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Sample records for archangel karelia 1917-1944

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Archangel pigeon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Bao-guang; Hu, Gong-zheng; Liu, Jian-hua; Yuan, Li; Pan, Yu-shan

    2016-01-01

    The Archangel pigeon mitochondrial DNA has 17,235 bp and its structural organization is conserved compared to those of other birds. In this study, we report the basic characteristics of the Archangel mitochondrial genome, including structural organization and base composition of the rRNAs, tRNAs and protein-coding genes, as well as characteristics of tRNAs. These features are applicable for the study of phylogenetic relationships in pigeons.

  2. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean deposits of Northern Karelia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafieva, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Rozanov, A. Y.; Vrevskiy, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. The presence of various microorganisms of bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) is suggested. The necessity of employing methods of electron microscopy, as well as traditional methods, while studying the very early manifestations of life in Archaean and Early Proterozoic is noted.

  3. Main types of rare-metal mineralization in Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Rare-metal mineralization in Karelia is represented by V, Be, U deposits and In, Re, Nb, Ta, Li, Ce, La, and Y occurrences, which are combined into 17 types of magmatic, pegmatite, albitite-greisen, hydrothermal-metasomatic, sedimentary, and epigenetic groups. The main vanadium resources are localized in the Onega ore district. These are deposits of the Padma group (556 kt) and the Pudozhgorsky complex (1.5 Mt). The REE occurrences are primarily characterized by Ce-La specialization. The perspective of HREE is related to the Eletozero-Tiksheozero alkaline and Salmi anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes. Rare-metal pegmatites bear complex mineralization with insignificant low-grade resources. The Lobash and Jalonvaara porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are potential sources of rhenium: Re contents in molybdenite are 20-70 and 50-246 ppm and hypothetical resources are 12 and 7.5 t, respectively. The high-grade (˜100 ppm) and metallogenic potential of indium (˜2400 t) make the deposits of the Pitkäranta ore district leading in the category of Russian ore objects most prospective for indium. Despite the diverse rare-metal mineralization known in Karelia, the current state of this kind of mineral commodities at the world market leaves real metallogenic perspective only for V, U, Re, In, and Nb.

  4. Theory and action for health promotion illustrations from the North Karelia Project.

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, A; Puska, P; Salonen, J T; Tuomilehto, J; Koskela, K

    1982-01-01

    The North Karelia Project in Finland illustrates the fundamental goals of health promotion. Specific activities of the project serve as examples of how concepts from the social and behavioral sciences can be applied to achieve estimated reductions in predicted risk of disease. The results in North Karelia are not conclusive, but they are encouraging, and the investigations conducted there is an essential reference for future research in health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:7053618

  5. Blood Pressure, Sodium Intake, and Hypertension Control: Lessons From the North Karelia Project.

    PubMed

    Laatikainen, Tiina; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kastarinen, Mika; Jula, Antti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-06-01

    From the very beginning of the North Karelia Project, prevention, detection, and control of hypertension were included as key aims in the project. An intensive hypertension prevention and control program was established in North Karelia in 1972 that included community-based activities to reduce blood pressure levels in the entire population, detect people with hypertension, improve their treatment, establish standard diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and to monitor blood pressure levels, control of hypertension, and the performance of the health care. After the first 5 years of the project, most of these activities were also implemented on the national level. In late 1970s, work to reduce the salt intake was started, and substantial reductions have taken place in salt intake in the Finnish population. Remarkable improvements have been seen both in blood pressure levels and in treatment and control of hypertension in North Karelia and in the whole of Finland. Between 1972 and 2012 in North Karelia, the mean systolic blood pressure among 30- to 59-year-old men has decreased from 149 mm Hg to 135 mm Hg and among women from 153 mm Hg to 129 mm Hg. The decreases in mean diastolic blood pressure have been from 92 mm Hg to 84 mm Hg among men and from 92 mm Hg to 79 mm Hg among women.

  6. Hunt for the origin of allergy - comparing the Finnish and Russian Karelia.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, T; Laatikainen, T; Alenius, H; Auvinen, P; Fyhrquist, N; Hanski, I; von Hertzen, L; Jousilahti, P; Kosunen, T U; Markelova, O; Mäkelä, M J; Pantelejev, V; Uhanov, M; Zilber, E; Vartiainen, E

    2015-05-01

    The Finnish and Russian Karelia are adjacent areas in northern Europe, socio-economically distinct but geoclimatically similar. The Karelia Allergy Study was commenced in 1998 to characterize the allergy profiles in the two areas. Allergy prevalence had increased in Finland since the early 1960s, but the situation in Russia was unknown. The key finding was that allergic symptoms and diseases were systematically more common in Finnish children and adults than in their Russian counterparts. For example, in the early 2000s, hay fever in school children was almost non-existent in Russian Karelia, and only 2% were sensitized to birch pollen compared with 27% in Finnish Karelia. Adult birth cohorts showed that among those born in the 1940s, the sensitization to pollens and pets was at the same low level in both countries, but among younger generation born in the late 1970s, the difference was already manifold. Seropositivity to some pathogens, microbial content in house dust and drinking water seemed to confer allergy protection in Russia. In subsequent studies, it became apparent that on the Finnish side, healthy children had a more biodiverse living environment as well as greater diversity of certain bacterial classes on their skin than atopic children. Abundance of skin commensals, especially Acinetobacter (gammaproteobacteria), associated with anti-inflammatory gene expression in blood leucocytes. In vivo experiments with the mouse model demonstrated that intradermally applied Acinetobacter protected against atopic sensitization and lung inflammation. These observations support the notion that the epidemic of allergy and asthma results from reduced exposure to natural environments with rich microbiota, changed diet and sedentary lifestyle. Genetic studies have confirmed strong influence of lifestyle and environment. With our results from the Karelia study, a 10-year National Allergy Programme was started in 2008 to combat the epidemic in Finland.

  7. Occurrence of natural fullerenes in low grade metamorphosed Proterozoic shungite from Karelia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, G.; Srinivasan, R.; Vairamani, M.; Ravikumar, K.; Kunwar, A. C.

    1998-11-01

    We report on the occurrence of fullerenes in Proterozoic shungite (˜2 Ga) from the shungite mine, Kondopoga, Karelia, Russia (62.12°N 34.17°E). The presence of fullerenes has been confirmed by mass spectrometry, with peaks at 360 and 720 amu (atomic mass unit), powder X-ray diffraction showing ten diffraction peaks corresponding to the fullerite structure with a = 1.4201(5) nm, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies, showing a peak at 143.2 ppm. In the Kondopoga shungite mine, fullerenes occur in silty shales that have experienced greenshist facies metamorphism.

  8. The temporal variation of Mesoarchaean volcanism in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, Karelia Province, Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, E.; Heilimo, E.; Halkoaho, T.; Hölttä, P.; Huhma, H.

    2017-03-01

    This study concentrates in the Kiannanniemi area, situated in the Archaean Suomussalmi greenstone belt, the Karelia Province, Fennoscandian Shield. A zircon U-Pb geochronological study from this area shows that ages of the volcanic rocks are between ca. 2.94 and 2.82 Ga. The results indicate multiphase felsic and intermediate volcanism in three episodes at ca. 2.94, 2.84 and 2.82 Ga, of which the 2.84 Ga event has not been reported earlier from the Suomussalmi greenstone belt. The youngest zircon population in a sedimentary rock sample suggests a depositional age of ≤2.82-2.81 Ga, and the sample contains also ≥2.96 Ga old zircon grains. Based on both new and previously published geochronological data from the volcanic rocks, we propose a chronostratigraphic model for the whole Suomussalmi greenstone belt, dividing it into four units based on their age: Luoma, Tormua, Ahvenlahti, and Mesa-aho. The youngest volcanic rocks in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt are contemporaneous with some of the volcanic rocks recorded from the Kuhmo and Tipasjärvi greenstone belts of the Karelia Province, Finland. The age group ca. 2.94 Ga, however, has not been so far recorded elsewhere. Conversely, in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, volcanic rocks with an age of ca. 2.80 Ga and sedimentary rocks with depositional ages of <2.75 Ga, frequently found from the Kuhmo and Tipasjärvi greenstone belts, are unknown.

  9. [Diversity of soil mesofauna in Northern Taiga biogeocenosises of the Kamennaya river basin (Karelia)].

    PubMed

    Rybalov, L B; Kamaev, I O

    2011-01-01

    The population of soil mesofauna in the basin of the small river subzone of the northern taiga (Karelia) has been investigated. It was shown that indexes of the number and mass of soil mesofauna in the landscape-ecological row ofbiogeocenosises are maximal in floodplain soils. The taxonomic composition and structure of domination of the soil mesofauna population depends on the location of biogeocenosis in the landscape: earthworms are dominants in riverine floodplain biogeocenosises, and larvae of elaterids and spiders prevail in the places outside of floodplains. The abundance of saprophytic invertebrates in floodplain biogeocenosises results in formation of humus of the mull type. A group of animals with mixed type of nutrition dominates in the places outside of floodplain soils that are related with humus of the moder-mor type. The population of rove beetles (Staphylinidae) allows the division of biogeocenosises into two groups according to their position in the landscape.

  10. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF.

  11. Grips and ties: agency, uncertainty, and the problem of suffering in North Karelia.

    PubMed

    Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa

    2009-03-01

    In medical anthropological research, the question of suffering has been a topic of salient interest mostly from two theoretical viewpoints: those of endurance and of agency. The concept "suffering" derives its origins from two etymological roots, those of suffering-souffrance-sofferanza and of misery-misère-miseria. According to the first approach, that of "endurance" and founded largely on Judeo-Christian theology, suffering is regarded as an existential experience at the borders of human meaning making. The question then is: how to endure, how to suffer? The latter view, that of "agency," follows the Enlightenment, and later the Marxist view on mundane suffering, misery, and the modern question of how to avoid or diminish it. This article follows the lines of the second approach, but my aim is also to try to build a theoretical bridge between the two. I ask whether agency would be understood as a culturally shared and interpreted modes of enduring, and if so, which conceptual definition of agency applies in this context? I theorize the relationship between suffering and agency using Ernesto de Martino's notion la crisi della presenza. In line with Pierre Bourdieu, I think that in people's lives, there may be sufferings in a plural form, as a variety of sufferings. The article is based on a one-year long fieldwork in Finnish North Karelia.

  12. Towards Definition of Early Proterozoic/Archean Paleomagnetic Dipole Moments from Karelia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Tarduno, J. A.

    2001-05-01

    The onset of the geomagnetic dynamo may be related to the formation of the Earth's inner core. The timing of this event during the Precambrian differs in a number of theoretical models and the paleointensity database needs to be significantly extended to test various model predictions. We determine paleointensity from single plagioclase crystals derived from border dikes of the Early Proterozoic/Archean ( ~2.45 Ga) Burakovka layered intrusion (North Karelia, Russia). The use of these single crystals can result in data less affected by alteration. Magnetic hysteresis properties of plagioclases suggest that they contain single-domain to pseudo-single-domain magnetic inclusions. A study of low-temperature magnetic properties of single plagioclase crystals shows a sharp Verwey transition at 120 K, indicating the presence of stoichiometric, non-stressed magnetite. A significant magnetic anisotropy was not observed in the crystals, implying that magnetite exsolution was minor, consistent with fast cooling of the border dikes. We investigated four dikes using a modified Thellier technique. Of the twenty-two samples studied thus far, eight paleointensity determinations meet our reliability criteria (success rate is 36%). Based on these eight determinations, the average paleointensity is 36.5 +/- 1.2 μ T which corresponds to a virtual dipole moment of 6.49 +/- 0.21 x 1022 Am2. The latter value is consistent with the existence of a fully developed geomagnetic dynamo by the Early Proterozoic. Our results suggest that border dikes of the Burakovka layered intrusion can be used to obtain additional Early Proterozoic/Archean paleointensity values. Because of their fast cooling rates relative to the interiors of layered intrusions, border dikes also offer the opportunity to obtain secular variation data which, together with paleointensity values, could be used to define paleomagnetic dipole moments.

  13. Changes in morbidity and mortality during comprehensive community programme to control cardiovascular diseases during 1972-7 in North Karelia.

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, J T; Puska, P; Mustaniemi, H

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive community programme studying the control of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) was carried out in North Karelia, Finland, between 1972 and 1977. The main objective was to reduce the mortality and morbidity of CVD, particularly in middle-aged men. Changes in the mortality and incidence of CVD were monitored by community-based registers of cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke and data on death certificates. During the programme the total mortality in the area decreased by 5% and the mortality from CVD decreased by 13% among men and 31% among women aged 30-64 years. The incidence of AMI fell by 16% among men and 5% among women, while that of cerebral stroke fell by 38% among men and 50% among women. Changes in mortality in North Karelia were compared with those in a matched control area; the difference between the two areas was not significant. The true effect of the programme cannot be deduced from these results, but mortality from CVD and the incidence of AMI and stroke fell during the five years studied. Thus the changes in mortality and morbidity of CVD accorded with the initial objectives of the programme. PMID:519352

  14. Paleoproterozoic pyrobitumen: Re-Os goechemistry reveals the fate of giant carbon accumulations in Russian Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, A.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon-rich pyrobitumen is exposed in abundance in the Onega Basin of Karelia, northwestern Russia - the fossil remains of a giant oil field [1]. The pyrobitumen, locally termed “shungite”, occurs as veins, lenses, and droplets within the Zaonezhskaya and Kondopozhskaya Formations, part of a Paleoproterozoic platform sequence developed on a rifted continental margin. In its purest form, this material approaches 100% C. Less pure pyrobitumen occurs in Corg-rich siltstones, which are intercalated with basaltic flows and sills, including peperites. Locally, the pyrobitumen forms a massive organo-siliceous diapir, cross-cutting the sedimentary section. A Re-Os isochron for six samples of Corg-rich siltstone taken from a mine adit in Shunga village yields a precise age of 2.05 Ga [2], fitting existing constraints for the depositional age. The initial 187Os/188Os ratio given by the isochron for the Shunga adit samples is within uncertainty of chondritic (0.113 at 2.05 Ga), as expected in a restricted rift basin dominated by hydrothermal Os. Re-Os data for samples from ICDP FAR-DEEP drillhole 13A near Shunga village, tell the rest of the story. Eleven ~500 mg samples, drilled from two 3-cm intervals 0.5 m apart in a single core, yield an isochron age of ~1.73 Ga with initial 187Os/188Os = 5. This age is consistent with the latest phase of the Svecofennian orogeny [3], known to have impacted the Onega Basin. Assuming isotopic homogenization (maturation) of the pyrobitumen took place during a relatively brief thermal maximum, the largest control on the present-day 187Os/188Os is the 187Re/188Os. The 187Re/188Os for the 17 siltstone samples analyzed to date range from 280 to 1250. An average 187Re/188Os of 900 will raise the 187Os/188Os from 0.113 to about 5 during the 320 m.y. between deposition (2.05 Ga) and maturation (1.73 Ga) - precisely the value determined by our isochron. Similarly, the lower 187Re/188Os of 280 for three samples of lustrous pyrobitumen from the

  15. Volcanic Glasses as Habitat for Microfossils: Evidence from the Early Paleoproterozoic Pillow Lavas of Karelia and their Modern Analogues in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adtafieva, M. M.; Rozanov, A. Yu; Sharkov, E. V.; Chistyakov, A. V.; Bogina, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial complexes were identified in the volcanic glasses from the ancient (2.4-Ga-old basaltic pillow-lavas of Karelia) and modern (pillow lavas of Mid-Atlantic ridge) volcanic rocks. It was shown that that their microbial colonization is likely to occur by the same mechanism. Thus, well preserved pillow lavas, which occupy a spacious fields in the Archean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, are promising object for search of the earliest traces of life on Earth.

  16. Predominance of Gram-positive bacteria in house dust in the low-allergy risk Russian Karelia.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Jaakko; Hyvärinen, Anne; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Laitinen, Sirpa; Nevalainen, Aino; Mäkelä, Mika J; Haahtela, Tari; von Hertzen, Leena

    2008-12-01

    Simple living conditions and farming environment have been associated with reduced risk for allergic diseases such as atopy and asthma but the factors responsible for this effect remain unresolved. We examined the bacterial composition of house dusts obtained from Finnish and Russian Karelia, two adjacent areas with high and low occurrence of atopic diseases respectively. Two dust mixes, both composed of 10 randomly selected dust samples from 349 Finnish and 417 Russian Karelian households were studied for bacterial biomarkers (DNA, Limulus-active endotoxin, 3-OH fatty acids, muramic acid) and for 16S rRNA gene sequences. Overall, the DNA cloning revealed more taxons (94 different genera) of dustborne bacteria than seen in any previous study on residential environments. Majority (67%) of the bacterial DNA clones in house dust from the low-allergy Russian Kareliarepresented Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria), predominantly Staphylococcaceae and Corynebacteriaceae. Russian Karelian dust showed up to 20-fold higher contents of muramic acid (marker of Gram-positive bacteria) and a sevenfold higher number of clones of animal-associated species, whereas in Finnish Karelian dust Gram-negatives (mainly Proteobacteria) predominated. Clones of plant-associated bacterial species and of chloroplast, indicating plant biomass, were more numerous in Finnish than in Russian Karelian dust. In conclusion, this study revealed major disparities between Finnish and Russian house dusts. The higher bacterial content and the predominance of Gram-positive bacteria in Russian dust may have implications for occurrence of atopy.

  17. Two types of impact melts with contrasting magnetic mineralogy from Jänisjärvi impact structure, Russian Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Elena S.; Kosterov, Andrei; Kharitonskii, Petr V.

    2017-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies of impact-related rocks can provide important constraints for deciphering geophysical records from suspected impact structures, their geochronology, and, in the case of very large impacts, their effect on the Earth as a whole. However, the paleomagnetic record in impact-related rocks may be ambiguous because of the uncertain origin of their natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Towards this end, we carried out a comprehensive rock magnetic and mineralogical study of tagamites (impact melts) from the Jänisjärvi astrobleme, Russian Karelia. Chemical composition of magnetic minerals and non-magnetic matrix was evaluated by SEM and X-ray analysis. Magnetic minerals were identified using thermomagnetic analysis at high and low temperatures, whereas their domain state was evaluated from hysteresis measurements and magnetic force microscopy. Jänisjärvi tagamites appear to belong to two essentially different types arising from the differences in the impact melt crystallization conditions. Type I tagamites were likely formed by an extremely rapid cooling of a super-hot melt with initial temperatures well above 2000°C. Type II tagamites originate from cooler and more iron-enriched melt. Common to the two types is that they both contain a substantial amount of fine inclusions in silicate matrix tens of nm to few μm in size, which appear to be a major, in some cases dominant, magnetic mineral carrying a significant part of rocks NRM. Structurally, these inclusions are heterogeneous objects consisting of two phases showing both chemical and magnetic contrast.

