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Sample records for archangel karelia 1917-1944

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Archangel pigeon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Bao-guang; Hu, Gong-zheng; Liu, Jian-hua; Yuan, Li; Pan, Yu-shan

    2016-01-01

    The Archangel pigeon mitochondrial DNA has 17,235 bp and its structural organization is conserved compared to those of other birds. In this study, we report the basic characteristics of the Archangel mitochondrial genome, including structural organization and base composition of the rRNAs, tRNAs and protein-coding genes, as well as characteristics of tRNAs. These features are applicable for the study of phylogenetic relationships in pigeons.

  2. Volatile components in forest stands of Karelia

    SciTech Connect

    Fuksman, I.L.

    1995-09-01

    Study of the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile organic compounds in forests stands of Karelia is made. A decrease in temperature and an increase in the relative air humidity adversely affect their emission. To study the relationship between the processes of the synthesis of essential oils in woody plants and the release of their components into the environment, a qualitative and quantitative determination of essential oils in pine branches was carried out. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean deposits of Northern Karelia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafieva, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Rozanov, A. Y.; Vrevskiy, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. The presence of various microorganisms of bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) is suggested. The necessity of employing methods of electron microscopy, as well as traditional methods, while studying the very early manifestations of life in Archaean and Early Proterozoic is noted.

  4. Main types of rare-metal mineralization in Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Rare-metal mineralization in Karelia is represented by V, Be, U deposits and In, Re, Nb, Ta, Li, Ce, La, and Y occurrences, which are combined into 17 types of magmatic, pegmatite, albitite-greisen, hydrothermal-metasomatic, sedimentary, and epigenetic groups. The main vanadium resources are localized in the Onega ore district. These are deposits of the Padma group (556 kt) and the Pudozhgorsky complex (1.5 Mt). The REE occurrences are primarily characterized by Ce-La specialization. The perspective of HREE is related to the Eletozero-Tiksheozero alkaline and Salmi anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes. Rare-metal pegmatites bear complex mineralization with insignificant low-grade resources. The Lobash and Jalonvaara porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are potential sources of rhenium: Re contents in molybdenite are 20-70 and 50-246 ppm and hypothetical resources are 12 and 7.5 t, respectively. The high-grade (˜100 ppm) and metallogenic potential of indium (˜2400 t) make the deposits of the Pitkäranta ore district leading in the category of Russian ore objects most prospective for indium. Despite the diverse rare-metal mineralization known in Karelia, the current state of this kind of mineral commodities at the world market leaves real metallogenic perspective only for V, U, Re, In, and Nb.

  5. Theory and action for health promotion illustrations from the North Karelia Project.

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, A; Puska, P; Salonen, J T; Tuomilehto, J; Koskela, K

    1982-01-01

    The North Karelia Project in Finland illustrates the fundamental goals of health promotion. Specific activities of the project serve as examples of how concepts from the social and behavioral sciences can be applied to achieve estimated reductions in predicted risk of disease. The results in North Karelia are not conclusive, but they are encouraging, and the investigations conducted there is an essential reference for future research in health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:7053618

  6. [Emergency craniotomies at the North Karelia Central Hospital in 2006 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Aro, Ellinoora; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Reinikainen, Matti; Leinonen, Ville; Hakala, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, acute evacuations of traumatic intracranial hematomas are performed by neurosurgeons in university hospitals. However, most patients with traumatic brain injury are initially transported to regional hospitals that lack neurosurgical expertise. Thus, a trauma surgeon in a regional hospital may encounter a patient with an expanding hematoma that must be operated without delays. During 2006 to 2014, 14 craniotomies were performed at the North Karelia Central Hospital. Twelve patients were operated for acute traumatic subdural hematoma (ASDH): three patients made good recovery, two were left with severe disability, and seven died. Two patients operated with acute epidural hematoma (EDH) recovered well. PMID:27319084

  7. The temporal variation of Mesoarchaean volcanism in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, Karelia Province, Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, E.; Heilimo, E.; Halkoaho, T.; Hölttä, P.; Huhma, H.

    2016-04-01

    This study concentrates in the Kiannanniemi area, situated in the Archaean Suomussalmi greenstone belt, the Karelia Province, Fennoscandian Shield. A zircon U-Pb geochronological study from this area shows that ages of the volcanic rocks are between ca. 2.94 and 2.82 Ga. The results indicate multiphase felsic and intermediate volcanism in three episodes at ca. 2.94, 2.84 and 2.82 Ga, of which the 2.84 Ga event has not been reported earlier from the Suomussalmi greenstone belt. The youngest zircon population in a sedimentary rock sample suggests a depositional age of ≤2.82-2.81 Ga, and the sample contains also ≥2.96 Ga old zircon grains. Based on both new and previously published geochronological data from the volcanic rocks, we propose a chronostratigraphic model for the whole Suomussalmi greenstone belt, dividing it into four units based on their age: Luoma, Tormua, Ahvenlahti, and Mesa-aho. The youngest volcanic rocks in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt are contemporaneous with some of the volcanic rocks recorded from the Kuhmo and Tipasjärvi greenstone belts of the Karelia Province, Finland. The age group ca. 2.94 Ga, however, has not been so far recorded elsewhere. Conversely, in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, volcanic rocks with an age of ca. 2.80 Ga and sedimentary rocks with depositional ages of <2.75 Ga, frequently found from the Kuhmo and Tipasjärvi greenstone belts, are unknown.

  8. Quit and Win campaigns as a long-term anti-smoking intervention in North Karelia and other parts of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, T.; Urjanheimo, E.; Mannonen, P.; Korhonen, H.; Uutela, A.; Puska, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate Quit and Win campaigns repeated in North Karelia and rest of Finland.
DESIGN—Repeated comparisons of participation rates, abstinence rates, and other measures between North Karelia and the rest of Finland.
SUBJECTS—Adult daily smokers in Finland participating in the Quit and Win contests in 1986-1997.
INTERVENTIONS—Quit and Win smoking cessation campaigns targeted at adult daily smokers throughout Finland in 1986, 1989, 1994, 1996, and 1997, including more intensive activities in North Karelia.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Participation rates, self reported six-month abstinence rates, other effectiveness measures (% of smokers who attended, intended, tried, and succeeded in cessation).
RESULTS—North Karelia's participation rates were significantly higher in each campaign compared with the rest of Finland. The abstinence rates in North Karelia were also higher, the difference being significant in 1986 and 1994 (p<0.05). In the target population in 1996 over 75% of smokers in North Karelia, compared with 40% of smokers surveyed elsewhere, reported awareness of the campaign (p<0.001). Approximately 9% of the smokers in North Karelia and 6% elsewhere intended to participate (p = NS). Over 2% in North Karelia, compared with less than 1% elsewhere, tried to quit (p<0.001). Among the targeted group, 0.3% of North Karelian smokers were complete abstainers throughout the 12 months of follow up, compared with an average of 0.1% in other areas (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—The Quit and Win campaign is a feasible cessation method in long-term community-wide programmes. Intensified community activities are associated with higher success. In repeat campaigns, high participation and abstinence rates can be maintained.


Keywords: smoking cessation; Quit and Win; community intervention PMID:10478402

  9. [Diversity of soil mesofauna in Northern Taiga biogeocenosises of the Kamennaya river basin (Karelia)].

    PubMed

    Rybalov, L B; Kamaev, I O

    2011-01-01

    The population of soil mesofauna in the basin of the small river subzone of the northern taiga (Karelia) has been investigated. It was shown that indexes of the number and mass of soil mesofauna in the landscape-ecological row ofbiogeocenosises are maximal in floodplain soils. The taxonomic composition and structure of domination of the soil mesofauna population depends on the location of biogeocenosis in the landscape: earthworms are dominants in riverine floodplain biogeocenosises, and larvae of elaterids and spiders prevail in the places outside of floodplains. The abundance of saprophytic invertebrates in floodplain biogeocenosises results in formation of humus of the mull type. A group of animals with mixed type of nutrition dominates in the places outside of floodplain soils that are related with humus of the moder-mor type. The population of rove beetles (Staphylinidae) allows the division of biogeocenosises into two groups according to their position in the landscape.

  10. Identification of Missing Norwegian World War II Soldiers, in Karelia Russia.

    PubMed

    Morild, Inge; Hamre, Stian S; Huel, Rene; Parsons, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    This article presents the multidisciplinary effort in trying to identify the skeletal remains of 100 Norwegian soldiers serving in the German army, killed in Karelia Russia in 1944, from the recovery of the remains through the final identification using DNA. Of the 150 bone samples sent for DNA testing, 93 DNA profiles were obtained relating to 57 unique individuals. The relatives could not be directly contacted as the soldiers were considered as traitors to Norway; therefore, only 45 reference samples, relating to 42 cases of the missing, were donated. DNA matches for 14 soldiers and 12 additional body part re-associations for these individuals were found. Another 24 bone samples were re-associated with 16 individuals, but no familial match was found. More than six decades after the end of WWII, DNA analysis can significantly contribute to the identification of the remains.

  11. [SPECIFICITY OF CONTENT AND MORPHOLOGY OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THREE BAT SPECIES OF KARELIA DURING HIBERNATION].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Belkin, V V; Ilyukha, V A; Kizhina, A G; Yakimova, A E

    2015-01-01

    Pronounced leukopenia during hibernation was found in bats (Chiroptera) of Karelia - brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) and northern bat (Eptesicus nilssoni). A higher content of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils was revealed in the northern bat featuring an increased resistance to cold as compared to the Brandt's bat and the brown long-eared bat. The differences in ratio of particular lymphocyte types may be related to biological, ecological and physiological peculiarities of the species studied.

  12. [SPECIFICITY OF CONTENT AND MORPHOLOGY OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THREE BAT SPECIES OF KARELIA DURING HIBERNATION].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Belkin, V V; Ilyukha, V A; Kizhina, A G; Yakimova, A E

    2015-01-01

    Pronounced leukopenia during hibernation was found in bats (Chiroptera) of Karelia - brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) and northern bat (Eptesicus nilssoni). A higher content of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils was revealed in the northern bat featuring an increased resistance to cold as compared to the Brandt's bat and the brown long-eared bat. The differences in ratio of particular lymphocyte types may be related to biological, ecological and physiological peculiarities of the species studied. PMID:26547955

  13. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF.

  14. Grips and ties: agency, uncertainty, and the problem of suffering in North Karelia.

    PubMed

    Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa

    2009-03-01

    In medical anthropological research, the question of suffering has been a topic of salient interest mostly from two theoretical viewpoints: those of endurance and of agency. The concept "suffering" derives its origins from two etymological roots, those of suffering-souffrance-sofferanza and of misery-misère-miseria. According to the first approach, that of "endurance" and founded largely on Judeo-Christian theology, suffering is regarded as an existential experience at the borders of human meaning making. The question then is: how to endure, how to suffer? The latter view, that of "agency," follows the Enlightenment, and later the Marxist view on mundane suffering, misery, and the modern question of how to avoid or diminish it. This article follows the lines of the second approach, but my aim is also to try to build a theoretical bridge between the two. I ask whether agency would be understood as a culturally shared and interpreted modes of enduring, and if so, which conceptual definition of agency applies in this context? I theorize the relationship between suffering and agency using Ernesto de Martino's notion la crisi della presenza. In line with Pierre Bourdieu, I think that in people's lives, there may be sufferings in a plural form, as a variety of sufferings. The article is based on a one-year long fieldwork in Finnish North Karelia.

  15. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF. PMID:23009699

  16. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data on the sanukitoid intrusions of the Karelia, Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, A. V.; Savatenkov, V. M.

    2003-04-01

    Sanukitoid intrusions from the Baltic Shield form post-tectonic differentiated intrusions 2.74-2.72 Ga old (Chekulaev, 1999, Lobach-Zhuchenko et al., 2000). They are represented by alkaline and calc-alkaline types which have high mg# (up to 0.6), strong LREE enrichment (Ce(N)=80-150, Yb(N)=4-7, Ce(N)/Yb(N)>20), high Sr, Ba (>1000 ppm), P2O5 (up to 1.5%) and Cr, Ni concentrations. Some intrusions contain rocks varying from ultramafite to quartz syenite. All sanukitoids are intruded by lamprophyre dykes having similar geochemical signatures. In this study we focus on the Karelian greenstone terrain within the Baltic Shield, in which sanukitoids are restricted to the younger western and central domains (2.7-2.9 Ga). Sanukitoids appear to be absent from the older Vodlozero domain (>3.0 Ga) in eastern Karelia (Lobach-Zhuchenko et al., 2000, Lobach-Zhuchenko et al., in press). About 70 Sm-Nd isotopic data on the sanukitoids of the Karelia were obtained. There is the regional distinction of the isotope composition of the rocks between the Central and West Karelian domains. The initial Epsilon Nd values and TDM range from +1.1 to +2.0 and 2.70-2.85 Ga accordingly in the youngest Central Karelian domain. The West Karelian intrusions yield an initial Epsilon Nd of -0.3- +0.7 and give the older TDM of about 2.82-2.92 Ga. It is to be noted that some intrusions of the Central Karelia domain, occurred closely to the ancient Vodlozero domain, also exhibit a similar range of initial Epsilon Nd and TDM to the intrusions of the West Karelia. There are narrow Nd isotopic compositional ranges within the individual intrusions. Rb-Sr isotopic system was studied in sanukitoids and lamprophyres of differentiated Panozero intrusion, Central Karelia. The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios range from 0.7000 to 0.7021 in these rocks indicating the derivation of these magmas from depleted mantle. Very low initial 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the sanukitoids confirm the Nd isotopic characteristics

  17. Isotopic geochronological evidence for the Paleoproterozoic age of gold mineralization in Archean greenstone belts of Karelia, the Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionova, Yu. O.; Samsonov, A. V.; Shatagin, K. N.; Nosova, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    The Rb-Sr age of metasomatic rocks from four gold deposits and occurrences localized in Archean granite-greenstone belts of the western, central, and southern Karelian Craton of the Baltic Shield has been determined. At the Pedrolampi deposit in central Karelia, the dated Au-bearing beresite and quartz-carbonate veins are located in the shear zone and replace Mesoarchean (˜2.9 Ga) mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Koikar-Kobozero greenstone belt. At the Taloveis ore occurrence in the Kostomuksha greenstone belt of western Karelia, the dated beresite replaces Neoarchean (˜2.7 Ga) granitoids and is conjugated with quartz veins in the shear zone. At the Faddeinkelja occurrence of southern Karelia, Aubearing beresite in the large tectonic zone, which transects Archean granite and Paleoproterozoic mafic dikes, has been studied. At the Hatunoja occurrence in the Jalonvaara greenstone belt of southwestern Karelia, the studied quartz veins and related gold mineralization are localized in Archean granitoids. The Rb-Sr isochrons based on whole-rock samples and minerals from ore-bearing and metasomatic wall rocks and veins yielded ˜1.7 Ga for all studied objects. This age is interpreted as the time of development of ore-bearing tectonic zones and ore-forming hydrothermal metasomatic alteration. New isotopic data in combination with the results obtained by our precursors allow us to recognize the Paleoproterozoic stage of gold mineralization in the Karelian Craton. This stage was unrelated to the Archean crust formation in the Karelian Block and is a repercussion of the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.7 Ga) crust-forming tectonic cycle, which gave rise to the formation of the Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola foldbelts in the framework of the Karelain Craton. The oreforming capability of Paleoproterozoic tectonics in the Archean complexes of the Karelian Craton was probably not great, and its main role consisted in reworking of the Archean gold mineralization of various

  18. Mesoproterozoic orangeites of Karelia (Kostomuksha-Lentiira): evidence for composition of mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, Alexey; Nosova, Anna; Larionova, Yulia; Kononova, Voctoria; Borisovskiy, Sergey; Kovalchuk, Elena; Griboedova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    time and geological setting with back-arc extensions (such as magmatism of CSDG) during the first stage of Sveconorwegian orogeny, initial stage of assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia (1.31-1.14 Ga). These back-arc extensions inspired of asthenosphere-derived melts to metasomatic lithospheric mantle and a generation of orangeitic melts. Kargin A.V., Nosova A.A., Larionova Yu.O. et al. Mesoproterozoic orangeites (kimberlites II) of Western Karelia: mineralogical, geochemical and Nd-Sr isotopic-geochemical characteristics // Petrology. 2014. V.2. in press.

  19. Lithospheric Structure In Russian Karelia From Small-aperture Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riznitchenko, O.; Sanina, I.; Aleshin, I.; Kosarev, G.; Sstwg

    Mobile small-aperture array RUKSA in Hautavaara - Petrozavodsk region of Rus- sian Karelia - operated as part of SVEKALAPKO (EUROPROBE) experiment in September- October 1999. The region is characterised by complicated tectonic setting and modern tectonic activity. It is the junction zone between exposed Archaean, Sve- cofennian and Phanerozoic crustal segments. The array consisted of six vertical and three 3-component loggers with analogue preliminary amplifiers connected by cable lines to digital recording system. Loggers were positioned on symmetric concentric rings with the outer ring diameter 640 m and the inner ring diameter 300 m. Dy- namic range of the analogue recorders SM-3KV is 120 dB. The sampling rate is 100 Hz. About 100 seismic events of different origin were recorded during experiment, including the largest earthquakes of 1999 in Turkey, Taiwan, and Greece. The qual- ity of records is extremely high. The array data were used for analysis of coherency, scattering and polarization properties of signal and microseism noise. The RUKSA records demonstrate remarkable coherency of teleseismic signal within the frequency band of 0.2-5 Hz. The level of microseism noise is very low compared to other small- aperture array sites. Polarisation analysis of the first P pulses for teleseismic waves re- vealed regular azimuth dependence of P wave azimuth and incidence angle deviations. Three-component records of teleseismic signals were processed with "receiver func- tion" method (Kind et. al, 1995). Previously this approach was used in regional-scale studies for broad-band record analysis. This study presents the first positive result of application of the method to short-period array data. Position of the main boundaries in the upper lithosphere under the array, inferred from "receiver function" analysis, coincides well with results of complex geological and geophysical study including re- flection surveys. Field work and data processing were supported by the INTAS

  20. Volcanic Glasses as Habitat for Microfossils: Evidence from the Early Paleoproterozoic Pillow Lavas of Karelia and their Modern Analogues in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adtafieva, M. M.; Rozanov, A. Yu; Sharkov, E. V.; Chistyakov, A. V.; Bogina, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial complexes were identified in the volcanic glasses from the ancient (2.4-Ga-old basaltic pillow-lavas of Karelia) and modern (pillow lavas of Mid-Atlantic ridge) volcanic rocks. It was shown that that their microbial colonization is likely to occur by the same mechanism. Thus, well preserved pillow lavas, which occupy a spacious fields in the Archean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, are promising object for search of the earliest traces of life on Earth.

