spatial probability distribution of archaeological sites. This technique incorporates uncertainty by assigning various weights of evidence to defined variables, in that way estimating the probability for supporting a specific hypothesis (in our case the hypothesis presence or absence of a site). Selection of variables for our model relied both on assumptions about settlement patterns and on statistically tested relationships between known archaeological sites and environmental factors. The modelling process was conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by generating raster-based likelihood surfaces. The corresponding likelihood surfaces were aggregated to a final weight of evidence surface, which resulted in a likelihood value for every single cell of being a site or a non-site. Finally the result was tested against a database of known archaeological sites for evaluating the gain of the model. For the purpose of enhancing the gain of our model and sharpening our criteria we used a two-step approach to improve the modelling of former settlement strategies in our study area. Applying the developed model finally yielded a 100 percent success rate of known archaeological sites located in predicted high potential areas.

  10. Historical archaeology at the Clarkson Mine, an eastern Ohio mining complex

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, C.S.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the Clarkson Mine (33BL333), an eastern Ohio coal mine complex dating to the 1910s to 1920s, situated along Wheeling Creek. The results of preliminary surveys and the subsequent mitigation of four structures at the site are presented. The historical archaeology conducted at the site demonstrates the significant research possibilities inherent at many of these early industrial mine complexes. Of particular interest is the findings of depositional patterning around residential structures that revealed the influence of architecture on where and how items were deposited on the land surface. The ceramic and faunal assemblage were analyzed and provide significant details on socioeconomic attributes associated with the workers or staff. Artifacts recovered at the site provide an excellent diagnostic framework from which other similarly aged sites can be compared and dated. The findings at the Clarkson Mine are also placed into a more regional perspective and compared with other contemporary studies.

  11. Improved GPR interpretation through resolution of lateral velocity heterogeneity: Example from an archaeological site investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joel; Nichols, Josh; Steinbronn, Leah; Bradford, John

    2009-05-01

    In a typical common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey, lateral velocity contrasts may go undetected leading to misinterpretation. Resolution of lateral velocity heterogeneity requires multi-fold acquisition and analysis. Further, pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) is required to produce accurate images in the presence of large lateral velocity gradients. In an archaeological investigation conducted near Boise, Idaho, we delineated a portion of what we interpret to be an abandoned dump site. Using multi-fold acquisition with reflection tomography, we identified an abrupt lateral velocity increase of ˜ 40% resulting in a substantial velocity pull-up in the time domain. PSDM corrected for the velocity pull-up enabling a more accurate interpretation and identification of additional structures of potential historical significance. The migration velocity model provided additional constraints on materials which enhanced our understanding of the subsurface.

  12. 43 CFR 7.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.14 Determination of... this part, the archaeological value of any archaeological resource involved in a violation of the... the information associated with the archaeological resource. This value shall be appraised in terms...

  13. 43 CFR 7.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.14 Determination of... this part, the archaeological value of any archaeological resource involved in a violation of the... the information associated with the archaeological resource. This value shall be appraised in terms...

  14. 43 CFR 7.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.14 Determination of... this part, the archaeological value of any archaeological resource involved in a violation of the... the information associated with the archaeological resource. This value shall be appraised in terms...

  15. Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America. Afro-American and Asian American Culture History. Baywood Monographs in Archaeology 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Robert L., Ed.

    This monograph contains fourteen articles dealing with archaeological studies on Black and Asian ethnic groups in the United States. Papers on Afro-American culture history include: (1) "Race and Class on Antebellum Plantations," by John Solomon Otto; (2) "Looking for the 'Afro' in Colono-Indian Pottery," by Leland Ferguson; (3) a study of "Black…

  16. A Preliminary Geophysical Study Involving Remote Sensing at the Archaeological Site Trinchera Cave, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, L.; Bank, C.

    2003-12-01

    Resistivity, magnetic, seismic, and geodetic surveys were performed at Trinchera cave, an archaeological site ˜50 km east of Trinidad, Colorado, in order to locate the foundation walls of an ancient jacal structure. This structure, a shelter built during the Apishapa phase (earlier than 750 years before present), was reported - and backfilled - during a 1974 excavation; recent excavations have failed to again find it. The cave is a ˜8 m high overhang, the bottom of which marks the contact between the Dakota formation (yellowish-brown, fine-grained sandstone) and the underlying Purgatoire formation (bedded, organic-rich shale). The foundation was reported to be made of blocks of sandstone surrounded by cave fill/soil that is estimated to be 1.5 m thick in the cave. A total station survey mapped the topography beneath the overhang (the cave, ˜30 by 8 m) and within the adjacent creek. This part of the study should be useful to tie together future archaeological and geophysical work. Our magnetic map of the area is inconclusive due to the presence of metallic pipes left at the site by previous excavations and because of the overhang. Seismic refraction tests yielded varying thicknesses of the cave fill (0.7-2.3 m); however we experienced problems with the equipment in the field and realized that a 1-D model is insufficient to explain the data. A future reflection experiment might produce more useful seismic data. Our most reliable results were obtained by resistivity profiling. They show a more resistive structure in the SW part of the cave, about 1 m from the overhang and at a model depth of 2 m. We interpret this as the `lost' foundation.

  17. Imaging of Buried Archaeological Materials: The Reflection Properties of Archaeological Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, Stephanie H. L.; Dix, Justin K.; Best, Angus I.; Gregory, David J.

    2005-06-01

    Effective marine archaeological site management demands detailed information on not only the spatial distribution of artefacts but also the degradation state of the materials present. Although sonar methods have frequently been used in an attempt to detect buried wooden shipwrecks they are currently unable to indicate their degradation state. To assess the sensitivity of acoustic measurements to changes in the degradation state of such material, and hence the potential for sonars to quantify degradation, laboratory measurements of compressional wave velocity, as well as bulk density for oak and pine samples, in varying states of decay, were undertaken. These data enabled the calculation of theoretical reflection coefficients for such materials buried in various marine sediments. As wood degrades, the reflection coefficients become more negative, resulting in the hypothesis that the more degraded wood becomes, the easier it should be to detect. Typical reflection coefficients of the order of -0.43 and -0.52 for the most degraded oak and pine samples in sand are predicted. Conversely, for wood exposed to seawater the predicted reflection coefficients are large and positive for undegraded material (0.35 for oak, 0.18 for pine) and decrease to zero or slightly below for the most degraded samples. This indicates that exposed timbers, when heavily degraded, can be acoustically transparent and so undetectable by acoustic methods. Corroboration of these experimental results was provided through comparison with high resolution seismic reflection data that has been acquired over two shipwrecks.

  18. Advanced Representation Technologies Applied to the Temple of Neptune, the Sphinx and the Metope in the Archaeological Park of Paestum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, T.; Valva, R.; Lucarelli, M.

    2013-02-01

    The Summer School of Surveying and 3D modelling in Paestum was an opportunity to explore the use of innovative tools and advanced techniques in the design, implementation and management of surveys of historic and artistic complexes. In general such methods are used specifically for the development and management of vulnerability maps of existing heritage and so for the preventive conservation and valorisation of the built environment. The accurate detection of risk situations and the systematic promotion of highly selected and minimally invasive maintenance practices means that restoration and the efficiency of cycles of intervention can be optimized, with clear benefits from economic and cultural points of view. The group worked on the survey and 3D modelling of the Temple of Neptune, the Sphinx and the Metope of the Archaeological Park in Paestum.

  19. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  20. Searching for hidden houses: optical satellite imagery in archaeological prospection of the early Neolithic settlements in the Kujawy region, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz; Rucinski, Dominik

    2015-06-01

    Archaeologists have been applying remote sensing methods for over hundred years. New technological opportunities still appear and they may offer new data on remains from the Past. Effectiveness of remote sensing methods differs at scales. Aerial photographs play very important role at the regional scale of prospection. The question appears on usefulness of optical satellite imagery in the field dominated by aerial photography until now. Survey based on aerial recording of early farming settlements in Central Europe proofs the value and effectiveness of the method in this field. On the other hand whilst analyzing aerial photographs one might doubt about a spatial structure of the settlement, whether the whole space of the settlement has been recorded or not. Most of traces of houses can be recognized as cropmarks, however it applies only to specific geomorphological structures. It raises the question: did people in the past select those specific geomorphological structures for settling or whether existing soil and geomorphological conditions mask archaeological traces? An attempt to recognize the impact of local soils and geomorphological conditions on a possibility of identification of archaeological features is one of the tasks in the project ArchEO - archaeological applications of Earth Observation techniques. In the vicinity of Kaczkowo village in Kujawy Region (Poland) a cluster of traces of the early Neolithic farmers is located. This area has been a subject of aerial survey for several years. Yet the question on a completeness of recognition of the settlement pattern is still open. In the project we attempt to assess to what extent optical satellite imagery and a wide range of processing techniques (vegetation indices, color composites, spectral transformations, edge detection etc.) might allow an identification of the remains of settlements, especially in the neighborhood of already known clusters of Neolithic houses. It might help in defining the range of

  1. Plants as bioindicators for archaeological prospection: a case of study from Domitian's Stadium in the Palatine (Rome, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, S; Caneva, G

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between buried archaeological remains (masonries, pavements, and ancient ruins) and spontaneous vegetation growing above them. We carried out several vegetation surveys in the Domitian's Stadium at the archaeological site of the Palatine (Rome). Vegetation data were collected using the Braun-Blanquet approach and elaborated using statistical analyses (cluster analysis) to assess the similarity among surveys. Structural, chorological, and ecological features of the plant communities were analyzed. Results showed that the vegetation responds significantly to the presence of sub-emerging ancient remains. The plant bioindication of this phenomenon occurs through the following floristic-vegetation variations: phenological alterations in single individuals (reduction in height, displacement of flowering/fruiting period), increase of annual species and decrease of perennial ones, decrease of total plant coverage, reduction of maturity level of the vegetation which remains blocked at a pioneer evolutive stage. The presence of sub-surfacing ruins manifests itself through the dominant occurrence of xerophilous and not-nitrophilous species (e.g., Hypochaeris achyrophorus L., Aira elegantissima Schur, Trifolium scabrum L. ssp. scabrum, Trifolium stellatum L., Plantago lagopus L., Medicago minima (L.) L., and Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony ssp. rigidum) and in a rarefaction of more mesophilous and nitrophilous species (e.g., Plantago lanceolata L., Trifolium pratense L. ssp. pratense, Trifolium repens L. ssp. repens, and Poa trivialis L.). Therefore, the vegetation can be used as bioindicator for the detection of buried ruins, contributing in the archaeological prospection for a general, fast, and inexpensive interpretation of the underground.

  2. [Archaeology and criminology--Strengths and weaknesses of interdisciplinary cooperation].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary cooperation of archaeology and criminology is often focussed on the scientific methods applied in both fields of knowledge. In combination with the humanistic methods traditionally used in archaeology, the finding of facts can be enormously increased and the subsequent hermeneutic deduction of human behaviour in the past can take place on a more solid basis. Thus, interdisciplinary cooperation offers direct and indirect advantages. But it can also cause epistemological problems, if the weaknesses and limits of one method are to be corrected by applying methods used in other disciplines. This may result in the application of methods unsuitable for the problem to be investigated so that, in a way, the methodological and epistemological weaknesses of two disciplines potentiate each other. An example of this effect is the quantification of qualia. These epistemological reflections are compared with the interdisciplinary approach using the concrete case of the "Eulau Crime Scene".

  3. Geodetic imaging: A new tool for Mesoamerican archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, William E.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Fisher, Christopher; Leisz, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    On 15 May 2012, Honduran President Porfirio Lobo convened a press conference to announce that researchers mapping areas of the Mosquitia region of Honduras, using airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), had discovered what appeared to be an extensive complex of archaeological ruins hidden beneath the dense canopy of rain forest that shrouds the terrain [UTL Scientific, LLC, 2012]. President Lobo released preliminary images of the ruins derived from the airborne lidar observations (Figure 1a) but withheld information about their precise location so that measures could be taken to protect and preserve this newly discovered cultural heritage. The coordinates of the ruins, determined from the lidar observations with an accuracy of a few decimeters, will enable archaeological teams to use the Global Positioning System to navigate through the dense forest directly to features of interest.

  4. Ground-penetrating radar techniques for archaeological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conyers, L.

    2013-12-01

    The ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technique has borrowed many of its methods from seismic exploration. Many have direct applications for archaeological exploration and interpretation. While most GPR data are essentially 'single fold' reflection data, they can still be processed into images much like seismic profiles. Many closely spaced profiles in a grid are analogous to 3-D seismic, and reflections can be migrated, filtered and topographically corrected much like standard seismic methods. In addition forward-modeling can be used as predictive methods to help with understanding the complexity of radar energy transmission, reflection, refraction and attenuation in the ground. When GPR is employed using these three-dimensional methods, archaeological sites that are deeply buried or stratigraphically complex, can be interpreted in ways not possible using other shallow geophysical techniques.

  5. [Ancient teeth: research on teeth and jaws from archaeological sites].

    PubMed

    Jelsma, J

    2016-05-01

    Archaeology aims to enhance our understanding of the human past. An archaeologist devotes him- or herself to material remains, most often from the earth. The best sources of information about human behaviour and the earlier conditions of life for human beings are gravesites. In addition to being a source of cultural information, well-preserved skeletons offer vast possibilities for biochemical and genetic research. Teeth in particular can provide a treasure trove of information about the lives of our ancestors. With DNA analysis, gender and genetic relationships can be determined, however, the surface of the teeth also provides information about gender, age and genetic relationships and, of course, about the use of the teeth. New discoveries are being made and new (bio-)archaeological analyses are being carried out all the time. PMID:27166454

  6. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    PubMed

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige. PMID:23669575

  7. The Archaeological Record Speaks: Bridging Anthropology and Linguistics

    PubMed Central

    Balari, Sergio; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Camps, Marta; Longa, Víctor M.; Lorenzo, Guillermo; Uriagereka, Juan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of language, as treated within Evolutionary Anthropology, under the light offered by a biolinguistic approach. This perspective is presented first. Next we discuss how genetic, anatomical, and archaeological data, which are traditionally taken as evidence for the presence of language, are circumstantial as such from this perspective. We conclude by discussing ways in which to address these central issues, in an attempt to develop a collaborative approach to them. PMID:21716806

  8. Fusion of Geophysical Images in the Study of Archaeological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Petrou, M.; Tsokas, G. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents results from different fusion techniques between geophysical images from different modalities in order to combine them into one image with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant image will be useful for the detection and mapping of buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is situated in Kampana site (NE Greece) near the ancient theater of Maronia city. Archaeological excavations revealed an ancient theater, an aristocratic house and the temple of the ancient Greek God Dionysus. Numerous ceramic objects found in the broader area indicated the probability of the existence of buried urban structure. In order to accurately locate and map the latter, geophysical measurements performed with the use of the magnetic method (vertical gradient of the magnetic field) and of the electrical method (apparent resistivity). We performed a semi-stochastic pixel based registration method between the geophysical images in order to fine register them by correcting their local spatial offsets produced by the use of hand held devices. After this procedure we applied to the registered images three different fusion approaches. Image fusion is a relatively new technique that not only allows integration of different information sources, but also takes advantage of the spatial and spectral resolution as well as the orientation characteristics of each image. We have used three different fusion techniques, fusion with mean values, with wavelets by enhancing selected frequency bands and curvelets giving emphasis at specific bands and angles (according the expecting orientation of the relics). In all three cases the fused images gave significantly better results than each of the original geophysical images separately. The comparison of the results of the three different approaches showed that the fusion with the use of curvelets, giving emphasis at the features' orientation, seems to give the best fused image

  9. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    PubMed

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige.