  18. [The relationship between the parameters of mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in women residing in the Republic of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, I G; Gaivoronskiy, I V; Aleksina, L A; Kornev, M A

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive anthropometric and densitometric study using the dual x-ray absorptiometry was conducted to determine the relationship between the mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in 360 women aged 20 to 87 years, permanently residing in the Republic of Karelia. Significant direct correlation was detected between the somatotype and the amount of mineral substances in the vertebrae, bone mineral density and the area of the lumbar vertebrae. Bone mineral density level of the lumbar vertebrae was higher in women with europlastic and athletic somatotypes, which were characterized by high values of body mass and length, body muscle and fat mass. Low values of bone mineral density of vertebrae were identified in women belonging to subathletic, mesoplastic and stenoplastic somatotypes. The risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis is increased in women with low body muscle mass.

  19. A new Gyrodactylus strain on brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Jänisjärvi, Russian Karelia, and a literature revision of salmonid parasites of the genus Gyrodactylus in North-Western Russia and adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ieshko, Eugeny; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Lumme, Jaakko

    2014-03-01

    A Gyrodactylus parasite infected juveniles of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in a hatchery in Lake Janisjarvi, Russian Karelia. Molecular identification by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of ribosomal DNA indicated that the infection was caused by a non-segregating hybrid clone between unknown Gyrodactylus species and Gyrodactylus teuchis Lautraite, Blanc, Thiery, Daniel & Vigneulle, 1999, described from brown trout collected in France. The mitochondrial CO1 was sequenced from the hybrid, but it is not available from pure G. teuchis from type locality. The mitochondrial DNA was an independent clade among the wageneri group parasites, differing from the nearest relative G. derjavinoides by 19%. Morphometric measurements of the Janisjarvi parasite were compared with separate (host specific) G. salaris strains from farmed rainbow trout and salmon in Lake Onega, and with available data on G. teuchis from Western Europe, Austria and Poland. All isolates were distinguishable by morphometry, and the measurements are a useful primary diagnostic tool for the salmonid parasites in Karelian great lakes and fish farms. Pure G. teuchis is not found on Russian territory, and the other parent of the hybrid has not been discovered yet in any other country. A mini review of Gyrodactylus on salmonids in the Russian Karelia is presented.

  20. Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in

  1. Geology, Petrology and O and H isotope geochemistry of remarkably 18O depleted Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Belomorian Belt, Karelia, Russia, attributed to global glaciation 2.4 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Serebryakov, N. S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with strongly 18O-depleted (down to - 27.3‰ VSMOW) 1.9Ga Paleoproterozoic mid-grade metamorphic rocks found in the Belomorian Belt of Karelia (E. Baltic Shield). The protolith of these rocks is attributed to have been altered by glacial meltwaters during the world's first 2.4-2.3 Ga Paleoproterozoic "Slushball" glaciation, when Karelia was located near equatorial latitudes. We describe in detail three and report seven new localities with unusually depleted 18O signatures that now span 220 km across the Belomorian Belt. Hydrogen isotope ratios measured in amphibole, biotite and staurolite also display remarkably low values of - 212 to - 235‰. Isotope mapping in the three best exposed localities has allowed us to identify the world's most 18O depleted rock, located at Khitostrov with a δ 18O value - 27‰. In Khitostrov samples, zircons have normal δ 18O detrital cores and low-δ 18O metamorphic rims. Mapping demonstrates that zones of δ 18O depletion occur in a concentric pattern 100-400 m in dimension, and each locality displays significant δ 18O and δD heterogeneity on a meter to centimeter scale, characteristic of meteoric-hydrothermal systems worldwide. The zone of maximum δ 18O depletions usually has the highest concentration of metamorphic corundum, rutile, and zircon and also display doubled concentrations of insoluble trace elements (Zr, Ti, Cr, HREE). These results are explained by elemental enrichment upon mass loss during hydrothermal dissolution in pH-neutral meteoric fluid. Remarkably low-δ 18O and δD values suggest that alteration could have only happened by glacial meltwaters in a subglacial rift zone. Many localities with δ 18O depletions occur inside metamorphozed 2.4 Ga gabbro-noritic intrusions, or near their contact with Belomorian gneisses, implying that the intrusions were driving meteoric hydrothermal systems during the known 2.4 Ga episode of Belomorian rifting. Given that the isotopically-depleted localities now

  2. [Abundance of larvae and nymphs of the taiga tick Ixodes persuicatus (Acari: Ixodidae) on small mammals in the cut-over lands of the middle taiga subzone of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Bespiatova, L A; Anikanova, V S; Ieshko, E P

    2009-01-01

    Data of long-term investigations (1998-2004) on the abundance of the taiga tick larvae and nymphs in the cut-over lands of different age in the middle taiga subzone of Karelia (62 degrees 04'S; 33 degrees 55'W) are presented. The investigation was carried out on three model cut-over lands of different age: 1) "young" cut-over land; age of cut-over in the beginning of investigation is 7 years; Betula-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 2) "middle" cut-over land; age of cut-over is 12 years; Salix-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 3) "old" cut-over land; age of cut-over 25 years; Alnus incana-Rubus idaeus-grass. The number of ticks was estimated by using common parasitological indices: prevalence, abundance, and index of feeding intensity (the tick abundance multiply by the number of small mammals per hundred traps-nights). In the beginning of investigation the "young" cut-over land was a typical meadow association. The lowest tick abundance was recorded here. That was a result of unfavorable abiotic conditions and low number of small mammals in the beginning of summer. "Middle" cut-over land is characterized by the highest number of the tick larvae, which is the evidence for high number of the hosts of tick imago. "Old" cut-over land has the optimum conditions for development of taiga ticks. High abundance of the ticks (larvae and nymphs) was recorded during the whole period of investigations. The number of preimaginal ticks is shown to be much higher in cut-over lands as compared with that in mixed and coniferous forests, due to the higher number of small mammals.

  3. The first finds of rhenium minerals in Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, O. B.; Kuleshevich, L. V.

    2010-05-01

    Rhenium is one of the rarest elements of the earth crust (abundance ratio 0.7 mg/t). In the Karelian region, Re and accompanying Os were discovered in a copper-molybdenum-porphyry ore formation, represented by the Lobash deposit, the Jalonvaara occurrences etc., and in a noble-metal-Cu-U-vanadium ore formation (Padma Group occurrences). Molybdenites from the above deposits are enriched in Re and Os (Lobash: 13-187 g/t Re, 0.4-6 g/t Os). So far, however, no rhenium minerals proper have been revealed in the Karelian deposits and occurrences of the above formations or elsewhere. As a result of the microprobe study of mineral assemblages of cupreous sandstones from the Voronov Bor deposit (bornite ore) and sulphide-copper-nickel ore from the Rybozero deposit, osmium-cupreous rheniite (Re, Cu, Os, Fe)1S2 that contains 56.53-60.25% Re, 4.61-10.99% Cu, 1.52-3.77% Os and up to 4.75% Fe was revealed and studied for the first time.

  4. [Population genetics of the inhabitants of Northern European USSR. II. Blood group distribution and antropogenetic characteristics in 6 villages in Archangel Oblast].

    PubMed

    Revazov, A A; Pasekov, V P; Lukasheva, I D

    1975-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution of genetic markers (systems ABO, MN, Rh (D), Hp, PTC) and a number of demographic (folding of arms, hand clasping, tongue rolling, right- and left-handedness, of the type of ear lobe, of the types of dermatoglyphic patterns) in the inhabitants of 6 villages in the Mezen District of the Archangelsk Region of the RSFSR (river Peosa basin). The data presented in this work were obtained in the course of examination of over 800 persons. Differences in the interpretation of the results of generally adopted methods of statistical analysis of samples from small populations are discussed. Among the systems analysed in one third of all the cases there was a statistically significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's ratios. For the MN blood groups and haptoglobins this was caused by the excess of heterozygotes. The test of Hardy--Weinberg's ratios at the level of two-loci phenotypes revealed no statistically significant deviations either in separate villages or in all the villages taken together. The analysis of heterogeneity with respect to markers inherited according to Mendel's law revealed statistically significant differences between villages in all the systems except haptoglobins. A considerable heterogeneity in the distribution of family names, the frequencies of some of them varying from village to village from 0 to 90%. Statistically significant differences between villages were shown for all the anthropogenetic characters except arm folding, hand clasping and right-left-handedness. Considering the uniformity of the environmental pressure in the region examined, the heterogeneity of the population studied is apparently associated with a random genetic differentiation (genetic drift) and, possibly, with the effect of the progenitor.

  5. Agate mineralization in basaltoids of the northeastern Ladoga region, South Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2008-12-01

    In the northeastern Ladoga region, the Riphean agate-bearing volcanic rocks of the Priozersk Formation are composed of basaltic lavas and lava breccias. Agates occur in the upper lava flow and in overlying conglomerate of the Salmi Formation. By their patterns, the agate amygdules correspond to concentrically zoned varieties, while agate veinlets have a vague pattern. Microstructures of agates are diverse, We backspace we including quite peculiar ones. Agates with enveloping zoning (the main structural type) were formed in closed cavities, whereas agate veinlets usually occurred in open connecting fissures and were replaced by calcite at the late stage of mineral formation. The unusual absence of quartzine suggests a low SiO2 concentration in the agate-forming solutions and/or a low pH value.

  6. The role of soils in the regional carbon budget of pine forests in Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin'kevich, S. M.; Bakhmet, O. N.; Ivanchikov, A. A.

    2009-03-01

    The carbon pool and its fluxes were studied in Karelian pine forests of automorphic sites for the characterization of the regional carbon cycle. On the permanent sample plots arranged in pine stands (dominant forest types) of the middle and northern taiga, the structure and dynamics of the phytomass, as well as the composition of the soil organic matter, were investigated. The contribution of different components of the forest ecosystems to the regional carbon budget was studied. The carbon pools in the soils of the middle and northern taiga subzones were 330-440 × 102 and 440-550 × 102 kg/ha, respectively. The share of soil carbon in the total carbon pool of the forest biogeocenoses studied amounted to 46-35 and 33-24%, respectively. The period of considerable carbon fixation in the pine ecosystem (nearly 20 × 102 kg/ha/yr) turned out to be limited to the middle-aged stands. In the mature and overmature pine forests, only 4 × 102 kg of C/ha/yr were fixed. The main part of carbon in the soil (65-75%) was contained in the illuvial horizons, although its content there was less that 1% as compared to 30-50% in the forest litters. On industrial harvesting of wood, the main reserves of soil carbon are not spent; only the fund of mobile carbon in organic horizons of poor soils is exhausted or carbon accumulates intensely due to the development of continuous plant cover on fertile soils.

  7. Tracing edges of Baltic Shield and Karelia craton by means of seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek; Munzarova, Helena; Babuska, Vladislav

    2016-04-01

    Several passive seismic experiments as well new stations of permanent networks provided data for detail studies of upper mantle anisotropy, particularly anisotropy of the mantle lithosphere. Joint interpretation of lateral variations of teleseismic P-sphere patterns and shear-wave splitting detected domains of mantle lithosphere with differently oriented fossil fabrics (Babuska and Plomerova, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 2006) and delimited their extent in the mantle (e.g., Plomerova et al., Tectonophysics 2001; Vecsey et al., Tectonophysics, 2007; Plomerova et al., Solid Earth, 2011). The south-western edge of the Baltic Shield, adjacent to the Sorgenfrei - Tornquist Zone separating the Precambrian and Phanerozoic parts of Europe, is characterised by a sharp change of the lithosphere thickness as well as of the anisotropy pattern. Change of the lithosphere thickness around the contact of the Proterozoic and Archean parts of the Shield is insignificant and the contact appears as a broad transition in the south-central Fennoscandia, which can be modelled as the Archean wedge penetrating into the Proterozoic mantle (Vecsey et al., Tectonophysics, 2007). Further northward the Archean-Proterozoic boundary looks narrow in the mantle and follows the surface trace of the Baltic-Bothnia Megashear Zone. It can be interpreted as a steep contact of two mantle lithosphere domains retaining their own fossil fabric.

  8. Two types of noble metal mineralization in the Kaalamo massif (Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Ruchyev, A. M.; Golubev, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Noble metal mineralization of the syngenetic (Southern Kaalamo) and epigenetic (Surisuo) types are defined in the Kaalamo massif. The ƩPt, Pd, Au content is as high as 0.9-1.1 g/t. Syngenetic mineralization started at the late magmatic stage (at around 800°C) gradually evolving to cease during the hydrothermal-metasomatic stage (<271°C). Epigenetic mineralization was formed at temperatures ranging from 500 to <230°C in zones of intense shear deformations and low-temperature metasomatosis during the collisional stage of the Svecofennian tectono-magmatic cycle (approximately 1.85 Ga ago). Taking into consideration the geological position of the Kaalamo massif in the Raakhe-Ladoga metallogenic zone with widely developed intense shear dislocations, the epigenetic mineralization type seems to be more promising with respect to noble metals.

  9. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

  10. Indicator minerals of diamond in the lamproitic diatreme, Kostomuksha region, Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor'kovets, V. Ya.; Rudashevskii, N. S.; Rudashevskii, V. N.; Popov, M. G.; Antonov, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    The mineralogy of a new lamproitic diatreme 200-250 m in diameter and 3 ga in area is studied in detail. The chemical and 3-D mineralogical analysis identify the diatreme rocks as strongly altered olivine lamproites with a large volume (50-60%) of xenoliths of strongly altered spinel (garnet) lherzolites and harzburgites-dunites. Numerous grains-xenocrysts of indicator minerals of diamond have been extracted from the heavy concentrates (the weight of the initial product is 742 g and the size is 100-500 μm) as a result of hydroseparation: (1) subcalcium (CaOav. 2.6 wt %) high-Cr (Cr2O3 av. 5.3 wt %) pyrope (50 grains); (2) chrome diopside (7 and 8 mol % of kosmochlor and jadeite components, respectively, >40 grains); (3) high-Cr chromite (Cr2O3 > 62 wt %); and (4) picroilmenite (MgO 12-13.8 wt %) and Cr-rutile (Cr2O3 1.1 wt %). Xenocrysts prove the mantle endogene (the level of garnet lherzolites) source of the magmatic center of lamproites and forecast the diamond potential of the new diatreme in the Kostomuksha ore district.

  11. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaakkola, J.J. |

    1996-07-01

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Petrogenetic constraints for the genesis of Archaean sanukitoid suites: geochemistry and isotopic evidence from Karelia, Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, A.; Clemens, J. D.; Savatenkov, V.

    2005-01-01

    New Sm-Nd isotope data are presented for late Archaean sanukitoid suites of the Karelian granite-greenstone terrane of the Baltic Shield. Within the terrane, there are regional variations in the Nd isotope compositions of the sanukitoids. Sanukitoids in the youngest Central Karelian domain have Nd isotope characteristics similar to depleted mantle, whereas those from the older West Karelian and Vodlozero domains have lower initial ɛNd values. The isotopic heterogeneity of the sanukitoids is interpreted to result from variations in the time interval between mantle source enrichment and the partial melting that produced the sanukitoid magmas. We therefore suggest a two-stage model of the generation of sanukitoid magmas. During first stage, the mantle was metasomatised by fluids and/or melts generated during subduction or tectonic underplating. Later, between 2.74 and 2.70 Ga, a tectonothermal anomaly generated the sanukitoid magmas by melting of the previously metasomatised mantle. Most of the sanukitoid intrusions are cut by calc-alkaline lamprophyre dykes that have the similar geochemical signatures to their sanukitoid wall rocks. New Sm-Nd isotope data for these lamprophyres suggest a genetic kinship between the sanukitoids and the lamprophyres. Comparison between chemical signatures of sanukitoids and modern, subduction-related magmas shows that Archaean sanukitoids actually have no modern analogues. Sanukitoid melts can be modelled as partial melts of mantle that had been metasomatised a short time previously. The melts could have been in equilibrium with residues containing Ol, Cpx plus minor Phl and Grt, at a pressure of about 2.5 GPa and a temperature of 1150-1230 °C. The small percentage of residual phlogopite would retain Rb in the mantle and explain the peculiar signature of low-Rb and high Ba and Sr, characteristic of the sanukitoids. We envisage a temporal evolution of the composition of the mantle in this region. This pattern of evolution controlled production of the sanukitoid melts and explains why the sanukitoids have such a restricted range of ages. Sanukitoid magma production must have followed from a major, global mantle enrichment event. These magmas could not have been produced earlier because the Archaean mantle had not become sufficiently enriched before 2.7 Ga. We suggest that their scarcity after the major period of sanukitoid magmatism may be due to the increased thickness of overlying crust, which can inhibit mantle enrichment.

  13. Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Cook, N. J.; Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25-km-long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognised after the dominating metal: Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn, respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As.

  14. [Zooplankton of Reservoirs in the Upper Reaches of the Kenti River System (Northern Karelia) under Long-Term Industrial Pollution Conditions].

    PubMed

    Kuchko, A; Il'mast, N V; Kuchko, T Yu

    2015-01-01

    An assessment is given for the contemporary state of zooplankton community in the waters of the upper reaches of the Kenti River system under the conditions of long-term potash-sulfate industrial pollution. This article presents a number of structural indicators of the zooplankton community that show simplification in the structure of species diversity and its reduction, as well as the disappearance of a number of systematic groups. It is noted that the number of zooplankton taxa increases with distance from the source of pollution (Kostomukshskoe and Kento lakes), and the average quantitative indicators also increase in this case. A comparison with the results that were previously obtained for the reservoirs of the studied environment has been carried out.

  15. The parasite fauna of brown trout Salmo trutta, white fish Coregonus lavaretus, and grayling Thymallus thymallus from water bodies of North Karelia (Russia).

    PubMed

    Barskaya, Y Y; Ieshko, E P

    2004-01-01

    The data on parasite fauna of brown trout Salmo trutta, whitefish Coregonus lavaretus, and grayling Thymallus thymallus from lake-river system Paanajarvi-Olanga (White Sea basin) are presented. As lake-river systems on this area remain in natural conditions, without any anthropogenic pressure, the parasite fauna of Salmonidae in these water bodies had not been changed and has an archetypal status.

  16. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Hupponen, M. Grönman, K.; Horttanainen, M.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmental criteria for the MSW incineration location procurements are needed. • Focus should be placed on annual energy efficiency and on substitute fuels. • In SRF combustion it is crucial to know the share and the treatment of rejects. • The GWP of transportation is a small part of the total emissions. - Abstract: The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs’ perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and the effect of the plant location on the utilization of the produced energy can already be identified when planning an appropriate site for the waste incineration plant.

  17. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hupponen, M; Grönman, K; Horttanainen, M

    2015-08-01

    The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs' perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and the effect of the plant location on the utilization of the produced energy can already be identified when planning an appropriate site for the waste incineration plant.