  1. Effects of projected climatic changes on CO2 and H2O fluxes in pine forest ecosystems in Karelia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, Alexander; Desherevskaya, Olga; Pridacha, Vladislava; Sazonova, Tatyana

    2010-05-01

    Effects of possible climatic and vegetation changes on H2O and CO2 fluxes in pine forest ecosystems of Karelia in Russia were quantified using modeling and experimental data. To describe possible climate changes in the study area for the period up to 2100, the modeling results provided by the ECHAM5 global model (MPI Hamburg, Germany) were used (Roeckner et al. 2003). ECHAM5 reanalysis dataset (Roeckner 2004) was used to quantify present climate conditions. To generate the future meteorological conditions the moderate A1B emission scenario (IPCC 2007) was selected. In the first step, the possible century trends of the air temperature, air humidity, solar radiation, precipitation and wind speed for study area in Karelia were obtained as a difference between the predicted values for period 2080-2100 (Roeckner et al 2006) and the values taken for period 1980-2000 from reanalysis datasets (Roeckner 2004). The trends were calculated using average values from 3 model runs for four points located close to the area. In the second step, future annual pattern of meteorological conditions (with 1 hour time resolution) for the area was generated from the meteorological data set of 2000 (taken as reference) using obtained climatic trends. The annual future pattern of CO2 and H2O fluxes of the forests were simulated using a process-based Mixfor-SVAT model (Olchev et al. 2002, 2008). The main concept used in the Mixfor-SVAT model is an aggregated description of the physical and biological processes in forest ecosystem on different spatial scales: individual leaf, individual tree and entire ecosystem. It allows describing both total ecosystem fluxes and flux partitioning among different tree species and canopy layers. In modeling experiments it was considered several scenarios of vegetation changes assuming both keeping of modern vegetation properties and increasing canopy LAI, root biomass and N content in leaves. Results of modeling experiments show that expected climatic and

  2. The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Jaakkola, J.J.; Vilkka, V.; Marttila, O.; Jaeppinen, P.H.; Haahtela, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The paper mills in South Karelia, the southeast part of Finland, are responsible for releasing a substantial amount of malodorous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and methyl sulfides ((CH3)2S and (CH3)2S2), into ambient air. In the most polluted residential area the annual mean concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are estimated to be 8 and 2 to 5 micrograms/m3 and the highest daily average concentration 100 and 50 micrograms/m3. The annual mean and highest daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are very low. We studied the effects of malodorous sulfur compounds on eye, nasal and respiratory symptoms, and headache in adults. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was distributed in February 1987 and responded to by 488 adults living in a severely (n = 198), a moderately (n = 204), and a nonpolluted community (n = 86). This included questions about occurrence of the symptoms of interest during the previous 4 wk and 12 months and individual, behavioral, and other environmental determinants of the symptoms. The response rate was 83%. The odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced often or constantly in severely versus nonpolluted and moderately versus nonpolluted communities were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling potential confounders. The odds ratios for eye (moderate exposure OR 11.70, Cl95% 2.33 to 58.65; severe exposure OR 11.78, Cl95% 2.35 to 59.09) and nasal symptoms (OR 2.01, Cl95% 0.97 to 4.15; OR 2.19, Cl95% 1.06 to 4.55) and cough (OR 1.89, Cl95% 0.61 to 5.86; OR 3.06, Cl95% 1.02 to 9.29) during the previous 12 months were increased, with a dose-response pattern.

  3. [The relationship between the parameters of mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in women residing in the Republic of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, I G; Gaivoronskiy, I V; Aleksina, L A; Kornev, M A

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive anthropometric and densitometric study using the dual x-ray absorptiometry was conducted to determine the relationship between the mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in 360 women aged 20 to 87 years, permanently residing in the Republic of Karelia. Significant direct correlation was detected between the somatotype and the amount of mineral substances in the vertebrae, bone mineral density and the area of the lumbar vertebrae. Bone mineral density level of the lumbar vertebrae was higher in women with europlastic and athletic somatotypes, which were characterized by high values of body mass and length, body muscle and fat mass. Low values of bone mineral density of vertebrae were identified in women belonging to subathletic, mesoplastic and stenoplastic somatotypes. The risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis is increased in women with low body muscle mass. PMID:25823293

  4. [Abundance of larvae and nymphs of the taiga tick Ixodes persuicatus (Acari: Ixodidae) on small mammals in the cut-over lands of the middle taiga subzone of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Bespiatova, L A; Anikanova, V S; Ieshko, E P

    2009-01-01

    Data of long-term investigations (1998-2004) on the abundance of the taiga tick larvae and nymphs in the cut-over lands of different age in the middle taiga subzone of Karelia (62 degrees 04'S; 33 degrees 55'W) are presented. The investigation was carried out on three model cut-over lands of different age: 1) "young" cut-over land; age of cut-over in the beginning of investigation is 7 years; Betula-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 2) "middle" cut-over land; age of cut-over is 12 years; Salix-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 3) "old" cut-over land; age of cut-over 25 years; Alnus incana-Rubus idaeus-grass. The number of ticks was estimated by using common parasitological indices: prevalence, abundance, and index of feeding intensity (the tick abundance multiply by the number of small mammals per hundred traps-nights). In the beginning of investigation the "young" cut-over land was a typical meadow association. The lowest tick abundance was recorded here. That was a result of unfavorable abiotic conditions and low number of small mammals in the beginning of summer. "Middle" cut-over land is characterized by the highest number of the tick larvae, which is the evidence for high number of the hosts of tick imago. "Old" cut-over land has the optimum conditions for development of taiga ticks. High abundance of the ticks (larvae and nymphs) was recorded during the whole period of investigations. The number of preimaginal ticks is shown to be much higher in cut-over lands as compared with that in mixed and coniferous forests, due to the higher number of small mammals.

  5. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the eight-hour working day. These grounds relate to quality of life, occupational safety and health and productivity of work. It is worth asking if the nature of work has changed in a way that the truths of an industrialized society do not hold true or has the development of working time in health care sector become uncontrolled in some new way?

  6. Following in the Footsteps of the North Karelia Project: Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Jaana; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Peltonen, Markku

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence as well as actual number of people with type 2 diabetes has been increasing in Finland during the past decades, in parallel with an increase in overweight and obesity. Besides obesity, population aging is among the main drivers of increasing numbers of diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetes brings along complications, most importantly cardiovascular diseases, and increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence has also been suggested to lead to a new upward turn in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is important to implement activities to prevent type 2 diabetes. We present the trial evidence for the prevention of type 2 diabetes with emphasis on the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study findings. Furthermore, we discuss the practical implementation of screening of individuals for high type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of type 2 diabetes in Finland at the population level and describe how they have contributed to European level initiatives.

  7. Isotope composition of neodymium in neo-Archean banded iron formations of Karelia and Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felitsyn, S. B.; Bogomolov, E. S.; Alfimova, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of three deposits of neo-Archean banded iron formations from the West Karelian domain (the Kostomuksha deposit) and from the Central Kola block (the Olenegorsk and Kirovogorsk deposits) showed a pronounced difference in the isotope compositions of Nd from quartz and magnetite-hematite interlayers. The less radiogenic Nd of iron-containing layers compared to that of the quartz component may be considered as an indication of the formation mechanism of the treated banded iron formations. Thus, silicon-containing layers are related to submarine volcanism and iron was supplied to the sedimentation zone from other sources.

  8. Agate mineralization in basaltoids of the northeastern Ladoga region, South Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2008-12-01

    In the northeastern Ladoga region, the Riphean agate-bearing volcanic rocks of the Priozersk Formation are composed of basaltic lavas and lava breccias. Agates occur in the upper lava flow and in overlying conglomerate of the Salmi Formation. By their patterns, the agate amygdules correspond to concentrically zoned varieties, while agate veinlets have a vague pattern. Microstructures of agates are diverse, We backspace we including quite peculiar ones. Agates with enveloping zoning (the main structural type) were formed in closed cavities, whereas agate veinlets usually occurred in open connecting fissures and were replaced by calcite at the late stage of mineral formation. The unusual absence of quartzine suggests a low SiO2 concentration in the agate-forming solutions and/or a low pH value.

  9. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

  10. Two types of noble metal mineralization in the Kaalamo massif (Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Ruchyev, A. M.; Golubev, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Noble metal mineralization of the syngenetic (Southern Kaalamo) and epigenetic (Surisuo) types are defined in the Kaalamo massif. The ƩPt, Pd, Au content is as high as 0.9-1.1 g/t. Syngenetic mineralization started at the late magmatic stage (at around 800°C) gradually evolving to cease during the hydrothermal-metasomatic stage (<271°C). Epigenetic mineralization was formed at temperatures ranging from 500 to <230°C in zones of intense shear deformations and low-temperature metasomatosis during the collisional stage of the Svecofennian tectono-magmatic cycle (approximately 1.85 Ga ago). Taking into consideration the geological position of the Kaalamo massif in the Raakhe-Ladoga metallogenic zone with widely developed intense shear dislocations, the epigenetic mineralization type seems to be more promising with respect to noble metals.

  11. Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Cook, N. J.; Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25-km-long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognised after the dominating metal: Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn, respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As.

  12. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaakkola, J.J. |

    1996-07-01

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: A Comparison of Pupils' Images of Intelligence in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim; Hamalainen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The study set out to examine Finnish and Russian children's images of intelligence as contextualized in the systems of the school and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent and an ordinary pupil and a good and an ordinary pupil. A distinctive feature shared by the children in both…

  14. Information System on Russian Folklore Songs of Karelia as a Tool of Formalization and Classification of Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeyev, Aleksey G.; Moskin, Nikolay D.; Kravtsov, Ignat V.

    The authors elaborate the project of information system dedicated to folklore songs of North Russia. For increase of research potential of information system it is necessary to decide a task of formalization of the song content. In our opinion the most adequate mathematical structure describing a folklore song is the set of oriented graphs connected among themselves. In each graph the vertexes are the objects of the text, the edges are relations between objects. Our information system will contain both complete texts of songs and their formal representations by graphs that will allow to carry out comparisons of songs, to find invariants, to decide tasks of classification.

  15. Lithology and late postglacial stratigraphy of bottom sediments in isolated basins of the White Sea coast exemplified by a small lake in the Chupa settlement area (Northern Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakova, O. P.; Kolka, V. V.; Tolstobrova, A. N.; Lavrova, N. B.; Tolstobrov, D. S.; Shelekhova, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The complex lithological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological (diatoms, spores, pollen) investigations of stratified bottom sediments that constitute facies-variable sedimentary sequences in a small isolated lake located near the upper limit of the sea on the White Sea coast made it possible to define lithostratigraphic units (LSU) forming the complete sedimentary succession in deep parts of isolated basins. It is shown that stratigraphy of heterogeneous sequences is determined by two regional transgressive-regressive cycles in relative sea level fluctuations: alternating late Glacial and Holocene transgressions and regressions. The lower part of a clastogenic clayey-sandy-silty sequence successively composed of freshwater (LSU 1) and brackish-water (LSU 2) sediments of the ice-marginal basins and marine postglacial facies (LSU 3) was formed during the late Glacial glacioeustatic marine transgression. Its upper part formed in different isolated basins at different stages of the Holocene is represented depending on its altimetric position on the coastal slope by costal marine sediments (LSU 4) and facies of the partly isolated inlet (LSU 5). The organogenic sapropelic sequence, which overlies sediments of the marine basin and partly isolated bay, corresponds to lithostratigraphic units represented by Holocene sediments accumulated in the meromictic lake (LSU 6), onshore freshwater basin (LSU 7), and freshwater basin with elevated water mineralization (LSU 8) deposited during maximum development of Holocene transgression and lacustrine sediments (LSU 9) formed in coastal environments during terminal phases of the Holocene. The defined lithostratigraphic units differ from each other in lithological, micropaleontological, and geochemical features reflected in structural and textural properties of their sediments, their composition, inclusions, and composition of paleophytocoenoses and diatom assemblages.

  16. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Hupponen, M. Grönman, K.; Horttanainen, M.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmental criteria for the MSW incineration location procurements are needed. • Focus should be placed on annual energy efficiency and on substitute fuels. • In SRF combustion it is crucial to know the share and the treatment of rejects. • The GWP of transportation is a small part of the total emissions. - Abstract: The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs’ perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and the effect of the plant location on the utilization of the produced energy can already be identified when planning an appropriate site for the waste incineration plant.

  17. Coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero complex (North Karelia, Russia): Evidence for the existence of an immiscible high-Fe melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Chistyakov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that most subsolidus coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero intrusive complex result from crystallization of drops of immiscible interstitial high-Fe melt scattered among cumulates and containing SiO2, Ti, Al, Ca, Na, K, Ba, and volatiles (water, F, and Cl) as well. Fe-Ti oxides were the first crystal phases, whereas other components were incorporated in the surrounding concentrically zoned rims composed of olivine, phlogopite, and kaersutite-pargasite. Reactional rims at the boundaries between olivine and plagioclase and symplectitic pargasite-muscovite-scapolite rims around the clusters of olivine and Fe-Ti oxides are observed as well. Thus, the coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero Complex provide the first evidence for the existence of an immiscible, relatively low-temperature high-Fe melt in the natural magmatic systems.

  18. The effect of sediments on the chemical composition of lake waters in the humid zone (lakes of Karelia as the example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The processes of decomposition of organic matter in the bottom sediments are responsible for the rate of influx of mineral forms of elements from the sediment back into the water. Two types of early diagenesis of sediments can be distinguished for the sediments in lakes of the humid zone in the temperate climate. The first type is the oxidative diagenesis. It occurs in the presence of oxygen in waters at the bottom, and is typical of sediments in large lakes. Slow sedimentation and the qualitative composition of organic matter are the reason for the dominance of benthic bacteria in the processes of organic matter mineralization. The sediments are stratified by redox-processes. The process of mineralization of organic matter, followed by salt influx from sediments occurs mainly on the sediment surface under the effect of oxygen. Oxygen consumption by sediments varies from 0.01 to 0.1 g oxygen per square meter per day. The reactions of iron and manganese dominate at the geochemical barrier, and lead to the formation of ore layers in the sediments. The ore layers prevent the transport of ions from the body of bottom sediments. The nutrient load on such sediments is relatively low, ranging from 0.001 to 0.5 mg P and from 0.05 to 1 mg of N per square meter per day. There is no dissolution of the mineral part of bottom sediments. Trace elements are accumulated in the surface layer of the sediments. The reducing type of diagenesis occurs in the bottom sediments of small lakes, which accumulate organic matter. These sediments have a significant effect on the oxygen regime of the lake. According to our data, oxygen consumption in sediments depends on the trophic status of the lake, and reaches more than 1 g per square meter per day in a eutrophic lake. In an oligotrophic lake the bulk of organic matter is mineralized at the water-bottom interface. In a mesotrophic reservoir this process takes place in the oxidized surface layer of the sediment. A large proportion of organic matter in a eutrophic lake decomposes under anaerobic conditions. The rate of the biogenic flux at the water-bottom interface increases with a rise in the trophic status of the lake, and ranges from 0 to 5 mg for P and 0.05-50 mg N per square meter per day. Water mineralization over the silt is noticeably higher than in the water column.

  19. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hupponen, M; Grönman, K; Horttanainen, M

    2015-08-01

    The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs' perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and the effect of the plant location on the utilization of the produced energy can already be identified when planning an appropriate site for the waste incineration plant. PMID:25936556

  20. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hupponen, M; Grönman, K; Horttanainen, M

    2015-08-01

    The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs' perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and the effect of the plant location on the utilization of the produced energy can already be identified when planning an appropriate site for the waste incineration plant.

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey From Oriana Day Paintings, DeYoung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey From Oriana Day Paintings, DeYoung Museum, S.F. Original: 1861 - 1885 Re-Photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTH - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Painting by Renaud Original: Before 1835 Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  3. 1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ICON AND SANCTUARY. IN ARCH ABOVE THE SANCTUARY IS THE TABLE OF ABRAHAM. THE ICONOSTAS INCLUDES ICONS OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL, THE HOLY TRINITY, MOTHER OF GOD HOLDING THE CHRIST CHILD, JESUS. - Holy Trinity-Holy Cross Greek Orthodox Church, 200 Nineteenth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Linguistic Propaganda Against Perceived Irredentism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestly, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Contrasts propaganda about language at different periods during the last 150 years in five localities: southern Austria; western Hungary, Karelia, Moldavia, and northwestern Greece. The study comes out of the little-known field of political linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  5. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomya thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila monstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

  6. L2 Literacy and Biliteracy: Linguistic Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Stefan M.

    1991-01-01

    In a study of literacy and linguistics that focuses on bilingual and multilingual societies, the following topics are covered: bilingualism and biliteracy; biliteracy in the Soviet Union; case studies in Karelia and Ukraine; and predicting the future of biliteracy. (43 references. (LB)

  7. Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Öling, Viveka; Härkönen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V; Ilonen, Jorma; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood RNA samples from infants born in Finland (modern society), Estonia (rapidly developing society) and the Republic of Karelia, Russia (poor economic conditions). The whole blood transcriptome of Finnish and Estonian neonates differed from their Karelian counterparts, suggesting exposure to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and a more matured immune response in infants born in Karelia. These results further support the concept of a conspicuous plasticity in the developing immune system: the environmental factors that play a role in the susceptibility/protection towards immune-mediated diseases begin to shape the neonatal immunity already in utero and direct the maturation in accordance with the surrounding microbial milieu. PMID:25245264

  8. Communication campaigns to change health-related lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E M

    1992-01-01

    The North Karelia Project in Finland and the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program in California are 2 communication campaign examples for achieving health-related life styles. In 1972, health workers began a heart disease risk reduction program in North Karelia which had the highest levels of cardiovascular disease in Finland which in turn had the highest rate in the world as a pilot project to test the feasibility of involving the local community. In 1971, the Stanford Heart Disease Program began in 3 communities and had spread to 5 more around 1978. Communication strategies aim to diffuse preventive health innovations to a relatively large group of people within a specific time period using an organized set of communication activities. Prevention campaigns incorporate strategies from social learning, social marketing, and entertainment-education for mass communication. Social marketing strategies involve at least audience segmentation and use of symbols or logos, e.g., the Stanford Program used red hearts as its logo. Social learning revolves around the theory that people learn from both positive and negative roll models. In 1978, the North Karelia Project had a TV smoking cessation campaign with 10 people representing various target groups including a middle-aged man and a young woman. Evaluation research is also used to provide feedback to the project which allows the project to move on effectively. The main goal of diffusion prevention health innovations is to reach critical mass: the point where the innovation diffuses in a self-sustaining manner. The diffusion begins rather slowly then about the time 15-25% of the target audience adopts the innovation, the adoption rate grows quickly. In North Karelia, after 20 years, people eat a low fat and low cholesterol diet. In both California and Finland, there has been considerable reduction in cardiovascular disease risk.

  9. [Genetic variability and differentiation of three Russian populations of yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis as revealed by nuclear markers].