  10. The archaeological record speaks: bridging anthropology and linguistics.

    PubMed

    Balari, Sergio; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Camps, Marta; Longa, Víctor M; Lorenzo, Guillermo; Uriagereka, Juan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of language, as treated within Evolutionary Anthropology, under the light offered by a biolinguistic approach. This perspective is presented first. Next we discuss how genetic, anatomical, and archaeological data, which are traditionally taken as evidence for the presence of language, are circumstantial as such from this perspective. We conclude by discussing ways in which to address these central issues, in an attempt to develop a collaborative approach to them.

  11. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  12. archAR: an archaeological augmented reality experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Bridgette; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2015-03-01

    We present an application for Android phones or tablets called "archAR" that uses augmented reality as an alternative, portable way of viewing archaeological information from UCSD's Levantine Archaeology Laboratory. archAR provides a unique experience of flying through an archaeological dig site in the Levantine area and exploring the artifacts uncovered there. Using a Google Nexus tablet and Qualcomm's Vuforia API, we use an image target as a map and overlay a three-dimensional model of the dig site onto it, augmenting reality such that we are able to interact with the plotted artifacts. The user can physically move the Android device around the image target and see the dig site model from any perspective. The user can also move the device closer to the model in order to "zoom" into the view of a particular section of the model and its associated artifacts. This is especially useful, as the dig site model and the collection of artifacts are very detailed. The artifacts are plotted as points, colored by type. The user can touch the virtual points to trigger a popup information window that contains details of the artifact, such as photographs, material descriptions, and more.

  13. Biometric identification of capillariid eggs from archaeological sites in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Taglioretti, V; Fugassa, M H; Beltrame, M O; Sardella, N H

    2014-06-01

    Numerous eggs of capillariid nematodes have been found in coprolites from a wide range of hosts and in raptor pellets in archaeological samples from Patagonia. The structure and sculpture of the eggshell of these nematodes and their biometry are commonly used for identification. The aim of this study was to determine whether eggs of the genus Calodium with similar morphology, found in different archaeological samples from Patagonia, belong to the same species. For this purpose, capillariid eggs (N= 843) with thick walls and radial striations were studied by permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA). Eggs exhibiting similar shape and structure also showed similar biometry, regardless of the zoological origin of coprolites (P= 0.84), host diet (P= 0.19), character of the archaeological sites (P= 0.67) and chronology (P= 0.66). Thus, they were attributed to the same species. We suggest that an unidentified zoonotic species of the genus Calodium occurred in the digestive tract of a wide range of hosts in Patagonia during the Holocene and that both human and animal populations were exposed to this parasite during the Holocene in the study area.

  14. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    The development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, favored the application of this technology also in archaeology [1]. Different approaches based on both single and multitemporal data analysis, exploiting the backscattering and the penetration of radar data, have been used for a number of archaeological sites and landscapes [2-5]. Nevertheless, the capability of this technology in archaeological applications has so far not been fully assessed. It lacks a contribution aimed at evaluating the potential of SAR technology for the same study area by using different bands, spatial resolutions and data processing solutions. In the framework of the Chinese-Italian bilateral project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", we addressed some pioneering investigations to assess multi-mode (multi-band, temporal, resolution) satellite SAR data (including X-band TerraSAR, C-band Envisat and L-band ALOS PALSAR) in archaeological prospection of the Silk road [6]. The Silk Road, a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting China to Europe, is the witness of civilization and friendship between the East and West dated back to 2000 years ago, that left us various relics (e.g. lost cities) to be uncovered and investigated.. In particular, the assessment has been performed in the Xinjiang and Gansu section pf the Silk Road focusing on : i) the subsurface penetration capability of SAR data in the arid and semi-arid region ii) and sensitivity of SAR imaging geometry for the detection of relics As regards the point i) , apart from the soil moisture, the penetration is seriously restricted by the soil porosity. For instance, negligible penetration signs were detected in Yumen Frontier Pass either using X- or L-band SAR data due to the occurrence of Yardang landscape. As regards the point ii), the flight path of SAR images in parallel with the

  15. The empirical case against the 'demographic turn' in Palaeolithic archaeology.

    PubMed

    Collard, Mark; Vaesen, Krist; Cosgrove, Richard; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has become commonplace to interpret major transitions and other patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record in terms of population size. Increases in cultural complexity are claimed to result from increases in population size; decreases in cultural complexity are suggested to be due to decreases in population size; and periods of no change are attributed to low numbers or frequent extirpation. In this paper, we argue that this approach is not defensible. We show that the available empirical evidence does not support the idea that cultural complexity in hunter-gatherers is governed by population size. Instead, ethnographic and archaeological data suggest that hunter-gatherer cultural complexity is most strongly influenced by environmental factors. Because all hominins were hunter-gatherers until the Holocene, this means using population size to interpret patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record is problematic. In future, the population size hypothesis should be viewed as one of several competing hypotheses and its predictions formally tested alongside those of its competitors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'.

  16. The empirical case against the 'demographic turn' in Palaeolithic archaeology.

    PubMed

    Collard, Mark; Vaesen, Krist; Cosgrove, Richard; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has become commonplace to interpret major transitions and other patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record in terms of population size. Increases in cultural complexity are claimed to result from increases in population size; decreases in cultural complexity are suggested to be due to decreases in population size; and periods of no change are attributed to low numbers or frequent extirpation. In this paper, we argue that this approach is not defensible. We show that the available empirical evidence does not support the idea that cultural complexity in hunter-gatherers is governed by population size. Instead, ethnographic and archaeological data suggest that hunter-gatherer cultural complexity is most strongly influenced by environmental factors. Because all hominins were hunter-gatherers until the Holocene, this means using population size to interpret patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record is problematic. In future, the population size hypothesis should be viewed as one of several competing hypotheses and its predictions formally tested alongside those of its competitors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298472

  17. Adaptation of Industrial Hyperspectral Line Scanner for Archaeological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljković, V.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    The spectral characteristic of the visible light reflected from any of archaeological artefact is the result of the interaction of its surface illuminated by incident light. Every particular surface depends on what material it is made of and/or which layers put on it has its spectral signature. Recent archaeometry recognises this information as very valuable data to extend present documentation of artefacts and as a new source for scientific exploration. However, the problem is having an appropriate hyperspectral imaging system available and adopted for applications in archaeology. In this paper, we present the new construction of the hyperspectral imaging system, made of industrial hyperspectral line scanner ImSpector V9 and CCD-sensor PixelView. The hyperspectral line scanner is calibrated geometrically, and hyperspectral data are geocoded and converted to the hyperspectral cube. The system abilities are evaluated for various archaeological artefacts made of different materials. Our experience in applications, visualisations, and interpretations of collected hyperspectral data are explored and presented.

  18. Archaeological and genetic insights into the origins of domesticated rice.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L; Zhao, Zhijun

    2014-04-29

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal grains in the world today and serves as a staple food source for more than half of the world's population. Research into when, where, and how rice was brought into cultivation and eventually domesticated, along with its development into a staple food source, is thus essential. These questions have been a point of nearly continuous research in both archaeology and genetics, and new information has continually come to light as theory, data acquisition, and analytical techniques have advanced over time. Here, we review the broad history of our scientific understanding of the rice domestication process from both an archaeological and genetic perspective and examine in detail the information that has come to light in both of these fields in the last 10 y. Current findings from genetics and archaeology are consistent with the domestication of O. sativa japonica in the Yangtze River valley of southern China. Interestingly, although it appears rice was cultivated in the area by as early 8000 BP, the key domestication trait of nonshattering was not fixed for another 1,000 y or perhaps longer. Rice was also cultivated in India as early as 5000 BP, but the domesticated indica subspecies currently appears to be a product of the introgression of favorable alleles from japonica. These findings are reshaping our understanding of rice domestication and also have implications for understanding the complex evolutionary process of plant domestication. PMID:24753573

  19. Using OSL to decipher past soil history in archaeological terraces, Judea Highlands, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porat, Naomi; Gadot, Yuval; Davidovich, Uri; Avni, Yoav; Avni, Gideon; Golan, Dani

    2015-04-01

    Archaeological terraces are the most prominent feature of the agricultural sphere in the hilly landscape throughout the Mediterranean. Using terrace walls for the artificial creation of arable plots of land was a major technological innovation that has completely altered the natural terrain. As such, the dating of these simply built features is of upmost importance. Archaeological excavations and OSL dating of the soil infill of terraces were carried out in three excavation areas at Mt. Eitan in the Judea Highlands, Israel. Previous survey showed that Mt. Eitan was settled continuously at least from the Middle Bronze Age (ca 3800 years ago) and until modern times. The OSL ages shows that all extant terraces were constructed in the past 550-200 years, in the Ottoman period. Older ages are limited only to the base of a few terraces, and they range from the Roman Period (ca 1800 years ago) to Mamluk times (ca 700 years ago). Many of the soil samples contain quartz grains with older ages, indicating incomplete bleaching of the sediment at the time of terrace construction. We used the finite mixture model to find out if there are distinct age clusters to these poorly bleached grains. Analyses were carried out on a compilation of all measured De values (small aliquots) from the entire study area, and for each area separately. Results show that the unbleached grains cluster into only a few periods and highlight four synchronous episodes of terrace building in the past 800 years. The Roman and Early Islamic periods are also represented, even in area where soils with such ages were not found. The unbleached grains preserve older episodes of terrace building no longer represented in the landscape.

  20. Geophysical Prospection of Archaeological Structures in a Noisy Area in Shayzar, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seren, S.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Bayirli, E.

    2009-04-01

    Site The roman town "Caesarea", which was named "Sezer" and used as a citadel in middle ages, is located within the modern town "Shayzar" in the north-west of Syria. The modern buildings, power lines and the streets with a lot of cars cause a very noisy environment for geophysical prospection. A football ground of about 50x90 m was chosen for testing both methods, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR), to detect archaeological structures. Instruments and survey area The magnetic survey was carried out using a fluxgate magnetic acquisition system with 4 sensors in gradient array from the manufacturer FÖRSTER® mounted on a one wheel cart. The cart was developed in our institute and allows to record high quality data in areas with difficult field conditions. An optical distance measurement system on the wheel ensures an exact positioning of the magnetic data. The measurement grid was 50x10 cm. GPR survey was carried out using a NOGGIN system with 250 MHz antenna from the manufacturer Sensors & Software. A new base plate was mounted on the antenna for the easy moving at rough surface conditions. The measurement grid was 50x5 cm. Data processing The magnetic data are processed using the self developed software ApMag. The main steps of the processing are filtering, removing of the line pattern, interpolation to a grid of 10x10 cm, geo-referencing and producing of a grey scale magnetogramm for visualizing in a geographical information system (GIS). The GPR data are automatically processed using the self developed software package ApRadar. Several pre-processing steps were carried out including removing of constant shifts, automatic detection of the starting point (time zero), frequency dependent high-pass filtering and a background removal filter to get the best results for each measurement. There is no gain control algorithm applied to the traces of a section but a statistical correction of each depth-slice for each section. This is equal to an automatic gain

  1. The Use of Neutron Technology in Archaeological and Cultural HeritageResearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creagh, Dudley

    Nations define themselves by their history and their customs. Their history is determined by both archaeological and archival evidence. The continuing development of a national culture is essential for the formation of a national identity. Both archaeological sites and cultural heritage artifacts are important to many nations because of income earned through tourism. This chapter discusses the use of neutron technology, one of a number of possible technologies, in the study of archaeological and cultural heritage artifacts. In particular descriptions of Neutron Activation Analysis, Neutron Diffraction, and Neutron Imaging Techniques will be given, and selected applications of these techniques to archaeology and cultural heritage artifacts will be given.

  2. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices

    PubMed Central

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential. PMID:21810036

  3. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices.

    PubMed

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential.

  4. Imaging of Archaeological Remains at Barcombe Roman Villa using Microwave Tomographic Depictions of Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.; Utsi, E.; Alani, A.; Persico, R.