  18. Lithology and late postglacial stratigraphy of bottom sediments in isolated basins of the White Sea coast exemplified by a small lake in the Chupa settlement area (Northern Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakova, O. P.; Kolka, V. V.; Tolstobrova, A. N.; Lavrova, N. B.; Tolstobrov, D. S.; Shelekhova, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The complex lithological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological (diatoms, spores, pollen) investigations of stratified bottom sediments that constitute facies-variable sedimentary sequences in a small isolated lake located near the upper limit of the sea on the White Sea coast made it possible to define lithostratigraphic units (LSU) forming the complete sedimentary succession in deep parts of isolated basins. It is shown that stratigraphy of heterogeneous sequences is determined by two regional transgressive-regressive cycles in relative sea level fluctuations: alternating late Glacial and Holocene transgressions and regressions. The lower part of a clastogenic clayey-sandy-silty sequence successively composed of freshwater (LSU 1) and brackish-water (LSU 2) sediments of the ice-marginal basins and marine postglacial facies (LSU 3) was formed during the late Glacial glacioeustatic marine transgression. Its upper part formed in different isolated basins at different stages of the Holocene is represented depending on its altimetric position on the coastal slope by costal marine sediments (LSU 4) and facies of the partly isolated inlet (LSU 5). The organogenic sapropelic sequence, which overlies sediments of the marine basin and partly isolated bay, corresponds to lithostratigraphic units represented by Holocene sediments accumulated in the meromictic lake (LSU 6), onshore freshwater basin (LSU 7), and freshwater basin with elevated water mineralization (LSU 8) deposited during maximum development of Holocene transgression and lacustrine sediments (LSU 9) formed in coastal environments during terminal phases of the Holocene. The defined lithostratigraphic units differ from each other in lithological, micropaleontological, and geochemical features reflected in structural and textural properties of their sediments, their composition, inclusions, and composition of paleophytocoenoses and diatom assemblages.

  19. [Analysis of an association of TNF -308G>A polymorphism with a risk for pulmonary sarcoidosis in the Russian population of the Republic of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Malysheva, I E; Topchieva, L V; Tikhonovich, E L; Barysheva, O Yu

    2017-01-01

    Цель исследования. Анализ ассоциации полиморфизма –308G>A гена TNF с риском развития саркоидоза легких (СЛ) у русского населения Республики Карелия. Материалы и методы. Обследовали 84 больных c персистирующим СЛ и 96 доноров из контрольной группы (без клинических проявлений данного заболевания). С помощью методов полимеразной цепной реакции с полиморфизмом длин рестрикционных фрагментов идентифицировали аллели и генотипы по –308G>A полиморфному маркеру гена TNF. Уровень транскриптов указанного гена в лейкоцитах периферической крови здоровых и больных людей определяли методом ПЦР в реальном времени. Результаты. Не выявлено достоверных различий по распределению частот аллелей и генотипов по –308G>A полиморфному маркеру гена TNF между контрольной группой и группой больных СЛ. Установлено достоверное повышение количества транскриптов гена TNF в лейкоцитах периферической крови у больных СЛ по сравнению с контролем. При этом выраженных различий по уровню экспрессии мРНК указанного гена у носителей разных генотипов по полиморфному маркеру –308G>A гена TNF в группах не установлено. Заключение. Полиморфный маркер –308G>A гена TNF не ассоциирован с риском развития СЛ у русского населения Республики Карелия. Отсутствие различий по содержанию мРНК гена TNF у носителей разных генотипов по указанному маркеру позволяет предположить, что обнаруженный нами повышенный уровень транскриптов указанного гена у пациентов с диагнозом СЛ обусловлен развитием воспалительных реакций в организме при данном заболевании.

  20. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey U.S. Land Commission, Clerk Records ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey U.S. Land Commission, Clerk Records of Northern California Original: August 1854 Re-photo: April 1938 - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey From Oriana Day Paintings, DeYoung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey From Oriana Day Paintings, DeYoung Museum, S.F. Original: 1861 - 1885 Re-Photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTH - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  2. The Political History of Islam and its Role in Contemporary Arab Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    MAJOR SHAWN M. DAWLEY KENTUCKY AIR NATIONAL GUARD AY 09-10 Mentor and Oral Defense Committee Member: Dr. Douglas E...Streusand Approved: Date: Oral Defense Committee Member: Dr. Francis H. Marlo Approved: Date:     Report...Islam is Allah’s final revelation to mankind through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril) to the merchant Mohammed over two decades.1 Transmitted orally

  3. 1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ICON AND SANCTUARY. IN ARCH ABOVE THE SANCTUARY IS THE TABLE OF ABRAHAM. THE ICONOSTAS INCLUDES ICONS OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL, THE HOLY TRINITY, MOTHER OF GOD HOLDING THE CHRIST CHILD, JESUS. - Holy Trinity-Holy Cross Greek Orthodox Church, 200 Nineteenth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Insights on the Side Panels of the Franciscan Triptych by Fra Angelico Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna L.; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Ginanni, Marina; Prandi, Elena; Scudieri, Magnolia; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2017-04-01

    The side panels of the Franciscan Triptych ( St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel and St. Francis, St. Onofrio, and the Virgin Annunciate, by Fra Angelico, before 1429) were scanned by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). THz analysis supplied information on the stratigraphy of the panel paintings and the associated construction, "gessoing" and gilding techniques. Furthermore, THz-TDI provided information regarding the location of restoration materials within the painting stratigraphy on St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel, as well as on the extension and nature of subsurface cracks in the panel painting of St. Francis, St. Onofrio, and the Virgin Annunciate.

  5. Insights on the Side Panels of the Franciscan Triptych by Fra Angelico Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna L.; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Ginanni, Marina; Prandi, Elena; Scudieri, Magnolia; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-12-01

    The side panels of the Franciscan Triptych (St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel and St. Francis, St. Onofrio, and the Virgin Annunciate, by Fra Angelico, before 1429) were scanned by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). THz analysis supplied information on the stratigraphy of the panel paintings and the associated construction, "gessoing" and gilding techniques. Furthermore, THz-TDI provided information regarding the location of restoration materials within the painting stratigraphy on St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel, as well as on the extension and nature of subsurface cracks in the panel painting of St. Francis, St. Onofrio, and the Virgin Annunciate.

  6. Changes in premature deaths in Finland: successful long-term prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Puska, P.; Vartiainen, E.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salomaa, V.; Nissinen, A.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the long-term consequences of successful cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and its influence on premature mortality in Finland, with special reference to North Karelia. Active community-based CVD prevention began in 1972 in the province of North Karelia (population, 180,000). Since 1977, active preventive work has been carried out nationwide, taking advantage of the experience from North Karelia, which continued as a demonstration area for integrated prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Comprehensive community-based interventions as part of WHO interhealth and CINDI programmes in North Karelia and nationwide aimed at changing the target risk factors and health behaviours (serum cholesterol, blood pressure, smoking, diet) at the population level. Age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, all cancers, lung cancer, accidents and violence, and all causes in the population aged 35-64 years from the pre-programme period (1969-71) to 1995 were the main measures of the outcome. Among men there was a great reduction in deaths from CHD, CVD, cancer, and all causes in the whole country. From 1969-71 to 1995 the age-standardized CHD mortality (per 100,000) decreased in North Karelia by 73% (from 672 to 185) and nationwide by 65% (from 465 to 165). The reduction in CVD mortality was of the same magnitude. Among men, CHD mortality decreased in the 1970s, as did lung cancer mortality in the 1980s and 1990s, significantly more in North Karelia than in all of Finland. Among women there was a great reduction in CVD (including CHD and stroke) mortality and all-causes mortality, but only a small reduction in cancer mortality. These results show that a major reduction in CVD mortality among the working-age population can take place in association with active reduction of major risk factors, with a favourable impact on cancer and all-causes mortality. PMID:9803593

  7. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae).

    PubMed

    Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Salmela, Jukka; Polevoi, Alexei; Penttinen, Jouni; Vartija, Noora-Annukka

    2014-01-01

    New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomyashewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomyathula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemiatrifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosiagracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfeliakrivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophilabiformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilamonstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilauschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichontapalustris Maximova, 2002.

  8. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomya thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila monstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

  9. Corrections and clarifications.

    PubMed

    1992-09-18

    The last two sentences of the second paragraph of the report by Peter R. Buseck et al. (10 July, p. 215) should have read, "We subsequently confirmed the presence of C(60) and C(70) by mass spectrometry. They occur within fracture-filling films in shungite, an unusual carbonaceous rock found near the town of Shunga in Karelia, Russia."

  10. Communication campaigns to change health-related lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E M

    1992-01-01

    The North Karelia Project in Finland and the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program in California are 2 communication campaign examples for achieving health-related life styles. In 1972, health workers began a heart disease risk reduction program in North Karelia which had the highest levels of cardiovascular disease in Finland which in turn had the highest rate in the world as a pilot project to test the feasibility of involving the local community. In 1971, the Stanford Heart Disease Program began in 3 communities and had spread to 5 more around 1978. Communication strategies aim to diffuse preventive health innovations to a relatively large group of people within a specific time period using an organized set of communication activities. Prevention campaigns incorporate strategies from social learning, social marketing, and entertainment-education for mass communication. Social marketing strategies involve at least audience segmentation and use of symbols or logos, e.g., the Stanford Program used red hearts as its logo. Social learning revolves around the theory that people learn from both positive and negative roll models. In 1978, the North Karelia Project had a TV smoking cessation campaign with 10 people representing various target groups including a middle-aged man and a young woman. Evaluation research is also used to provide feedback to the project which allows the project to move on effectively. The main goal of diffusion prevention health innovations is to reach critical mass: the point where the innovation diffuses in a self-sustaining manner. The diffusion begins rather slowly then about the time 15-25% of the target audience adopts the innovation, the adoption rate grows quickly. In North Karelia, after 20 years, people eat a low fat and low cholesterol diet. In both California and Finland, there has been considerable reduction in cardiovascular disease risk.

  11. The State of Play in Russia’s Near Abroad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    a grand face-saving gesture: having lost the Cold War in so dramatic a fashion, it is swapping dreams of global domination for dreams of Eurasian...states on its periphery, and a new entrant: the Arctic Ocean. With World War II now woven into their being, Russians want to be able to defeat an...arming (Finlandizing) lost a substantial slice of territory (Karelia) in the aftermath of World War II. It was expected to conduct its affairs

  12. Emerging Issues of Soviet Military Strategy in an Era of Reform: Preparing for a New Military Posture for Theater War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    deceptive reasons, or on behalf of genuine Soviet views on a desirable European security environment --was evident in the February 1989 publication of an...northern approaches to Leningrad for two years. It was subsequently used as a staging area for Soviet offensive operations in Karelia . 4 9 Throughout...bases and other key objectives.5 3 While these were territorial in nature , they were, nevertheless, considered to be provisional operational

  13. Evidence for the zircon origin of cadmium anomalies in bottom sediments from the littoral zone of the northern part of Lake Ladoga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanter, E. V.; Slukovskii, Z. I.; Dudakova, D. S.; Medvedev, A. S.; Svetov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The minor-element composition of bottom sediments from the littoral zone of the northern part of Lake Ladoga was studied. Close relationships between the anomalous Cd concentrations in lake sediments and Quaternary glacial formations on the territory of Karelia were shown. A negative correlation of Cd with other heavy metals and a positive correlation with Zr were observed. Most likely, Cd is an impurity in zircons from sandy and sandy loam sedimentary formations on the northern coastal area of Lake Ladoga.

  14. Admixture and Gene Flow from Russia in the Recovering Northern European Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tobiassen, Camilla; Tirronen, Konstantin F.; Danilov, Pjotr I.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2014-01-01

    Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia. PMID:24839968

  15. Design and Development of the Blackbird: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The Lockheed Blackbirds hold a unique place in the development of aeronautics. In their day, the A-12, YF-12, M-21, D-21, and SR-71 variants outperformed all other jet airplanes in terms of altitude and speed. Now retired, they remain the only production aircraft capable of sustained Mach 3 cruise and operational altitudes above 80,000 feet. In this paper the author describes the design evolution of the Blackbird from Lockheed's early Archangel studies for the Central Intelligence Agency through Senior Crown, production of the Air Force's SR-71. He describes the construction and materials challenges faced by Lockheed, the Blackbird's performance characteristics and capabilities, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's role in using the aircraft as a flying laboratory to collect data on materials, structures, loads, heating, aerodynamics, and performance for high-speed aircraft.

  16. Metal films on the surfaces and within diamond crystals from Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, A. B.; Kriulina, G. Yu.

    2012-12-01

    Representative samples of diamonds from five kimberlite pipes (Lomonosovskaya, Archangel'sk, Snegurochka, XXIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and Internationalnaya) of the Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces in Russia have been studied. Thirty-three varieties of metal films have been identified as syngenetic associated minerals. The films consist of 15 chemical elements that occur in the form of native metals and their natural alloys. Remnants of metal films were detected within diamond crystals. The metal films coating diamonds are a worldwide phenomenon. To date, these films have been described from Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Native metals, their alloys, and intermetallides are actual companion minerals of diamond.

  17. Crystallochemical Structure of Rock-Forming Minerals and Peculiarities, Sequence and Completeness of Physicochemical Transformations in Weak and Strong Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, E. A.; Fel'dman, V. I.; Sazonova, L. V.

    2004-07-01

    Investigation results on shock metamorphism of rock taken from the environs of the natural meteoritic crater Jänisjärvy, Karelia, Russia, before and after its spherical explosive compression in the laboratory-scale experiments, are presented. Elements migration in stress-wave of increasing along the radius intensity in the solid state, as well as peculiarities of melting of polyminerals rock on isentropes under rarefaction and at the Hugoniots have been observed. A correlation has been established between main characteristics of shock melt glasses, obtained in rock samples of the Jänisjärvy crater at meteoritic impact and during explosive laboratory-scale experiments.

  18. [Seasonal dynamic of the infestation of young landlocked salmon (Salmo salar morpha sebago, Girard) by the monogenean species Gyrodactylus salaris].

    PubMed

    Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Ieshko, E P

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal dymanic of the infestation of young landlocked salmon (Salmo salar morpha sebago, Girard) by the monogenean species Gyrodactylus salaris Malberg, 1957 was studied in the river Lizhma, Karelia. It is established, that the temperature optimal for the development and reproduction of the parasite is about 3-8 degrees C. It is stated, that the abundance of G. salaris in the river Lizhma do not reach so high values, as it was observed in the regions outside the natural area of the parasite.

  19. New Data on Microfossils from Shungites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Robert B.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Shungites are pre-cambrian (2Gya) carbon-rich, silicate rocks known from deposits in the north-western part of lake Onega, near the city of Petrozavodsk in Karelia (North from St. Petersburg, Russia). Shungites are extremely rich in carbon, with carbon accounting for 98% in vein shungites. Shungites have been found to exhibit interesting optical, ultrasonic, thermal, mechanical, electrical properties and have recently been found to contain small amounts of C60 fullerene. Shungite rocks from Karelia have a characteristic globular structure and are chemically inert and metastable. As part of our ongoing search for biomarkers in ancient terrestrial rocks that are of potential significance to Astrobiology, we have conducted Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrographs of freshly fractured interior surfaces of Shungites. We find them to contain indigenous miocrofossils, similar to cyanobacteria known from the phosphorites of Khubsugul, Mongolia. We describe this investigation and provide ESEM and FESEM images of biomorphic microstructures that we interpret as indigenous microfossils in Shungites.

  20. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  1. [Effect of preparations melatonin and epitalon on the age-related dynamics of thyrotrophic activity of the hypophysis and thyroid gland function in different light regimes].

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, I A

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different light regimes (standard lightning--12 hours light/ 12 hours darkness; natural light regime of the North-West of Russia; constant darkness and constant lightning), melatonin and epitalon on the thyrotrophic activity of hypophysis and on the function of thyroid gland was studied. It has been found out that the maximum values of free thyroxin and triiodothyronine in blood were observed in the conditions of constant lightning and the minimal values--in the conditions of light deprivation. In the conditions of natural lightning of Karelia, with orientation on seasonal lightning, the following annual-circadian rhythms were observed: in autumn (period of short lightness duration) the level of free T3 was the lowest; in spring (period of short darkness duration) it was the highest; the inverse relationship was observed by the comparison of free T4 concentration. The lowest values of TSH were observed in old rats kept in constant light and natural light regimes. The concentration of TSH in blood was practically on the same level in the standard regime and in the regime of light deprivation. The age changes of the level of hormones appeared later in rats who received medication, in comparison with the control sets of animals. The use of melatonin and epitalon smoothened the seasonal variations of the level of thyroidal hormones in blood in the lightning conditions of Karelia.

  2. Testing for fullerenes in geologic materials: Oklo carbonaceous substances, Karelian shungites, Sudbury Black Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossman, David; Eigendorf, Guenter; Tokaryk, Dennis; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Guckert, Kristal D.; Melezhik, Victor; Farrow, Catharine E. G.

    2003-03-01

    Fullerenes have been reported from diverse geologic environments since their discovery in shungite from Karelian Russia. Our investigation is prompted by the presence of onionskin-like structures in some carbonaceous substances associated with the fossil nuclear fission reactors of Oklo, Gabon. The same series of extractions and the same instrumental techniques, laser desorption ionization and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (electron-impact mass spectroscopy), were employed to test for fullerenes in samples from three different localities: two sites containing putative fullerenes (Sudbury Basin and Russian Karelia) and one new location (Oklo, Gabon). We confirm the presence of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Black Tuff of the Onaping Formation impact breccia in the Sudbury Basin, but we find no evidence of fullerenes in shungite samples from various locations in Russian Karelia. Analysis of carbonaceous substances associated with the natural nuclear fission reactors of Oklo yields no definitive signals for fullerenes. If fullerenes were produced during sustained nuclear fission at Oklo, then they are present below the detection limit (˜100 fmol), or they have destabilized since formation. Contrary to some expectations, geologic occurrences of fullerenes are not commonplace.

  3. [Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Parasite-Host Interactions in Transformed Aquatic Bodies: A Case Study of the Cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and Its Host, the Northern Pike Esox lucius].

    PubMed

    Vysotskaya, R U; Krupnova, M Yu; Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal enzyme activities of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and its host, the pike, in-aquatic bodies with different degrees of technogenic transformation (Northern Karelia, Russia) have been studied. As has been shown, iron-ore waste causes an increase in the acid phosphatase, nuclease, and beta-galactosidase activities of the host and a decrease in its beta-glucosidase and cathepsin D activities. As a rule, the changes in the same cestode enzyme activities are the opposite. With a decrease in the technogenic load, most of the studied characteristics display the trend of approaching the corresponding values observed in a clean lake. It is assumed that the host plays a leading role in the biochemical adaptation of the parasite and its host to mineral environmental pollution.

  4. [MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF PROTEOCEPHALUS PERCAE (MÜLLER 1780) PARASITIZING COREGONID FISHES].

    PubMed

    Anikieva, L V; Ieshko, E P; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variability of Proteocephalus percae from native host--perch Perca fluviatilis and two species of coregonids (whitefish Coregonus lavaretus and Arctic cisco C. autumnalis) from fish farms of Karelia were studied. Parasite groups from 3 host species differed by morphometric parameters. Morphological structure of P. percae from native host included three morphs, those numbers were almost equal. Parasite groups of whitefish and Arctic cisco differed from that of perch in morphological structure and dominance of different morphs. Changes of the P. percae morphological structure was related to differences in ecological niches of three hosts of parasite. This reflects the initial stages of microevolution. The results obtained allow us to estimate an adaptive response of parasitic worms to new host species settling to pond.