    PubMed

    Khrisanfova, G G; Kharchevnikov, D A; Popov, I O; Zinov'eva, S V; Semenova, S K

    2008-05-01

    Genetic variability of yellow potato cyst nematode G. rostochiensis from three Russian populations (Karelia, Vladimir oblast, and Moscow oblast) was investigated using two types of nuclear markers. Using RAPD markers identified with the help of six random primers (P-29, OPA-10, OPT-14, OPA-11, OPB-11, and OPH-20), it was possible to distinguish Karelian population from the group consisting of the populations from two adjacent regions (Moscow oblast and Vladimir oblast). Based on the combined matrix, containing 294 RAPD fragments, dendrogram of genetic differences was constructed, and the indices of genetic divergence and partition (P, H, and G(st)), as well as the gene flow indices N(m) between the nematode samples examined, were calculated. The dendrogram structure, genetic diversity indices, and variations of genetic distances between single individuals in each population from Karelia and Central Russia pointed to genetic isolation and higher genetic diversity of the nematodes from Karelia. Based on polymorphism of rDNA first intergenic spacer ITS1, attribution of all populations examined to the species G. rostochiensis was proved. Small variations of the ITS1 sequence in different geographic populations of nematodes from different regions of the species world range did not allow isolation of separate groups within the species. Possible factors (including interregional transportations of seed potato) affecting nematode population structure in Russia are discussed. PMID:18672794

  10. STS-96 Crew Training, Mission Animation, Crew Interviews, STARSHINE, Discovery Rollout and Repair of Hail Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-96, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev during various training activities. Scenes include astronaut suit-up, EVA training in the Virtual Reality Lab, Orbiter space vision training, bailout training, and crew photo session. Footage also shows individual crew interviews, repair activities to the external fuel tank, and Discovery's return to the launch pad. The engineers are seen sanding, bending, and painting the foam used in repairing the tank. An animation of the deployment of the STARSHINE satellite, International Space Station, and the STS-96 Mission is presented. Footage shows the students from Edgar Allen Poe Middle School sanding, polishing, and inspecting the mirrors for the STARSHINE satellite. Live footage also includes students from St. Michael the Archangel School wearing bunny suits and entering the clean room at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  11. Metal films on the surfaces and within diamond crystals from Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, A. B.; Kriulina, G. Yu.

    2012-12-01

    Representative samples of diamonds from five kimberlite pipes (Lomonosovskaya, Archangel'sk, Snegurochka, XXIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and Internationalnaya) of the Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces in Russia have been studied. Thirty-three varieties of metal films have been identified as syngenetic associated minerals. The films consist of 15 chemical elements that occur in the form of native metals and their natural alloys. Remnants of metal films were detected within diamond crystals. The metal films coating diamonds are a worldwide phenomenon. To date, these films have been described from Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Native metals, their alloys, and intermetallides are actual companion minerals of diamond.

  12. Design and Development of the Blackbird: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The Lockheed Blackbirds hold a unique place in the development of aeronautics. In their day, the A-12, YF-12, M-21, D-21, and SR-71 variants outperformed all other jet airplanes in terms of altitude and speed. Now retired, they remain the only production aircraft capable of sustained Mach 3 cruise and operational altitudes above 80,000 feet. In this paper the author describes the design evolution of the Blackbird from Lockheed's early Archangel studies for the Central Intelligence Agency through Senior Crown, production of the Air Force's SR-71. He describes the construction and materials challenges faced by Lockheed, the Blackbird's performance characteristics and capabilities, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's role in using the aircraft as a flying laboratory to collect data on materials, structures, loads, heating, aerodynamics, and performance for high-speed aircraft.

  13. Seismoacoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation of fractured rocks in deep wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyanov, A. K.; D'Yakonov, B. P.; Martyshko, P. S.; Astrakhantsev, Yu. G.; Nachapkin, N. I.; Gavrilov, V. A.; Beloglazova, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of simultaneous measurements in seismoacoustic emission (SAE) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR), carried out with the help of a program-apparatus complex developed at the Institute of Geophysics, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, are considered. Measurements have been carried out in the wells with varied structures located in Karelia, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, and Kamchatka. It has been shown that intervals of fractured rocks are simultaneously recorded in anomalies of SAE and EMR signals. This fact allows us to detect these zones of high tensosensitivity in a geomedium volume for the purposes of monitoring in geodynamic phenomena in the Earth's crust.

  14. Development And Structure Of Root Systems of Phleum pretense in monospecies cultures under the influence of the soil conditions and field management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurkevich, M. G.

    2012-08-01

    The influence of the soil conditions and anthropogenic effects on the formation of root systems in meadow agrocenoses of southern Karelia was studied. It was shown that the development and vertical structure of the underground organs depend on the degree of soil cultivation. Most roots (39.0 to 87.0%) are concentrated in the sod at the depth of 0 to 6 cm. The root architectonics in young agrocenoses depend mostly on the degree of soil cultivation and the rates of the applied fertilizers. The botanical composition of phytocenoses affects the vertical distribution of roots in the layers of 6-15 and 15-30 cm in old herb cenoses.

  15. Isotope geochronology of the Precambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levskii, L. K.; Levchenkov, O. A.

    This symposium discusses the use of isotope methods for establishing the geochronology of Precambrian formations, with special consideration given to geochronological studies of the early phases of the earth's core evolution in the Baltic and Vitim-Aldan shields and the Enderby Land (Antarctica). Attention is also given to the Early Archean Vodlozero gneiss complex and its structural-metamorphic evolution, the influence of geological events during the Proterozoic on the state of the U-Pb and Rb-Sr systems in the Archean postkinematic granites of Karelia, the Rb-Sr systems in the andesite basalts of the Suna-Semch' region (Karelia), and the geochronology of the Karelian granite-greenstone region. Also discussed are the petrogenesis and age of the rocks from the Kola ultradeep borehole, the isotope-geochronological evidence for the early Precambrian history of the Aldan-Olekma region, the Rb-Sr systems in metasedimentary rocks of the Khani graben, and the U-Pb ages of zircons from polymetamorphic rocks of the Archean granulite complex of Enderby Land.

  16. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  17. Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

    2014-02-01

    Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

  18. New Data on Microfossils from Shungites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Robert B.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Shungites are pre-cambrian (2Gya) carbon-rich, silicate rocks known from deposits in the north-western part of lake Onega, near the city of Petrozavodsk in Karelia (North from St. Petersburg, Russia). Shungites are extremely rich in carbon, with carbon accounting for 98% in vein shungites. Shungites have been found to exhibit interesting optical, ultrasonic, thermal, mechanical, electrical properties and have recently been found to contain small amounts of C60 fullerene. Shungite rocks from Karelia have a characteristic globular structure and are chemically inert and metastable. As part of our ongoing search for biomarkers in ancient terrestrial rocks that are of potential significance to Astrobiology, we have conducted Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrographs of freshly fractured interior surfaces of Shungites. We find them to contain indigenous miocrofossils, similar to cyanobacteria known from the phosphorites of Khubsugul, Mongolia. We describe this investigation and provide ESEM and FESEM images of biomorphic microstructures that we interpret as indigenous microfossils in Shungites.

  19. Economic reduction of acidifying deposition in Finland by decreasing emissions in Finland, Estonia and Russia.

    PubMed

    Tähtinen, M; Lehtilä, A; Pipatti, R; Wistbacka, M; Savolainen, I

    1997-09-26

    Here we consider cost-effective solutions of emission control measures in Finland and the nearby areas of Estonia, St. Petersburg region, Karelia and Kola, in order to limit the acidifying deposition in Finland. In the study, the emission control costs of SO2, NOx and NH3 are assessed for the areas studied and an optimisation model developed for calculation of cost-optimal deposition control policies. The input data of the model consist of the cost functions describing the emission control costs to achieve lower emission levels for the gases and areas considered and of dispersion coefficients which describe the deposition due to an emission source in the deposition receptor grid squares. In addition, the model includes a description to calculate the acidifying load. The optimisation is based on linear programming. When the acidifying load of Southern Finland is reduced by minimising the total control costs, approx, three quarters of the total control costs are due to measures in the nearby areas, Estonia, St. Peterburg region, Karelia and Kola, and approx. one quarter due to measures in Finland. The distribution of costs in the cost-optimised cases depends relatively little on the level to which the acidifying load due the source areas considered are required to be reduced. If the load reduction target is moderate, the emission control measures should mainly be allocated to sulphur emissions and to some extent to ammonia emissions and, if the load reduction target is stricter, also to the emissions of nitrogen oxides.

  20. Testing for fullerenes in geologic materials: Oklo carbonaceous substances, Karelian shungites, Sudbury Black Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossman, David; Eigendorf, Guenter; Tokaryk, Dennis; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Guckert, Kristal D.; Melezhik, Victor; Farrow, Catharine E. G.

    2003-03-01

    Fullerenes have been reported from diverse geologic environments since their discovery in shungite from Karelian Russia. Our investigation is prompted by the presence of onionskin-like structures in some carbonaceous substances associated with the fossil nuclear fission reactors of Oklo, Gabon. The same series of extractions and the same instrumental techniques, laser desorption ionization and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (electron-impact mass spectroscopy), were employed to test for fullerenes in samples from three different localities: two sites containing putative fullerenes (Sudbury Basin and Russian Karelia) and one new location (Oklo, Gabon). We confirm the presence of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Black Tuff of the Onaping Formation impact breccia in the Sudbury Basin, but we find no evidence of fullerenes in shungite samples from various locations in Russian Karelia. Analysis of carbonaceous substances associated with the natural nuclear fission reactors of Oklo yields no definitive signals for fullerenes. If fullerenes were produced during sustained nuclear fission at Oklo, then they are present below the detection limit (˜100 fmol), or they have destabilized since formation. Contrary to some expectations, geologic occurrences of fullerenes are not commonplace.

  1. Working with a child's envy in the transference.

    PubMed

    Gericke, Renate

    2006-10-01

    In literature, envy has long been written of as one of the seven cardinal sins. In biblical mythology, envy as a consequence of vanity can be understood to be the reason for archangel Lucifer's fall from a state of heavenly grace and unionship. Freud was the first psychoanalytic theorist to introduce the idea of envy, albeit through his controversial concept of penis envy. Karl Abrahams and Melanie Klein later placed envy at the crucial developing stages of the relationship between primary caregiver and infant. Klein boldly identified envy as a primary constitutional emotion. However, the presence and difficulties of envy in clinical work remain largely underreported, more so in work with children. This paper asks whether an attachment base can be secure if envy is dominant. The analysis of a nine-year-old girl ('Kirsten') and her envious transference with her therapist will be examined, to explore the relationship between envy and attachment security. While contemporary research focuses on developing attachment theory in relation to specific psychiatric conditions, this paper will discuss affect as the binding link or disruptive force between self and object representations, that then determine attachment security.

  2. THE MID-INFRARED TULLY-FISHER RELATION: SPITZER SURFACE PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Courtois, Helene M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2012-11-01

    The availability of photometric imaging of several thousand galaxies with the Spitzer Space Telescope enables a mid-infrared calibration of the correlation between luminosity and rotation in spiral galaxies. The most important advantage of the new calibration in the 3.6 {mu}m band, IRAC Channel 1, is photometric consistency across the entire sky. Additional advantages are minimal obscuration, observations of flux dominated by old stars, and sensitivity to low surface brightness levels due to favorable backgrounds. Roughly 3000 galaxies have been observed through Spitzer cycle 7 and images of these are available from the Spitzer archive. In cycle 8, a program called Cosmic Flows with Spitzer was initiated, which will increase the available sample of spiral galaxies with inclinations greater than 45 Degree-Sign from face-on that are suitable for distance measurements by 1274. This paper describes procedures, based on the photometry package Archangel, that are being employed to analyze both the archival and new data in a uniform way. We give results for 235 galaxies, our calibrator sample for the Tully-Fisher relation. Galaxy magnitudes are determined with uncertainties held below 0.05 mag for normal spiral systems. A subsequent paper will describe the calibration of the [3.6] luminosity-rotation relation.

  3. A Patchwork Paper: What Paediatricians Should Read.

    PubMed

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper honours a paediatrician whose career has been patchwork but distinguished, with many facets. It is a light-hearted look at the printed (infinitely preferable to the electronic) word. Although the obvious response is "read everything I have written", this would only drive down the stores of Prozac. Read the scientific literature of course. The oldie reads to stay one jump ahead on the ward round. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews rely on the judgement of others, so should be regarded with suspicion. Do your own research, and do not rely on the thoughts of other people. Read beyond PubMed. "There is more in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than is dreamed of in your PubMed" (Shakespeare). Read the giants of the past. Richard Asher has so much to teach. What are the seven sins of medicine, and how many have you committed? Asher is top read of the talk. Learn from the mistakes of the past. Your patient comes first. Read how the medical profession covered up the death of Steve Biko and never compromise with patient safety and your integrity. Finally, remember thou art mortal - read a real book for pleasure. Kindle reading must be like making love to an inflatable doll (not that I have done either). Choose what you relax with; for me, PG Wodehouse, Jane Austen, Billy Bunter and Wisden. Who said and why: 'Madam, under similar circumstances I would have kicked the Archangel Gabriel!'.

  4. Working with a child's envy in the transference.

    PubMed

    Gericke, Renate

    2006-10-01

    In literature, envy has long been written of as one of the seven cardinal sins. In biblical mythology, envy as a consequence of vanity can be understood to be the reason for archangel Lucifer's fall from a state of heavenly grace and unionship. Freud was the first psychoanalytic theorist to introduce the idea of envy, albeit through his controversial concept of penis envy. Karl Abrahams and Melanie Klein later placed envy at the crucial developing stages of the relationship between primary caregiver and infant. Klein boldly identified envy as a primary constitutional emotion. However, the presence and difficulties of envy in clinical work remain largely underreported, more so in work with children. This paper asks whether an attachment base can be secure if envy is dominant. The analysis of a nine-year-old girl ('Kirsten') and her envious transference with her therapist will be examined, to explore the relationship between envy and attachment security. While contemporary research focuses on developing attachment theory in relation to specific psychiatric conditions, this paper will discuss affect as the binding link or disruptive force between self and object representations, that then determine attachment security. PMID:25865208

  5. Impact of industrial contamination on the populations of small forest rodents.

    PubMed

    Ivanter, E V; Medvedev, N V

    2015-01-01

    Investigations performed for monitoring the impact of industrial contamination from the Kostomuksha ore mining and processing enterprise (northern Karelia) on the populations of forest mouse-like rodents revealed increased embryonic mortality (three to four times higher compared to the control) in breeding females from the areas contaminated by nitrogen and sulfur oxides within the territory studied. The toxicants also influence other parameters of the population: abundance dynamics, ecological and spatial structure of the population, and reproduction rates. The results demonstrate that the population reactions of species may turn out to be more accurate and demonstrative when estimating the consequences of industrial contamination than the direct concentrations of a particular toxicant in the animal body.

  6. [IXODID TICKS (PARASITIFORMES: IXODIDAE) FROM SMALL MAMMALS IN DEFORESTED BOREAL HABITATS IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Bespyatova, L A; Bugmyrin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the population density of two hard tick species, Ixodes (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps Birula, 1895 and Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, 1930, were examined in 1998-2001, and in 2003-2004 near Gomselga Village (Kondopoga District, 62° 04' N, 33° 55' E) in central Karelia. Data on the abundance of ixodid ticks and the species composition of their hosts in 4 forest sites at different stages of post-felling regeneration (secondary succession), i. e. 7-14, 12-19, 25-32, and 80-87 after logging were obtained. I. persulcatus dominated, comprising 73 % of the total tick number in samples. Regenera- tion of the forest resulted in fluctuations of the population density of two examined tick species: I. (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps (larvae 2.8-5.3; nymphs 1.5-2.2; adults 0-0.09) and I. persulcatus (larvae 4.3-10.6; nymphs 0.6-4.2).

  7. [Polymorphism of the mtDNA control region in wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from the European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A I; Kholodova, M V; Davydov, A V; Rozhkov, Iu I

    2012-09-01

    Genetic diversity ofwild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting the European part of Russia, including Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, and the Republic of Karelia was characterized using sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA control region. Despite of currently low population number of wild reindeer, they were characterized by a high level of genetic diversity (pi = 0.018; H= 0.872 to 0.914). Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between European reindeer and wild reindeer of Siberia. In reindeer from Murmansk oblast a haplotype in common with the wild reindeer form Southwestern Norway was described. The reindeer sample examined contained no haplotypes earlier described for the reindeer of Central Norway. It is suggested that in recent past wild reindeer from the European north of Russia formed one population with the reindeer from the north of the Asian part of Eurasia.

  8. Effect of the conditions of structure formation on the physicochemical properties of ozonated shungites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanova, G. I.; Gorlenko, L. E.; Rozhkova, N. N.; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2010-08-01

    It was investigated the influence of ozone on the physicochemical properties of shungites (type 1) (75-98% C) from Nigozero and Chebolaksha deposits (Karelia) formed by hydrothermal (Nigozero) and high-temperature (Chebolaksha) processes. Ozonation was found to affect the specific surface and the total pore volume of shungites considerably. The pore size distribution pattern depends on the volume morphology (texture) of the sample. An increase in the temperature and pressure during the structure formation of shungite (Chebolaksha) led to a shift of the maximum on the distribution pattern towards the formation of mesopores. The size distribution of pores with the dominant contents of micro- and submesopores for both shungites correlated with the basic structural nanoelements of shungite carbon. The peculiarities of the ozonation of shungite nanocarbon found previously (the non-steady state vibrational kinetics of ozonation and the absence of carbon(II) oxide among the reaction products) were confirmed.