    2012-04-01

    The site of the Barcombe Romano-British villa lies in a field on the perimeter of Barcombe village in East Sussex, England. The site came to the attention of the Mid Sussex Field Archaeological Team (MSFAT) and the University College London Field Archaeological Unit (UCL, subsequently replaced by the Centre for Continuing Education of the University of Sussex, CCE) because it was in danger of disappearing altogether without being adequately recorded [1]. In common with many other UK sites of the period, the villa had been extensively robbed out in the centuries following its demise in order to provide building material for the adjacent village and its associated farms, a common problem with Romano-British sites in the UK [2]. In addition, the site is positioned on the ridge of a field in agricultural use and has therefore been extensively ploughed out. As a result, the archaeological evidence was sparse and the little that remained was being rapidly eroded. In April 2001, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out jointly by the Department of Engineering, Portsmouth and Utsi Electronics Ltd on behalf of the archaeological team in order to investigate the possibility of mapping both the villa and earlier prehistoric remains on the same ridge. Using a 40m by 60m grid laid out by the archaeological team, a Groundvue 1, with antennas of central frequency 400MHz, was used to survey along a series of parallel transects at intervals of 50cm. The sampling interval along the line of survey was 5cm and probing was carried out to 40ns. The results of the GPR survey, including a comparison with the evidence from the resistivity work, were published in 2002 [3]. The original GPR data were processed (using the ReflexW package) by applying background removal, adding time based gain, averaging over 2 traces in order to reduce noise resulting from the relative movement of the antennas across the ploughed field and finally applying a Bandpass Butterworth filter of 200

  5. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  6. Optimal Spectral Domain Selection for Maximizing Archaeological Signatures: Italy Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Pascucci, Simone; Pignatti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Different landscape elements, including archaeological remains, can be automatically classified when their spectral characteristics are different, but major difficulties occur when extracting and classifying archaeological spectral features, as archaeological remains do not have unique shape or spectral characteristics. The spectral anomaly characteristics due to buried remains depend strongly on vegetation cover and/or soil types, which can make feature extraction more complicated. For crop areas, such as the test sites selected for this study, soil and moisture changes within near-surface archaeological deposits can influence surface vegetation patterns creating spectral anomalies of various kinds. In this context, this paper analyzes the usefulness of hyperspectral imagery, in the 0.4 to 12.8 μm spectral region, to identify the optimal spectral range for archaeological prospection as a function of the dominant land cover. MIVIS airborne hyperspectral imagery acquired in five different archaeological areas located in Italy has been used. Within these archaeological areas, 97 test sites with homogenous land cover and characterized by a statistically significant number of pixels related to the buried remains have been selected. The archaeological detection potential for all MIVIS bands has been assessed by applying a Separability Index on each spectral anomaly-background system of the test sites. A scatterplot analysis of the SI values vs. the dominant land cover fractional abundances, as retrieved by spectral mixture analysis, was performed to derive the optimal spectral ranges maximizing the archaeological detection. This work demonstrates that whenever we know the dominant land cover fractional abundances in archaeological sites, we can a priori select the optimal spectral range to improve the efficiency of archaeological observations performed by remote sensing data. PMID:22573985

  7. The Future of GLOSS Sea Level Data Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Bradshaw, E.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Aarup, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long term climate records are rare, consisting of unique and unrepeatable measurements. However, data do exist in analogue form in archives, libraries and other repositories around the world. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Group of Experts aims to provide advice on locating hidden tide gauge data, scanning and digitising records and quality controlling the resulting data. Long sea level data time series are used in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports and climate studies, in oceanography to study changes in ocean currents, tides and storm surges, in geodesy to establish national datum and in geography and geology to monitor coastal land movement. GLOSS has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, which have mainly involved sending member organisations questionnaires on their repositories. The Group of Experts is now looking at future developments in sea level data archaeology and how new technologies coming on line could be used by member organisations to make data digitisation and transcription more efficient. Analogue tide data comes in two forms charts, which record the continuous measurements made by an instrument, usually via a pen trace on paper ledgers containing written values of observations The GLOSS data archaeology web pages will provide a list of software that member organisations have reported to be suitable for the automatic digitisation of tide gauge charts. Transcribing of ledgers has so far proved more labour intensive and is usually conducted by people entering numbers by hand. GLOSS is exploring using Citizen Science techniques, such as those employed by the Old Weather project, to improve the efficiency of transcribing ledgers. The Group of Experts is also looking at recent advances in Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) technology, which mainly relies on patterns in the written word, but could be adapted to work with the patterns inherent in sea level data.

  8. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    The development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, favored the application of this technology also in archaeology [1]. Different approaches based on both single and multitemporal data analysis, exploiting the backscattering and the penetration of radar data, have been used for a number of archaeological sites and landscapes [2-5]. Nevertheless, the capability of this technology in archaeological applications has so far not been fully assessed. It lacks a contribution aimed at evaluating the potential of SAR technology for the same study area by using different bands, spatial resolutions and data processing solutions. In the framework of the Chinese-Italian bilateral project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", we addressed some pioneering investigations to assess multi-mode (multi-band, temporal, resolution) satellite SAR data (including X-band TerraSAR, C-band Envisat and L-band ALOS PALSAR) in archaeological prospection of the Silk road [6]. The Silk Road, a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting China to Europe, is the witness of civilization and friendship between the East and West dated back to 2000 years ago, that left us various relics (e.g. lost cities) to be uncovered and investigated.. In particular, the assessment has been performed in the Xinjiang and Gansu section pf the Silk Road focusing on : i) the subsurface penetration capability of SAR data in the arid and semi-arid region ii) and sensitivity of SAR imaging geometry for the detection of relics As regards the point i) , apart from the soil moisture, the penetration is seriously restricted by the soil porosity. For instance, negligible penetration signs were detected in Yumen Frontier Pass either using X- or L-band SAR data due to the occurrence of Yardang landscape. As regards the point ii), the flight path of SAR images in parallel with the

  9. Cultural Interpretation of Archaeological Evidence Relating to Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    The sky is a link between us and our remote ancestors. When we look at the sky, we are aware that our human ancestors were watching our sun, our moon, our planets, and our stars. Evidence of the peoples' different relations with the sky in the past, today, is found by historians and archaeologists. Archaeologists, who keep track of the earliest human history, infer the past lives of human societies from the physical remains of the past found in the soil. Archaeoastronomy holds that from the same archaeological record, we can get insights into the significance of celestial objects and events for the human life in the remote past.

  10. Probing Luminescence Dating Of Archaeologically Significant Carved Rock Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Kitis, George; Galloway, Robert B.; Vafiadou, Asimina; Tsirliganis, Nestoras C.; Polymeris, George S.

    The thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of crystalline materials, first applied to calcites (limestone buildings), has been extended to carved megalithic monuments made of granites, basalt and sandstones derived from archaeological sites. Various applied criteria for potential dating included pulsed blue light stimulation, different preheating and solar simulator bleaching, while the single (and multiple) aliquot regeneration and additive dose procedures were used for equivalent dose determination. The decay curves of signal loss follow a power law, n-p; for blue stimulation the signal loss of quartz and feldspar is better approached by an exponential law, 1-aln(n).

  11. Identifying military impacts on archaeology deposits based on differences in soil organic carbon and chemical elements at soil horizon interfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  12. Environmental surveys in Alaska based upon ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Alaskan applications of ERTS data are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use; (2) archaeology; (3) vegetation mapping; (4) ice reporting and mapping; (5) permafrost; (6) mineral and oil exploration; (7) geological surveys; (8) seismology; (9) geological faults and structures; (10) hydrology and water resources; (11) glaciology; (12) water circulation in Cook Inlet; and (13) fish and mammal populations.

  13. Oriental - Automatic Geo-Referencing and Ortho-Rectification of Archaeological Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karel, W.; Doneus, M.; Verhoeve, G.; Bries, C.; Ressl, C.; Pfeifer, N.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the newly developed software OrientAL, which aims at providing a fully automated processing chain from aerial photographs to orthophoto maps. It considers the special requirements of archaeological aerial images, including oblique imagery, single images, poor approximate georeferencing, and historic photographs. As a first step the automatic relative orientation of images from an archaeological image archive is presented.

  14. Savannah River Archaeological Research Program annual report, Fiscal years 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The beginning of a new era for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP), South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology (SCIAA), University of South Carolina (USC) came in 1987 with the initiation of a cooperative agreement for archaeological resource management, research and public education. After 15 years and six different contracts the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program, under the leadership of Glen T. Hanson, negotiated a cooperative grant with the Savannah River Operations Office, United States Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct archaeological research in the Savannah River Valley focusing on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Archaeological resource management advisement to DOE involves recommendations regarding the evaluation, conservation and preservation of archaeological resources. SRARP maintains a comprehensive database of archaeological information for over 850 currently known sites located thus far on the 300 square mile SRS. All records, artifact collections and analytical reports for these sites are maintained at the SRARP lab and are available for scholarly research. The site files have been updated and verified and are accessible through Macintosh computers with Claris' Filemaker{reg sign} program. 51 refs.

  15. 76 FR 62842 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University has completed an inventory of human remains, in... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Peabody Museum of...

  16. Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

  17. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy to Analyze Archaeological Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Adam D.; Lehman, Ann H.; Parr, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    A course linking chemistry and archaeology was designed to introduce scientific principles and applications to students with little or no science background. The course could provide students an opportunity to explore the role of the sciences in archaeology and to discover the relationship between materials and the culture that produce them.

  18. Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

    2002-01-01

    Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

  19. 75 FR 9428 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects...; museum records; consultation evidence; and expert opinion. Officials of the Peabody Museum of...

  20. 75 FR 58431 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Inventory Completion published in the Federal Register (66 FR 51464, October 9, 2001) from four to seven... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. The human remains...

  1. 77 FR 48533 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips Academy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips.... Peabody Museum of Archaeology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Robert S. Peabody Museum of...

  2. Digging for History: Archaeological Fieldwork and the Adult Student 1943-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speight, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with participants in extramural archaeology in British universities reveal growth in field-based involvement of adult students from 1943-1975. Since the 1970s, archaeology has been increasingly professionalized, leading to its decline in extramural adult education. (Contains 55 references.) (SK)

  3. Listing of Education in Archaeological Programs: The LEAP Clearinghouse 1990-1991 Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Patricia C., Ed.

    This is the second catalog of the National Park Service's Listing of Education in Archaeological Programs (LEAP). It consists of the information incorporated into the LEAP computerized database between 1990 and 1991. The database is a listing of federal, state, local, and private projects promoting public awareness of U.S. archaeology including…

  4. Listing of Education in Archaeological Programs: The LEAP Clearinghouse, 1989-1989 Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Patricia C., Ed.

    This catalog incorporates information gathered between 1987 and 1989 for inclusion into the National Park Service's Listing of Education in Archaeological Programs (LEAP) computerized database. This database is a listing of federal, state, local and private projects promoting positive public awareness of U.S. archaeology--prehistoric and historic,…

  5. David Hurst Thomas and the Historical Archaeology of the Spanish Borderlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snead, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses David Hurst Thomas' archaeological work on the Spanish borderlands, which integrates field archaeology and documentary history. Focuses on locating and studying the Santa Catalina de Guale. Addresses his project on the Pueblo San Marcos that will further test his ideas about the Spanish mission period. (CMK)

  6. An Exercise in Field Archaeology for the Gifted: Fake Mound, Genuine Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John R.

    1992-01-01

    At an archaeology camp program for gifted youngsters, students ages 11-16 built a mound with 5 archaeological levels, for future exploration. The "fake" mound ensured that student interest would be maintained, that students would learn about special problems and situations, and that irreplaceable bits of prehistory would not risk being damaged.…

  7. Treasures from the Past: Using Archaeology in Upper-Elementary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Cynthia C.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fourth grade teacher's interdisciplinary efforts at imparting the joys of archaeology to her students. The students read fiction and non-fiction materials about the physical environments and participated in a series of hands-on learning activities. These involved simulated archaeological digs, personal artifacts, and realia. (MJP)

  8. Archaeology in the National Historic Landmarks Program. Technical Brief No. 3, December 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumet, Robert S.

    The National Park Service's National Historic Landmarks (NHL) Program plays a major role in preserving nationally significant cultural resources. National Historic Landmark designation increases public awareness of archaeology by highlighting the importance of the most significant prehistoric and historic archaeological resources. By disseminating…

  9. Remote sensing, landscape and archaeology tracing ancient tracks and roads between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Törmä, M.; Silver, K.; Okkonen, J.; Nuñez, M.

    2015-08-01

    The present paper concentrates on the use of remote sensing by satellite imagery for detecting ancient tracks and roads in the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria. The Syrian desert was traversed by caravans already in the Bronze Age, and during the Greco-Roman period the traffic increased with the Silk Road and trade as well as with military missions annexing the areas into empires. SYGIS - the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project traced, recorded and documented ancient sites and roads in the region of Jebel Bishri in Central Syria in 2000-2010 before the outbreak of the civil war in Syria. Captured data of ancient roads and bridge points bring new light to the study of ancient communication framework in the area. Archaeological research carried out by the project on the ground confirmed the authenticity of many road alignments, new military and water harvesting sites as well as civilian settlements, showing that the desert-steppe area was actively used and developed probably from the second century AD. The studies further demonstrated that the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates was militarily more organised already in the second and third centuries AD than earlier believed. Chronologically, the start of this coincided with the "golden age" of the Palmyrene caravans in the second century AD. Topography and landscape were integral parts of the construction of graves/tumuli as sign-posts guiding in the desert, as well as roads and all kinds of settlements whether military or civilian.

  10. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  11. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-22

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  12. Development of Network-type Archaeological Investigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, F.; Yokokoyama, S.; Kaneda, A.; Konno, K.

    2015-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 is said to be a once-in-1000-year catastrophic quake. The Tsunami triggered by the earthquake destroyed broad coastal areas in northeast Japan. As recovery from the earthquake proceeds, the demand for new road construction, housing hill development, and residential construction is rapidly increasing. Culture plays a critical role in the district's recovery. For that reason, before development, cultural properties in the corresponding districts must be urgently investigated. This is a must, although balancing cultural recovery with rapid economic recovery is no easy task. With this in mind, we have developed a new system focusing on speedy archaeological investigation and adequate documentation. The authors reexamined the existing investigation process to categorize tasks into two types: those that must be done only at archaeological sites (site A) and ones available at other places (site B). We then formulated a scheme where the tasks on both sites are performed simultaneously in parallel over the network. Experiments are ongoing. This presentation reports the process and issues of our research and development.

  13. Nanotechnologies for the restoration of alum-treated archaeological wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, Fabrizio; Braovac, Susan; Kutzke, Hartmut; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The project Saving Oseberg is funded by the Norwegian State with the aim to preserve the Viking Age wooden objects from the Oseberg burial mound. They were excavated in 1904 near Tønsberg, Norway, and many have been treated in the past with alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum was widely used during the early 1900s as a treatment for archaeological wood to prevent shrinkage and impart strength. In the 1990s, conservators observed an alarming condition of the objects. Initial investigations showed that the alum treatment has initiated a slow but ongoing deterioration process, attacking the wood for over 100 years. Today, the artefacts are highly acidic and have significantly reduced mechanical strength. In the last decade, the use of non-aqueous alkaline nanoparticle dispersions has provided successful results for the protection of cellulose-based materials. Alum-treated archaeological wood samples from Oseberg, with a pH ≤ 2, have been treated with alkaline nanoparticle dispersions, and the effects of the treatment have been evaluated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) analyses. In this contribution, the preliminary results will be presented.

  14. Digital Astronaut Photography: A Discovery Dataset for Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station (ISS) using commercial off-the-shelf cameras offers a freely-accessible source for high to very high resolution (4-20 m/pixel) visible-wavelength digital data of Earth. Since ISS Expedition 1 in 2000, over 373,000 images of the Earth-Moon system (including land surface, ocean, atmospheric, and lunar images) have been added to the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov ). Handheld astronaut photographs vary in look angle, time of acquisition, solar illumination, and spatial resolution. These attributes of digital astronaut photography result from a unique combination of ISS orbital dynamics, mission operations, camera systems, and the individual skills of the astronaut. The variable nature of astronaut photography makes the dataset uniquely useful for archaeological applications in comparison with more traditional nadir-viewing multispectral datasets acquired from unmanned orbital platforms. For example, surface features such as trenches, walls, ruins, urban patterns, and vegetation clearing and regrowth patterns may be accentuated by low sun angles and oblique viewing conditions (Fig. 1). High spatial resolution digital astronaut photographs can also be used with sophisticated land cover classification and spatial analysis approaches like Object Based Image Analysis, increasing the potential for use in archaeological characterization of landscapes and specific sites.