  5. Shungites: origin and classification of a new carbon mineral resource

    SciTech Connect

    Ivankin, P.F.; Galdobina, L.P.; Kalinin, Yu.K.

    1987-10-01

    The discovery of a new mineral resource in Karelia-shungite- and the confirmation of the finding in the geological literature have a long history. In 1876, local peasants found black stones near the village of Shun'ga, which were taken to be coal and called Olenets anthracite. A discussion began on the nature of this strange anthracite, which did not burn in furnaces. The found of the Karelian geological school, A.A. Inostrantsev, was the first to doubt that Olenets anthracite was really coal, and he named it shungite. Shungites, very unusual, barely combustible high-carbon rocks, have a variety of potential uses. Although details remain obscure, the authors propose a metasomatic origin involving migration and reduction of carbonaceous compounds driven by igneous intrusions. 10 references.

  6. [Selective effect of the duration of the critical temperature period on some allozyme loci of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. (Salmonidae)].

    PubMed

    Stroganov, A N; Novikov, G G; Afanas'ev, K I; Malinina, T V; Rubtsova, G A; Ponomareva, E V; Kalabushkin, B A

    2006-10-01

    Genetic structure of juvenile fish from the populations of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar inhabiting the rivers of Murmansk oblast, Arkhangelsk oblast, and Karelia, as well as of juveniles from hatcheries was examined at five allozymic loci: aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-4*), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHP-3*), iditol dehydrogenase (IDDH-2*), esterase D (ESTD*), and malic enzyme (MEP-2*). High genetic differentiation of both natural and "hatchery" juvenile fish was revealed. It was demonstrated that the gene pool of juveniles at three of the five loci tested was to a considerable degree formed by natural selection. In this case, the role of limiting factor was played by the duration of critical temperature regime in the rivers. The differentiation factors for juveniles from nature were not established, however, their clusterization pattern pointed to a possible role of natural selection in this process.

  7. [Specific features of the numbers and structure of the population of Proteocephalus longicollis (Zeder 1800) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea)--a mass parasite of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus L. under conditions of technogenic pollution of the water body].

    PubMed

    Anikeeva, L V; Ieshko, E P; Il'mast, N V; Lebedeva, D I; Kuchko, Ia A

    2012-01-01

    The numbers, age structure, and morphological variation of the cestode Proteocephalus longicollis from whitefish of a natural water body (Kamennoe Lake) and those of Kostomuksha Lake polluted with wastes of the mining industry (Northern Karelia) have been studied. In the polluted water body, a high infestation of whitefish and domination of larval stages in the structure of the parasite population have been established. It is shown that under conditions of pollution, only one of the variations ofscolex signs dominates in the structure of phenotypic diversity. The size indices of cestodes are reliably smaller as compared with cestodes from the natural water body. The data obtained indicate that technogenic pollution determines a decrease in the intrapopulation diversity of P. longiocollis, and a decrease in the values of morphometric characters indicates inhibition of the morphophysiological state of individuals.

  8. Effect of the conditions of structure formation on the physicochemical properties of ozonated shungites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanova, G. I.; Gorlenko, L. E.; Rozhkova, N. N.; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2010-08-01

    It was investigated the influence of ozone on the physicochemical properties of shungites (type 1) (75-98% C) from Nigozero and Chebolaksha deposits (Karelia) formed by hydrothermal (Nigozero) and high-temperature (Chebolaksha) processes. Ozonation was found to affect the specific surface and the total pore volume of shungites considerably. The pore size distribution pattern depends on the volume morphology (texture) of the sample. An increase in the temperature and pressure during the structure formation of shungite (Chebolaksha) led to a shift of the maximum on the distribution pattern towards the formation of mesopores. The size distribution of pores with the dominant contents of micro- and submesopores for both shungites correlated with the basic structural nanoelements of shungite carbon. The peculiarities of the ozonation of shungite nanocarbon found previously (the non-steady state vibrational kinetics of ozonation and the absence of carbon(II) oxide among the reaction products) were confirmed.

  9. [IXODID TICKS (PARASITIFORMES: IXODIDAE) FROM SMALL MAMMALS IN DEFORESTED BOREAL HABITATS IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Bespyatova, L A; Bugmyrin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the population density of two hard tick species, Ixodes (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps Birula, 1895 and Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, 1930, were examined in 1998-2001, and in 2003-2004 near Gomselga Village (Kondopoga District, 62° 04' N, 33° 55' E) in central Karelia. Data on the abundance of ixodid ticks and the species composition of their hosts in 4 forest sites at different stages of post-felling regeneration (secondary succession), i. e. 7-14, 12-19, 25-32, and 80-87 after logging were obtained. I. persulcatus dominated, comprising 73 % of the total tick number in samples. Regenera- tion of the forest resulted in fluctuations of the population density of two examined tick species: I. (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps (larvae 2.8-5.3; nymphs 1.5-2.2; adults 0-0.09) and I. persulcatus (larvae 4.3-10.6; nymphs 0.6-4.2).

  10. Working with a child's envy in the transference.

    PubMed

    Gericke, Renate

    2006-10-01

    In literature, envy has long been written of as one of the seven cardinal sins. In biblical mythology, envy as a consequence of vanity can be understood to be the reason for archangel Lucifer's fall from a state of heavenly grace and unionship. Freud was the first psychoanalytic theorist to introduce the idea of envy, albeit through his controversial concept of penis envy. Karl Abrahams and Melanie Klein later placed envy at the crucial developing stages of the relationship between primary caregiver and infant. Klein boldly identified envy as a primary constitutional emotion. However, the presence and difficulties of envy in clinical work remain largely underreported, more so in work with children. This paper asks whether an attachment base can be secure if envy is dominant. The analysis of a nine-year-old girl ('Kirsten') and her envious transference with her therapist will be examined, to explore the relationship between envy and attachment security. While contemporary research focuses on developing attachment theory in relation to specific psychiatric conditions, this paper will discuss affect as the binding link or disruptive force between self and object representations, that then determine attachment security.

  11. THE MID-INFRARED TULLY-FISHER RELATION: SPITZER SURFACE PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Courtois, Helene M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2012-11-01

    The availability of photometric imaging of several thousand galaxies with the Spitzer Space Telescope enables a mid-infrared calibration of the correlation between luminosity and rotation in spiral galaxies. The most important advantage of the new calibration in the 3.6 {mu}m band, IRAC Channel 1, is photometric consistency across the entire sky. Additional advantages are minimal obscuration, observations of flux dominated by old stars, and sensitivity to low surface brightness levels due to favorable backgrounds. Roughly 3000 galaxies have been observed through Spitzer cycle 7 and images of these are available from the Spitzer archive. In cycle 8, a program called Cosmic Flows with Spitzer was initiated, which will increase the available sample of spiral galaxies with inclinations greater than 45 Degree-Sign from face-on that are suitable for distance measurements by 1274. This paper describes procedures, based on the photometry package Archangel, that are being employed to analyze both the archival and new data in a uniform way. We give results for 235 galaxies, our calibrator sample for the Tully-Fisher relation. Galaxy magnitudes are determined with uncertainties held below 0.05 mag for normal spiral systems. A subsequent paper will describe the calibration of the [3.6] luminosity-rotation relation.

  12. A dendrochronological analysis of driftwood in the Northern Dvina delta and on northern Novaya Zemlya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Stein

    2001-09-01

    Analysis of the wood anatomy of modern driftwood logs deposited by the Northern Dvina River, Russia, reveals nearly identical amounts of Picea and Pinus in contrast to the driftwood deposits in the European Arctic, which are dominated by Pinus. Two Picea and two Pinus driftwood chronologies that were constructed could be cross-dated with several chronologies available from the drainage area of the Northern Dvina as well as with driftwood chronologies from Jan Mayen in the Greenland Sea or the Barents Sea coast of north Norway. The degree of cross dating indicates that two major source areas are represented among the driftwood logs examined, i.e., the lower part of the Pinega drainage basin and the eastern central part of the province of Archangel. The origin suggested corresponds with the development of the important logging areas. Driftwood pine and spruce logs from northern Novaya Zemlya cross-dated with chronologies from northwest Russia and the Lower Angara region reveal a transport of ice-rafted wood between the Barents Sea and the northern Kara Sea. Two dispersal routes of driftwood from northwest Russia to locations in the Barents Sea and the Norwegian and Greenland Sea are proposed, via a counter-clockwise circulation in the Barents Sea and via export of drift ice to the Arctic Ocean north of Novaya Zemlya.

  13. A Patchwork Paper: What Paediatricians Should Read.

    PubMed

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper honours a paediatrician whose career has been patchwork but distinguished, with many facets. It is a light-hearted look at the printed (infinitely preferable to the electronic) word. Although the obvious response is "read everything I have written", this would only drive down the stores of Prozac. Read the scientific literature of course. The oldie reads to stay one jump ahead on the ward round. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews rely on the judgement of others, so should be regarded with suspicion. Do your own research, and do not rely on the thoughts of other people. Read beyond PubMed. "There is more in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than is dreamed of in your PubMed" (Shakespeare). Read the giants of the past. Richard Asher has so much to teach. What are the seven sins of medicine, and how many have you committed? Asher is top read of the talk. Learn from the mistakes of the past. Your patient comes first. Read how the medical profession covered up the death of Steve Biko and never compromise with patient safety and your integrity. Finally, remember thou art mortal - read a real book for pleasure. Kindle reading must be like making love to an inflatable doll (not that I have done either). Choose what you relax with; for me, PG Wodehouse, Jane Austen, Billy Bunter and Wisden. Who said and why: 'Madam, under similar circumstances I would have kicked the Archangel Gabriel!'.

  14. ``White Land``...new Russian closed-cycle nuclear technology for global deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    A Russian technology called ``White Land`` is being pursued which is based on their heavy-metal-cooled fast spectrum reactor technology developed to power their super-fast Alpha Class submarines. These reactors have important safety advantages over the more conventional sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors but preserve some of the attractive operational features of the fast spectrum systems. Perhaps chief among these advantages in the current political milieu is their ability to generate energy from any nuclide heavier than thorium including HEU, weapons plutonium, commercial plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. While there are several scenarios for deployment of these systems, the most attractive perhaps is containment in submarine-like enclosures to be placed underwater near a coastal population center. A Russian organization named the Alphabet Company would build the reactors and maintain title to them. The company would be paid on the basis of kilowatt-hours delivered. The reactors would not require refueling for 10--15 years and no maintenance violating the radiation containment would be required or would be carried out at the deployment site. The host country need not develop any nuclear technology or accept any nuclear waste. When the fuel load has been burned, the entire unit would be towed to Archangel, Russia for refueling. The fission product would be removed from the fuel by ``dry`` molten salt technology to minimize the waste stream and the fissile material would be returned to the reactor for further burning. The fission product waste would be stored at New Land Island, their current nuclear test site in the Arctic. If concerns over fission product justify it, the long-lived species will be transmuted in an accelerator-driven system. Apparently this project is backed at the highest levels of MINATOM and the Alphabet Company has the funding to proceed.

  15. THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS-SPHEROID STELLAR MASS RELATION FOR SERSIC AND CORE-SERSIC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W; Schombert, James

    2013-05-01

    We have examined the relationship between supermassive black hole mass (M{sub BH}) and the stellar mass of the host spheroid (M{sub sph,*}) for a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. To derive the spheroid stellar masses we used improved Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub s}-band photometry from the ARCHANGEL photometry pipeline. Dividing our sample into core-Sersic and Sersic galaxies, we find that they are described by very different M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relations. For core-Sersic galaxies-which are typically massive and luminous, with M{sub BH} {approx}> 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to} M{sub sph,*}{sup 0.97{+-}0.14}, consistent with other literature relations. However, for the Sersic galaxies-with typically lower masses, M{sub sph,*} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to}M{sub sph,*}{sup 2.22{+-}0.58}, a dramatically steeper slope that differs by more than 2 standard deviations. This relation confirms that, for Sersic galaxies, M{sub BH} is not a constant fraction of M{sub sph,*}. Sersic galaxies can grow via the accretion of gas which fuels both star formation and the central black hole, as well as through merging. Their black hole grows significantly more rapidly than their host spheroid, prior to growth by dry merging events that produce core-Sersic galaxies, where the black hole and spheroid grow in lockstep. We have additionally compared our Sersic M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relation with the corresponding relation for nuclear star clusters, confirming that the two classes of central massive object follow significantly different scaling relations.

  16. Trends in cerebrovascular mortality and in its risk factors in Finland during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sarti, C; Vartiainen, E; Torppa, J; Tuomilehto, J; Puska, P

    1994-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970s, the mortality rates from cerebrovascular disease in Finland were among the highest in the world. In addition, the levels of the main known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol level and cigarette smoking, were by international comparisons very high. Within Finland, higher mortality from both stroke and ischemic heart disease was observed in the eastern part of the country, where the levels of the risk factors mentioned were higher than in the western regions. Official mortality statistics show that deaths from stroke in Finland declined steeply in the 1970s, and continued to decline, although at a slower pace, during the 1980s. Furthermore, the decline in stroke mortality was greater in eastern Finland than in the western part of the country, such that the gap observed between east and west Finland in stroke mortality has now almost disappeared. These findings are supported by the trends observed from the North Karelia stroke register and from the FINMONICA stroke register. A cohort study has demonstrated that high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol level and cigarette smoking are risk factors for fatal stroke in the male population of eastern Finland. In women, only high blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for fatal stroke, while for cigarette smoking and high blood cholesterol levels the risk, though increased, was not statistically significant. A national strategy has been developed to control and reduce the main cardiovascular risk factors in Finland. The North Karelia project, started in Finland in 1972, was the first program of its type aimed at the reduction of risk factors in a whole population. Arterial blood pressure and total blood cholesterol levels have decreased significantly during the last 20 years in both men and women. The prevalence of cigarette smoking has been reduced only in men. The changes in risk factors that have occurred parallel the

  17. Multi-element Composition of Terricolous Lichens in the Northwest European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zamber, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Lichens (fungi living with an alga or cyanobacterium) absorb substances, including trace elements through dry and wet deposition, often to very high concentrations, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous lichens (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) collected in 2004-2006 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Arkhangelsk Region of NW Russia. 31 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher, in order to exclude any contamination of trace metals. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack). Major element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. For instance, these elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens and EF by these elements were registered in Lovozersky Tundry (Kola Peninsula) and in Paanayarvi area (NW Karelia). Lichens here are polluted by Monchegorsk and Nickel Cu-Ni smelters. In the vicinity of Kostomukshsky Ore-dressing Mill lichens

  18. The Tturbulent Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Small Northern Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repina, I.; Stepanenko, V.; Artamonov, A.; Barskov, K.; Polukhov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland and freshwater ecosystems of the Northern Europe are an important natural source of atmospheric methane. Adequate calculation of gas emission from the northern territories requires calculation of balances of heat, moisture, and gases at the surface of water bodies on the sub-grid scale in the climate models. We carried out measurements in North Karelia on the lake Verkhneye (White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University). The purpose of the study is evaluation of turbulent transport in the system "lake water- near-surface air - surrounding forest" in the winter season. We used an array of acoustic anemometers mounted at different distances from the lake shore. Measurements were taken at two heights in the center of the lake. It was revealed that the intensity of the turbulent transfer essentially depends on the height and location of sensors, and the wind direction. Stratification in the near-to-surface air probably does not play significant role. Besides, there is no constant-flux layer. The later makes Monin and Obukhov similarity theory (which is used in most of the parameterizations for calculating turbulent flows) inapplicable in this case. The work was sponsored by RFBR 14-05-91752, 14-05-91764, 15-35-20958.

  19. A mobile phone application for the collection of opinion data for forest planning purposes.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis.

  20. Contesting lifestyle risk and gendering coronary candidacy: lay epidemiology of heart disease in Finland in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Jauho, Mikko

    2017-02-24

    This study addresses two issues currently under critical discussion in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the relative neglect of women and the individualised nature of key risk factors. It focuses on the North Karelia project (NKP), a community programme aimed at coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention in a predominantly rural Finnish region in the early 1970s, that is, during a period when the epidemiological understanding of CVD still was relatively new and actively promoted. Adopting the notions of lay epidemiology and coronary candidacy, culturally mediated explanatory models lay people use to assess who is likely to develop heart disease and why, the study shows that locals targeted by the project critically engaged with both of these bias. Based on the rich materials resulting from project activities the study shows, first, how many locals subsumed the individualised and lifestyle-based approach to CHD prevention promoted by NKP under a more general framework emphasising the health effects of ongoing structural changes in the area, and second, how women constructed themselves as viable coronary candidates. The case supports the position in the current discussions on lay expertise that wants to integrate lay experiences more firmly into epidemiological studies and public health.

  1. New paleomagnetic data from 1.80-1.75 Ga mafic intrusions of Fennoscandia and Sarmatia: implications for the late Paleoproterozoic paleogeography of Baltica and Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevsky, Sergei; Lubnina, Natalia; Sokolov, Svetoslav; Bogdanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    A series of recently dated 1.78-1.75 Ga lamprophyre and shoshonite intrusions are exposed north of Ladoga Lake in southern Karelia (Fennoscandia). We carried out a paleomagnetic study of these intrusions and an additional study of the coeval gabbro-dolerite Ropruchey sill near the Onega Lake. All studied rocks carry a stable primary remanence supported by positive contact tests. We also studied 14 mafic dykes and 1 mafic sill from Ukrainian shield (Sarmatia). Most of these intrusions have been dated or re-dated recently by U-Pb (baddeleyite) method at 1.80-1.75 Ga. Ukrainian dykes also carry a consistent stable bipolar remanence. Two positive contact tests suggest that this remanence is primary. A comparison of new and previously published paleomagnetic data shows a significant difference between Fennoscandian and Sarmatian 1.80-1.75 Ga paleopoles. This implies that the final assemble of Baltica by docking of Volgo-Sarmatia and Fennoscandia occurred after 1.75 Ga. Consequently these two parts of Baltica should be considered as independent blocks in pre-1.75 Ga paleogeographic reconstructions. Using late Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia together with geological constraints we have built a new kinematic paleogeographic model for Laurentia and Baltica in the Statherian.

  2. Geological occurrence of fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Buseck, P.R.; Tsipursky, S.J.; Wang, S. ); Hettich, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Using HRTEM imaging, the authors found C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fullerenes in shungite, a Precambrian carbon-rich rock from Karelia, Russia. Compositionally, shungite represents coals of the meta-anthracite rank, characterized by low ash and sulfur contents, low volatile yields, and high carbon contents. The shungite occurs within metamorphosed sediments. The overlying rocks consist of gray dolomitized sandstones and poorly sorted silts and clays; the underlying rocks are not exposed. The shungite consists of masses containing up to 99% carbon. Diabase is interstratified with shungite-bearing rocks, and the shungite concentration increases with proximity to the diabase. Their sample comes from inclusions in the diabase. In the HRTEM images the fullerenes appear round (presumably roughly spherical in three dimensions), with white rims and black centers, almost identical to images of synthetic C[sub 60] molecules. Following the HRTEM observations, the fullerene identities were confirmed, first by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and then by more precise laser ablation, laser desorption, and thermal desorption ionization plus Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometry. These measurements verified that the fullerenes were not generated by the laser ionization event. HRTEM images show that locally they occur in ordered arrays that resemble crystals of synthetic C[sub 60]. FT mass spectra show that the C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios for C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fall within the normal range of terrestrial isotopic values.