  9. Regional 20th Century Temperature Trends from Radiosondes and Reanalyses in the Arctic (60°N-90°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    We compare seasonal 20th century atmospheric temperature trends in the Arctic (60°N-90°N) from radiosonde observations (CHUAN, HadAT, IUK, RAOBCORE/RICH, RATPAC) and reanalyses (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR (NNR), Twentieth Century reanalysis (20CR), CFSR, ERA-Interim, MERRA). Large differences are found between the magnitudes, vertical profiles of the temperature trends (even for time periods > 3 decades), and chronological sequences of bidecadal, regional warming and cooling periods in the reanalyses. Long term zonal mean vertical trend profiles from CHUAN and from the reanalyses reaching back to the time before the satellite era show an amplification of the tropospheric warming towards the surface in all seasons except in JJA for the periods 1901-99, 1948-99 and 1957-99. In 20CR, a very strong 20th century cooling trend compared to the other datasets is found between 150 and 200 hPa. The agreement of the vertical structure and temporal behaviour of regional, bidecadal trends in the long reanalyses for 11 regions in the Arctic with CHUAN is best on average for ERA-40, followed by a less good agreement with trends from NNR (especially vertical structure) and 20CR (vertical structure and temporal behaviour). ERA-40 performs best for the NE Atlantic, Karelia, the SE Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and Central Siberia, and less favourably in the NW Canadian Arctic, E Siberia, W Siberia, and Novaya Zemlya. NNR agreement with CHUAN is significantly worse than in ERA-40 for the NE Atlantic, SE Canadian Arctic, SW Central Siberia, and E Central Siberia. 20CR performance is generally worse than that of ERA-40 and NNR, particularly for Karelia, the SE Canadian Arctic, Novaya Zemlya, W Siberia, and Central Siberia. For the more recent but shorter reanalyses, the internal agreement is generally very high, and results are close to CHUAN, ERA-40 and NNR. A comparison of CHUAN with the other radiosonde datasets is only possible for Alaska, E Central Siberia, NE Atlantic and NE Central Siberia

  10. [IXODID TICKS (PARASITIFORMES: IXODIDAE) FROM SMALL MAMMALS IN DEFORESTED BOREAL HABITATS IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Bespyatova, L A; Bugmyrin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the population density of two hard tick species, Ixodes (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps Birula, 1895 and Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, 1930, were examined in 1998-2001, and in 2003-2004 near Gomselga Village (Kondopoga District, 62° 04' N, 33° 55' E) in central Karelia. Data on the abundance of ixodid ticks and the species composition of their hosts in 4 forest sites at different stages of post-felling regeneration (secondary succession), i. e. 7-14, 12-19, 25-32, and 80-87 after logging were obtained. I. persulcatus dominated, comprising 73 % of the total tick number in samples. Regenera- tion of the forest resulted in fluctuations of the population density of two examined tick species: I. (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps (larvae 2.8-5.3; nymphs 1.5-2.2; adults 0-0.09) and I. persulcatus (larvae 4.3-10.6; nymphs 0.6-4.2). PMID:26946827

  11. Impact of industrial contamination on the populations of small forest rodents.

    PubMed

    Ivanter, E V; Medvedev, N V

    2015-01-01

    Investigations performed for monitoring the impact of industrial contamination from the Kostomuksha ore mining and processing enterprise (northern Karelia) on the populations of forest mouse-like rodents revealed increased embryonic mortality (three to four times higher compared to the control) in breeding females from the areas contaminated by nitrogen and sulfur oxides within the territory studied. The toxicants also influence other parameters of the population: abundance dynamics, ecological and spatial structure of the population, and reproduction rates. The results demonstrate that the population reactions of species may turn out to be more accurate and demonstrative when estimating the consequences of industrial contamination than the direct concentrations of a particular toxicant in the animal body. PMID:26530070

  12. [Causes of the technogenic changes in a freshwater zooplankton community].

    PubMed

    Kalinkina, N M; Kulikova, T P; Morozov, A K; Vlasova, L I

    2003-01-01

    The situation in water bodies of northwestern Karelia in 1992-2001 was analyzed. As a result of waste discharge from the mining and ore-processing works, weakly mineralized hydrocarbonate-calcium waters changed into highly mineralized waters with the prevalence of potassium ions and sulfates. The total abundance and biomass of zooplanktonic communities decreased. Using the methods of principal components and partial correlations, differences in the responses of zooplankters to mineral pollution were revealed. Typical inhabitants of northern water bodies decreased in numbers, and the species Eudiaptomus gracilis Sars and Heterocope appendiculata Sars (Calanoida) disappeared. On the other hand, eurybiontic species prevailing in water bodies with higher mineralization manifested a positive reaction to the increase in the contents of dissolved mineral compounds. Toxicological experiments made it possible to estimate the survival threshold for E. gracilis and H. appendiculata: the populations of these crustaceans in the polluted water body perished when potassium concentration in water exceeded 50 mg/l.

  13. Linoleic acid content in adipose tissue and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Riemersma, R A; Wood, D A; Butler, S; Elton, R A; Oliver, M; Salo, M; Nikkari, T; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P; Gey, F

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of an inverse relation between essential fatty acids in adipose tissue, in particular linoleic acid, and mortality from coronary heart disease was studied by a cross sectional survey of random population samples of apparently healthy men aged 40-49 from four European regions with differing mortality from coronary heart disease. The proportion of linoleic acid in adipose tissue was lowest in men from north Karelia, Finland, where mortality from coronary heart disease is highest, and highest in men from Italy, where mortality is lowest, with intermediate proportions in men from Scotland and south west Finland. Similar gradients were observed for the desaturation and elongation products dihomo-gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acid. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in adipose tissue was highest in Finland, intermediate in Scotland, and lowest in Italy. Italian men also had the highest proportion of oleate in their adipose tissue and the lowest proportion of myristoleate and palmitoleate. Finnish men were more obese and had a higher blood pressure. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in north Karelia and south west Finland than in Scotland or Italy. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations reflected the regional differences in serum cholesterol, being higher in Finland and lower in Italy. The ratios of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol, however, did not differ. The regional differences in linoleic acid in adipose tissue remained highly significant when the observed differences in other known risk factors for coronary heart disease among the four areas were taken into account by multivariate analysis. The gradients in proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids probably reflect differences in dietary intake of linoleic acid. PMID:3087455

  14. Diagnostic potential and antigenic properties of recombinant tick-borne encephalitis virus subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus replicons.

    PubMed

    Levanov, Lev; Kuivanen, Suvi; Matveev, Andrey; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Jääskeläinen-Hakala, Anu; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-03-01

    The precursor membrane envelope (prME) proteins of all three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) subtypes were produced based on expression from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicons transcribed from recombinant plasmids. Vero E6 cells transfected by these plasmids showed specific reactivities in immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays by monoclonal antibodies against European and Far-Eastern subtype strains of TBEV, indicating proper folding of the expressed glycoproteins. The prME glycoproteins were secreted into the cell culture supernatant, forming TBEV subviral particles of 20 to 30 nm in diameter. IgM μ-capture and IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were developed based on prME Karelia-94 (Siberian subtype) particles. Altogether, 140 human serum samples were tested using these assays, and the results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgM EIA, an in-house μ-capture IgM assay based on baculovirus-expressed antigen, a commercial IgG EIA, and a hemagglutination inhibition test. Compared to reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the sensitivities of the generated μ-capture IgM SFV-prME and IgG MAb-capture SFV-prME EIAs were 97.4 to 100% and 98.7%, respectively, and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. IgM and IgG immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) were created based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the recombinant plasmid carrying the TBEV Karelia-94 prME glycoproteins. The IgM IFA was 100% concordant with the μ-capture IgM bac-prME ELISA. The IgG IFA sensitivity and specificity were 98.7% and 100%, respectively, compared to those of the commercial ELISA. In conclusion, the tests developed based on SFV replicon-driven expression of TBEV glycoproteins provide safe and robust alternatives for conducting TBEV serology. PMID:24371235

  15. ``White Land``...new Russian closed-cycle nuclear technology for global deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    A Russian technology called ``White Land`` is being pursued which is based on their heavy-metal-cooled fast spectrum reactor technology developed to power their super-fast Alpha Class submarines. These reactors have important safety advantages over the more conventional sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors but preserve some of the attractive operational features of the fast spectrum systems. Perhaps chief among these advantages in the current political milieu is their ability to generate energy from any nuclide heavier than thorium including HEU, weapons plutonium, commercial plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. While there are several scenarios for deployment of these systems, the most attractive perhaps is containment in submarine-like enclosures to be placed underwater near a coastal population center. A Russian organization named the Alphabet Company would build the reactors and maintain title to them. The company would be paid on the basis of kilowatt-hours delivered. The reactors would not require refueling for 10--15 years and no maintenance violating the radiation containment would be required or would be carried out at the deployment site. The host country need not develop any nuclear technology or accept any nuclear waste. When the fuel load has been burned, the entire unit would be towed to Archangel, Russia for refueling. The fission product would be removed from the fuel by ``dry`` molten salt technology to minimize the waste stream and the fissile material would be returned to the reactor for further burning. The fission product waste would be stored at New Land Island, their current nuclear test site in the Arctic. If concerns over fission product justify it, the long-lived species will be transmuted in an accelerator-driven system. Apparently this project is backed at the highest levels of MINATOM and the Alphabet Company has the funding to proceed.

  16. THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS-SPHEROID STELLAR MASS RELATION FOR SERSIC AND CORE-SERSIC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W; Schombert, James

    2013-05-01

    We have examined the relationship between supermassive black hole mass (M{sub BH}) and the stellar mass of the host spheroid (M{sub sph,*}) for a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. To derive the spheroid stellar masses we used improved Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub s}-band photometry from the ARCHANGEL photometry pipeline. Dividing our sample into core-Sersic and Sersic galaxies, we find that they are described by very different M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relations. For core-Sersic galaxies-which are typically massive and luminous, with M{sub BH} {approx}> 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to} M{sub sph,*}{sup 0.97{+-}0.14}, consistent with other literature relations. However, for the Sersic galaxies-with typically lower masses, M{sub sph,*} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to}M{sub sph,*}{sup 2.22{+-}0.58}, a dramatically steeper slope that differs by more than 2 standard deviations. This relation confirms that, for Sersic galaxies, M{sub BH} is not a constant fraction of M{sub sph,*}. Sersic galaxies can grow via the accretion of gas which fuels both star formation and the central black hole, as well as through merging. Their black hole grows significantly more rapidly than their host spheroid, prior to growth by dry merging events that produce core-Sersic galaxies, where the black hole and spheroid grow in lockstep. We have additionally compared our Sersic M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relation with the corresponding relation for nuclear star clusters, confirming that the two classes of central massive object follow significantly different scaling relations.

  17. High-mg granitoids (sanukitoids) of the Baltic Shield geological setting, geochemical characteristics and implications for the origin of mantle-derived melts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach-Zhuchenko, S.; Chekulaev, V.; Arestova, N.; Kovalenko, A.; Ivanikov, V.; Gooseva, N.; Rollinson, H.

    2003-04-01

    High-Mg granitoids (sanukitoids) occur in three domains of the Baltic Shields: Kola-Norwegian , West-Karelian and Central-Karelian. Their age ranges from 2762±6 to 2720±15 Ma. The plutons are postkinematic intrusions, which cut folded and metamorphosed supracrustals and TTGs. The emplacement of the Porosozero pluton post-dates the folding and metamorphism of the host rocks by 120 Ma [Kudrjashov,1999; Balashov et al.,1992]. In contrast the Kuitilla pluton intruded synchronously (~2745 Ma ago) with volcanism within the Ilomantsy Belt [Vaasjoki et al., 1993]. All plutons are characterized by high mg-numbers (0.45-0.60) , high Sr,Ba,P and LREE. The REE show fractionated, subparalled patterns (LaN/YbN=10-30 in West Karelia, 30-70 in North Karelia and 40-170 in Kola Peninsula). Eu/Eu* is normally ~1, apart from the Hautavaara and Kuitilla plutons which have Eu/Eu* <1. The plutons contain units which vary in composition from diorite and monzodiorite to Quartz-syenite and granodiorite. These compositional variations can be explained by crystal-fractionation processes. For example, the Kurgenlampi lopolith (~200 m thickness) ranges in composition from diorite at the bottom to granodiorite at the top of the intrusion due to the accumulation of apatite and amphibole in the lower part of the intrusion.The formation of a clinopyroxene-rich cumulate layer in the Hizhjarvi pluton is thought to be the means whereby the residual melt became enriched in alkalis and depleted in Mg. Three different fractionation trends have been recognised (using the classification of Frost et al.,2001): (1) alkalic from monzogabbro or monzodiorite to quartz-syenite (Hizhjarvi, Sjargozero. Panozero, Elmus plutons), (2) alkali-calc from monzodiorite to granodiorite (Kuitilla, Nuk,Jalonvaara plutons), and (3) calc-alkalic from gabbro-diorite to granodiorite (Chalka, Porosozero plutons). Some plutons (Kurgenlampi, for example) have compositions which lie along the boundary between (2) and (3) fields

  18. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

  19. Trace elements in organic- and iron-rich surficial fluids of the boreal zone: Assessing colloidal forms via dialysis and ultrafiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, E. V.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Oliva, P.; Dupré, B.; Martin, F.; Candaudap, F.

    2010-01-01

    On-site size fractionation of about 40 major and trace elements (TE) was performed on waters from boreal small rivers and their estuaries in the Karelia region of North-West Russia around the "Vetreny Belt" mountain range and in Paanajärvi National Park (Northern Karelia). Samples were filtered in the field using a progressively decreasing pore size (5 μm, 2.5 (3) μm, 0.22 (0.45) μm, 100 kDa, 10 and 1 kDa) by means of frontal filtration and ultrafiltration (UF) techniques and employing in-situ dialysis with 10 and 1 kDa membranes followed by ICP-MS analysis. For most samples, dialysis yields a systematically higher (factor of 2-3) proportion of colloidal forms compared to UF. Nevertheless, dialysis is able to provide a fast and artefact-free in-situ separation of colloidal and dissolved components. Similar to previous studies in European subarctic zones, poor correlation of iron concentration with that of organic carbon (OC) in (ultra)filtrates and dialysates reflect the presence of two pools of colloids composed of organic-rich and Fe-rich particles. All major anions and silica are present as dissolved species (or solutes) passing through the 1-kDa membrane. Size-separation ultrafiltration experiments show the existence of larger or smaller pools of colloidal particles different for each of the considered elements. The effect of rock lithology (acidic versus basic) on the colloidal speciation of TE is seen solely in the increase of Fe and some accompanying TE concentrations in catchment areas dominated by basic rocks compared to granitic catchments. Neither the ultrafiltration pattern nor the relative proportions of colloidal versus truly dissolved TE are affected by the lithology of the underlying rocks: within ±10% uncertainty, the two colloidal (10 kDa-0.22 μm and 1-10 kDa) and the truly dissolved (<1 kDa) pools show no difference in percentage of TE distribution between two types of bedrock lithology. The same conclusion is held for organic- and Fe

  20. The crustal structure of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield and central part of the East-European platform based on seismic, regional geophysic and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mints, M. V.; Berzin, R. G.; Babayants, P. S.; Konilov, A. N.; Suleimanov, A. K.; Zamozhniaya, N. G.; Zlobin, V. L.

    2003-04-01

    The 1-EU and 4B CDP transects worked out during 1998-2002 years by "Spetsgeophyzica", together with previously developed CDP profiles, have crossed most of the main tectonic units of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield and central part of the East-European platform. They provide seismic images of the Early Precambrian crust and upper mantle from the surface to about 80 km depth (25 s). The Neoarchaean granite-greenstone complexes of the Karelia craton along the 4B profile form a series of the tectonic slices descending eastward, some of which can be traced to the Moho. The Palaeoproterozoic structures presented by two main types: (1) volcano-sedimentary (VS) and (2) granulite-gneiss (GN) belts. The Pechenga-Varzuga VS belt has been identified as overthrust-underthrust southward-dipping package. Tectonic slices formed by the Palaeoproterozoic VS belts alternating with slices of the Neoarchaean granite-gneisses form the imbricated crustal unit that extends along the eastern margin of the Neoarchaean Karelia craton. The slices dip steeply northeastward flattening and partially juxtaposing at 20 km depth at the 1-EU cross-section. This level, which can be understood as the surface of main detachment, ascends westward. An imbrication and related thickening of the crust was caused by displacement of crustal slices in western and southwestern directions because of the Palaeoproterozoic collision event. The Palaeoproterozoic Onega unit comprising VS assemblages originated in a setting of the rifted passive margin forms the northwestward displaced thrust nappe complex. It is considered initially belonging to the southern edge of the Svecofennian passive margin. The Lapland GN belt has been transected by the Polar and EGGI profiles. Both cross-sections demonstrated that it constitutes thick composite crustal-scale tectonic slice. According to geophysical data, the continuation of the Lapland GN belt beneath the platform cover of the East European Craton forms an extended arch

  1. Epidemiology of Sindbis virus infections in Finland 1981-96: possible factors explaining a peculiar disease pattern.

    PubMed

    Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Vapalahti, O; Kuusisto, P; Saikku, P; Manni, T; Koskela, P; Nygren, T; Brummer-Korvenkontio, H; Vaheri, A

    2002-10-01

    Pogosta disease (PD), an epidemic rash-arthritis occurring in late summer is caused by Sindbis virus (SINV) and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Altogether 2183 PD cases were serologically confirmed 1981-96 in Finland, with an annual incidence of 2.7/100000 (18 in the most endemic area of Northern Karelia). The annual average was 136 (varying from 1 to 1282) with epidemics occurring in August-September with a 7-year interval. Studies on 6320 patients with suspected rubella (1973-89) revealed 107 PD cases. The depth of snow cover and the temperature in May-July seemed to predict the number of cases. The morbidity was highest in 45- to 65-year-old females and lowest in children. Subclinical SINV infections were 17 times more common than the clinical ones. The SINV-antibody prevalence in fertile-age females was 0.6% in 1992; the estimated seroprevalence in Finland is about 2%. Among game animals the tetraonids (black grouse and capercaillie) had the highest seroprevalence (65%) in the epidemic year of 1981. PMID:12403109

  2. The Tturbulent Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Small Northern Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repina, I.; Stepanenko, V.; Artamonov, A.; Barskov, K.; Polukhov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland and freshwater ecosystems of the Northern Europe are an important natural source of atmospheric methane. Adequate calculation of gas emission from the northern territories requires calculation of balances of heat, moisture, and gases at the surface of water bodies on the sub-grid scale in the climate models. We carried out measurements in North Karelia on the lake Verkhneye (White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University). The purpose of the study is evaluation of turbulent transport in the system "lake water- near-surface air - surrounding forest" in the winter season. We used an array of acoustic anemometers mounted at different distances from the lake shore. Measurements were taken at two heights in the center of the lake. It was revealed that the intensity of the turbulent transfer essentially depends on the height and location of sensors, and the wind direction. Stratification in the near-to-surface air probably does not play significant role. Besides, there is no constant-flux layer. The later makes Monin and Obukhov similarity theory (which is used in most of the parameterizations for calculating turbulent flows) inapplicable in this case. The work was sponsored by RFBR 14-05-91752, 14-05-91764, 15-35-20958.

  3. A mobile phone application for the collection of opinion data for forest planning purposes.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis.

  4. A Mobile Phone Application for the Collection of Opinion Data for Forest Planning Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis.

  5. Bulding and Ornamental Stone in the History of St Petersburg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    First, the Our Lady of Kazan Orthodox Cathedral and some mansions are used to demonstrate Russian stones in the architectural décor of St Petersburg, XVIII-XX cc. These rocks are granites from Vyborg and Sortavala, lime tufa from Gatchina, marbles from Ruskeala and Juven at the Ladoga Lake, Tivdian marble, Shokshian quartzite, and black aspid slate of the Onega Lake. Later German and Polish sandstones and Finnish soap stone came to the city. Second, there is given a review of rock types used in St Petersburg at XX-XXI cc. margins. They are granites, granosyenites, syenites, gneisses, marbles, limestones both from Russia and from abroad. Which ones are more usual? From what regions did Russian stone come? References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print. House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. 2) A.Ya. Tutakova, A.Z. Romanovskiy, A.G. Bulakh, V.I. Leer. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p. (In Russian).