  15. Preservation of ancient DNA in thermally damaged archaeological bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Koon, Hannah E. C.; Collins, Matthew J.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Rickards, Olga; Craig, Oliver E.

    2009-02-01

    Evolutionary biologists are increasingly relying on ancient DNA from archaeological animal bones to study processes such as domestication and population dispersals. As many animal bones found on archaeological sites are likely to have been cooked, the potential for DNA preservation must be carefully considered to maximise the chance of amplification success. Here, we assess the preservation of mitochondrial DNA in a medieval cattle bone assemblage from Coppergate, York, UK. These bones have variable degrees of thermal alterations to bone collagen fibrils, indicative of cooking. Our results show that DNA preservation is not reliant on the presence of intact collagen fibrils. In fact, a greater number of template molecules could be extracted from bones with damaged collagen. We conclude that moderate heating of bone may enhance the retention of DNA fragments. Our results also indicate that ancient DNA preservation is highly variable, even within a relatively recent assemblage from contexts conducive to organic preservation, and that diagenetic parameters based on protein diagenesis are not always useful for predicting ancient DNA survival.

  16. ICA Mixtures Applied to Ultrasonic Nondestructive Classification of Archaeological Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Addisson; Vergara, Luis

    2010-12-01

    We consider a classifier based on Independent Component Analysis Mixture Modelling (ICAMM) to model the feature joint-probability density. This classifier is applied to a challenging novel application: classification of archaeological ceramics. ICAMM gathers relevant characteristics that have general interest for material classification. It can deal with arbitrary forms of the underlying probability densities in the feature vector space as nonparametric methods can do. Mutual dependences among the features are modelled in a parametric form so that ICAMM can achieve good performance even with a training set of relatively small size, which is characteristic of parametric methods. Moreover, in the training stage, ICAMM can incorporate probabilistic semisupervision (PSS): labelling by an expert of a portion of the whole available training set of samples. These properties of ICAMM are well-suited for the problem considered: classification of ceramic pieces coming from four different periods, namely, Bronze Age, Iberian, Roman, and Middle Ages. A feature set is obtained from the processing of the ultrasonic signal that is recorded in through-transmission mode using an ad hoc device. A physical explanation of the results is obtained with comparison with classical methods used in archaeology. The results obtained demonstrate the promising potential of ICAMM for material classification.

  17. Archaeological data reveal slow rates of evolution during plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Purugganan, Michael D; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2011-01-01

    Domestication is an evolutionary process of species divergence in which morphological and physiological changes result from the cultivation/tending of plant or animal species by a mutualistic partner, most prominently humans. Darwin used domestication as an analogy to evolution by natural selection although there is strong debate on whether this process of species evolution by human association is an appropriate model for evolutionary study. There is a presumption that selection under domestication is strong and most models assume rapid evolution of cultivated species. Using archaeological data for 11 species from 60 archaeological sites, we measure rates of evolution in two plant domestication traits--nonshattering and grain/seed size increase. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find the rates of phenotypic evolution during domestication are slow, and significantly lower or comparable to those observed among wild species subjected to natural selection. Our study indicates that the magnitudes of the rates of evolution during the domestication process, including the strength of selection, may be similar to those measured for wild species. This suggests that domestication may be driven by unconscious selection pressures similar to that observed for natural selection, and the study of the domestication process may indeed prove to be a valid model for the study of evolutionary change.

  18. Application and limitations of endoscopy in anthropological and archaeological research.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Ronald G

    2015-06-01

    The use of endoscopy in anthropological and archaeological research was been well documented in the literature. This article explores the varied settings in which endoscopy is beneficial in gathering visual data for interpretation related to cultural remains and artifacts. Endoscopic data may be used to assist in the pursuit of answering such bioanthropological questions as sex, age at death, presence of paleopathologies, dental conditions, and cultural practices. Endoscopy is often used to guide and document biopsy procedures as well as the retrieval of artifacts from within poorly accessible locations such as body cavities, coffins, or tombs. In addition, endoscopic data is used to examine such archaeological features as tomb structure and design. A contrast between the medical and anthropological approach is described. Endoscopic research is enhanced when applied in conjunction with additional varied imaging modalities. While invasive, endoscopy is a nondestructive methodological approach. As with all methods, endoscopy has application and interpretational limitations, which can be described as limitations resulting from instrumentation, and those arising from personnel less familiar with the various approaches to endoscopy in both field and laboratory settings. PMID:25998646

  19. Preservation of ancient DNA in thermally damaged archaeological bone.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Claudio; Koon, Hannah E C; Collins, Matthew J; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Rickards, Olga; Craig, Oliver E

    2009-02-01

    Evolutionary biologists are increasingly relying on ancient DNA from archaeological animal bones to study processes such as domestication and population dispersals. As many animal bones found on archaeological sites are likely to have been cooked, the potential for DNA preservation must be carefully considered to maximise the chance of amplification success. Here, we assess the preservation of mitochondrial DNA in a medieval cattle bone assemblage from Coppergate, York, UK. These bones have variable degrees of thermal alterations to bone collagen fibrils, indicative of cooking. Our results show that DNA preservation is not reliant on the presence of intact collagen fibrils. In fact, a greater number of template molecules could be extracted from bones with damaged collagen. We conclude that moderate heating of bone may enhance the retention of DNA fragments. Our results also indicate that ancient DNA preservation is highly variable, even within a relatively recent assemblage from contexts conducive to organic preservation, and that diagenetic parameters based on protein diagenesis are not always useful for predicting ancient DNA survival.

  20. "If We Just Knew Who Should Do It", or the Social Organization of the Archiving of Archaeology in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvila, Isto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper analyses the work practices and perspectives of professionals working with archaeological archives and the social organization of archaeological archiving and information management in Sweden. Method: The paper is based on an interview study of Swedish actors in the field of archaeological archiving (N = 16). Analysis: The…

  1. Assess as You Go: The Effect of Continuous Assessment on Student Learning during a Short Course in Archaeology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaksson, Sven

    2008-01-01

    A continuous classroom assessment technique, "Five-minute" essays, was applied during a short course called "Scientific Methods in Archaeology--Applications and Problems", given at the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden. There was a strong positive and statistically…

  2. 78 FR 27996 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Archaeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA, in consultation with the... these cultural items should submit a written request to the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology....

  3. 32 CFR 229.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.14 Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of... archaeological resource involved in a violation of the prohibitions in § 229.4 of this part or conditions of a... archaeological resource. This value shall be appraised in terms of the costs of the retrieval of the...

  4. 32 CFR 229.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.14 Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of... archaeological resource involved in a violation of the prohibitions in § 229.4 of this part or conditions of a... archaeological resource. This value shall be appraised in terms of the costs of the retrieval of the...

  5. 32 CFR 229.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.14 Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of... archaeological resource involved in a violation of the prohibitions in § 229.4 of this part or conditions of a... archaeological resource. This value shall be appraised in terms of the costs of the retrieval of the...

  6. Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene lake-level fluctuations in the Lahontan Basin, Nevada: Implications for the distribution of archaeological sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, K.D.; Goebel, Thomas; Graf, K.; Smith, G.M.; Camp, A.J.; Briggs, R.W.; Rhode, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin of the western U.S. contains a rich record of late Pleistocene and Holocene lake-level fluctuations as well as an extensive record of human occupation during the same time frame. We compare spatial-temporal relationships between these records in the Lahontan basin to consider whether lake-level fluctuations across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition controlled distribution of archaeological sites. We use the reasonably well-dated archaeological record from caves and rockshelters as well as results from new pedestrian surveys to investigate this problem. Although lake levels probably reached maximum elevations of about 1230-1235 m in the different subbasins of Lahontan during the Younger Dryas (YD) period, the duration that the lakes occupied the highest levels was brief Paleoindian and early Archaic archaeological sites are concentrated on somewhat lower and slightly younger shorelines (???1220-1225 in) that also date from the Younger Dryas period. This study suggests that Paleoindians often concentrated their activities adjacent to large lakes and wetland resources soon after they first entered the Great Basin. ?? 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High-Resolution Geophysical 3D Imaging for Archaeology by Magnetic and EM data: The Case of the Iron Age Settlement of Torre Galli, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic surveying are effective techniques frequently used in archaeology because the susceptibility and the electric resistivity contrast between the cover soil and several buried finds often lead to detectable anomalies. Significant advances were recently achieved by 3D imaging methods of potential field data that provide an estimate of the magnetization distribution within the subsurface. They provide a high-resolution image of the source distribution, thanks to the differentiation of the field and to the stability of the process. These techniques are fast and quite effective in the case of a compact, isolated, and depth-limited source, i.e., just the kind of source generally occurring in archaeological investigations. We illustrate the high-resolution imaging process for a geophysical study carried out at Torre Galli ( Vibo Valentia, Calabria, Italy), one of the most significant sites of the early Iron Age in Italy. Multi-scale derivative analysis of magnetic data revealed the trends of anomalies shaped and aligned with a regular geometry. This allowed us to make an outline of the buried structures, and then to characterize them in terms of size, shape, and depth by means of the imaging technique. Targeted excavations were therefore addressed to the locations selected by our analysis, revealing structures showing exactly the predicted features and confirming the archaeological hypothesis concerning the settlement organization partitioned in terms of functional differentiation: an intermediate area occupied mostly by defensive structures placed between the village, westward, and the necropolis, eastward.

  8. On the Use of Biomineral Oxygen Isotope Data to Identify Human Migrants in the Archaeological Record: Intra-Sample Variation, Statistical Methods and Geographical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Emma; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope analysis of archaeological skeletal remains is an increasingly popular tool to study past human migrations. It is based on the assumption that human body chemistry preserves the δ18O of precipitation in such a way as to be a useful technique for identifying migrants and, potentially, their homelands. In this study, the first such global survey, we draw on published human tooth enamel and bone bioapatite data to explore the validity of using oxygen isotope analyses to identify migrants in the archaeological record. We use human δ18O results to show that there are large variations in human oxygen isotope values within a population sample. This may relate to physiological factors influencing the preservation of the primary isotope signal, or due to human activities (such as brewing, boiling, stewing, differential access to water sources and so on) causing variation in ingested water and food isotope values. We compare the number of outliers identified using various statistical methods. We determine that the most appropriate method for identifying migrants is dependent on the data but is likely to be the IQR or median absolute deviation from the median under most archaeological circumstances. Finally, through a spatial assessment of the dataset, we show that the degree of overlap in human isotope values from different locations across Europe is such that identifying individuals' homelands on the basis of oxygen isotope analysis alone is not possible for the regions analysed to date. Oxygen isotope analysis is a valid method for identifying first-generation migrants from an archaeological site when used appropriately, however it is difficult to identify migrants using statistical methods for a sample size of less than c. 25 individuals. In the absence of local previous analyses, each sample should be treated as an individual dataset and statistical techniques can be used to identify migrants, but in most cases pinpointing a specific homeland should not

  9. On the Use of Biomineral Oxygen Isotope Data to Identify Human Migrants in the Archaeological Record: Intra-Sample Variation, Statistical Methods and Geographical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Emma; O’Connell, Tamsin C.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope analysis of archaeological skeletal remains is an increasingly popular tool to study past human migrations. It is based on the assumption that human body chemistry preserves the δ18O of precipitation in such a way as to be a useful technique for identifying migrants and, potentially, their homelands. In this study, the first such global survey, we draw on published human tooth enamel and bone bioapatite data to explore the validity of using oxygen isotope analyses to identify migrants in the archaeological record. We use human δ18O results to show that there are large variations in human oxygen isotope values within a population sample. This may relate to physiological factors influencing the preservation of the primary isotope signal, or due to human activities (such as brewing, boiling, stewing, differential access to water sources and so on) causing variation in ingested water and food isotope values. We compare the number of outliers identified using various statistical methods. We determine that the most appropriate method for identifying migrants is dependent on the data but is likely to be the IQR or median absolute deviation from the median under most archaeological circumstances. Finally, through a spatial assessment of the dataset, we show that the degree of overlap in human isotope values from different locations across Europe is such that identifying individuals’ homelands on the basis of oxygen isotope analysis alone is not possible for the regions analysed to date. Oxygen isotope analysis is a valid method for identifying first-generation migrants from an archaeological site when used appropriately, however it is difficult to identify migrants using statistical methods for a sample size of less than c. 25 individuals. In the absence of local previous analyses, each sample should be treated as an individual dataset and statistical techniques can be used to identify migrants, but in most cases pinpointing a specific homeland should

  10. Underwater inverse LIBS (iLIBS) for marine archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, J.; Magde, M.; Elford, J.; Magde, D.; Parfenov, V.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years there have been enormous advances in nautical archaeology through developments in SONAR technologies as well as in manned and robotic submersible vehicles. The number of sunken vessel discoveries has escalated in many of the seas of the world in response to the widespread application of these and other new tools. Customarily, surviving artifacts within the debris field of a wreck are collected and then moved to laboratories, centers, or institutions for analyses and possible conservation. Frequently, the conservation phase involves chemical treatments to stabilize an artefact to standard temperature, pressure, and humidity instead of an undersea environment. Many of the artefacts encountered at an underwater site are now characterized and restored in-situ in accordance with modern trends in art conservation. Two examples of this trend are exemplified by the resting place of the wreck of the Titanic in the Atlantic and the Cancun Underwater Park in the Caribbean Sea. These two debris fields have been turned into museums for diving visitors. Several research groups have investigated the possibility of adapting the well-established analytical tool Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ elemental analyses of underwater cultural, historic, and archaeological artefacts where discovered, rather than as a phase of a salvage operation. As the underwater laser ablation associated with LIBS generates a "snowplough" shockwave within the aqueous matrix, the atomic emission spectrum is usually severely attenuated in escaping from the target. Consequently, probative experiments to date generally invoke a submerged air chamber or air jet to isolate water from the interaction zone as well as employ more complex double-pulse lasers. These measures impose severe logistical constraints on the examination of widely dispersed underwater artefacts. In order to overcome this constraint we report on water-immersion LIBS experiments performed with oblique