  3. Ergonomic evaluation and comparison of wood harvesting systems in Northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Sokolov, Anton

    2014-03-01

    A comparison of 14 currently applicable wood harvesting systems was assessed with respect to ergonomic point of view. For this purpose, the research method, based on the Hodges-Lehmann rule and the integrated work-severity rate of single machinery, was developed for ergonomic evaluation of cut-to-length, tree-length and full-tree harvesting systems. Altogether, about 130 different parameters of 36 units of equipment that impact on the ergonomics and work conditions were measured and estimated in interviews undertaken directly at forestry harvesting workplaces in 15 logging companies in the Republic of Karelia, Northwest Russia. Then the results were compared to the effective norms, and the degree of compliance with the stipulated values was determined. The estimates obtained for the degree of compliance were combined. This permits a direct comparison of the workload on forestry harvesting workers such as operators, lumberjacks and choker setters. In many respects, the current ergonomic standard is standard, except for the operators of cable skidders, chainsaws and choker settings. Visibility and work postures were considered to be the most critical features influencing the operator's performance. Problems still exist, despite the extensive development of cabs. The best working conditions in terms of harvesting systems were provided by "harvester + forwarder" in cut-to-length harvesting, and "feller-buncher + grapple skidder" in full-tree harvesting. The motor-manual tree-length harvesting performed with cable skidders showed the worst results in terms of ergonomics.

  4. Heavy-Ion Radiation-Induced Diamond Formation in Carbonaceous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daulton, T. L.; Ozima, M.

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of a radiation-induced diamond formation (RIDF) mechanism is demonstrated by the observation of nano-diamonds in carburanium, a U-rich fine-grained, coal-like assemblage containing amorphous carbonaceous material of Precambrian age from North Karelia, Russia. This mineral deposit represents an ideal natural environment for RIDF because the carbonaceous grains present have received a high fluence of energetic particles over a geological time scale. Fragments of carburanium were subjected to acid dissolution treatments to isolate any diamond present. Transmission electron microscopy on these acid residues identified 500 nm polycrystalline diamond aggregates. This observation and estimates of formation efficiencies supports the hypothesis that diamond can form in carbonaceous material irradiated by U decay fragments. Diamond concentration in bulk carburanium is #197# 30 ppm indicating that the RIDF efficiencies might be relatively low as compared to the competing formation of graphite; the acid treatment was an essential key in the recovery of diamond in carburanium. This fact could contribute to the lack of observation of diamond in well- studied ion-implanted carbons. Experiments to synthesize nano-diamonds by heavy-ion irradiation are scheduled for late 1996 at ANL's accelerator ATLAS.

  5. [Population biology of cestode genus Triaenophorus in natural and man-made water bodies].

    PubMed

    Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I; Il'mast, N V

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of the frequencies of occurrence and distribution of the abundances of pike parasites, tapeworms of the genus Triaenophorus, was carried out in natural lakes and water bodies contaminated by the Kostomuksha mining and concentration mill (Northern Karelia). We demonstrate that the wide presence of T. crassus and T. nodulosus in natural northern lakes is due to the diversity of aquatic organisms and the structure of trophic relations. The abundance of both species is modeled by the negative binomial distribution. Relations in the host-parasite system are stable. Estimates of the parameter k of the negative binomial distribution reflect the changes in the interactions in the host-parasite system. T. nodulosus has survived in the man-made water body storing the highly mineralized recirculated water from the mill. Disturbance-related distinctions were detected in the parameters of the T. nodulosus abundance distribution in the host population. In the Okunevoye Lake, where the water discharged from the tailings dump is more diluted, the infection rates in pike did not differ from those in undisturbed water bodies.

  6. Community-based noncommunicable disease interventions: lessons from developed countries for developing ones.

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, A.; Berrios, X.; Puska, P.

    2001-01-01

    Community-based programmes for prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) started in Europe and the USA in the early 1970s. High mortality from CVD in Finland led to the start of the North Karelia Project. Since then, a vast amount of scientific literature has accumulated to present results and discuss experience. The results indicate that heart health programmes have a high degree of generalizability, are cost-effective and can influence health policy. In the 1980s the focus of programmes expanded from CVD to noncommunicable diseases (NCD), mainly because of the common risk factors. Attention has now turned to promoting this approach in developing countries, where the prevalence of NCD is growing. Theory and experience show that community-based NCD programmes should be planned, run and evaluated according to clear principles and rules, collaborate with all sectors of the community, and maintain close contact with the national authorities. In view of the burden of disease they represent and of globalization, there is a great need for international collaboration. Practical networks with common guidelines but adaptable to local cultures in a flexible way have proved to be very useful. PMID:11693979

  7. Study of natural zircon-xenotime assemblages for estimation of the actinide waste forms stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lapina, M.I.; Yudintsev, S.V.

    1999-07-01

    In order to estimate compositions and structural stability of YPO{sub 4}-ZrSiO{sub 4}-USiO{sub 4}-ThSiO{sub 4} solid solution, natural specimens of (U, Th)-enriched zircon-xenotime assemblages were studied. The samples were picked from granitic pegmatites of North Karelia of about 1,850 Ma age. TEM data show that amorphization of the zircon structure is not complete. Xenotime has typical crystal structure. ASEM and EPMA results indicate that zircon and xenotime are micro-heterogeneous in there compositions. Numerous micro-inclusions (<5 {micro}m in diameter) of xenotime and uranium oxide were found within the zircon grains. Xenotime is free from inclusions. The results give rise to the conclusions that xenotime-zircon solid solution is restricted due to high difference in ionic radii (Y{sup 3+} vs. Zr{sup 4+} and P{sup 5+} vs. Si{sup 4+}). Data on high amounts of rare earth elements and phosphorus in natural zircons are result from REE-phosphate inclusions in analyzed zircons. Content of U in the zircon allowed the estimation of the solubility of coffinite end member to be no less than 5 mol.% USiO{sub 4}.

  8. Lost and found: Short-term dynamics of the flora on 100 small islands in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipunov, Alexey; Volkova, Polina; Abramova, Liudmila; Borisova, Polina

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to uncover factors that influence short-term (decade) flora dynamics and species richness of northern marine islets characterized by poor flora and weak anthropogenic pressure. The study used presence-absence data of vascular plant species on 100 small uprising islets of the Kandalaksha Gulf of White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia). We investigated the influence of islands' attributes on species richness and rates of flora dynamics. Two island types were analyzed separately: younger, stone-like and older, islet-like (which generally are larger and have higher diversity of habitats). Sampled islands were studied via classical biogeographical per island approach and metapopulation per species approach. Stone-like islands had noticeably poorer flora with higher rates of immigration and extinction when compared to those of islet-like islands. The species number for islet-like islands correlated positively with number of habitats, abundance of different habitat types and island area. Species richness of stone-like islands correlated positively only with number of habitat types. Plant species associated with birds, crowberry thickets and coastal rocks were the most stable, and the species of disturbed habitats were significantly less stable. Floristic changes that have occurred have been caused by the massive establishment of new species rather than the extinction of pre-existing taxa. Thus, most of these islands are still in the colonization (assortative) stage. While we found no relationship between island area and species number for stone-like islands, this relationship was seen on islet-like islands.

  9. Age range of formation of sedimentary-volcanogenic complex of the Vetreny Belt (the southeast of the Baltic Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhelovskaya, S. V.; Korsakov, A. K.; Mezhelovskii, A. D.; Bibikova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    As a result of studying the Vetreny Belt greenstone structure (the southeast of the Baltic Shield), zircons from terrigenous deposits of the Toksha Formation, underlying the section of the sedimentary-volcanogenic complex, and zircons of the Vetreny Belt Formation, deposits of which crown the section, were dated. The results of analysis of age data of detrital zircons from quartzites of the Toksha Formation indicate that Mesoarchean greenstone complexes and paleo-Archean granitogneisses of the Vodlozero Block (Karelia) were the provenance area from which these zircons were derived. The occurrence of the youngest zircons with age of 2654.3 ± 38.5 Ma is evidence that the formation of the Vetreny Belt, including the Toksha Formation, began no earlier than this time. Zircons from volcanic rocks of the Vetreny Belt yielded the age of 2405 ± 5 Ma. Thus, the age interval of the formation of the sedimentary-volcanogenic complex of the Vetreny Belt ranges from 2654.3 ± 38.5 to 2405 ± 5 Ma.

  10. Spectroscopic study of the microbial community in chemocline zones of relic meromictic lakes separating from the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2015-03-01

    As a result of a recent years study on the Karelia shore of the White Sea more than ten relict lakes in different stages of separation from the sea have been discovered. Five of them are located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University. Such separated lakes are interesting to explore for their firm vertical stratification. Water layers differ not only by temperature, salinity and other physic and chemical characteristics and optical properties, but also by ibhabiting microorganisms and by the quality of dissolved organic matter. To study phototropic organisms in water sampled from different depths we used spectroscopic techniques. Identification of the main bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that there are two main groups of photosynthetic organisms in the redox zone (chemocline): unicellular algae containing chlorophyll a and green sulfur bacteria with bacteriochlorophylls c, d, e. Spectral data were compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water layer (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and sunlight illumination at certain depth). It gave an opportunity to compare vertical profiles of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentration with the number and distribution of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms. Maximum abundance of both algae and green sulfur bacteria were achieved within the redox zone. Typical thickness of the layer with the highest concentration of microorganisms did not exceed 10-20 cm.

  11. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).

  12. Bulding and Ornamental Stone in the History of St Petersburg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    First, the Our Lady of Kazan Orthodox Cathedral and some mansions are used to demonstrate Russian stones in the architectural décor of St Petersburg, XVIII-XX cc. These rocks are granites from Vyborg and Sortavala, lime tufa from Gatchina, marbles from Ruskeala and Juven at the Ladoga Lake, Tivdian marble, Shokshian quartzite, and black aspid slate of the Onega Lake. Later German and Polish sandstones and Finnish soap stone came to the city. Second, there is given a review of rock types used in St Petersburg at XX-XXI cc. margins. They are granites, granosyenites, syenites, gneisses, marbles, limestones both from Russia and from abroad. Which ones are more usual? From what regions did Russian stone come? References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print. House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. 2) A.Ya. Tutakova, A.Z. Romanovskiy, A.G. Bulakh, V.I. Leer. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p. (In Russian).

  13. Haplotype structure and population genetic inferences from nucleotide-sequence variation in human lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A G; Weiss, K M; Nickerson, D A; Taylor, S L; Buchanan, A; Stengård, J; Salomaa, V; Vartiainen, E; Perola, M; Boerwinkle, E; Sing, C F

    1998-01-01

    Allelic variation in 9.7 kb of genomic DNA sequence from the human lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) was scored in 71 healthy individuals (142 chromosomes) from three populations: African Americans (24) from Jackson, MS; Finns (24) from North Karelia, Finland; and non-Hispanic Whites (23) from Rochester, MN. The sequences had a total of 88 variable sites, with a nucleotide diversity (site-specific heterozygosity) of .002+/-.001 across this 9.7-kb region. The frequency spectrum of nucleotide variation exhibited a slight excess of heterozygosity, but, in general, the data fit expectations of the infinite-sites model of mutation and genetic drift. Allele-specific PCR helped resolve linkage phases, and a total of 88 distinct haplotypes were identified. For 1,410 (64%) of the 2,211 site pairs, all four possible gametes were present in these haplotypes, reflecting a rich history of past recombination. Despite the strong evidence for recombination, extensive linkage disequilibrium was observed. The number of haplotypes generally is much greater than the number expected under the infinite-sites model, but there was sufficient multisite linkage disequilibrium to reveal two major clades, which appear to be very old. Variation in this region of LPL may depart from the variation expected under a simple, neutral model, owing to complex historical patterns of population founding, drift, selection, and recombination. These data suggest that the design and interpretation of disease-association studies may not be as straightforward as often is assumed. PMID:9683608

  14. Morphological differentiation of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrid larvae in experiment and under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Karganova, Galina G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was detection of hybrid larvae in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus cohabitation sites. To this end, the following three tasks were solved: interspecies crossing of ticks, evaluation of typical morphological signs of the hybrid larvae, and analysis of collected specimens from sites of sympatry. Under experimental conditions, hybrid larvae of I. persulcatus (female) and I. ricinus (male) were obtained that differed from the parental species by the size of setae on the scutum and alloscutum. Discriminant analysis yielded 87.5% classification accuracy for the priory set groups of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrids. Of 88 hybrid larvae, 13 (15%) were classified as I. persulcatus and 4 (5%) as I. ricinus. We measured larvae of Ixodes ticks (n=141) collected from small mammals in 1950-1970 in Karelia in cohabitation sites of these species that were previously classified as I. persulcatus or I. ricinus. According to the results of discriminant analysis, 31 larvae (22%) were classified as hybrids with probability p≥0.52; for 10 larvae (7%), the probability of placement to the hybrid group was >0.95.

  15. Epidemiology of Sindbis virus infections in Finland 1981-96: possible factors explaining a peculiar disease pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer-Korvenkontio, M.; Vapalahti, O.; Kuusisto, P.; Saikku, P.; Manni, T.; Koskela, P.; Nygren, T.; Brummer-Korvenkontio, H.; Vaheri, A.

    2002-01-01

    Pogosta disease (PD), an epidemic rash-arthritis occurring in late summer is caused by Sindbis virus (SINV) and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Altogether 2183 PD cases were serologically confirmed 1981-96 in Finland, with an annual incidence of 2.7/100000 (18 in the most endemic area of Northern Karelia). The annual average was 136 (varying from 1 to 1282) with epidemics occurring in August-September with a 7-year interval. Studies on 6320 patients with suspected rubella (1973-89) revealed 107 PD cases. The depth of snow cover and the temperature in May-July seemed to predict the number of cases. The morbidity was highest in 45- to 65-year-old females and lowest in children. Subclinical SINV infections were 17 times more common than the clinical ones. The SINV-antibody prevalence in fertile-age females was 0.6% in 1992; the estimated seroprevalence in Finland is about 2%. Among game animals the tetraonids (black grouse and capercaillie) had the highest seroprevalence (65%) in the epidemic year of 1981. PMID:12403109

  16. Smoking patterns among ninth-grade adolescents in the Pitkäranta district (Russia) and in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Puska, Pekka

    2002-01-01

    This study describes how ninth-grade adolescents' smoking behavior in the Pitkäranta district (Russia) differs from their eastern Finland counterparts. Cross-sectional data from the second North Karelia Youth Study and the Pitkäranta Youth Study were used. Subjects were all (n=385) ninth-grade students in 10 comprehensive schools in Pitkäranta and all (n=2098) students of the same age in 24 comprehensive schools in eastern Finland. Students were asked about their smoking status, intentions to smoke, smoking situations, acquisition of tobacco products, and opportunity to smoke in the school area. The results showed very large differences in the smoking prevalence between Pitkäranta and eastern Finland. For boys, the prevalence of daily smoking was 29% and 19% in Pitkäranta and eastern Finland, respectively. The differences in girls were adverse: 7% and 21% of girls in Pitkäranta and eastern Finland, respectively, were daily smokers. However, as many as one third of the nonsmoking girls in Pitkäranta stated that they may experiment or start smoking later. Boys in Pitkäranta had vaguer attitudes about remaining nonsmokers than boys in eastern Finland. This situation anticipates worsening of the smoking epidemic in Pitkäranta and requires an effective prevention policy and cooperation between different groups in society.

  17. Two centuries of the Scandinavian wolf population: patterns of genetic variability and migration during an era of dramatic decline.

    PubMed

    Flagstad, Ø; Walker, C W; Vilà, C; Sundqvist, A-K; Fernholm, B; Hufthammer, A K; Wiig, Ø; Koyola, I; Ellegren, H

    2003-04-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) was numerous on the Scandinavian peninsula in the early 19th century. However, as a result of intense persecution, the population declined dramatically and was virtually extinct from the peninsula by the 1960s. We examined historical patterns of genetic variability throughout the period of decline, from 1829 to 1979. Contemporary Finnish wolves, considered to be representative of a large eastern wolf population, were used for comparison. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variability among historical Scandinavian wolves was significantly lower than in Finland while Y chromosome variability was comparable between the two populations. This may suggest that long-distance migration from the east has been male-biased. Importantly though, as the historical population was significantly differentiated from contemporary Finnish wolves, the overall immigration rate to the Scandinavian peninsula appears to have been low. Levels of variability at autosomal microsatellite loci were high by the early 1800s but declined considerably towards the mid-20th century. At this time, approximately 40% of the allelic diversity and 30% of the heterozygosity had been lost. After 1940, however, there is evidence of several immigration events, coinciding with episodes of marked population increase in Russian Karelia and subsequent westwards migration.

  18. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  19. A Mobile Phone Application for the Collection of Opinion Data for Forest Planning Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis.

  20. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  1. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  2. Lithological 3D grid model of the Vuonos area built by using geostatistical simulation honoring the 3D fault model and structural trends of the Outokumpu association rocks in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu mining district - a metallogenic province about 100 km long x 60 km wide - hosts a Palaeoproterozoic sulfide deposit characterized by an unusual lithological association. It is located in the North Karelia Schist Belt , which was thrust on the late Archaean gneissic-granitoid basement of the Karelian craton during the early stages of the Svecofennian Orogeny between 1.92 and 1.87 Ga (Koistinen 1981). Two major tectono-stratigraphic units can be distinguished, a lower, parautochthonous 'Lower Kaleva' unit and an upper, allochthonous 'upper Kaleva' unit or 'Outokumpu allochthon'. The latter consists of tightly-folded deep marine turbiditic mica schists and metagraywackes containing intercalations of black schist, and the Outo¬kumpu assemblage, which comprises ca. 1950 Ma old, serpentinized peridotites surrounded by carbonate-calc-silicate ('skarn')-quartz rocks. The ore body is enclosed in the Outokumpu assemblage, which is thought to be part of a disrupted and incomplete ophiolite complex (Vuollo & Piirainen 1989) that can be traced to the Kainuu schist belt further north where the well-preserved Jormua ophiolite is ex¬posed (Kontinen 1987, Peltonen & Kontinen 2004). Outokumpu can be divided into blocks divided by faults and shear zones (Saalmann and Laine, 2014). The aim of this study was to make a 3D lithological model of a small part of the Outokumpu association rocks in the Vuonos area honoring the 3D fault model built by Saalmann and Laine (2014). The Vuonos study area is also a part of the Outokumpu mining camp area (Aatos et al. 2013, 2014). Fault and shear structures was used in geostatistical gridding and simulation of the lithologies. Several possible realizations of the structural grids, conforming the main lithological trends were built. Accordingly, it was possible to build a 3D structural grid containing information of the distribution of the possible lithologies and an estimation the associated uncertainties. References: Aatos, S

  3. Tungsten isotope composition of the Acasta Gneiss Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willbold, M.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Chen, H.-W.; Elliott, T.