  6. Midlife coffee and tea drinking and the risk of late-life dementia: a population-based CAIDE study.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Marjo H; Ngandu, Tiia; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2009-01-01

    Caffeine stimulates central nervous system on a short term. However, the long-term impact of caffeine on cognition remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between coffee and/or tea consumption at midlife and dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in late-life. Participants of the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study were randomly selected from the survivors of a population-based cohorts previously surveyed within the North Karelia Project and the FINMONICA study in 1972, 1977, 1982 or 1987 (midlife visit). After an average follow-up of 21 years, 1409 individuals (71%) aged 65 to 79 completed the re-examination in 1998. A total of 61 cases were identified as demented (48 with AD). Coffee drinkers at midlife had lower risk of dementia and AD later in life compared with those drinking no or only little coffee adjusted for demographic, lifestyle and vascular factors, apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and depressive symptoms. The lowest risk (65% decreased) was found in people who drank 3-5 cups per day. Tea drinking was relatively uncommon and was not associated with dementia/AD. Coffee drinking at midlife is associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD later in life. This finding might open possibilities for prevention of dementia/AD.

  7. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  8. Sindbis virus infection in resident birds, migratory birds, and humans, Finland.

    PubMed

    Kurkela, Satu; Rätti, Osmo; Huhtamo, Eili; Uzcátegui, Nathalie Y; Nuorti, J Pekka; Laakkonen, Juha; Manni, Tytti; Helle, Pekka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2008-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV), a mosquito-borne virus that causes rash and arthritis, has been causing outbreaks in humans every seventh year in northern Europe. To gain a better understanding of SINV epidemiology in Finland, we searched for SINV antibodies in 621 resident grouse, whose population declines have coincided with human SINV outbreaks, and in 836 migratory birds. We used hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests for the bird samples and enzyme immunoassays and hemagglutination-inhibition for the human samples. SINV antibodies were first found in 3 birds (red-backed shrike, robin, song thrush) during their spring migration to northern Europe. Of the grouse, 27.4% were seropositive in 2003 (1 year after a human outbreak), but only 1.4% were seropositive in 2004. Among 2,529 persons, the age-standardized seroprevalence (1999-2003) was 5.2%; seroprevalence and incidence (1995-2003) were highest in North Karelia (eastern Finland). Grouse may contribute to the epidemiology of SINV in humans.

  9. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed. PMID:18294359

  10. Geological occurrence of fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Buseck, P.R.; Tsipursky, S.J.; Wang, S. ); Hettich, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Using HRTEM imaging, the authors found C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fullerenes in shungite, a Precambrian carbon-rich rock from Karelia, Russia. Compositionally, shungite represents coals of the meta-anthracite rank, characterized by low ash and sulfur contents, low volatile yields, and high carbon contents. The shungite occurs within metamorphosed sediments. The overlying rocks consist of gray dolomitized sandstones and poorly sorted silts and clays; the underlying rocks are not exposed. The shungite consists of masses containing up to 99% carbon. Diabase is interstratified with shungite-bearing rocks, and the shungite concentration increases with proximity to the diabase. Their sample comes from inclusions in the diabase. In the HRTEM images the fullerenes appear round (presumably roughly spherical in three dimensions), with white rims and black centers, almost identical to images of synthetic C[sub 60] molecules. Following the HRTEM observations, the fullerene identities were confirmed, first by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and then by more precise laser ablation, laser desorption, and thermal desorption ionization plus Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometry. These measurements verified that the fullerenes were not generated by the laser ionization event. HRTEM images show that locally they occur in ordered arrays that resemble crystals of synthetic C[sub 60]. FT mass spectra show that the C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios for C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fall within the normal range of terrestrial isotopic values.

  11. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).

  12. Spectroscopic study of the microbial community in chemocline zones of relic meromictic lakes separating from the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2015-03-01

    As a result of a recent years study on the Karelia shore of the White Sea more than ten relict lakes in different stages of separation from the sea have been discovered. Five of them are located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University. Such separated lakes are interesting to explore for their firm vertical stratification. Water layers differ not only by temperature, salinity and other physic and chemical characteristics and optical properties, but also by ibhabiting microorganisms and by the quality of dissolved organic matter. To study phototropic organisms in water sampled from different depths we used spectroscopic techniques. Identification of the main bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that there are two main groups of photosynthetic organisms in the redox zone (chemocline): unicellular algae containing chlorophyll a and green sulfur bacteria with bacteriochlorophylls c, d, e. Spectral data were compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water layer (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and sunlight illumination at certain depth). It gave an opportunity to compare vertical profiles of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentration with the number and distribution of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms. Maximum abundance of both algae and green sulfur bacteria were achieved within the redox zone. Typical thickness of the layer with the highest concentration of microorganisms did not exceed 10-20 cm.

  13. Predictions of epidemiology and the evaluation of cancer control measures and the setting of policy priorities.

    PubMed

    Hakulinen, T; Hakama, M

    1991-01-01

    Cancer incidence predictions may be constructed for administrative and scientific purposes. For administrative purposes it is often important that the predictions come true. The resources planned on the basis of the predictions and allocated on the diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation can then be optimally utilized. However, predictions that do not materialize can also be useful. The effects of intervention or early detection programmes express themselves as failures of predictions that have been made in the absence of such programmes. Predictions of cancer incidence in Finland are used as examples. The prerequisite for the predictions is a well-functioning population-based cancer registry. The predictions were constructed using time trends and differentials in cancer incidence with or without the aetiological or other risk factors. Short-term, 10-15 year predictions with no explicit use of risk factors, have proven successful with most cancers, e.g. those of the colon, rectum, pancreas and urinary organs, and lymphomas. The marked prediction failures have occurred for cancers of the lung and breast. Predictions for these cancers have been improved by taking aetiological or other risk factors explicitly into account. The cancer consequences of the preventive cardiovascular programme in North Karelia have been evaluated using predictions. The effectiveness of screening for cervical cancer at population level was predicted on the basis of estimated parameters of the natural history of the disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Ergonomic evaluation and comparison of wood harvesting systems in Northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Sokolov, Anton

    2014-03-01

    A comparison of 14 currently applicable wood harvesting systems was assessed with respect to ergonomic point of view. For this purpose, the research method, based on the Hodges-Lehmann rule and the integrated work-severity rate of single machinery, was developed for ergonomic evaluation of cut-to-length, tree-length and full-tree harvesting systems. Altogether, about 130 different parameters of 36 units of equipment that impact on the ergonomics and work conditions were measured and estimated in interviews undertaken directly at forestry harvesting workplaces in 15 logging companies in the Republic of Karelia, Northwest Russia. Then the results were compared to the effective norms, and the degree of compliance with the stipulated values was determined. The estimates obtained for the degree of compliance were combined. This permits a direct comparison of the workload on forestry harvesting workers such as operators, lumberjacks and choker setters. In many respects, the current ergonomic standard is standard, except for the operators of cable skidders, chainsaws and choker settings. Visibility and work postures were considered to be the most critical features influencing the operator's performance. Problems still exist, despite the extensive development of cabs. The best working conditions in terms of harvesting systems were provided by "harvester + forwarder" in cut-to-length harvesting, and "feller-buncher + grapple skidder" in full-tree harvesting. The motor-manual tree-length harvesting performed with cable skidders showed the worst results in terms of ergonomics.

  15. Review of community intervention studies on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gyarfas, I

    1992-01-01

    The concept of community intervention in the field of cardiovascular disease prevention was introduced in the late sixties and early seventies. The WHO European Collaborative Trial in the multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease used communities (factories) in a traditional controlled trial. The intervention used in this trial was an extension of a medical care model with preventive elements. The first two major community intervention projects in CVD prevention--the North Karelia Project and the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Programme--were the basis of further WHO and NHLBI coordinated projects. They have used community-based population-wide strategies including existing community leadership, social networks, mass campaigns and extensive direct education for the general population. In the evaluation of those projects quasi-experimental models are used because "perfect experiments" are not possible. Some projects have proven the feasibility of community intervention and its positive impact on lifestyles and cardiovascular risk factors in a whole population and that such a development is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality rates. PMID:1541038

  16. Community-based noncommunicable disease interventions: lessons from developed countries for developing ones.

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, A.; Berrios, X.; Puska, P.

    2001-01-01

    Community-based programmes for prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) started in Europe and the USA in the early 1970s. High mortality from CVD in Finland led to the start of the North Karelia Project. Since then, a vast amount of scientific literature has accumulated to present results and discuss experience. The results indicate that heart health programmes have a high degree of generalizability, are cost-effective and can influence health policy. In the 1980s the focus of programmes expanded from CVD to noncommunicable diseases (NCD), mainly because of the common risk factors. Attention has now turned to promoting this approach in developing countries, where the prevalence of NCD is growing. Theory and experience show that community-based NCD programmes should be planned, run and evaluated according to clear principles and rules, collaborate with all sectors of the community, and maintain close contact with the national authorities. In view of the burden of disease they represent and of globalization, there is a great need for international collaboration. Practical networks with common guidelines but adaptable to local cultures in a flexible way have proved to be very useful. PMID:11693979

  17. [Opening up of the Far North and demographic health processes].

    PubMed

    Iag'ia, N S

    1981-01-01

    The Far North in the USSR has a great inflow of persons of working age. The influx is expected to continue in the future, even though the labor pool in the southern regions from which these are drawn will increase much more slowly in the 1980's. The area is becoming more urbanized, mainly through growth of the older towns into cities. The native peoples are flourishing, and their numbers increasing steadily, in some cases by as much as 25% since 1970. There is a tendency for females to predominate in the over 40 age group because of the higher mortality of males. The birthrate has declined in the North, but not as rapidly as in the central regions. In the Asiatic North the birthrate is higher in the villages than in the cities. In the European North they are equal, and in Karelia it is higher in the cities. Clearly conscious planning of family size is occurring everywhere. Nonetheless the rates of growth of the native populations are very high. In the 1970's there was a slight increase in mortality for the country as a whole, including in the North. It is necessary to have a demographic policy for this region which provides for material and social prestige inducements for a higher birthrate.

  18. Revision of the Japanese Ablabesmyia (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae), with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Niitsuma, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese species of Ablabesmyia Johannsen are reviewed on the basis of the type material and the specimens obtained recently. Four species of the subgenus Ablabesmyia, A. (A.) monilis (Linnaeus), A. (A.) amamisimplex Sasa, A. (A.)jogancornua Sasa et Okazawa and A. (A.) prorasha Kobayashi et Kubota, are recognized as valid. The adults, male and female, and the immature stages, pupa and larva, of the first species and the adult males of the remaining are redescribed, while the female adults and both immature stages of A. (A.) amamisimplex and A. (A.) jogancornua, and both immature stages of A. (A.) prorasha are described here for the first time. Reexamination of the holotypes of A. (A.) amamisimplex and A. (A.) jogancornua has shown that the respective original descriptions contain errors in some diagnostic aspects, which are corrected in this study. In addition, the male and female adults, pupa and larva of a new species of the subgenus Karelia Roback, A. (K.) nakarchenkoi n. sp., and the male adults of two new species, A. (K.) lata n. sp. and A. (K.) perexilis n. sp., are described and illustrated.

  19. Lost and found: Short-term dynamics of the flora on 100 small islands in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipunov, Alexey; Volkova, Polina; Abramova, Liudmila; Borisova, Polina

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to uncover factors that influence short-term (decade) flora dynamics and species richness of northern marine islets characterized by poor flora and weak anthropogenic pressure. The study used presence-absence data of vascular plant species on 100 small uprising islets of the Kandalaksha Gulf of White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia). We investigated the influence of islands' attributes on species richness and rates of flora dynamics. Two island types were analyzed separately: younger, stone-like and older, islet-like (which generally are larger and have higher diversity of habitats). Sampled islands were studied via classical biogeographical per island approach and metapopulation per species approach. Stone-like islands had noticeably poorer flora with higher rates of immigration and extinction when compared to those of islet-like islands. The species number for islet-like islands correlated positively with number of habitats, abundance of different habitat types and island area. Species richness of stone-like islands correlated positively only with number of habitat types. Plant species associated with birds, crowberry thickets and coastal rocks were the most stable, and the species of disturbed habitats were significantly less stable. Floristic changes that have occurred have been caused by the massive establishment of new species rather than the extinction of pre-existing taxa. Thus, most of these islands are still in the colonization (assortative) stage. While we found no relationship between island area and species number for stone-like islands, this relationship was seen on islet-like islands.

  20. A mobile phone application for the collection of opinion data for forest planning purposes.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis. PMID:25579620

  1. New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Golubev, A. I.; Alekseev, V. Yu.

    2011-09-01

    A wide application of modern precision research techniques to the studies of Pitkyaranta ores allowed us to find increased contents of indium (to 0.33%), silver (447 g/t), gold (0.2-0.4 g/t), and palladium (0.2 g/t). A series of rare minerals previously not found here was also discovered. Among ore minerals, these are roquesite, zavartskite, electrum, stutzite, altaite, bismite, glaucodot, cervelleite, hedleyite, pavonite, cannonite, plantnerite, lindkvistite, ashoverite, etc. The discovery of roquesite and electrum is the most important in terms of metallogeny. Roquesite (indium sulfide) is found in Karelia for the first time. The highest indium contents in direct correlation to those of zinc are characteristic for polymetallic ores of the Pitkyaranta ore fields with sphalerite as the concentrating mineral (to 0.5% of In). The predicted zinc resources are evaluated to ˜2.5 million t for the Pitkyaranta group of ore deposits, and to 400 000 t for the Hopunvaara region. Respectively, the resources of indium amount to ˜2400 t (total) and 600 t for the Hopunvaara region.

  2. Haplotype structure and population genetic inferences from nucleotide-sequence variation in human lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A G; Weiss, K M; Nickerson, D A; Taylor, S L; Buchanan, A; Stengård, J; Salomaa, V; Vartiainen, E; Perola, M; Boerwinkle, E; Sing, C F

    1998-01-01

    Allelic variation in 9.7 kb of genomic DNA sequence from the human lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) was scored in 71 healthy individuals (142 chromosomes) from three populations: African Americans (24) from Jackson, MS; Finns (24) from North Karelia, Finland; and non-Hispanic Whites (23) from Rochester, MN. The sequences had a total of 88 variable sites, with a nucleotide diversity (site-specific heterozygosity) of .002+/-.001 across this 9.7-kb region. The frequency spectrum of nucleotide variation exhibited a slight excess of heterozygosity, but, in general, the data fit expectations of the infinite-sites model of mutation and genetic drift. Allele-specific PCR helped resolve linkage phases, and a total of 88 distinct haplotypes were identified. For 1,410 (64%) of the 2,211 site pairs, all four possible gametes were present in these haplotypes, reflecting a rich history of past recombination. Despite the strong evidence for recombination, extensive linkage disequilibrium was observed. The number of haplotypes generally is much greater than the number expected under the infinite-sites model, but there was sufficient multisite linkage disequilibrium to reveal two major clades, which appear to be very old. Variation in this region of LPL may depart from the variation expected under a simple, neutral model, owing to complex historical patterns of population founding, drift, selection, and recombination. These data suggest that the design and interpretation of disease-association studies may not be as straightforward as often is assumed. PMID:9683608

  3. Palaeointensity and palaeodirectional studies of early Riphaean dyke complexes in the Lake Ladoga region (Northwestern Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Mertanen, S.; Zhidkov, G. V.; Vasilieva, T. I.; Tsel'movich, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    Results of palaeointensity and palaeomagnetic studies for the volcanic rocks of 1450 Ma, from Early Riphaean Baltic shield dyke complex sampled in Lake Ladoga region (Karelia, Northwestern Russia) are reported. Electron microscope observations, thermomagnetic and hysteresis measurements indicate the presence of single domain (SD) to pseudo-single domain (PSD) titanomagnetite (TM) with low Ti content as the main magnetic mineral. Stepwise alternating field (AF) and/or thermal demagnetization revealed a two-component natural remanent magnetization (NRM) for most of the samples. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) component was isolated between 440 and 590 °C. Note that the ChRM amounts to 95 per cent of the NRM intensity. The geographic position of the ChRM palaeopoles does not contradict the `key poles' of the [1270 1580] Myr time interval, testifying anticlockwise rotation of whole East Europe Craton between 1450 and 1500 Ma. Palaeointensity determinations were performed by Coe-modified Thellier procedure. 35 samples passed our palaeointensity selection criteria and show large linear segments on Arai-Nagata plots. The site mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) varies from 2.00 to 3.91 (×1022 Am2). Based on these and other observations, we suggest that the Palaeo- and MezoProterozoic was dominated by low VDMs.

  4. New paleomagnetic data from 1.80-1.75 Ga mafic intrusions of Fennoscandia and Sarmatia: implications for the late Paleoproterozoic paleogeography of Baltica and Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevsky, Sergei; Lubnina, Natalia; Sokolov, Svetoslav; Bogdanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    A series of recently dated 1.78-1.75 Ga lamprophyre and shoshonite intrusions are exposed north of Ladoga Lake in southern Karelia (Fennoscandia). We carried out a paleomagnetic study of these intrusions and an additional study of the coeval gabbro-dolerite Ropruchey sill near the Onega Lake. All studied rocks carry a stable primary remanence supported by positive contact tests. We also studied 14 mafic dykes and 1 mafic sill from Ukrainian shield (Sarmatia). Most of these intrusions have been dated or re-dated recently by U-Pb (baddeleyite) method at 1.80-1.75 Ga. Ukrainian dykes also carry a consistent stable bipolar remanence. Two positive contact tests suggest that this remanence is primary. A comparison of new and previously published paleomagnetic data shows a significant difference between Fennoscandian and Sarmatian 1.80-1.75 Ga paleopoles. This implies that the final assemble of Baltica by docking of Volgo-Sarmatia and Fennoscandia occurred after 1.75 Ga. Consequently these two parts of Baltica should be considered as independent blocks in pre-1.75 Ga paleogeographic reconstructions. Using late Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia together with geological constraints we have built a new kinematic paleogeographic model for Laurentia and Baltica in the Statherian.