  11. Archaeological Geophysics at the San Marcos Pueblo, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K.; Joiner, C. J.; Musa, D.; Allred, I.; Delhaye, R. P.; Zorin, N.; Feucht, D. W.; Johnston, G.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The students and faculty of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) geophysical field course have studied the San Marcos Pueblo (LA 98) since 2004. This activity has provided instruction in near-surface geophysics and research into the application of geophysical techniques to southwestern archaeological problems. Our study site, the San Marcos Pueblo, is a classical and colonial period (1200-1680) pueblo that was once one of the largest communities in the southwest. Previous SAGE publications have discussed the discovery of archaeological features, the underlying geology and hydrological conditions. This study focuses on the interpretation of 'El Mapo Grande', 150 m X 150 m, high-resolution (0.5 m) maps of magnetic and electrical properties and 12 seismic refraction lines. The map covers room block, plaza and midden areas as well as areas where colonial period metallurgical activities were known to have occurred. We acquired magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data in 30 m X 30 m quads producing geophysical maps of each quad (2 or 3 produced each year). Total magnetic field measurements were made with a Geometrics cesium vapor magnetometer, GPR data collected using a Sensors and Software 250 MHz radar were on 0.5 m spaced lines, and EM data were acquired with a Geonics EM-31 on 1 m spaced lines. Seismic data were collected on interconnected lines with 0.5 m receiver and 3 m source interval. El Mapo Grande shows anomalies correlated among the diverse physical properties that were mapped. The edges of strong magnetic anomalies correlate with areas of high GPR scattering possibly associated with rocky floors under room blocks. Areas of high magnetic response are associated with hill-slope erosion channels and plumes of debris in the plaza to the south that are apparently washing down from the metallurgical sites near room blocks. EM data display a good correlation with the magnetic map. Debris channels and plumes are more

  12. The 3-D reconstruction of medieval wetland reclamation through electromagnetic induction survey.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Philippe; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Herremans, Davy; De Reu, Jeroen; Saey, Timothy; Meerschman, Eef; Crombé, Philippe; De Clercq, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Studies of past human-landscape interactions rely upon the integration of archaeological, biological and geological information within their geographical context. However, detecting the often ephemeral traces of human activities at a landscape scale remains difficult with conventional archaeological field survey. Geophysical methods offer a solution by bridging the gap between point finds and the surrounding landscape, but these surveys often solely target archaeological features. Here we show how simultaneous mapping of multiple physical soil properties with a high resolution multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) survey permits a reconstruction of the three-dimensional layout and pedological setting of a medieval reclaimed landscape in Flanders (Belgium). Combined with limited and directed excavations, the results offer a unique insight into the way such marginal landscapes were reclaimed and occupied during the Middle Ages. This approach provides a robust foundation for unravelling complex historical landscapes and will enhance our understanding of past human-landscape interactions.

  13. The 3-D reconstruction of medieval wetland reclamation through electromagnetic induction survey

    PubMed Central

    De Smedt, Philippe; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Herremans, Davy; De Reu, Jeroen; Saey, Timothy; Meerschman, Eef; Crombé, Philippe; De Clercq, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Studies of past human-landscape interactions rely upon the integration of archaeological, biological and geological information within their geographical context. However, detecting the often ephemeral traces of human activities at a landscape scale remains difficult with conventional archaeological field survey. Geophysical methods offer a solution by bridging the gap between point finds and the surrounding landscape, but these surveys often solely target archaeological features. Here we show how simultaneous mapping of multiple physical soil properties with a high resolution multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) survey permits a reconstruction of the three-dimensional layout and pedological setting of a medieval reclaimed landscape in Flanders (Belgium). Combined with limited and directed excavations, the results offer a unique insight into the way such marginal landscapes were reclaimed and occupied during the Middle Ages. This approach provides a robust foundation for unravelling complex historical landscapes and will enhance our understanding of past human-landscape interactions. PMID:23519060

  14. Multi-image Photogrammetry for Underwater Archaeological Site Recording: An Accessible, Diver-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, John; Benjamin, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a discussion of recent advances in underwater photogrammetric survey, illustrated by case studies in Scotland and Denmark between 2011 and 2013. Results from field trials are discussed with the aim of illustrating practical low-cost solutions for recording underwater archaeological sites in 3D using photogrammetry and using this data to offer enhanced recording, interpretation and analysis. We argue that the availability of integrated multi-image photogrammetry software, highly light-sensitive digital sensors and wide-aperture compact cameras, now allow for simple work flows with minimal equipment and excellent natural colour images even at depths of up to 30 m. This has changed the possibilities for underwater photogrammetric recording, which can now be done on a small scale, through the use of a single camera and automated work flow. The intention of this paper is to demonstrate the quality and versatility of the `one camera/ambient light/integrated software' technique through the case studies presented and the results derived from this process. We also demonstrate how the 3D data generated can be subjected to surface analysis techniques to enhance detail and to generate data-driven fly-throughs and reconstructions, opening the door to new avenues of engagement with both specialists and the wider public.

  15. Using Remote Sensing and Rpas for Archaeology and Monitoring in Western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.; Matoušková, E.; Faltýnová, M.; Hlaváčová, I.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2002, German low-cost scientific expeditions to Greenland have been performed. The objective was a geodetic survey and glaciology with GNSS technology - mainly the measurement of glacier profiles (height). The same glacier profiles along the route were measured during German expeditions in 2006, 2010, 2012 and 2015. The last international expedition was supplemented with RPAS (UAV) measurement, the testing of small corner reflectors for Terra SAR X satellite measurement and the use of image based modelling technology for historical monuments documentation, all in specific arctic conditions. The RPAS measurement was focused on the documentation of existing valuable archaeological sites near Ilulissat city and the testing of RPAS technology for the monitoring of the face of the moving glacier. Two typical church wooden constructions were documented by simple photogrammetric technology based on image correlation. Both experiments were evaluated as successfully case projects. The last part of the experiments deals with the monitoring of a moving inland glacier using SAR technology; four corner reflectors were installed on the glacier and on a massive nearby rock. Two ascending and two descending overflights of the Terra SAR X satellite in fine resolution mode were performed. The InSAR technology give inconclusive results, but some movements were detected; small and inexpensive corner reflectors of our own production have proven suitable. Experience and expertise from the measurement such as the first outputs from the expedition are the content of the present article.

  16. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    PubMed

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Norton, Andrew L; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z; Martins, João R; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  17. The Identification of Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans in Archaeological Human Bones and Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M.; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J.; Norton, Andrew L.; Gesteira, Tarsis F.; Cavalheiro, Renan P.; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z.; Martins, João R.; Dixon, Ronald A.; Nader, Helena B.

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology. PMID:26107959

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in art and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leona, Marco

    2005-11-01

    The identification of natural dyes found in archaeological objects and in works of art as textile dyes and lake pigments is a demanding analytical task. To address the problems raised by the very low dye content of dyed fibers and lake pigments, and by the requirement to remove only microscopic samples, surface enhanced Raman scattering techniques were investigated for application to museum objects. SERS gives excellent results with the majority of natural dyes, including: alizarin, purpurin, laccaic acid, carminic acid, kermesic acid, shikonin, juglone, lawsone, brazilin and brazilein, haematoxylin and haematein, fisetin, quercitrin, quercetin, rutin, and morin. In this study, limits of detection were determined for representative dyes and different SERS supports such as citrate reduced Ag colloid and silver nanoisland films. SERS was successfully used to identify natural madder in a microscopic fragment from a severely degraded 11th Century Byzantine textile recently excavated in Amorium, Turkey.

  19. Application of nuclear microprobes to material of archaeological interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.

    1988-03-01

    Strongly focused nuclear microprobes have not been widely used until recently for characterization of material of archaeological interest. The main reasons are (1) the large size of many artefacts are not suitable for measurements in vacuum together with the requirement of avoiding sampling from (often) unique material; (2) the frequent surface corrosion of objects to depths thicker than the range of the incident particles; (3) the high cost of analyses when compared with the budgets of Museum's curators for scientific investigations. About ten laboratories throughout the world are concerned with nuclear milliprobe for investigation of bones, glasses, papers and parchments, potsherds, coins, iron and bronze artefacts, silver and gold jewelry. The nuclear microprobe facilities in this field of research have mostly been developed at Bartol-Delaware and Los Alamos (USA), Lower Hutt (New Zealand), Saclay (France) and LARN — Namur (Belgium).

  20. Preliminary Simulation of the Corrosion Rate of Archaeological Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-06

    In this study, we make use of a micro-continuum modeling approach (the Kinetic-Microscopic-Continuum Model or K{micro}C model) to capture the spatial distribution and identity of reaction products developing over time as a result of the archaeological glass corrosion, while also matching the time scales of alteration where possible. Since the glass blocks sat on the Mediterranean seafloor for 1800 years, the physical and chemical boundary conditions are largely constant. We focus on a fracture within the glass block identified by Verney-Carron et al. (2008) and simulate it as a 1D system, with a fixed concentration (Dirichlet) boundary corresponding to the interior of the fracture.

  1. Digital Image Processing Applied To Problems In Art And Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.; Katz, Norman P.

    1988-12-01

    Many of the images encountered during scholarly studies in the fields of art and archaeology have deteriorated through the effects of time. The Ice-Age rock art of the now-closed caves near Lascaux are prime examples of this fate. However, faint and subtle details of these can be exceedingly important as some theories suggest that the designs are computers or calendars pertaining to astronomical cycles as well as seasons for hunting, gathering, and planting. Consequently, we have applied a range of standard image processing algorithms (viz., edge detection, spatial filtering, spectral differencing, and contrast enhancement) as well as specialized techniques (e.g., matched filters) to the clarification of these drawings. Also, we report the results of computer enhancement studies pertaining to authenticity, faint details, sitter identity, and age of portraits by da Vinci, Rembrandt, Rotari, and Titian.

  2. Ethnographic analogy, the comparative method, and archaeological special pleading.

    PubMed

    Currie, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Ethnographic analogy, the use of comparative data from anthropology to inform reconstructions of past human societies, has a troubled history. Archaeologists often express concern about, or outright reject, the practice--and sometimes do so in problematically general terms. This is odd, as (or so I argue) the use of comparative data in archaeology is the same pattern of reasoning as the 'comparative method' in biology, which is a well-developed and robust set of inferences which play a central role in discovering the biological past. In pointing out this continuity, I argue that there is no 'special pleading' on the part of archaeologists in this regard: biologists must overcome analogous epistemic difficulties in their use of comparative data. I then go on to emphasize the local, empirically tractable ways in which particular ethnographic analogies may be licensed. PMID:26774072

  3. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations. PMID:11193011

  4. Ethnographic analogy, the comparative method, and archaeological special pleading.

    PubMed

    Currie, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Ethnographic analogy, the use of comparative data from anthropology to inform reconstructions of past human societies, has a troubled history. Archaeologists often express concern about, or outright reject, the practice--and sometimes do so in problematically general terms. This is odd, as (or so I argue) the use of comparative data in archaeology is the same pattern of reasoning as the 'comparative method' in biology, which is a well-developed and robust set of inferences which play a central role in discovering the biological past. In pointing out this continuity, I argue that there is no 'special pleading' on the part of archaeologists in this regard: biologists must overcome analogous epistemic difficulties in their use of comparative data. I then go on to emphasize the local, empirically tractable ways in which particular ethnographic analogies may be licensed.

  5. The archaeology and genealogy of mentorship in English nursing.

    PubMed

    Fulton, John

    2015-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, the concept of mentorship has been central to nurse education since the 1980s. Mentorship has become the definitive term used to denote the supervisory relationship of the student nurse with a qualified nurse who monitors and evaluates their skill development in the clinical area. The background against which the concept was established is examined through a consideration of the concepts of archaeology of knowledge and genealogy of knowledge as conceptualised by Michel Foucault. In particular, the Foucauldian concepts of power, discourses and the gaze are used to direct and shape the analysis. The paper explores the interplay of managerial dominance and professionalism and the ways in which mentorship can be used as a means of control and surveillance.

  6. Archaeology management system based on EV-Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Lu, Guo-nian; Pei, An-ping; Niu, Yu-gang; Luo, Tao

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, cultural relics were recorded in a 2D (2 dimensions) method such as paper maps, pictures, multi-media, micro-models and so on. This paper introduces the archaeology management system based on EV-Globe (Earth View-Globe - spatial information service platform on virtual 3D environment) for the cultural relics along the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD). Integrate the spatial and attribute data of the cultural relics along ERP of SNWD processed by SuperMap deskpro2005 with the relative basic geological data based on the platform of EV-Globe and develop a series of functions based on the SDK (Software Development Kit), and so the relics can be managed visually, at the same time the system may assist the archaeologists and some researchers in managing and studying the cultural relics. Some conception and conceiving of web and mobile version is put forward for next researching.

  7. Rock-fall hazard in the Etruscan archaeological site of Norchia (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Argento, Alessia; Russo, Alfonsina

    2016-04-01

    have allowed the creation of a typical "butte" landscape, later inhabited by Etruscans, are still active. Field survey and historical data collection revealed the presence of many rock slope instabilities that have affected the site. Particularly meaningful is the presence of a large debris fan, just at the toe of the most relevant archaeological place, where the half-cube rock-cut tombs are positioned, testifying important rock-falls after the excavation of the necropolis. The preliminary investigation is revealing the importance of rock-fall hazard as well as the other environmental threats for the future conservation of the site. An integrated approach among different experts is now required, to define processes and causative factors and then to establish priorities for conservation

  8. The Archaeology of the Nautical Astrolabe: News from a Shipwreck in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, José Manuel Malhão

    2015-05-01

    Being a sailor, astronomy has always been present in my life and I confess it has been a love affair, but during the last decades of the 20th century something terrible happened. Satellites invaded our lives, and with Navistar and GPS all the romance has gone! Nowadays what remains is history and historians, and fortunately they are here in great number and quality. If we speak about European maritime expansion we will always find the astrolabe as its symbol. This instrument (the adaptation for use at sea of the well known, planispheric astrolabe), although very simple, demonstrates that what is needed at sea is the simplest way to perform the difficult task of knowing the ship's position, or at least its latitude, with sufficient accuracy. Simple as it is, it has been in use for more than a century and a half, and its physical characteristics were known mainly on account of maritime archaeological findings. When David Waters published his work on the mariner's astrolabe (1966), the Department of Navigation and Astronomy of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich listed 21 astrolabes. But Waters in fact listed only 19 when he read his paper in Coimbra. Some years later, in 1983, in Lagos, Portugal, Alan Stimson read his important paper during the IVth International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography, entitled "The Mariner's Astrolabe, a Survey of 48 Surviving Examples". Five years later his well known book, (that became a classical reference on the subject) already listed 66 instruments, 23 of them being of Portuguese origin. Captain Estácio dos Reis, an internationally accepted authority for the study of the mariner's astrolabe and other instruments has deeply studied this subject and published a vast number of works on it (see, for example, "Medir Estrelas", 1977). He is the person responsible for Portugal being the country that has the largest number of marine astrolabes in its museums. The purpose of my paper is to summarise the

  9. Technical synthesis of prehistoric archaeological investigations on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Brooks, M.J.; Hanson, G.T.; Anderson, D.G.