    2015-06-01

    High-precision tungsten (182W/184W) isotope measurements on well-characterised mafic and felsic samples of the ca. 3960 Ma Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC; Northwest Territories, Canada) show radiogenic ε182W values between +0.06 to +0.15. Two ca. 3600 Ma felsic samples from this terrane have ε182W ∼ 0 and are the oldest samples so far documented to have a W isotopic composition indistinguishable from that of the modern mantle. The ε182W data are correlated with ε142Nd (Roth et al., 2014) and we attribute this variability to incomplete metamorphic homogenisation of the 3960 Ma protolith with more recent material in a 3370 Ma tectono-thermal event. Notably, the value of the positive ε182W anomalies seen in the 3960 Ma AGC samples that are least affected by metamorphic homogenisation is comparable to that observed in other early Archean rocks (Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland; Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt, Canada) and the late Archean Kostomuksha komatiites (Karelia). This demonstrates a globally constant signature. We infer that the presence of a pre-late veneer mantle represents the most straightforward interpretation of a uniform distribution of ε182W ∼ + 0.15 value in Archean rocks of different ages. We show that such a notion is compatible with independent constraints from highly siderophile element abundances in mafic and ultra-mafic Archean mantle-derived rocks. The absence of anomalous ε182W and ε142Nd so far measured in samples younger than ca. 2800 Ma suggests progressive convective homogenisation of silicate reservoirs. The downward mixing of an upper mantle rich in late-delivered meteoritic material might account for these combined observations.

  4. Chiral Biomarkers and Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as ?bio-discriminators? that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  5. [B chromosome polymorphism of blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae) from the north-western region of Russia].

    PubMed

    Chubareva, L A; Petrova, N A

    2006-01-01

    We have studied karyofonds of natural populations and B-chromosome morphology of 8 species of blackflies from the North-Western region of Russia: Odagmia ornata Mg., Hellichiella crassa Rubz., Simulium morsitans Edw., Simulium argyreatum Mg., Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duo-decimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. For this purpose we made slides of squashed blackflies larvae with salivary gland polytene chromosomes stained by aceto-orcein, in addition to similarly stained slides with mitotic chromosomes from gonads and ganglia. Morphology of polytene B-chromosomes of Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duodecimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. has been first described. B-chromosome polymorphism was found in all species, but the number of B chromosomes was conserved within each differences in polytene individual. Stable and distinct interspecific differences in the morphology of polytene B-chromosomes were demonstrated, and these characters are advisable to use to distinguish the species. We have investigated for the first time karyofonds of Od. ornata populations from Arkhangelsk Region (Solovetskie Islands) and Leningrad Region (railway station Sablino), and those of S. argyreatum populations from Murmansk Region (Kandalaksha environs) and Karelia (railway station Chupa). A long term study of Od. ornata and S. argyrestum population from North-Western Russia revealed interspecific and interpopulation dynamics of the occurrence of specimens with B-chromosomes. Some populations showed an increased percentage of individuals with B-chromosomes. It is suggested that B-chromosomes may play a role in adaptation of polulations to severe environmental conditions.

  6. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene.

  7. Monitoring of glacial seismic events from Greenland at regional distances: experience from the POLENET/LAPNET experiment during the IPY 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, E.; Pedersen, H.; Plomerova, J.; Achauer, U.; Kissling, E. H.; Sanina, I.; Jämsen, T.; Silvennoinen, H.; Pequegnat, C.; Hurskainen, R.; Hausmann, H.; Jedlicka, P.; Aleshine, I.; Bourova, E.; Bodvarsson, R.; Brueckl, E. P.; Eken, T.; Heikkinen, P. J.; Houseman, G. A.; Johnsen, H.; Kari, K.; Munzarova, H.; Roberts, R.; Ruzek, B.; Hosein Shomali, Z.; Schweitzer, J.; Shaumyan, A.; Vecsey, L.; Volosov, S.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of glacial earthquakes from Greenland was one of the major targets of the POLENET/LAPNET passive seismic experiment in northern Fennoscandia (northern parts of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russian Karelia) during the IPY 2007-2009. The POLENET/LAPNET array, with the average spacing between stations of 70 km, was designed to solve specific tasks of polar seismology. The collected POLENET/LAPNET dataset includes high-frequency continuous data (sampling rate from 50 to 100 sps) of 37 temporary stations, which were in operation during the time frame from 01.05.2008 to 31.09.2009, and of 21 stations of selected permanent networks in Fennoscandia. The first results of the experiment have shown that the POLENET/LAPNET array, located at regional distances from Greenland, recorded more such events than it has been recorded by the Global Seismographic Network during the same observation period. The waveforms of events recorded by the array differ from both long-period waveforms of glacial earthquakes recorded at teleseismic distances and from short-period glacial rumblings recorded at local distances. Recordings of glacial earthquakes obtained by the array contain the long-period energy only. In many cases the events were recorded in groups within the time interval of up to 1 hour. Generally, the waveforms of events within the same group are different and the events not always originate from the same location. For some of the events it was possible to recognize not only dispersed long-period surface wave, but also the first arrival of a long-period P-wave. This suggests that source duration of these events was long. Diversity of the waveforms of glacial events recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET array can be considered as evidence for diversity of source mechanisms of these events.

  8. Hunting effects on favourable conservation status of highly inbred Swedish wolves.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Jansson, Mija; Allendorf, Fred W; Jakobsson, Sven; Ryman, Nils

    2013-04-01

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is classified as endangered in Sweden by the Swedish Species Information Centre, which is the official authority for threat classification. The present population, which was founded in the early 1980s, descends from 5 individuals. It is isolated and highly inbred, and on average individuals are more related than siblings. Hunts have been used by Swedish authorities during 2010 and 2011 to reduce the population size to its upper tolerable level of 210 wolves. European Union (EU) biodiversity legislation requires all member states to promote a concept called "favourable conservation status" (FCS) for a series of species including the wolf. Swedish national policy stipulates maintenance of viable populations with sufficient levels of genetic variation of all naturally occurring species. Hunting to reduce wolf numbers in Sweden is currently not in line with national and EU policy agreements and will make genetically based FCS criteria less achievable for this species. We suggest that to reach FCS for the wolf in Sweden the following criteria need to be met: (1) a well-connected, large, subdivided wolf population over Scandinavia, Finland, and the Russian Karelia-Kola region should be reestablished, (2) genetically effective size (Ne ) of this population is in the minimum range of Ne = 500-1000, (3) Sweden harbors a part of this total population that substantially contributes to the total Ne and that is large enough to not be classified as threatened genetically or according to IUCN criteria, and (4) average inbreeding levels in the Swedish population are <0.1.

  9. Escape from an evolutionary dead end: a triploid clone of Gyrodactylus salaris is able to revert to sex and switch host (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Lumme, Jaakko

    2006-12-01

    Diploid parthenogenesis, with rare sex, is considered as the basic mode of reproduction among the hermaphroditic and viviparous Gyrodactylus. A particular strain of the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris (RBT clone) was recognized by an invariable, unique mitochondrial DNA haplotype in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms. The RBT clone was shown to be triploid and asexual by analyzing a 493 bp sequence of a nuclear DNA marker. Three alleles were present as heterozygous in all 237 individuals sampled in years 2001-2005 from five isolated Finnish farms. The triploid clone probably originated from a diploid oocyte fertilized by a non-self hermaphrodite, most probably in a fish farm. Identical mitochondrial COI gene (1606 bp) was also found in G. salaris parasites on landlocked salmon (Salmo salar) in two rivers draining to the lake Kuitozero, Russian Karelia. In the river Pisto, the clone was triploid, but the diagnostic "short" nuclear allele of the RBT clone was replaced by an allele typical for salmon specific parasites in the Lake Onega. The clone in the river Kurzhma was diploid, having lost the "short" allele, but still heterozygous for the other two alleles of the RBT clone. Evidently, the triploid parthenogenetic RBT clone had produced diploid oocytes, when (as a female) stimulated by a non-self mate in the new environment. The genetic reorganization coincided with a switch to the salmon host. Participation of triploids into the gene pool of the species is rarely reported in animals, and the triploidy is generally considered as an irreversible dead-end of the evolution. Liberalism in ploidy level may significantly add to the evolutionary options available for a parasite in ever-changing environments.

  10. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Säynäjoki, Raita; Packalén, Petteri; Maltamo, Matti; Vehmas, Mikko; Eerikäinen, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L.) from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM) was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF) and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species. PMID:27873799

  11. Cladistic structure within the human Lipoprotein lipase gene and its implications for phenotypic association studies.

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, A R; Weiss, K M; Nickerson, D A; Boerwinkle, E; Sing, C F

    2000-01-01

    Haplotype variation in 9.7 kb of genomic DNA sequence from the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene was scored in three populations: African-Americans from Jackson, Mississippi (24 individuals), Finns from North Karelia, Finland (24), and non-Hispanic whites from Rochester, Minnesota (23). Earlier analyses had indicated that recombination was common but concentrated into a hotspot and that recurrent mutations at multiple sites may have occurred. We show that much evolutionary structure exists in the haplotype variation on either side of the recombinational hotspot. By peeling off significant recombination events from a tree estimated under the null hypothesis of no recombination, we also reveal some cladistic structure not disrupted by recombination during the time to coalescence of this variation. Additional cladistic structure is estimated to have emerged after recombination. Many apparent multiple mutational events at sites still remain after removing the effects of the detected recombination/gene conversion events. These apparent multiple events are found primarily at sites identified as highly mutable by previous studies, strengthening the conclusion that they are true multiple events. This analysis portrays the complexity of the interplay among many recombinational and mutational events that would be needed to explain the patterns of haplotype diversity in this gene. The cladistic structure in this region is used to identify four to six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that would provide disequilibrium coverage over much of this region. These sites may be useful in identifying phenotypic associations with variable sites in this gene. Evolutionary considerations also imply that the SNPs in the 3' region should have general utility in most human populations, but the 5' SNPs may be more population specific. Choosing SNPs at random would generally not provide adequate disequilibrium coverage of the sequenced region. PMID:11063700

  12. Suspended Matter Studies In Keret' River Mixing Zone (karelian Coast of The White Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Dolotov, Yu. S.; Filatov, N. N.; Kovalenko, V. N.; Lifshitz, V. Kh.; Petrov, M. P.; Platonov, A. V.; Prego, R.; Rat'kova, T. N.

    In September 2000 suspended matter was studied in the Keret' estuary and adjacent part of the White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia) along with hydrophysical measure- ments during the expedition onboard the RV "Ecolog". 106 samples of total suspended matter were obtained by filtration of water samples through nuclepore filters, 87 sam- ples of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen were collected by filtration through the Whatman GF/F filters. 21 samples of phytoplankton were collected from the same water samples. Pico- (< 2 mkm) and the most abundant nanoplankton (2-20 mkm) al- gae were counted before any concentration of the sample, then samples were allowed to settle for a week and were slowly decanted through a glass tube covered with nylon gauze. Microplankton cells (> 20 mkm) and less abundant nanoplankton algae were counted at 200X magnification. Concentrations of total suspended matter in the sur- face layer decreased .from 0.79 - 2.00 mg/l in near-mouth zone to 0.40 - 1.00 mg/l in marine zone (at the distance of 9 km from the Keret' mouth). Molar C/N ration decreased from 10.2 in the Keret' mouth to 7.1 in the marine zone demonstrating that content of terrigenic organic matter in suspended material decreases and content of marine plankton increases. Flagellates dominated in the composition of phytoplank- ton in the period of expedition. Phytoplankton was distributed in water column rela- tively evenly. Fresh water species were sparse, may be because of the strong salinity gradient in the mouth of the river. The work was supported by Russian Fund of Ba- sic Researches (grants 00-05-64070 and 00-05-79063), INTAS (grant 97-1881) and INCO-COPERNICUS (grant ICA2-CT-2000-10053).

  13. Limited gene flow among brown bear populations in far Northern Europe? Genetic analysis of the east-west border population in the Pasvik Valley.

    PubMed

    Schregel, Julia; Kopatz, Alexander; Hagen, Snorre B; Brøseth, Henrik; Smith, Martin E; Wikan, Steinar; Wartiainen, Ingvild; Aspholm, Paul E; Aspi, Jouni; Swenson, Jon E; Makarova, Olga; Polikarpova, Natalia; Schneider, Michael; Knappskog, Per M; Ruokonen, Minna; Kojola, Ilpo; Tirronen, Konstantin F; Danilov, Pjotr I; Eiken, Hans Geir

    2012-07-01

    Noninvasively collected genetic data can be used to analyse large-scale connectivity patterns among populations of large predators without disturbing them, which may contribute to unravel the species' roles in natural ecosystems and their requirements for long-term survival. The demographic history of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe indicates several extinction and recolonization events, but little is known about present gene flow between populations of the east and west. We used 12 validated microsatellite markers to analyse 1580 hair and faecal samples collected during six consecutive years (2005-2010) in the Pasvik Valley at 70°N on the border of Norway, Finland and Russia. Our results showed an overall high correlation between the annual estimates of population size (N(c) ), density (D), effective size (N(e) ) and N(e) /N(c) ratio. Furthermore, we observed a genetic heterogeneity of ∼0.8 and high N(e) /N(c) ratios of ∼0.6, which suggests gene flow from the east. Thus, we expanded the population genetic study to include Karelia (Russia, Finland), Västerbotten (Sweden) and Troms (Norway) (477 individuals in total) and detected four distinct genetic clusters with low migration rates among the regions. More specifically, we found that differentiation was relatively low from the Pasvik Valley towards the south and east, whereas, in contrast, moderately high pairwise F(ST) values (0.91-0.12) were detected between the east and the west. Our results indicate ongoing limits to gene flow towards the west, and the existence of barriers to migration between eastern and western brown bear populations in Northern Europe.

  14. Using Archean and Paleoproterozoic Shales and Tillites as a Window into Crustal Evolution and Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Bekker, A.; Zakharov, D. O.

    2014-12-01

    in Karelia (Russia), quartz amygdules in mafics and their relations to our global shale dataset. The overall conclusion is that despite first-order changes in areal mass, exposed surface conditions, pCO2, pO2 affecting chemical/physical weathering cycle, it was not dramatically different before and after the rise of atmospheric oxygen at ~2.3-2.4 Ga.

  15. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p

  16. Reconstructing the redox conditions of Paleoproterozoic oceans: Insights from the Zaonega Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Neel; Zerkle, Aubrey; Izon, Gareth; Romashkin, Alexander; Rychanchik, Dmtriy; Upraus, Kärt; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Wing, Boswell; Lepland, Aivo

    2015-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic is marked by profound changes in global tectonics, climate and biogeochemical cycling of redox sensitive elements. Determining the redox state of marine environments at this point in Earth's history is fundamental in understanding the connections between the geosphere and biosphere, including possible microbially-assisted phosphogenesis. One hypothesis suggests that oxidative weathering following Earth's first significant rise in atmospheric oxygen, resulted in an increased supply of sulfate and phosphate to the oceans, culminating in the first significant phosphorite deposits some 300-400 Ma later (Lepland et al., 2013). Thus Paleoproterozoic ocean structure has been envisaged as stratified, through mildly oxygenated shallow water and anoxic deep water, with temporally and spatially variable phases of euxinia possibly linked to transient changes in the size of the seawater sulfate reservoir (Scott et al., 2014). New cores obtained from the upper part of the 2 Ga Zaonega Formation in the Onega Basin of Karelia, NW Russia, have recovered a variety of organic-rich mudstones and carbonate rocks, containing several discrete mm-cm scale P-rich beds that may represent seep or hydrothermally-influenced depositional settings (Lepland et al., 2013). Here we present new Fe-speciation data and pyrite derived S-isotope data spanning one of these new cores in order to: i) evaluate the redox state of the water column, determining the extent of water column euxinia, and ii) assess the potential influence of S-cycling on phosphogenesis. Preliminary Fe extractions show that total Fe is broadly dictated by lithology, but generally lower in samples where the P-rich intervals occur, possibly supporting extensive sulfate reduction and the formation of a euxinic water column. Further S-isotope analyses on associated pyrites will determine the extent to which additional biogeochemical S-cycling (e.g., sulfide oxidation) could also have contributed to the P

  17. Observed changes in cardiovascular risk factors among high-risk middle-aged men who received lifestyle counselling: a 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vanhanen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the long-term impact of health counselling among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. Design An observational study with a 5-year follow-up. Setting and intervention All men aged 40 years in Helsinki have been invited to a visit to evaluate CVD risk from 2006 onwards. A modified version of the North Karelia project risk tool (CVD risk score) served to assess the risk. High-risk men received lifestyle counselling based on their individual risk profile in 2006 and were invited to a follow-up visit in 2011. Subjects Of the 389 originally high-risk men, 159 participated in the follow-up visits in 2011. Based on their follow-up in relation the further risk communication, we divided the participants into three groups: primary health care, occupational health care and no control visits. Main outcome measures Lifestyle and CVD risk score change. Results All groups showed improvements in lifestyles. The CVD risk score decreased the most in the group that continued the risk communication visits in their primary health care centre (6.1 to 4.8 [95% CI −1.6 to −0.6]) compared to those who continued risk communication visits in their occupational health care (6.0 to 5.4 [95% CI −1.3 to 0.3]), and to those with no risk communication visits (6.0 to 5.9 [95% CI −0.5 to 0.4]). Conclusions These findings indicate that individualized lifestyle counselling improves health behaviour and reduces total CVD risk among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. Sustained improvement in risk factor status requires ongoing risk communication with health care providers. KEY POINTSStudies of short duration have shown that lifestyle changes reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among high-risk individuals.Sustaining these lifestyle changes and maintaining the lower disease risk attained can prove challenging.Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and individualized health counselling for high-risk men, when implemented in primary health care, have the potential

  18. Structure of the ophiolite-hosted Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide ore district revealed by combined 3D modelling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, Kerstin; Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu district within the North Karelia Schist Belt in eastern Finland hosts Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits which are associated with Palaeoproterozoic ophiolitic metaperidotites that were tectonically interleaved with allochthonous metaturbidites. Extensive metasomatism of the peridotites produced a rim of quartz-carbonate-calc-silicate rocks, grouped as the Outokumpu assemblage (OKA). A tectonic history comprising various phases of folding and shearing followed by several faulting events dismembered the metaperidotites so that ore bodies cannot be easily followed along strike. Future exploration has to expand the search into deeper areas and consequently requires better knowledge of the subsurface geology. In order to unravel the complex structure 3D geologic models of different scales have been built using a variety of information: geological maps, aeromagnetic and gravity maps, digital terrain models, mine cross sections, drill core logs combined with observations from underground mine galleries, structural measurements, and data from seismic survey lines. The latter have been used to detect upper crustal-scale structures and have been reprocessed for our purpose. The models reveal that the ore body has formed during remobilisation of a proto-ore and is closely related to thrust zones that truncate the OKA. Later faults dismembered the ore explaining the variable depth of the different ore bodies along the Outokumpu ore zone. On a larger scale, at least four km-scale thrust sheets separated by major listric shear zones (curved dislocations in the seismic lines) can be recognized, each internally further imbricated by subordinate shear zones containing a number of lens-shape bodies of probably OKA rocks. Thrust stacking was followed by at least 3 stages of faulting that divided the ore belt into fault-bounded blocks with heterogeneous displacements: (i) NW-dipping faults with unresolved kinematics, (ii) reverse faulting along c.50°-60° SE