  5. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  6. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  7. Lithological 3D grid model of the Vuonos area built by using geostatistical simulation honoring the 3D fault model and structural trends of the Outokumpu association rocks in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu mining district - a metallogenic province about 100 km long x 60 km wide - hosts a Palaeoproterozoic sulfide deposit characterized by an unusual lithological association. It is located in the North Karelia Schist Belt , which was thrust on the late Archaean gneissic-granitoid basement of the Karelian craton during the early stages of the Svecofennian Orogeny between 1.92 and 1.87 Ga (Koistinen 1981). Two major tectono-stratigraphic units can be distinguished, a lower, parautochthonous 'Lower Kaleva' unit and an upper, allochthonous 'upper Kaleva' unit or 'Outokumpu allochthon'. The latter consists of tightly-folded deep marine turbiditic mica schists and metagraywackes containing intercalations of black schist, and the Outo¬kumpu assemblage, which comprises ca. 1950 Ma old, serpentinized peridotites surrounded by carbonate-calc-silicate ('skarn')-quartz rocks. The ore body is enclosed in the Outokumpu assemblage, which is thought to be part of a disrupted and incomplete ophiolite complex (Vuollo & Piirainen 1989) that can be traced to the Kainuu schist belt further north where the well-preserved Jormua ophiolite is ex¬posed (Kontinen 1987, Peltonen & Kontinen 2004). Outokumpu can be divided into blocks divided by faults and shear zones (Saalmann and Laine, 2014). The aim of this study was to make a 3D lithological model of a small part of the Outokumpu association rocks in the Vuonos area honoring the 3D fault model built by Saalmann and Laine (2014). The Vuonos study area is also a part of the Outokumpu mining camp area (Aatos et al. 2013, 2014). Fault and shear structures was used in geostatistical gridding and simulation of the lithologies. Several possible realizations of the structural grids, conforming the main lithological trends were built. Accordingly, it was possible to build a 3D structural grid containing information of the distribution of the possible lithologies and an estimation the associated uncertainties. References: Aatos, S

  8. The Position of Baltica During 700-450 Ma Ago: New Data from the Janisjarvi Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salminen, J.; Masaitis, V. L.; Naumov, M.; Deutsch, A.; Pesonen, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    Paleomagnetic reconstructions of continents are often hampered by the lack of dated poles for key intervals. Impact rocks can occasionally provide a solution to the problem since they can be accurately dated and they often yield reliable paleomagnetic data. We present new paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data for Baltica derived from the Janisjarvi impact structure, Russian Karelia, the southeastern part of Fennoscandian Shield. Isotopic datings (40Ar-39Ar, 40K-40Ar) yield an age ˜ 700 Ma for this impact event. Some 50 oriented hand samples were collected from the Janisjarvi impact structure. The a.f. demagnetization is able to isolate a hard and stable remanence component in the impactites (tagamites, suevites and breccias). The same component was also identified in several Svecofennian ( ˜ 1880 Ma) target rocks on and near the shoreline of Lake Janisjarvi. The target rocks retained also a primary Svecofennian component thus providing a fully positive impact test. Demagnetization data, coupled with rock magnetic results, suggest that the impact component, of dual polarity, is primary and either of thermal or thermochemical origin. The remanent magnetization direction from 16 sites is D = 74\\deg, I = 72\\deg (alfa95 = 2.1\\deg). This yields a pole position Plat. = 54\\deg N, Plon. = 96\\deg E (A95 = 3.5\\deg) which places Baltica to 60ºS paleolatitude at 700 Ma. When plotting the pole on the calibrated APWP of Baltica a magnetization age of 500-478 Ma is obtained. Five possible reasons may explain the conflicting isotopic and paleomagnetic ages: 1. post-impact tilting of the impactites, 2. remagnetization, 3. error in the isotopic ages, 4. error in the APWP, or 5. inaccurate pole. The Late Precambrian to Lower Ordovician reconstructions of Baltica based on the new data from the Janisjarvi impact structure will be discussed.

  9. Chiral Biomarkers and Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as ?bio-discriminators? that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  10. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene.

  11. Self rated health and mortality: a long term prospective study in eastern Finland

    PubMed Central

    Heistaro, S; Jousilahti, P; Lahelma, E; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between self rated health and mortality over a period of 23 years, taking into account medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, and education at the beginning of the follow up.
DESIGN—A cohort of random population samples. The baseline studies included a self administered questionnaire and a health examination. Mortality data were collected from the national mortality register using personal identification numbers.
SETTING—The provinces of North Karelia and Kuopio in eastern Finland.
PARTICIPANTS—Random samples of working age people (n=21 302) from the population register.
MAIN RESULTS—For self rated health, the age adjusted poor to good relative risk for all cause mortality was 2.36 (95% confidence intervals 2.10, 2.64) for men and 1.90 (1.63, 2.22) for women, and for cardiovascular mortality 2.29 (1.96, 2.68) for men and 2.34 (1.84, 2.96) for women. Adjusted for selected potentially fatal diseases from the subjects' medical histories, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and education, the corresponding relative risks for all cause mortality were 1.66 (1.47, 1.88) for men and 1.50 (1.26, 1.78) for women, and for cardiovascular mortality 1.54 (1.29, 1.82) for men and 1.63 (1.26, 2.10) for women. The association between self rated health and mortality attributable to external causes was fairly strong.
CONCLUSIONS—Poor self rated health is a strong predictor of mortality, and the association is only partly explained by medical history, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and education.


Keywords: self rated health; mortality; Finland PMID:11238576

  12. Is reporting on interventions a weak link in understanding how and why they work? A preliminary exploration using community heart health exemplars

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Barbara L; MacDonald, JoAnne; Mansi, Omaima; Kothari, Anita; Kurtz, Donna; vonTettenborn, Linda I; Edwards, Nancy C

    2008-01-01

    Background The persistent gap between research and practice compromises the impact of multi-level and multi-strategy community health interventions. Part of the problem is a limited understanding of how and why interventions produce change in population health outcomes. Systematic investigation of these intervention processes across studies requires sufficient reporting about interventions. Guided by a set of best processes related to the design, implementation, and evaluation of community health interventions, this article presents preliminary findings of intervention reporting in the published literature using community heart health exemplars as case examples. Methods The process to assess intervention reporting involved three steps: selection of a sample of community health intervention studies and their publications; development of a data extraction tool; and data extraction from the publications. Publications from three well-resourced community heart health exemplars were included in the study: the North Karelia Project, the Minnesota Heart Health Program, and Heartbeat Wales. Results Results are organized according to six themes that reflect best intervention processes: integrating theory, creating synergy, achieving adequate implementation, creating enabling structures and conditions, modifying interventions during implementation, and facilitating sustainability. In the publications for the three heart health programs, reporting on the intervention processes was variable across studies and across processes. Conclusion Study findings suggest that limited reporting on intervention processes is a weak link in research on multiple intervention programs in community health. While it would be premature to generalize these results to other programs, important next steps will be to develop a standard tool to guide systematic reporting of multiple intervention programs, and to explore reasons for limited reporting on intervention processes. It is our contention that

  13. Geochemical features of carbonatites of the Fennoscandian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, Yu. B.; Gorbachev, N. S.; Kostyuk, A. V.; Sultanov, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    The petrochemistry of carbonatites of three formation types were studied: (1) ultrahigh-pressure garnet-containing carbonatites (UHPC) of the Caledonian sheet (Tromsö, Norway); (2) rocks of the carbonatite—alkaline—ultrabasic Kovdor massif (the Kola Peninsula); and (3) rocks of the carbonatite—alkaline—gabbroid Tikshozero massif (north of Karelia). The samples of carbonatites were examined and tested with a microprobe; the microelements were determined using the ICP—MS technique at the Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Chernogolovka). The carbonatites of the Kovdor and Tikshozero massifs are characterized by similar negative REE trends, with a degree of REE enrichment of the Tikshozero carbonatites. The UHPC from Tromsö are different from those of the Kovdor and Tikshozero massifs in the negative trend along with lower concentrations of light REEs. The Tromsö UHPC are similar to the carbonatites of the Kovdor and Tikshozero massifs in the trend and concentrations of heavy REEs. The carbonatites of the Fennoscandian shield of various formation times and types are characterized by the geochemical similarity to those in different regions of the world with the sources associated to mantle plumes. This similarity might be caused by the formation of the mantle carbonated magmas of carbonatite-containing igneous complexes from a mantle source enriched under either mantle metasomatism or plume—lithosphere interaction, with similar mechanisms of formation. The appearance of the formations as such within a wide time interval points to the long-term occurrence of a superplume at the Fennoscandian shield and to permanent activation of the related processes of magma formation.

  14. The impact of photodestruction of metal-organic complexes on transport of metals from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, Mikhail; Vladimir, Demin; Yuliya, Zavgorodnyaya; Sergey, Lapitskiy

    2014-05-01

    of metal-organic complexes with and without influence of photoactivated oxygen and the large scale experiments for testing the developed models on the bog-lake ecosystems of Karelia and Kolsky Peninsula.

  15. Occurrence of parent-reported food hypersensitivities and food allergies among children aged 1-4 yr.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Näyhä, Simo; Kaila, Minna; Hiltunen, Liisa; Läärä, Esa

    2009-06-01

    Food allergies (FAs) and hypersensitivities (FHSs) have rarely been studied in large unselected child populations. This population-based cross-sectional survey estimated the occurrence of FHS as perceived by parents and that of FA diagnosed by a physician among children aged 1-4 yr in south-eastern Finland. Before the scheduled annual follow-up visit to the local child health clinic, the parents of children who were born between 1 April, 2001 and 31 March, 2005, and living in the Province of South Karelia (data from Finnish Population Register) were mailed a questionnaire containing items on the child's background, physician-diagnosed FAs and FHSs perceived by the parents. The questionnaires were returned during the visit. Three thousand three hundred and eight (69%) out of the 4779 questionnaires were returned. The lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed FAs was 9%. In an additional 21%, FHSs were perceived by the parents only. In a further 19% at least one food item had been eliminated from the diet without any perception of symptoms, this proportion having a downward trend by age. Physician-diagnosed FAs were more common in boys than in girls. Cow's milk was the most commonly reported cause of food-associated symptoms (13% of all children). One-third of the children aged 1-4 yr suffered from food-associated symptoms, and in an additional fifth at least one food item had been eliminated from their diet, implying that every other child had possibly been subjected to some form of elimination diet. PMID:19538354

  16. History and development of plant sterol and stanol esters for cholesterol-lowering purposes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gilbert R; Grundy, Scott M

    2005-07-01

    Plant stanol esters provide a novel approach to lowering plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by dietary means. Their development was preceded by a long period of research into the cholesterol-lowering properties of plant sterols and, recently, plant stanols. Both classes of compound competitively inhibit the absorption of cholesterol and thus lower its level in plasma. Initial impressions were that stanols were more effective and safer than sterols, but the negative outcome of a study led to the recognition that the lipid solubility of free stanols was very limited. This was overcome by esterifying them with fatty acids, with the resultant stanol esters being freely soluble in fat spreads. This led to the launch of Benecol (margarine; Raisio Group, Raisio, Finland) in 1995. The coincident publication of the year-long North Karelia study conclusively demonstrated the long-term LDL-lowering efficacy of plant stanol esters. Variables that might influence the efficacy of stanol esters include dose, frequency of administration, food vehicle in which the stanol ester is incorporated, and background diet. The effective dose is 1 to 3 g/day, expressed as free stanol, which, in placebo-controlled studies, decreased LDL cholesterol by 6% to 15%. This effect is maintained, appears to be similar with once-daily or divided dosage, and is independent of the fat content of the food vehicle. Short-term studies suggest that equivalent amounts of plant sterol and stanol esters are similarly effective in lowering LDL, the main difference being that plasma plant sterol levels increase on plant sterols and decrease on plant stanols. The clinical significance of these changes remains to be determined.

  17. Escape from an evolutionary dead end: a triploid clone of Gyrodactylus salaris is able to revert to sex and switch host (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Lumme, Jaakko

    2006-12-01

    Diploid parthenogenesis, with rare sex, is considered as the basic mode of reproduction among the hermaphroditic and viviparous Gyrodactylus. A particular strain of the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris (RBT clone) was recognized by an invariable, unique mitochondrial DNA haplotype in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms. The RBT clone was shown to be triploid and asexual by analyzing a 493 bp sequence of a nuclear DNA marker. Three alleles were present as heterozygous in all 237 individuals sampled in years 2001-2005 from five isolated Finnish farms. The triploid clone probably originated from a diploid oocyte fertilized by a non-self hermaphrodite, most probably in a fish farm. Identical mitochondrial COI gene (1606 bp) was also found in G. salaris parasites on landlocked salmon (Salmo salar) in two rivers draining to the lake Kuitozero, Russian Karelia. In the river Pisto, the clone was triploid, but the diagnostic "short" nuclear allele of the RBT clone was replaced by an allele typical for salmon specific parasites in the Lake Onega. The clone in the river Kurzhma was diploid, having lost the "short" allele, but still heterozygous for the other two alleles of the RBT clone. Evidently, the triploid parthenogenetic RBT clone had produced diploid oocytes, when (as a female) stimulated by a non-self mate in the new environment. The genetic reorganization coincided with a switch to the salmon host. Participation of triploids into the gene pool of the species is rarely reported in animals, and the triploidy is generally considered as an irreversible dead-end of the evolution. Liberalism in ploidy level may significantly add to the evolutionary options available for a parasite in ever-changing environments.

  18. Cladistic structure within the human Lipoprotein lipase gene and its implications for phenotypic association studies.

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, A R; Weiss, K M; Nickerson, D A; Boerwinkle, E; Sing, C F

    2000-01-01

    Haplotype variation in 9.7 kb of genomic DNA sequence from the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene was scored in three populations: African-Americans from Jackson, Mississippi (24 individuals), Finns from North Karelia, Finland (24), and non-Hispanic whites from Rochester, Minnesota (23). Earlier analyses had indicated that recombination was common but concentrated into a hotspot and that recurrent mutations at multiple sites may have occurred. We show that much evolutionary structure exists in the haplotype variation on either side of the recombinational hotspot. By peeling off significant recombination events from a tree estimated under the null hypothesis of no recombination, we also reveal some cladistic structure not disrupted by recombination during the time to coalescence of this variation. Additional cladistic structure is estimated to have emerged after recombination. Many apparent multiple mutational events at sites still remain after removing the effects of the detected recombination/gene conversion events. These apparent multiple events are found primarily at sites identified as highly mutable by previous studies, strengthening the conclusion that they are true multiple events. This analysis portrays the complexity of the interplay among many recombinational and mutational events that would be needed to explain the patterns of haplotype diversity in this gene. The cladistic structure in this region is used to identify four to six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that would provide disequilibrium coverage over much of this region. These sites may be useful in identifying phenotypic associations with variable sites in this gene. Evolutionary considerations also imply that the SNPs in the 3' region should have general utility in most human populations, but the 5' SNPs may be more population specific. Choosing SNPs at random would generally not provide adequate disequilibrium coverage of the sequenced region. PMID:11063700

  19. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar Age of the Janisjärvi Impact Structure (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, F.; Renne, P. R.; Reimold, U. W.

    2007-12-01

    The ~14 km Jänisjärvi impact structure occurs within the Svecofennian Proterozoic terrains, in the southeastern part of the Baltic shield, Karelia, Russia. Previous K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar studies were interpreted to give ages of 700 ± 5 Ma and 698 ± 22 Ma respectively, both results being difficult to interpret. Recent paleomagnetic results challenged those ages and propose instead ages of either 500 Ma or 850-900 Ma. In order to better constrain the age of the Jänisjärvi impact structure, we present new 40Ar/39Ar data for melt rocks from the crater. We obtained five concordant isochron ages (based on a total decay constant of 5.543 x 10-10/y and an age of 28.03 Ma for the FCs standard) that yield a combined isochron age of 682 ± 4 Ma (2 sigma) with a MSWD of 1.2, P = 0.14 and 40Ar/36Ar intercept of 475 ± 3. We suggest that this date indicates the age of the impact and therefore can be used in conjunction with existing paleomagnetic results to refine the position of the Baltica paleocontinent at this time. Argon isotopic results imply that melt homogenization has been achieved at the hundred-micron scale certainly because of the low-silica content of the molten target rock that allows fast 40Ar* diffusion in the melt. However, the large range of F(40Ar*inherited) (3 to 8 percents) observed for seven grains show that complete isotopic homogenization was not reached at the centimeter and perhaps millimeter scale. This result is in good agreement with previous Rb and Sr isotopic data.

  20. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene. PMID:26852572

  1. Chiral biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-09-01

    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as "bio-discriminators" that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  2. Widespread euxinia in the aftermath of the Lomagundi event: insights from a modeling study of ocean biogeochemical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of strongly sulphidic oceanic waters (euxinia) during the Proterozoic may have affected biological turnover, extinction, and evolution, not only because of its toxicity to eukaryotes but also because of its fundamental role on bioessential trace metal availability. From this point of view, the evidence for euxinic environments in the Lomagundi-Jatuli event (LJE) aftermath (~2.08-2.05 billion years ago) in Gabon and Karelia are notable because their low δ98/95Mo values (less than 0.95o and 0.85o respectively) imply widespread euxinia at that time. The Francevillian Group in Gabon represents the oxic-anoxic/euxinic transitional sequence, implying a fluctuation in the atmospheric redox condition from oxic to relatively reducing, possibly due to the oxidation of substantial amount of organic matter deposited during the LJE. The large positive anomaly of sulphur isotopes and a substantial contraction of marine sulphate reservoir size through the latter part of the LJE also imply a fall in surface oxidation state. Variations of the oxygenation state of the Earth's surface would have caused substantial changes in oceanic chemical composition and, in turn, would surely have impacted the biosphere. However, the nature and dynamics of oceanic biogeochemical cycles for this interval are poorly understood. To unravel cause and effect of the variations of oceanic redox state in the Paleoproteorozoic, we improved the CANOPS model (a 1-D advection-diffusion-reaction marine biogeochemical cycle model), in which coupled C-N-O-P-S marine biogeochemical cycles and a series of redox reactions were adequately taken into account. Through systematic sensitivity experiments we show that a substantial drop in atmospheric oxygen level could cause a widespread euxinia for millions of years, which provides a theoretical explanation consistent with the geological records, such as large positive anomaly of δ34S, low δ98/95Mo, and a decrease in SO4 concentration, in the

  3. Age constraints from northwest Russia on the global accumulation of carbon during the Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Condon, D. J.; Prave, A. R.; Lepland, A.; Melezhik, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event records significant organic-carbon accumulation in sediments correlated between the type-locality in northwest Russia's Onega Basin, the Francevillian series of Gabon, and Indian Palaeoproterozoic sections. The estimated burial of >25 x 10E +10 tonnes of C in the Shunga event is significant and hypotheses have suggested this accumulation as one causal mechanism to the large positive Lomagundi-Jatuli positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of marine carbonates. Conversely, is has been suggested that the Shunga event post-dates the termination (at c. 2060 Ma) of the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE and the two are not overlapping in time. Discrimination between these competing theories requires precise and accurate chronologies for the stratigraphic successions hosting the proxy records. We present new age constraints from a combination of primary volcanic rocks and sedimentary units recording the Shunga event, from the well preserved Palaeoproterozoic sections in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt (Kola craton) and Onega Paleo Basin (Karelia craton) northwest Russia, to further elucidate the unresolved question of timing between the Shunga event and the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE. Carbon accumulations of the Shunga event are recorded in the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt. Felsic lava flows and pyroclastic rocks, and mafic pyroclastic rocks, in the Pilgujärvi Volcanic Formation overlying the Pilgujärvi sediments yield zircons with concordant U-Pb ages between c. 1970 and 1903 Ma. In the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation detrital zircons yield a minimum age of c. 1922 Ma, equivalent to a minimum c. 1915 Ma age of detrital zircons in the underlying Kolosjoki Sedimentary Formation. Thrust over the main units of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt is a tectonic melange known as the South Pechenga Zone where zircons from an intermediate volcanic rock yield the first age from this zone at c. 1930 Ma. Samples from the Onega Basin are