    1989-12-01

    Archaeological investigations on the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in south Carolina span 16 years and continue today through a cooperative agreement between DOE and the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology (SCIAA), University of South Carolina. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of SCIAA has been and continues to be the sole archaeological consultant for DOE-SRS. This report documents technical aspects of all prehistoric archaeological research conducted by the SRARP between 1973 and 1987. Further, this report provides interpretative contexts for archaeological resources as a basis for an archaeological resource plan reported elsewhere (SRARP 1989), and as a comprehensive statement of our current understanding of Native American prehistory and history.

  10. Using a new multichannel GPR and ERT method for high resolution archaeological mapping: application to a buried Gallo-Roman site in Normandy, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Raphael; Fauchard, Cyrille; Beaucamp, Bruno; Guilbert, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    We report on successful geophysical observations above a buried Gallo-Roman theatre in Normandy, France. The main objective of this study was to complete the previous archaeological surveys in order to localize the structure and precise its depth. The 100 m diameter theatre, lying between 50 cm and 3 m depth, was investigated using 1) a new multichannel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR); 2) a 2D Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and 3) geotechnical soundings. The multichannel GPR (IDS Stream X) is composed of 7 antennas working at a frequency of 200 MHz and with a spacing of 12 cm. Therefore, such system is well adapted to large-scale high-resolution surveys. In our case, the GPR was able to investigate the entire zone (1600 m2) in few hours. This survey led to the characterization of the subsurface up to 3 m depth. To complete the information obtained with the GPR, seven ERT profiles were acquired longitudinally and transversally to the structure. A Terrameter LS imaging system (ABEM) was used with a dipole-dipole configuration; as such protocol is sensitive to vertical structures. Three profiles are 32 m with a spacing of 1 m between electrodes, 2 profiles are 16 m with a 0.5 m spacing between electrodes, 1 profile is 19.20 m with a spacing of 0.6 m between electrodes and 1 profile is 64 m with a spacing of 1 m between electrodes. Such approach allowed to inverse the electric data up to a depth in the range 4-10 m. An excellent correlation is obtained between both methods, allowing us to propose a precise 3D visualisation of the Gallo-Roman theatre, in agreement with a partial model obtained from the previous archaeological surveys. Moreover, this study led to the discovery of other structures (confirmed by geotechnical soundings) and thus to complete the current archaeological model of the site. The Multichannel GPR clearly offers new potentials for the large-scale imaging of the subsurface. Combined with other geophysical and archaeological methods, it is a

  11. a Web-Based Interactive Tool for Multi-Resolution 3d Models of a Maya Archaeological Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agugiaro, G.; Remondino, F.; Girardi, G.; von Schwerin, J.; Richards-Rissetto, H.; De Amicis, R.

    2011-09-01

    Continuous technological advances in surveying, computing and digital-content delivery are strongly contributing to a change in the way Cultural Heritage is "perceived": new tools and methodologies for documentation, reconstruction and research are being created to assist not only scholars, but also to reach more potential users (e.g. students and tourists) willing to access more detailed information about art history and archaeology. 3D computer-simulated models, sometimes set in virtual landscapes, offer for example the chance to explore possible hypothetical reconstructions, while on-line GIS resources can help interactive analyses of relationships and change over space and time. While for some research purposes a traditional 2D approach may suffice, this is not the case for more complex analyses concerning spatial and temporal features of architecture, like for example the relationship of architecture and landscape, visibility studies etc. The project aims therefore at creating a tool, called "QueryArch3D" tool, which enables the web-based visualisation and queries of an interactive, multi-resolution 3D model in the framework of Cultural Heritage. More specifically, a complete Maya archaeological site, located in Copan (Honduras), has been chosen as case study to test and demonstrate the platform's capabilities. Much of the site has been surveyed and modelled at different levels of detail (LoD) and the geometric model has been semantically segmented and integrated with attribute data gathered from several external data sources. The paper describes the characteristics of the research work, along with its implementation issues and the initial results of the developed prototype.

  12. Aerial and Geophysical Archaeological Reconnaissance At Yangling, The Mausoleum of Emperor Jingdi In The Han Dynasty, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xizhe; Ye, Xinshi; Fassbinder, J. W. E.; Becker, H.

    In 1998-2000, Shaanxi Province Conservation Bureau for Historical Monuments con- ducted an archaeology prospection research project at Yangling, Shaanxi province, China. Yangling, the mausoleum of Emperor Jingdi, is located about 20 kilometres northwest of the city of Xi'an. His mausoleum was constructed in the shape of a four- sided dipper or pyramid 31m high and 170m long each side, surrounded by a square wall of 401m along each side. Today the vestiges of the eastern, western and south- ern remains of the watchtowers previously on either side of gate can be clearly seen. Yangling took a long time to build and had the richest funeral objects. The Empress Wang died in 126 B.C. and also buried at Yangling to the northeastern side of Jingdi's tomb. The city of Yangling County was purposely built to the east of mausoleum. The officials, the rich and noble lived in the town, numbering over 100,000. Two groups of satellite tombs of imperial concubines, high officials and noble relations were dis- tributed over north and east part of the mausoleum, as well as tombs of convicts in the west. Inside the cemetery there were many palaces and houses inhabited by the tomb keepers and palace maids. Air photography, geophysical methods, remote sensing have been proved to be the most successful application in archaeological prospecting and surveying in recent years. In May 1998, we got several vertical images at a scale of 1:8000. Each im- age contains 30 photographs covering an area of 180km2 with an overlap of 65 In the autumn of 2000 about 2 hectares were surveyed with a Caesium magnetometer with a sensitivity of 0.01 Nanotesla (10 pT). This instrument was applied with duo- sensor configuration at 0.5 m traverse interval and 0.1 sec cycle, which corresponds to about 25 cm sample distance.

  13. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, manages archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological, and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. The SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research, and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1994.

  14. Characterization and provenance of the building stones from Pompeii's archaeological site (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balassone, G.; Kastenmeier, P.; di Maio, G.; Mormone, A.; Joachimski, M.

    2009-04-01

    Pompeii is one of the most famous and complex areas of archaeological investigation in the world and with a uniquely favorable state of preservation. Even if many studies have been devoted in time to many archaeological aspects of this ancient city, large-scale and detailed studies aimed at characterizing mineralogy, petrography and isotope geochemistry of the building stones are still lacking. The scope of the present research is to fill this gap, pointing to the definition of the provenance of the stony materials used for ancient constructions of the city of Pompeii and to the possible trade routes. This work is part of a large-scale survey carried out by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut of Berlin, with the purposes of reconstructing the sources of raw materials of various archaeological sites of the Sarno Plain (e.g. Longola-Poggiomarino settlement, Nuceria, Stabiae, etc.) and consequently also the paleo-environments of this area during the Olocene (Seiler, 2006, 2008; Kastemeier and Seiler, 2007). We sampled all the litotypes with different macroscopic characteristics from various buildings according to location, age (time span VI century B.C. - I century A.D.) and utilization; the architectural buildings considered for this study are mainly represented public and religious buildings, houses and funerary monuments. As possible source areas, representative litotypes have been sampled from ancient pits and outcrops surrounding Pompeii as well. A set of 80 samples have been sampled by means of micro-drillings for mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical analyses, comprising optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass, X-ray fluorescence and C-O isotope geochemistry. Minero-petrographic and XRD studies of Pompeii rock samples have shown that at least ten different litologies occur as building stones, belonging to basaltic to tephritic lavas, pyroclasts (tuffs, scoriae, etc.) and sedimentary rocks (limestone, travertines

  15. A lithostratigraphic geo-archaeological 3D model of the subsurface of a medieval mound in the city center of Vlaardingen (The Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roozen, Stan; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Soetens, Steven

    2013-04-01

    GSI3D modeling for archaeology A lithostratigraphic geo-archaeological 3D model of the subsurface of a medieval mound in the city center of Vlaardingen (The Netherlands). EGU 2013 Vienna Stan Roozen (UvA), Sjoerd Kluiving (VU), Steven Soetens (VU) In the medieval mound in the city centre of Vlaardingen, in the Netherlands , archaeological material is remarkably well preserved. It is remarkable because this elevated location has a high degree of humidity, which must remain intact to sustain the favourable conditions of the archaeology. For that reason, the centre of the city was cored when and where possible, and subsequently its archaeology and lithostratigraphy was modelled in 3D. In this presentation we demonstrate the difficulties and methodological restraints in 3D modelling to come to a workable method and future prospects. The municipality of Vlaardingen lies north of the Nieuwe Maas in the province of Zuid Holland close to the coast. It is one of the oldest Dutch urban areas known in Holland. The project makes use of coring (n=72), cone penetration test (n=127), C-dating, archaeological and paleogeographic data in order to create interpretative profiles containing both archaeological and lithostratigraphic layers in the mound and its broader context. With the available university's licence of ArcGIS 3D modeling is possible (ArcScene), but it is not an efficient subsurface software, while most ideal 3D software for such project (such as i.e. Petrol, GoCAD, Rockworks) are beyond archaeological budgetary limits. The most ideal software in our context was GSI3D (a software provided by the British Geological survey). Though it strictly is not a 3D model software (there are no 3D interpolation algorithms), it has the advantage that the user can interfere directly in the interpolation by using the profiles as a framework and by defining the extent of each layer. The following methodology is applied: • Based on depth information of coring and cone penetration

  16. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  17. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    A cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy provides the necessary funding for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, to render services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of archaeological resources is usually determined by research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological, and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In accordance with the spirit of the law, the SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research, and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1993.

  18. Computer simulations facilitating archaeological interpretations of ground-penetrating radar field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Dominic

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the major geophysical prospecting techniques used in archaeology. Complex GPR profile data contains detailed reflections produced by subsurface features, but they are difficult to interpret. To help the interpretation of GPR profile data in an archaeological context, the use of computer models is investigated. Synthetic models can be used to produce reflection analogues that can be compared to real field data to help identify reflections produced by specific archaeological features. Modelling results can also be used to test hypotheses to determine which best explains the reflections observed in GPR profile data. Two test cases are presented, clearly demonstrating the benefits of using GPR models to help interpret reflection patterns produced by buried archaeological features.

  19. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program, fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, is funded through a direct contract with the United States Department of Energy to provide services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of most archaeological resources is dependent upon research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An on-going research program provides the problems, methods and means of assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In addition, the SRARP maintains an active program of public education to disseminate knowledge about prehistory and history, and to enhance public awareness about historic preservation. The following report summarizes the management, research and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1990.

  20. Understanding fossil phytolith preservation: the role of partial dissolution in paleoecology and archaeology.

    PubMed

    Cabanes, Dan; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions.

  1. Critical Policy Sociology: Historiography, Archaeology and Genealogy as Methods of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2001-01-01

    Examines the essential characteristics of three approaches to conducting critical policy sociology of higher education: Historiography, archaeology, and genealogy. Draws on Australian higher education policy research to illustrate the use of these three methods. (Contains 65 references.) (PKP)

  2. The Freedom of the Seas: Untapping the Archaeological Potential of Marine Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnshav, Mirja

    2014-06-01

    The issue of marine debris is of a growing concern to present day society. Nonetheless, the occurrence of garbage on the sea floor is widely ignored by the marine archaeological body. The main purpose of this article is to discuss archaeological aspects of marine debris of the contemporary past. In particular, the article explores the phenomenon of marine dumping, the active use of raised debris for the sake of education and opinion forming and the human footprint of holiday boating. Drawing from this, it is argued that a maritime garbology—a maritime archaeology that intersects both with the archaeology of the contemporary past and the multidisciplinary field of consumption- and garbage studies—is not only possible but also a promising and relevant field of research.

  3. 25 CFR 700.841 - Determination of loss or absence of archaeological interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Archaeology and Historic Preservation and with the 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 65. (2) The principal Office... providing scientific or humanistic understandings of past human behavior, cultural adaptation, and...

  4. 25 CFR 700.841 - Determination of loss or absence of archaeological interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Archaeology and Historic Preservation and with the 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 65. (2) The principal Office... providing scientific or humanistic understandings of past human behavior, cultural adaptation, and...

  5. 25 CFR 700.841 - Determination of loss or absence of archaeological interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Archaeology and Historic Preservation and with the 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 65. (2) The principal Office... providing scientific or humanistic understandings of past human behavior, cultural adaptation, and...

  6. 25 CFR 700.841 - Determination of loss or absence of archaeological interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Archaeology and Historic Preservation and with the 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 65. (2) The principal Office... providing scientific or humanistic understandings of past human behavior, cultural adaptation, and...

  7. Understanding Fossil Phytolith Preservation: The Role of Partial Dissolution in Paleoecology and Archaeology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions. PMID:25993338

  8. Materializing Performance and Ritual: Decoding the Archaeology of Movement in Tallensi Shrines in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Within much archaeological interpretation and conceptualization in relation to ritual and religion the static is often given prominence. This is potentially due to the fact that static material residues are being considered and, in turn, this static image is transferred onto the ritual practices, beliefs, and communities that generated the archaeological material. Instead some of the material encountered archaeologically might be structured by much more dynamic, fluid, and active ritual behaviors. Considering performance, movement, and bodily understandings in relation to space and material culture offers a potential mechanism to begin to explore this, and will be considered with reference to the Golib festival and the archaeology of Tallensi shrines in the Tongo Hills of the Upper East Region in Northern Ghana. PMID:22318869

  9. The Nuvuk Archaeological Project: Learning About and From the Past in the North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    This poster describes an ongoing project which involves Northern students in archaeological and ethnographic research, and also presents information to a broader non-Northern audience. The Nuvuk Archaeological Project involves students in all phases of a major archaeological project to excavate threatened cultural resources, and save the data they contain about the past 1100 or 1200 years of history at Nuvuk. The project includes excavation of a significant Thule cemetery as well as more modern work areas. Next season it will expand to include some work at Piġniq (Birnirk), type site of the Birnirk culture. This project has been ongoing since 2005, and builds on experience with training high school and college students in Arctic fieldwork and laboratory archaeology. This season we added components to accommodate visiting students from Hawaii and students from the Rural Alaskan Honors Institute (RAHI) program, as well as students from the local junior college, some of whom were non-traditional students.