  19. Sequence Diversity and Large-Scale Typing of SNPs in the Human Apolipoprotein E Gene

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Deborah A.; Taylor, Scott L.; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Weiss, Kenneth M.; Clark, Andrew G.; Stengård, Jari H.; Salomaa, Veikko; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    A common strategy for genotyping large samples begins with the characterization of human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by sequencing candidate regions in a small sample for SNP discovery. This is usually followed by typing in a large sample those sites observed to vary in a smaller sample. We present results from a systematic investigation of variation at the human apolipoprotein E locus (APOE), as well as the evaluation of the two-tiered sampling strategy based on these data. We sequenced 5.5 kb spanning the entire APOE genomic region in a core sample of 72 individuals, including 24 each of African-Americans from Jackson, Mississippi; European-Americans from Rochester, Minnesota; and Europeans from North Karelia, Finland. This sequence survey detected 21 SNPs and 1 multiallelic indel, 14 of which had not been previously reported. Alleles varied in relative frequency among the populations, and 10 sites were polymorphic in only a single population sample. Oligonucleotide ligation assays (OLA) were developed for 20 of these sites (omitting the indel and a closely-linked SNP). These were then scored in 2179 individuals sampled from the same three populations (n = 843, 884, and 452, respectively). Relative allele frequencies were generally consistent with estimates from the core sample, although variation was found in some populations in the larger sample at SNPs that were monomorphic in the corresponding smaller core sample. Site variation in the larger samples showed no systematic deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectation. The large OLA sample clearly showed that variation in many, but not all, of OLA-typed SNPs is significantly correlated with the classical protein-coding variants, implying that there may be important substructure within the classical ɛ2, ɛ3, and ɛ4 alleles. Comparison of the levels and patterns of polymorphism in the core samples with those estimated for the OLA-typed samples shows how nucleotide diversity is underestimated when

  20. Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

    2008-02-01

    Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only

  1. The Cossack Ranger II Seismograph, Research And Outreach Efforts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husebye, E. S.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Matveeva, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake monitoring is a highly desirable endaveour among seismologists but far from easy in practise. The reason for this is 3-fold; costly instrumentation, colleagues who dislike competition in network operations and running costs in terms of data transfer, storage and analysis. However, developments in recent years have off- set technical obstacles of the above kinds thus allowing for personal or small institution seismometry albeit the human factor remains. Anyway, a conventional SP-seismometer costs at least 2000 dollars while a complete 3-component seismograph may well cost 10000 dollars. However, a geophone-based 3-component seismograph may cost less than 2000 dollars but still have a performance matching that of a conventional station. The largest worry is normally not the one-time instrument expenses but operational and maintenance costs over say a 5-years time span. A solution here is socalled Seis Schooloperations implying that stations are deployed close to schools having good 'rocky' sites and permanent Internet access. Such sites are not necessarily optimum regarding ambient noise but on the other hand offer free data transfer to Hub and dedicated teachers taking care of the station operation. We have deployed small seismograph networks based on the above design and operational principles both in Norway and Karelia (NW Russia) as part of national outreach efforts. Noteworthy; recordings from these networks have proved useful in advanced wavefield analysis. A number of countries are economically poor but rich in earthquake activities. In other words, can hardly afford adequate monitoring of local seismicity. An interesting undertaking here is the SENSES project in Bulgaria supported by the "NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme' including 25 seismograph stations deployed nation-wide at sites close to local high schools. The close cooperation with these schools will ensure modest operational costs but also strengthen local outreach efforts in

  2. Iron and copper isotope fractionation during filtration and ultrafiltration of boreal organic-rich waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Viers, Jerome; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Poitrasson, Franck; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.

    2010-05-01

    Typical feature of all boreal surface waters is high concentration of dissolved (< 0.22 µm) organic matter (DOM) and iron, notably in the form of Fe(III)-OM complexes. Organic and organo-mineral colloids are the most likely carriers of trace metals such as Cu in rivers of the boreal zone. This work addresses colloidal speciation of Cu and Fe using conventional size separation technique, on-site frontal ultrafiltration. Specifically, we aimed to test the possibility of the presence of different pools of metal having specific isotopic signatures in different colloidal fractions using stable isotope measurements. We have chosen Cu for its high affinity to colloidal DOM and Fe for its tendency to form stable organo-mineral colloids of various size. Samples of natural waters were collected from small rivers, lakes, bogs, groundwater and soil environments in the Northern Karelia (NW Russia) during summer baseflow period. Large volumes (20-40 L) of water were filtered in the field through progressively decreasing pore size filters: 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.45, 0.22, 0.1 µm and 100, 10 and 1 kDa (1 kDa ~ 1 nm) using nylon and regenerated cellulose membranes and frontal ultrafiltration (Millipore, Amicon) devises. The homogeneity of the sample was verified by tracing radiogenic Sr isotopes in each fraction. In all filtrates and ultrafiltrates (permeates), and in selected retentates, stable isotopic composition of Cu and Fe was measured using double focusing high resolution MC-ICP MS (Neptune). We observe rather constant Cu isotopic ratio in all filtrate series and a systematic enrichment of heavy isotope of Fe with decreasing poresize. These preliminary results can be explained by strong complexation of Cu with small-size organic ligands of fulvic nature and its partial association with organo-mineral colloids. Both Fe(III) - OM complxeation and Fe(III) oxyhydroxides precipitation can be invoked to explain Fe isotope fractionation. This work allows, for the first, time, multi

  3. Gently sloping shear zones in the Belomorian Mobile Belt: Geology, structure, and P- T parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskii, V. M.; Travin, V. V.; Korpechkov, D. I.; Zaitseva, M. N.; Kurdyukov, E. B.; Travin, A. V.; Terent'eva, L. B.; Savatenkov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    The Belomorian Mobile Belt (BMB) in northern Karelia mostly consists of gently sloping shear zones, whose gneisses and migmatized amphibolites and blastomylonites are typically thinly banded, with their banding consistently dipping north- and northeastward. These gently sloping shear zones were not affected by folding after they were produced and are not cut by Paleoproterozoic metabasite dikes. Intrusive metabasites in the gently sloping shear zones make up relatively small (usually <5 m) equant or elongate bodies and occur as fragments of larger bodies. These fragments are often concentrated in stripes. Metabasites in the gently sloping shear zone are sometimes also found as lenses and tabular bodies of relatively small thickness, which are conformable with the foliation of the host rocks. The gently sloping shear zones cut across older domains of more complicated structure, which suggests that these zones are gently sloping ductile shear zones. Along these zones, the nappes were thrust south- and southwestward, and this process was the last in the origin of major structural features of BMB when the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola orogen was formed. Practically identical age values were obtained for the gently sloping shear zone in the two widely separated Engonozero and Chupa segments of BMB: 1879 ± 21 Ma (40Ar/39Ar amphibole age of amphibolite whose protolith was mafic rock) and 1857 ± 13 Ma (Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of garnet amphibolites after gabbronorite). The P- T metamorphic parameters in these gently sloping shear zones are remarkably different from the metamorphic parameters outside these zones: the pressure is 3-4 kbar lower and the temperature is 60-100°C lower. Thrusting-related decompression triggered the transition from the older high-pressure episode of Paleoproterozoic metamorphism to a younger syn-thrusting higher temperature metamorphic episode. The peak metamorphic parameters corresponding to the boundary between the amphibolite and

  4. Widespread euxinia in the aftermath of the Lomagundi event: insights from a modeling study of ocean biogeochemical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of strongly sulphidic oceanic waters (euxinia) during the Proterozoic may have affected biological turnover, extinction, and evolution, not only because of its toxicity to eukaryotes but also because of its fundamental role on bioessential trace metal availability. From this point of view, the evidence for euxinic environments in the Lomagundi-Jatuli event (LJE) aftermath (~2.08-2.05 billion years ago) in Gabon and Karelia are notable because their low δ98/95Mo values (less than 0.95o and 0.85o respectively) imply widespread euxinia at that time. The Francevillian Group in Gabon represents the oxic-anoxic/euxinic transitional sequence, implying a fluctuation in the atmospheric redox condition from oxic to relatively reducing, possibly due to the oxidation of substantial amount of organic matter deposited during the LJE. The large positive anomaly of sulphur isotopes and a substantial contraction of marine sulphate reservoir size through the latter part of the LJE also imply a fall in surface oxidation state. Variations of the oxygenation state of the Earth's surface would have caused substantial changes in oceanic chemical composition and, in turn, would surely have impacted the biosphere. However, the nature and dynamics of oceanic biogeochemical cycles for this interval are poorly understood. To unravel cause and effect of the variations of oceanic redox state in the Paleoproteorozoic, we improved the CANOPS model (a 1-D advection-diffusion-reaction marine biogeochemical cycle model), in which coupled C-N-O-P-S marine biogeochemical cycles and a series of redox reactions were adequately taken into account. Through systematic sensitivity experiments we show that a substantial drop in atmospheric oxygen level could cause a widespread euxinia for millions of years, which provides a theoretical explanation consistent with the geological records, such as large positive anomaly of δ34S, low δ98/95Mo, and a decrease in SO4 concentration, in the

  5. Geochronology of the Palaeoproterozoic Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, Finnmark, Norway, in its Fennoscandian context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingen, Bernard; Solli, Arne; Viola, Giulio; Sverre Sandstad, Jan; Torgersen, Espen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Skår, Øyvind; Nasuti, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    metabasalts provide an EpsilonNd =+2.2 at 2137 Ma, fitting the secular Fennoscandian trend and more specifically continental mafic dikes in Karelia (EpsilonNd =+2.5 at 2140 Ma). The Ráiseatnu Gneiss Complex comprises amphibolite-facies granitic orthogneisses, intruded between 1868 ±13 and 1828 ±5 Ma. These orthogneisses contain rafts of metasediments and abundant zircon xenocrysts ranging from c. 3100 to 2437 Ma, and are regarded as remelted Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks. The Kautokeino Greenstone Belt is interpreted as a weak Palaeoproterozoic pericontinental lithospheric domain, that accommodated oblique convergence between the stronger Karelian and the Norrbotten cratons during the Svecokarelian orogeny. Convergence was possibly associated with a mechanism of lithospheric subduction or lithospheric drip off.

  6. Age constraints from northwest Russia on the global accumulation of carbon during the Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Condon, D. J.; Prave, A. R.; Lepland, A.; Melezhik, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event records significant organic-carbon accumulation in sediments correlated between the type-locality in northwest Russia's Onega Basin, the Francevillian series of Gabon, and Indian Palaeoproterozoic sections. The estimated burial of >25 x 10E +10 tonnes of C in the Shunga event is significant and hypotheses have suggested this accumulation as one causal mechanism to the large positive Lomagundi-Jatuli positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of marine carbonates. Conversely, is has been suggested that the Shunga event post-dates the termination (at c. 2060 Ma) of the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE and the two are not overlapping in time. Discrimination between these competing theories requires precise and accurate chronologies for the stratigraphic successions hosting the proxy records. We present new age constraints from a combination of primary volcanic rocks and sedimentary units recording the Shunga event, from the well preserved Palaeoproterozoic sections in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt (Kola craton) and Onega Paleo Basin (Karelia craton) northwest Russia, to further elucidate the unresolved question of timing between the Shunga event and the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE. Carbon accumulations of the Shunga event are recorded in the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt. Felsic lava flows and pyroclastic rocks, and mafic pyroclastic rocks, in the Pilgujärvi Volcanic Formation overlying the Pilgujärvi sediments yield zircons with concordant U-Pb ages between c. 1970 and 1903 Ma. In the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation detrital zircons yield a minimum age of c. 1922 Ma, equivalent to a minimum c. 1915 Ma age of detrital zircons in the underlying Kolosjoki Sedimentary Formation. Thrust over the main units of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt is a tectonic melange known as the South Pechenga Zone where zircons from an intermediate volcanic rock yield the first age from this zone at c. 1930 Ma. Samples from the Onega Basin are

  7. Extreme 13Ccarb enrichment in ca. 2.0 Ga magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' association in a global context: a case for the world-wide signal enhanced by a local environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melezhik, Victor A.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Medvedev, Pavel V.; Makarikhin, Vladimir V.

    1999-12-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic positive excursion of δ 13Ccarb is now considered as three positive shifts of δ 13Ccarb separated by returns to 0‰, which all occurred between 2.40 and 2.06 Ma. This isotopic event is unique in terms of both duration (>300 Ma) and 13C enrichment (up to +18‰). The mechanism responsible for one of the most significant carbon isotopic shifts in Earth history remains highly debatable. To date, δ 13C of +10‰ to +15‰ cannot be balanced by organic carbon burial ( forg) as there is no geological evidence for an enhanced C org accumulation prior to or synchronous with the excursion. Instead, termination of these excursions is followed by formation of a vast reservoir of 13C-depleted organic material (-45‰ at Shunga) and by one of the earliest known oil-generation episodes at 2.0 Ga. None of the three positive excursions of δ 13Ccarb is followed by a negative isotopic shift significantly below 0‰, as has always been observed in younger isotopic events, reflecting an overturn of a major marine carbon reservoirs. This may indicate that forg was constant: implying that the mechanism involved in the production of C org was different. Onset of intensive methane cycling resulting in Δc change is another possibility. The majority of sampled 13Ccarb-rich localities represents shallow-water stromatolitic dolostones, `red beds' and evaporites formed in restricted intracratonic basins, and may not reflect global δ 13Ccarb values. Closely spaced drill core samples ( n=73) of stromatolitic dolostones from the >1980±27 Ma Tulomozerskaya Formation in the Onega palaeobasin, Russian Karelia, have been analysed for δ 13Ccarb and δ 18Ocarb in order to demonstrate that different processes were involved in the formation of 13Ccarb-rich carbonates. The 800 m-thick magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' succession formed in a complex combination of environments on the Karelian craton: peritidal shallow marine, low-energy protected bights, barred

  8. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    projects on the delineation of a diamond deposit in Karelia, on the localisation of unauthorized penetrations in product pipelines, and others. Since 2007, in close cooperation with researchers from V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (www.univer.kharkov.ua/en) and Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University (www.khadi.kharkov.ua), we have been developing a GPR to monitor road conditions. The main objective is the creation of an equipment suitable to determine the strength characteristics of pavements. A GPR allowing to measure thicknesses of asphalt pavement layers with an accuracy better than 3 mm has already been created; it was transferred to services responsible for maintaining roads in good condition. Specific standards and guidelines for the use of GPR has not been adopted in Ukraine, yet. GPRs are rarely used by public services. Nevertheless, recently the Ukrainian government has funded several projects on GPR technologies. Ukrainians seek to maintain old and to establish new relationships with colleagues around the world. We were partners of the Ultrawideband Radar Working Group, which developed the standard "IEEE P1672 TM Ultrawideband Radar Definitions." LLC "Transient Technologies" has cooperation agreements with more than a dozen of GPR companies all over the world. A group of scientists from IRE is working in cooperation with researchers from Italy, Holland, Turkey, Brazil, Russia and Ukraine on the project of FP-7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES no 269157 "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface Imaging" (for more details, please visit www.irea.cnr.it/en/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=342:progetto-amiss&Itemid=165). In recent years, many representative companies have appeared, offering GPRs of foreign production on the market of Ukraine. The authors acknowledge COST for funding Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar," supporting this work.

  9. Variolites - results of liquid immiscibility or mingling?: Evidence from variolitic lava, axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2010-12-01

    column of picrobasaltic magma of existed at that time in crust above small shallow magmatic chamber with residual melt of andesite (icelandite) in composition, which was involved in general upwards current. Because ascending of magmas in axial part of the MAR was whirl (Sharkov et al., 2008), alien melt was dispersed on small drops, but, however, had not time to dissolved in host picrite melt. Formation of proper variolites was occurred in process of moving and cooling of such heterogeneous lava on oceanic floor. From this follows that axial parts of low-spreading ridges have very complicate structure, where different melts can coexist. There are no any evidence of liquid immiscibility the variolite origin. The same petrological features are typical for classic Paleoproterozoic variolites of the Yal-Guba, Onega Lake, Karelia. They were firstly described by F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing in 1920th. We conclude that variolite formation are linked with complex magmatic systems where small shallow magma chambers with evolved melt were intersected by streams of new magma portions from deep-seated source. Indispensable condition for variolites is contrasting composition of the magmas which allow to clearly see this phenomenon.

  10. Origin of variolitic lavas: Evidence for variolites in axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii; Krssivskaya, Irina; Chistyakov, Alexei

    2010-05-01

    globules with careless boundaries. Effect of thermal diffusion in more important for Fe; as a result #mg in trachyandesite rims higher than in andesite cores of globules. It suggests that origin of variolites was linked with intersection by ascended column of picrobasaltic magma of existed at that time in crust above small shallow magmatic chamber with residual melt of andesite (icelandite) in composition, which was involved in general upwards current. Because ascending of magmas in axial part of the MAR was whirl (Sharkov et al., 2008), alien melt was dispersed on small drops, but, however, had not time to dissolved in host picrite melt. Formation of proper variolites was occurred in process of moving and cooling of such heterogeneous lava on oceanic floor.. From this follows that axial parts of low-spreading ridges have very complicate structure, where different melts can coexist. There are no any evidence of liquid immiscibility the variolite origin The same petrological features are typical for classic Paleoproterozoic variolites of the Yal-Guba, Onega Lake, Karelia, which are also pillow-lavas. They were firstly described by F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing in 1920th. We conclude that variolite formation are linked with complex magmatic systems where small shallow magma chambers with evolved melt were intersected by streams of new magma portions from deep-seated source. Indispensable condition for variolites is contrasting composition of the magmas which allow to clearly see this phenomenon.