  4. Reconstructing the redox conditions of Paleoproterozoic oceans: Insights from the Zaonega Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Neel; Zerkle, Aubrey; Izon, Gareth; Romashkin, Alexander; Rychanchik, Dmtriy; Upraus, Kärt; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Wing, Boswell; Lepland, Aivo

    2015-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic is marked by profound changes in global tectonics, climate and biogeochemical cycling of redox sensitive elements. Determining the redox state of marine environments at this point in Earth's history is fundamental in understanding the connections between the geosphere and biosphere, including possible microbially-assisted phosphogenesis. One hypothesis suggests that oxidative weathering following Earth's first significant rise in atmospheric oxygen, resulted in an increased supply of sulfate and phosphate to the oceans, culminating in the first significant phosphorite deposits some 300-400 Ma later (Lepland et al., 2013). Thus Paleoproterozoic ocean structure has been envisaged as stratified, through mildly oxygenated shallow water and anoxic deep water, with temporally and spatially variable phases of euxinia possibly linked to transient changes in the size of the seawater sulfate reservoir (Scott et al., 2014). New cores obtained from the upper part of the 2 Ga Zaonega Formation in the Onega Basin of Karelia, NW Russia, have recovered a variety of organic-rich mudstones and carbonate rocks, containing several discrete mm-cm scale P-rich beds that may represent seep or hydrothermally-influenced depositional settings (Lepland et al., 2013). Here we present new Fe-speciation data and pyrite derived S-isotope data spanning one of these new cores in order to: i) evaluate the redox state of the water column, determining the extent of water column euxinia, and ii) assess the potential influence of S-cycling on phosphogenesis. Preliminary Fe extractions show that total Fe is broadly dictated by lithology, but generally lower in samples where the P-rich intervals occur, possibly supporting extensive sulfate reduction and the formation of a euxinic water column. Further S-isotope analyses on associated pyrites will determine the extent to which additional biogeochemical S-cycling (e.g., sulfide oxidation) could also have contributed to the P

  5. Geochronology of the Palaeoproterozoic Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, Finnmark, Norway, in its Fennoscandian context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingen, Bernard; Solli, Arne; Viola, Giulio; Sverre Sandstad, Jan; Torgersen, Espen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Skår, Øyvind; Nasuti, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    metabasalts provide an EpsilonNd =+2.2 at 2137 Ma, fitting the secular Fennoscandian trend and more specifically continental mafic dikes in Karelia (EpsilonNd =+2.5 at 2140 Ma). The Ráiseatnu Gneiss Complex comprises amphibolite-facies granitic orthogneisses, intruded between 1868 ±13 and 1828 ±5 Ma. These orthogneisses contain rafts of metasediments and abundant zircon xenocrysts ranging from c. 3100 to 2437 Ma, and are regarded as remelted Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks. The Kautokeino Greenstone Belt is interpreted as a weak Palaeoproterozoic pericontinental lithospheric domain, that accommodated oblique convergence between the stronger Karelian and the Norrbotten cratons during the Svecokarelian orogeny. Convergence was possibly associated with a mechanism of lithospheric subduction or lithospheric drip off.

  6. Biogeochemistry of carbon, major and trace elements in watersheds of northern Eurasia drained to the Arctic Ocean: The change of fluxes, sources and mechanisms under the climate warming prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jérôme; Dupré, Bernard; Chabaux, François; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Kirpotin, Sergey N.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Shevchenko, Vladimir P.

    2012-11-01

    Warming of the permafrost accompanied by the release of ancient soil organic carbon is one of the most significant environmental threats within the global climate change scenario. While the main sites of permafrost carbon processing and its release to the atmosphere are thermokarst (thaw) lakes and ponds, the main carriers of carbon and related major and trace elements from the land to the Arctic ocean are Russian subarctic rivers. The source of carbon in these rivers is atmospheric C consumed by chemical weathering of rocks and amplified by plant uptake and litter decomposition. This multidisciplinary study describes results of more than a decade of observations and measurements of elements fluxes, stocks and mechanisms in the Russian boreal and subarctic zone, from Karelia region to the Kamchatka peninsula, along the gradient of permafrost-free terrain to continuous permafrost settings, developed on various lithology and vegetation types. We offer a comprehensive, geochemically-based view on the functioning of aquatic boreal systems which quantifies the role of the following factors on riverine element fluxes: (1) the specificity of lithological substrate; (2) the importance of organic and organo-mineral colloidal forms, notably during the snowmelt season; (3) the phenomenon of lakes seasonal overturn; (4) the role of permafrost within the small and large watersheds; and (5) the governing role of terrestrial vegetation in element mobilization from rock substrate to the river. Care of such a multiple approach, a first order prediction of the evolution of element stocks and fluxes under scenario of progressive warming in high latitudes becomes possible. It follows the increase of frozen peat thawing in western Siberia will increase the stocks of elements in surface waters by a factor of 3 to 10 whereas the increase of the thickness of active layer, the biomass and the primary productivity all over permafrost-affected zone will bring about a short-term increase of

  7. Structure of the ophiolite-hosted Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide ore district revealed by combined 3D modelling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, Kerstin; Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu district within the North Karelia Schist Belt in eastern Finland hosts Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits which are associated with Palaeoproterozoic ophiolitic metaperidotites that were tectonically interleaved with allochthonous metaturbidites. Extensive metasomatism of the peridotites produced a rim of quartz-carbonate-calc-silicate rocks, grouped as the Outokumpu assemblage (OKA). A tectonic history comprising various phases of folding and shearing followed by several faulting events dismembered the metaperidotites so that ore bodies cannot be easily followed along strike. Future exploration has to expand the search into deeper areas and consequently requires better knowledge of the subsurface geology. In order to unravel the complex structure 3D geologic models of different scales have been built using a variety of information: geological maps, aeromagnetic and gravity maps, digital terrain models, mine cross sections, drill core logs combined with observations from underground mine galleries, structural measurements, and data from seismic survey lines. The latter have been used to detect upper crustal-scale structures and have been reprocessed for our purpose. The models reveal that the ore body has formed during remobilisation of a proto-ore and is closely related to thrust zones that truncate the OKA. Later faults dismembered the ore explaining the variable depth of the different ore bodies along the Outokumpu ore zone. On a larger scale, at least four km-scale thrust sheets separated by major listric shear zones (curved dislocations in the seismic lines) can be recognized, each internally further imbricated by subordinate shear zones containing a number of lens-shape bodies of probably OKA rocks. Thrust stacking was followed by at least 3 stages of faulting that divided the ore belt into fault-bounded blocks with heterogeneous displacements: (i) NW-dipping faults with unresolved kinematics, (ii) reverse faulting along c.50°-60° SE

  8. [Structural variability of the lithorheophile macrobenthos communities].

    PubMed

    Chertoprud, M V

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the abundance of taxa and life forms of lithorheophile macrobenthos and its variability were studied based on 200 quantitative samples from six territories of the Palaearctic (Moscow province, northwestern Caucasus, eastern Carpathians, northern Karelia, South Urals, and Altai mountains). The set of taxa predominant in the communities and their ecology are described. It is found that community structure varies strongly, depending on the characteristics of each region, on the size of the watercourse, and on the season. Six types of biocenoses are recognized by means of the Braun-Blanquet method, each characterized by its peculiar set of predominant life forms and families rather similar in different territories. The differences between these types are related to the size and the hydrological conditions of the watercourse. Biocenosis 1 is typical to smal brooks (up to 0.01-0.1 m3/s), characterised by the predominance of detritophagous animals non-specific to the type of food (Gammarus, Nemoura, Limnephilidae). In biocenosis 2a (large brooks with water flow 0.03-0.3 m3/s and velocity 0.1-0.3 m/s), almost immobile shell scrapers (Ancylus, Silo, Agapetes, Glossosoma) are predominant. Biocenosis 2b (large brooks with velocity 0.3-0.5 m/s) have a more or less balanced set of fundamental lithorheophile life forms. Biocenosis 2c (large mountain brooks with velocity 0.5-1 m/s) is characterised by specialized scrapers of the rapids (Epeorus and Diomesa) and filterers (Simuliidae). In biocenosis 3 (small rivers), sedentary filterers (Hydropsychidae, Simulliidae) are predominant; scrapers also play a significant role. Biocenosis 4 (rivers with water flow more than 3 m3/s, thick incrustations, and silted stones on the bottom) has predominant filterers (Hydropsychidae) and vermiform algophagous animals inside the incrustations (Orthocladius, Psychomyia). Significant variability in community structure unrelated to the environmental factors is revealed

  9. The Cossack Ranger II Seismograph, Research And Outreach Efforts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husebye, E. S.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Matveeva, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake monitoring is a highly desirable endaveour among seismologists but far from easy in practise. The reason for this is 3-fold; costly instrumentation, colleagues who dislike competition in network operations and running costs in terms of data transfer, storage and analysis. However, developments in recent years have off- set technical obstacles of the above kinds thus allowing for personal or small institution seismometry albeit the human factor remains. Anyway, a conventional SP-seismometer costs at least 2000 dollars while a complete 3-component seismograph may well cost 10000 dollars. However, a geophone-based 3-component seismograph may cost less than 2000 dollars but still have a performance matching that of a conventional station. The largest worry is normally not the one-time instrument expenses but operational and maintenance costs over say a 5-years time span. A solution here is socalled Seis Schooloperations implying that stations are deployed close to schools having good 'rocky' sites and permanent Internet access. Such sites are not necessarily optimum regarding ambient noise but on the other hand offer free data transfer to Hub and dedicated teachers taking care of the station operation. We have deployed small seismograph networks based on the above design and operational principles both in Norway and Karelia (NW Russia) as part of national outreach efforts. Noteworthy; recordings from these networks have proved useful in advanced wavefield analysis. A number of countries are economically poor but rich in earthquake activities. In other words, can hardly afford adequate monitoring of local seismicity. An interesting undertaking here is the SENSES project in Bulgaria supported by the "NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme' including 25 seismograph stations deployed nation-wide at sites close to local high schools. The close cooperation with these schools will ensure modest operational costs but also strengthen local outreach efforts in

  10. [Structural variability of the lithorheophile macrobenthos communities].

    PubMed

    Chertoprud, M V

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the abundance of taxa and life forms of lithorheophile macrobenthos and its variability were studied based on 200 quantitative samples from six territories of the Palaearctic (Moscow province, northwestern Caucasus, eastern Carpathians, northern Karelia, South Urals, and Altai mountains). The set of taxa predominant in the communities and their ecology are described. It is found that community structure varies strongly, depending on the characteristics of each region, on the size of the watercourse, and on the season. Six types of biocenoses are recognized by means of the Braun-Blanquet method, each characterized by its peculiar set of predominant life forms and families rather similar in different territories. The differences between these types are related to the size and the hydrological conditions of the watercourse. Biocenosis 1 is typical to smal brooks (up to 0.01-0.1 m3/s), characterised by the predominance of detritophagous animals non-specific to the type of food (Gammarus, Nemoura, Limnephilidae). In biocenosis 2a (large brooks with water flow 0.03-0.3 m3/s and velocity 0.1-0.3 m/s), almost immobile shell scrapers (Ancylus, Silo, Agapetes, Glossosoma) are predominant. Biocenosis 2b (large brooks with velocity 0.3-0.5 m/s) have a more or less balanced set of fundamental lithorheophile life forms. Biocenosis 2c (large mountain brooks with velocity 0.5-1 m/s) is characterised by specialized scrapers of the rapids (Epeorus and Diomesa) and filterers (Simuliidae). In biocenosis 3 (small rivers), sedentary filterers (Hydropsychidae, Simulliidae) are predominant; scrapers also play a significant role. Biocenosis 4 (rivers with water flow more than 3 m3/s, thick incrustations, and silted stones on the bottom) has predominant filterers (Hydropsychidae) and vermiform algophagous animals inside the incrustations (Orthocladius, Psychomyia). Significant variability in community structure unrelated to the environmental factors is revealed

  11. Using Archean and Paleoproterozoic Shales and Tillites as a Window into Crustal Evolution and Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Bekker, A.; Zakharov, D. O.

    2014-12-01

    in Karelia (Russia), quartz amygdules in mafics and their relations to our global shale dataset. The overall conclusion is that despite first-order changes in areal mass, exposed surface conditions, pCO2, pO2 affecting chemical/physical weathering cycle, it was not dramatically different before and after the rise of atmospheric oxygen at ~2.3-2.4 Ga.

  12. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p

  13. The investigation of microfossils in ancient rocks: the comparison of different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2012-09-01

    about their relationships. The study of fresh rock chips avoids most of these disadvantages. While examining them in the Scanning Electronic Microscope we can observe not only peculiarities, including three-dimensional form of microfossils, but also the interrelationships between the host rock and the biomorphs. Thus we can judge if the microfossils are embedded within and indigenous to the rock matrix or if they "lie" on the surface of rock (in this case the possibility of later contamination is great). Furthermore, the elemental compositions of the possible microfossils and the surrounding rock matrix can be investigated using the microprobe. Investigations of different rock types were conducted in order to compare the different methods of research of ancient (AR) rocks (carbonaceous shales, volcanogenic-sedimentary etc.) of the Khizovaar green-stone structure of Karelia, the Archaean and Proterozoic weathering crusts of Karelia, the Proterozoic pillow-lavas and volcanic glasses of different regions, etc. It is quite clear that in the course of the investigation of rocks and the study of ancient microfossils, we are need to know the chemical composition of the fossil by itself and rock matrix as a whole. In this point of view the method of the study of fresh chips are of intermediate position. Macerates are practically unsuitable for this kind of investigation. Thin-sections are of great value in this respect, because their smooth surfaces are very good for chemical scanning by the microprobe while working in modern scanning electron EPSC Abstracts Vol. 7 EPSC2012-9 2012 European Planetary Science Congress 2012 c Author(s) 2012 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress microscopes. Uneven surfaces of fresh chips are not so good for the need of chemical analyses, but nevertheless it is possible to receive chemical analyses using this method. The bacterial-paleontological study of numerous and diverse samples of fresh chips of Archaean- Proterozoic rocks (metasedimentary

  14. Telemonitoring and Mobile Phone-Based Health Coaching Among Finnish Diabetic and Heart Disease Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Karhula, Tuula; Rääpysjärvi, Katja; Pakanen, Mira; Itkonen, Pentti; Tepponen, Merja; Junno, Ulla-Maija; Jokinen, Tapio; van Gils, Mark; Lähteenmäki, Jaakko; Kohtamäki, Kari; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a strong will and need to find alternative models of health care delivery driven by the ever-increasing burden of chronic diseases. Objective The purpose of this 1-year trial was to study whether a structured mobile phone-based health coaching program, which was supported by a remote monitoring system, could be used to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and/or the clinical measures of type 2 diabetes and heart disease patients. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted among type 2 diabetes patients and heart disease patients of the South Karelia Social and Health Care District. Patients were recruited by sending invitations to randomly selected patients using the electronic health records system. Health coaches called patients every 4 to 6 weeks and patients were encouraged to self-monitor their weight, blood pressure, blood glucose (diabetics), and steps (heart disease patients) once per week. The primary outcome was HRQL measured by the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among diabetic patients. The clinical measures assessed were blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, and lipid levels. Results A total of 267 heart patients and 250 diabetes patients started in the trial, of which 246 and 225 patients concluded the end-point assessments, respectively. Withdrawal from the study was associated with the patients’ unfamiliarity with mobile phones—of the 41 dropouts, 85% (11/13) of the heart disease patients and 88% (14/16) of the diabetes patients were familiar with mobile phones, whereas the corresponding percentages were 97.1% (231/238) and 98.6% (208/211), respectively, among the rest of the patients (P=.02 and P=.004). Withdrawal was also associated with heart disease patients’ comorbidities—40% (8/20) of the dropouts had at least one comorbidity, whereas the corresponding percentage was 18.9% (47/249) among the rest of the patients (P=.02). The intervention showed

  15. The Large Igneous Province (LIP) Record during the Archean-Proterozoic Transition Between 2.5 Ga and 2.0 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, R. E.; Bleeker, W.

    2010-12-01

    A review of the large igneous province (LIP) record reveals numerous events between 2500 and 2000 Ma with a potential gap between 2370 Ma and 2230 Ma. The distribution is uneven with some blocks, such as Superior and Karelia, being well populated, while others, such as Kaapvaal, Amazonia and Yilgarn, having few well-dated LIP events in this time interval; however, the relative paucity of dated events on some blocks may at present simply reflect severe undersampling. LIP events in the 2.5-2.0 Ga interval are thought to be linked to progressive rifting and breakup of late Archean supercratons (e.g., Bleeker 2003, Lithos), or possibly a large supercontinent. Some of these LIPs may also be linked to major environmental changes including iron formation deposition (e.g., Bekker et al. 2010, Econ. Geol.). In terms of understanding the changing geodynamic setting in the 2.5-2.0 Ga interval it is critical to discriminate between LIPs that perhaps were global in extent and those that were more regional in scale but have been widely scattered through subsequent supercontinent fragmentation. Thus, determining the paleogeography of latest Archean supercratons is key. This can be achieved most efficiently by completing the LIP records (magmatic “barcodes”) for all major crustal blocks. Craton-scale blocks that were nearest neighbours in a preexisting landmass will share essential elements of their barcodes, and geometrical information inherent in giant dyke swarms, the plumbing systems of LIPs, can constrain likely configurations. Comparison of paleomagnetic poles and matching of geochemical fingerprints from coeval LIPs on different crustal blocks will provide additional constraints. Using the 2.5-2.0 Ga LIP record, it has been determined that the Superior craton was bordered on its southern-southeastern margin, from west to east, by the Wyoming, Hearne, Karelian, and Kola cratons (Bleeker and Ernst 2006 in Hanski et al. (eds.) Dyke swarms — time markers of crustal

  16. Archaean associations of volcanics, granulites and eclogites of the Belomorian province, Fennoscandian Shield and its geodynamic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabunov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    eclogites is attributed to processes in a subducting slab. Correlation of the above complexes has revealed four alternating subduction systems: 2.88-2.82 Ga which comprises both suprasubduction (island-arc volcanics, graywackes) complexes and those from a subduction slab (eclogites), 2.81-2.78 Ga - island-arc volcanics, graywackes, granulites and eclogites; 2.75 Ga - island-arc volcanics only; 2.73-2.72 Ga - island-arc volcanics, granulites and eclogites. The duration of functioning of Meso-Neoarchaean subduction systems varies from 60 (or probably 30) to 15 Ma, which is consistent with the results of the numerical modelling (van Hunen, 2001) of subduction at mantle temperatures 125-150 degrees higher than the present temperature. This is a contribution to RFBR Project 11-05-00168 a References: Bibikova, E.V., Glebovitskii, V.A., Claesson, S. et al., 2001. Geochemistry International, 39(1) Mil'kevich, R.I., Myskova, T.A., Glebovitsky, V.A. et al. 2007. Geochemistry International, 45 Mints, M.V., Belousova, E.A., Konilov, A.N. et al., 2011. Geology, 38 Shchipansky, A.A., Khodorevskaya, L.I., Konilov, A.N., Slabunov, A.I., 2012. Russian Geology and Geophysics 53 Slabunov, A.I., Lobach-Zhuchenko, S.B., Bibikova, E.V. et al., 2006. European Lithosphere Dynamics, Memoir 32 Slabunov, A.I., 2008. Geology and geodynamics of Archean mobile belts (example from the Belomorian province of the Fennoscandian Shield van Hunen, J., 2001. Shallow and buoyant lithospheric subduction: couses and implications from thrmo-chemical numerical modelling. Theses PhD Volodichev, O.I., 1990. The Belomorian complex of Karelia: geology and petrology

  17. Origin of variolitic lavas: Evidence for variolites in axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii; Krssivskaya, Irina; Chistyakov, Alexei

    2010-05-01

    globules with careless boundaries. Effect of thermal diffusion in more important for Fe; as a result #mg in trachyandesite rims higher than in andesite cores of globules. It suggests that origin of variolites was linked with intersection by ascended column of picrobasaltic magma of existed at that time in crust above small shallow magmatic chamber with residual melt of andesite (icelandite) in composition, which was involved in general upwards current. Because ascending of magmas in axial part of the MAR was whirl (Sharkov et al., 2008), alien melt was dispersed on small drops, but, however, had not time to dissolved in host picrite melt. Formation of proper variolites was occurred in process of moving and cooling of such heterogeneous lava on oceanic floor.. From this follows that axial parts of low-spreading ridges have very complicate structure, where different melts can coexist. There are no any evidence of liquid immiscibility the variolite origin The same petrological features are typical for classic Paleoproterozoic variolites of the Yal-Guba, Onega Lake, Karelia, which are also pillow-lavas. They were firstly described by F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing in 1920th. We conclude that variolite formation are linked with complex magmatic systems where small shallow magma chambers with evolved melt were intersected by streams of new magma portions from deep-seated source. Indispensable condition for variolites is contrasting composition of the magmas which allow to clearly see this phenomenon.