  10. The Archaeotools project: faceted classification and natural language processing in an archaeological context.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, S; Richards, J; Ciravegna, F; Waller, S; Chapman, S; Zhang, Z

    2009-06-28

    This paper describes 'Archaeotools', a major e-Science project in archaeology. The aim of the project is to use faceted classification and natural language processing to create an advanced infrastructure for archaeological research. The project aims to integrate over 1 x 10(6) structured database records referring to archaeological sites and monuments in the UK, with information extracted from semi-structured grey literature reports, and unstructured antiquarian journal accounts, in a single faceted browser interface. The project has illuminated the variable level of vocabulary control and standardization that currently exists within national and local monument inventories. Nonetheless, it has demonstrated that the relatively well-defined ontologies and thesauri that exist in archaeology mean that a high level of success can be achieved using information extraction techniques. This has great potential for unlocking and making accessible the information held in grey literature and antiquarian accounts, and has lessons for allied disciplines.

  11. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program: Fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy provides the necessary funding for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, to render services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of archaeological resources is usually determined by research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In accordance with the spirit of the law, the SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1991.

  12. Close Range Photogrammetry Applied to the Documentation of AN Archaeological Site in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, E.; Elter, R.; Ripoche, C.; Quere, N.; de Strasbourg, INSA

    2013-07-01

    In a geopolitical very complex context as the Gaza Strip it has to be dealt with an enhancement of an archaeological site. This site is the monastery of St. Hilarion. To enable a cultural appropriation of a place with several identified phases of occupation must undertake extensive archaeological excavation. Excavate in this geographical area is to implement emergency excavations, so the aim of such a project can be questioned for each mission. Real estate pressure is also a motivating setting the documentation because the large population density does not allow systematic studies of underground before construction projects. This is also during the construction of a road that the site was discovered. Site dimensions are 150 m by 80 m. It is located on a sand dune, 300 m from the sea. To implement the survey, four different levels of detail have been defined for terrestrial photogrammetry. The first level elements are similar to objects, capitals, fragment of columns, tiles for example. Modeling of small objects requires the acquisition of very dense point clouds (density: 1 point / 1 mm on average). The object must then be a maximum area of the sensor of the camera, while retaining in the field of view a reference pattern for the scaling of the point cloud generated. The pictures are taken at a short distance from the object, using the images at full resolution. The main obstacle to the modeling of objects is the presence of noise partly due to the studied materials (sand, smooth rock), which do not favor the detection of points of interest quality. Pretreatments of the cloud will be achieved meticulously since the ouster of points on a surface of a small object results in the formation of a hole with a lack of information, useful to resulting mesh. Level 2 focuses on the stratigraphic units such as mosaics. The monastery of St. Hilarion identifies thirteen floors of which has been documented years ago by silver photographs, scanned later. Modeling of pavements is

  13. A Polish perspective on optical satellite data and methods for archaeological sites prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruciński, Dominik; RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz; Niedzielko, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The presented overview is a result of the first phase of ESA-funded ArchEO (Archaeological application of Earth Observation techniques) project which aims to identify conditions favourable for analysis of archaeological sites and landscapes with use of satellite-based techniques. The project focuses on the region of Central Europe that has highly anthropogenically transformed landscapes with a large percentage of agricultural lands, what under certain ground conditions (favourable crop type, moisture, soil depth, bedrock, agricultural treatments, local biological processes etc.) foster the development of marks allowing identification of archaeological remains. The most important factor determining the choice of satellite data sources and techniques of processing is the characteristics of archaeological sites typical for the analysed region. Relatively small size of archaeological features and significant dispersion of past human activity residues require the use on satellite data on the highest possible spatial resolution. Often the resolution of multispectral bands needs to be increased with pansharpening techniques to provide valuable information - it determines the choice of further processing techniques. Nevertheless, the ability for acquisition of data in NIR spectral range is still the most important added value offered by optical satellite remote sensing, it enables to analyse vegetation characteristics and thus to better identify cropmarks. The archival data from various satellite sensors, obtained under different vegetative, soil, seasonal and anthropogenic conditions enable comparative studies on conditions for distinguishing marks appearance. The conducted analysis of archaeological community requirements clearly indicates that their needs go further than archaeological features detection - delineation of an archaeological site protective border and threats monitoring is equally important.

  14. Satellite-based enhancement of archaeological marks through data fusion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano

    2008-10-01

    The application of space technology to archaeological research has been paid great attention worldwide, mainly because the current availability of very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery, such as, IKONOS (1999) and QuickBird (2001), provide valuable data for searching large areas to find potential archaeological sites. Data from VHR satellite can be very useful for the identification, management and documentation of archaeological resources. Archaeological investigation based on the use of VHR satellite images may take benefits from the integration and synergic use of both panchromatic and multispectral data. This can be achieved by using pansharpening techniques, which allow multispectral and panchromatic images to be merged. The two basic frameworks of pansharpening techniques are Component Substitution (CS), such as Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) Gram-Schmidt (GS), and multiresolution analysis (MRA), such as wavelets and Laplacian pyramids (LP). In this paper, both Gram-Schmidt and Laplacian pyramids with context adaptive (CA) detail injection models were used. QB images were processed for a relevant archaeological area in Southern Italy, the ancient Siris-Heraclea, a very significant test area because it is characterized by the presence of both surface and subsurface ancient remains. Outcomes of different pansharpening techniques have been qualitatively evaluated for both surface and subsurface remains. The visual inspection clearly suggests that the quantitative evaluation of the fusion performance for archaeological applications is a critical issue, and "ad hoc" local (i.e. context-adaptive) indices need to be developed.

  15. Archaeological data provide alternative hypotheses on Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) distribution, abundance, and variability.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Iain; Lepofsky, Dana; Moss, Madonna L; Butler, Virginia L; Orchard, Trevor J; Coupland, Gary; Foster, Fredrick; Caldwell, Megan; Lertzman, Ken

    2014-03-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), a foundation of coastal social-ecological systems, is in decline throughout much of its range. We assembled data on fish bones from 171 archaeological sites from Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington to provide proxy measures of past herring distribution and abundance. The dataset represents 435,777 fish bones, dating throughout the Holocene, but primarily to the last 2,500 y. Herring is the single-most ubiquitous fish taxon (99% ubiquity) and among the two most abundant taxa in 80% of individual assemblages. Herring bones are archaeologically abundant in all regions, but are superabundant in the northern Salish Sea and southwestern Vancouver Island areas. Analyses of temporal variability in 50 well-sampled sites reveals that herring exhibits consistently high abundance (>20% of fish bones) and consistently low variance (<10%) within the majority of sites (88% and 96%, respectively). We pose three alternative hypotheses to account for the disjunction between modern and archaeological herring populations. We reject the first hypothesis that the archaeological data overestimate past abundance and underestimate past variability. We are unable to distinguish between the second two hypotheses, which both assert that the archaeological data reflect a higher mean abundance of herring in the past, but differ in whether variability was similar to or less than that observed recently. In either case, sufficient herring was consistently available to meet the needs of harvesters, even if variability is damped in the archaeological record. These results provide baseline information prior to herring depletion and can inform modern management.

  16. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts.

  17. Galactic archaeology in and around the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Else

    2011-12-01

    There is much to be learnt from our own "cosmological backyard" Only in our own Milky Way and some surrounding galaxies we can resolve and observe individual stars and learn from them about galaxies in general. Because stars keep a chemical fingerprint during their lives and also preserve kinematical information for long times, studying the present-day stars can teach us about the past. In this thesis we discuss various topics in this area of Galactic archaeology. In one of our projects, we look for substructures in position and velocity space in the outer halo of the Milky Way. These can be remnants of disrupted dwarf galaxies, victims from a process called "cosmic cannibalism". We find several substructures and deduce that at least 10%, but perhaps the whole halo of the Milky Way is built up from disrupted smaller galaxies. Subsequently we focus on the study of the smaller satellite galaxies that (still) survive the gravitational forces from the much bigger Milky Way they orbit. A surprising result from earlier work was that no very primitive stars were found in these small galaxies. We show however that these stars are present. Further study of the chemical elements in the atmosphere of some of these primitive stars shows that these match better the (equivalent) population of stars in the Milky Way than the dominant population of stars in dwarf galaxies. We also model the formation and evolution of satellite galaxies and find that many of the observed properties can be well reproduced in our model.

  18. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-21

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called "Anthropocene". According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of "contaminated soil". Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  19. User guide for luminescence sampling in archaeological and geological contexts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michelle S.; Gray, Harrison J.; Johnson, Jack A.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Feathers, James K.; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Luminescence dating provides a direct age estimate of the time of last exposure of quartz or feldspar minerals to light or heat and has been successfully applied to deposits, rock surfaces, and fired materials in a number of archaeological and geological settings. Sampling strategies are diverse and can be customized depending on local circumstances, although all sediment samples need to include a light-safe sample and material for dose-rate determination. The accuracy and precision of luminescence dating results are directly related to the type and quality of the material sampled and sample collection methods in the field. Selection of target material for dating should include considerations of adequacy of resetting of the luminescence signal (optical and thermal bleaching), the ability to characterize the radioactive environment surrounding the sample (dose rate), and the lack of evidence for post-depositional mixing (bioturbation in soils and sediment). Sample strategies for collection of samples from sedimentary settings and fired materials are discussed. This paper should be used as a guide for luminescence sampling and is meant to provide essential background information on how to properly collect samples and on the types of materials suitable for luminescence dating.

  20. 'Diverse epistemologies', truth and archaeology: in defence of realism.

    PubMed

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2011-06-01

    In a recent journal article, as well as in a recent book chapter, in which she critiques my position on 'indigenous knowledge', Lesley Green of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town argues that 'diverse epistemologies ought to be evaluated not on their capacity to express a strict realism but on their ability to advance understanding'. In order to examine the implications of Green's arguments, and of Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's work in this regard, I apply them to a well-known controversy between Native American (or First Nations) creationism and archaeology. I argue that issues in social justice should be distinguished from issues in epistemology. Moreover, in tightening in this paper the link between knowledge and truth, I attempt to defend science as a 'privileged way of seeing the world'. The analysis of truth, and of related concepts like reality and 'the way the world is', will assume a central role here. I contend that, ultimately, the only coherent and consistent position is a realist view of the pertinent issues and ideas. PMID:20091357

  1. 'Diverse epistemologies', truth and archaeology: in defence of realism.

    PubMed

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2011-06-01

    In a recent journal article, as well as in a recent book chapter, in which she critiques my position on 'indigenous knowledge', Lesley Green of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town argues that 'diverse epistemologies ought to be evaluated not on their capacity to express a strict realism but on their ability to advance understanding'. In order to examine the implications of Green's arguments, and of Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's work in this regard, I apply them to a well-known controversy between Native American (or First Nations) creationism and archaeology. I argue that issues in social justice should be distinguished from issues in epistemology. Moreover, in tightening in this paper the link between knowledge and truth, I attempt to defend science as a 'privileged way of seeing the world'. The analysis of truth, and of related concepts like reality and 'the way the world is', will assume a central role here. I contend that, ultimately, the only coherent and consistent position is a realist view of the pertinent issues and ideas.

  2. Nuclear archaeology: Verifying declarations of fissile-material production

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Controlling the production of fissile material is an essential element of nonproliferation policy. Similarly, accounting for the past production of fissile material should be an important component of nuclear disarmament. This paper describes two promising techniques that make use of physical evidence at reactors and enrichment facilities to verify the past production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. In the first technique, the concentrations of long-lived radionuclides in permanent components of the reactor core are used to estimate the neutron fluence in various regions of the reactor, and thereby verify declarations of plutonium production in the reactor. In the second technique, the ratio of the concentration of U-235 to that of U-234 in the tails is used to determine whether a given container of tails was used in the production of low- enriched uranium, which is suitable for reactor fuel, or highly enriched uranium, which can be used in nuclear weapons. Both techniques belong to the new field of [open quotes]nuclear archaeology,[close quotes] in which the authors attempt to document past nuclear weapons activities and thereby lay a firm foundation for verifiable nuclear disarmament. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Application of Laser Mass Spectrometry to Art and Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulian, Lase Lisa E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Muliadi, Sarah; Owens, Shawn; McGovern, Patrick E.; Schmidt, Catherine M.; Trentelman, Karen A.; deVries, Mattanjah S.

    2011-01-01

    REMPI laser mass spectrometry is a combination of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and time of flight mass spectrometry, This technique enables the collection of mass specific optical spectra as well as of optically selected mass spectra. Analytes are jet-cooled by entrainment in a molecular beam, and this low temperature gas phase analysis has the benefit of excellent vibronic resolution. Utilizing this method, mass spectrometric analysis of historically relevant samples can be simplified and improved; Optical selection of targets eliminates the need for chromatography while knowledge of a target's gas phase spectroscopy allows for facile differentiation of molecules that are in the aqueous phase considered spectroscopically indistinguishable. These two factors allow smaller sample sizes than commercial MS instruments, which in turn will require less damage to objects of antiquity. We have explored methods to optimize REMPI laser mass spectrometry as an analytical tool to archaeology using theobromine and caffeine as molecular markers in Mesoamerican pottery, and are expanding this approach to the field of art to examine laccaic acid in shellacs.

  4. The Role of Materials Research in Ceramics and ARCHAEOLOGY1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandiver, Pamela

    2001-08-01

    Materials research has been applied successfully to the study of archaeological ceramics for the last fifty years. To learn about our history and the human condition is not just to analyze and preserve the objects but also to investigate and understand the knowledge and skills used to produce and use them. Many researchers have probed the limits and methods of such studies, always mindful that a glimpse at ancient reality lies in the details of time and place, context of finds, and experimentally produced data, usually compared with standards that were collected in an equivalent ethnographic setting or that were fabricated in a laboratory in order to elucidate the critical questions in a technology that could be understood in no other way. The basis of most studies of ancient technology has been established as microstructure; composition and firing; methods and sequence of manufacture; differentiation of use; use-wear and post-depositional processes; technological variability that can be interpreted as a pattern of stasis or innovation, which can be related to cultural continuity or change; and interpretation that can involve technology, subsistence trade, organization, and symbolic group- and self-definition.