  11. Telemonitoring and Mobile Phone-Based Health Coaching Among Finnish Diabetic and Heart Disease Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Karhula, Tuula; Rääpysjärvi, Katja; Pakanen, Mira; Itkonen, Pentti; Tepponen, Merja; Junno, Ulla-Maija; Jokinen, Tapio; van Gils, Mark; Lähteenmäki, Jaakko; Kohtamäki, Kari; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a strong will and need to find alternative models of health care delivery driven by the ever-increasing burden of chronic diseases. Objective The purpose of this 1-year trial was to study whether a structured mobile phone-based health coaching program, which was supported by a remote monitoring system, could be used to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and/or the clinical measures of type 2 diabetes and heart disease patients. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted among type 2 diabetes patients and heart disease patients of the South Karelia Social and Health Care District. Patients were recruited by sending invitations to randomly selected patients using the electronic health records system. Health coaches called patients every 4 to 6 weeks and patients were encouraged to self-monitor their weight, blood pressure, blood glucose (diabetics), and steps (heart disease patients) once per week. The primary outcome was HRQL measured by the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among diabetic patients. The clinical measures assessed were blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, and lipid levels. Results A total of 267 heart patients and 250 diabetes patients started in the trial, of which 246 and 225 patients concluded the end-point assessments, respectively. Withdrawal from the study was associated with the patients’ unfamiliarity with mobile phones—of the 41 dropouts, 85% (11/13) of the heart disease patients and 88% (14/16) of the diabetes patients were familiar with mobile phones, whereas the corresponding percentages were 97.1% (231/238) and 98.6% (208/211), respectively, among the rest of the patients (P=.02 and P=.004). Withdrawal was also associated with heart disease patients’ comorbidities—40% (8/20) of the dropouts had at least one comorbidity, whereas the corresponding percentage was 18.9% (47/249) among the rest of the patients (P=.02). The intervention showed

  12. Archaean associations of volcanics, granulites and eclogites of the Belomorian province, Fennoscandian Shield and its geodynamic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabunov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    eclogites is attributed to processes in a subducting slab. Correlation of the above complexes has revealed four alternating subduction systems: 2.88-2.82 Ga which comprises both suprasubduction (island-arc volcanics, graywackes) complexes and those from a subduction slab (eclogites), 2.81-2.78 Ga - island-arc volcanics, graywackes, granulites and eclogites; 2.75 Ga - island-arc volcanics only; 2.73-2.72 Ga - island-arc volcanics, granulites and eclogites. The duration of functioning of Meso-Neoarchaean subduction systems varies from 60 (or probably 30) to 15 Ma, which is consistent with the results of the numerical modelling (van Hunen, 2001) of subduction at mantle temperatures 125-150 degrees higher than the present temperature. This is a contribution to RFBR Project 11-05-00168 a References: Bibikova, E.V., Glebovitskii, V.A., Claesson, S. et al., 2001. Geochemistry International, 39(1) Mil'kevich, R.I., Myskova, T.A., Glebovitsky, V.A. et al. 2007. Geochemistry International, 45 Mints, M.V., Belousova, E.A., Konilov, A.N. et al., 2011. Geology, 38 Shchipansky, A.A., Khodorevskaya, L.I., Konilov, A.N., Slabunov, A.I., 2012. Russian Geology and Geophysics 53 Slabunov, A.I., Lobach-Zhuchenko, S.B., Bibikova, E.V. et al., 2006. European Lithosphere Dynamics, Memoir 32 Slabunov, A.I., 2008. Geology and geodynamics of Archean mobile belts (example from the Belomorian province of the Fennoscandian Shield van Hunen, J., 2001. Shallow and buoyant lithospheric subduction: couses and implications from thrmo-chemical numerical modelling. Theses PhD Volodichev, O.I., 1990. The Belomorian complex of Karelia: geology and petrology

  13. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling Pursuant to the Great Oxidation Event: Evidence from the Paleoproterozoic of Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, L.; Junium, C. K.; Arthur, M. A.; Brasier, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Melezhik, V.; Lepland, A.; Crne, A.; Luo, G.; Far-Deep Drilling Team

    2010-12-01

    A key goal of FAR-DEEP (Fennoscandia Arctic Russia - Drilling Early Earth Project) is to document the development of an aerobic biosphere following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, ~2.4 Ga). Toward that end, we present an analysis of C and N cycling during this critical interval, based on preliminary C and N isotope analysis of archival FAR-DEEP samples. A prolonged interval of high δ13C in the ocean / atmosphere system characterizes the Paleoproterozoic from approximately 2.3 to 2.06 billion years ago. The event is known as the Lomagundi-Jatuli event (LJE). The initiation of the LJE occurs at as evidence for non-mass dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopes disappear, suggesting a relationship to the GOE. Sediments deposited during the event are notably devoid of organic matter (Corg). Moreover, Corg-rich sedimentary rocks are found which have been thought to postdate the LJE; in Fennoscandia these rocks are associated with the Zaonega Formation, with Corg contents approaching 60%. Zaonega Formation shales containing Corg-rich deposits were penetrated by three FAR-DEEP holes in the Paleoproterozoic Onega Basin, Karelia Russia. Low in the section, δ13Corg values increase gradually from ~ -28‰ to -24 ‰, then increase markedly to ~ -18 ‰, before beginning a gradual decline for much of the rest of the studied interval. δ13Ccarb values follow a parallel trend, although low in the section they have anomalously light values (~ -10‰), rising abruptly to +4‰ as δ13Corg reaches its peak value. Both δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg then decline by 15-20‰ as one proceeds up-section. In the same interval, δ15Norg values shift from relatively light values of ~ +2‰ to +4‰ to heavier values of ~ +8‰ to +9‰. δ13Ccarb values increase by +10‰ toward the top of the cored interval, while δ15Norg fluctuate between +5 to +9 ‰. Petrographic evidence shows that some of the carbonates with lowest δ13Ccarb values are diagenetic concretions, and some of the Cor has

  14. Long-Term (4 mo) Oxygen Isotope Exchange Experiment between Zircon and Hydrothermal Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Schmitt, A. K.; Lundstrom, C.; Golledge, S.

    2013-12-01

    Knowing oxygen diffusivity in zircon has several critical applications: 1) establishing zircon stability and solubility in hot silica-saturated hydrothermal solutions; 2) deriving metamorphic and magmatic heating timescales from intra-crystal oxygen isotopic gradients; 3) assessing the survivability of oxygen isotopic signatures in Hadean zircons. We report results of a microanalytical investigation of an isotope exchange experiment using a cold-seal pressure apparatus at 850°C and 500 MPa over 4 months duration. Natural zircon, quartz and rutile were sealed with a silica-rich solution doped with 18-O, D, 7-Li and 10-B in a gold capsule. The diffusion length-scales were examined by depth profiling using time-of-flight (TOF) and high-sensitivity dynamic secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Starting materials had distinct and homogeneous δ18O: zircon from Mesa Falls tuff of Yellowstone (+3.6‰), rutile from Karelia (-29‰), Bishop Tuff Quartz (+8.4‰), and δ18O doped water (+400‰). Starting material zircon showed invariant 18O/16O during depth profiling. After the 4 month experiment, rutile crystal surfaces displayed etching (100's of nm), while zircon exteriors lacked visible change. Quartz was completely dissolved and reprecipitated in a minor residue. Rutile developed ~2 μm long Fickian diffusion profiles largely consistent with the wet diffusion coefficients for rutile previously reported [1]. Surface U-Pb dating of zircon detected no significant Pb loss from the outermost ~300 nm of the crystal face and returned identical core-face ages. We performed δ18O depth profiling of zircon in two directions. First, forward profiles (crystal rim inwards) by dynamic SIMS (no surface treatment besides Au-coating; Cs+ beam of 20 kV impact energy) showed initially high and decreasing 18O/16O over ~130 nm; TOF-SIMS forward profiles using a 2 kV Cs+ sputter beam and 25 kV Bi3+ primary ions on uncoated zircon surfaces (cleaned for 2 min with HF) yielded

  15. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2014-05-01

    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows

  16. The water regime of silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches under sufficient and limited soil moisture conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonova, T.; Pridacha, V.; Olchev, A.

    2012-04-01

    The sensitivity of the silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches to different soil moisture conditions was investigated using results of field measurements provided in 2008-11 at forest experimental sites of the Forest Research Institute of Karelian Research Center of RAS in Karelia, Russia. Karelian birch is a specific form of the silver birch and it is characterized by structural abnormalities of trunk tissues (thickenings on the trunk, the marble-like pattern and figured wood) that results in considerable reduction of number of xylem vessels and increase of parenchyma cell number (Novitskaya, 2008). For experimental study several three-, five- and seven-year old trees of the silver and Karelian birches were selected. The transpiration rate of the leaves (E) was determined using the portable photosynthesis system Li-6400XTR (Li-Cor, USA). Leaf water potential of photosynthesizing leaves (Ψ) was measured using the pressure chamber. Amount of available water in leaves (WCf), water deficit (WSD) and saturating leaf water content (WCs) were calculated using the following equations: WCf = (Wf -Wd)/ Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), WSD = (Ws - Wf)/(Ws - Wd) (%), WCs= (Ws- Wf) / Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), where Wf and Wd - fresh and dried leaf biomass, Ws - weight of the leaves at saturation. Comparisons of three and five years old birches showed that the differences between WSD and WCs of the Karelian and silver birch increased with tree age. It can be explained that the Karelian birch has increased parenchyma and significant amount of water can be additionally stored there. Comparisons of WSD and WCs of silver birches of both forms show that the differences between forms increase with growth of water deficit in plants. It was observed in both seasonal and daily patterns. The largest differences were indicated at the afternoon and at the end of growing season (from middle of August until September). These results also show that WSD and WCs

  17. The environment of nature reserves under anthropogenic load: air transport of pollution to the North of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, A. A.; Ivanova, Yu. A.; Veremeychik, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    Nature reserves are created to keep in their original states natural environment, flora and fauna of various ecological systems, territories, climatic zones, etc. Now natural objects everywhere exist under anthropogenic loading from man-made activities. It is impossible to avoid atmospheric or river transport of pollution to the environment of reserved territories. The main idea of the work is to analyze atmospheric transport of anthropogenic metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe, Al), as well as of soot (black carbon - BC) from Russian large industrial areas (source-regions) to the territories of nature reserves at the North of European Russia - the Kostomukshsky reserve (KR) in Karelia (64.57°N, 30.67°E) and the Nenetzky reserve (NR) at the Pechora River mouth (68,5°N, 53,5°E). The basic data for these 2 points were back trajectories of air mass transport calculated for every day of January, April, July, and October during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. We used NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data Files with HYSPLIT 4 model and two approaches for analyzing the trajectories. The main source-regions were chosen for each reserve. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The deposition velocity was a sum of dry and wet components. The equal values of deposition velocities onto the surface were assumed for all impurities because they are mainly on submicron aerosol particles under atmospheric transport for a long distance. The seasonal and spatial variations of averaged deposition velocity were accounted in accordance with surface properties and precipitation regimes. As a result, the maximal air concentrations of aerosol pollutants are observed in cold seasons, whereas the maximal fluxes onto the surface occur in warm period. Thus, it's possible that the cleanest air does not indicate the same surface. Fe and Al are the crust (dust or soil) elements. Thus, their main

  18. Ca. 2.7 Ga ferropicritic magmatism: A record of Fe-rich heterogeneities during Neoarchean global mantle melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milidragovic, Dejan; Francis, Don

    2016-07-01

    Although terrestrial picritic magmas with FeOTOT ⩾13 wt.% are rare in the geological record, they were relatively common ca. 2.7 Ga during the Neoarchean episode of enhanced global growth of continental crust. Recent evidence that ferropicritic underplating played an important role in the ca. 2.74-2.70 Ga reworking of the Ungava craton provides the impetus for a comparison of ca. 2.7 Ga ferropicrite occurrences in the global Neoarchean magmatic record. In addition to the Fe-rich plutons of the Ungava craton, volumetrically minor ferropicritic flows, pyroclastic deposits, and intrusive rocks form parts of the Neoarchean greenstone belt stratigraphy of the Abitibi, Wawa, Wabigoon and Vermillion domains of the southern and western Superior Province. Neoarchean ferropicritic rocks also occur on five other Archean cratons: West Churchill, Slave, Yilgarn, Kaapvaal, and Karelia; suggesting that ca. 2.7 Ga Fe-rich magmatism was globally widespread. Neoarchean ferropicrites form two distinct groups in terms of their trace element geochemistry. Alkaline ferropicrites have fractionated REE profiles and show no systematic HFSE anomalies, broadly resembling the trace element character of modern-day ocean island basalt (OIB) magmas. Magmas parental to ca. 2.7 Ga alkaline ferropicrites also had high Nb/YPM (>2), low Al2O3/TiO2 (<8) and Sc/Fe (⩽3 × 10-4) ratios, and were enriched in Ni relative to primary pyrolite mantle-derived melts. The high Ni contents of the alkaline ferropicrites coupled with the low Sc/Fe ratios are consistent with derivation from olivine-free garnet-pyroxenite sources. The second ferropicrite group is characterized by decisively non-alkaline primary trace element profiles that range from flat to LREE-depleted, resembling Archean tholeiitic basalts and komatiites. In contrast to the alkaline ferropicrites, the magmas parental to the subalkaline ferropicrites had flat HREE, lower Nb/YPM (<2), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (8-25) and Sc/Fe (⩾4 × 10-4) ratios, and

  19. Archaean to Paleozoic mantle plumes in the N-E Baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayanova, T.

    2003-04-01

    In Archaean the largest alkaline province occurred in the Keivy terrane. U-Pb dated zircon from alkaline and nepheline syenite (Ponoy, Zapadnokeivsky, Belaya Tundra and Saharjok) gave the age of 2.75-2.61Ga. The alkaline granite of the terrane belongs to A-type granite and has high HFSE and low Y/Nb and Yb/Ta ratios typical of enriched mantle. Nepheline syenite of Saharjok massif corresponds to analogous of the OIB-magma. ɛNd(T) ranges from +0.6 to -9.0 and reflects high metamorphic alterations of the rocks. ɛSr(T) shows a large scatter from -10000 to +100 for alkaline granite and from +100 to +5000 for subalkaline rocks which is interpreted as long-term magmatic differentiation. On ɛSr-ɛNd diagram less-altered alkaline granosyenite and alkaline gabbro lie in EM2 field (Zozulya and Bayanova, 2002). He^3/He^4 ratio for ilmenite from Ponoy massif is 0.6x10-6 suggesting contribution of mantle helium (Vetrin et al., 2000). U-Pb ages for zircons from the alkaline massifs are quite similar to those of 2613±18 and 2611±10 Ma for baddeleyite and zircon from Siilinjarvi's carbonatite. Geochronological results for the Kola alkaline massifs of the Baltic Shield increase well-known world data (Blichert-Toft et al., 1996). Close U-Pb ages are yielded by zircons from anorthosite of Achinsky, Tsaga and Medvezhje-Schuchjeozersky terranes. Duration of magmatism and isotope signatures for the rocks and minerals from alkaline and anorthosite association reflect the Archaean plume existence. In Proterozoic there are distinguished two 350 km-long belts of the PGE-bearing intrusions: Mt. Generalskaya, Monchepluton, Pana massif and Imandra Lopolith - Northern belt and Finnish Russian Southern belt with Penikat, Koiliismaa, Kontilainen and Olanga-group intrusions and Burakovsky massif in Karelia. U-Pb precise zircon-baddeleyite ages for the different parts of the intrusions (gabbronorite, gabbropegmatite and anorthosite) show 100 m.y. (2.5-2.4 Ga) duration of the mantle plume. Rocks

  20. Lichens as biomonitor of atmospheric aerosol composition in the Northwest European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Zamber, Natalia S.; Konov, Konstantin G.; Starodymova, Dina P.

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aerosols are of importance for atmospheric chemistry and climate of the Arctic. At the coasts of Arctic seas and in their catchment areas delivery of chemical elements and compounds are registered in natural archives, for example in lichens. Lichens absorb substances, including trace elements, through dry and wet deposition, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) and fruticose epiphytic (mostly of genera Alectoria, Usnea and Bryoria) lichens collected in 2004-2009 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Arkhangelsk Region and Komi Republic of NW Russia, mostly in the frame of International Polar Year activity. About 110 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack) and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parts of dry samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. These elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens

  1. Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, Marina; Rozanov, Alexei; Eugene, Sharkov; Alexei, Chistyakov; Maria, Bogina

    2010-05-01

    Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them. Astafieva* M.M., Rozanov* A.Yu., Sharkov** E.V., Chistyakov** A.V., Bogina** M.M. * Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Profsoyusnaya 123, Moscow, Russia; ** Institute of Geology of Ore deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017 Staromonetny 35, Moscow, Russia; Microbial complexes from volcanogenic rocks both ancient (Early Paleoproterozoic (2.41 GA) basalt pillow-lavas with inclusions of volcanic glass from Karelia) and recent (fresh volcanic glass from pillow-lavas of underwater Middle-Atlantic Ridge were revealed, studied and compared. Our studies confirmed that basaltic glass of the Early Precambrian submarine eruptions was inhabited by microbes in a similar way as it had been done for volcanic glass of modern eruptions. So, well preserved pillow-lavas, that are the main component of Arkhaean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, could be the most perspective for searching of traces of ancient life on the Earth. Consequently, it is possible to say, that volcanogenic rocks are not the obstacle for finding traces of life in them. The assumption that volcanic rocks served as habitats for the early microbial life was not unexpected. Some of the most primitive organisms close to the base of the phylogenetic tree are thermophilic microbes. Some data indicates that early life could be restricted to the hydrothermal vents in volcanic settings1. For instance, filamentous bacteria described from the massive sulfide deposits (age ~3.235 Ga) are interpreted as formed under black smoker conditions2, which provide the temperature tolerant for the growth of thermophilic bacteria (about 70oC). It was additionally proposed that life can be present immediately after volcanic eruptions, when the temperature of rock surface decreases below 113oC3,4 and bacteria penetrate the glass-like material of pillow lavas together

  2. Edelgase als Tracer für Wechselwirkungen von Krusten- und Mantelfluiden mit diamantführenden Gesteinen des östlichen Baltischen Schildes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    (Nikitina et al., 1999). Vergleiche von gemessenen mit berechneten Edelgaskonzentrationen aus in-situ-Produktion zeigen weiterhin, dass in Abhängigkeit vom Alter der Probe Diffusionsprozesse stattgefunden haben, die zu unterschiedlichen und z. T. erheblichen Verlusten an Helium und Neon führten. Diffusionsverluste an Argon sind dagegen kaum signifikant. Unterschiedliche Diffusionsverluste in Abhängigkeit von Alter und betrachtetem Edelgas zeigen auch die primordialen Edelgase. In the present thesis, interactions of kimberlites and lamproites as well as their constituent minerals with fluids are discussed based on noble gas compositions. The samples originate from the eastern Baltic Shield, more specifically from the Kola craton (Poria Guba and Kandalaksha) and the Karelia craton (Kostamuksha). Gas was extracted by stepwise heating and crushing from 23 whole rock samples and 15 mineral separates. These two techniques allow differential extraction of gas from fluid inclusions (crushing technique) and from the bulk sample (stepwise heating). The noble gas analyses provide the following information: Helium and neon isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions in lamproites reveal the presence of a crustal fluid phase. Fluid interaction probably ocurred already during the process of magma ascent. Interaction after lamproite emplacement seems unlikely. The lamproites and their host rock differ in the degree of fluid-rock interaction, as demonstrated by the C/36Ar composition. In addition, various dating methods (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar) yield almost the same age within analytical error. Thus, a metamorphic overprint can be excluded. The distribution of primordial noble gases between fluid inclusions and crystal lattice suggests a relatively slow magma ascent, making an interaction of the lamproitic magma with crustal fluids even more likely. Since noble gases from mineral separates were extracted only by the stepwise heating method, gases stored in fluid inclusions could not be