  18. Variolites - results of liquid immiscibility or mingling?: Evidence from variolitic lava, axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2010-12-01

    column of picrobasaltic magma of existed at that time in crust above small shallow magmatic chamber with residual melt of andesite (icelandite) in composition, which was involved in general upwards current. Because ascending of magmas in axial part of the MAR was whirl (Sharkov et al., 2008), alien melt was dispersed on small drops, but, however, had not time to dissolved in host picrite melt. Formation of proper variolites was occurred in process of moving and cooling of such heterogeneous lava on oceanic floor. From this follows that axial parts of low-spreading ridges have very complicate structure, where different melts can coexist. There are no any evidence of liquid immiscibility the variolite origin. The same petrological features are typical for classic Paleoproterozoic variolites of the Yal-Guba, Onega Lake, Karelia. They were firstly described by F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing in 1920th. We conclude that variolite formation are linked with complex magmatic systems where small shallow magma chambers with evolved melt were intersected by streams of new magma portions from deep-seated source. Indispensable condition for variolites is contrasting composition of the magmas which allow to clearly see this phenomenon.

  19. Paleoproterozoic felsic magmatism of the Karelian Craton: petrogeochemistry, isotope geochemistry, and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogina, M. M.; Zlobin, V. L.

    2012-04-01

    to 3012 Ga, which is at least 300 Ma older than their formation age, thus indicating their long crustal residence time. Additional evidence for their crustal rather than mantle origin can be elevated (> 1.2) Y/Nb, as well as Nb/La ratio significantly less than 1, which manifested itself in the notable Nb minimum in the spidergrams. Based on similar geochronological ages of the felsic rocks and associated mafic volcanics, it is reasonable to suggest that the former were derived via fractionation of basaltic melt. However, the great volumes and large areal distribution of felsic rocks, the fact that they build up the basaltic sequence, but have no direct relations with them, and their absence in some Paleoproterozoic structures indicate that these rocks do not constitute a single differentiation series. It is more likely that the felsic rocks were formed by crustal melting during underplating. Since Archean rocks (recalculated for the age of the studied rocks) have significantly less radiogenic Nd isotopic composition, the juvenile input is required to obtain the parental magmas for the Paleoproterozoic felsic rocks of Karelia. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 11-05-00695a).

  20. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2014-05-01

    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows

  1. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling Pursuant to the Great Oxidation Event: Evidence from the Paleoproterozoic of Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, L.; Junium, C. K.; Arthur, M. A.; Brasier, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Melezhik, V.; Lepland, A.; Crne, A.; Luo, G.; Far-Deep Drilling Team

    2010-12-01

    A key goal of FAR-DEEP (Fennoscandia Arctic Russia - Drilling Early Earth Project) is to document the development of an aerobic biosphere following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, ~2.4 Ga). Toward that end, we present an analysis of C and N cycling during this critical interval, based on preliminary C and N isotope analysis of archival FAR-DEEP samples. A prolonged interval of high δ13C in the ocean / atmosphere system characterizes the Paleoproterozoic from approximately 2.3 to 2.06 billion years ago. The event is known as the Lomagundi-Jatuli event (LJE). The initiation of the LJE occurs at as evidence for non-mass dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopes disappear, suggesting a relationship to the GOE. Sediments deposited during the event are notably devoid of organic matter (Corg). Moreover, Corg-rich sedimentary rocks are found which have been thought to postdate the LJE; in Fennoscandia these rocks are associated with the Zaonega Formation, with Corg contents approaching 60%. Zaonega Formation shales containing Corg-rich deposits were penetrated by three FAR-DEEP holes in the Paleoproterozoic Onega Basin, Karelia Russia. Low in the section, δ13Corg values increase gradually from ~ -28‰ to -24 ‰, then increase markedly to ~ -18 ‰, before beginning a gradual decline for much of the rest of the studied interval. δ13Ccarb values follow a parallel trend, although low in the section they have anomalously light values (~ -10‰), rising abruptly to +4‰ as δ13Corg reaches its peak value. Both δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg then decline by 15-20‰ as one proceeds up-section. In the same interval, δ15Norg values shift from relatively light values of ~ +2‰ to +4‰ to heavier values of ~ +8‰ to +9‰. δ13Ccarb values increase by +10‰ toward the top of the cored interval, while δ15Norg fluctuate between +5 to +9 ‰. Petrographic evidence shows that some of the carbonates with lowest δ13Ccarb values are diagenetic concretions, and some of the Cor has

  2. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    projects on the delineation of a diamond deposit in Karelia, on the localisation of unauthorized penetrations in product pipelines, and others. Since 2007, in close cooperation with researchers from V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (www.univer.kharkov.ua/en) and Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University (www.khadi.kharkov.ua), we have been developing a GPR to monitor road conditions. The main objective is the creation of an equipment suitable to determine the strength characteristics of pavements. A GPR allowing to measure thicknesses of asphalt pavement layers with an accuracy better than 3 mm has already been created; it was transferred to services responsible for maintaining roads in good condition. Specific standards and guidelines for the use of GPR has not been adopted in Ukraine, yet. GPRs are rarely used by public services. Nevertheless, recently the Ukrainian government has funded several projects on GPR technologies. Ukrainians seek to maintain old and to establish new relationships with colleagues around the world. We were partners of the Ultrawideband Radar Working Group, which developed the standard "IEEE P1672 TM Ultrawideband Radar Definitions." LLC "Transient Technologies" has cooperation agreements with more than a dozen of GPR companies all over the world. A group of scientists from IRE is working in cooperation with researchers from Italy, Holland, Turkey, Brazil, Russia and Ukraine on the project of FP-7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES no 269157 "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface Imaging" (for more details, please visit www.irea.cnr.it/en/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=342:progetto-amiss&Itemid=165). In recent years, many representative companies have appeared, offering GPRs of foreign production on the market of Ukraine. The authors acknowledge COST for funding Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar," supporting this work.

  3. Initial steps of speciation by geographic isolation and host switch in salmonid pathogen Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Meinilä, Maria; Kuusela, Jussi; Zietara, Marek S; Lumme, Jaakko

    2004-03-29

    To test the hypothesis that host-switching can be an important step in the speciation of gyrodactylid monogenean flatworms, we inferred the phylogeny within a cluster of parasites morphologically close to Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957, collected from Atlantic, Baltic and White Sea salmon (Salmo salar), farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and grayling (Thymallus thymallus) from Northern Europe. The internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal gene was sequenced for taxonomic identification. Parasites on grayling from the White Sea Basin differed from the others by one nucleotide (0.08%), the remainder were identical to the sequence published earlier from Norway (G. salaris on salmon), England (Gyrodactylus thymalli on grayling), and the Czech Republic (unidentified salaris/thymalli on trout). For increased resolution, 813 nucleotides of the mitochondrial COI gene of 88 parasites were sequenced and compared with 76 published sequences using phylogenetic analysis. For all tree building algorithms (NJ, MP), the parasites formed a star-like phylogeny of six definite sister clades, indicating nearly simultaneous radiation. Average K2P distances between clades were 1.8-2.6%, and internal mean distances 0.2-1.1%. The genetic distance to the nearest known relative, Gyrodactylus lavareti Malmberg, was 24%. A variable salmon-specific mitochondrial Clade I was observed both in the Baltic Basin and in pathogenic populations introduced to the Atlantic and White Sea coasts. An invariable Clade II was common in rainbow trout farms in Sweden, Denmark and Finland; the same haplotype was also infecting salmon in a landlocked population in Russian Karelia, and in Oslo fjord and Sognefjord in Norway. Four geographically vicariant sister clades were observed on graylings: Clade III in the Baltic Sea Basin; Clade IV in Karelian rivers draining to the White Sea; Clade V in Norwegian river draining to Swedish lake Vänern; and Clade VI in rivers draining to Oslo

  4. Ca. 2.7 Ga ferropicritic magmatism: A record of Fe-rich heterogeneities during Neoarchean global mantle melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milidragovic, Dejan; Francis, Don

    2016-07-01

    Although terrestrial picritic magmas with FeOTOT ⩾13 wt.% are rare in the geological record, they were relatively common ca. 2.7 Ga during the Neoarchean episode of enhanced global growth of continental crust. Recent evidence that ferropicritic underplating played an important role in the ca. 2.74-2.70 Ga reworking of the Ungava craton provides the impetus for a comparison of ca. 2.7 Ga ferropicrite occurrences in the global Neoarchean magmatic record. In addition to the Fe-rich plutons of the Ungava craton, volumetrically minor ferropicritic flows, pyroclastic deposits, and intrusive rocks form parts of the Neoarchean greenstone belt stratigraphy of the Abitibi, Wawa, Wabigoon and Vermillion domains of the southern and western Superior Province. Neoarchean ferropicritic rocks also occur on five other Archean cratons: West Churchill, Slave, Yilgarn, Kaapvaal, and Karelia; suggesting that ca. 2.7 Ga Fe-rich magmatism was globally widespread. Neoarchean ferropicrites form two distinct groups in terms of their trace element geochemistry. Alkaline ferropicrites have fractionated REE profiles and show no systematic HFSE anomalies, broadly resembling the trace element character of modern-day ocean island basalt (OIB) magmas. Magmas parental to ca. 2.7 Ga alkaline ferropicrites also had high Nb/YPM (>2), low Al2O3/TiO2 (<8) and Sc/Fe (⩽3 × 10-4) ratios, and were enriched in Ni relative to primary pyrolite mantle-derived melts. The high Ni contents of the alkaline ferropicrites coupled with the low Sc/Fe ratios are consistent with derivation from olivine-free garnet-pyroxenite sources. The second ferropicrite group is characterized by decisively non-alkaline primary trace element profiles that range from flat to LREE-depleted, resembling Archean tholeiitic basalts and komatiites. In contrast to the alkaline ferropicrites, the magmas parental to the subalkaline ferropicrites had flat HREE, lower Nb/YPM (<2), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (8-25) and Sc/Fe (⩾4 × 10-4) ratios, and

  5. Snow and ice properties and melt water dynamics control the methane fluxes during early spring in two boreal mires in north Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, P.; Kutzbach, L.; Forbrich, I.; Gažovič, M.; Wilmking, M.

    2009-04-01

    High-latitude peatlands are globally important sources of the atmospheric trace gas methane (CH4). CH4 emissions from boreal peatlands are characterised by a pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity and a high seasonal variability due to extreme climatic contrasts between seasons. Although winter is the predominant season in boreal climates, most CH4 studies were conducted during the vegetation period whereas wintertime data are sparse. Here, we present the results of two intense field campaigns in two boreal peatlands starting close to the end of winter until the start of the vegetation period, focussing on CH4 fluxes during the very dynamic spring thaw periods. The mire complex Salmisuo in North Karelia (Finland, 62.46˚ N, 30.58˚ E) was investigated during spring 2006, and the mire complex Ust Pojeg in the Komi Republic (Northwest Russia, 61.56˚ N, 50.13˚ E) was studied during spring 2008. Both peatlands represent transition mire complexes in which both fen and bog types of vegetation can be found with three typical micro-site types: hummocks (dry), lawns (intermediate) and flarks (wet). CH4 fluxes were measured by the snow gradient approach (according to Fick's first law) until the snow was nearly completely melted, followed by closed dark chamber measurements. Fluxes were measured every second or third day. During the spring thaw period, CH4 fluxes were highly dynamic due to rapidly changing snow and ice properties, hydrological characteristics and temperature variations. Due to melting and refreezing of snow-melt water and surface water, ice layers were created which acted as efficient barriers for CH4 efflux from the peatlands. In both peatlands, an 8 to 15 cm massive ice layer developed during winter in or above the peat soil depending on microtopography and water level. The surface was covered by snow with an average height of 50 cm (Salmisuo) and 65 cm (Ust Pojeg). During the ongoing snowmelt, the CH4 fluxes decreased from highest values

  6. Internal waves in the systems of stratified currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolyubov, B. I.

    2009-04-01

    The system of stratified currents is a composition of flows (circulating, near-bottom, intermediate) developed at different depths and interacting to each other. Internal waves that usually present at such currents substantially influence both on dynamics of single flows (due to the action on their trajectories and thicknesses) and on the processes of interaction between currents in the systems. Such systems quite often include currents, directly caused by internal seiches. The investigations of systems of stratified currents with internal waves are inseparably linked with hydroecological and other problems of a great practical importance. The presented results are obtained during the investigations of the systems of stratified currents in Lakes Teletskoye (Gorny Altai, Russia) and Onega (Karelia, Russia) in 2006-2008. There are analyzed the following systems: 1) density current - jet - flow current at Teletskoye Lake and 2) circulating current - jet - near-bottom current at Lake Onega. The purposes of this work include: the revelation of mechanisms of the evolution of systems of stratified currents with internal waves, as well as of regularities of currents influence on the transfer of suspended sediments and dissolved salts. At Teletskoye Lake there were revealed mechanisms of jet-type stratified currents with topographical disturbances. Such currents were registered while overflow of higher density waters through the under-water sill and further over the entire area of their propagation above the complex bottom relief. The current under investigation was caused by water entrance from the deepwater part of the lake (with depth up to 325 m) into the shallow part and further to river Biya outflow. Problems of this current theoretical description are stipulated by its complex nature. It is formed while transition of the intermediate jet, sinking along the prominent isopicnical surface before the sill into the stratified current above the sill. The prominent

  7. Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, Marina; Rozanov, Alexei; Eugene, Sharkov; Alexei, Chistyakov; Maria, Bogina

    2010-05-01

    Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them. Astafieva* M.M., Rozanov* A.Yu., Sharkov** E.V., Chistyakov** A.V., Bogina** M.M. * Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Profsoyusnaya 123, Moscow, Russia; ** Institute of Geology of Ore deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017 Staromonetny 35, Moscow, Russia; Microbial complexes from volcanogenic rocks both ancient (Early Paleoproterozoic (2.41 GA) basalt pillow-lavas with inclusions of volcanic glass from Karelia) and recent (fresh volcanic glass from pillow-lavas of underwater Middle-Atlantic Ridge were revealed, studied and compared. Our studies confirmed that basaltic glass of the Early Precambrian submarine eruptions was inhabited by microbes in a similar way as it had been done for volcanic glass of modern eruptions. So, well preserved pillow-lavas, that are the main component of Arkhaean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, could be the most perspective for searching of traces of ancient life on the Earth. Consequently, it is possible to say, that volcanogenic rocks are not the obstacle for finding traces of life in them. The assumption that volcanic rocks served as habitats for the early microbial life was not unexpected. Some of the most primitive organisms close to the base of the phylogenetic tree are thermophilic microbes. Some data indicates that early life could be restricted to the hydrothermal vents in volcanic settings1. For instance, filamentous bacteria described from the massive sulfide deposits (age ~3.235 Ga) are interpreted as formed under black smoker conditions2, which provide the temperature tolerant for the growth of thermophilic bacteria (about 70oC). It was additionally proposed that life can be present immediately after volcanic eruptions, when the temperature of rock surface decreases below 113oC3,4 and bacteria penetrate the glass-like material of pillow lavas together

  8. Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, Marina; Rozanov, Alexei; Eugene, Sharkov; Alexei, Chistyakov; Maria, Bogina

    2010-05-01

    Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them. Astafieva* M.M., Rozanov* A.Yu., Sharkov** E.V., Chistyakov** A.V., Bogina** M.M. * Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Profsoyusnaya 123, Moscow, Russia; ** Institute of Geology of Ore deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017 Staromonetny 35, Moscow, Russia; Microbial complexes from volcanogenic rocks both ancient (Early Paleoproterozoic (2.41 GA) basalt pillow-lavas with inclusions of volcanic glass from Karelia) and recent (fresh volcanic glass from pillow-lavas of underwater Middle-Atlantic Ridge were revealed, studied and compared. Our studies confirmed that basaltic glass of the Early Precambrian submarine eruptions was inhabited by microbes in a similar way as it had been done for volcanic glass of modern eruptions. So, well preserved pillow-lavas, that are the main component of Arkhaean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, could be the most perspective for searching of traces of ancient life on the Earth. Consequently, it is possible to say, that volcanogenic rocks are not the obstacle for finding traces of life in them. The assumption that volcanic rocks served as habitats for the early microbial life was not unexpected. Some of the most primitive organisms close to the base of the phylogenetic tree are thermophilic microbes. Some data indicates that early life could be restricted to the hydrothermal vents in volcanic settings1. For instance, filamentous bacteria described from the massive sulfide deposits (age ~3.235 Ga) are interpreted as formed under black smoker conditions2, which provide the temperature tolerant for the growth of thermophilic bacteria (about 70oC). It was additionally proposed that life can be present immediately after volcanic eruptions, when the temperature of rock surface decreases below 113oC3,4 and bacteria penetrate the glass-like material of pillow lavas together