  5. The basics of least cost analysis for archaeological applications

    DOE PAGES

    White, Devin Alan

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that Least Cost Analysis (LCA) is a geospatially focused quantitative approach that can help archaeologists better understand how people may have moved across a landscape. At its core is the assumption that humans make decisions about movement as fully rational actors with complete knowledge of the landscape, attempting to minimize the cost of that movement as they travel from one location to another. LCA is most often used to construct a small number of hypothetical routes between locations of interest and, when used effectively, can even lead to the creation of entire transportation networks. Desktop GIS softwaremore » packages, both commercial and open source, make running LCA relatively straightforward, but that does not necessarily mean that the output is informative or accurate. The following tutorial is designed to expose the reader to the foundational steps required to complete an LCA workflow, along with the scientific rationale behind each step and how to avoid potential pitfalls that one might run into along the way. Finally, relevant literature is cited throughout the tutorial in order to provide context for the technical methods that underpin available tools, to suggest various ways that LCA can be used to solve archaeological problems, and to show the art of the possible.« less

  6. The basics of least cost analysis for archaeological applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin Alan

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that Least Cost Analysis (LCA) is a geospatially focused quantitative approach that can help archaeologists better understand how people may have moved across a landscape. At its core is the assumption that humans make decisions about movement as fully rational actors with complete knowledge of the landscape, attempting to minimize the cost of that movement as they travel from one location to another. LCA is most often used to construct a small number of hypothetical routes between locations of interest and, when used effectively, can even lead to the creation of entire transportation networks. Desktop GIS software packages, both commercial and open source, make running LCA relatively straightforward, but that does not necessarily mean that the output is informative or accurate. The following tutorial is designed to expose the reader to the foundational steps required to complete an LCA workflow, along with the scientific rationale behind each step and how to avoid potential pitfalls that one might run into along the way. Finally, relevant literature is cited throughout the tutorial in order to provide context for the technical methods that underpin available tools, to suggest various ways that LCA can be used to solve archaeological problems, and to show the art of the possible.

  7. Critique of Practical Archaeology: Underwater Cultural Heritage and Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secci, Massimiliano; Spanu, Pier Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The international development of the underwater archaeology and underwater cultural heritage (UCH) management disciplines has witnessed a progressive buildup of the disciplinary debate. From an initial methodological focus, still active and necessary, the two interconnected disciplines have moved toward topics and aspects external, but complementary, to the disciplines themselves which are tied together in mutual exchange. Legal, economic, social, cultural (stricto sensu), and psychological aspects all find their expression in strategies quintessential, especially, to the management of UCH. The discipline's socio-cultural wherewithal has been internationally recognized, analyzed, evaluated, and exploited in the planning of activities directed toward UCH management. In Italy, however, a lack of a coherent planning has emerged which does not take into account the various aspects composing a productive program for the management of UCH, both at the regional and national levels. Considering the issue in Italy, this contribution will offer an overview of the Sardinian perspective, offering some considerations toward envisaging an achievable, structured program for the management of underwater cultural resources within a specific regional panorama.

  8. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called "Anthropocene". According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of "contaminated soil". Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence. PMID:26388184

  9. Review of accelerator gadgets for art and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Salomon, J.; Walter, Ph.

    2004-11-01

    For 30 years analytical methods based on ion beams have been progressively adapted to art and archaeological issues. By allowing the analysis of artefacts in a non-invasive and non-destructive way, the external beam represents the cornerstone of this evolution. In order to reach in air specifications usually obtained under vacuum, improvements in various directions have been necessary. A large panel of gadgets and experimental arrangements have been designed such as a multi-detector set-up operating in helium atmosphere to extend the range of measured elements, a nuclear microprobe at atmospheric pressure for the study of microscopic details or a reliable beam monitoring system. In addition, specific procedures have been developed to characterise multi-layered samples (easel paintings, alteration layers) by varying either the beam energy or the impinging angle. To improve the sensitivity to trace elements in high- Z materials like metals or for analysing targets too sensitive to stand direct exposure to charged particles, a specific X-ray fluorescence set-up (PIXE-XRF) based on the production of quasi-monochromatic X-rays has been developed. Eventually, the ion beam methods usually restricted for external beams to those based on photon detection (PIXE, PIGE) have been recently extended to methods based on charged particle detection (RBS, NRA and even ERDA), opening new perspectives for determination of light elements and depth profiling. This paper makes an historical review of the adaptation of IBA methods to the study of cultural heritage.

  10. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  11. A XANES study of chromophores in archaeological glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arletti, Rossella; Quartieri, Simona; Freestone, Ian C.

    2013-04-01

    We applied X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to obtain information on the origin of glass colour of several archaeological samples and on the oxidation conditions employed during their production. We studied a series of selected glass fragments—mainly from excavated primary and secondary production centres and dated to the first millennium AD—containing iron and manganese in a wide compositional range. In most of the studied samples iron is rather oxidised, while Mn K-edge XANES data show that, in all the studied glasses, Mn is mainly present in its reduced form (predominantly 2+), with the possible subordinate presence of Mn3+. The most oxidised samples are the HIMT (high iron manganese titanium) glasses, while the less oxidised ones belong to the primary natron glass series from the early Islamic tank furnaces at Bet Eliezer (Israel), and to the series coming from a Roman glass workshop excavated in Basinghall Street, London. In these glasses, iron is approximately equally distributed over the 2+ and 3+ oxidation states. The XANES analyses of two glasses which had been deliberately decolourized using Sb- and Mn-based decolourizers demonstrate that Sb is more effective than Mn as oxidant.

  12. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence. PMID:26388184

  13. The Basics of Least Cost Analysis for Archaeological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin Alan

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that Least Cost Analysis (LCA) is a geospatially focused quantitative approach that can help archaeologists better understand how people may have moved across a landscape. At its core is the assumption that humans make decisions about movement as fully rational actors with complete knowledge of the landscape, attempting to minimize the cost of that movement as they travel from one location to another. LCA is most often used to construct a small number of hypothetical routes between locations of interest and, when used effectively, can even lead to the creation of entire transportation networks. Desktop GIS software packages, both commercial and open source, make running LCA relatively straightforward, but that does not necessarily mean that the output is informative or accurate. The following tutorial is designed to expose the reader to the foundational steps required to complete an LCA workflow, along with the scientific rationale behind each step and how to avoid potential pitfalls that one might run into along the way. Finally, relevant literature is cited throughout the tutorial in order to provide context for the technical methods that underpin available tools, to suggest various ways that LCA can be used to solve archaeological problems, and to show the art of the possible.

  14. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  15. Public archaeological interpretation on the campus of St. Mary's College of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrom, Alexander Michael

    2011-12-01

    Communicating archaeological findings to non-archaeologists is one of the most important and challenging aspects of the discipline. Archaeologists must serve multiple publics, bring communities into the archaeological process, and effectively disseminate information in order for their work to achieve relevance in the modern world. Communication with the public can take many forms, and brings together aspects of historic preservation, dialogic interpretation, applied critical archaeology, heritage, and landscape studies. This dissertation analyzes public interpretation at St. Mary's City, Maryland, a multi-component historic landscape containing historic and prehistoric sites from various time periods and proposes measures to be taken there to better engage the public. This site presents a unique context for public interpretation: the Historic St. Mary's City archaeological museum occupies a portion of the landscape, while neighboring St. Mary's College of Maryland is a public collegiate campus that contains an imposing number of uninterpreted sites. Exploration of the histories and relationships between these institutions provide insight into the many factors which impact public interpretation. Examination of this case includes identifying audiences, gauging attitudes towards archaeology, assessing current interpretive measures, and identifying areas where public engagement can be improved. The example of St. Mary's outlines how an individual's relationship to archaeology is interwoven into their experience of the landscape. The past and present coexist on historic landscapes, and public communication can use this juxtaposition to engage audiences in meaningful ways. I conclude by developing an archaeological walking tour of the St. Mary's landscape aimed at creating discussion and making people aware of the sites around them.

  16. Archaeo-astronomical characteristics of the Kokino archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, Gjore

    In the North-East part of Macedonia, near to the peak Tatikjev Kamen, an archaeological site with vast quantity of artifacts, dated in the Bronze Age, was discovered in 2001. For the first time in Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), comprehensive archaeo-astronomical analysis of this site, providing extraordinary important results, was performed in 2002. The site contains a lot of materials typical for a megalithic observatory, 3800 years old. Three stone markers, pointing out the places of the sunrise on the days of the summer and winter solstice, as well as the vernal and autumn equinoxes, were found there. Four stone markers, indicating the places of the full Moon rise above the horizon, are recognized too. They are used in the days when the Moon has maximum or minimum declination - two of them in the summer and two of them - in the winter. There are also two other stone markers used for measuring the length of the lunar month in winter - when it has 29 days, and in summer - when it has 30 days. These markers give clear evidences that the ancient Balkan inhabitants used the observatory not only to monitor the movement of the Moon, but also to develop the lunar calendar with 19-year cycle. The archaeo-astronomical analysis presents also an evidence for the existence of one very characteristic stone marker, used for pointing out the sunrise position in a very important ritual day. This is the day when special ceremonies related to the end of the harvest, as well as to the ritual unification of the community leader with the God Sun, were performed. (Colour versions of the illustrations are presented as Appendix on the site of the journal.)

  17. Archaeology and Astronomy.A 300-year Voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellato, Jody

    2015-05-01

    This article will present a short introduction into my research on archaeoastronomical studies' origin and development. I deliberately focus my attention on a particular epoch: from the beginning of the 18th century to the 1970s: more precisely 1973, a special positive moment for this field, when anthropologist E.C. Baity generated the neologism of 'ethnoastronomy'. The intention is to describe briefly the romantic hypotheses of the earliest eclectic pioneers - subsequently grouped under the name of astro-archaeologists - combining summaries of the main ideas and quotations. We will be able to reconstruct a valid general overview about the topic in question and the facts - described following a natural chronological development - will guide us to the modern idea of archaeoastronomy. Through two interesting moments during the early twentieth century, but especially at the turn of the 1970s it almost seems that a dialogue may be possible. Thanks to institutions such as the British Academy or Royal Society, and the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, a point of convergence bringing together archaeology and astronomy will be established, as well as the promotion of an interdisciplinary research. Might the wall of separation between the arts and the sciences, at least in this field, be overcome? Are we at the threshold of a new discipline? To answer these questions we need a deeper understanding of the contemporary studies on cultural astronomy: a history that develops not only in a linear time, but also growth in complexity and tone, involving more and more scholars belonging to the main scientific and humanistic fields. I would leave this point open inviting my colleagues to join and push forward a research we all totally do need.

  18. Bone strontium in pregnant and lactating females from archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Blakely, R L

    1989-10-01

    Because plants and animals consume or absorb different amounts of strontium and calcium, anthropologists are able to use strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios from archaeologically recovered human bone to estimate the relative contributions of meat and plants to paleodiets. Often females exhibit higher Sr/Ca ratios than males, a fact usually attributed to lower meat intake among women. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments with laboratory animals show that pregnancy and lactation elevate maternal bone strontium and depress maternal bone calcium because 1) strontium is discriminated against in favor of calcium in the transport of ions to the placenta and mammary glands and 2) pregnancy and lactation facilitate absorption of alkaline earth metals from the gut. In this study, bone Sr/Ca ratios and strontium concentrations were compared between reproductive-age females, postmenopausal females, and adult males from two late prehistoric Native American sites in Georgia: the King site (N = 43) and the Etowah site (N = 51). At the King site, the mean Sr/Ca ratio of females was over 14% greater than that of males. At Etowah, the mean strontium level of reproductive-age females exceeded that of postmenopausal females by almost 25%. Most of the difference, it is argued, is due to pregnancy and lactation. A dietary preference among pregnant and lactating women for foods high in alkaline earths, particularly nuts and corn, may also be partially responsible. Until we assess the influence variables other than nutrition exert on trace element concentrations, our reconstructions of paleodiets will be suspect. PMID:2801910

  19. Experimental Butchering of a Chimpanzee Carcass for Archaeological Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Huguet, Rosa; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Santander, Borís; Ollé, Andreu; Gabucio, Mª Joana; Martín, Patricia; Marín, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Two archaeological assemblages from the Sierra de Atapuerca sites show evidence of anthropogenic cannibalism. These are the late Early Pleistocene level TD6-2 at Gran Dolina, and the Bronze Age level MIR4 in the Mirador Cave. Despite the chronological distance between these two assemblages, they share the common feature that the human remains exhibit a high frequency of anthropogenic modifications (cut marks, percussion pits and notches and peeling). This frequency could denote special treatment of bodies, or else be the normal result of the butchering process. In order to test these possibilities, we subjected a chimpanzee carcass to a butchering process. The processing was intensive and intended to simulate preparation for consumption. In doing this, we used several simple flakes made from quartzite and chert from quarries in the Sierra de Atapuerca. The skull, long bones, metapodials and phalanges were also fractured in order to remove the brain and bone marrow. As a result, about 40% of the remains showed some kind of human modification. The frequency, distribution and characteristics of these modifications are very similar to those documented on the remains of Homo antecessor from TD6-2. In case of the MIR4 assemblage, the results are similar except in the treatment of skulls. Our results indicate that high frequencies of anthropogenic modifications are common after an intensive butchering process intended to prepare a hominin body for consumption in different contexts (both where there was possible ritual behavior and where this was not the case and the modifications are not the result of special treatment). PMID:25793521

  20. Experimental butchering of a chimpanzee carcass for archaeological purposes.

    PubMed

    Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Huguet, Rosa; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Santander, Borís; Ollé, Andreu; Gabucio, M Joana; Martín, Patricia; Marín, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Two archaeological assemblages from the Sierra de Atapuerca sites show evidence of anthropogenic cannibalism. These are the late Early Pleistocene level TD6-2 at Gran Dolina, and the Bronze Age level MIR4 in the Mirador Cave. Despite the chronological distance between these two assemblages, they share the common feature that the human remains exhibit a high frequency of anthropogenic modifications (cut marks, percussion pits and notches and peeling). This frequency could denote special treatment of bodies, or else be the normal result of the butchering process. In order to test these possibilities, we subjected a chimpanzee carcass to a butchering process. The processing was intensive and intended to simulate preparation for consumption. In doing this, we used several simple flakes made from quartzite and chert from quarries in the Sierra de Atapuerca. The skull, long bones, metapodials and phalanges were also fractured in order to remove the brain and bone marrow. As a result, about 40% of the remains showed some kind of human modification. The frequency, distribution and characteristics of these modifications are very similar to those documented on the remains of Homo antecessor from TD6-2. In case of the MIR4 assemblage, the results are similar except in the treatment of skulls. Our results indicate that high frequencies of anthropogenic modifications are common after an intensive butchering process intended to prepare a hominin body for consumption in different contexts (both where there was possible ritual behavior and where this was not the case and the modifications are not the result of special treatment). PMID:25793521